WorldWideScience

Sample records for intelligent design rational

  1. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  2. Intelligent Design and Intelligent Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Good Evening, my name is Greg Jerman and for nearly a quarter century I have been performing failure analysis on NASA's aerospace hardware. During that time I had the distinct privilege of keeping the Space Shuttle flying for two thirds of its history. I have analyzed a wide variety of failed hardware from simple electrical cables to cryogenic fuel tanks to high temperature turbine blades. During this time I have found that for all the time we spend intelligently designing things, we need to be equally intelligent about understanding why things fail. The NASA Flight Director for Apollo 13, Gene Kranz, is best known for the expression "Failure is not an option." However, NASA history is filled with failures both large and small, so it might be more accurate to say failure is inevitable. It is how we react and learn from our failures that makes the difference.

  3. Intelligent design som videnskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2007-01-01

    Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises.......Diskuterer hvorvidt intelligent design kan betegnes som videnskab; argumenterer for at dette grundet fraværet af klare demarkationskriterier næppe kan afvises....

  4. Constructive thinking, rational intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Enrique; Moreno Ortega, Marta; Garcia Alonso, Monica-Olga; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-07-07

    To evaluate rational and experiential intelligence in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) sufferers. We recruited 100 subjects with IBS as per Rome II criteria (50 consulters and 50 non-consulters) and 100 healthy controls, matched by age, sex and educational level. Cases and controls completed a clinical questionnaire (including symptom characteristics and medical consultation) and the following tests: rational-intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition); experiential-intelligence (Constructive Thinking Inventory); personality (NEO personality inventory); psychopathology (MMPI-2), anxiety (state-trait anxiety inventory) and life events (social readjustment rating scale). Analysis of variance was used to compare the test results of IBS-sufferers and controls, and a logistic regression model was then constructed and adjusted for age, sex and educational level to evaluate any possible association with IBS. No differences were found between IBS cases and controls in terms of IQ (102.0 +/- 10.8 vs 102.8 +/- 12.6), but IBS sufferers scored significantly lower in global constructive thinking (43.7 +/- 9.4 vs 49.6 +/- 9.7). In the logistic regression model, global constructive thinking score was independently linked to suffering from IBS [OR 0.92 (0.87-0.97)], without significant OR for total IQ. IBS subjects do not show lower rational intelligence than controls, but lower experiential intelligence is nevertheless associated with IBS.

  5. An evolutionary model of bounded rationality and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Brennan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most economic theories are based on the premise that individuals maximize their own self-interest and correctly incorporate the structure of their environment into all decisions, thanks to human intelligence. The influence of this paradigm goes far beyond academia-it underlies current macroeconomic and monetary policies, and is also an integral part of existing financial regulations. However, there is mounting empirical and experimental evidence, including the recent financial crisis, suggesting that humans do not always behave rationally, but often make seemingly random and suboptimal decisions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we propose to reconcile these contradictory perspectives by developing a simple binary-choice model that takes evolutionary consequences of decisions into account as well as the role of intelligence, which we define as any ability of an individual to increase its genetic success. If no intelligence is present, our model produces results consistent with prior literature and shows that risks that are independent across individuals in a generation generally lead to risk-neutral behaviors, but that risks that are correlated across a generation can lead to behaviors such as risk aversion, loss aversion, probability matching, and randomization. When intelligence is present the nature of risk also matters, and we show that even when risks are independent, either risk-neutral behavior or probability matching will occur depending upon the cost of intelligence in terms of reproductive success. In the case of correlated risks, we derive an implicit formula that shows how intelligence can emerge via selection, why it may be bounded, and how such bounds typically imply the coexistence of multiple levels and types of intelligence as a reflection of varying environmental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Rational economic behavior in which individuals maximize their own self interest is only one of many possible types of behavior that

  6. An evolutionary model of bounded rationality and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Thomas J; Lo, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    Most economic theories are based on the premise that individuals maximize their own self-interest and correctly incorporate the structure of their environment into all decisions, thanks to human intelligence. The influence of this paradigm goes far beyond academia-it underlies current macroeconomic and monetary policies, and is also an integral part of existing financial regulations. However, there is mounting empirical and experimental evidence, including the recent financial crisis, suggesting that humans do not always behave rationally, but often make seemingly random and suboptimal decisions. Here we propose to reconcile these contradictory perspectives by developing a simple binary-choice model that takes evolutionary consequences of decisions into account as well as the role of intelligence, which we define as any ability of an individual to increase its genetic success. If no intelligence is present, our model produces results consistent with prior literature and shows that risks that are independent across individuals in a generation generally lead to risk-neutral behaviors, but that risks that are correlated across a generation can lead to behaviors such as risk aversion, loss aversion, probability matching, and randomization. When intelligence is present the nature of risk also matters, and we show that even when risks are independent, either risk-neutral behavior or probability matching will occur depending upon the cost of intelligence in terms of reproductive success. In the case of correlated risks, we derive an implicit formula that shows how intelligence can emerge via selection, why it may be bounded, and how such bounds typically imply the coexistence of multiple levels and types of intelligence as a reflection of varying environmental conditions. Rational economic behavior in which individuals maximize their own self interest is only one of many possible types of behavior that arise from natural selection. The key to understanding which types of

  7. Social Intelligence Design in Ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Stock, Oliviero; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.; Nishida, Toyoaki

    2009-01-01

    This Special Issue of AI and Society contains a selection of papers presented at the 6th Social Intelligence Design Workshop held at ITC-irst, Povo (Trento, Italy) in July 2007. Being the 6th in a series means that there now is a well-established and also a growing research area. The interest in

  8. Creationism and intelligent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Robert T

    2003-01-01

    Creationism, the rejection of evolution in favor of supernatural design, comes in many varieties besides the common young-earth Genesis version. Creationist attacks on science education have been evolving in the last few years through the alliance of different varieties. Instead of calls to teach "creation science," one now finds lobbying for "intelligent design" (ID). Guided by the Discovery Institute's "Wedge strategy," the ID movement aims to overturn evolution and what it sees as a pernicious materialist worldview and to renew a theistic foundation to Western culture, in which human beings are recognized as being created in the image of God. Common ID arguments involving scientific naturalism, "irreducible complexity," "complex specified information," and "icons of evolution," have been thoroughly examined and refuted. Nevertheless, from Kansas to Ohio to the U.S. Congress, ID continues lobbying to teach the controversy, and scientists need to be ready to defend good evolution education.

  9. Designing with computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Heitor; Mourelle, Luiza

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses a number of real-world applications of computational intelligence approaches. Using various examples, it demonstrates that computational intelligence has become a consolidated methodology for automatically creating new competitive solutions to complex real-world problems. It also presents a concise and efficient synthesis of different systems using computationally intelligent techniques.

  10. From machine learning to deep learning: progress in machine intelligence for rational drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Tan, Jianjun; Han, Dan; Zhu, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Machine intelligence, which is normally presented as artificial intelligence, refers to the intelligence exhibited by computers. In the history of rational drug discovery, various machine intelligence approaches have been applied to guide traditional experiments, which are expensive and time-consuming. Over the past several decades, machine-learning tools, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling, were developed that can identify potential biological active molecules from millions of candidate compounds quickly and cheaply. However, when drug discovery moved into the era of 'big' data, machine learning approaches evolved into deep learning approaches, which are a more powerful and efficient way to deal with the massive amounts of data generated from modern drug discovery approaches. Here, we summarize the history of machine learning and provide insight into recently developed deep learning approaches and their applications in rational drug discovery. We suggest that this evolution of machine intelligence now provides a guide for early-stage drug design and discovery in the current big data era. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intelligent Design versus Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Aviezer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Design (ID burst onto the scene in 1996, with the publication of Darwin’s Black Box by Michael Behe. Since then, there has been a plethora of articles written about ID, both pro and con. However, most of the articles critical of ID deal with peripheral issues, such as whether ID is just another form of creationism or whether ID qualifies as science or whether ID should be taught in public schools. It is our view that the central issue is whether the basic claim of ID is correct. Our goal is fourfold: (I to show that most of the proposed refutations of ID are unconvincing and/or incorrect, (II to describe the single fundamental error of ID, (III to discuss the historic tradition surrounding the ID controversy, showing that ID is an example of a “god-of-the-gaps” argument, and (IV to place the ID controversy in the larger context of proposed proofs for the existence of God, with the emphasis on Jewish tradition.

  12. Towards a formal logic of design rationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...

  13. Rational Design of Improved Pharmabiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy D. Sleator

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the most recent advances in probiotic research and applications with particular emphasis on the novel concept of patho-biotechnology: the application of pathogen-derived (ex vivo and in vivo stress survival strategies for the design of more technologically robust and effective probiotic cultures with improved biotechnological and clinical applications.

  14. Rational design of improved pharmabiotics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sleator, Roy D

    2009-01-01

    Herein we review the most recent advances in probiotic research and applications with particular emphasis on the novel concept of patho-biotechnology: the application of pathogen-derived (ex vivo and in vivo) stress survival strategies for the design of more technologically robust and effective probiotic cultures with improved biotechnological and clinical applications.

  15. Design of 2-D rational digital filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B

    1981-01-01

    A novel 2-D rational filter design technique is presented which makes use of a reflection coefficient function (RCF) representation for the filter transfer function. The design problem is formulated in the frequency domain. A least-square error criterion is used though the usual error measure is augmented with barrier functions. These act to restrict the domain of approximation to the set of stable filters. Construction of suitable barrier functions is facilitated by the RCF characterization

  16. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2015-08-26

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.

  17. MIRATE: MIps RATional dEsign Science Gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Mirko; Distefano, Rosario; Bates, Ferdia; Karim, Kal; Bossi, Alessandra Maria; López Vilariño, José Manuel; Piletsky, Sergey; Bombieri, Nicola; Giorgetti, Alejandro

    2018-06-13

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are high affinity robust synthetic receptors, which can be optimally synthesized and manufactured more economically than their biological equivalents (i.e. antibody). In MIPs production, rational design based on molecular modeling is a commonly employed technique. This mostly aids in (i) virtual screening of functional monomers (FMs), (ii) optimization of monomer-template ratio, and (iii) selectivity analysis. We present MIRATE, an integrated science gateway for the intelligent design of MIPs. By combining and adapting multiple state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools into automated and innovative pipelines, MIRATE guides the user through the entire process of MIPs' design. The platform allows the user to fully customize each stage involved in the MIPs' design, with the main goal to support the synthesis in the wet-laboratory. MIRATE is freely accessible with no login requirement at http://mirate.di.univr.it/. All major browsers are supported.

  18. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  19. Intelligent Frameworks for Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…

  20. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  1. Intelligent intefrace design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Y.; Siebert, S.; Thebault, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Optimum adequation between control means and the capacities of the teams of operators is sought for to achieve computerization of control and monitoring interfaces. Observation of the diagnosis activity of populations of operators in incident situations on a simulator enables design criteria well-suited to the characteristics of the detection, interpretation of symptoms and incident location tasks to be defined. A software tool based on a qualitative approach enables the design process to be systematized

  2. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  3. Sherlock Holmes and intelligent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuskey, Brian

    2012-09-01

    This article examines how both scientists and creationists, as they argue over intelligent design, invoke and quote the fictional character of Sherlock Holmes to support their opposed positions. Rhetorical analysis ofHolmes's repeated contributions to the debate reveals not only how the argument for design falls apart, but also how the argument for Darwin compromises itself when following the detective onto shaky logical ground. The sciences and the humanities must work together to combat the corrosive influence ofpseudoscientific reasoning on our students and the general public; this article contributes to that joint enterprise.

  4. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The

  5. Geology and Design: Formal and Rational Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Brewer, J.

    2016-12-01

    Geological forms and the manmade environment have always been inextricably linked. From the time that Upper Paleolithic man created drawings in the Lascaux Caves in the southwest of France, geology has provided a critical and dramatic spoil for human creativity. This inspiration has manifested itself in many different ways, and the history of architecture is rife with examples of geologically derived buildings. During the early 20th Century, German Expressionist art and architecture was heavily influenced by the natural and often translucent quality of minerals. Architects like Bruno Taut drew and built crystalline forms that would go on to inspire the more restrained Bauhaus movement. Even within the context of Contemporary architecture, geology has been a fertile source for inspiration. Architectural practices across the globe leverage the rationality and grounding found in geology to inform a process that is otherwise dominated by computer-driven parametric design. The connection between advanced design technology and the beautifully realized geo natural forms insures that geology will be a relevant source of architectural inspiration well into the 21st century. The sometimes hidden relationship of geology to the various sub-disciplines of Design such as Architecture, Interiors, Landscape Architecture, and Historic Preservation is explored in relation to curriculum and the practice of design. Topics such as materials, form, history, the cultural and physical landscape, natural hazards, and global design enrich and inform curriculum across the college. Commonly, these help define place-based education.

  6. William Paley's lost "intelligent design".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam R

    2009-01-01

    William Paley's Natural Theology has experienced a resurgence in popularity in recent decades with the continuing controversies over the teaching of evolution and the emergence of a new "intelligent design" movement. But while both the movement's supporters and detractors agree that Paley is an intellectual forefather of the present-day movement, this agreement is forged at the expense of historical accuracy. Paley's intelligent design has almost nothing in common with the present day movement and, in fact, suggests theological arguments against the type of reasoning used by the modern movement. Paley wrote in reaction to Hume and in response to the evolutionary theories of Buffon and Erasmus Darwin. In this light, the Natural Theology suggests a different reading than it is usually given. Paley's narrowly-argued theology relies upon the ability to detect the presence of "purpose" in nature without relying upon knowing what those purposes are. His empirically-argued theology leads him to a God who operates through natural law, not in its contravention, and his concern goes far beyond proving the existence of a deity to undertaking the theological project of determining the attributes and characteristics of the deity. Though not himself an evolutionist, Paley put forth a theological worldview consistent with evolution. In fact, given his arguments that the observation of great contrivance increases the testimony of nature to God's power, Paley's philosophy might be more consistent with a theistic Darwinian evolution than with special creation.

  7. Open source intelligence, open social intelligence and privacy by design

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu; Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (Austràlia). Centre for Applied Social Research

    2014-01-01

    Ponència presentada a European Conference on Social Intelligence (ECSI-2014) OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence, (O)SI for (Open) Social Intelligence, PbD for Privacy by Design. The CAPER project has built an OSINT solution oriented to the prevention of organized crime. How to balance freedom and security? This position paper describes a way to embed the legal and ethical issues raised by the General Data Reform Package (GDRP) in Europe into this kind of surveillance platforms. It f...

  8. Intelligent Design, Neo Evangelicalism and Apologetics

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2015-01-01

    To begin with, there's a strange phenomenon popping up around the country. Scientists are stepping out of their laboratories and speaking to the media about something that has them quite concerned. It's not the threat of a new flu pandemic; it's not the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation, or even the possible threat of global warming. It's something called Intelligent Design. Intelligent design is the field of study that investigates signs of intelligence. It identifies those features of...

  9. Gilson, Darwin, and Intelligent Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond J. FitzGerald

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with stating the fact that today there is an increasing recognition of difficulties with Darwinism accompanied by vigorous responses on the part of Darwin’s defenders; among the instances of challenge to the dominant theory, one can find a book of Gilson, From Aristotle to Darwin and Back Again, and those behind the Intelligent Design movement. Inrelating the book of Gilson to the ID proponents, the author concludes that, while in some ways they are on the same side in opposing the anti-creation thrust of Darwinism, Gilson is neutral on the validity or truth of Darwin’s biological hypothesis. Gilson, however, whose book preceded the ID movement by some twenty years, seeks to analyze Darwinism from the perspective of the classical philosophy of nature. He well understands that, according to modern scientific method, final causes are excluded from consideration, but he calls for a biophilosophy which will be open to the reality of human experience as Aristotle was and recognize that teleology is present in nature. According to him, even if teleology seems to be a contestable explanation, chance as understood by Darwinists is the pure absence of explanation.

  10. Computational Intelligence Techniques for New Product Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Kit Yan; Dillon, Tharam S

    2012-01-01

    Applying computational intelligence for product design is a fast-growing and promising research area in computer sciences and industrial engineering. However, there is currently a lack of books, which discuss this research area. This book discusses a wide range of computational intelligence techniques for implementation on product design. It covers common issues on product design from identification of customer requirements in product design, determination of importance of customer requirements, determination of optimal design attributes, relating design attributes and customer satisfaction, integration of marketing aspects into product design, affective product design, to quality control of new products. Approaches for refinement of computational intelligence are discussed, in order to address different issues on product design. Cases studies of product design in terms of development of real-world new products are included, in order to illustrate the design procedures, as well as the effectiveness of the com...

  11. Developing and Testing Rational Models of Message Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Barbara J.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to an article in the same issue regarding research methods for conversational cognition. Argues for a noncognitive view of rational models in communication research. Sets out an analysis of the kinds of claims made by rational models of message design. Discusses the implications of this analysis for studies of the cognitive processes…

  12. Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1996-01-01

    various ‘sources of credibility’ of premises, items of general background knowledge, and several (abductive and deductive) patterns of inference which suggest a possible ‘logic of design’. Rationalization of decisions is defined, and many decisions are found not to be fully rationalized, despite...... the apparent rationality of the reasoning....

  13. Rational drug design paradigms: the odyssey for designing better drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellici, Tahsin; Ntountaniotis, Dimitrios; Vrontaki, Eleni; Liapakis, George; Moutevelis-Minakakis, Panagiota; Kokotos, George; Hadjikakou, Sotiris; Tzakos, Andreas G; Afantitis, Antreas; Melagraki, Georgia; Bryant, Sharon; Langer, Thierry; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the time and effort requirements for the development of a new drug, and the high attrition rates associated with this developmental process, there is an intense effort by academic and industrial researchers to find novel ways for more effective drug development schemes. The first step in the discovery process of a new drug is the identification of the lead compound. The modern research tendency is to avoid the synthesis of new molecules based on chemical intuition, which is time and cost consuming, and instead to apply in silico rational drug design. This approach reduces the consumables and human personnel involved in the initial steps of the drug design. In this review real examples from our research activity aiming to discover new leads will be given for various dire warnings diseases. There is no recipe to follow for discovering new leads. The strategy to be followed depends on the knowledge of the studied system and the experience of the researchers. The described examples constitute successful and unsuccessful efforts and reflect the reality which medicinal chemists have to face in drug design and development. The drug stability is also discussed in both organic molecules and metallotherapeutics. This is an important issue in drug discovery as drug metabolism in the body can lead to various toxic and undesired molecules.

  14. Recommendation in Motion: Intelligent Hypertouch Garment Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent CAD garment design becomes more and more popular by attracting the attentions from both manufacturers and professional stylists. The existing garment CAD systems and clothing simulation software fail to provide user-friendly interfaces as well as dynamic recommendation during the garment creation process. In this paper, we propose an intelligent hypertouch garment design system, which dynamically predicts the possible solutions along with the intelligent design procedure. User behavioral information and dynamic shape matching are used to learn and predict the desired garment patterns. We also propose a new hypertouch concept of gesture-based interaction for our system. We evaluate our system with a prototype platform. The results show that our system is effective, robust, and easy to use for quick garment design.

  15. Design thinking between rationalism and romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida; Goldschmidt Salamon, Karen-Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a longue durée history of modern design thought, with particular focus on recurrent ideological frictions. Drawing on design history, design anthropology and cultural studies, the authors present an overview of more than 200 years of developments in European and North Americ...

  16. The design of electric vehicle intelligent charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangyang; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-01

    As the situation of the lack of energy and environment pollution deteriorates rapidly, electric vehicle, a new type of traffic tool, is being researched worldwide. As the core components of electric vehicle, the battery and charger's performance play an important roles in the quality of electric vehicle. So the design of the Electric Vehicle Intelligent Charger based on language-C is designed in this paper. The hardware system is used to produce the input signals of Electric Vehicle Intelligent Charger. The software system adopts the language-C software as development environment. The design can accomplish the test of the parametric such as voltage-current and temperature.

  17. Vision Guided Intelligent Robot Design And Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky, G. D.; Hall, E. L.

    1988-02-01

    The concept of an intelligent robot is an important topic combining sensors, manipulators, and artificial intelligence to design a useful machine. Vision systems, tactile sensors, proximity switches and other sensors provide the elements necessary for simple game playing as well as industrial applications. These sensors permit adaption to a changing environment. The AI techniques permit advanced forms of decision making, adaptive responses, and learning while the manipulator provides the ability to perform various tasks. Computer languages such as LISP and OPS5, have been utilized to achieve expert systems approaches in solving real world problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe several examples of visually guided intelligent robots including both stationary and mobile robots. Demonstrations will be presented of a system for constructing and solving a popular peg game, a robot lawn mower, and a box stacking robot. The experience gained from these and other systems provide insight into what may be realistically expected from the next generation of intelligent machines.

  18. Designing institutions for climate change: Why rational design involves technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coninck, H. de [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-09-30

    This paper aims to explore how to augment the institutional solutions offered by current political theory for addressing the unprecedented problem of climate change. Although steering directly at emission reductions in an international treaty has benefits in terms of cost-effectiveness, the paper arrives at the conclusion that considerations around technological development should be drawn into the treaty equation in order to generate sufficient reciprocity to have a politically feasible international regime. It then argues that the benefits of technology agreements for climate change mitigation may be larger than commonly assumed, as they - if properly designed - could lead to real emission reductions and provide more flexibility to reach agreement in post-2012 negotiations than proposals modelled exclusively on the Kyoto Protocol or other types of absolute emission targets. Based on rational design of international institutions for environmental governance, and attempting to take into account considerations of technological dynamics and the 'sociotechnical system', contours of a possible environmentally effective and politically feasible international climate change agreements are sketched.

  19. Evaluation of urban river landscape design rationality based on AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Lifang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation model for the rationality of the landscape design of urban rivers was established with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method so as to provide a foundation for updating the landscape design of urban rivers. The evaluation system was divided into four layers, including the target layer, the comprehensive layer, the element layer, and the index layer. Each layer was made of different indices. The evaluation standards for each index were also given in this paper. This evaluation model was proved tenable through its application to the landscape design rationality evaluation of the Weihe River in Xinxiang City of Henan Province. The results show that the water quality, space, activity, facility, community, width of vegetation, sense of beauty and water content are among the most influential factors and should be considered the main basis for evaluating the rationality of the landscape design of urban rivers.

  20. A RATIONAL APPROACH TO SEPTIC TANK DESIGN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... to obtain the volume of sludge accumulated in this time interval. Using a minimum ... Design charts and a Microsoft Excel based design programme were produced to ..... Jowett, E. C. and Lay, R. Comparative per- formance of ...

  1. Guest-responsive structural adaptation of a rationally-designed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adaptability of the TB core to undergo subtle structural changes in response to the guest that is included. The structural ... we report the design, synthesis and inclusion behaviour of a novel ..... Based on a rational design, we have shown from ...

  2. Machine learning in the rational design of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondón-Villarreal, Paola; Sierra, Daniel A; Torres, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important public health issues is the microbial and bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics by pathogen microorganisms. In recent years, many researches have been focused on the development of new antibiotics. Among these, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have raised as a promising alternative to combat antibioticresistant microorganisms. For this reason, many theoretical efforts have been done in the development of new computational tools for the rational design of both better and effective AMPs. In this review, we present an overview of the rational design of AMPs using machine learning techniques and new research fields.

  3. A rational evaluation of structural design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, S.

    1993-01-01

    The reliability-based seismic design of structures is a design method ensuring that the structural seismic capacity is not less than the maximum seismic load or load effect for a prescribed value of the reliability index, wherein the design reference period, n, is used to specify the n-year maximum load. In the conventional Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method the design load is commonly determined on the basis of the n-year maximum the probability distribution of which may be given in some different ways. However, in contrast with the structural capacity the n-year maximum load usually involves much larger variabilities. The effort to decrease the variability would, hence, be effective for the purpose of avoiding nuclear power plant (NPP) structures having unnecessarily large capacities. A possible way to do this is to consider the joint probability distribution of the n-year 1st and 2nd maxima of the seismic load derived from the formula of extreme order statistics. Since the reliability index is conventionally associated with the n-year 1st maximum, the conditional probability distribution rather than the joint one of the n-year 1st maximum given a value of the n-year 2nd one will be considered. Three conditional extreme value distributions, which correspond to the usual extreme value distributions of Types I, II and III, and their statistical moments up to the second order are presented. Within the framework of the first-order second moment method, the conditional statistical moments are utilized to calculate the reliability index as well as the design value of the seismic load. The seismic load considered herein is represented by the peak ground acceleration (PGA) in n years. The present scheme is applied to evaluate the design PGA's at II sites in Japan where samples of the annual 1st and 2nd PGA's have been obtained by using historical seismic data. In this application the following two points are of our interest: (a) Define the reliability

  4. Rational design of reconfigurable prismatic architected materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvelde, Johannes T. B.; Weaver, James C.; Hoberman, Chuck; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Advances in fabrication technologies are enabling the production of architected materials with unprecedented properties. Most such materials are characterized by a fixed geometry, but in the design of some materials it is possible to incorporate internal mechanisms capable of reconfiguring their spatial architecture, and in this way to enable tunable functionality. Inspired by the structural diversity and foldability of the prismatic geometries that can be constructed using the snapology origami technique, here we introduce a robust design strategy based on space-filling tessellations of polyhedra to create three-dimensional reconfigurable materials comprising a periodic assembly of rigid plates and elastic hinges. Guided by numerical analysis and physical prototypes, we systematically explore the mobility of the designed structures and identify a wide range of qualitatively different deformations and internal rearrangements. Given that the underlying principles are scale-independent, our strategy can be applied to the design of the next generation of reconfigurable structures and materials, ranging from metre-scale transformable architectures to nanometre-scale tunable photonic systems.

  5. Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Jeffrey Paul

    The prospect of terawatt-scale electricity generation using a photovoltaic (PV) device places strict requirements on the active semiconductor optoelectronic properties and elemental abundance. After reviewing the constraints placed on an ``earth-abundant'' solar absorber, we find zinc phosphide (α-Zn 3P2) to be an ideal candidate. In addition to its near-optimal direct band gap of 1.5 eV, high visible-light absorption coefficient (>10. 4cm-1), and long minority-carrier diffusion length (>5 μm), Zn3P 2 is composed of abundant Zn and P elements and has excellent physical properties for scalable thin-film deposition. However, to date, a Zn 3P2 device of sufficient efficiency for commercial applications has not been demonstrated. Record efficiencies of 6.0% for multicrystalline and 4.3% for thin-film cells have been reported, respectively. Performance has been limited by the intrinsic p-type conductivity of Zn3P 2 which restricts us to Schottky and heterojunction device designs. Due to our poor understanding of Zn3P2 interfaces, an ideal heterojunction partner has not yet been found. The goal of this thesis is to explore the upper limit of solar conversion efficiency achievable with a Zn3P2 absorber through the design of an optimal heterojunction PV device. To do so, we investigate three key aspects of material growth, interface energetics, and device design. First, the growth of Zn3P2 on GaAs(001) is studied using compound-source molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). We successfully demonstrate the pseudomorphic growth of Zn3P2 epilayers of controlled orientation and optoelectronic properties. Next, the energy-band alignments of epitaxial Zn3P2 and II-VI and III-V semiconductor interfaces are measured via high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to determine the most appropriate heterojunction partner. From this work, we identify ZnSe as a nearly ideal n-type emitter for a Zn3P 2 PV device. Finally, various II-VI/Zn3P2 heterojunction solar cells designs are

  6. Rational design of new electrodes for electrochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, E P; Citro, G; Porrello, A

    2005-06-01

    Electrochemotherapy associates the local delivery of anticancer drugs with the administration of permeabilizing electric pulses that support the antiblastic action. The basic instrumentation for this therapy is constituted by a pulse generator and various specific electrodes. While many efforts have been profuse by researchers in this field to obtain the standardization of the pulse generating equipment over the past 15 years, the delivery apparatus still needs refinements in order to reach most of the body districts, to control the homogeneity and stability of the electric fields and to further reduce morbidity. With the aim to develop innovative electrodes able to satisfy, at least partially, these requirements, extensive studies on pet patients with spontaneous neoplasms have been conducted, leading to the manufacturing of several different prototypes. In this paper we discuss the rationale of 11 different electrodes, briefly summarize the results obtained and their experimental validation, also presenting five paradigmatic clinical cases. In particular, it is shown that the caliper electrodes are more suited for the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, while the needle arrays are more efficacious in intraoperative settings. Furthermore, relevant peculiarities of unipolar electrodes are examined with a particular focus on the irregular current paths that they produce and on the potentialities of this feature. Remarkably, the decrease of the steric encumbrance turned out to be a stronger factor in electrode design than the containment of the total number of electric fields covered in serial ECT sessions. In the conclusions, perspectives and new challenges of electrode design for electrochemotherapy are illustrated.

  7. An intelligent interlock design support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshifumi; Kamiyama, Masahiko

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent interlock design support system, called Handy. BWR plant interlocks have been designed on a conventional CAD system operating on a mini-computer based time sharing system. However, its ability to support interlock designers is limited, mainly due to the system not being capable of manipulating the interlock logic. Handy improves the design efficiency with consistent manipulation of the logic and drawings, interlock simulation, versatile database management, object oriented user interface, high resolution high speed graphics, and automatic interlock outlining with a design support expert system. Handy is now being tested by designers, and is expected to greatly contribute to their efficiency. (author)

  8. A rational approach for ω-transaminase-catalyzed process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Lloyd, Richard; Tufvesson, Pär

    Herein we describe a novel rational approach to the design of a ω-transaminase process such that it will fulfill criteria necessary for industrial use. By first determining the fundamental properties of the reaction system, it is possible to suggest appropriate process strategies that may be used...

  9. RECENT ADVANCES TOWARDS THE RATIONAL DESIGN OF PEPTIDE DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLADA, Akgül; ÖZKANLI, Fügen

    2004-01-01

    In this review, after a short introduction to definition and physiological roles of regulatory peptides, problems faced during the development of peptide drugs, studies directed to solve these problems and rational design of peptide drugs with special emphesis on peptidomimetics are mentioned

  10. Mechatronical Aided Concept (MAC) in Intelligent Transport Vehicles Design

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Pavlasek

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the principles of synergy effect of mechatronical aided concept (MAC) to the design of intelligent transport vehicles products applying CA technologies and virtual reality design methods. Also includes presentation of intelligent railway vehicle development.

  11. Rational Design of an Ultrasensitive Quorum-Sensing Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weiqian; Du, Pei; Lou, Qiuli; Wu, Lili; Zhang, Haoqian M; Lou, Chunbo; Wang, Hongli; Ouyang, Qi

    2017-08-18

    One of the purposes of synthetic biology is to develop rational methods that accelerate the design of genetic circuits, saving time and effort spent on experiments and providing reliably predictable circuit performance. We applied a reverse engineering approach to design an ultrasensitive transcriptional quorum-sensing switch. We want to explore how systems biology can guide synthetic biology in the choice of specific DNA sequences and their regulatory relations to achieve a targeted function. The workflow comprises network enumeration that achieves the target function robustly, experimental restriction of the obtained candidate networks, global parameter optimization via mathematical analysis, selection and engineering of parts based on these calculations, and finally, circuit construction based on the principles of standardization and modularization. The performance of realized quorum-sensing switches was in good qualitative agreement with the computational predictions. This study provides practical principles for the rational design of genetic circuits with targeted functions.

  12. Designing User Centred Intelligent Classroom Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Diana Zdravkova; Schledermann, Kathrine Marie; Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring

    2018-01-01

    Through a case study, this paper presents a new way of designing intelligent classroom lighting to meet the users’ needs. A mix of ethnographic methods (field observations and interviews) were used to investigate the everyday learning activities at a middle school in Copenhagen in order...... to determine how lighting can support the learning environment. Based on the investigations, lighting design criteria and three predefined lighting scenes are proposed as a new design for meeting the needs of students and teachers during three types of activities. The scenes focus on smartboard visibility...

  13. Refolding of proteins from inclusion bodies: rational design and recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anindya; Li, Xiang; Leong, Susanna Su Jan

    2011-10-01

    The need to develop protein biomanufacturing platforms that can deliver proteins quickly and cost-effectively is ever more pressing. The rapid rate at which genomes can now be sequenced demands efficient protein production platforms for gene function identification. There is a continued need for the biotech industry to deliver new and more effective protein-based drugs to address new diseases. Bacterial production platforms have the advantage of high expression yields, but insoluble expression of many proteins necessitates the development of diverse and optimised refolding-based processes. Strategies employed to eliminate insoluble expression are reviewed, where it is concluded that inclusion bodies are difficult to eliminate for various reasons. Rational design of refolding systems and recipes are therefore needed to expedite production of recombinant proteins. This review article discusses efforts towards rational design of refolding systems and recipes, which can be guided by the development of refolding screening platforms that yield both qualitative and quantitative information on the progression of a given refolding process. The new opportunities presented by light scattering technologies for developing rational protein refolding buffer systems which in turn can be used to develop new process designs armed with better monitoring and controlling functionalities are discussed. The coupling of dynamic and static light scattering methodologies for incorporation into future bioprocess designs to ensure delivery of high-quality refolded proteins at faster rates is also discussed.

  14. Games and Agents: Designing Intelligent Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dignum

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an attention shift within the gaming industry toward more natural (long-term behavior of nonplaying characters (NPCs. Multiagent system research offers a promising technology to implement cognitive intelligent NPCs. However, the technologies used in game engines and multiagent platforms are not readily compatible due to some inherent differences of concerns. Where game engines focus on real-time aspects and thus propagate efficiency and central control, multiagent platforms assume autonomy of the agents. Increased autonomy and intelligence may offer benefits for a more compelling gameplay and may even be necessary for serious games. However, it raises problems when current game design techniques are used to incorporate state-of-the-art multiagent system technology. In this paper, we will focus on three specific problem areas that arise from this difference of view: synchronization, information representation, and communication. We argue that the current attempts for integration still fall short on some of these aspects. We show that to fully integrate intelligent agents in games, one should not only use a technical solution, but also a design methodology that is amenable to agents. The game design should be adjusted to incorporate the possibilities of agents early on in the process.

  15. Fundamental understanding and rational design of high energy structural microbatteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxing; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel; Li, Huidong; Mendoza, Sarah; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Xiao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Microbatteries play a critical role in determining the lifetime of downsized sensors, wearable devices and medical applications, etc. More often, structural batteries are required from the perspective of aesthetics and space utilization, which is however rarely explored. Herein, we discuss the fundamental issues associated with the rational design of practically usable high energy microbatteries. The tubular shape of the cell further allows the flexible integration of microelectronics. A functioning acoustic micro-transmitter continuously powered by this tubular battery has been successfully demonstrated. Multiple design features adopted to accommodate large mechanical stress during the rolling process are discussed providing new insights in designing the structural microbatteries for emerging technologies.

  16. Rational assembly of nanoparticle superlattices with designed lattice symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Oleg; Lu, Fang; Tagawa, Miho

    2017-09-05

    A method for lattice design via multivalent linkers (LDML) is disclosed that introduces a rationally designed symmetry of connections between particles in order to achieve control over the morphology of their assembly. The method affords the inclusion of different programmable interactions within one linker that allow an assembly of different types of particles. The designed symmetry of connections is preferably provided utilizing DNA encoding. The linkers may include fabricated "patchy" particles, DNA scaffold constructs and Y-shaped DNA linkers, anisotropic particles, which are preferably functionalized with DNA, multimeric protein-DNA complexes, and particles with finite numbers of DNA linkers.

  17. Fuzzy Logic Controller Design for Intelligent Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Han Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fuzzy logic controller by which a robot can imitate biological behaviors such as avoiding obstacles or following walls. The proposed structure is implemented by integrating multiple ultrasonic sensors into a robot to collect data from a real-world environment. The decisions that govern the robot’s behavior and autopilot navigation are driven by a field programmable gate array- (FPGA- based fuzzy logic controller. The validity of the proposed controller was demonstrated by simulating three real-world scenarios to test the bionic behavior of a custom-built robot. The results revealed satisfactorily intelligent performance of the proposed fuzzy logic controller. The controller enabled the robot to demonstrate intelligent behaviors in complex environments. Furthermore, the robot’s bionic functions satisfied its design objectives.

  18. Intelligent Support for a Computer Aided Design Optimisation Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    B. Dolšak; M. Novak; J. Kaljun

    2006-01-01

    It is becoming more and more evident that  adding intelligence  to existing computer aids, such as computer aided design systems, can lead to significant improvements in the effective and reliable performance of various engineering tasks, including design optimisation. This paper presents three different intelligent modules to be applied within a computer aided design optimisation cycle to enable more intelligent and less experience-dependent design performance. 

  19. Configurable intelligent optimization algorithm design and practice in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Fei; Laili, Yuanjun

    2014-01-01

    Presenting the concept and design and implementation of configurable intelligent optimization algorithms in manufacturing systems, this book provides a new configuration method to optimize manufacturing processes. It provides a comprehensive elaboration of basic intelligent optimization algorithms, and demonstrates how their improvement, hybridization and parallelization can be applied to manufacturing. Furthermore, various applications of these intelligent optimization algorithms are exemplified in detail, chapter by chapter. The intelligent optimization algorithm is not just a single algorit

  20. Fundamental understanding and rational design of high energy structural microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuxing; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel; Li, Huidong; Mendoza, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    We present that microbatteries play a critical role in determining the lifetime of downsized sensors, wearable devices, medical applications, and animal acoustic telemetry transmitters among others. More often, structural batteries are required from the perspective of aesthetics and space utilization, which is however rarely explored. Herein, we discuss the fundamental issues associated with the rational design of practically usable high energy microbatteries. The tubular shape of the cell further allows the flexible integration of microelectronics. A functioning acoustic micro-transmitter continuously powered by this tubular battery has been successfully demonstrated. Finally, multiple design features adopted to accommodate large mechanical stress during the rolling process are discussed providing new insights in designing the structural microbatteries for emerging technologies.

  1. Artificial intelligence in process design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) has recently become prominent in the discussion of computer applications in the utility business. In order to assess this technology, a research project was performed to determine whether software development techniques based on AI could be used to facilitate management of information associated with the design of a generating station. The approach taken was the development of an expert system, using a relatively simple set of rules acting on a more complex knowledge base. A successful prototype for the application was developed and its potential extension to a production environment demonstrated. During the course of prototype development, other possible applications of AI in design engineering were discovered, and areas of particular interest selected for further investigation. A plan for AI R and D was formulated. That plan and other possible future work in AI are discussed

  2. IC design challenges for ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Roovers, R.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The vision of ambient intelligence opens a world of unprecedented experiences: the interaction of people with electronic devices is changed as contextual awareness, natural interfaces and ubiquitous availability of information are realized. We analyze the consequences of the ambient intelligence

  3. Attenuation of Vibrio fischeri quorum sensing using rationally designed polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Stavroulakis, Georgios; Karim, Kal; Whitcombe, Michael J; Chianella, Iva; Sharma, Anant; Eboigbodin, Kevin E; Robinson, Gary K; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2010-04-12

    A first attempt to attenuate the quorum sensing (QS) of a marine heterotroph microorganism, Vibrio fischeri , using signal molecule-sequestering polymers (SSPs) is presented. A set of rationally designed polymers with affinity toward a signal molecule of V. fischeri , N-(beta-ketocaproyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-AHL) was produced. It is reported that computationally designed polymers could sequester a signal molecule of V. fischeri and prevent QS-controlled phenotypes (in this case, bioluminescence) from being up-regulated. It was proven that the attenuation of bioluminescence of V. fischeri was due to sequestration of the signal molecule by specific polymers and not due to the toxicity of polymer or nonspecific depletion of nutrients. The ability to disrupt the bacterial communication using easy to synthesize and chemically inert polymers could provide a new concept for the development of pharmaceuticals and susceptible device coatings such as catheters.

  4. Nucleic acids for the rational design of reaction circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padirac, Adrien; Fujii, Teruo; Rondelez, Yannick

    2013-08-01

    Nucleic acid-based circuits are rationally designed in vitro assemblies that can perform complex preencoded programs. They can be used to mimic in silico computations. Recent works emphasized the modularity and robustness of these circuits, which allow their scaling-up. Another new development has led to dynamic, time-responsive systems that can display emergent behaviors like oscillations. These are closely related to biological architectures and provide an in vitro model of in vivo information processing. Nucleic acid circuits have already been used to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. Future applications of these chemical smart systems will benefit from the rapidly growing ability to design, construct, and model nucleic acid circuits of increasing size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rationally designed synthetic protein hydrogels with predictable mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhua; Li, Pengfei; Dong, Chenling; Jiang, Heting; Bin Xue; Gao, Xiang; Qin, Meng; Wang, Wei; Bin Chen; Cao, Yi

    2018-02-12

    Designing synthetic protein hydrogels with tailored mechanical properties similar to naturally occurring tissues is an eternal pursuit in tissue engineering and stem cell and cancer research. However, it remains challenging to correlate the mechanical properties of protein hydrogels with the nanomechanics of individual building blocks. Here we use single-molecule force spectroscopy, protein engineering and theoretical modeling to prove that the mechanical properties of protein hydrogels are predictable based on the mechanical hierarchy of the cross-linkers and the load-bearing modules at the molecular level. These findings provide a framework for rationally designing protein hydrogels with independently tunable elasticity, extensibility, toughness and self-healing. Using this principle, we demonstrate the engineering of self-healable muscle-mimicking hydrogels that can significantly dissipate energy through protein unfolding. We expect that this principle can be generalized for the construction of protein hydrogels with customized mechanical properties for biomedical applications.

  6. Rational Design of Semiconductor Nanostructures for Functional Subcellular Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Ramya; Tian, Bozhi

    2018-05-15

    One of the fundamental questions guiding research in the biological sciences is how cellular systems process complex physical and environmental cues and communicate with each other across multiple length scales. Importantly, aberrant signal processing in these systems can lead to diseases that can have devastating impacts on human lives. Biophysical studies in the past several decades have demonstrated that cells can respond to not only biochemical cues but also mechanical and electrical ones. Thus, the development of new materials that can both sense and modulate all of these pathways is necessary. Semiconducting nanostructures are an emerging class of discovery platforms and tools that can push the limits of our ability to modulate and sense biological behaviors for both fundamental research and clinical applications. These materials are of particular interest for interfacing with cellular systems due to their matched dimension with subcellular components (e.g., cytoskeletal filaments), and easily tunable properties in the electrical, optical and mechanical regimes. Rational design via traditional or new approaches, such as nanocasting and mesoscale chemical lithography, can allow us to control micro- and nanoscale features in nanowires to achieve new biointerfaces. Both processes endogenous to the target cell and properties of the material surface dictate the character of these interfaces. In this Account, we focus on (1) approaches for the rational design of semiconducting nanowires that exhibit unique structures for biointerfaces, (2) recent fundamental discoveries that yield robust biointerfaces at the subcellular level, (3) intracellular electrical and mechanical sensing, and (4) modulation of cellular behaviors through material topography and remote physical stimuli. In the first section, we discuss new approaches for the synthetic control of micro- and nanoscale features of these materials. In the second section, we focus on achieving biointerfaces with

  7. Principles underlying rational design of live attenuated influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo Han

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent innovative advances in molecular virology and the developments of vaccines, influenza virus remains a serious burden for human health. Vaccination has been considered a primary countermeasure for prevention of influenza infection. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are particularly attracting attention as an effective strategy due to several advantages over inactivated vaccines. Cold-adaptation, as a classical means for attenuating viral virulence, has been successfully used for generating safe and effective donor strains of LAIVs against seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Recently, the advent of reverse genetics technique expedited a variety of rational strategies to broaden the pool of LAIVs. Considering the breadth of antigenic diversity of influenza virus, the pool of LAIVs is likely to equip us with better options for controlling influenza pandemics. With a brief reflection on classical attenuating strategies used at the initial stage of development of LAIVs, especially on the principles underlying the development of cold-adapted LAIVs, we further discuss and outline other attenuation strategies especially with respect to the rationales for attenuation, and their practicality for mass production. Finally, we propose important considerations for a rational vaccine design, which will provide us with practical guidelines for improving the safety and effectiveness of LAIVs. PMID:23596576

  8. Revisiting the Psychology of Intelligence Analysis: From Rational Actors to Adaptive Thinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvathingal, Bess J.; Hantula, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence analysis is a decision-making process rife with ambiguous, conflicting, irrelevant, important, and excessive information. The U.S. Intelligence Community is primed for psychology to lend its voice to the "analytic transformation" movement aimed at improving the quality of intelligence analysis. Traditional judgment and decision making…

  9. Structure-based, rational design of T cell receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eZoete

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive cell transfer using engineered T cells is emerging as a promising treatment for metastatic melanoma. Such an approach allows one to introduce TCR modifications that, while maintaining the specificity for the targeted antigen, can enhance the binding and kinetic parameters for the interaction pMHC. Using the well-characterized 2C TCR/SIYR/H-2K(b structure as a model system, we demonstrated that a binding free energy decomposition based on the MM-GBSA approach provides a detailed and reliable description of the TCR/pMHC interactions at the structural and thermodynamic levels. Starting from this result, we developed a new structure-based approach, to rationally design new TCR sequences, and applied it to the BC1 TCR targeting the HLA-A2 restricted NY-ESO-1157-165 cancer-testis epitope. 54% of the designed sequence replacements exhibited improved pMHC-binding as compared to the native TCR, with up to 150 fold increase in affinity, while preserving specificity. Genetically-engineered CD8+ T cells expressing these modified TCRs showed an improved functional activity compared to those expressing BC1 TCR. We measured maximum levels of activities for TCRs within the upper limit of natural affinity. Beyond the affinity threshold at KD < 1 μM we observed an attenuation in cellular function. We have also developed a homology modeling-based approach, TCRep 3D, to obtain accurate structural models of any TCR-pMHC complexes. We have complemented the approach with a simplified rigid method to predict the TCR orientation over pMHC. These methods potentially extend the use of our TCR engineering method to entire TCR repertoires for which no X-ray structure is available. We have also performed a steered molecular dynamics study of the unbinding of the TCR-pMHC complex to get a better understanding of how TCRs interact with pMHCs. This entire rational TCR design pipeline is now being used to produce rationally optimized TCRs for adoptive cell therapies of

  10. Should Intelligent Design Be Included in Today's Public School Curriculums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Kevin C.; Killins, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The controversial concept of evolution makes up only a small part of the science curriculum stated in Arkansas. During the past few years, the curriculum topic of "Intelligent Design" has caught the attention of many science teachers in the public schools. The Intelligent Design Movement has been successful in attracting the attention of…

  11. Mechatronical Aided Concept (MAC in Intelligent Transport Vehicles Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pavlasek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the principles of synergy effect of mechatronical aided concept (MAC to the design of intelligent transport vehicles products applying CA technologies and virtual reality design methods. Also includes presentation of intelligent railway vehicle development.

  12. Rational design of the exchange-spring permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J S; Bader, S D

    2014-02-12

    The development of the optimal exchange-spring permanent magnet balances exchange hardening, magnetization enhancement, and the feasibility of scalable fabrication. These requirements can be met with a rational design of the microstructural characteristics. The magnetization processes in several model exchange-spring structures with different geometries have been analyzed with both micromagnetic simulations and nucleation theory. The multilayer geometry and the soft-cylinders-in-hard-matrix geometry have the highest achievable figure of merit (BH)max, while the soft-spheres-in-hard-matrix geometry has the lowest upper limit for (BH)max. The cylindrical geometry permits the soft phase to be larger and does not require strict size control. Exchange-spring permanent magnets based on the cylindrical geometry may be amenable to scaled-up fabrication.

  13. Considerations for the rational design of a Chlamydia vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steven; Bulir, David; Kaushic, Charu; Mahony, James

    2017-04-03

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable blindness and the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Remarkable progress in vaccine research over the past six decades has led to the advancement of novel C. trachomatis vaccine candidates into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the role of specific cellular populations and molecular mechanisms in protective immunity against human C. trachomatis genital tract infections remain unanswered. Biomarkers of vaccine induced protective immunity are elusive in humans, while a cautionary message on the translatability of data obtained from current animal models has emanated from vaccine research and development efforts against other important human pathogens. In this commentary, we highlight recent advances in Chlamydia vaccine development and discuss their implications in the context of a rational approach to the design of a human C. trachomatis vaccine.

  14. Rational design of the exchange-spring permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J S; Bader, S D

    2014-01-01

    The development of the optimal exchange-spring permanent magnet balances exchange hardening, magnetization enhancement, and the feasibility of scalable fabrication. These requirements can be met with a rational design of the microstructural characteristics. The magnetization processes in several model exchange-spring structures with different geometries have been analyzed with both micromagnetic simulations and nucleation theory. The multilayer geometry and the soft-cylinders-in-hard-matrix geometry have the highest achievable figure of merit (BH) max , while the soft-spheres-in-hard-matrix geometry has the lowest upper limit for (BH) max . The cylindrical geometry permits the soft phase to be larger and does not require strict size control. Exchange-spring permanent magnets based on the cylindrical geometry may be amenable to scaled-up fabrication. (paper)

  15. Rational Design of Coordination Polymers with Flexible Oxyethylene Side Chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Young; Gao, Chunji; Lee, Suck Hyun; Kwon, O Pil

    2012-01-01

    We rationally designed and synthesized metallopolymers with organic 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) linkers with different lengths of oxyethylene side chains in order to examine the influence of side chains on the coordination characteristics. While in a previous report the BDC linkers with alkyl side chains were found to form three-dimensional (3D) isoreticular metal-organic framework (IRMOF) structures or one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymeric structures with short -O(CH 2 ) 6 CH 3 or long -O(CH 2 ) 9 CH 3 side chains, respectively, new BDC linkers with oxyethylene side chains of the same lengths, -(OCH 2 CH 2 ) 2 CH 3 and -(OCH 2 CH 2 ) 3 CH 3 , form only 3D IRMOF structures. This result is attributed to the higher flexibility and smaller volume of oxyethylene side chains compared to alkyl side chains

  16. Rational design of functional and tunable oscillating enzymatic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Sergey N.; Wong, Albert S. Y.; van der Made, R. Martijn; Postma, Sjoerd G. J.; Groen, Joost; van Roekel, Hendrik W. H.; de Greef, Tom F. A.; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Life is sustained by complex systems operating far from equilibrium and consisting of a multitude of enzymatic reaction networks. The operating principles of biology's regulatory networks are known, but the in vitro assembly of out-of-equilibrium enzymatic reaction networks has proved challenging, limiting the development of synthetic systems showing autonomous behaviour. Here, we present a strategy for the rational design of programmable functional reaction networks that exhibit dynamic behaviour. We demonstrate that a network built around autoactivation and delayed negative feedback of the enzyme trypsin is capable of producing sustained oscillating concentrations of active trypsin for over 65 h. Other functions, such as amplification, analog-to-digital conversion and periodic control over equilibrium systems, are obtained by linking multiple network modules in microfluidic flow reactors. The methodology developed here provides a general framework to construct dissipative, tunable and robust (bio)chemical reaction networks.

  17. Rational use of water in trickle irrigation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, J. C. C.; da Silva Junior, H. M.

    2012-04-01

    In trickle irrigation systems, the design is based on the pre-established emission uniformity (EU) which is the combined result of the equipment characteristics and its hydraulic configuration. However, this desired value of the EU may not be confirmed by the final project (in field conditions) and neither by the yield uniformity. However, the most important is to assure yield uniformity with rational use of water. The hypotheses of this research were: a) the EU of a trickle irrigation system at field conditions is equal to the emission uniformity pre-established in the design; b) EU has always the lowest value when compared with other indicators of uniformity; c) the discharge variation coefficient is not equal to production variation coefficient in the operational unit; d) the productivity variation coefficient is more dependent on water depth applied than the EU. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships among EU used in the irrigation system design, water depth applied and the final yield uniformity. The uniformity indicators evaluated were: EU, distribution uniformity (UD) and the index proposed by Barragan & Wu (2005). They were compared estimating the performance of a trickle irrigation system applied in a citrus orchard with dimensions of 400m x 600m. The design of the irrigation system was optimized by a Linear Programming model. The tree rows were leveled in the larger direction and the spacing adopted in the orchard was 7m x 4m. The manifold line was always operating on a slope condition. The sensitivity analysis involved different slopes, 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12%, and different values of emission uniformity, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 and 94%. The citrus yield uniformity was evaluated by the variation coefficient. The emission uniformity (EU) after design differed from the EU pre-established, more sharply in the initial values lower than 90%. Comparing the uniformity indexes, the EU always generated lower values when compared with the UD and with the index

  18. Embedded systems design issues in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Roovers, R.L.J.; Basten, A.A.; Geilen, M.C.W.; Groot, de H.W.H.

    2003-01-01

    The vision of ambient intelligence opens a world of unprecedented ex.periences: the interaction of people with electronic devices is changed as context awareness, natural interfaces and ubiquitous availability of information are realized. We analyze the consequences of the ambient intelligence

  19. 16th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Gamboa, Dorabela; Novais, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises selected papers from the 16th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA’16), which was held in Porto, Portugal from December 1 to16, 2016. ISDA 2016 was jointly organized by the Portugual-based Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto and the US-based Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs) to serve as a forum for the dissemination of state-of-the-art research and development of intelligent systems, intelligent technologies, and applications. The papers included address a wide variety of themes ranging from theories to applications of intelligent systems and computational intelligence area and provide a valuable resource for students and researchers in academia and industry alike. .

  20. Intelligent Design in the Public School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Wesley D.

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing battle to insert intelligent causes into the science classrooms has been met with political approval and scientific rejection. Administrators in the United States need to be aware of the law related to creationism and intelligent design in order to lead in local curricular battles. Although unlikely to appease the ID proponents, there…

  1. Rationally designed, heterologous S. cerevisiae transcripts expose novel expression determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yehezkel, Tuval; Atar, Shimshi; Zur, Hadas; Diament, Alon; Goz, Eli; Marx, Tzipy; Cohen, Rafael; Dana, Alexandra; Feldman, Anna; Shapiro, Ehud; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Deducing generic causal relations between RNA transcript features and protein expression profiles from endogenous gene expression data remains a major unsolved problem in biology. The analysis of gene expression from heterologous genes contributes significantly to solving this problem, but has been heavily biased toward the study of the effect of 5′ transcript regions and to prokaryotes. Here, we employ a synthetic biology driven approach that systematically differentiates the effect of different regions of the transcript on gene expression up to 240 nucleotides into the ORF. This enabled us to discover new causal effects between features in previously unexplored regions of transcripts, and gene expression in natural regimes. We rationally designed, constructed, and analyzed 383 gene variants of the viral HRSVgp04 gene ORF, with multiple synonymous mutations at key positions along the transcript in the eukaryote S. cerevisiae. Our results show that a few silent mutations at the 5′UTR can have a dramatic effect of up to 15 fold change on protein levels, and that even synonymous mutations in positions more than 120 nucleotides downstream from the ORF 5′end can modulate protein levels up to 160%–300%. We demonstrate that the correlation between protein levels and folding energy increases with the significance of the level of selection of the latter in endogenous genes, reinforcing the notion that selection for folding strength in different parts of the ORF is related to translation regulation. Our measured protein abundance correlates notably(correlation up to r = 0.62 (p=0.0013)) with mean relative codon decoding times, based on ribosomal densities (Ribo-Seq) in endogenous genes, supporting the conjecture that translation elongation and adaptation to the tRNA pool can modify protein levels in a causal/direct manner. This report provides an improved understanding of transcript evolution, design principles of gene expression regulation, and suggests simple

  2. Information for the user in design of intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations are made for improving intelligent system reliability and usability based on the use of information requirements in system development. Information requirements define the task-relevant messages exchanged between the intelligent system and the user by means of the user interface medium. Thus, these requirements affect the design of both the intelligent system and its user interface. Many difficulties that users have in interacting with intelligent systems are caused by information problems. These information problems result from the following: (1) not providing the right information to support domain tasks; and (2) not recognizing that using an intelligent system introduces new user supervisory tasks that require new types of information. These problems are especially prevalent in intelligent systems used for real-time space operations, where data problems and unexpected situations are common. Information problems can be solved by deriving information requirements from a description of user tasks. Using information requirements embeds human-computer interaction design into intelligent system prototyping, resulting in intelligent systems that are more robust and easier to use.

  3. Bioinformatics and multiepitope DNA immunization to design rational snake antivenom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Wagstaff

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom is a potentially lethal and complex mixture of hundreds of functionally diverse proteins that are difficult to purify and hence difficult to characterize. These difficulties have inhibited the development of toxin-targeted therapy, and conventional antivenom is still generated from the sera of horses or sheep immunized with whole venom. Although life-saving, antivenoms contain an immunoglobulin pool of unknown antigen specificity and known redundancy, which necessitates the delivery of large volumes of heterologous immunoglobulin to the envenomed victim, thus increasing the risk of anaphylactoid and serum sickness adverse effects. Here we exploit recent molecular sequence analysis and DNA immunization tools to design more rational toxin-targeted antivenom.We developed a novel bioinformatic strategy that identified sequences encoding immunogenic and structurally significant epitopes from an expressed sequence tag database of a venom gland cDNA library of Echis ocellatus, the most medically important viper in Africa. Focusing upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs that are responsible for the severe and frequently lethal hemorrhage in envenomed victims, we identified seven epitopes that we predicted would be represented in all isomers of this multimeric toxin and that we engineered into a single synthetic multiepitope DNA immunogen (epitope string. We compared the specificity and toxin-neutralizing efficacy of antiserum raised against the string to antisera raised against a single SVMP toxin (or domains or antiserum raised by conventional (whole venom immunization protocols. The SVMP string antiserum, as predicted in silico, contained antibody specificities to numerous SVMPs in E. ocellatus venom and venoms of several other African vipers. More significantly, the antiserum cross-specifically neutralized hemorrhage induced by E. ocellatus and Cerastes cerastes cerastes venoms.These data provide valuable sequence and structure

  4. Harvesting bioenergy with rationally designed complex functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Liangju

    A key challenge in renewable energy is to capture, convert and store solar power with earth-abundant materials and environmentally benign technologies. The goal of this thesis is to develop rationally designed complex functional materials for bio-renewable energy applications. On one hand, photoconversion membrane proteins (MPs) are nature's nanoengineering feats for renewable energy management. Harnessing their functions in synthetic systems could help understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the nanoscale. This is particularly enticing in the post-genome era as recombinant or cell-free expression of many MPs with high yields becomes possible. However, the labile nature of lipid bilayers renders them unsuitable for use in a broad range of engineered systems. A knowledge gap exists about how to design robust synthetic nanomembranes as lipid-bilayer-mimics to support MP functions and how to direct hierarchical MP reconstitution into those membranes to form 2-D or 3-D ordered proteomembrane arrays. Our studies on proteorhodopsin (PR) and bacterial reaction center (BRC), the two light-harvesting MPs, reveal that a charge-interaction-directed reconstitution (CIDR) mechanism induces spontaneous reconstitution of detergent-solubilized MPs into various amphiphilic block copolymer membranes, many of which have far superior stability than lipid bilayers. Our preliminary data also suggest MPs are not enslaved by the biological membranes they derive from; rather, the chemically nonspecific material properties of MP-supporting membranes may act as allosteric regulators. Versatile chemical designs are possible to modulate the conformational energetics of MPs, hence their transport performance in synthetic systems. On the other hand, microalgae are widely regarded as a sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. Microalgae-derived biofuels have not been commercialized yet because current technologies for microalgae dewatering add a huge cost to the

  5. Rational design of protamine nanocapsules as antigen delivery carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aramundiz, José Vicente; Presas, Elena; Dalmau-Mena, Inmaculada; Martínez-Pulgarín, Susana; Alonso, Covadonga; Escribano, José M; Alonso, María J; Csaba, Noemi Stefánia

    2017-01-10

    Current challenges in global immunization indicate the demand for new delivery strategies, which could be applied to the development of new vaccines against emerging diseases, as well as to improve safety and efficacy of currently existing vaccine formulations. Here, we report a novel antigen nanocarrier consisting of an oily core and a protamine shell, further stabilized with pegylated surfactants. These nanocarriers, named protamine nanocapsules, were rationally designed to promote the intracellular delivery of antigens to immunocompetent cells and to trigger an efficient and long-lasting immune response. Protamine nanocapsules have nanometric size, positive zeta potential and high association capacity for H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin, a protein that was used here as a model antigen. The new formulation shows an attractive stability profile both, as an aqueous suspension or a freeze-dried powder formulation. In vitro studies showed that protamine nanocapsules were efficiently internalized by macrophages without eliciting significant toxicity. In vivo studies indicate that antigen-loaded nanocapsules trigger immune responses comparable to those achieved with alum, even when using significantly lower antigen doses, thus indicating their adjuvant properties. These promising in vivo data, alongside with their versatility for the loading of different antigens and oily immunomodulators and their excellent stability profile, make these nanocapsules a promising platform for the delivery of antigens. Protamine sulphate (PubChem SID: 7849283), Sodium Cholate (PubChem CID: 23668194), Miglyol (PubChem CID: 53471835), α tocopherol (PubChem CID: 14985), Tween® 20(PubChem CID: 443314), Tween® 80(PubChem CID: 5281955), TPGS (PubChem CID: 71406). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rationally Designed TLR4 Ligands for Vaccine Adjuvant Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey A. Gregg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant properties of bacterial cell wall components like MPLA (monophosphoryl lipid A are well described and have gained FDA approval for use in vaccines such as Cervarix. MPLA is the product of chemically modified lipooligosaccharide (LOS, altered to diminish toxic proinflammatory effects while retaining adequate immunogenicity. Despite the virtually unlimited number of potential sources among bacterial strains, the number of useable compounds within this promising class of adjuvants are few. We have developed bacterial enzymatic combinatorial chemistry (BECC as a method to generate rationally designed, functionally diverse lipid A. BECC removes endogenous or introduces exogenous lipid A-modifying enzymes to bacteria, effectively reprogramming the lipid A biosynthetic pathway. In this study, BECC is applied within an avirulent strain of Yersinia pestis to develop structurally distinct LOS molecules that elicit differential Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activation. Using reporter cell lines that measure NF-κB activation, BECC-derived molecules were screened for the ability to induce a lower proinflammatory response than Escherichia coli LOS. Their structures exhibit varied, dose-dependent, TLR4-driven NF-κB activation with both human and mouse TLR4 complexes. Additional cytokine secretion screening identified molecules that induce levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-8 (IL-8 comparable to the levels induced by phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharide (PHAD. The lead candidates demonstrated potent immunostimulation in mouse splenocytes, human primary blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs. This newly described system allows directed programming of lipid A synthesis and has the potential to generate a diverse array of TLR4 agonist candidates.

  7. Intelligence and Design: Thinking about Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Intelligence Agency. The DIOCC advocates military requirements within the intelli- gence community. 34. The advantages and disadvantages of each...problem as being the political disen- franchisement of the Chinese squatters. A prominent environmental factor was that British policy sought the

  8. Rational design of single-molecule magnets: a supramolecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Thorsten

    2011-01-07

    Since the discovery that Mn(12)OAc acts as a single-molecule magnet (SMM), an increasing number of transition metal complexes have been demonstrated to behave as SMMs. The signature of a SMM is a slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperatures accompanied by a magnetic hysteresis. The origin of SMM behaviour is the existence of an appreciable thermal barrier U for spin-reversal called magnetic anisotropy barrier which is related to the combination of a large total spin ground state (S(t)) and an easy-axis magnetic anisotropy. The extensive research on Mn(12)OAc and other SMMs has established more prerequisites for a rational development of new SMMs besides the high-spin ground state and the magnetic anisotropy: the symmetry should be at least C(3) to minimize the quantum tunneling of the magnetization through the anisotropy barrier but lower than cubic to avoid the cancellation of the local anisotropies upon projection onto the spin ground state. Based on these prerequisites, we have designed the ligand triplesalen which combines the phloroglucinol bridging unit for high spin ground states by the spin-polarization mechanism with a salen-like ligand environment for single-site magnetic anisotropies by a strong tetragonal ligand field. The C(3) symmetric, trinuclear complexes of the triplesalen ligand (talen(t-Bu(2)))(6-) exhibit a strong ligand folding resulting in an overall bowl-shaped molecular structure. This ligand folding preorganizes the axial coordination sites of the metal salen subunits for the complementary binding of three facial nitrogen atoms of a hexacyanometallate unit. This leads to a high driving force for the formation of heptanuclear complexes [M(t)(6)M(c)](n+) by the assembly of three molecular building blocks. Attractive van der Waals interactions of the tert-butyl phenyl units of two triplesalen trinuclear building blocks increase the driving force. In this respect, we have been able to synthesize the isostructural series [Mn(III)(6

  9. Using Appreciative Intelligence for Ice-Breaking: A New Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neena; Pathak, Anil Anand

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of applying appreciative intelligence and appreciative inquiry concepts to design a possibly new model of ice-breaking, which is strengths-based and very often used in any training in general and team building training in particular. Design/methodology/approach: The design has…

  10. An intelligent spatial land use planning support system using socially rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghavami, S.M.; Taleai, M.; Arentze, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    This research presents an intelligent planning support system based on multi-agent systems for spatial urban land use planning. The proposed system consists of two main phases: a pre-negotiation phase and an automated negotiation phase. The pre-negotiation phase involves interaction between human

  11. The design of remote intelligent terminal based on ARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Liu Zixin

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the function and principle of the remote intelligent terminal. It was designed on SmartARM 2200, uses uC/OS-II operating system and MiniGUI. And then,it gives a method to realize it. Introduces the work flow of remote intelligent terminal, and the function module of the system are analyzed in detail, and then the terminal of the principle has carried on the preliminary study. (authors)

  12. Intelligent System Design Using Hyper-Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelishia Pillay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Determining the most appropriate search method or artificial intelligence technique to solve a problem is not always evident and usually requires implementation of the different approaches to ascertain this. In some instances a single approach may not be sufficient and hybridization of methods may be needed to find a solution. This process can be time consuming. The paper proposes the use of hyper-heuristics as a means of identifying which method or combination of approaches is needed to solve a problem. The research presented forms part of a larger initiative aimed at using hyper-heuristics to develop intelligent hybrid systems. As an initial step in this direction, this paper investigates this for classical artificial intelligence uninformed and informed search methods, namely depth first search, breadth first search, best first search, hill-climbing and the A* algorithm. The hyper-heuristic determines the search or combination of searches to use to solve the problem. An evolutionary algorithm hyper-heuristic is implemented for this purpose and its performance is evaluated in solving the 8-Puzzle, Towers of Hanoi and Blocks World problems. The hyper-heuristic employs a generational evolutionary algorithm which iteratively refines an initial population using tournament selection to select parents, which the mutation and crossover operators are applied to for regeneration. The hyper-heuristic was able to identify a search or combination of searches to produce solutions for the twenty 8-Puzzle, five Towers of Hanoi and five Blocks World problems. Furthermore, admissible solutions were produced for all problem instances.

  13. Structured morphological modeling as a framework for rational strain design of Streptomyces species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celler, K.; Picioreanu, C.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Wezel, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Successful application of a computational model for rational design of industrial Streptomyces exploitation requires a better understanding of the relationship between morphology—dictated by microbial growth, branching, fragmentation and adhesion—and product formation. Here we review the

  14. Intelligent structures and design of energy related facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Haruyuki

    1994-01-01

    Possibility of applying intelligent structural concepts to civil design of energy plants is discussed. Intelligent structures, which are now common in aerospace engineering field, are also referred to as adaptive structures or smart structures depending on cases. Among various existing concepts, reconfigurable structures, precise shape control, structural monitoring using smart materials of optical fiber sensors, and relation with recent innovative communication technologies are focused from civil engineering point of view. Application of such new technologies will help to enhance design of energy related plants, which include multiplex functions which need to be very reliable and safe. (author)

  15. Applications Of Artificial Intelligence In Control System Analysis And Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, J. D.

    1987-10-01

    To date, applications of artificial intelligence in control system analysis and design are primarily associated with the design process. These applications take the form of knowledge bases incorporating expertise on a design method, such as multivariable linear controller design, or on a field such as identification. My experience has demonstrated that, while such expert systems are useful, perhaps a greater benefit will come from applications in the maintenance of technical databases, as are found in real-time data acquisition systems, and of modeling and design databases, which represent the status of a computer-aided design process for a human user. This reflects the observation that computers are best at maintaining relations about large sets of objects, whereas humans are best at maintaining knowledge of depth, as occurs when a design option involving a sequence of steps is explored. This paper will discuss some of these issues, and will provide some examples which illustrate the potential of artificial intelligence.

  16. Laccase engineering: from rational design to directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Diana M; Alcalde, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases considered by many in the biotechonology field as the ultimate "green catalysts". This is mainly due to their broad substrate specificity and relative autonomy (they use molecular oxygen from air as an electron acceptor and they only produce water as by-product), making them suitable for a wide array of applications: biofuel production, bioremediation, organic synthesis, pulp biobleaching, textiles, the beverage and food industries, biosensor and biofuel cell development. Since the beginning of the 21st century, specific features of bacterial and fungal laccases have been exhaustively adapted in order to reach the industrial demands for high catalytic activity and stability in conjunction with reduced production cost. Among the goals established for laccase engineering, heterologous functional expression, improved activity and thermostability, tolerance to non-natural media (organic solvents, ionic liquids, physiological fluids) and resistance to different types of inhibitors are all challenges that have been met, while obtaining a more comprehensive understanding of laccase structure-function relationships. In this review we examine the most significant advances in this exciting research area in which rational, semi-rational and directed evolution approaches have been employed to ultimately convert laccases into high value-added biocatalysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. APPROACH ON INTELLIGENT OPTIMIZATION DESIGN BASED ON COMPOUND KNOWLEDGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianchu; Zhou Ji; Yu Jun

    2003-01-01

    A concept of an intelligent optimal design approach is proposed, which is organized by a kind of compound knowledge model. The compound knowledge consists of modularized quantitative knowledge, inclusive experience knowledge and case-based sample knowledge. By using this compound knowledge model, the abundant quantity information of mathematical programming and the symbolic knowledge of artificial intelligence can be united together in this model. The intelligent optimal design model based on such a compound knowledge and the automatically generated decomposition principles based on it are also presented. Practically, it is applied to the production planning, process schedule and optimization of production process of a refining & chemical work and a great profit is achieved. Specially, the methods and principles are adaptable not only to continuous process industry, but also to discrete manufacturing one.

  18. Should Intelligent Design Be Taught in Public School Science Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutynski, Anya

    2010-01-01

    A variety of different arguments have been offered for teaching "both sides" of the evolution/ID debate in public schools. This article reviews five of the most common types of arguments advanced by proponents of Intelligent Design and demonstrates how and why they are founded on confusion and misunderstanding. It argues on behalf of teaching…

  19. Learning robots : teaching design students in integrating intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barakova, E.I.; Hu, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present day society requires specialists with multidisciplinary knowledge and skills. We discuss the possibilities to educate professionals that design intelligent products and systems as a result of a competency based education. In particular this paper features a teaching method that makes the

  20. Open-source intelligence and privacy by design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, B.J.; Hoepman, J.H.; Leenes, R.

    2013-01-01

    As demonstrated by other papers on this issue, open-source intelligence (OSINT) by state authorities poses challenges for privacy protection and intellectual-property enforcement. A possible strategy to address these challenges is to adapt the design of OSINT tools to embed normative requirements,

  1. How Biology Teachers Can Respond to Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Teachers of biology and related subjects are increasingly meeting objections from students and their parents to the teaching of evolution and the exclusion of what is called the theory of Intelligent Design. This paper attempts to draw together arguments and evidence which may be used by such teachers. Four lessons are drawn from the 1982…

  2. Cognitive Process as a Basis for Intelligent Retrieval Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Dhar, Vasant

    1991-01-01

    Two studies of the cognitive processes involved in online document-based information retrieval were conducted. These studies led to the development of five computational models of online document retrieval which were incorporated into the design of an "intelligent" document-based retrieval system. Both the system and the broader implications of…

  3. Does decision documentation help junior designers rationalize their decisions? A comparative multiple-case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, U. van; Avgeriou, P.; Tang, A.

    Software architecture design is challenging, especially for junior software designers. Lacking practice and experience, junior designers need process support in order to make rational architecture decisions. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative multiple-case study conducted to find

  4. Rational design of soft mechanical metamaterials : Independent tailoring of elastic properties with randomness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaali Mazandarani, M.J.; Hedayati, R.; Vena, P; Vergani, L.; Strano, M.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    The elastic properties of mechanical metamaterials are direct functions of their topological designs. Rational design approaches based on computational models could, therefore, be used to devise topological designs that result in the desired properties. It is of particular importance to

  5. Design of vehicle intelligent anti-collision warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangyang; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-01

    This paper mainly designs a low cost, high-accuracy, micro-miniaturization, and digital display and acousto-optic alarm features of the vehicle intelligent anti-collision warning system that based on MCU AT89C51. The vehicle intelligent anti-collision warning system includes forward anti-collision warning system, auto parking systems and reversing anti-collision radar system. It mainly develops on the basis of ultrasonic distance measurement, its performance is reliable, thus the driving safety is greatly improved and the parking security and efficiency enhance enormously.

  6. Design of intelligent house system based on Yeelink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhi-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor the security situation of house in real time, an intelligent house remote monitoring system is designed based on Yeelink cloud services and ZigBee wireless communication technology. This system includes three parts, ZigBee wireless sensor networks, intelligent house gateway and Yeelink Cloud Services. Users can access Yeelink website or APP to get real time information in the house, receiving information including gas concentration, temperature. Also, remote commands can be sent from mobile devices to control the household appliances. The user who can monitor and control the house effectively through a simple and convenient user interface, will feel much more safe and comfortable.

  7. Search for design intelligence: A field study on the role of emotional intelligence in architectural design studios

    OpenAIRE

    Nazidizaji, Sajjad; Tomé, Ana; Regateiro, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The design studio is the core of the architecture curriculum. Interpersonal interactions have a key role during the processes of design and critique. The influence of emotional intelligence (EQ) on interpersonal communication skills has been widely proven. This study examines the correlation between EQ and architectural design competence. To achieve this, 78 architecture students were selected via a simple random sampling method and tested using an EQ test questionnaire developed by Bradbury ...

  8. Design of an intelligent materials data base for the IFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaili, R.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Orth, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the development of the integral fast reactor (IFR) concept, there is a consensus that materials considerations are an important part of the reactor design, operation, and maintenance and that materials performance is central to liquid-metal reactor reliability and safety. In the design of the IRF materials data base, artificial intelligence techniques are being used to ensure efficient control of information. Intelligent control will provide for the selection of menus to be displayed, efficient data-base searches, and application-dependent guidance through the data base. The development of the IRF data base has progressed to the point of (a) completing the design of the data-base architecture and tables, (b) installing computer hardware for storing large amounts of data, (c) outlining strategies for data transferal, and (d) identifying ways to validate and secure the integrity of data

  9. Application of Absorption Modeling in Rational Design of Drug Product Under Quality-by-Design Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Mitra, Amitava

    2015-09-01

    Physiologically based absorption models can be an important tool in understanding product performance and hence implementation of Quality by Design (QbD) in drug product development. In this report, we show several case studies to demonstrate the potential application of absorption modeling in rational design of drug product under the QbD paradigm. The examples include application of absorption modeling—(1) prior to first-in-human studies to guide development of a formulation with minimal sensitivity to higher gastric pH and hence reduced interaction when co-administered with PPIs and/or H2RAs, (2) design of a controlled release formulation with optimal release rate to meet trough plasma concentrations and enable QD dosing, (3) understanding the impact of API particle size distribution on tablet bioavailability and guide formulation design in late-stage development, (4) assess impact of API phase change on product performance to guide specification setting, and (5) investigate the effect of dissolution rate changes on formulation bioperformance and enable appropriate specification setting. These case studies are meant to highlight the utility of physiologically based absorption modeling in gaining a thorough understanding of the product performance and the critical factors impacting performance to drive design of a robust drug product that would deliver the optimal benefit to the patients.

  10. An Intelligent Automation Platform for Rapid Bioprocess Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi

    2014-01-01

    Bioprocess development is very labor intensive, requiring many experiments to characterize each unit operation in the process sequence to achieve product safety and process efficiency. Recent advances in microscale biochemical engineering have led to automated experimentation. A process design workflow is implemented sequentially in which (1) a liquid-handling system performs high-throughput wet lab experiments, (2) standalone analysis devices detect the data, and (3) specific software is used for data analysis and experiment design given the user’s inputs. We report an intelligent automation platform that integrates these three activities to enhance the efficiency of such a workflow. A multiagent intelligent architecture has been developed incorporating agent communication to perform the tasks automatically. The key contribution of this work is the automation of data analysis and experiment design and also the ability to generate scripts to run the experiments automatically, allowing the elimination of human involvement. A first-generation prototype has been established and demonstrated through lysozyme precipitation process design. All procedures in the case study have been fully automated through an intelligent automation platform. The realization of automated data analysis and experiment design, and automated script programming for experimental procedures has the potential to increase lab productivity. PMID:24088579

  11. An Intelligent Automation Platform for Rapid Bioprocess Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyi; Zhou, Yuhong

    2014-08-01

    Bioprocess development is very labor intensive, requiring many experiments to characterize each unit operation in the process sequence to achieve product safety and process efficiency. Recent advances in microscale biochemical engineering have led to automated experimentation. A process design workflow is implemented sequentially in which (1) a liquid-handling system performs high-throughput wet lab experiments, (2) standalone analysis devices detect the data, and (3) specific software is used for data analysis and experiment design given the user's inputs. We report an intelligent automation platform that integrates these three activities to enhance the efficiency of such a workflow. A multiagent intelligent architecture has been developed incorporating agent communication to perform the tasks automatically. The key contribution of this work is the automation of data analysis and experiment design and also the ability to generate scripts to run the experiments automatically, allowing the elimination of human involvement. A first-generation prototype has been established and demonstrated through lysozyme precipitation process design. All procedures in the case study have been fully automated through an intelligent automation platform. The realization of automated data analysis and experiment design, and automated script programming for experimental procedures has the potential to increase lab productivity. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. The application of artificial intelligence technology to aeronautical system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, E. E.; Kidwell, G. H.; Rogan, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the automation of one class of aeronautical design activity using artificial intelligence and advanced software techniques. Its purpose is to suggest concepts, terminology, and approaches that may be useful in enhancing design automation. By understanding the basic concepts and tasks in design, and the technologies that are available, it will be possible to produce, in the future, systems whose capabilities far exceed those of today's methods. Some of the tasks that will be discussed have already been automated and are in production use, resulting in significant productivity benefits. The concepts and techniques discussed are applicable to all design activity, though aeronautical applications are specifically presented.

  13. Heuristic decision model for intelligent nuclear power systems design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassersharif, B.; Portal, M.G.; Gaeta, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate intelligent nuclear power systems design. A theoretical model of the design process has been developed. A fundamental process in this model is the heuristic decision making for design (i.e., selection of methods, components, materials, etc.). Rule-based expert systems do not provide the completeness that is necessary to generate good design. A new method, based on the fuzzy set theory, has been developed and is presented here. A feedwater system knowledge base (KB) was developed for a prototype software experiment to benchmark the theory

  14. Rational design of a cyclin A fluorescent peptide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Pérez, Miguel; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Orzáez, Mar; Guevara, Tatiana; Mascareñas, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio

    2011-10-26

    We report the design and development of a fluorescent sensor specifically designed to target cyclin A, a protein that plays a key role in the regulation of the cell cycle. Computational studies provide a molecular picture that explains the observed emission increase, suggesting that the 4-DMAP fluorophore in the peptide is protected from the bulk solvent when inserted into the hydrophobic binding groove of cyclin A.

  15. Intelligent Controller Design for a Chemical Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Glan Devadhas G; Dr.Pushpakumar S.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical process control is a challenging problem due to the strong on*line non*linearity and extreme sensitivity to disturbances of the process. Ziegler – Nichols tuned PI and PID controllers are found to provide poor performances for higher*order and non–linear systems. This paper presents an application of one*step*ahead fuzzy as well as ANFIS (adaptive*network*based fuzzy inference system) tuning scheme for an Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor CSTR process. The controller is designed based ...

  16. Implications of intelligent, integrated microsystems for product design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYERS, DAVID R.; MCWHORTER, PAUL J.

    2000-01-01

    Intelligent, integrated microsystems combine some or all of the functions of sensing, processing information, actuation, and communication within a single integrated package, and preferably upon a single silicon chip. As the elements of these highly integrated solutions interact strongly with each other, the microsystem can be neither designed nor fabricated piecemeal, in contrast to the more familiar assembled products. Driven by technological imperatives, microsystems will best be developed by multi-disciplinary teams, most likely within the flatter, less hierarchical organizations. Standardization of design and process tools around a single, dominant technology will expedite economically viable operation under a common production infrastructure. The production base for intelligent, integrated microsystems has elements in common with the mathematical theory of chaos. Similar to chaos theory, the development of microsystems technology will be strongly dependent on, and optimized to, the initial product requirements that will drive standardization--thereby further rewarding early entrants to integrated microsystem technology

  17. Natural genetic engineering: intelligence & design in evolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David

    2011-01-01

    There are many things that I like about James Shapiro's new book "Evolution: A View from the 21st Century" (FT Press Science, 2011). He begins the book by saying that it is the creation of novelty, and not selection, that is important in the history of life. In the presence of heritable traits...... function. Shapiro argues that what we see in genomes is 'Natural Genetic Engineering', or designed evolution: "Thinking about genomes from an informatics perspective, it is apparent that systems engineering is a better metaphor for the evolutionary process than the conventional view of evolution...... as a select-biased random walk through limitless space of possible DNA configurations" (page 6). In this review, I will have a look at four topics: 1.) why I think genomics is not the whole story; 2.) my own perspective of E. coli genomics, and how I think it relates to this book; 3.) a brief discussion...

  18. Design and Realization of Intelligent Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Ye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to accurate flow rate control requirements in large irrigation zone, a fuzzy controller with dead-band is designed on the characteristics analysis and comparison of PID and Fuzzy. The setting values of water flow for gates are determined by real-time water level detection sensors, and the realistic value of discharged water and gate opening are detected out with relative sensors, simulation manifest that the specific control strategy can adjust the gate swiftly in circumstance of huge offset, and regulate the gate slightly in time of small bias, it is realized with Siemens S315 PLC (Programmable Logical Controller and has being working steadily for 2 years, the aim of regulation is performed properly.

  19. Guest-responsive structural adaptation of a rationally-designed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    From molecules and crystals to materials NATO ASI. Series (The Netherlands: Kluwer). 3. Desiraju G R 2007 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 8342. 4. MacNicol D D 1994 In Inclusion compounds (London: Academic Press). 5. Weber E 1996 In Shape and symmetry in the design of new hosts, in Comprehensive Supramolecular ...

  20. Coleman's problem with institutional design : neglect of social rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, S

    2003-01-01

    This paper tries to answer the question how it is possible that such a giant of sociology as James Coleman produced so little of what he considered the most important work for sociologists : good institutional design. I argue that the answer lies in the fact that the most serious problem for which

  1. Expert System for 3D Collar Intelligent Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; GENG Zhao-feng

    2004-01-01

    A method to set up 3D collar prototype is developed in this paper by using the technique of cubic spline and bicubic surface patch. Then the relationship between the parameters of 3D collar prototype and different collar styles are studied. Based on the relationship, we can develop some algorithms of transferring style requirements to the parameters value of the collar prototype, and obtain some generation rules for the design of 3D collar style. As such, the knowledge base can be constructed, and the intelligent design system of 3D collar style is built. Using the system, various 3D collar styles can be designed automatically to satisfy various style requirements.

  2. IT-tool Concept for Design and Intelligent Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Hansen, Poul Erik; Sørensen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents results obtained from a Danish mechatronic research program focusing on intelligent motion control as well as results from the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components and systems. A mechatronic test facility with digital controllers for ....... Furthermore, a developed IT-tool concept for controller and system design utilising the ISO 10303 STEP Standard is proposed....

  3. Automation of fusion first wall design using artificial intelligence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinobu; Yagawa, Genki; Mochizuki, Yoshihiko

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the application of artificial intelligence techniques to a design automation of the fusion first wall to be operated in the complex environment where huge electromagnetic and thermal loading as well as heavy neutron irradiation occur. As a basic strategy of designing structure shape considering many coupled phenomena, an ordinary design procedure based on the generate and test strategy is adopted because of its simplicity and broad applicability. To automate the design procedure with maintaining its flexibility, extensibility and efficiency, artificial intelligence techniques are utilized in the following. An object-oriented knowledge representation technique is adopted to store knowledge modules, that is, objects, related to the first wall design, while a data-flow processing technique is utilized as an inference mechanism among the knowledge modules. These techniques realize the flexibility and extensibility of the system. Moreover, as an efficient design modification mechanism, which is essential in a design process, an empirical approach based on experts' empirical knowledge and a mathematical approach based on a kind of numerical sensitivity analysis are introduced. The developed system is applied to a simple example of the design of a two-dimensional model of the first wall with a cooling channel, and its fundamental performance is clearly demonstrated. (author)

  4. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a summary of recent research and development in areas related to the design technology for double hull tanker structures against low energy collision, jointly undertaken by the Hyundai Heavy Industries, the American Bureau of Shipping, the Technical University of Denmark and the Pusan...... in the present study were (i) developing a framework for the collision design procedure for double hull tanker structures, (ii) experimental investigation of the structural crashworthiness of the collided vessels in collision or stranding, using double skinned structural models, (iii) validation of the special...... investigation of the energy absorption capability characteristics of a collided double hull VLCC side structure in collision, and (vi) development of a new modified Minorsky method for double hull tanker side structures. The tools developed and the results and insights obtained by the present study should...

  5. Rationally designed porous silicon as platform for optical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priano, G.; Acquaroli, L.N.; Lasave, L.C.; Battaglini, F.; Arce, R.D.; Koropecki, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Optical porous silicon multilayer structures are able to work as sensitive chemical sensors or biosensors based in their optical response. An algorithm to simulate the optical response of these multilayers was developed, considering the optical properties of the individual layers. The algorithm allows designing and customizing the porous silicon structures according to a given application. The results obtained by the simulation were experimentally verified; for this purpose different photonic structures were prepared, such as Bragg reflectors and microcavities. Some of these structures have been derivatized by the introduction of aminosilane groups on the porous silicon surface. The algorithm also permits to simulate the effects produced by a non uniform derivatization of the multilayer. - Highlights: ► Mesoporous silicon structure ► Functionalization of mesoporous silicon as sensors ► Design of the one-dimensional photonic crystal ► Simulation of non-uniformity in covering the sensor structure

  6. Rationally designed porous silicon as platform for optical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priano, G. [INQUIMAE, DQIAyQF, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 2 (C1428EHA) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Acquaroli, L.N.; Lasave, L.C. [Instituto De Desarrollo Tecnologico Para La Industria Quimica, UNL, CONICET, Gueemes 3450 (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Battaglini, F. [INQUIMAE, DQIAyQF, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 2 (C1428EHA) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arce, R.D., E-mail: rarce@intec.unl.edu.ar [Instituto De Desarrollo Tecnologico Para La Industria Quimica, UNL, CONICET, Gueemes 3450 (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento De Materiales, Facultad De Ingenieria Quimica, UNL, Santiago del Estero 2829 (S3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Koropecki, R.R. [Instituto De Desarrollo Tecnologico Para La Industria Quimica, UNL, CONICET, Gueemes 3450 (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento De Materiales, Facultad De Ingenieria Quimica, UNL, Santiago del Estero 2829 (S3000) Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2012-08-01

    Optical porous silicon multilayer structures are able to work as sensitive chemical sensors or biosensors based in their optical response. An algorithm to simulate the optical response of these multilayers was developed, considering the optical properties of the individual layers. The algorithm allows designing and customizing the porous silicon structures according to a given application. The results obtained by the simulation were experimentally verified; for this purpose different photonic structures were prepared, such as Bragg reflectors and microcavities. Some of these structures have been derivatized by the introduction of aminosilane groups on the porous silicon surface. The algorithm also permits to simulate the effects produced by a non uniform derivatization of the multilayer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesoporous silicon structure Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalization of mesoporous silicon as sensors Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design of the one-dimensional photonic crystal Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulation of non-uniformity in covering the sensor structure.

  7. Lumican Peptides: Rational Design Targeting ALK5/TGFBRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteira, Tarsis Ferreira; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J.; Yuan, Yong; Zhang, Jianhua; Nader, Helena B.; Kao, Winston W.-Y.

    2017-02-01

    Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan (SLRP), is a component of extracellular matrix which also functions as a matrikine regulating multiple cell activities. In the cornea, lumican maintains corneal transparency by regulating collagen fibrillogenesis, promoting corneal epithelial wound healing, regulating gene expression and maintaining corneal homeostasis. We have recently shown that a peptide designed from the 13 C-terminal amino acids of lumican (LumC13) binds to ALK5/TGFBR1 (type1 receptor of TGFβ) to promote wound healing. Herein we evaluate the mechanism by which this synthetic C-terminal amphiphilic peptide (LumC13), binds to ALK5. These studies clearly reveal that LumC13-ALK5 form a stable complex. In order to determine the minimal amino acids required for the formation of a stable lumican/ALK5 complex derivatives of LumC13 were designed and their binding to ALK5 investigated in silico. These LumC13 derivatives were tested both in vitro and in vivo to evaluate their ability to promote corneal epithelial cell migration and corneal wound healing, respectively. These validations add to the therapeutic value of LumC13 (Lumikine) and aid its clinical relevance of promoting the healing of corneal epithelium debridement. Moreover, our data validates the efficacy of our computational approach to design active peptides based on interactions of receptor and chemokine/ligand.

  8. Rational Design of Glucose-Responsive Insulin Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakh, Naveed A; Bisker, Gili; Lee, Michael A; Gong, Xun; Strano, Michael S

    2017-11-01

    A glucose responsive insulin (GRI) is a therapeutic that modulates its potency, concentration, or dosing of insulin in relation to a patient's dynamic glucose concentration, thereby approximating aspects of a normally functioning pancreas. Current GRI design lacks a theoretical basis on which to base fundamental design parameters such as glucose reactivity, dissociation constant or potency, and in vivo efficacy. In this work, an approach to mathematically model the relevant parameter space for effective GRIs is induced, and design rules for linking GRI performance to therapeutic benefit are developed. Well-developed pharmacokinetic models of human glucose and insulin metabolism coupled to a kinetic model representation of a freely circulating GRI are used to determine the desired kinetic parameters and dosing for optimal glycemic control. The model examines a subcutaneous dose of GRI with kinetic parameters in an optimal range that results in successful glycemic control within prescribed constraints over a 24 h period. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the modeling approach can find GRI parameters that enable stable glucose levels that persist through a skipped meal. The results provide a framework for exploring the parameter space of GRIs, potentially without extensive, iterative in vivo animal testing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Nabin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same

  10. Rational design of diagnostic and vaccination strategies for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Borsuk

    Full Text Available The development of diagnostic tests which can readily differentiate between vaccinated and tuberculosis-infected individuals is crucial for the wider utilization of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as vaccine in humans and animals. BCG_0092 is an antigen that elicits specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions similar in size and morphological aspects to that elicited by purified protein derivative, in both animals and humans infected with the tubercle bacilli. We carried out bioinformatics analyses of the BCG_0092 and designed a diagnostic test by using the predicted MHC class I epitopes. In addition, we performed a knockout of this gene by homologous recombination in the BCG vaccine strain to allow differentiation of vaccinated from infected individuals. For that, the flanking sequences of the target gene (BCG_0092were cloned into a suicide vector. Spontaneous double crossovers, which result in wild type revertants or knockouts were selected using SacB. BCG_0092 is present only in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Eight predicted MHC class I epitopes with potential for immunological diagnosis were defined, allowing the design of a specific diagnostic test. The strategy used to delete the (BCG_0092 gene from BCG was successful. The knockout genotype was confirmed by PCR and by Southern blot. The mutant BCG strain has the potential of inducing protection against tuberculosis without interfering with the diagnostic test based on the use of selected epitopes from BCG_0092.

  11. Does decision documentation help junior designers rationalize their decisions? A comparative multiple-case study

    OpenAIRE

    Heesch, U. van; Avgeriou, P.; Tang, A.

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture design is challenging, especially for junior software designers. Lacking practice and experience, junior designers need process support in order to make rational architecture decisions. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative multiple-case study conducted to find out if decision viewpoints from van Heesch et al. (2012, in press) can provide such a support. The case study was conducted with four teams of software engineering students working in industrial s...

  12. Nature-inspired design of hybrid intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Oscar; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights recent advances in the design of hybrid intelligent systems based on nature-inspired optimization and their application in areas such as intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction, and optimization of complex problems. The book is divided into seven main parts, the first of which addresses theoretical aspects of and new concepts and algorithms based on type-2 and intuitionistic fuzzy logic systems. The second part focuses on neural network theory, and explores the applications of neural networks in diverse areas, such as time series prediction and pattern recognition. The book’s third part presents enhancements to meta-heuristics based on fuzzy logic techniques and describes new nature-inspired optimization algorithms that employ fuzzy dynamic adaptation of parameters, while the fourth part presents diverse applications of nature-inspired optimization algorithms. In turn, the fifth part investigates applications of fuzzy logic in diverse areas, such as...

  13. Heuristic lipophilicity potential for computer-aided rational drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qishi; Arteca, Gustavo A.; Mezey, Paul G.

    1997-09-01

    In this contribution we suggest a heuristic molecular lipophilicitypotential (HMLP), which is a structure-based technique requiring noempirical indices of atomic lipophilicity. The input data used in thisapproach are molecular geometries and molecular surfaces. The HMLP is amodified electrostatic potential, combined with the averaged influences fromthe molecular environment. Quantum mechanics is used to calculate theelectron density function ρ(r) and the electrostatic potential V(r), andfrom this information a lipophilicity potential L(r) is generated. The HMLPis a unified lipophilicity and hydrophilicity potential. The interactions ofdipole and multipole moments, hydrogen bonds, and charged atoms in amolecule are included in the hydrophilic interactions in this model. TheHMLP is used to study hydrogen bonds and water-octanol partitioncoefficients in several examples. The calculated results show that the HMLPgives qualitatively and quantitatively correct, as well as chemicallyreasonable, results in cases where comparisons are available. Thesecomparisons indicate that the HMLP has advantages over the empiricallipophilicity potential in many aspects. The HMLP is a three-dimensional andeasily visualizable representation of molecular lipophilicity, suggested asa potential tool in computer-aided three-dimensional drug design.

  14. Plasmonic Solar Cells: From Rational Design to Mechanism Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon Hee; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Seokhyoung; Quan, Li Na; Chung, Kyungwha; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-12-28

    Plasmonic effects have been proposed as a solution to overcome the limited light absorption in thin-film photovoltaic devices, and various types of plasmonic solar cells have been developed. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art progress on the design and fabrication of plasmonic solar cells and their enhancement mechanism. The working principle is first addressed in terms of the combined effects of plasmon decay, scattering, near-field enhancement, and plasmonic energy transfer, including direct hot electron transfer and resonant energy transfer. Then, we summarize recent developments for various types of plasmonic solar cells based on silicon, dye-sensitized, organic photovoltaic, and other types of solar cells, including quantum dot and perovskite variants. We also address several issues regarding the limitations of plasmonic nanostructures, including their electrical, chemical, and physical stability, charge recombination, narrowband absorption, and high cost. Next, we propose a few potentially useful approaches that can improve the performance of plasmonic cells, such as the inclusion of graphene plasmonics, plasmon-upconversion coupling, and coupling between fluorescence resonance energy transfer and plasmon resonance energy transfer. This review is concluded with remarks on future prospects for plasmonic solar cell use.

  15. Intelligent adaptive systems an interaction-centered design perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Ming; Burns, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A synthesis of recent research and developments on intelligent adaptive systems from the HF (human factors) and HCI (human-computer interaction) domains, this book provides integrated design guidance and recommendations for researchers and system developers. It addresses a recognized lack of integration between the HF and HCI research communities, which has led to inconsistencies between the research approaches adopted, and a lack of exploitation of research from one field by the other. The book establishes design guidance through the review of conceptual frameworks, analytical methodologies,

  16. Intelligent Design and the Creationism/Evolution Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E. C.

    2004-12-01

    "Intelligent Design" (ID) is a new form of creationism that emerged after legal decisions in the 1980s hampered the inclusion of "creation science" in the public school curriculum. To avoid legal challenge, proponents claim agnosticism regarding the identity of the intelligent agent, which could be material (such as highly intelligent terrestrials) or transcendental (God). ID consists of a scientific/scholarly effort, and a politico-religious movement of "cultural renewal." Intelligent design is supposedly detectable through the application of Michael Behe's "irreducible complexity" concept and/or William Dembski's concept of "complex specified information". ID's claims amount to, first, that "Darwinism" (vaguely defined) is incapable of providing an adequate mechanism for evolution, and second (subsequently), that evolution did not occur. Although scientific ideas not infrequently are slow to be accepted, in the 20 years since ID appeared, there is no evidence of it being used to solve problems in biology. Even if the scientific/scholarly part of ID has been a failure, the "cultural renewal" part of ID has been a success. This social and political aspect of ID seeks "restoration" of a theistic sensibility in American culture to replace what supporters consider an overemphasis on secularism. In the last few years, in several states, legislators have introduced legislation promoting ID (to date, unsuccessfully) and an addendum to the 2001 federal education bill conference committee report (the "Santorum amendment") is being used to promote the teaching of ID in public schools. Perhaps because ID has no actual content other than antievolutionism, ID proponents contend that pre-college teachers should teach wweaknesses of evolutionw or "evidence against evolutionw - largely warmed-over arguments from creation science - even though professional scientists do not recognize these as valid scientific claims.

  17. Phytosterol Recognition via Rationally Designed Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan J. Schwarz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs prepared via a semi-covalent imprinting strategy using stigmasteryl methacrylate as a polymerisable template have been evaluated by static binding methods for their ability to selectively capture other valuable phytosterol targets, including campesterol and brassicasterol. Design criteria based on molecular modelling procedures and interaction energy calculations were employed to aid the selection of the co-monomer type, as well as the choice of co-monomer:template ratios for the formation of the pre-polymerisation complex. These novel hybrid semi-covalently imprinted polymers employed N,N′-dimethylacryl-amide (N,N′-DMAAM as the functional co-monomer and displayed specific binding capacities in the range 5.2–5.9 mg sterol/g MIP resin. Their binding attributes and selectivities towards phytosterol compounds were significantly different to the corresponding MIPs prepared via non-covalent procedures or when compared to non-imprinted polymers. Cross-reactivity studies using stigmasterol, ergosterol, cholesterol, campesterol, and brassicasterol as single analytes revealed the importance of the A-ring C-3-β-hydroxyl group and the orientational preferences of the D-ring alkyl chain structures in their interaction in the templated cavity with the N,N′-dimethylamide functional groups of the MIP. Finally, to obtain useful quantities of both campersterol and brassicasterol for these investigations, improved synthetic routes have been developed to permit the conversion of the more abundant, lower cost stigmasterol via a reactive aldehyde intermediate to these other sterols.

  18. Modulation of prion polymerization and toxicity by rationally designed peptidomimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Sakshi; Sadanandan, Sandhya; Gupta, Sakshi; Singh, Jasdeep; Gupta, Sarika; Haridas, V; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of cellular prion protein is associated with a large array of neurological disorders commonly called the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Designing inhibitors against prions has remained a daunting task owing to limited information about mechanism(s) of their pathogenic self-assembly. Here, we explore the anti-prion properties of a combinatorial library of bispidine-based peptidomimetics (BPMs) that conjugate amino acids with hydrophobic and aromatic side chains. Keeping the bispidine unit unaltered, a series of structurally diverse BPMs were synthesized and tested for their prion-modulating properties. Administration of Leu- and Trp-BPMs delayed and completely inhibited the amyloidogenic conversion of human prion protein (HuPrP), respectively. We found that each BPM induced the HuPrP to form unique oligomeric nanostructures differing in their biophysical properties, cellular toxicities and response to conformation-specific antibodies. While Leu-BPMs were found to stabilize the oligomers, Trp-BPMs effected transient oligomerization, resulting in the formation of non-toxic, non-fibrillar aggregates. Yet another aromatic residue, Phe, however, accelerated the aggregation process in HuPrP. Molecular insights obtained through MD (molecular dynamics) simulations suggested that each BPM differently engages a conserved Tyr 169 residue at the α2-β2 loop of HuPrP and affects the stability of α2 and α3 helices. Our results demonstrate that this new class of molecules having chemical scaffolds conjugating hydrophobic/aromatic residues could effectively modulate prion aggregation and toxicity. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. The design of intelligent support systems for nuclear reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper identifies factors relevant to the design of intelligent support systems and their use for the provision of real-time diagnostic information. As such, it constitutes a followup to the state-of-the-art review that was previously published by Bernard and Washio on the utilization of expert systems within the nuclear industry. Some major differences between intelligent-support tools and conventional expert systems are enumerated. In summary, conventional expert systems that encode experimental knowledge in production rules are not suitable vehicle for the creation of operator support systems. The principal difficulty is the need for real-time operation. This in turn means that intelligent support systems will have knowledge bases derived from temporally accurate plant models, inference engines that permit revisions in the search process to accommodate revised data, and man-machine interfaces that do not require any human input. Such systems will be heavily instrumented, and the associated knowledge bases will require a hierarchical organization to emulate human approaches to analysis

  20. Intelligent Test Mechanism Design of Worn Big Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of national economy, big gear was widely applied in metallurgy and mine domains. So, big gear plays an important role in above domains. In practical production, big gear abrasion and breach take place often. It affects normal production and causes unnecessary economic loss. A kind of intelligent test method was put forward on worn big gear mainly aimed at the big gear restriction conditions of high production cost, long production cycle and high- intensity artificial repair welding work. The measure equations transformations were made on involute straight gear. Original polar coordinate equations were transformed into rectangular coordinate equations. Big gear abrasion measure principle was introduced. Detection principle diagram was given. Detection route realization method was introduced. OADM12 laser sensor was selected. Detection on big gear abrasion area was realized by detection mechanism. Tested data of unworn gear and worn gear were led in designed calculation program written by Visual Basic language. Big gear abrasion quantity can be obtained. It provides a feasible method for intelligent test and intelligent repair welding on worn big gear.

  1. De Novo Design of Bioactive Small Molecules by Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Daniel; Friedrich, Lukas; Grisoni, Francesca; Schneider, Gisbert

    2018-01-01

    Generative artificial intelligence offers a fresh view on molecular design. We present the first-time prospective application of a deep learning model for designing new druglike compounds with desired activities. For this purpose, we trained a recurrent neural network to capture the constitution of a large set of known bioactive compounds represented as SMILES strings. By transfer learning, this general model was fine-tuned on recognizing retinoid X and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists. We synthesized five top-ranking compounds designed by the generative model. Four of the compounds revealed nanomolar to low-micromolar receptor modulatory activity in cell-based assays. Apparently, the computational model intrinsically captured relevant chemical and biological knowledge without the need for explicit rules. The results of this study advocate generative artificial intelligence for prospective de novo molecular design, and demonstrate the potential of these methods for future medicinal chemistry. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Is intelligent design science, and does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P W Bateman

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The debate between evolution and intelligent design is usually presented by evolutionary biologists as a clash between science and non-science (creationism and religion and therefore as a sterile argument which science wins by default. Countering this is intelligent design (ID and irreducible complexity (IC which posit that the diversity and complexity of life on earth indicates the hand of a designer, although the nature of that designer is not speculated on. In doing so, proponents of� ID and IC bring the argument squarely into the scientific camp and fulfil the requirements of being science, although this is difficult� to define. Here, we discuss the claims of ID and IC to provide an alternative to evolution and propose that science can adequately deal with and refute these claims. At the same time, ID and IC fulfil an important role as foils to �scientism�� � the belief that science is the best way of answering all questions. In the final analysis, however , despite their value in the debate, ID and IC are not found to be robust or reliable enough to replace evolution as the best way of explaining the diversity of life on earth.

  3. Search for design intelligence: A field study on the role of emotional intelligence in architectural design studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Nazidizaji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The design studio is the core of the architecture curriculum. Interpersonal interactions have a key role during the processes of design and critique. The influence of emotional intelligence (EQ on interpersonal communication skills has been widely proven. This study examines the correlation between EQ and architectural design competence. To achieve this, 78 architecture students were selected via a simple random sampling method and tested using an EQ test questionnaire developed by Bradbury and Greaves (2006. The scores of five architectural design studio courses (ADS-1, ADS-2, ADS-3, ADS-4, and ADS-5 were used as indicators of the progress in design of the students. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods were both employed to analyze the research data. The methods included correlation analysis, mean comparison t-test for independent samples, and single sample t-test. Findings showed no significant relationship between EQ and any of the indicators.

  4. On Intelligent Design and Planning Method of Process Route Based on Gun Breech Machining Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongzhi, Zhao; Jian, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The paper states an approach of intelligent design and planning of process route based on gun breech machining process, against several problems, such as complex machining process of gun breech, tedious route design and long period of its traditional unmanageable process route. Based on gun breech machining process, intelligent design and planning system of process route are developed by virtue of DEST and VC++. The system includes two functional modules--process route intelligent design and its planning. The process route intelligent design module, through the analysis of gun breech machining process, summarizes breech process knowledge so as to complete the design of knowledge base and inference engine. And then gun breech process route intelligently output. On the basis of intelligent route design module, the final process route is made, edited and managed in the process route planning module.

  5. Designing and implementation of an intelligent manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Peschl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of XPRESS is to establish a breakthrough for the factory of the future with a new flexible production concept based on the generic idea of “specialized intelligent process units” (“Manufactrons” integrated in cross-sectoral learning networks for a customized production. XPRESS meets the challenge to integrate intelligence and flexibility at the “highest” level of the production control system as well as at the “lowest” level of the singular machine.Design/methodology/approach: Architecture of a manufactronic networked factory is presented, making it possible to generate particular manufactrons for the specific tasks, based on the automatic analysis of its required features.Findings: The manufactronic factory concept meets the challenge to integrate intelligence and flexibility at the “highest” level of the production control system as well as at the “lowest” level of the singular machine. The quality assurance system provided a 100% inline quality monitoring, destructive costs reduced 30%-49%, the ramp-up time for the set-up of production lines decreased up to 50% and the changeover time decreased up to 80%.Research limitations/implications: Specific features of the designed manufactronic architecture, namely the transport manufactrons, have been tested as separate mechanisms which can be merged into the final comprehensive at a later stage.Practical implications: This concept is demonstrated in the automotive and aeronautics industries, but can be easily transferred to nearly all production processes. Using the manufactronic approach, industrial players will be able to anticipate and to respond to rapidly changing consumer needs, producing high-quality products in adequate quantities while reducing costs.Originality/value: Assembly units composed of manufactrons can flexibly perform varying types of complex tasks, whereas today this is limited to a few pre-defined tasks. Additionally, radical

  6. Rationalization of design and construction of buildings for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Shunsaku; Mitsumatsu, Kazuo

    1987-02-01

    This article presents various rationalization methods introduced in the past few years for design and construction of BWR nuclear power plant buildings. When the site for a nuclear power plant has been decided, investigation is made on various aspects of possible earthquakes, based on which anti-earthquake design for the plant site is established. The next step is to examine the displacements and stresses that may occur to various parts of the bulding from a postulated earthquake. This is normally called the earthquake response analysis and consists of calculating the behaviors of the buildings using large computers. A seismic controlled structure system has recently proposed, aiming to reduce the displacements and stresses of the building itself by controlling the flexibility of the installed seismic apparatus against the input of external loads. Lately, high strength concrete and high strength reinforcing steel bars (rebars) are being considered for practical application. If advanced computers and related accessories are utilized to the maximum, it will lead not only to efficiency in the design work but to the possibility of optimized design. For rational construction, a combined scaffolding and temporary support has been devised to reduce the time and volume of required temporary work. What have been developed for rationalization of construction work also include robots for heavy weight rebar fabrication, horizontal reed blind type rebars, portable concrete distributor, all weather environment facilities, and construction materials conveyance system. (Nogami, K.).

  7. Rationalization of design and construction of buildings for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Shunsaku; Mitsumatsu, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    This article presents various rationalization methods introduced in the past few years for design and construction of BWR nuclear power plant buildings. When the site for a nuclear power plant has been decided, investigation is made on various aspects of possible earthquakes, based on which anti-earthquake design for the plant site is established. The next step is to examine the displacements and stresses that may occur to various parts of the bulding from a postulated earthquake. This is normally called the earthquake response analysis and consists of calculating the behaviors of the buildings using large computers. A seismic controlled structure system has recently proposed, aiming to reduce the displacements and stresses of the building itself by controlling the flexibility of the installed seismic apparatus against the input of external loads. Lately, high strength concrete and high strength reinforcing steel bars (rebars) are being considered for practical application. If advanced computers and related accessories are utilized to the maximum, it will lead not only to efficiency in the design work but to the possibility of optimized design. For rational construction, a combined scaffolding and temporary support has been devised to reduce the time and volume of required temporary work. What have been developed for rationalization of construction work also include robots for heavy weight rebar fabrication, horizontal reed blind type rebars, portable concrete distributor, all weather environment facilities, and construction materials conveyance system. (Nogami, K.)

  8. From bricolage to BioBricks™: Synthetic biology and rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic biology is often described as a project that applies rational design methods to the organic world. Although humans have influenced organic lineages in many ways, it is nonetheless reasonable to place synthetic biology towards one end of a continuum between purely 'blind' processes of organic modification at one extreme, and wholly rational, design-led processes at the other. An example from evolutionary electronics illustrates some of the constraints imposed by the rational design methodology itself. These constraints reinforce the limitations of the synthetic biology ideal, limitations that are often freely acknowledged by synthetic biology's own practitioners. The synthetic biology methodology reflects a series of constraints imposed on finite human designers who wish, as far as is practicable, to communicate with each other and to intervene in nature in reasonably targeted and well-understood ways. This is better understood as indicative of an underlying awareness of human limitations, rather than as expressive of an objectionable impulse to mastery over nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using protistan examples to dispel the myths of intelligent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Mark A; Habura, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the teaching of the religiously based philosophy of intelligent design (ID) has been proposed as an alternative to modern evolutionary theory. Advocates of ID are largely motivated by their opposition to naturalistic explanations of biological diversity, in accordance with their goal of challenging the philosophy of scientific materialism. Intelligent design has been embraced by a wide variety of creationists who promote highly questionable claims that purport to show the inadequacy of evolutionary theory, which they consider to be a threat to a theistic worldview. We find that examples from protistan biology are well suited for providing evidence of many key evolutionary concepts, and have often been misrepresented or roundly ignored by ID advocates. These include examples of adaptations and radiations that are said to be statistically impossible, as well as examples of speciation both in the laboratory and as documented in the fossil record. Because many biologists may not be familiar with the richness of the protist evolution dataset or with ID-based criticisms of evolution, we provide examples of current ID arguments and specific protistan counter-examples.

  10. Intelligent buildings vs. bioclimatic design; Edificios inteligentes vs. diseno bioclimatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Gonzalez, Ricardo [Tecnologico de Monterrey (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    Present the form of intelligent buildings designing is the article purpose. Those kinds of edifications take advantage of climatic conditions which allow the users comfort and the efficient electric power use, avoiding the polluting agents. It also shows the four next following stages to design an intelligent building to know: the dry weather and relative dampness schedule variations during a year in the building location; the predominant winds direction, intensity and schedule frequency; the cloudiness, rain, etc and how to use the Givoni diagram to obtain the natural air-conditioning strategies and reach the thermal comfort. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar la forma de disenar edificios Inteligentes, los cuales aprovechan las condiciones climaticas que permiten el confort de los usuarios y el uso eficiente de la energia electrica, evitando asi la emision de agentes contaminantes. Tambien menciona los siguientes cuatro pasos para el diseno de un edificio inteligente: conocer las variaciones horarias de temperatura seca y humedad relativa durante un ano en el lugar donde estara el edificio, saber la direccion, intensidad y frecuencia horaria de los vientos dominantes, tener conocimiento de la nubosidad, lluvia, etc. y utilizar el diagrama de Givoni para obtener las estrategias de climatizacion natural para obtener el confort termico.

  11. Residualization Rates of Near Infrared Dyes for the Rational Design of Molecular Imaging Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, Cornelius; Liao, Jianshan; Atangcho, Lydia; Thurber, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is widely used for tracking antibodies and biomolecules in vivo. Clinical and preclinical applications include intraoperative imaging, tracking therapeutics, and fluorescent labeling as a surrogate for subsequent radiolabeling. Despite their extensive use, one of the fundamental properties of NIR dyes, the residualization rate within cells following internalization, has not been systematically studied. This rate is required for the rational design of probes and proper interpretation of in vivo results. Procedures In this brief report, we measure the cellular residualization rate of eight commonly used dyes encompassing three core structures (cyanine, BODIPY, and oxazine/thiazine/carbopyronin). Results We identify residualizing (half-life > 24 hrs) and non-residualizing dyes (half-life < 24 hrs) in both the far red (~650-680 nm) and near infrared (~740-800 nm) regions. Conclusions This data will allow researchers to independently and rationally select the wavelength and residualizing nature of dyes for molecular imaging agent design. PMID:25869081

  12. Development of rational design technique for frame steel structure combining seismic resistance and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motoki; Morishita, Kunihiro; Shimono, Masaki; Chuman, Yasuharu; Okafuji, Takashi; Monaka, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Anti-seismic designs have been applied to plant support steel frames for years. Today, a rational structure that further improves seismic resistance and ensures economic performance is required in response to an increase of seismic load on the assumption of predicted future massive earthquakes. For satisfying this requirement, a steel frame design method that combines a steel frame weight minimizing method, which enables economic design through simultaneous minimization of multiple steel frame materials, and a seismic response control design technology that improves seismic resistance has been established. Its application in the design of real structures has been promoted. This paper gives an overview of this design technology and presents design examples to which this design technology is applied. (author)

  13. Testing the rationality assumption using a design difference in the TV game show 'Jeopardy'

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren Lindquist, Gabriella; Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper empirically investigates the rationality assumption commonly applied in economic modeling by exploiting a design difference in the game-show Jeopardy between the US and Sweden. In particular we address the assumption of individuals’ capabilities to process complex mathematical problems to find optimal strategies. The vital difference is that US contestants are given explicit information before they act, while Swedish contestants individually need to calculate the same info...

  14. Design of a Discrete Tracking Controller for a Magnetic Levitation System: A Nonlinear Rational Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a discrete-time nonlinear rational approximate model for the unstable magnetic levitation system. Based on this model and as an application of the input-output linearization technique, a discrete-time tracking control design will be derived using the corresponding classical state space representation of the model. A simulation example illustrates the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  15.   A rationally designed tyrosine hydroxylase DNA vaccine induces specific antineuroblastoma immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huebener, Nicole; Fest, Stefan; Strandsby, Anne Bystrup

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination against tumor antigens without induction of autoimmunity remains a major challenge in cancer immunotherapy. Here, we show for the first time effective therapeutic vaccination followed by suppression of established spontaneous neuroblastoma metastases using a tyrosine...... show effective therapeutic vaccination against neuroblastoma with a novel rationally designed TH minigene vaccine without induction of autoimmunity providing an important baseline for future clinical application of this strategy....

  16. Rational Design of Cancer-Targeted Benzoselenadiazole by RGD Peptide Functionalization for Cancer Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liye; Li, Wenying; Huang, Yanyu; Zhou, Yangliang; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-09-01

    A cancer-targeted conjugate of the selenadiazole derivative BSeC (benzo[1,2,5] selenadiazole-5-carboxylic acid) with RGD peptide as targeting molecule and PEI (polyethylenimine) as a linker is rationally designed and synthesized in the present study. The results show that RGD-PEI-BSeC forms nanoparticles in aqueous solution with a core-shell nanostructure and high stability under physiological conditions. This rational design effectively enhances the selective cellular uptake and cellular retention of BSeC in human glioma cells, and increases its selectivity between cancer and normal cells. The nanoparticles enter the cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis via clathrin-mediated and nystatin-dependent lipid raft-mediated pathways. Internalized nanoparticles trigger glioma cell apoptosis by activation of ROS-mediated p53 phosphorylation. Therefore, this study provides a strategy for the rational design of selenium-containing cancer-targeted theranostics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The remarkable cell: Intelligently designed or by evolutionary process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pretorius

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to deal with the challenging theme of the Origin of Life. Science has been arguing the when and how of the beginning of life for centuries. It is a subject which remains perplexing despite all the technological advances made in science. The first part of the article dealt with the idea of a universe and earth divinely created to sustain life. The second part dealt with the premise that the first life forms were the miraculous work of an intelligent designer, which is revealed by the sophisticated and intricate design of these first life forms. The article concluded with an explanation that these life forms are in stark contrast to the idea of a random Darwinian type evolution for life�s origin, frequently referred to as abiogenesis or spontaneous generation.

  18. Intelligent Agents for Design and Synthesis Environments: My Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvig, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This presentation gives a summary of intelligent agents for design synthesis environments. We'll start with the conclusions, and work backwards to justify them. First, an important assumption is that agents (whatever they are) are good for software engineering. This is especially true for software that operates in an uncertain, changing environment. The "real world" of physical artifacts is like that: uncertain in what we can measure, changing in that things are always breaking down, and we must interact with non-software entities. The second point is that software engineering techniques can contribute to good design. There may have been a time when we wanted to build simple artifacts containing little or no software. But modern aircraft and spacecraft are complex, and rely on a great deal of software. So better software engineering leads to better designed artifacts, especially when we are designing a series of related artifacts and can amortize the costs of software development. The third point is that agents are especially useful for design tasks, above and beyond their general usefulness for software engineering, and the usefulness of software engineering to design.

  19. Artificial intelligence and design: Opportunities, research problems and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarel, Saul

    1990-01-01

    The issues of industrial productivity and economic competitiveness are of major significance in the U.S. at present. By advancing the science of design, and by creating a broad computer-based methodology for automating the design of artifacts and of industrial processes, we can attain dramatic improvements in productivity. It is our thesis that developments in computer science, especially in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and in related areas of advanced computing, provide us with a unique opportunity to push beyond the present level of computer aided automation technology and to attain substantial advances in the understanding and mechanization of design processes. To attain these goals, we need to build on top of the present state of AI, and to accelerate research and development in areas that are especially relevant to design problems of realistic complexity. We propose an approach to the special challenges in this area, which combines 'core work' in AI with the development of systems for handling significant design tasks. We discuss the general nature of design problems, the scientific issues involved in studying them with the help of AI approaches, and the methodological/technical issues that one must face in developing AI systems for handling advanced design tasks. Looking at basic work in AI from the perspective of design automation, we identify a number of research problems that need special attention. These include finding solution methods for handling multiple interacting goals, formation problems, problem decompositions, and redesign problems; choosing representations for design problems with emphasis on the concept of a design record; and developing approaches for the acquisition and structuring of domain knowledge with emphasis on finding useful approximations to domain theories. Progress in handling these research problems will have major impact both on our understanding of design processes and their automation, and also on several fundamental questions

  20. A Research Review on the Key Technologies of Intelligent Design for Customized Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyou Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of technologies such as big data and cyber-physical systems (CPSs has increased the demand for product design. Product digital design involves completing the product design process using advanced digital technologies such as geometry modeling, kinematic and dynamic simulation, multi-disciplinary coupling, virtual assembly, virtual reality (VR, multi-objective optimization (MOO, and human-computer interaction. The key technologies of intelligent design for customized products include: a description and analysis of customer requirements (CRs, product family design (PFD for the customer base, configuration and modular design for customized products, variant design for customized products, and a knowledge push for product intelligent design. The development trends in intelligent design for customized products include big-data-driven intelligent design technology for customized products and customized design tools and applications. The proposed method is verified by the design of precision computer numerical control (CNC machine tools.

  1. Chemical engineering in the electronics industry: progress towards the rational design of organic semiconductor heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Clancy, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    We review the current status of heterojunction design for combinations of organic semiconductor materials, given its central role in affecting the device performance for electronic devices and solar cell applications. We provide an emphasis on recent progress towards the rational design of heterojunctions that may lead to higher performance of charge separation and mobility. We also play particular attention to the role played by computational approaches and its potential to help define the best choice of materials for solar cell development in the future. We report the current status of the field with respect to such goals. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Chemical engineering in the electronics industry: progress towards the rational design of organic semiconductor heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Clancy, Paulette

    2012-05-01

    We review the current status of heterojunction design for combinations of organic semiconductor materials, given its central role in affecting the device performance for electronic devices and solar cell applications. We provide an emphasis on recent progress towards the rational design of heterojunctions that may lead to higher performance of charge separation and mobility. We also play particular attention to the role played by computational approaches and its potential to help define the best choice of materials for solar cell development in the future. We report the current status of the field with respect to such goals. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Rational design of new materials using recombinant structural proteins: Current state and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Tara D; Huson, Mickey G; Rapson, Trevor D

    2018-01-01

    Sequence-definable polymers are seen as a prerequisite for design of future materials, with many polymer scientists regarding such polymers as the holy grail of polymer science. Recombinant proteins are sequence-defined polymers. Proteins are dictated by DNA templates and therefore the sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined, and molecular biology provides tools that allow redesign of the DNA as required. Despite this advantage, proteins are underrepresented in materials science. In this publication we investigate the advantages and limitations of using proteins as templates for rational design of new materials. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  5. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  6. An intelligent stochastic optimization routine for nuclear fuel cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    A simulated annealing (Metropolis algorithm) optimization routine named AMETROP, which has been developed for use on realistic nuclear fuel cycle problems, is introduced. Each stage of the algorithm is described and the means by which it overcomes or avoids the difficulties posed to conventional optimization routines by such problems are explained. Special attention is given to innovations that enhance AMETROP's performance both through artificial intelligence features, in which the routine uses the accumulation of data to influence its future actions, and through a family of simple performance aids, which allow the designer to use his heuristic knowledge to guide the routine's essentially random search. Using examples from a typical fuel cycle optimization problem, the performance of the stochastic Metropolis algorithm is compared to that of the only suitable deterministic routine in a standard software library, showing AMETROP to have many advantages

  7. Cofactor specificity switch in Shikimate dehydrogenase by rational design and consensus engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guevara, Fernando; Bravo, Iris; Martínez-Anaya, Claudia; Segovia, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    Consensus engineering has been used to design more stable variants using the most frequent amino acid at each site of a multiple sequence alignment; sometimes consensus engineering modifies function, but efforts have mainly been focused on studying stability. Here we constructed a consensus Rossmann domain for the Shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme; separately we decided to switch the cofactor specificity through rational design in the Escherichia coli Shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme and then analyzed the effect of consensus mutations on top of our design. We found that consensus mutations closest to the 2' adenine moiety increased the activity in our design. Consensus engineering has been shown to result in more stable proteins and our findings suggest it could also be used as a complementary tool for increasing or modifying enzyme activity during design. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Artificial intelligence applications to design validation and sneak function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    An objective of the US space reactor program is to design systems with high reliability and safety of control over long operating lifetimes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a participant in the National Man-Machine Integration (MMI) program for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). A purpose of this program is to promote the development of concepts and technologies that enhance the operational safety and reliability of fast-breeder reactors. Much of the work is directly applicable to the space reactor program. This paper reports on one of the MMI projects being developed by ANL. The project reported pertains to an automated system that demonstrates the use of artificial intelligence (AI) for design validation (DA) and sneak function analysis (SFA). The AI system models the design specification and the physical design of the cooling process assigned to the Argon Cooling System (ACS) at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The models are developed using heuristic knowledge and natural laws. 13 refs

  9. Multi-Step Usage of in Vivo Models During Rational Drug Design and Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. Williams

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a systematic development method for rational drug design while reviewing paradigms in industry, emerging techniques and technologies in the field. Although the process of drug development today has been accelerated by emergence of computational methodologies, it is a herculean challenge requiring exorbitant resources; and often fails to yield clinically viable results. The current paradigm of target based drug design is often misguided and tends to yield compounds that have poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, toxicology (ADMET properties. Therefore, an in vivo organism based approach allowing for a multidisciplinary inquiry into potent and selective molecules is an excellent place to begin rational drug design. We will review how organisms like the zebrafish and Caenorhabditis elegans can not only be starting points, but can be used at various steps of the drug development process from target identification to pre-clinical trial models. This systems biology based approach paired with the power of computational biology; genetics and developmental biology provide a methodological framework to avoid the pitfalls of traditional target based drug design.

  10. Coupling artificial intelligence and numerical computation for engineering design (Invited paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of combining artificial intelligence (AI) systems and numerical computation methods for engineering designs is considered. Attention is given to three possible areas of application involving fan design, controlled vortex design of turbine stage blade angles, and preliminary design of turbine cascade profiles. Among the AI techniques discussed are: knowledge-based systems; intelligent search; and pattern recognition systems. The potential cost and performance advantages of an AI-based design-generation system are discussed in detail.

  11. Some considerations about the theory of intelligent design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN E CARREÑO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called theory of intelligent design (ID has gained a growing reputation in the Anglo-Saxon culture, becoming a subject of public debate. The approaches that constitute the core of this proposal, however, have been poorly characterized and systematized. The three most significant authors of ID are certainly Michael Behe, William Dembski and Stephen Meyer. Beyond the differences that can be distinguished in the work of each of them, the central fact in their arguments is the complexity of living organisms, which according to these authors, escapes any kind of natural explanation. In effect, according to the authors of ID, the irreducible complexity that can be detected in the natural world would allow to infer design in a scientifically valid way, even though many of them prefer to remain silent regarding the identity and attributes of the designer. We think that under this proposal, remains a deep epistemological confusion, since its very structure combines methodologies that are beyond the scope of historical and natural evolutionary theories. We also reject the claim that ID is a legitimate scientific theory, because it does not exhibit the classical characteristics that a scientific kind of knowledge must have.

  12. Crowdteaching: Supporting Teaching as Designing in Collective Intelligence Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Recker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread availability of high-quality Web-based content offers new potential for supporting teachers as designers of curricula and classroom activities. When coupled with a participatory Web culture and infrastructure, teachers can share their creations as well as leverage from the best that their peers have to offer to support a collective intelligence or crowdsourcing community, which we dub crowdteaching. We applied a collective intelligence framework to characterize crowdteaching in the context of a Web-based tool for teachers called the Instructional Architect (IA. The IA enables teachers to find, create, and share instructional activities (called IA projects for their students using online learning resources. These IA projects can further be viewed, copied, or adapted by other IA users. This study examines the usage activities of two samples of teachers, and also analyzes the characteristics of a subset of their IA projects. Analyses of teacher activities suggest that they are engaging in crowdteaching processes. Teachers, on average, chose to share over half of their IA projects, and copied some directly from other IA projects. Thus, these teachers can be seen as both contributors to and consumers of crowdteaching processes. In addition, IA users preferred to view IA projects rather than to completely copy them. Finally, correlational results based on an analysis of the characteristics of IA projects suggest that several easily computed metrics (number of views, number of copies, and number of words in IA projects can act as an indirect proxy of instructionally relevant indicators of the content of IA projects.

  13. Crystals of Human Serum Albumin for Use in Genetic Engineering and Rational Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention pertains to crystals of serum albumin and processes for growing them. The purpose of the invention is to provide crystals of serum albumin which can be studied to determine binding sites for drugs. Form 2 crystals grow in the monoclinic space P2(sub 1), and possesses the following unit cell constraints: a = 58.9 +/- 7, b = 88.3 +/- 7, c = 60.7 +/- 7, Beta = 101.0 +/- 2 degrees. One advantage of the invention is that it will allow rational drug design

  14. Mapping an Emergent Field of "Computational Education Policy": Policy Rationalities, Prediction and Data in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary education policy involves the integration of novel forms of data and the creation of new data platforms, in addition to the infusion of business principles into school governance networks, and intensification of socio-technical relations. In this paper, we examine how "computational rationality" may be understood as…

  15. Rationalization and Design of the Complementarity Determining Region Sequences in an Antibody-Antigen Recognition Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Chien; Lee, Yu-Ching; Chen, Jun-Bo; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chen, Ching-Tai; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Yang, Ei-Wen; Hsu, Po-Chiang; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Hung-Ju; Chang, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Huang, Kai-Fa; Ma, Alex Che; Yang, An-Suei

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are critical determinants in biological systems. Engineered proteins binding to specific areas on protein surfaces could lead to therapeutics or diagnostics for treating diseases in humans. But designing epitope-specific protein-protein interactions with computational atomistic interaction free energy remains a difficult challenge. Here we show that, with the antibody-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) interaction as a model system, the experimentally observed amino acid preferences in the antibody-antigen interface can be rationalized with 3-dimensional distributions of interacting atoms derived from the database of protein structures. Machine learning models established on the rationalization can be generalized to design amino acid preferences in antibody-antigen interfaces, for which the experimental validations are tractable with current high throughput synthetic antibody display technologies. Leave-one-out cross validation on the benchmark system yielded the accuracy, precision, recall (sensitivity) and specificity of the overall binary predictions to be 0.69, 0.45, 0.63, and 0.71 respectively, and the overall Matthews correlation coefficient of the 20 amino acid types in the 24 interface CDR positions was 0.312. The structure-based computational antibody design methodology was further tested with other antibodies binding to VEGF. The results indicate that the methodology could provide alternatives to the current antibody technologies based on animal immune systems in engineering therapeutic and diagnostic antibodies against predetermined antigen epitopes. PMID:22457753

  16. Rational design of hierarchical ZnO@Carbon nanoflower for high performance lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    liu, Huichao; Shi, Ludi; Li, Dongzhi; Yu, Jiali; Zhang, Han-Ming; Ullah, Shahid; Yang, Bo; Li, Cuihua; Zhu, Caizhen; Xu, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The rational structure design and strong interfacial bonding are crucially desired for high performance zinc oxide (ZnO)/carbon composite electrodes. In this context, micro-nano secondary structure design and strong dopamine coating strategies are adopted for the fabrication of flower-like ZnO/carbon (ZnO@C nanoflowers) composite electrodes. The results show the ZnO@C nanoflowers (2-6 μm) are assembled by hierarchical ZnO nanosheets (∼27 nm) and continuous carbon framework. The micro-nano secondary architecture can facilitate the penetration of electrolyte, shorten lithium ions diffusion length, and hinder the aggregation of the nanosheets. Moreover, the strong chemical interaction between ZnO and coating carbon layer via C-Zn bond improves structure stability as well as the electronic conductivity. As a synergistic result, when evaluated as lithium ion batteries (LIBs) anode, the ZnO@C nanoflower electrodes show high reversible capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 after 80 cycles. As well as good long-cycling stability (638 and 420 mA h g-1 at 1 and 5 A g-1 after 500 cycles, respectively) and excellent rate capability. Therefore, this rational design of ZnO@C nanoflowers electrode is a promising anode for high-performance LIBs.

  17. Design of data sampler in intelligent physical start-up system for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yinli; Ling Qiu

    2007-01-01

    It introduces the design of data sampler in intelligent physical start-up system for nuclear reactor. The hardware frame taking STμPSD3234A as the core and the firmware design based on USB interface are discussed. (authors)

  18. Rational Design of a Green-Light-Mediated Unimolecular Platform for Fast Switchable Acidic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunyun; Zou, Qi; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Linjun; Zhu, Liangliang

    2018-02-01

    A controllable sensing ability strongly connects to complex and precise events in diagnosis and treatment. However, imposing visible light into the molecular-scale mediation of sensing processes is restricted by the lack of structural relevance. To address this critical challenge, we present the rational design, synthesis, and in vitro studies of a novel cyanostyryl-modified azulene system for green-light-mediated fast switchable acidic sensing. The advantageous features of the design include a highly efficient green-light-driven Z/E-isomerization (a quantum yield up to 61.3%) for fast erasing chromatic and luminescent expressions and a superior compatibility with control of ratiometric protonation. Significantly, these merits of the design enable the development of a microfluidic system to perform a green-light-mediated reusable sensing function toward a gastric acid analyte in a miniaturized platform. The results may provide new insights for building future integrated green materials.

  19. Design optimum frac jobs using virtual intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab; Popa, Andrei; Ameri, Sam

    2000-10-01

    Designing optimal frac jobs is a complex and time-consuming process. It usually involves the use of a two- or three-dimensional computer model. For the computer models to perform as intended, a wealth of input data is required. The input data includes wellbore configuration and reservoir characteristics such as porosity, permeability, stress and thickness profiles of the pay layers as well as the overburden layers. Among other essential information required for the design process is fracturing fluid type and volume, proppant type and volume, injection rate, proppant concentration and frac job schedule. Some of the parameters such as fluid and proppant types have discrete possible choices. Other parameters such as fluid and proppant volume, on the other hand, assume values from within a range of minimum and maximum values. A potential frac design for a particular pay zone is a combination of all of these parameters. Finding the optimum combination is not a trivial process. It usually requires an experienced engineer and a considerable amount of time to tune the parameters in order to achieve desirable outcome. This paper introduces a new methodology that integrates two virtual intelligence techniques, namely, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms to automate and simplify the optimum frac job design process. This methodology requires little input from the engineer beyond the reservoir characterizations and wellbore configuration. The software tool that has been developed based on this methodology uses the reservoir characteristics and an optimization criteria indicated by the engineer, for example a certain propped frac length, and provides the detail of the optimum frac design that will result in the specified criteria. An ensemble of neural networks is trained to mimic the two- or three-dimensional frac simulator. Once successfully trained, these networks are capable of providing instantaneous results in response to any set of input parameters. These

  20. Design optimum frac jobs using virtual intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab Mohaghegh; Andrei Popa; Sam Ameri [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

    2000-10-01

    Designing optimal frac jobs is a complex and time-consuming process. It usually involves the use of a two- or three-dimensional computer model. For the computer models to perform as intended, a wealth of input data is required. The input data includes wellbore configuration and reservoir characteristics such as porosity, permeability, stress and thickness profiles of the pay layers as well as the overburden layers. Among other essential information required for the design process is fracturing fluid type and volume, proppant type and volume, injection rate, proppant concentration and frac job schedule. Some of the parameters such as fluid and proppant types have discrete possible choices. Other parameters such as fluid and proppant volume, on the other hand, assume values from within a range of minimum and maximum values. A potential frac design for a particular pay zone is a combination of all of these parameters. Finding the optimum combination is not a trivial process. It usually requires an experienced engineer and a considerable amount of time to tune the parameters in order to achieve desirable outcome. This paper introduces a new methodology that integrates two virtual intelligence techniques, namely, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms to automate and simplify the optimum frac job design process. This methodology requires little input from the engineer beyond the reservoir characterizations and wellbore configuration. The software tool that has been developed based on this methodology uses the reservoir characteristics and an optimization criteria indicated by the engineer, for example a certain propped frac length, and provides the detail of the optimum frac design that will result in the specified criteria. An ensemble of neural networks is trained to mimic the two- or three-dimensional frac simulator. Once successfully trained, these networks are capable of providing instantaneous results in response to any set of input parameters. These

  1. A methodological study on organizing an intelligent CAD/CAE system for conceptual design of advanced nuclear reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, Akio; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    1993-01-01

    In order to shorten the time span of design work and enhance both consistency and rationality of design products, the authors are now investigating an intelligent CAD/CAE system to support cooperative works by many specialists by adopting object-oriented approach. In this paper, the cognitive aspect of design activities of specialists in the conceptual design phase of nuclear reactors is discussed. The activities of the specialists in their design analysis process are highly knowledge-based and goal-oriented. The characteristics of the activities are 1) hierarchization of design goal into sub-goals, 2) prioritization of design sub-goals and step-by-step practise of design analysis, and 3) abstraction of real-world space structure into more simplified space structure to cope with theoretical treatment. Based on these consideration, a conceptual design model of specialists' activities composed of attribute modeling and design expertise knowledge base is proposed. The 'principle of functional independence' proposed by Sue is applied to bridge between the attribute modeling and design expertise knowledge base. The intelligent CAD/CAE system is now under development by focusing on the conceptual design of a space power reactor core utilizing thermo-ionic fuel elements as direct thermo-to-electric conversion. A program to calculate thermo-hydraulics of reactor core and thermo-ionic power generation has been developed. An interface has been also developed in order to communicate with the specialists at JAERI by E-mail concerning the interactive calculation between our calculation and the neutronics calculation of reactor core. (orig.)

  2. A methodological study on organizing an intelligent CAD/CAE system for conceptual design of advanced nuclear reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofuku, Akio (Inst. of Atomic Energy, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Yoshikawa, Hidekazu (Inst. of Atomic Energy, Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    In order to shorten the time span of design work and enhance both consistency and rationality of design products, the authors are now investigating an intelligent CAD/CAE system to support cooperative works by many specialists by adopting object-oriented approach. In this paper, the cognitive aspect of design activities of specialists in the conceptual design phase of nuclear reactors is discussed. The activities of the specialists in their design analysis process are highly knowledge-based and goal-oriented. The characteristics of the activities are 1) hierarchization of design goal into sub-goals, 2) prioritization of design sub-goals and step-by-step practise of design analysis, and 3) abstraction of real-world space structure into more simplified space structure to cope with theoretical treatment. Based on these consideration, a conceptual design model of specialists' activities composed of attribute modeling and design expertise knowledge base is proposed. The 'principle of functional independence' proposed by Sue is applied to bridge between the attribute modeling and design expertise knowledge base. The intelligent CAD/CAE system is now under development by focusing on the conceptual design of a space power reactor core utilizing thermo-ionic fuel elements as direct thermo-to-electric conversion. A program to calculate thermo-hydraulics of reactor core and thermo-ionic power generation has been developed. An interface has been also developed in order to communicate with the specialists at JAERI by E-mail concerning the interactive calculation between our calculation and the neutronics calculation of reactor core. (orig.)

  3. Artificial intelligence in conceptual design of intelligent manufacturing systems: A state of the art review

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Milica M.; Miljković, Zoran Đ.; Babić, Bojan R.

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent manufacturing systems (IMS), as the highest class of flexible manufacturing systems, are able to adapt to market changes applying methods of artificial intelligence. This paper presents a detailed review of the following IMS functions: (i) process planning optimization, (ii) scheduling optimization, (iii) integrated process planning and scheduling, and (iv) mobile robot scheduling for internal material transport tasks. The research presented in this paper shows that improved perfo...

  4. Intelligent design af fokusgrupper - om metodisk design af fokusgrupper og menneskets forskellige intelligenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Heiselberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Når man arbejder professionelt med at gennemføre kvalitative mini- og fokusgruppeanalyser, kan det ikke undgås, at man som moderator indimellem tænker: Hvorfor deltager hun ikke? Hvad kan jeg gøre for at inkludere hende i diskussionen? Ofte skyldes nogle deltageres manglende engagement, at mini- eller fokusgruppens metodiske design favoriserer de deltagere, som har en fremtrædende verbalsproglig intelligens, og samtidig ekskluderes de, der har andre fremtrædende intelligenser, fra at yde det maksimale. En sådan situation er meget uheldig og kan i værste fald give en undersøgelse bias. Derfor har vi i DR Medieforskning arbejdet med en pragmatisk tilgang til problemet, hvor vi har afprøvet et metodisk design, som inkluderer kvalitative interviewteknikker og procesværktøjer, som appellerer til samtlige intelligenser. Som et resultat af en målrettet indsats for at inkludere flere intelligenser i det metodiske design, oplever vi, at deltagerne har mere lyst til at engagere sig og gør det med større selvsikkerhed. Desuden oplever vi i mindre grad fænomenet “cognitive tuning” , og derfor kan vi arbejde med flere og bedre data i analyse- og fortolkningsfasen. Intelligent design of focus groups - article about methodological design of focus groups and the different intelligences When you work professionally with the conducting and moderating of qualitative mini- and focus groups, you can't avoid sometimes thinking: Why isn’t she participating? What can I do to include her in the discussion? A participant's apparent lack of enthusiasm is often caused by the methodological design of the focus group giving preference to participants who have an explicit verbal intelligence, and as a consequence excludes participants with other explicit intelligences from contributing. A situation like the one described above is very undesirable and in a worst-case scenario it can cause a study to be biased. In order to try to solve this problem DR

  5. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  6. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SUN VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  7. Residualization Rates of Near-Infrared Dyes for the Rational Design of Molecular Imaging Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, Cornelius; Liao, Jianshan; Atangcho, Lydia; Thurber, Greg M

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is widely used for tracking antibodies and biomolecules in vivo. Clinical and preclinical applications include intraoperative imaging, tracking therapeutics, and fluorescent labeling as a surrogate for subsequent radiolabeling. Despite their extensive use, one of the fundamental properties of NIR dyes, the residualization rate within cells following internalization, has not been systematically studied. This rate is required for the rational design of probes and proper interpretation of in vivo results. In this brief report, we measure the cellular residualization rate of eight commonly used dyes encompassing three core structures (cyanine, boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY), and oxazine/thiazine/carbopyronin). We identify residualizing (half-life >24 h) and non-residualizing (half-life <24 h) dyes in both the far-red (~650-680 nm) and near-infrared (~740-800 nm) regions. This data will allow researchers to independently and rationally select the wavelength and residualizing nature of dyes for molecular imaging agent design.

  8. Rational modular design of metabolic network for efficient production of plant polyphenol pinosylvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Zhang, Xia; Zhu, Yingjie; Tan, Qinyu; He, Jiacheng; Dong, Mingsheng

    2017-05-03

    Efficient biosynthesis of the plant polyphenol pinosylvin, which has numerous applications in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, is necessary to make biological production economically viable. To this end, an efficient Escherichia coli platform for pinosylvin production was developed via a rational modular design approach. Initially, different candidate pathway enzymes were screened to construct de novo pinosylvin pathway directly from D-glucose. A comparative analysis of pathway intermediate pools identified that this initial construct led to the intermediate cinnamic acid accumulation. The pinosylvin synthetic pathway was then divided into two new modules separated at cinnamic acid. Combinatorial optimization of transcriptional and translational levels of these two modules resulted in a 16-fold increase in pinosylvin titer. To further improve the concentration of the limiting precursor malonyl-CoA, the malonyl-CoA synthesis module based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference was assembled and optimized with other two modules. The final pinosylvin titer was improved to 281 mg/L, which was the highest pinosylvin titer even directly from D-glucose without any additional precursor supplementation. The rational modular design approach described here could bolster our capabilities in synthetic biology for value-added chemical production.

  9. Improving specific activity and thermostability of Escherichia coli phytase by structure-based rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Hui; Chen, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lin, Cheng-Yen; Lai, Hui-Lin; Huang, Ting-Yung; Liu, Je-Ruei; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2014-04-10

    Escherichia coli phytase (EcAppA) which hydrolyzes phytate has been widely applied in the feed industry, but the need to improve the enzyme activity and thermostability remains. Here, we conduct rational design with two strategies to enhance the EcAppA performance. First, residues near the substrate binding pocket of EcAppA were modified according to the consensus sequence of two highly active Citrobacter phytases. One out of the eleven mutants, V89T, exhibited 17.5% increase in catalytic activity, which might be a result of stabilized protein folding. Second, the EcAppA glycosylation pattern was modified in accordance with the Citrobacter phytases. An N-glycosylation motif near the substrate binding site was disrupted to remove spatial hindrance for phytate entry and product departure. The de-glycosylated mutants showed 9.6% increase in specific activity. On the other hand, the EcAppA mutants that adopt N-glycosylation motifs from CbAppA showed improved thermostability that three mutants carrying single N-glycosylation motif exhibited 5.6-9.5% residual activity after treatment at 80°C (1.8% for wild type). Furthermore, the mutant carrying all three glycosylation motifs exhibited 27% residual activity. In conclusion, a successful rational design was performed to obtain several useful EcAppA mutants with better properties for further applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous inhibition of aberrant cancer kinome using rationally designed polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Parwathy; Gupta, Neha; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Keechilat, Pavithran; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2013-11-01

    Simultaneous inhibition of deregulated cancer kinome using rationally designed nanomedicine is an advanced therapeutic approach. Herein, we have developed a polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine to inhibit critically aberrant pro-survival kinases (mTOR, MAPK and STAT5) in primitive (CD34(+)/CD38(-)) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cells. The nanomedicine consists of poly-lactide-co-glycolide core (~250 nm) loaded with mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, and albumin shell (~25 nm thick) loaded with MAPK/STAT5 inhibitor, sorafenib and the whole construct was surface conjugated with monoclonal antibody against CD33 receptor overexpressed in AML. Electron microscopy confirmed formation of core-shell nanostructure (~290 nm) and flow cytometry and confocal studies showed enhanced cellular uptake of targeted nanomedicine. Simultaneous inhibition of critical kinases causing synergistic lethality against leukemic cells, without affecting healthy blood cells, was demonstrated using immunoblotting, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays. This cell receptor plus multi-kinase targeted core-shell nanomedicine was found better specific and tolerable compared to current clinical regime of cytarabine and daunorubicin. These authors demonstrate simultaneous inhibition of critical kinases causing synergistic lethality against leukemic cells, without affecting healthy blood cells by using rationally designed polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine, provoding an advanced method to eliminate cancer cells, with the hope of future therapeutic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rational design and application of responsive α-helical peptide hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Eleanor F.; Abelardo, Edgardo S.; Adams, Dave J.; Birchall, Martin A.; Corrigan, Adam; Donald, Athene M.; Kirkland, Mark; Serpell, Louise C.; Butler, Michael F.; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2009-01-01

    Biocompatible hydrogels have a wide variety of potential applications in biotechnology and medicine, such as the controlled delivery and release of cells, cosmetics and drugs; and as supports for cell growth and tissue engineering1. Rational peptide design and engineering are emerging as promising new routes to such functional biomaterials2-4. Here we present the first examples of rationally designed and fully characterized self-assembling hydrogels based on standard linear peptides with purely α-helical structures, which we call hydrogelating self-assembling fibres (hSAFs). These form spanning networks of α-helical fibrils that interact to give self-supporting physical hydrogels of >99% water content. The peptide sequences can be engineered to alter the underlying mechanism of gelation and, consequently, the hydrogel properties. Interestingly, for example, those with hydrogen-bonded networks melt upon heating, whereas those formed via hydrophobic interactions strengthen when warmed. The hSAFs are dual-peptide systems that only gel on mixing, which gives tight control over assembly5. These properties raise possibilities for using the hSAFs as substrates in cell culture. We have tested this in comparison with the widely used Matrigel substrate, and demonstrate that, like Matrigel, hSAFs support both growth and differentiation of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells for sustained periods in culture. PMID:19543314

  12. Design and Delivery of Technical Module for the Business Intelligence Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2013-01-01

    IS programs are increasingly being called on to offer courses in business intelligence. This article presents the pedagogical design and the delivery method of a practicable technical module for a non-technically oriented Business Intelligence course. It is a tutorial for the instructors who wish to incorporate a practical technical element in…

  13. Intelligent Design Creationism: The New Kid on the Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eugenie C.

    2000-03-01

    Traditionally, the antievolution movement has been characterized by biblical literalists who hold that the universe (including living things) was created in its present form and has not appreciably changed since that creation event, which in the most familiar version, "young earth" creationism (YEC), occurred about 10,000 years ago. The YECs primarily are associated with not-for-profit organizations such as the Institute for Creation Research and Answers in Genesis. Now there is a "new kid on the [antievolutionist] block": Intelligent Design Creationism (IDC). IDC updates William Paley's 1801 "Argument from Design" that structural complexity requires an omniscient designer, with examples from biochemistry and cell biology. Unlike YEC, IDC's most prominent practitioners are academics associated with secular universities, such as lawyer Phillip Johnson of UC- Berkeley, and biochemist Michael Behe of Lehigh University. Like YECs, IDCs stress alleged "weaknesses" in evolution more than positive evidence for their position. IDCs avoid the Big Bang, the age of the Earth, the speed of light, and most other cosmological issues, but are very concerned with "disproving" biological evolution, the inference that living things shared common ancestry. They also argue that evolution is inherently anti-religious. Perhaps most disturbingly, they propose that supernatural explanations be allowed into science. Although the most prominent IDCs are based at secular universities, they produce little IDC scholarship. Refereed scholarly articles promoting IDC have been lacking, though books and articles for the general public and newspaper opinion/editorial pieces, appear in great quantity. IDC books are being used in philosophy of science, science studies, and other non-science courses where students may be misled into thinking that evolution is scientifically a "theory in crisis."

  14. Rational design of competitive electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in hydrogen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbov, Sergey; Alcántara Ortigoza, Marisol

    2012-02-01

    The large-scale application of one of the most promising clean and renewable sources of energy, hydrogen fuel cells, still awaits efficient and cost-effective electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) occurring on the cathode. We demonstrate that truly rational design renders electrocatalysts possessing both qualities. By unifying the knowledge on surface morphology, composition, electronic structure and reactivity, we solve that sandwich-like structures are an excellent choice for optimization. Their constituting species couple synergistically yielding reaction-environment stability, cost-effectiveness and tunable reactivity. This cooperative-action concept enabled us to predict two advantageous ORR electrocatalysts. Density functional theory calculations of the reaction free-energy diagrams confirm that these materials are more active toward ORR than the so far best Pt-based catalysts. Our designing concept advances also a general approach for engineering materials in heterogeneous catalysis.

  15. Rational design of highly potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins: Implication for developing antiviral therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ling; Gao, George F.; Tien Po

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant protein containing one heptad-repeat 1 (HR1) segment and one HR2 segment of the HIV-1 gp41 (HR1-HR2) has been shown to fold into thermally stable six-helix bundle, representing the fusogenic core of gp41. In this study, we have used the fusogenic core as a scaffold to design HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins by linking another HR1 to the C terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR121) or additional HR2 to the N terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR212). Both recombinant proteins could be abundantly and solubly expressed and easily purified, exhibiting high stability and potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 fusion with IC 50 values of 16.2 ± 2.8 and 2.8 ± 0.63 nM, respectively. These suggest that these rationally designed proteins can be further developed as novel anti-HIV-1 therapeutics

  16. Rational design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of 2-azanorbornane-3-exo,5-endo-dicarboxylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Liljefors, Tommy; Greenwood, Jeremy R

    2003-01-01

    conformationally restricted (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) analogue intended as a mimic of the folded Glu conformation. The synthesis of 1 was completed in its racemic form in eight steps from commercially available starting materials. As a key step, the first facially selective hydroboration of a 5-methylidene[2......The design and synthesis of conformationally restricted analogues of alpha-amino acids is an often used strategy in medicinal chemistry research. Here we present the rational design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of 2-azanorbornane-3-exo,5-endo-dicarboxylic acid (1), a novel...... studies on native 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) (IC(50) > 300 microM, [(3)H]AMPA) or kainic acid (IC(50) > 160 microM, [(3)H]kainic acid) receptors nor in binding studies on the cloned iGluR5,6 subtypes (IC(50) > 300 microM, [(3)H]kainic acid)....

  17. Rational Design and Synthesis of Efficient Sunscreens To Boost the Solar Protection Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losantos, Raúl; Funes-Ardoiz, Ignacio; Aguilera, José; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique; García-Iriepa, Cristina; Campos, Pedro J; Sampedro, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in the last decades, but most of the commercial formulations used as sunscreens are designed to protect only against solar erythema. Many of the active components present in sunscreens show critical weaknesses, such as low stability and toxicity. Thus, the development of more efficient components is an urgent health necessity and an attractive industrial target. We have rationally designed core moieties with increased photoprotective capacities and a new energy dissipation mechanism. Using these scaffolds, we have synthesized a series of compounds with tunable properties suitable for their use in sunscreens, and enhanced properties in terms of stability, light energy dissipation, and toxicity. Moreover, some representative compounds were included in final sunscreen formulations and a relevant solar protection factor boost was measured. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Rational In Silico Design of an Organic Semiconductor with Improved Electron Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Pascal; Gómez, Verónica; Sprau, Christian; Meded, Velimir; Strunk, Timo; Jenne, Michael; Magri, Andrea; Symalla, Franz; Colsmann, Alexander; Ruben, Mario; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Organic semiconductors find a wide range of applications, such as in organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, and organic field effect transistors. One of their most striking disadvantages in comparison to crystalline inorganic semiconductors is their low charge-carrier mobility, which manifests itself in major device constraints such as limited photoactive layer thicknesses. Trial-and-error attempts to increase charge-carrier mobility are impeded by the complex interplay of the molecular and electronic structure of the material with its morphology. Here, the viability of a multiscale simulation approach to rationally design materials with improved electron mobility is demonstrated. Starting from one of the most widely used electron conducting materials (Alq 3 ), novel organic semiconductors with tailored electronic properties are designed for which an improvement of the electron mobility by three orders of magnitude is predicted and experimentally confirmed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Rational design of capillary-driven flows for paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, Emanuel; Urteaga, Raúl; Berli, Claudio L A

    2015-05-21

    The design of paper-based assays that integrate passive pumping requires a precise programming of the fluid transport, which has to be encoded in the geometrical shape of the substrate. This requirement becomes critical in multiple-step processes, where fluid handling must be accurate and reproducible for each operation. The present work theoretically investigates the capillary imbibition in paper-like substrates to better understand fluid transport in terms of the macroscopic geometry of the flow domain. A fluid dynamic model was derived for homogeneous porous substrates with arbitrary cross-sectional shapes, which allows one to determine the cross-sectional profile required for a prescribed fluid velocity or mass transport rate. An extension of the model to slit microchannels is also demonstrated. Calculations were validated by experiments with prototypes fabricated in our lab. The proposed method constitutes a valuable tool for the rational design of paper-based assays.

  20. Using artificial intelligence methods to design new conducting polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Giro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the possibility of creating new conducting polymers exploring the concept of copolymerization (different structural monomeric units has attracted much attention from experimental and theoretical points of view. Due to the rich carbon reactivity an almost infinite number of new structures is possible and the procedure of trial and error has been the rule. In this work we have used a methodology able of generating new structures with pre-specified properties. It combines the use of negative factor counting (NFC technique with artificial intelligence methods (genetic algorithms - GAs. We present the results for a case study for poly(phenylenesulfide phenyleneamine (PPSA, a copolymer formed by combination of homopolymers: polyaniline (PANI and polyphenylenesulfide (PPS. The methodology was successfully applied to the problem of obtaining binary up to quinternary disordered polymeric alloys with a pre-specific gap value or exhibiting metallic properties. It is completely general and can be in principle adapted to the design of new classes of materials with pre-specified properties.

  1. Molecular and macro-scale analysis of enzyme-crosslinked silk hydrogels for rational biomaterial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Meghan; Coburn, Jeannine M; Partlow, Benjamin P; Mu, Xuan; Kaplan, David L

    2017-11-01

    Silk fibroin-based hydrogels have exciting applications in tissue engineering and therapeutic molecule delivery; however, their utility is dependent on their diffusive properties. The present study describes a molecular and macro-scale investigation of enzymatically-crosslinked silk fibroin hydrogels, and demonstrates that these systems have tunable crosslink density and diffusivity. We developed a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method to assess the quantity and order of covalent tyrosine crosslinks in the hydrogels. This analysis revealed between 28 and 56% conversion of tyrosine to dityrosine, which was dependent on the silk concentration and reactant concentration. The crosslink density was then correlated with storage modulus, revealing that both crosslinking and protein concentration influenced the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. The diffusive properties of the bulk material were studied by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which revealed a non-linear relationship between silk concentration and diffusivity. As a result of this work, a model for synthesizing hydrogels with known crosslink densities and diffusive properties has been established, enabling the rational design of silk hydrogels for biomedical applications. Hydrogels from naturally-derived silk polymers offer versitile opportunities in the biomedical field, however, their design has largely been an empirical process. We present a fundamental study of the crosslink density, storage modulus, and diffusion behavior of enzymatically-crosslinked silk hydrogels to better inform scaffold design. These studies revealed unexpected non-linear trends in the crosslink density and diffusivity of silk hydrogels with respect to protein concentration and crosslink reagent concentration. This work demonstrates the tunable diffusivity and crosslinking in silk fibroin hydrogels, and enables the rational design of biomaterials. Further, the characterization methods

  2. Rational design and optimization of downstream processes of virus particles for biopharmaceutical applications: current advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Tiago; Mota, José P B; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2011-01-01

    The advent of advanced therapies in the pharmaceutical industry has moved the spotlight into virus-like particles and viral vectors produced in cell culture holding great promise in a myriad of clinical targets, including cancer prophylaxis and treatment. Even though a couple of cases have reached the clinic, these products have yet to overcome a number of biological and technological challenges before broad utilization. Concerning the manufacturing processes, there is significant research focusing on the optimization of current cell culture systems and, more recently, on developing scalable downstream processes to generate material for pre-clinical and clinical trials. We review the current options for downstream processing of these complex biopharmaceuticals and underline current advances on knowledge-based toolboxes proposed for rational optimization of their processing. Rational tools developed to increase the yet scarce knowledge on the purification processes of complex biologicals are discussed as alternative to empirical, "black-boxed" based strategies classically used for process development. Innovative methodologies based on surface plasmon resonance, dynamic light scattering, scale-down high-throughput screening and mathematical modeling for supporting ion-exchange chromatography show great potential for a more efficient and cost-effective process design, optimization and equipment prototyping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Avadhani, P; Abraham, Ajith

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at INDIA-2012: International conference on  Information system Design and Intelligent Applications held on January 5-7, 2012 in Vishakhapatnam, India. This conference was organized by Computer Society of India (CSI), Vishakhapatnam chapter well supported by Vishakhapatnam Steel, RINL, Govt of India. It contains 108 papers contributed by authors from six different countries across four continents. These research papers mainly focused on intelligent applications and various system design issues. The papers cover a wide range of topics of computer science and information technology discipline ranging from image processing, data base application, data mining, grid and cloud computing, bioinformatics among many others. The various intelligent tools like swarm intelligence, artificial intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, bio-inspired algorithms have been applied in different papers for solving various challenging IT related problems.

  4. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

  5. Application of 3D-QSAR in the rational design of receptor ligands and enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Marco; Rivara, Silvia; Lodola, Alessio; Lorenzi, Simone; Bordi, Fabrizio; Plazzi, Pier Vincenzo; Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Tarzia, Giorgio

    2005-11-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are frequently employed in medicinal chemistry projects, both to rationalize structure-activity relationships (SAR) for known series of compounds and to help in the design of innovative structures endowed with desired pharmacological actions. As a difference from the so-called structure-based drug design tools, they do not require the knowledge of the biological target structure, but are based on the comparison of drug structural features, thus being defined ligand-based drug design tools. In the 3D-QSAR approach, structural descriptors are calculated from molecular models of the ligands, as interaction fields within a three-dimensional (3D) lattice of points surrounding the ligand structure. These descriptors are collected in a large X matrix, which is submitted to multivariate analysis to look for correlations with biological activity. Like for other QSARs, the reliability and usefulness of the correlation models depends on the validity of the assumptions and on the quality of the data. A careful selection of compounds and pharmacological data can improve the application of 3D-QSAR analysis in drug design. Some examples of the application of CoMFA and CoMSIA approaches to the SAR study and design of receptor or enzyme ligands is described, pointing the attention to the fields of melatonin receptor ligands and FAAH inhibitors.

  6. Paths in contemporary economics and sciences of artificial intelligence that originate from Simon’s bounded rationality approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Egidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the work of Herbert A. Simon, the author critically reflects on the past and current state of crucial behavioural assumptions such as rational expectations and bounded rationality. Simon recognized that the core of every organization is the pattern underlying the division of tasks and their coordination: behaviour within organizations is oriented toward goals, and goals are generally complex and hierarchical. Many intermediate sub-goals must be realized in a specific order for the final goal to be achieved. Additionally, the dynamics of organizational decisions are very complex and have two relevant aspects. First, goals are often defined in very general and ambiguous ways, thus necessitating revision of the sub-goals’ hierarchy. Second, many hidden conflicting objectives can be discovered during organizational decisions, when, again, a revision of the sub-goals and their hierarchy may become necessary. It is easy to see that, with this analytical setup, the classical theme of division of labour and coordination would dominate the scenario, leaving utility theory behind. JEL codes: B21, D03, D81

  7. Application of artificial intelligence (AI) methods for designing and analysis of reconfigurable cellular manufacturing system (RCMS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the design and control of a novel hybrid manufacturing system: Reconfigurable Cellular Manufacturing System (RCMS) by using Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach. It is hybrid as it combines the advantages of Cellular...

  8. One-pot synthesis of water soluble iron nanoparticles using rationally-designed peptides and ligand release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papst, Stefanie; Cheong, Soshan; Banholzer, Moritz J; Brimble, Margaret A; Williams, David E; Tilley, Richard D

    2013-05-18

    Herein we report the rational design of new phosphopeptides for control of nucleation, growth and aggregation of water-soluble, superparamagnetic iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles. The use of the designed peptides enables a one-pot synthesis that avoids utilizing unstable or toxic iron precursors, organic solvents, and the need for exchange of capping agent after synthesis of the NPs.

  9. Practical Consideration Factors to Design Array Configuration of Direction Finding System for Airborne Signal Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne signal intelligence (SIGINT systems must be capable of locating radio signal sources. Direction finding (DF to support this capability is an important factor. There are some practical considerations to be taken when designing the array configuration of a DF system for airborne SIGINT systems. This paper summarizes the practical factors when designing the array configuration of the DF system for airborne SIGINT. In particular, it focuses on four areas: antenna consideration factors when installing the DF system for airborne SIGINT from a practical point of view, array configuration methods for airborne communications intelligence and electronic intelligence, and a numerical analysis to select the optimum antenna position for airborne SIGINT.

  10. Design for Additive Bio-Manufacturing: From Patient-Specific Medical Devices to Rationally Designed Meta-Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A

    2017-07-25

    Recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in terms of accuracy, reliability, the range of processable materials, and commercial availability have made them promising candidates for production of functional parts including those used in the biomedical industry. The complexity-for-free feature offered by AM means that very complex designs become feasible to manufacture, while batch-size-indifference enables fabrication of fully patient-specific medical devices. Design for AM (DfAM) approaches aim to fully utilize those features for development of medical devices with substantially enhanced performance and biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of favorable properties that originate from complex geometrical designs at the micro-scale. This paper reviews the most important approaches in DfAM particularly those applicable to additive bio-manufacturing including image-based design pipelines, parametric and non-parametric designs, metamaterials, rational and computationally enabled design, topology optimization, and bio-inspired design. Areas with limited research have been identified and suggestions have been made for future research. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the practical aspects of DfAM and the potential of combining AM with subtractive and formative manufacturing processes in so-called hybrid manufacturing processes.

  11. Design for Additive Bio-Manufacturing: From Patient-Specific Medical Devices to Rationally Designed Meta-Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Zadpoor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM techniques in terms of accuracy, reliability, the range of processable materials, and commercial availability have made them promising candidates for production of functional parts including those used in the biomedical industry. The complexity-for-free feature offered by AM means that very complex designs become feasible to manufacture, while batch-size-indifference enables fabrication of fully patient-specific medical devices. Design for AM (DfAM approaches aim to fully utilize those features for development of medical devices with substantially enhanced performance and biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of favorable properties that originate from complex geometrical designs at the micro-scale. This paper reviews the most important approaches in DfAM particularly those applicable to additive bio-manufacturing including image-based design pipelines, parametric and non-parametric designs, metamaterials, rational and computationally enabled design, topology optimization, and bio-inspired design. Areas with limited research have been identified and suggestions have been made for future research. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the practical aspects of DfAM and the potential of combining AM with subtractive and formative manufacturing processes in so-called hybrid manufacturing processes.

  12. Rational design of DNA sequences for nanotechnology, microarrays and molecular computers using Eulerian graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoska, Petr; Moravek, Zdenek; Moll, Ute M

    2004-01-01

    Nucleic acids are molecules of choice for both established and emerging nanoscale technologies. These technologies benefit from large functional densities of 'DNA processing elements' that can be readily manufactured. To achieve the desired functionality, polynucleotide sequences are currently designed by a process that involves tedious and laborious filtering of potential candidates against a series of requirements and parameters. Here, we present a complete novel methodology for the rapid rational design of large sets of DNA sequences. This method allows for the direct implementation of very complex and detailed requirements for the generated sequences, thus avoiding 'brute force' filtering. At the same time, these sequences have narrow distributions of melting temperatures. The molecular part of the design process can be done without computer assistance, using an efficient 'human engineering' approach by drawing a single blueprint graph that represents all generated sequences. Moreover, the method eliminates the necessity for extensive thermodynamic calculations. Melting temperature can be calculated only once (or not at all). In addition, the isostability of the sequences is independent of the selection of a particular set of thermodynamic parameters. Applications are presented for DNA sequence designs for microarrays, universal microarray zip sequences and electron transfer experiments.

  13. Intelligent Human Machine Interface Design for Advanced Product Life Cycle Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and implementing an intelligent and user friendly human machine interface for any kind of software or hardware oriented application is always be a challenging task for the designers and developers because it is very difficult to understand the psychology of the user, nature of the work and best suit of the environment. This research paper is basically about to propose an intelligent, flexible and user friendly machine interface for Product Life Cycle Management products or PDM Syste...

  14. Design of Intelligent Manufacturing Big Data Cloud Service Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Danlin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the coming of the intelligent manufacturing, the technology and application of industrial big data will be popular in the future. The productivity, competitiveness and innovation of the manufacturing industries will be improved through the integrated innovation of big data technology and industries. Besides, products, production process, management, services, new form and new models will be more intellectualized. They will support the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry and the construction of an open, shared and collaborative ecological environment for intelligent manufacturing industry.

  15. The Anti-RFI Design of Intelligent Electric Energy Meters with UHF RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the existing artificial meter reading watt-hour meter industry is still slow and inventory of common problems, using the uhf radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and intelligent watt-hour meter depth fusion, which has a one-time read multiple tags, identification distance, high transmission rate, high reliability, etc, while retaining the original asset management functions, in order to ensure the uhf RFID and minimum impact on the operation of the intelligent watt-hour meter, proposed to improve the stability of the electric meter system while working at the same time, this paper designs the uhf RFID intelligent watt-hour meter radio frequency interference resistance, put forward to improve intelligent watt-hour meter electromagnetic compatibility design train of thought, and introduced its power and the hardware circuit design of printed circuit board, etc.

  16. Theory and simulation of DNA-coated colloids: a guide for rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Mognetti, Bortolo M; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-03-07

    By exploiting the exquisite selectivity of DNA hybridization, DNA-coated colloids (DNACCs) can be made to self-assemble in a wide variety of structures. The beauty of this system stems largely from its exceptional versatility and from the fact that a proper choice of the grafted DNA sequences yields fine control over the colloidal interactions. Theory and simulations have an important role to play in the optimal design of self assembling DNACCs. At present, the powerful model-based design tools are not widely used, because the theoretical literature is fragmented and the connection between different theories is often not evident. In this Perspective, we aim to discuss the similarities and differences between the different models that have been described in the literature, their underlying assumptions, their strengths and their weaknesses. Using the tools described in the present Review, it should be possible to move towards a more rational design of novel self-assembling structures of DNACCs and, more generally, of systems where ligand-receptor are used to control interactions.

  17. Rational design of peptide affinity ligands for the purification of therapeutic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasatti, John P; Woo, James; Ladiwala, Asif; Cramer, Steven; Karande, Pankaj

    2018-04-25

    Non-mAb biologics represent a growing class of therapeutics under clinical development. Although affinity chromatography is a potentially attractive approach for purification, the development of platform technologies, such as Protein A for mAbs, has been challenging due to the inherent chemical and structural diversity of these molecules. Here, we present our studies on the rapid development of peptide affinity ligands for the purification of biologics using a prototypical enzyme therapeutic in clinical use. Employing a suite of de novo rational and combinatorial design strategies we designed and screened a library of peptides on microarray platforms for their ability to bind to the target with high affinity and selectivity in cell culture fluid. Lead peptides were evaluated on resin in batch conditions and compared with a commercially available resin to evaluate their efficacy. Two lead candidates identified from microarray studies provided high binding capacity to the target while demonstrating high selectivity against culture contaminants and product variants compared to a commercial resin system. These findings provide a proof-of-concept for developing affinity peptide-based bioseparations processes for a target biologic. Peptide affinity ligand design and screening approaches presented in this work can also be easily translated to other biologics of interest. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Rational design of modular circuits for gene transcription: A test of the bottom-up approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Emanuele

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of synthetic circuits developed so far have been designed by an ad hoc approach, using a small number of components (i.e. LacI, TetR and a trial and error strategy. We are at the point where an increasing number of modular, inter-changeable and well-characterized components is needed to expand the construction of synthetic devices and to allow a rational approach to the design. Results We used interchangeable modular biological parts to create a set of novel synthetic devices for controlling gene transcription, and we developed a mathematical model of the modular circuits. Model parameters were identified by experimental measurements from a subset of modular combinations. The model revealed an unexpected feature of the lactose repressor system, i.e. a residual binding affinity for the operator site by induced lactose repressor molecules. Once this residual affinity was taken into account, the model properly reproduced the experimental data from the training set. The parameters identified in the training set allowed the prediction of the behavior of networks not included in the identification procedure. Conclusions This study provides new quantitative evidences that the use of independent and well-characterized biological parts and mathematical modeling, what is called a bottom-up approach to the construction of gene networks, can allow the design of new and different devices re-using the same modular parts.

  19. Rational design of hypoallergens applied to the major cat allergen Fel d 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarne, T; Kaiser, L; Grönlund, H; Rasool, O; Gafvelin, G; van Hage-Hamsten, M

    2005-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergic disease providing long-lasting symptom relief. Currently, it is mainly based on the use of crude allergen extracts. The treatment may be improved by the use of genetically engineered allergens, hypoallergens, aiming at a more effective and safer therapy. The aim of this study was to provide a rational design of hypoallergen candidates for immunotherapy by using structural information and knowledge of B and T cell epitopes of an allergen. The three-dimensional structure of the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was systematically altered by duplication of selected T cell epitopes and disruption of disulphide bonds. Seven Fel d 1 derivatives were generated and screened for allergenic reactivity in comparison with recombinant Fel d 1 in competition-ELISA. The allergenicity was further evaluated in basophil activation experiments and T cell reactivity was assessed in a lymphoproliferation assay. Three out of seven Fel d 1 derivatives, with two duplicated T cell epitopes and one or two disulphide bonds disrupted, were carefully evaluated. The three derivatives displayed a strong reduction in allergenicity with 400-900 times lower IgE-binding capacity than recombinant Fel d 1. In addition, they induced a lower degree of basophil activation and similar or stronger T cell proliferation than recombinant Fel d 1. By a rational approach, we have constructed three Fel d 1 hypoallergens with reduced IgE-binding capacities and retained T cell reactivities. This strategy may be applied to any well-characterized allergen to improve immunotherapy for allergic patients.

  20. On Model Design for Simulation of Collective Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The study of collective intelligence (CI) systems is increasingly gaining interest in a variety of research and application domains. Those domains range from existing research areas such as computer networks and collective robotics to upcoming areas of agent-based and insect-based computing; also

  1. Adapting Rational Unified Process (RUP) approach in designing a secure e-Tendering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    e-Tendering is an electronic processing of the tender document via internet and allow tenderer to publish, communicate, access, receive and submit all tender related information and documentation via internet. This study aims to design the e-Tendering system using Rational Unified Process approach. RUP provides a disciplined approach on how to assign tasks and responsibilities within the software development process. RUP has four phases that can assist researchers to adjust the requirements of various projects with different scope, problem and the size of projects. RUP is characterized as a use case driven, architecture centered, iterative and incremental process model. However the scope of this study only focusing on Inception and Elaboration phases as step to develop the model and perform only three of nine workflows (business modeling, requirements, analysis and design). RUP has a strong focus on documents and the activities in the inception and elaboration phases mainly concern the creation of diagrams and writing of textual descriptions. The UML notation and the software program, Star UML are used to support the design of e-Tendering. The e-Tendering design based on the RUP approach can contribute to e-Tendering developers and researchers in e-Tendering domain. In addition, this study also shows that the RUP is one of the best system development methodology that can be used as one of the research methodology in Software Engineering domain related to secured design of any observed application. This methodology has been tested in various studies in certain domains, such as in Simulation-based Decision Support, Security Requirement Engineering, Business Modeling and Secure System Requirement, and so forth. As a conclusion, these studies showed that the RUP one of a good research methodology that can be adapted in any Software Engineering (SE) research domain that required a few artifacts to be generated such as use case modeling, misuse case modeling, activity

  2. Core/shell PLGA microspheres with controllable in vivo release profile via rational core phase design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meiling; Yao, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Huilin; He, Haibing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Tian; Tang, Xing; Xu, Hui

    2018-02-27

    the microspheres prepared by various methods were mainly controlled by either the porosity inside the microspheres or the degradation of materials, which could, therefore, lead to different release behaviours. This results indicated great potential of the PLGA microsphere formulation as an injectable depot for controllable in vivo release profile via rational core phase design. Core/shell microspheres fabricated by modified double emulsification-solvent evaporation methods, with various inner phases, to obtain high loading drugs system, as well as appropriate release behaviours. Accordingly, control in vivo release profile via rational core phase design.

  3. Elaborating and Making Rational Decisions in Designing Process Operations of a Group of Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Solov'ev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To manufacture engineering products are used expensive multi-purpose CNC machines with five operated coordinates, allowing a single setup of the work-piece to process a group of holes in the housing part from all sides.Because of the haphazard arrangement of a large number of holes available in the space it is difficult to ensure the effective use of these machines.Onsite operational research, conducted on six CNC GS-500 models, involved actual observations and time measurements during 15 working shifts, processing of observation results, and calculations of equipment performance parameters such as machine utilization rate, arrangement and changeover time loss, and real output. Time loss (downtime because of arrangement amounted 44.52%, while that of due to changeover was 20.1% of the total downtime value. These downtimes hide irrational design solutions concerning the engineering process and a large number of changeovers for a new operation to process a group of the specified work-pieces.It is found that to reduce the changeover downtimes it is necessary to increase, first of all, the average number of single tool travels per one setup in generalized characteristics of a group of the work-pieces. That means to increase a changeover concentration of processing within a single operation, as well as to choose rational values for machining a batch of the work-pieces. Under study conditions, it is, at least. 20-50 pieces.To implement a development of the principle of increasing concentration of the processing changeovers it is advised to apply the developed mathematical models, algorithms, and programs that can be used, as modules or their parts, in computer-aided design (CAD systems. This allows a 3-5 times reduction in time to find the rational option of the work-piece position on the machine work surface when developing a process technology, a review and an analysis of more than the usual number of such possible options. It also improves the

  4. The Boundedly Rational User Equilibrium : A parametric analysis with application to the Network Design Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenbroek, Oskar Adriaan Louis; Still, Georg J.; van Berkum, E.C.; Kern, Walter

    In this paper, we study a static traffic assignment that accounts for the boundedly rational route choice behavior of travelers. This assignment induces uncertainties to the ex-ante evaluation of a policy measure: the boundedly rational assignment is non-unique and the indifference band is an

  5. Ecological Design of Cooperative Human-Machine Interfaces for Safety of Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research results in the domain of cooperative intelligent transport systems. The requirements for human-machine interface considering safety issue of for intelligent transport systems (ITSare analyzed. Profiling of the requirements to cooperative human-machine interface (CHMI for such systems including requirements to usability and safety is based on a set of standards for ITSs. An approach and design technique of cooperative human-machine interface for ITSs are suggested. The architecture of cloud-based CHMI for intelligent transport systems has been developed. The prototype of software system CHMI4ITSis described.

  6. A rational and economical seismic design of beam columns in steel frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Fang, S.-J.; Chu, S.-L.

    1977-01-01

    In the present study, a new rational procedure is used in which simultaneous variation in various response quantities is predicted. For designing the beam column section according to the AISC Manual of Steel Construction, one has to know the values of the axial force, the moment about x and y axes at the two ends, and the maximum moments about x, y axes near the center of the beam column, which altogether constitutes seven response quantities of interest for each beam column element. Normally, seven equivalent modes will be required to represent the response. However, by designing the two end sections and the intermediate section independently one can consider three equivalent modes for each section, thus simplifying the problem a great deal. An existing computer program is used for the implementation of the proposed method. Results for typical example problems have been presented. It is shown that savings up to 42% in the steel cross-sectional area can be obtained depending upon combination of various forces and moments. The propposed method is 'exact' within the existing assumptions of the SRSS (square root of the sum of the squares) or the double sum method

  7. GREEN: A program package for docking studies in rational drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Nobuo; Itai, Akiko

    1994-08-01

    A program package, GREEN, has been developed that enables docking studies between ligand molecules and a protein molecule. Based on the structure of the protein molecule, the physical and chemical environment of the ligand-binding site is expressed as three-dimensional grid-point data. The grid-point data are used for the real-time evaluation of the protein-ligand interaction energy, as well as for the graphical representation of the binding-site environment. The interactive docking operation is facilitated by various built-in functions, such as energy minimization, energy contribution analysis and logging of the manipulation trajectory. Interactive modeling functions are incorporated for designing new ligand molecules while considering the binding-site environment and the protein-ligand interaction. As an example of the application of GREEN, a docking study is presented on the complex between trypsin and a synthetic trypsin inhibitor. The program package will be useful for rational drug design, based on the 3D structure of the target protein.

  8. Rational design of botulinum neurotoxin A1 mutants with improved oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de la Paz, Manuela; Scheps, Daniel; Jurk, Marcel; Hofmann, Fred; Frevert, Jürgen

    2018-06-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxic proteins to mankind known but applied in low doses trigger a localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the therapy of several neurological disorders and aesthetic treatment. The paralytic effect is generated by the enzymatic activity of the light chain (LC) that cleaves specifically one of the SNARE proteins responsible for neurotransmitter exocytosis. The activity of the LC in a BoNT-containing therapeutic can be compromised by denaturing agents present during manufacturing and/or in the cell. Stabilization of the LC by reducing vulnerability towards denaturants would thus be advantageous for the development of BoNT-based therapeutics. In this work, we focused on increasing the stability of LC of BoNT/A1 (LC/A1) towards oxidative stress. We tackled this task by rational design of mutations at cysteine and methionine LC/A1 sites. Designed mutants showed improved oxidative stability in vitro and equipotency to wildtype toxin in vivo. Our results suggest that suitable modification of the catalytic domain can lead to more stable BoNTs without impairing their therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Virus-Like Particle Engineering: From Rational Design to Versatile Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuanwei; Liu, Dong; Booth, George; Gao, Wei; Lu, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    As mimicking natural virus structures, virus-like particles (VLPs) have evolved to become a widely accepted technology used for humans which are safe, highly efficacious, and profitable. Several remarkable advantages have been achieved to revolutionize the molecule delivery for diverse applications in nanotechnology, biotechnology, and medicine. Here, the rational structure design, manufacturing process, functionalization strategy, and emerging applications of VLPs is reviewed. The situation and challenges in the VLP engineering, the key development orientation, and future applications have been discussed. To develop a good VLP design concept, the virus/VLP-host interactions need to be examined and the screening methods of the VLP stabilization factors need to be established. The functionalization toolbox can be expanded to fabricate smart, robust, and multifunctional VLPs. Novel robust VLP manufacturing platforms are required to deliver vaccines in resource-poor regions with a significant reduction in the production time and cost. The future applications of VLPs are always driven by the development of emerging technologies and new requirements of modern life. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Rational design of stealthy hyperuniform two-phase media with tunable order

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStasio, Robert A.; Zhang, Ge; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2018-02-01

    Disordered stealthy hyperuniform materials are exotic amorphous states of matter that have attracted recent attention because of their novel structural characteristics (hidden order at large length scales) and physical properties, including desirable photonic and transport properties. It is therefore useful to devise algorithms that enable one to design a wide class of such amorphous configurations at will. In this paper, we present several algorithms enabling the systematic identification and generation of discrete (digitized) stealthy hyperuniform patterns with a tunable degree of order, paving the way towards the rational design of disordered materials endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. To quantify the degree of order or disorder of the stealthy systems, we utilize the discrete version of the τ order metric, which accounts for the underlying spatial correlations that exist across all relevant length scales in a given digitized two-phase (or, equivalently, a two-spin state) system of interest. Our results impinge on a myriad of fields, ranging from physics, materials science and engineering, visual perception, and information theory to modern data science.

  11. On rationally supported surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...

  12. Interface Design Concepts in the Development of ELSA, an Intelligent Electronic Library Search Assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Rebecca; Smith, Philip J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes issues and advances in the design of appropriate inference engines and knowledge structures needed by commercially feasible intelligent intermediary systems for information retrieval. Issues associated with the design of interfaces to such functions are discussed in detail. Design principles for guiding implementation of these interfaces…

  13. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RATIONAL DESIGN FORMATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE OF AGRARIAN SECTOR OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Korchynskyy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Methodological aspects of formation of rational design of infrastructure of agrarian sector of Ukraine on the basis of the institutional approach and laws of architectonics are examined. It is shown that the agrarian sector of Ukraine is a complex socio-economic system, the formation and development of which is in the process of market transformation what is caused by institutional influences. In general the process of relations institutionalization imply their formalization and standardization, in other case the subject of public life could not predict the actions of other entities associated with him and ensure their cooperation. One of the specific characteristic of human society is formed institutional system that regulates behaviour. In the article the factors of influence on the conduct of being in charge subjects are considered in the conditions of development of market economy. The special attention is spared the institutional factors of the economy growing. Methodology. The meaning of “agricultural field” and “infrastructure” and their mutual consistency is classified. As the scientific method, the institutional approach of principles of architectonics has been used, which allowed to justify the creation of a rational approach to the design of infrastructure in agrarian sector as a whole on the basis, relation and interdependence of its elements, based on the fundamental laws of architectonics (law of equilibrium, law of the golden mean structuring. The article demonstrates a necessary of the choice of a theory of institutionalism as the main methodological basis for the study of the process of innovation development of economic system of Ukraine. It is determined that the inefficient activities of institutions in Ukraine are the main cause of the low level of innovation, which has a negative impact on the development of the economy as a whole. Results. Research points on new aspects of infrastructure as a part of the entire

  14. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H. M. A.; Kumar, S.

    2014-07-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software.

  15. A framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H M A; Kumar, S

    2014-01-01

    An integration of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided process planning (CAPP) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is required for development of an intelligent system to design and manufacture stamping dies in sheet metal industries. In this paper, a framework for development of an intelligent system for design and manufacturing of stamping dies is proposed. In the proposed framework, the intelligent system is structured in form of various expert system modules for different activities of design and manufacturing of dies. All system modules are integrated with each other. The proposed system takes its input in form of a CAD file of sheet metal part, and then system modules automate all tasks related to design and manufacturing of stamping dies. Modules are coded using Visual Basic (VB) and developed on the platform of AutoCAD software

  16. Rational design of carbon and TiO2 assembly materials: covered or strewn, which is better for photocatalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guan-wei; Wang, Wei-liang; Ma, Ming-yue; Zhang, Ming; Xia, Xin-yuan; Han, Feng-yun; Shi, Xi-feng; Zhao, Ying-qiang; Dong, Yu-bin; Tang, Bo

    2013-07-21

    The rational design of carbonaceous hybrid nanostructures is very important for obtaining high photoactivity. TiO2 particles strewn with an optimal quantity of carbon nanodots have a much higher photoactivity than that of TiO2 covered with a carbon layer, showing the importance of carbon morphology in the photocatalysis of carbonaceous hybrid nanostructures.

  17. An intelligent simulation environment for control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently assisting in the development of advanced control systems for the next generation of nuclear power plants. This paper presents a prototype interactive and intelligent simulation environment being developed to support this effort. The environment combines tools from the field of Artificial Intelligence; in particular object-oriented programming, a LISP programming environment, and a direct manipulation user interface; with traditional numerical methods for simulating combined continuous/discrete processes. The resulting environment is highly interactive and easy to use. Models may be created and modified quickly through a window oriented direct manipulation interface. Models may be modified at any time, even as the simulation is running, and the results observed immediately via real-time graphics. 8 refs., 3 figs

  18. Vehicle following controller design for autonomous intelligent vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. C.; Lai, M. C.; Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new vehicle following controller is proposed for autonomous intelligent vehicles. The proposed vehicle following controller not only provides smooth transient maneuvers for unavoidable nonzero initial conditions but also guarantees the asymptotic platoon stability without the availability of feedforward information. Furthermore, the achieved asymptotic platoon stability is shown to be robust to sensor delays and an upper bound for the allowable sensor delays is also provided in this paper.

  19. Leveraging Entrepreneurship through the design of Artificial Intelligence Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Osegi , E.N; Wokoma , B.A; Bruce-Allison , S.A

    2017-01-01

    Conference Proceeding: Port-Harcourt School of Engineering Science and Technology, Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, 2017; International audience; Artificial Intelligence projects (AIP), is currently attracting popular attention as a viable business area for young and mature entrepreneurs. Most industries, particularly in research and development, now use AIPs for the discovery and synthesis of countless of novel products and services of incomprehensible commercial and functional value. H...

  20. Operational Intelligence and Operational Design: Thinking about Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    captured it best when he wrote, ―Operational intelligence is more or less the fusion of 45 Kent... Market Garden….‖34 Additionally, Drea concluded that the strong-minded General Douglas MacArthur‘s ―sense of destiny‖ shaped his strategic concepts...1960. Memorandum RM-4172-ISA, Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation, September 1964. The Bible . New International Version. Hitchcock, Walter T., ed

  1. Cognitive Connected Vehicle Information System Design Requirement for Safety: Role of Bayesian Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Khan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems (ITS are gaining acceptance around the world and the connected vehicle component of ITS is recognized as a high priority research and development area in many technologically advanced countries. Connected vehicles are expected to have the capability of safe, efficient and eco-driving operations whether these are under human control or in the adaptive machine control mode of operations. The race is on to design the capability to operate in connected traffic environment. The operational requirements can be met with cognitive vehicle design features made possible by advances in artificial intelligence-supported methodology, improved understanding of human factors, and advances in communication technology. This paper describes cognitive features and their information system requirements. The architecture of an information system is presented that supports the features of the cognitive connected vehicle. For better focus, information processing capabilities are specified and the role of Bayesian artificial intelligence is defined for data fusion. Example applications illustrate the role of information systems in integrating intelligent technology, Bayesian artificial intelligence, and abstracted human factors. Concluding remarks highlight the role of the information system and Bayesian artificial intelligence in the design of a new generation of cognitive connected vehicle.

  2. Tuning calcite morphology and growth acceleration by a rational design of highly stable protein-mimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Long; Qi, Jiahui; Tao, Jinhui; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; DeYoreo, James J.

    2014-01-01

    In nature, proteins play a significant role in biomineral formation. One of the ultimate goals of bioinspired materials science is to develop highly stable synthetic molecules that mimic the function of these natural proteins by controlling crystal formation. Here, we demonstrate that both the morphology and the degree of acceleration or inhibition observed during growth of calcite in the presence of peptoids can be rationally tuned by balancing the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, with hydrophobic interactions playing the dominant role. While either strong electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions inhibit growth and reduces expression of the {104} faces, correlations between peptoid-crystal binding energies and observed changes in calcite growth indicate moderate electrostatic interactions allow peptoids to weakly adsorb while moderate hydrophobic interactions cause disruption of surface-adsorbed water layers, leading to growth acceleration with retained expression of the {104} faces. This study provides fundamental principles for designing peptoids as crystallization promoters, and offers a straightforward screening method based on macroscopic crystal morphology. Because peptoids are sequence-specific, highly stable, and easily synthesized, peptoid-enhanced crystallization offers a broad range of potential applications. PMID:25189418

  3. Rationalization and Design of Enhanced Photoinduced Cycloreversion in Photochromic Dimethyldihydropyrenes by Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio-Pasqua, Martial; Garavelli, Marco

    2015-06-11

    This study presents a computational investigation of the initial step of the dimethyldihydropyrene (DHP) to cyclophanediene (CPD) photoinduced ring-opening reaction using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). In particular, the photochemical path corresponding to the formation of the CPD precursor (CPD*) on the zwitterionic state is scrutinized. The TD-DFT approach was first validated on the parent compound against accurate ab initio calculations. It confirms that CPD* formation is efficiently quenched in this system by an easily accessible S2/S1 conical intersection located in the vicinity of the CPD* minimum and leading to a locally excited state minimum responsible for DHP luminescence. Increased ring-opening quantum yields were observed in benzo[e]-fused-DHP (DHP-1), isobutenyl-DHP (DHP-2), and naphthoyl-DHP (DHP-3). The calculations show that CPD* formation is much more favorable in these systems, either due to an inversion of electronic states in DHP-1, suppressing the formation of the locally excited state, or due to efficient stabilization of CPD* on the S1 potential energy surface in DHP-2 and DHP-3. Both effects can be combined in a rationally designed benzo[e]-fused-naphthoyl-DHP (DHP-4) for which we anticipate an unprecedented efficiency.

  4. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliants, Vadim [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  5. Biomimetics: From Bioinformatics to Rational Design of Dendrimers as Gene Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Durán, Ingrid; Varas-Concha, Ignacio; Almonacid, Daniel Eduardo; González-Nilo, Fernando Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetics, or the use of principles of Nature for developing new materials, is a paradigm that could help Nanomedicine tremendously. One of the current challenges in Nanomedicine is the rational design of new efficient and safer gene carriers. Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are a well-known class of nanoparticles, extensively used as non-viral nucleic acid carriers, due to their positively charged end-groups. Yet, there are still several aspects that can be improved for their successful application in in vitro and in vivo systems, including their affinity for nucleic acids as well as lowering their cytotoxicity. In the search of new functional groups that could be used as new dendrimer-reactive groups, we followed a biomimetic approach to determine the amino acids with highest prevalence in protein-DNA interactions. Then we introduced them individually as terminal groups of dendrimers, generating a new class of nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics studies of two systems: PAMAM-Arg and PAMAM-Lys were also performed in order to describe the formation of complexes with DNA. Results confirmed that the introduction of amino acids as terminal groups in a dendrimer increases their affinity for DNA and the interactions in the complexes were characterized at atomic level. We end up by briefly discussing additional modifications that can be made to PAMAM dendrimers to turned them into promising new gene carriers. PMID:26382062

  6. Appendix to rationally designing of machine tools for example of universal lathe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the universal machine tool for turning and function of the thrust of the cutting speed for blasting area efficiency and stability of the tool and sectional filings. These dependencies were used to determine the main characteristics of the optimal and maximum operating power equipment. Based on this, an analysis of the increase in operating power equipment typical cases in order to adapt to the new needs of exploitation properties and improve productivity. Using the previous analysis, it was determined the best solution in terms of the rational design of machines, by ensuring the simultaneous use of the main features on the basis of increase in speed with the use of tools and higher stability. In order to better display problems, an analysis of the appropriate diagrams P-V and V-D. On a typical example of the manufacturing practice at the end of the work, we demonstrate improvement of exploitation characteristics of a universal machine through appropriate calculations in terms of new needs adjustment feature, where it is expected that the reconstruction of the smallest machines.

  7. A density functional theory insight towards the rational design of ionic liquids for SO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-05-28

    A systematic density functional theory (DFT) analysis has been carried out to obtain information at the molecular level on the key parameters related to efficient SO2 capture by ionic liquids (ILs). A set of 55 ILs, for which high gas solubility is expected, has been selected. SO2 solubility of ILs was firstly predicted based on the COSMO-RS (Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents) method, which provides a good prediction of gas solubility data in ILs without prior experimental knowledge of the compounds' features. Then, interactions between SO2 and ILs were deeply analyzed through DFT simulations. This work provides valuable information about required factors at the molecular level to provide high SO2 solubility in ILs, which is crucial for further implementation of these materials in the future. In our opinion, systematic research on ILs for SO2 capture increases our knowledge about those factors which could be controlled at the molecular level, providing an approach for the rational design of task-specific ILs.

  8. Rational design of single-ion magnets and spin qubits based on mononuclear lanthanoid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoví, José J; Cardona-Serra, Salvador; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Palii, Andrew

    2012-11-19

    Here we develop a general approach to calculating the energy spectrum and the wave functions of the low-lying magnetic levels of a lanthanoid ion submitted to the crystal field created by the surrounding ligands. This model allows us to propose general criteria for the rational design of new mononuclear lanthanoid complexes behaving as single-molecule magnets (SMMs) or acting as robust spin qubits. Three typical environments exhibited by these metal complexes are considered, namely, (a) square antiprism, (b) triangular dodecahedron, and (c) trigonal prism. The developed model is used to explain the properties of some representative examples showing these geometries. Key questions in this area, such as the chemical tailoring of the superparamagnetic energy barrier, tunneling gap, or spin relaxation time, are discussed. Finally, in order to take into account delocalization and/or covalent effects of the ligands, this point-charge model is complemented with ab initio calculations, which provide accurate information on the charge distribution around the metal, allowing for an explanation of the SMM behavior displayed by some sandwich-type organometallic compounds.

  9. Rational design of multifunctional devices based on molybdenum disulfide and graphene hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yi Rang; Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Kim, Seong Jun [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yooseok; Jeon, Cheolho [Nano-Surface Research Group, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, 302-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wooseok, E-mail: wssong@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; An, Ki-Seok [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jongsun, E-mail: jslim@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We fabricated MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid thin films for multifunctional applications. • Large-area, uniform multilayer MoS{sub 2} was synthesized on TCVD-grown graphene. • The mobility and photocurrent of the hybrid devices were improved significantly. - Abstract: We rationally designed a new type of hybrid materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) synthesized by Mo pre-deposition followed by subsequent sulfurization process directly on thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD)-grown graphene, for applications in a multifunctional device. The synthesis of stoichiometric and uniform multilayer MoS{sub 2} and high-crystalline monolayer graphene was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. To examine the electrical transport and photoelectrical properties of MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid films, field effect transistors (FETs) and visible-light photodetectors based on MoS{sub 2}-graphene were both fabricated. As a result, the extracted mobility for MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid FETs was two times higher than that of MoS{sub 2} FETs. In addition, the MoS{sub 2}-graphene photodetectors revealed a significant photocurrent with abrupt switching behavior under periodic illumination.

  10. Drug Partitioning in Micellar Media and Its Implications in Rational Drug Design: Insights with Streptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Eva; Pagariya, Darshna; Kishore, Nand

    2018-03-20

    Oral bioavailability of a drug molecule requires its effective delivery to the target site. In general, majority of synthetically developed molecular entities have high hydrophobic nature as well as low bioavailability, therefore the need for suitable delivery vehicles arises. Self-assembled structures such as micelles, niosomes, and liposomes have been used as effective delivery vehicles and studied extensively. However, the information available in literature is mostly qualitative in nature. We have quantitatively investigated the partitioning of antibiotic drug streptomycin into cationic, nonionic, and a mixture of cationic and nonionic surfactant micelles and its interaction with the transport protein serum albumin upon subsequent delivery. A combination of calorimetry and spectroscopy has been used to obtain the thermodynamic signatures associated with partitioning and interaction with the protein and the resulting conformational changes in the latter. The results have been correlated with other class of drugs of different nature to understand the role of molecular features in the partitioning process. These studies are oriented toward understanding the physical chemistry of partitioning of a variety of drug molecules into suitable delivery vehicles and hence establishing structure-property-energetics relationships. Such studies provide general guidelines toward a broader goal of rational drug design.

  11. Rational Design of Thermally Stable Novel Biocatalytic Nanomaterials: Enzyme Stability in Restricted Spatial Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhivarthi, Vamsi K.

    Enzyme stability is of intense interest in bio-materials science as biocatalysts, and as sensing platforms. This is essentially because the unique properties of DNA, RNA, PAA can be coupled with the interesting and novel properties of proteins to produce systems with unprecedented control over their properties. In this article, the very first examples of enzyme/NA/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials and enzyme-Polyacrylic acid conjugates will be presented. The basic principles of design, synthesis and control of properties of these hybrid materials will be presented first, and this will be followed by a discussion of selected examples from our recent research findings. Data show that key properties of biological catalysts are improved by the inorganic framework especially when the catalyst is co-embedded with DNA. Several examples of such studies with various enzymes and proteins, including horseradish peroxidase (HRP), glucose oxidase (GO), cytochrome c (Cyt c), met-hemoglobin (Hb) and met-myoglobin (Mb) will be discussed. Additionally, key insights obtained by the standard methods of materials science including XRD, SEM and TEM as well as biochemical, calorimetric and spectroscopic methods will be discussed. Furthermore, improved structure and enhanced activities of the biocatalysts in specific cases will be demonstrated along with the potential stabilization mechanisms. Our hypothesis is that nucleic acids provide an excellent control over the enzyme-solid interactions as well as rational assembly of nanomaterials. These novel nanobiohybrid materials may aid in engineering more effective synthetic materials for gene-delivery, RNA-delivery and drug delivery applications.

  12. Rational design of an EGF-IL18 fusion protein: Implication for developing tumor therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianxin; Peng Ying; Meng Zhefeng; Jin Liqin; Lu Yongsui; Guan Minxin

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine. This protein has a role in regulating immune responses and exhibits significant anti-tumor activities. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor that plays a central role in the regulation of cell cycle and differentiation. It was proposed that a targeted delivery of IL-18 by generation of IL-18-EGF fusion protein might decrease adverse effects and result in enhancing cytotoxic and antitumor activities. In the present study, a fusion protein, consisting of EGFR binding domain fused to human IL-18 mature peptide via a linker peptide of (Gly 4 Ser) 3, was constructed and expressed in the insect cell line Sf9 using Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. We showed that the purified recombinant fusion protein induced similar levels of IFN-γ to that of native IL-18 protein in human PBMC in the presence of ConA. Furthermore, EGF receptor competitive test in human epithelial cancer A431 cell line showed that EGF-IL18 fusion protein can specifically bind with EGFR by competing with native EGF protein. These suggest that this rationally designed protein can be further developed as novel tumor therapeutics

  13. A Rationally Designed Agonist Defines Subfamily IIIA Abscisic Acid Receptors As Critical Targets for Manipulating Transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Aditya S; Peterson, Francis C; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Merilo, Ebe; Verstraeten, Inge; Park, Sang-Youl; Elzinga, Dezi; Kaundal, Amita; Helander, Jonathan; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Otani, Masato; Wu, Kevin; Jensen, Davin R; Kollist, Hannes; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R

    2017-11-17

    Increasing drought and diminishing freshwater supplies have stimulated interest in developing small molecules that can be used to control transpiration. Receptors for the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have emerged as key targets for this application, because ABA controls the apertures of stomata, which in turn regulate transpiration. Here, we describe the rational design of cyanabactin, an ABA receptor agonist that preferentially activates Pyrabactin Resistance 1 (PYR1) with low nanomolar potency. A 1.63 Å X-ray crystallographic structure of cyanabactin in complex with PYR1 illustrates that cyanabactin's arylnitrile mimics ABA's cyclohexenone oxygen and engages the tryptophan lock, a key component required to stabilize activated receptors. Further, its sulfonamide and 4-methylbenzyl substructures mimic ABA's carboxylate and C6 methyl groups, respectively. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements show that cyanabactin's compact structure provides ready access to high ligand efficiency on a relatively simple scaffold. Cyanabactin treatments reduce Arabidopsis whole-plant stomatal conductance and activate multiple ABA responses, demonstrating that its in vitro potency translates to ABA-like activity in vivo. Genetic analyses show that the effects of cyanabactin, and the previously identified agonist quinabactin, can be abolished by the genetic removal of PYR1 and PYL1, which form subclade A within the dimeric subfamily III receptors. Thus, cyanabactin is a potent and selective agonist with a wide spectrum of ABA-like activities that defines subfamily IIIA receptors as key target sites for manipulating transpiration.

  14. Rational design of metal-organic electronic devices: A computational perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Bhaskar

    engineers to choose the appropriate metal electrodes considering the chemical interactions at the interface. Additionally, the calculations performed on the interfaces provided valuable insight into binding energies, charge redistribution, change in the energy levels, dipole formation, etc., which are important parameters to consider while fabricating an electronic device. The research described in this dissertation highlights the application of unique computational modeling methods at different levels of theory to guide the experimental chemists and device engineers toward a rational design of transition metal based electronic devices with low cost and high performance.

  15. Rational risk-based decision support for drinking water well managers by optimized monitoring designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenhöfer, R.; Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.

    2011-12-01

    Advection-based well-head protection zones are commonly used to manage the contamination risk of drinking water wells. Considering the insufficient knowledge about hazards and transport properties within the catchment, current Water Safety Plans recommend that catchment managers and stakeholders know, control and monitor all possible hazards within the catchments and perform rational risk-based decisions. Our goal is to supply catchment managers with the required probabilistic risk information, and to generate tools that allow for optimal and rational allocation of resources between improved monitoring versus extended safety margins and risk mitigation measures. To support risk managers with the indispensable information, we address the epistemic uncertainty of advective-dispersive solute transport and well vulnerability (Enzenhoefer et al., 2011) within a stochastic simulation framework. Our framework can separate between uncertainty of contaminant location and actual dilution of peak concentrations by resolving heterogeneity with high-resolution Monte-Carlo simulation. To keep computational costs low, we solve the reverse temporal moment transport equation. Only in post-processing, we recover the time-dependent solute breakthrough curves and the deduced well vulnerability criteria from temporal moments by non-linear optimization. Our first step towards optimal risk management is optimal positioning of sampling locations and optimal choice of data types to reduce best the epistemic prediction uncertainty for well-head delineation, using the cross-bred Likelihood Uncertainty Estimator (CLUE, Leube et al., 2011) for optimal sampling design. Better monitoring leads to more reliable and realistic protection zones and thus helps catchment managers to better justify smaller, yet conservative safety margins. In order to allow an optimal choice in sampling strategies, we compare the trade-off in monitoring versus the delineation costs by accounting for ill

  16. Structural Basis for Escape of Human Astrovirus from Antibody Neutralization: Broad Implications for Rational Vaccine Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Perez, Edmundo I.; López, Tomás; Arias, Carlos F.; DuBois, Rebecca M. (UNAM-Mexico); (UCSC)

    2017-10-25

    a single amino acid mutation induces a structural change in a loop that is responsible for antibody binding. Our findings reveal how viruses can escape antibody neutralization and provide insight for the rational design of vaccines to elicit diverse antibodies that provide broader protection from infection.

  17. Mechatronic System Design and Intelligent Motion Control of Hydraulic Robots and Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach and concept to mechatronic system design and intelligent motion control. The Information Technology (IT) offers software and hardware for improvement of R&D Mechatronic Teams to create products and solutions for industrial applications. The latest progress in IT makes...... integration of an overall design and manufacturing IT- concept feasible and commercially attractive. An IT-tool concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed in this paper. It built on results from a Danish mechatronic research program on intelligent motion...

  18. Design and Development of Intelligent Electrodes for Future Digital Health Monitoring: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, A. M.; Azir, K. N. F. Ku; Kan, P. Eh

    2018-03-01

    Electrodes are sensors used in electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring system to diagnose heart diseases. Over the years, diverse types of electrodes have been designed and developed to improve ECG monitoring system. However, more recently, with the technological advances and capabilities from the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing and data analytics in personalized healthcare, researchers are attempting to design and develop more effective as well as flexible ECG devices by using intelligent electrodes. This paper reviews previous works on electrodes used in electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring devices to identify the key ftures for designing and developing intelligent electrodes in digital health monitoring devices.

  19. Intelligent Data Storage and Retrieval for Design Optimisation – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Peebles

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the findings of a literature review conducted by the Sir Lawrence Wackett Centre for Aerospace Design Technology at RMIT University. The review investigates aspects of a proposed system for intelligent design optimisation. Such a system would be capable of efficiently storing (and compressing if required a range of types of design data into an intelligent database. This database would be accessed by the system during subsequent design processes, allowing for search of relevant design data for re-use in later designs, allowing it to become very efficient in reducing the time for later designs as the database grows in size. Extensive research has been performed, in both theoretical aspects of the project, and practical examples of current similar systems. This research covers the areas of database systems, database queries, representation and compression of design data, geometric representation and heuristic methods for design applications. 

  20. Intensive mutagenesis of the nisin hinge leads to the rational design of enhanced derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Healy

    Full Text Available Nisin A is the most extensively studied lantibiotic and has been used as a preservative by the food industry since 1953. This 34 amino acid peptide contains three dehydrated amino acids and five thioether rings. These rings, resulting from one lanthionine and four methyllanthionine bridges, confer the peptide with its unique structure. Nisin A has two mechanisms of action, with the N-terminal domain of the peptide inhibiting cell wall synthesis through lipid II binding and the C-terminal domain responsible for pore-formation. The focus of this study is the three amino acid 'hinge' region (N 20, M 21 and K 22 which separates these two domains and allows for conformational flexibility. As all lantibiotics are gene encoded, novel variants can be generated through manipulation of the corresponding gene. A number of derivatives in which the hinge region was altered have previously been shown to possess enhanced antimicrobial activity. Here we take this approach further by employing simultaneous, indiscriminate site-saturation mutagenesis of all three hinge residues to create a novel bank of nisin derivative producers. Screening of this bank revealed that producers of peptides with hinge regions consisting of AAK, NAI and SLS displayed enhanced bioactivity against a variety of targets. These and other results suggested a preference for small, chiral amino acids within the hinge region, leading to the design and creation of producers of peptides with hinges consisting of AAA and SAA. These producers, and the corresponding peptides, exhibited enhanced bioactivity against Lactococcus lactis HP, Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC 13813, Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2155 and Staphylococcus aureus RF122 and thus represent the first example of nisin derivatives that possess enhanced activity as a consequence of rational design.

  1. Adsorption of rationally designed "surf-tides" to a liquid-crystal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Joseph V; Bernstein, Chaim; Maldarelli, Charles; Tu, Raymond S

    2015-09-07

    The interfacial adsorption of proteins in surfactant laden systems occurs both in nature and industrial processing, yet much of the fundamental behavior behind these systems is still not well understood. We report the development of a system that monitors optical transitions of a liquid-crystalline/aqueous interface to examine the dynamics of adsorption of two rationally designed model peptide molecules. The two molecules synthesized in this study were both designed to become surface-active upon folding and contain the same net charge of +3, but one of the peptides, K-2.5, has its three charges separated by 2.5 amino acids as compared to K-6.0, which has its three charges separated by 6 amino acids. Our study examines the roles that surfactant adsorption, peptide charge distribution and secondary structure have on the relative adsorption dynamics of these two models peptides onto a fluid/fluid interface. Using the optical detection of molecular adsorption and image analysis of these events, we obtain quantitative information about the dynamics as a function of the charge spacing and initial peptide concentration. We show that both peptides initially follow a diffusion-limited adsorption model onto the interface. Additionally, our results suggest that the K-6.0 peptides demonstrate enhanced adsorption kinetics, where the enhanced rates are a consequence of the well-folded adsorbed state and spatial distribution on the surface. These findings provide further insights into the role that charge spacing has on secondary structure and subsequently the dynamics of adsorption, while developing a versatile system capable of extracting quantitative information from a simple inexpensive optical system.

  2. Intelligent Furniture Design in the Elderly Based on the Cognitive Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xinhui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the present situation of Chinese elderly furniture and the elderly has cognitive characteristics that consciousness experiences and recognitions recede, cognitive fuzzy from Information processing. Expounds the elderly intelligent furniture design elements: functional elements required the elderly furniture is easy and simple to handle; Size and shape elements should be biased towards low, light type, reduce multifunction or fold function; colour collocation should use low lightness and low purity natural materials; Emotional elements design should meet the demand of the elderly social emotion. Introduction of intelligent furniture make up the cognitive decline in the elderly, Furniture judge the elderly demand by the inductor, Supplement by hardware control module to solve the special needs of the elderly life. Build design thinking based on the cognitive process and explore the elderly intelligent furniture design. This paper discusses the design process, for example and concludes the design rules: 1.The Operating Experience Pleasure. It is the height matching of user expectation and furniture function. Pleasure in the design of the operating parts mainly embodies in two aspects. Firstly, the Fitts Law; Secondly, it’s The Movement Optimization. 2.”Unconscious” Design. Intelligent furniture need to delete unnecessary operation module, make it easy to understand, furniture function and cognitive scene match with each other. 3. Modularity Design. Modularization can indirectly regulate the scale and specification of the design. Under the premise of individual character, customization, the compression of the cost, Designer should make the elderly intelligent furniture consistent with the user action.4.Design Consistency. The consistency principle reflected in the appearance, color and operation way consistency.

  3. Design of embedded hardware platform in intelligent γ-spectrometry instrument based on ARM9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Fang Fang

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of embedded hardware platform based on ARM9 S3C2410A, emphases are focused on analyzing the methods of design the circuits of memory, LCD and keyboard ports. It presented a new solution of hardware platform in intelligent portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  4. An intelligent and interactive carpet role of design in a textile innovation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, E.J.L.; Stouw, van der B.; Peutz, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing innovation project on the development of an intelligent and interactive carpet called PeR+, short for Perception Rug Plus. This design-research project is a collaboration between an international flooring company, DESSO, and the Department of Industrial Design at the

  5. Design and Research of Intelligent Remote Control Fan Based on Single Chip Microcomputer and Bluetooth Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is designed for intelligent remote control fans. The design of the microcontroller as the core, the sensor, Bluetooth and Andrews system applied to the design of intelligent remote control fan. According to the temperature sensor to achieve the indoor temperature collection, to achieve and set the temperature comparison, thus affecting the fan speed. At the same time, the system according to the infrared sensor components to detect external factors, in order to achieve the running or stopping of the fan, that is, to achieve intelligent control of the fan. In addition, the system achieve the Bluetooth and mobile phone Andrews system of effective combination, and through the software program to complete the fan remote operation and wind speed control.

  6. Assessing Cognitive Abilities: Intelligence and More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith E. Stanovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern cognitive science, rationality and intelligence are measured using different tasks and operations. Furthermore, in several contemporary dual process theories of cognition, rationality is a more encompassing construct than intelligence. Researchers need to continue to develop measures of rational thought without regard to empirical correlations with intelligence. The measurement of individual differences in rationality should not be subsumed by the intelligence concept.

  7. Design for interaction between humans and intelligent systems during real-time fault management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Thronesbery, Carroll G.

    1992-01-01

    Initial results are reported to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their human interfaces. The objective is to achieve more effective human-computer interaction (HCI) for real time fault management support systems. Studies of the development of intelligent fault management systems within NASA have resulted in a new perspective of the user. If the user is viewed as one of the subsystems in a heterogeneous, distributed system, system design becomes the design of a flexible architecture for accomplishing system tasks with both human and computer agents. HCI requirements and design should be distinguished from user interface (displays and controls) requirements and design. Effective HCI design for multi-agent systems requires explicit identification of activities and information that support coordination and communication between agents. The effects are characterized of HCI design on overall system design and approaches are identified to addressing HCI requirements in system design. The results include definition of (1) guidance based on information level requirements analysis of HCI, (2) high level requirements for a design methodology that integrates the HCI perspective into system design, and (3) requirements for embedding HCI design tools into intelligent system development environments.

  8. MLED_BI: a new BI Design Approach to Support Multilingualism in Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Dedić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing approaches to support Multilingualism (ML in Business Intelligence (BI create problems for business users, present a number of challenges from the technical perspective, and lead to issues with logical dependence in the star schema. In this paper, we propose MLED_BI (Multilingual Enabled Design for Business Intelligence, a novel BI design approach to support the application of ML in BI Environment, which overcomes the issues and problems found with existing approaches. The approach is based on a revision of the data warehouse dimensional modelling approach and treats the Star Schema as a higher level entity. This paper describes MLED_BI and the validation and evaluation approach used.

  9. Reaction of North American neo-Thomism against the «Intelligent Design»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiderio Parrilla Martínez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The doctrine of «Intelligent Design» formulated by Phillip E. Johnson, Michael Behe, William A. Dembski and Stephen C. Meyer is presented as a scientific alternative to neo-Darwinism. For philosophical naturalism or atheism is only a pseudo-science dependent of «Protestant creationism» and the literal biblical interpretation. The best philosophical critiques, however, come from American neo-Thomism. This paper presents the main arguments used by the Thomism in his polemic against the doctrine of «Intelligent Design».

  10. Rational design of molecularly imprinted polymer: the choice of cross-linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Turghun; Nur, Zohre; Piletska, Elena V; Yimit, Osmanjan; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2012-06-07

    The paper describes a rational approach for the selection of cross-linkers during the development of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). As a model system for this research MIPs specific for the drug zidovudine (AZT) were designed and tested. Three cross-linkers trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were studied. The analogue of zidovudine (AZT) ester (AZT-ES) was used as a dummy template. The imprinting factors for all of the polymers in the static adsorption experiments were calculated. The data on the AZT adsorption by control polymers (CP), which were prepared with different cross-linkers without a functional monomer, was also analyzed. DVB was found to be more inert towards zidovudine than EGDMA and TRIM, which was confirmed by both molecular modelling and adsorption experiments. It was demonstrated that DVB-based polymers had a higher imprinting factor (I = 1.85) compared with other tested cross-linked polymers. It was suggested that the selection of the cross-linker should be based on the strength of the interaction with the template: the cross-linker which displays lower binding of the template should be preferential because it generates MIPs with lower non-specific binding and a higher imprinting factor, and therefore specificity. Which cross-linker to use for the preparation of any particular MIP can be determined by analysis of the interactions between the cross-linker and template. This could be done either virtually using computational modelling or by template adsorption using a small library of polymers prepared using different cross-linkers.

  11. Rational Design and Tuning of Functional RNA Switch to Control an Allosteric Intermolecular Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Tamaki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2015-08-04

    Conformational transitions of biomolecules in response to specific stimuli control many biological processes. In natural functional RNA switches, often called riboswitches, a particular RNA structure that has a suppressive or facilitative effect on gene expression transitions to an alternative structure with the opposite effect upon binding of a specific metabolite to the aptamer region. Stability of RNA secondary structure (-ΔG°) can be predicted based on thermodynamic parameters and is easily tuned by changes in nucleobases. We envisioned that tuning of a functional RNA switch that causes an allosteric interaction between an RNA and a peptide would be possible based on a predicted switching energy (ΔΔG°) that corresponds to the energy difference between the RNA secondary structure before (-ΔG°before) and after (-ΔG°after) the RNA conformational transition. We first selected functional RNA switches responsive to neomycin with predicted ΔΔG° values ranging from 5.6 to 12.2 kcal mol(-1). We then demonstrated a simple strategy to rationally convert the functional RNA switch to switches responsive to natural metabolites thiamine pyrophosphate, S-adenosyl methionine, and adenine based on the predicted ΔΔG° values. The ΔΔG° values of the designed RNA switches proportionally correlated with interaction energy (ΔG°interaction) between the RNA and peptide, and we were able to tune the sensitivity of the RNA switches for the trigger molecule. The strategy demonstrated here will be generally applicable for construction of functional RNA switches and biosensors in which mechanisms are based on conformational transition of nucleic acids.

  12. Design of intelligent proximity detection zones to prevent striking and pinning fatalities around continuous mining machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissert, P T; Carr, J L; DuCarme, J P; Smith, A K

    2016-01-01

    The continuous mining machine is a key piece of equipment used in underground coal mining operations. Over the past several decades these machines have been involved in a number of mine worker fatalities. Proximity detection systems have been developed to avert hazards associated with operating continuous mining machines. Incorporating intelligent design into proximity detection systems allows workers greater freedom to position themselves to see visual cues or avoid other hazards such as haulage equipment or unsupported roof or ribs. However, intelligent systems must be as safe as conventional proximity detection systems. An evaluation of the 39 fatal accidents for which the Mine Safety and Health Administration has published fatality investigation reports was conducted to determine whether the accident may have been prevented by conventional or intelligent proximity. Multiple zone configurations for the intelligent systems were studied to determine how system performance might be affected by the zone configuration. Researchers found that 32 of the 39 fatalities, or 82 percent, may have been prevented by both conventional and intelligent proximity systems. These results indicate that, by properly configuring the zones of an intelligent proximity detection system, equivalent protection to a conventional system is possible.

  13. Design and Implementation of Cloud Platform for Intelligent Logistics in the Trend of Intellectualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengke Yang; Movahedipour Mahmood; Xiaoguang Zhou; Salam Shafaq; Latif Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Intellectualization has become a new trend for telecom industry, driven by in-telligent technology including cloud comput-ing, big data, and Internet of things. In order to satisfy the service demand of intelligent logistics, this paper designed an intelligent logistics platform containing the main ap-plications such as e-commerce, self-service transceiver, big data analysis, path location and distribution optimization. The intelligent logistics service platform has been built based on cloud computing to collect, store and han-dling multi-source heterogeneous mass data from sensors, RFID electronic tag, vehicle ter-minals and APP, so that the open-access cloud services including distribution, positioning, navigation, scheduling and other data services can be provided for the logistics distribution applications. And then the architecture of in-telligent logistics cloud platform containing software layer (SaaS), platform layer (PaaS) and infrastructure (IaaS) has been constructed accordance with the core technology relative high concurrent processing technique, hetero-geneous terminal data access, encapsulation and data mining. Therefore, intelligent logis-tics cloud platform can be carried out by the service mode for implementation to accelerate the construction of the symbiotic win-win logistics ecological system and the benign de-velopment of the ICT industry in the trend of intellectualization in China.

  14. Version II of the ISACS Intelligent Coordinator: object-oriented design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liholt, V.; Miazza, P.

    1993-03-01

    Within the Integrated Surveillance And Control System (ISACS-1)prototype coupled to the NORS PWR simulator, the Intelligent Coordinator (IC) is a central software module. It provides for example the operators with high-level knowledge on the overall plant status. This is performed through the integration of information fetched from the process and different Computerised Operator Support Systems. In 1991, the first version of ISACS and its associated Intelligent Information Coordinator came into operation. During initial ISACS-1 test runs, minor malfunctions were evidently detected in the IC software. At the same time, new reasoning capabilities were also required. A careful analysis of the IC software, implemented with the software shell G2, revealed that its software structure did not allow any easy extension. This report presents in detail the object-oriented redesign of the Intelligent Coordinator of ISACS-1 Firstly, the main capabilities of the Intelligent Coordinator are recalled. Then, the different object classes composing the application are commented in detail The implementation of this new design with the G2 software shell is illustrated through examples. This allows us at the same time to comment our experiences made with the G2 tool. Finally, a quantitative comparison between the successive versions of the Intelligent Coordinator shows clearly the improvements achieved by this object-oriented redesign. A drastic reduction of the number of production rules attests that a better representation of the plant expert knowledge embedded in the Intelligent Coordinator has been achieved. (author)

  15. Fundamental Investigations and Rational Design of Durable High-Performance SOFC Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ding, Dong [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wei, Tao [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liu, Meilin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The main objective of this project is to unravel the degradation mechanism of LSCF cathodes under realistic operating conditions with different types of contaminants, aiming towards the rational design of cathodes with high-performance and enhanced durability by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating. The mechanistic understanding will help us to optimize the composition and morphology of the catalyst layer and microstructure of the LSCF backbone for better performance and durability. More specifically, the technical objectives include: (1) to unravel the degradation mechanism of LSCF cathodes under realistic operating conditions with different types of contaminants using in situ and ex situ measurements performed on specially-designed cathodes; (2) to examine the microstructural and compositional evolution of LSCF cathodes as well as the cathode/electrolyte interfaces under realistic operating conditions; (3) to correlate the fuel cell performance instability and degradation with the microstructural and morphological evolution and surface chemistry change of the cathode under realistic operating conditions; (4) to explore new catalyst materials and electrode structures to enhance the stability of the LSCF cathode under realistic operating conditions; and (5) to validate the long term stability of the modified LSCF cathode in commercially available cells under realistic operating conditions. We have systematically evaluated LSCF cathodes in symmetrical cells and anode supported cells under realistic conditions with different types of contaminants such as humidity, CO2, and Cr. Electrochemical models for the design of test cells and understanding of mechanisms have been developed for the exploration of fundamental properties of electrode materials. It is demonstrated that the activity and stability of LSCF cathodes can be degraded by the introduction of contaminants. The microstructural and compositional evolution of LSCF

  16. Design of an artificial intelligence system for safety function maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.D.; Miller, D.W.; Chandrasekaran, B.

    1985-01-01

    The safety function (SF) maintenance concept provides a systematic approach to mitigate the consequences of an unforeseen event. Safety functions are a set of actions for mitigating or limiting consequences of a safety threatening event. The current approach to SF maintenance of selecting a success path (SP) from a library of predefined SPs is inadequate because it includes only anticipated modes of challenging an SF. To cover all possible modes of challenging an SF, the library of success paths would be extremely large and difficult to implement on any existing computer. In this paper the authors describe a method based on artificial intelligence (AI) theory of planning to synthesize an SP using available resources to satisfy a hierarchy of safety goals. The method has been applied to SF maintenance of a boiling water reactor (BWR) using data from the Perry nuclear power plant

  17. 3rd International Conference on INformation Systems Design and Intelligent Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Jyotsna; Udgata, Siba; Bhateja, Vikrant

    2016-01-01

    The third international conference on INformation Systems Design and Intelligent Applications (INDIA – 2016) held in Visakhapatnam, India during January 8-9, 2016. The book covers all aspects of information system design, computer science and technology, general sciences, and educational research. Upon a double blind review process, a number of high quality papers are selected and collected in the book, which is composed of three different volumes, and covers a variety of topics, including natural language processing, artificial intelligence, security and privacy, communications, wireless and sensor networks, microelectronics, circuit and systems, machine learning, soft computing, mobile computing and applications, cloud computing, software engineering, graphics and image processing, rural engineering, e-commerce, e-governance, business computing, molecular computing, nano-computing, chemical computing, intelligent computing for GIS and remote sensing, bio-informatics and bio-computing. These fields are not...

  18. A Framework for Function Allocation in Intelligent Driver Interface Design for Comfort and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuhong Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual framework for ecological function allocation and optimization matching solution for a human-machine interface with intelligent characteristics by lwho does what and when and howr consideration. As a highlighted example in nature-social system, intelligent transportation system has been playing increasingly role in keeping traffic safety, our research is concerned with identifying human factors problem of In-vehicle Support Systems (ISSs and revealing the consequence of the effects of ISSs on driver cognitive interface. The primary objective is to explore some new ergonomics principals that will be able to use to design an intelligent driver interface for comfort and safety, which will address the impact of driver interfaces layouts, traffic information types, and driving behavioral factors on the advanced vehicles safety design.

  19. 2nd International Conference on INformation Systems Design and Intelligent Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Satapathy, Suresh; Sanyal, Manas; Sarkar, Partha; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    The second international conference on INformation Systems Design and Intelligent Applications (INDIA – 2015) held in Kalyani, India during January 8-9, 2015. The book covers all aspects of information system design, computer science and technology, general sciences, and educational research. Upon a double blind review process, a number of high quality papers are selected and collected in the book, which is composed of two different volumes, and covers a variety of topics, including natural language processing, artificial intelligence, security and privacy, communications, wireless and sensor networks, microelectronics, circuit and systems, machine learning, soft computing, mobile computing and applications, cloud computing, software engineering, graphics and image processing, rural engineering, e-commerce, e-governance, business computing, molecular computing, nano computing, chemical computing, intelligent computing for GIS and remote sensing, bio-informatics and bio-computing. These fields are not only ...

  20. Rational Ligand Design for U(VI) and Pu(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szigethy, Geza

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power is an attractive alternative to hydrocarbon-based energy production at a time when moving away from carbon-producing processes is widely accepted as a significant developmental need. Hence, the radioactive actinide power sources for this industry are necessarily becoming more widespread, which is accompanied by the increased risk of exposure to both biological and environmental systems. This, in turn, requires the development of technology designed to remove such radioactive threats efficiently and selectively from contaminated material, whether that be contained nuclear waste streams or the human body. Raymond and coworkers (University of California, Berkeley) have for decades investigated the interaction of biologically-inspired, hard Lewis-base ligands with high-valent, early-actinide cations. It has been established that such ligands bind strongly to the hard Lewis-acidic early actinides, and many poly-bidentate ligands have been developed and shown to be effective chelators of actinide contaminants in vivo. Work reported herein explores the effect of ligand geometry on the linear U(IV) dioxo dication (uranyl, UO 2 2+ ). The goal is to utilize rational ligand design to develop ligands that exhibit shape selectivity towards linear dioxo cations and provides thermodynamically favorable binding interactions. The uranyl complexes with a series of tetradentate 3-hydroxy-pyridin-2-one (3,2-HOPO) ligands were studied in both the crystalline state as well as in solution. Despite significant geometric differences, the uranyl affinities of these ligands vary only slightly but are better than DTPA, the only FDA-approved chelation therapy for actinide contamination. The terepthalamide (TAM) moiety was combined into tris-beidentate ligands with 1,2- and 3,2-HOPO moieties were combined into hexadentate ligands whose structural preferences and solution thermodynamics were measured with the uranyl cation. In addition to achieving coordinative saturation, these

  1. Rational Ligand Design for U(VI) and Pu(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szigethy, Geza [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-08-12

    Nuclear power is an attractive alternative to hydrocarbon-based energy production at a time when moving away from carbon-producing processes is widely accepted as a significant developmental need. Hence, the radioactive actinide power sources for this industry are necessarily becoming more widespread, which is accompanied by the increased risk of exposure to both biological and environmental systems. This, in turn, requires the development of technology designed to remove such radioactive threats efficiently and selectively from contaminated material, whether that be contained nuclear waste streams or the human body. Raymond and coworkers (University of California, Berkeley) have for decades investigated the interaction of biologically-inspired, hard Lewis-base ligands with high-valent, early-actinide cations. It has been established that such ligands bind strongly to the hard Lewis-acidic early actinides, and many poly-bidentate ligands have been developed and shown to be effective chelators of actinide contaminants in vivo. Work reported herein explores the effect of ligand geometry on the linear U(IV) dioxo dication (uranyl, UO2 2+). The goal is to utilize rational ligand design to develop ligands that exhibit shape selectivity towards linear dioxo cations and provides thermodynamically favorable binding interactions. The uranyl complexes with a series of tetradentate 3-hydroxy-pyridin-2-one (3,2-HOPO) ligands were studied in both the crystalline state as well as in solution. Despite significant geometric differences, the uranyl affinities of these ligands vary only slightly but are better than DTPA, the only FDA-approved chelation therapy for actinide contamination. The terepthalamide (TAM) moiety was combined into tris-beidentate ligands with 1,2- and 3,2-HOPO moieties were combined into hexadentate ligands whose structural preferences and solution thermodynamics were measured with the uranyl cation. In addition to achieving coordinative

  2. Using Learning Analytics to Understand the Design of an Intelligent Language Tutor – Chatbot Lucy

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Fei Wang; Stephen Petrina

    2013-01-01

    the goal of this article is to explore how learning analytics can be used to predict and advise the design of an intelligent language tutor, chatbot Lucy. With its focus on using student-produced data to understand the design of Lucy to assist English language learning, this research can be a valuable component for language-learning designers to improve second language acquisition. In this article, we present students’ learning journey and data trails, the chatting log architecture and result...

  3. Rational Design of a New Trypanosoma rangeli Trans-Sialidase for Efficient Sialylation of Glycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Michalak, Malwina; Larsen, Dorte Møller

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports rational engineering of Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase to develop an effective enzyme for a potentially important type of reactivity: production of sialylated prebiotic glycans. The Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase and the homologous T. rangeli sialidase has previously been use...

  4. Intelligent Data-Driven Reverse Engineering of Software Design Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Alhusain, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Recognising implemented instances of Design Patterns (DPs) in software design discloses and recovers a wealth of information about the intention of the original designers and the rationale for their design decisions. Because it is often the case that the documentation available for software systems, if any, is poor and/or obsolete, recovering such information can be of great help and importance for maintenance tasks. However, since DPs are abstractly and vaguely defined, a set of software cla...

  5. Research-through-design for considering ethical implications in Ambient Intelligence system design: The Growth Plan approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, P.R.; Tomico, O.

    2009-01-01

    The technologies we use transform our behaviours and experiences. Particularly Ambient Intelligent (AmI) systems, envisioned to integrate extensively, will have a profound influence on our everyday lives. Design of these systems requires considering what kind of influence is desirable. This brings

  6. A Cybernetic Design Methodology for 'Intelligent' Online Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Stephen R.

    The World Wide Web (WWW) provides learners and knowledge workers convenient access to vast stores of information, so much that present methods for refinement of a query or search result are inadequate - there is far too much potentially useful material. The problem often encountered is that users usually do not recognise what may be useful until they have progressed some way through the discovery, learning, and knowledge acquisition process. Additional support is needed to structure and identify potentially relevant information, and to provide constructive feedback. In short, support for learning is needed. The learning envisioned here is not simply the capacity to recall facts or to recognise objects. The focus is on learning that results in the construction of knowledge. Although most online learning platforms are efficient at delivering information, most do not provide tools that support learning as envisaged in this chapter. It is conceivable that Web-based learning environments can incorporate software systems that assist learners to form new associations between concepts and synthesise information to create new knowledge. This chapter details the rationale and theory behind a research study that aims to evolve Web-based learning environments into 'intelligent thinking' systems that respond to natural language human input. Rather than functioning simply as a means of delivering information, it is argued that online learning solutions will 1 day interact directly with students to support their conceptual thinking and cognitive development.

  7. The Relationships between Paranormal Belief, Creationism, Intelligent Design and Evolution at Secondary Schools in Vienna (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; Van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale…

  8. Design of an Intelligent Support Agent Model for People with a Cognitive Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Zhang, B.; Wang, Y.; Kinser, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent agent application aimed at supporting people with a cognitive vulnerability to prevent the onset of a depression. For this, a computational model of the cognitive processes around depression is used. The agent application uses the principles of

  9. Does the design of a robot influence its animacy and perceived intelligence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.; Kanda, T.; Mubin, O.; Al Mahmud, A.

    2009-01-01

    Robots exhibit life-like behavior by performing intelligent actions. To enhance human-robot interaction it is necessary to investigate and understand how end-users perceive such animate behavior. In this paper, we report an experiment to investigate how people perceived different designs of robot

  10. Intelligent Design-theorieën zijn geen wetenschappelijke alternatieven voor de neodarwinistische evolutietheorie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dooremale

    2005-01-01

    textabstractDe minister van onderwijs – Maria van der Hoeven – meent dat Intelligent Design (ID) serieus als alternatief voor de neodarwiniaanse evolutietheorie moet worden bekeken. De discussie richt zich voornamelijk op de verdediging van de evolutietheorie tegen de aantijgingen van de

  11. Intelligent system for conceptural design of new reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki

    1995-01-01

    The software system IRDS has been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to support the conceptual design of a new type of reactor core in the fields of neutronics, thermohydraulics, and fuel behavior. IRDS involves various analysis codes, database, and man-machine interfaces that efficiently support a whole design process on a computer. The main purpose of conceptual design is to decide an optimal set of basic design parameters. Designers usually carry out many parametric survey calculations and search a design window (DW), which is a feasible parameter range satisfying design criteria and goals. An automatic DW search function is installed to support such works. The man-machine interface based on menu windows will enable nonspecialists to use various analysis codes easily

  12. P-glycoprotein recognition of substrates and circumvention through rational drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    It is now well recognized that membrane efflux transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1), play a role in determining the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicology behaviors of some drugs and molecules in development. An investment in screening structure-activity relationship (SAR) is warranted in early discovery when exposure and/or target activity in an in vivo efficacy model is not achieved and P-gp efflux is identified as a rate-limiting factor. However, the amount of investment in SAR must be placed into perspective by assessing the risks associated with the intended therapeutic target, the potency and margin of safety of the compound, the intended patient population(s), and the market competition. The task of rationally designing a chemistry strategy for circumventing a limiting P-gp interaction can be daunting. The necessity of retaining biological potency and metabolic stability places restrictions on what can be done, and the factors for P-gp recognition of substrates are complicated and poorly understood. The parameters within the assays that affect overall pump efficiency or net efflux, such as passive diffusion, membrane partitioning, and molecular interaction between pump and substrate, should be understood when interpreting data sets associated with chemistry around a scaffold. No single, functional group alone is often the cause, but one group can accentuate the recognition points existing within a scaffold. This can be likened to a rheostat, rather than an on/off switch, where addition or removal of a key group can increase or decrease the pumping efficiency. The most practical approach to de-emphasize the limiting effects of P-gp on a particular scaffold is to increase passive diffusion. Efflux pumping efficiency may be overcome when passive diffusion is fast enough. Eliminating, or substituting with fewer, groups that solvate in water, or decreasing their hydrogen bonding capacity, and adding halogen groups can

  13. Rational design of nanoparticles towards targeting antigen-presenting cells and improved T cell priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Eva; Curato, Caterina; Paisana, Maria; Rodrigues, Catarina; Porat, Ziv; Viana, Ana S; Afonso, Carlos A M; Pinto, João; Gaspar, Rogério; Moreira, João N; Satchi-Fainaro, Ronit; Jung, Steffen; Florindo, Helena F

    2017-07-28

    Vaccination is a promising strategy to trigger and boost immune responses against cancer or infectious disease. We have designed, synthesized and characterized aliphatic-polyester (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) to investigate how the nature of protein association (adsorbed versus entrapped) and polymer/surfactant concentrations impact on the generation and modulation of antigen-specific immune responses. The ability of the NP formulations to target dendritic cells (DC), be internalized and activate the T cells was characterized and optimized in vitro and in vivo using markers of DC activation and co-stimulatory molecules. Ovalbumin (OVA) was used as a model antigen in combination with the engraftment of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, carrying a transgenic OVA-responding T cell receptor (TCR), to trace and characterize the activation of antigen-specific CD4 + and CD8 + lymph node T cells upon NP vaccination. Accordingly, the phenotype and frequency of immune cell stimulation induced by the NP loaded with OVA, isolated or in combination with synthetic unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) motifs, were characterized. DC-NP interactions increased with incubation time, presenting internalization values between 50 and 60% and 30-40%, in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Interestingly, animal immunization with antigen-adsorbed NP up-regulated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHCII), while NP entrapping the antigen up-regulated MHCI, suggesting a more efficient cross-presentation. On the other hand, rather surprisingly, the surfactant used in the NP formulation had a major impact on the activation of antigen presenting cells (APC). In fact, DC collected from lymph nodes of animals immunized with NP prepared using poly(vinil alcohol) (PVA), as a surfactant, expressed significantly higher levels of CD86, MHCI and MHCII. In addition, those NP prepared with PVA and co-entrapping OVA and the toll

  14. System Design and Implementation of Intelligent Fire Engine Path Planning based on SAT Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Li-sha[1; ZENG Wei-peng[1; HAN Bao-ru[1

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, in order to make intelligent fi re car complete autonomy path planning in simulation map. Proposed system design of intelligent fi re car path planning based on SAT. The system includes a planning module, a communication module, a control module. Control module via the communication module upload the initial state and the goal state to planning module. Planning module solve this planning solution,and then download planning solution to control module, control the movement of the car fi re. Experiments show this the system is tracking short time, higher planning effi ciency.

  15. An intelligent design methodology for nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassersharif, B.; Martin, R.P.; Portal, M.G.; Gaeta, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to research possible methodologies into automating the design of, specifically, nuclear power facilities; however, it is relevant to all thermal power systems. The strategy of this research has been to concentrate on individual areas of the thermal design process, investigate procedures performed, develop methodology to emulate that behavior, and prototype it in the form of a computer program. The design process has been generalized as follows: problem definition, design definition, component selection procedure, optimization and engineering analysis, testing and final design with the problem definition defining constraints that will be applied to the selection procedure as well as design definition. The result of this research is a prototype computer program applying an original procedure for the selection of the best set of real components that would be used in constructing a system with desired performance characteristics. The mathematical model used for the selection procedure is possibility theory

  16. Intelligent computer systems in engineering design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sunnersjo, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory book discusses how to plan and build useful, reliable, maintainable and cost efficient computer systems for automated engineering design. The book takes a user perspective and seeks to bridge the gap between texts on principles of computer science and the user manuals for commercial design automation software. The approach taken is top-down, following the path from definition of the design task and clarification of the relevant design knowledge to the development of an operational system well adapted for its purpose. This introductory text for the practicing engineer working in industry covers most vital aspects of planning such a system. Experiences from applications of automated design systems in practice are reviewed based on a large number of real, industrial cases. The principles behind the most popular methods in design automation are presented with sufficient rigour to give the user confidence in applying them on real industrial problems. This book is also suited for a half semester c...

  17. Integrated Intelligent Modeling, Design and Control of Crystal Growth Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, V

    2000-01-01

    .... This MURI program took an integrated approach towards modeling, design and control of crystal growth processes and in conjunction with growth and characterization experiments developed much better...

  18. An intelligent and integrated V and V environment design for NPP I and C software systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Son Han Seong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is the safety critical system. Since, nuclear instrumentation and control (I and C) systems including the plant protection system play the brain part of human, nuclear I and C systems have an influence on safety and operation of NPP. Essentially, software V and V should be performed for the safety critical systems based on software. It is very important in the technical aspect because of the problems concerning license acquisitions. In this work, an intelligent and integrated V and V environment supporting the automation of V and V was designed. The intelligent and integrated V and V environment consists of the intelligent controller part, components part, interface part, and GUI part. These parts were integrated systematically, while taking their own independent functions

  19. Early user involvement in designing intelligent products and environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.; Steen, M.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review was conducted on user involvement in design. The focus of the review was on how researchers and designers attempt to cooperate with end-users, with the goal of making a better match with end-users’ needs and preferences. The main goal of the research was to get insight in which

  20. Logic Programs as a Specification and Description Tool in the Design Process of an Intelligent Tutoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Möbus, Claus

    1987-01-01

    We propose the use of logic programs when designing intelligent tutoring systems. With their help we specified the small-step semantics of the learning curriculum, designed the graphical user interface, derived instructions and modelled students' knowledge.

  1. DESIGN AN INTELLIGENT CONTROLLER FOR FULL VEHICLE NONLINEAR ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Aldair, A. A.; Wang, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of designed the controller for a vehicle suspension system is to reduce the discomfort sensed by passengers which arises from road roughness and to increase the ride handling associated with the pitching and rolling movements. This necessitates a very fast and accurate controller to meet as much control objectives, as possible. Therefore, this paper deals with an artificial intelligence Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) technique to design a robust controller to meet the control objectives....

  2. IADE: a system for intelligent automatic design of bioisosteric analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Peter; Lewis, Richard

    2012-11-01

    IADE, a software system supporting molecular modellers through the automatic design of non-classical bioisosteric analogs, scaffold hopping and fragment growing, is presented. The program combines sophisticated cheminformatics functionalities for constructing novel analogs and filtering them based on their drug-likeness and synthetic accessibility using automatic structure-based design capabilities: the best candidates are selected according to their similarity to the template ligand and to their interactions with the protein binding site. IADE works in an iterative manner, improving the fitness of designed molecules in every generation until structures with optimal properties are identified. The program frees molecular modellers from routine, repetitive tasks, allowing them to focus on analysis and evaluation of the automatically designed analogs, considerably enhancing their work efficiency as well as the area of chemical space that can be covered. The performance of IADE is illustrated through a case study of the design of a nonclassical bioisosteric analog of a farnesyltransferase inhibitor—an analog that has won a recent "Design a Molecule" competition.

  3. Methodology, Algorithms, and Emerging Tool for Automated Design of Intelligent Integrated Multi-Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas König

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel sensing elements, computing nodes, wireless communication and integration technology provides unprecedented possibilities for the design and application of intelligent systems. Each new application system must be designed from scratch, employing sophisticated methods ranging from conventional signal processing to computational intelligence. Currently, a significant part of this overall algorithmic chain of the computational system model still has to be assembled manually by experienced designers in a time and labor consuming process. In this research work, this challenge is picked up and a methodology and algorithms for automated design of intelligent integrated and resource-aware multi-sensor systems employing multi-objective evolutionary computation are introduced. The proposed methodology tackles the challenge of rapid-prototyping of such systems under realization constraints and, additionally, includes features of system instance specific self-correction for sustained operation of a large volume and in a dynamically changing environment. The extension of these concepts to the reconfigurable hardware platform renders so called self-x sensor systems, which stands, e.g., for self-monitoring, -calibrating, -trimming, and -repairing/-healing systems. Selected experimental results prove the applicability and effectiveness of our proposed methodology and emerging tool. By our approach, competitive results were achieved with regard to classification accuracy, flexibility, and design speed under additional design constraints.

  4. Intelligent Digitized Design Systems for the Management of Design Knowledge Related to Nuclear R&D Institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, M.; Minglu, W.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear R&D is highly knowledge-intensive. With the rapid advent and development of modern information technology, knowledge management in nuclear industry has been provided with new approaches and possibilities. This article introduces a framework of intelligent digitized design system in nuclear R&D phase and finds answer to knowledge application, internal process optimization, experience feedback and further innovation. This framework utilizing digitalization and informatization finds a way to incorporate the process of the “Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization” (SECI) model which include intelligent design process, integrated design software, smart verification and validation simulation platform, experiment data management platform, online monitoring platform and digital twin nuclear power plant, etc. The following case study gives a clear picture of what and how knowledge management has been performed under this framework. Furthermore, important lessons have been summarized. (author

  5. The Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Apparel Recommend Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now with the rapid development of information science and technology, intelligent apparel recommend has drawn wide attention in apparel retail industry. Intelligent management and effective recommend are two issues of crucial importance for the retail store to enhance its corporate influence and increase its economic benefits. This paper proposes an intelligent recommend system design scheme for apparel retail which is based on expert system. By comprehensive utilization of database management and expert system technology, the proposed system provides a solid solution in improving the customer shopping experience. This paper presents a kind of object-oriented blackboard structure, which is applied in the apparel recommend expert system and establishes expert rule on the basis of apparel characteristic elements. Through the establishment of the rule base, the system generates personal recommend list by positive rule reasoning mechanism engine. The proposed method thus gives dress collocation scheme for the customer through the human-machine interaction from the point of view of the apparel experts. This design scheme avails the customers to experience targeted service with intellectualization, and personalization and it has certain reference significance for promoting apparel retail intelligence development.

  6. The Assessment of Rational Thinking: IQ ? RQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that distinguishing between rationality and intelligence helps explain how people can be, at the same time, intelligent and irrational (Stanovich, 2009). As such, researchers need to study separately the individual differences in cognitive skills that underlie intelligence and the individual differences in…

  7. Rational design of a bi-layered reduced graphene oxide film on polystyrene foam for solar-driven interfacial water evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Le; Wang, Yuchao; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Solar-driven water evaporation has been emerging as a highly efficient way for utilizing solar energy for clean water production and wastewater treatment. Here we rationally designed and fabricated a bi-layered photothermal membrane with a porous

  8. Development of a Preventive HIV Vaccine Requires Solving Inverse Problems Which Is Unattainable by Rational Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc H. V. Van Regenmortel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypotheses and theories are essential constituents of the scientific method. Many vaccinologists are unaware that the problems they try to solve are mostly inverse problems that consist in imagining what could bring about a desired outcome. An inverse problem starts with the result and tries to guess what are the multiple causes that could have produced it. Compared to the usual direct scientific problems that start with the causes and derive or calculate the results using deductive reasoning and known mechanisms, solving an inverse problem uses a less reliable inductive approach and requires the development of a theoretical model that may have different solutions or none at all. Unsuccessful attempts to solve inverse problems in HIV vaccinology by reductionist methods, systems biology and structure-based reverse vaccinology are described. The popular strategy known as rational vaccine design is unable to solve the multiple inverse problems faced by HIV vaccine developers. The term “rational” is derived from “rational drug design” which uses the 3D structure of a biological target for designing molecules that will selectively bind to it and inhibit its biological activity. In vaccine design, however, the word “rational” simply means that the investigator is concentrating on parts of the system for which molecular information is available. The economist and Nobel laureate Herbert Simon introduced the concept of “bounded rationality” to explain why the complexity of the world economic system makes it impossible, for instance, to predict an event like the financial crash of 2007–2008. Humans always operate under unavoidable constraints such as insufficient information, a limited capacity to process huge amounts of data and a limited amount of time available to reach a decision. Such limitations always prevent us from achieving the complete understanding and optimization of a complex system that would be needed to achieve a truly

  9. Empirical versus Random Item Selection in the Design of Intelligence Test Short Forms--The WISC-R Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, David S.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages of using psychometric thoery to design short forms of intelligence tests are demonstrated by comparing such usage to a systematic random procedure that has previously been used. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) Short Form is presented as an example. (JKS)

  10. Design of an intelligent flight instrumentation unit using embedded RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Marmolejo, R.; García-Torales, G.; Torres-Ortega, H. H.; Flores, J. L.

    2011-09-01

    Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAV) must calculate its spatial position to control the flight dynamics, which is done by Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). MEMS Inertial sensors have made possible to reduce the size and power consumption of such units. Commonly the flight instrumentation operates independently of the main processor. This work presents an instrumentation block design, which reduces size and power consumption of the complete system of a MUAV. This is done by coupling the inertial sensors to the main processor without considering any intermediate level of processing aside. Using Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) reduces the number of intermediate components, increasing MUAV reliability. One advantage is the possibility to control several different sensors with a single communication bus. This feature of the MEMS sensors makes a smaller and less complex MUAV design possible.

  11. A constraint-based approach to intelligent support of nuclear reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo

    1993-01-01

    Constraint is a powerful representation to formulate and solve problems in design; a constraint-based approach to intelligent support of nuclear reactor design is proposed. We first discuss the features of the approach, and then present the architecture of a nuclear reactor design support system under development. In this design support system, the knowledge base contains constraints useful to structure the design space as object class definitions, and several types of constraint resolvers are provided as design support subsystems. The adopted method of constraint resolution are explained in detail. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated using two design problems: Design window search and multiobjective optimization in nuclear reactor design. (orig./HP)

  12. Cursor Movement – a Valuable Indicator in Intelligent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Versavia Ancusa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Systems that react to emotional information allow for better satisfaction of the user’s needs, stated or otherwise. Special support should be built-in, in order to read and measure the timevariable user’s affective state. This paper presents how cursor movement can accurately measure two basic emotional states and introduces a way to measure the emotional flow graph of an application, which allows for better user design.

  13. INTELLIGENT DESIGN: ON THE EMULATION OF COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Michael D.; Holm, Oskar; Knox, Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    Simulation design is the choice of locations in parameter space at which simulations are to be run and is the first step in building an emulator capable of quickly providing estimates of simulation results for arbitrary locations in the parameter space. We introduce an alteration to the 'OALHS' design used by Heitmann et al. that reduces the number of simulation runs required to achieve a fixed accuracy in our case study by a factor of two. We also compare interpolation procedures for emulators and find that interpolation via Gaussian process models and via the much-easier-to-implement polynomial interpolation have comparable accuracy. A very simple emulation-building procedure consisting of a design sampled from the parameter prior distribution, combined with interpolation via polynomials also performs well. Although our primary motivation is efficient emulators of nonlinear cosmological N-body simulations, in an appendix we describe an emulator for the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum publicly available as a computer code.

  14. CATO: a CAD tool for intelligent design of optical networks and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlamtac, Imrich; Ciesielski, Maciej; Fumagalli, Andrea F.; Ruszczyk, Chester; Wedzinga, Gosse

    1997-10-01

    Increasing communication speed requirements have created a great interest in very high speed optical and all-optical networks and interconnects. The design of these optical systems is a highly complex task, requiring the simultaneous optimization of various parts of the system, ranging from optical components' characteristics to access protocol techniques. Currently there are no computer aided design (CAD) tools on the market to support the interrelated design of all parts of optical communication systems, thus the designer has to rely on costly and time consuming testbed evaluations. The objective of the CATO (CAD tool for optical networks and interconnects) project is to develop a prototype of an intelligent CAD tool for the specification, design, simulation and optimization of optical communication networks. CATO allows the user to build an abstract, possible incomplete, model of the system, and determine its expected performance. Based on design constraints provided by the user, CATO will automatically complete an optimum design, using mathematical programming techniques, intelligent search methods and artificial intelligence (AI). Initial design and testing of a CATO prototype (CATO-1) has been completed recently. The objective was to prove the feasibility of combining AI techniques, simulation techniques, an optical device library and a graphical user interface into a flexible CAD tool for obtaining optimal communication network designs in terms of system cost and performance. CATO-1 is an experimental tool for designing packet-switching wavelength division multiplexing all-optical communication systems using a LAN/MAN ring topology as the underlying network. The two specific AI algorithms incorporated are simulated annealing and a genetic algorithm. CATO-1 finds the optimal number of transceivers for each network node, using an objective function that includes the cost of the devices and the overall system performance.

  15. [An object-oriented intelligent engineering design approach for lake pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rui; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Xiang; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping-Jian; Guo, Huai-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    Regarding the shortage and deficiency of traditional lake pollution control engineering techniques, a new lake pollution control engineering approach was proposed in this study, based on object-oriented intelligent design (OOID) from the perspective of intelligence. It can provide a new methodology and framework for effectively controlling lake pollution and improving water quality. The differences between the traditional engineering techniques and the OOID approach were compared. The key points for OOID were described as object perspective, cause and effect foundation, set points into surface, and temporal and spatial optimization. The blue algae control in lake was taken as an example in this study. The effect of algae control and water quality improvement were analyzed in details from the perspective of object-oriented intelligent design based on two engineering techniques (vertical hydrodynamic mixer and pumping algaecide recharge). The modeling results showed that the traditional engineering design paradigm cannot provide scientific and effective guidance for engineering design and decision-making regarding lake pollution. Intelligent design approach is based on the object perspective and quantitative causal analysis in this case. This approach identified that the efficiency of mixers was much higher than pumps in achieving the goal of low to moderate water quality improvement. However, when the objective of water quality exceeded a certain value (such as the control objective of peak Chla concentration exceeded 100 microg x L(-1) in this experimental water), the mixer cannot achieve this goal. The pump technique can achieve the goal but with higher cost. The efficiency of combining the two techniques was higher than using one of the two techniques alone. Moreover, the quantitative scale control of the two engineering techniques has a significant impact on the actual project benefits and costs.

  16. Intelligence by design in an entropic power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Pincetic, Matias Alejandro

    In this work, the term Entropic Grid is coined to describe a power grid with increased levels of uncertainty and dynamics. These new features will require the reconsideration of well-established paradigms in the way of planning and operating the grid and its associated markets. New tools and models able to handle uncertainty and dynamics will form the required scaffolding to properly capture the behavior of the physical system, along with the value of new technologies and policies. The leverage of this knowledge will facilitate the design of new architectures to organize power and energy systems and their associated markets. This work presents several results, tools and models with the goal of contributing to that design objective. A central idea of this thesis is that the definition of products is critical in electricity markets. When markets are constructed with appropriate product definitions in mind, the interference between the physical and the market/financial systems seen in today's markets can be reduced. A key element of evaluating market designs is understanding the impact that salient features of an entropic grid---uncertainty, dynamics, constraints---can have on the electricity markets. Dynamic electricity market models tailored to capture such features are developed in this work. Using a multi-settlement dynamic electricity market, the impact of volatility is investigated. The results show the need to implement policies and technologies able to cope with the volatility of renewable sources. Similarly, using a dynamic electricity market model in which ramping costs are considered, the impacts of those costs on electricity markets are investigated. The key conclusion is that those additional ramping costs, in average terms, are not reflected in electricity prices. These results reveal several difficulties with today's real-time markets. Elements of an alternative architecture to organize these markets are also discussed.

  17. The Design and Realization of Household Intelligent Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Sheng-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Smart home has brought great convenience to the lives of humans. However, we have attached quantities of interest in its security as the development of technology goes on. According to the security requirements at the moment, we introduce the scheme of smart home security system based on ZigBee, and design system hardware and software process. By applying a STC89C52 microcontroller, our system is able to accurately detect and give alarms automatically to house fire, harmful gases and thefts.

  18. Rational Design Approach for Enhancing Higher-Mode Response of a Microcantilever in Vibro-Impacting Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Migliniene

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for designing an efficient vibration energy harvester based on a vibro-impacting piezoelectric microcantilever with a geometric shape that has been rationally modified in accordance with results of dynamic optimization. The design goal is to increase the amplitudes of higher-order vibration modes induced during the vibro-impact response of the piezoelectric transducer, thereby providing a means to improve the energy conversion efficiency and power output. A rational configuration of the energy harvester is proposed and it is demonstrated that the new design retains essential modal characteristics of the optimal microcantilever structures, further providing the added benefit of less costly fabrication. The effects of structural dynamics associated with advantageous exploitation of higher vibration modes are analyzed experimentally by means of laser vibrometry as well as numerically via transient simulations of microcantilever response to random excitation. Electrical characterization results indicate that the proposed harvester outperforms its conventional counterpart (based on the microcantilever of the constant cross-section in terms of generated electrical output. Reported results may serve for the development of impact-type micropower generators with harvesting performance that is enhanced by virtue of self-excitation of large intensity higher-order mode responses when the piezoelectric transducer is subjected to relatively low-frequency excitation with strongly variable vibration magnitudes.

  19. Intelligent Design of Nano-Scale Molecular Imaging Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeaki Ozawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual representation and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within living subjects are gaining great interest in life science to address frontier issues in pathology and physiology. As intact living subjects do not emit any optical signature, visual representation usually exploits nano-scale imaging agents as the source of image contrast. Many imaging agents have been developed for this purpose, some of which exert nonspecific, passive, and physical interaction with a target. Current research interest in molecular imaging has mainly shifted to fabrication of smartly integrated, specific, and versatile agents that emit fluorescence or luminescence as an optical readout. These agents include luminescent quantum dots (QDs, biofunctional antibodies, and multifunctional nanoparticles. Furthermore, genetically encoded nano-imaging agents embedding fluorescent proteins or luciferases are now gaining popularity. These agents are generated by integrative design of the components, such as luciferase, flexible linker, and receptor to exert a specific on–off switching in the complex context of living subjects. In the present review, we provide an overview of the basic concepts, smart design, and practical contribution of recent nano-scale imaging agents, especially with respect to genetically encoded imaging agents.

  20. Development of core thermal-hydraulics module for intelligent reactor design system (IRDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Fujii, Sadao.

    1994-08-01

    We have developed an innovative reactor core thermal-hydraulics module where a designer can easily and efficiently evaluate his design concept of a new type reactor in the thermal-hydraulics field. The main purpose of this module is to decide a feasible range of basic design parameters of a reactor core in a conceptual design stage of a new type reactor. The module is to be implemented in Intelligent Reactor Design System (IRDS). The module has the following characteristics; 1) to deal with several reactor types, 2) four thermal hydraulics and fuel behavior analysis codes are installed to treat different type of reactors and design detail, 3) to follow flexibly modification of a reactor concept, 4) to provide analysis results in an understandable way so that a designer can easily evaluate feasibility of his concept, and so on. The module runs on an engineering workstation (EWS) and has a user-friendly man-machine interface on a pre- and post-processing. And it is equipped with a function to search a feasible range called as Design Window, for two design parameters by artificial intelligence (AI) technique and knowledge engineering. In this report, structure, guidance for users of an usage of the module and instruction of input data for analysis modules are presented. (author)

  1. Issues regarding the design and acceptance of intelligent support systems for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, factors relevant to the design and acceptance of intelligent support systems for the operation of nuclear power plants are enumerated and discussed. The central premise is that conventional expert systems which encode experiential knowledge in production rules are not a suitable vehicle for the creation of practical operator support systems. The principal difficulty is the need for real-time operation. This in turn means that intelligent support systems will have knowledge bases derived from temporally accurate plant models, inference engines that permit revisions in the search process so as to accommodate revised or new data, and man-machine interfaces that do not require any human input. Such systems will have to be heavily instrumented and the associated knowledge bases will require a hierarchical organization so as to emulate human approaches to analysis. Issues related to operator acceptance of intelligent support tools are then reviewed. Possible applications are described and the relative merits of the machine- and human-centered approaches to the implementation of intelligent support systems are enumerated. The paper concludes with a plea for additional experimental evaluations

  2. Design of Sail-Assisted Unmanned Surface Vehicle Intelligent Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the wind sail-assisted function of the unmanned surface vehicle (USV, this work focuses on the design problems of the sail-assisted USV intelligent control systems (SUICS and illustrates the implementation process of the SUICS. The SUICS consists of the communication system, the sensor system, the PC platform, and the lower machine platform. To make full use of the wind energy, in the SUICS, we propose the sail angle of attack automatic adjustment (Sail_4A algorithm and present the realization flow for each subsystem of the SUICS. By using the test boat, the design and implementation of the SUICS are fulfilled systematically. Experiments verify the performance and effectiveness of our SUICS. The SUICS enhances the intelligent utility of sustainable wind energy for the sail-assisted USV significantly and plays a vital role in shipping energy-saving emission reduction requirements issued by International Maritime Organization (IMO.

  3. Design and Optimization of Intelligent Service Robot Suspension System Using Dynamic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Soo Ho; Jung, Sung Pil; Jun, Kab Jin; Yoon, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, an intelligent service robot is being developed for use in guiding and providing information to visitors about the building at public institutions. The intelligent robot has a sensor at the bottom to recognize its location. Four wheels, which are arranged in the form of a lozenge, support the robot. This robot cannot be operated on uneven ground because its driving parts are attached to its main body that contains the important internal components. Continuous impact with the ground can change the precise positions of the components and weaken the connection between each structural part. In this paper, the design of the suspension system for such a robot is described. The dynamic model of the robot is created, and the driving characteristics of the robot with the designed suspension system are simulated. Additionally, the suspension system is optimized to reduce the impact for the robot components

  4. Rational Multiparty Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Wallrabenstein, John Ross

    2014-01-01

    The field of rational cryptography considers the design of cryptographic protocols in the presence of rational agents seeking to maximize local utility functions. This departs from the standard secure multiparty computation setting, where players are assumed to be either honest or malicious. ^ We detail the construction of both a two-party and a multiparty game theoretic framework for constructing rational cryptographic protocols. Our framework specifies the utility function assumptions neces...

  5. Designing Intelligent Secure Android Application for Effective Chemical Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukran, Mohd Afizi Mohd; Naim Abdullah, Muhammad; Nazri Ismail, Mohd; Maskat, Kamaruzaman; Isa, Mohd Rizal Mohd; Shahfee Ishak, Muhammad; Adib Khairuddin, Muhamad

    2017-08-01

    Mobile services support various situations in everyday life and with the increasing sophistication of phone functions, the daily life is much more easier and better especially in term of managing tools and apparatus. Since chemical inventory management system has been experiencing a new revolution from antiquated to an automated inventory management system, some additional features should be added in current chemical inventory system. Parallel with the modern technologies, chemical inventory application using smart phone has been developed. Several studies about current related chemical inventory management using smart phone application has been done in this paper in order to obtain an overview on recent studies in smartphone application for chemical inventory system which are needed in schools, universities or other education institutions. This paper also discuss about designing the proposed secure mobile chemical inventory system. The study of this paper can provide forceful review analysis support for the chemical inventory management system related research.

  6. Optimal fuel loading pattern design using artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byung Ho

    1993-01-01

    The Optimal Fuel Shuffling System (OFSS) is developed for optimal design of PWR fuel loading pattern. OFSS is a hybrid system that a rule based system, a fuzzy logic, and an artificial neural network are connected each other. The rule based system classifies loading patterns into two classes using several heuristic rules and a fuzzy rule. A fuzzy rule is introduced to achieve more effective and fast searching. Its membership function is automatically updated in accordance with the prediction results. The artificial neural network predicts core parameters for the patterns generated from the rule based system. The back-propagation network is used for fast prediction of core parameters. The artificial neural network and the fuzzy logic can be used as the tool for improvement of existing algorithm's capabilities. OFSS was demonstrated and validated for cycle 1 of Kori unit 1 PWR. (Author)

  7. Concept of object-oriented intelligent support for nuclear reactor designing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Gofuku, A.

    1991-01-01

    A concept of object-oriented intelligent CAD/CAE environment is proposed for the conceptual designing of advanced nuclear reactor system. It is composed of (i) object-oriented frame-structure database which represents the hierarchical relationship of the composite elements of reactor core and the physical properties, and (ii) object-oriented modularization of the elementary calculation processes, which are needed for reactor core design analysis. As an example practise, an object-oriented frame structure is constructed for representing a 3D configuration of a special fuel element of a space reactor design, by using a general-purpose expert system shell ESHELL/X. (author)

  8. An Intelligent System for Modelling, Design and Analysis of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    ICAS, Integrated Computer Aided System, is a software that consists of a number of intelligent tools, which are very suitable, among others, for computer aided modelling, sustainable design of chemical and biochemical processes, and design-analysis of product-process monitoring systems. Each...... the computer aided modelling tool will illustrate how to generate a desired process model, how to analyze the model equations, how to extract data and identify the model and make it ready for various types of application. In sustainable process design, the example will highlight the issue of integration...

  9. Designing distributed user interfaces for ambient intelligent environments using models and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    LUYTEN, Kris; VAN DEN BERGH, Jan; VANDERVELPEN, Chris; CONINX, Karin

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing demand for design support to create interactive systems that are deployed in ambient intelligent environments. Unlike traditional interactive systems, the wide diversity of situations these type of user interfaces need to work in require tool support that is close to the environment of the end-user on the one hand and provide a smooth integration with the application logic on the other hand. This paper shows how the model-based user interface development methodology can be ...

  10. Design of Sail-Assisted Unmanned Surface Vehicle Intelligent Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yong; Zhao, Yujiao; Diao, Jiantao; Gan, Langxiong; Bi, Huaxiong; Zhao, Jingming

    2016-01-01

    To achieve the wind sail-assisted function of the unmanned surface vehicle (USV), this work focuses on the design problems of the sail-assisted USV intelligent control systems (SUICS) and illustrates the implementation process of the SUICS. The SUICS consists of the communication system, the sensor system, the PC platform, and the lower machine platform. To make full use of the wind energy, in the SUICS, we propose the sail angle of attack automatic adjustment (Sail_4A) algorithm and present ...

  11. Design of Bus Protocol Intelligent Initiation System Based On RS485

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design an effective and reliable RS485 bus protocol based on RS485 bus, this paper introduces the structure and transmission mode of the command frame and the response frame, and also introduce four control measures and the communication in order to process quality of this system. The communication protocol is open, tolerant, reliable and fast, and can realize ignition more reliable and accurate in the intelligent initiation system.

  12. Cognitive Connected Vehicle Information System Design Requirement for Safety: Role of Bayesian Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Ata Khan

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are gaining acceptance around the world and the connected vehicle component of ITS is recognized as a high priority research and development area in many technologically advanced countries. Connected vehicles are expected to have the capability of safe, efficient and eco-driving operations whether these are under human control or in the adaptive machine control mode of operations. The race is on to design the capability to operate in connected traffic ...

  13. Design a Smart Control Strategy to Implement an Intelligent Energy Safety and Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Min Wang; Ming-Ta Yang

    2014-01-01

    The energy saving and electricity safety are today a cause for increasing concern for homes and buildings. Integrating the radio frequency identification (RFID) and ZigBee wireless sensor network (WSN) mature technologies, the paper designs a smart control strategy to implement an intelligent energy safety and management system (IESMS) which performs energy measuring, controlling, monitoring, and saving of the power outlet system. The presented RFID and billing module is used to identify user...

  14. Self-Calibration and Optimal Response in Intelligent Sensors Design Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Bojorquez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of smart sensors involves the design of reconfigurable systemscapable of working with different input sensors. Reconfigurable systems ideally shouldspend the least possible amount of time in their calibration. An autocalibration algorithmfor intelligent sensors should be able to fix major problems such as offset, variation of gainand lack of linearity, as accurately as possible. This paper describes a new autocalibrationmethodology for nonlinear intelligent sensors based on artificial neural networks, ANN.The methodology involves analysis of several network topologies and training algorithms.The proposed method was compared against the piecewise and polynomial linearizationmethods. Method comparison was achieved using different number of calibration points,and several nonlinear levels of the input signal. This paper also shows that the proposedmethod turned out to have a better overall accuracy than the other two methods. Besides,experimentation results and analysis of the complete study, the paper describes theimplementation of the ANN in a microcontroller unit, MCU. In order to illustrate themethod capability to build autocalibration and reconfigurable systems, a temperaturemeasurement system was designed and tested. The proposed method is an improvement over the classic autocalibration methodologies, because it impacts on the design process of intelligent sensors, autocalibration methodologies and their associated factors, like time and cost.

  15. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)

  16. Converting bulk sugars into prebiotics: semi-rational design of a transglucosylase with controlled selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Tom; De Winter, Karel; Berland, Magali; De Vreese, Rob; D'hooghe, Matthias; Offmann, Bernard; Desmet, Tom

    2016-03-04

    Despite the growing importance of prebiotics in nutrition and gastroenterology, their structural variety is currently still very limited. The lack of straightforward procedures to gain new products in sufficient amounts often hampers application testing and further development. Although the enzyme sucrose phosphorylase can be used to produce the rare disaccharide kojibiose (α-1,2-glucobiose) from the bulk sugars sucrose and glucose, the target compound is only a side product that is difficult to isolate. Accordingly, for this biocatalyst to become economically attractive, the formation of other glucobioses should be avoided and therefore we applied semi-rational mutagenesis and low-throughput screening, which resulted in a double mutant (L341I_Q345S) with a selectivity of 95% for kojibiose. That way, an efficient and scalable production process with a yield of 74% could be established, and with a simple yeast treatment and crystallization step over a hundred grams of highly pure kojibiose (>99.5%) was obtained.

  17. Rational design and evolutional fine tuning of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for biomass breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Conferring biomass hydrolysis activity on yeast through genetic engineering has paved the way for the development of groundbreaking processes for producing liquid fuels and commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. However, the overproduction and misfolding of heterologous and endogenous proteins can trigger cellular stress, increasing the metabolic burden and retarding growth. Improving the efficiency of lignocellulosic breakdown requires engineering of yeast secretory pathway based on system-wide metabolic analysis as well as DNA constructs for enhanced cellulase gene expression with advanced molecular biology tools. Also, yeast is subjected to severe stress due to toxic compounds generated during lignocellulose pretreatment in consolidated saccharification and fermentation processes. The prospect for development of robust yeast strains makes combining evolutionary and rational engineering strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intelligent Environmental Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2018-01-30

    Due to the inherent complexity of environmental problems, especially water and air pollution, the utility of single-function environmental nanomaterials used in conventional and unconventional environmental treatment technologies are gradually reaching their limits. Intelligent nanomaterials with environmentally-responsive functionalities have shown potential to improve the performance of existing and new environmental technologies. By rational design of their structures and functionalities, intelligent nanomaterials can perform different tasks in response to varying application scenarios for the purpose of achieving the best performance. This review offers a critical analysis of the design concepts and latest progresses on the intelligent environmental nanomaterials in filtration membranes with responsive gates, materials with switchable wettability for selective and on-demand oil/water separation, environmental materials with self-healing capability, and emerging nanofibrous air filters for PM2.5 removal. We hope that this review will inspire further research efforts to develop intelligent environmental nanomaterials for the enhancement of the overall quality of environmental or human health.

  19. Intelligent Environmental Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Due to the inherent complexity of environmental problems, especially water and air pollution, the utility of single-function environmental nanomaterials used in conventional and unconventional environmental treatment technologies are gradually reaching their limits. Intelligent nanomaterials with environmentally-responsive functionalities have shown potential to improve the performance of existing and new environmental technologies. By rational design of their structures and functionalities, intelligent nanomaterials can perform different tasks in response to varying application scenarios for the purpose of achieving the best performance. This review offers a critical analysis of the design concepts and latest progresses on the intelligent environmental nanomaterials in filtration membranes with responsive gates, materials with switchable wettability for selective and on-demand oil/water separation, environmental materials with self-healing capability, and emerging nanofibrous air filters for PM2.5 removal. We hope that this review will inspire further research efforts to develop intelligent environmental nanomaterials for the enhancement of the overall quality of environmental or human health.

  20. Integration of artificial intelligence and numerical optimization techniques for the design of complex aerospace systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.S.; Powell, D.; Goel, S.

    1992-02-01

    A new software system called Engineous combines artificial intelligence and numerical methods for the design and optimization of complex aerospace systems. Engineous combines the advanced computational techniques of genetic algorithms, expert systems, and object-oriented programming with the conventional methods of numerical optimization and simulated annealing to create a design optimization environment that can be applied to computational models in various disciplines. Engineous has produced designs with higher predicted performance gains that current manual design processes - on average a 10-to-1 reduction of turnaround time - and has yielded new insights into product design. It has been applied to the aerodynamic preliminary design of an aircraft engine turbine, concurrent aerodynamic and mechanical preliminary design of an aircraft engine turbine blade and disk, a space superconductor generator, a satellite power converter, and a nuclear-powered satellite reactor and shield. 23 refs

  1. Protein engineering of Bacillus acidopullulyticus pullulanase for enhanced thermostability using in silico data driven rational design methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ana; Li, Yamei; Nie, Jianqi; McNeil, Brian; Jeffrey, Laura; Yang, Yankun; Bai, Zhonghu

    2015-10-01

    Thermostability has been considered as a requirement in the starch processing industry to maintain high catalytic activity of pullulanase under high temperatures. Four data driven rational design methods (B-FITTER, proline theory, PoPMuSiC-2.1, and sequence consensus approach) were adopted to identify the key residue potential links with thermostability, and 39 residues of Bacillus acidopullulyticus pullulanase were chosen as mutagenesis targets. Single mutagenesis followed by combined mutagenesis resulted in the best mutant E518I-S662R-Q706P, which exhibited an 11-fold half-life improvement at 60 °C and a 9.5 °C increase in Tm. The optimum temperature of the mutant increased from 60 to 65 °C. Fluorescence spectroscopy results demonstrated that the tertiary structure of the mutant enzyme was more compact than that of the wild-type (WT) enzyme. Structural change analysis revealed that the increase in thermostability was most probably caused by a combination of lower stability free-energy and higher hydrophobicity of E518I, more hydrogen bonds of S662R, and higher rigidity of Q706P compared with the WT. The findings demonstrated the effectiveness of combined data-driven rational design approaches in engineering an industrial enzyme to improve thermostability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gleaning Insights from Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Probiotic Studies for the Rational Design of Combination Microbial Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren E.; Anderson, Sarah E.; Corbett, Anita H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Beneficial microorganisms hold promise for the treatment of numerous gastrointestinal diseases. The transfer of whole microbiota via fecal transplantation has already been shown to ameliorate the severity of diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and others. However, the exact mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplant efficacy and the particular strains conferring this benefit are still unclear. Rationally designed combinations of microbial preparations may enable more efficient and effective treatment approaches tailored to particular diseases. Here we use an infectious disease, C. difficile infection, and an inflammatory disorder, the inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis, as examples to facilitate the discussion of how microbial therapy might be rationally designed for specific gastrointestinal diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation has already shown some efficacy in the treatment of both these disorders; detailed comparisons of studies evaluating commensal and probiotic organisms in the context of these disparate gastrointestinal diseases may shed light on potential protective mechanisms and elucidate how future microbial therapies can be tailored to particular diseases. PMID:27856521

  3. SmartWeld/SmartProcess - intelligent model based system for the design and validation of welding processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchner, J.

    1996-04-01

    Diagrams are presented on an intelligent model based system for the design and validation of welding processes. Key capabilities identified include `right the first time` manufacturing, continuous improvement, and on-line quality assurance.

  4. Design And Implementation of Dsp-Based Intelligent Controller For Automobile Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Sidek and M.J.E. Salami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent braking system has great potential applications especially, in developed countries where research on smart vehicle and intelligent highways are receiving ample attention. The system when integrated with other subsystems like automatic traction control, intelligent throttle, and auto cruise systems, etc will result in smart vehicle maneuver. The driver at the end of the day will become the passenger, safety accorded the highest priority and the journey optimized in term of time duration, cost, efficiency and comfortability. The impact of such design and development will cater for the need of contemporary society that aspires to a quality drive as well as to accommodate the advancement of technology especially in the area of smart sensors and actuators.  The emergence of digital signal processor enhances the capacity and features of universal microcontroller.  This paper introduces the use of TI DSP, TMS320LF2407 as an engine of the system. The overall system is designed so that the value of inter-vehicle distance from infrared laser sensor and speed of follower car from speedometer are fed into the DSP for processing, resulting in the DSP issuing commands to the actuator to function appropriately.Key words:  Smart Vehicle, Digital Signal Processor, Fuzzy Controller, and Infra Red Laser Sensor

  5. A methodology for the design of experiments in computational intelligence with multiple regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Gestal, Marcos; Munteanu, Cristian R; Dorado, Julian; Pazos, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The design of experiments and the validation of the results achieved with them are vital in any research study. This paper focuses on the use of different Machine Learning approaches for regression tasks in the field of Computational Intelligence and especially on a correct comparison between the different results provided for different methods, as those techniques are complex systems that require further study to be fully understood. A methodology commonly accepted in Computational intelligence is implemented in an R package called RRegrs. This package includes ten simple and complex regression models to carry out predictive modeling using Machine Learning and well-known regression algorithms. The framework for experimental design presented herein is evaluated and validated against RRegrs. Our results are different for three out of five state-of-the-art simple datasets and it can be stated that the selection of the best model according to our proposal is statistically significant and relevant. It is of relevance to use a statistical approach to indicate whether the differences are statistically significant using this kind of algorithms. Furthermore, our results with three real complex datasets report different best models than with the previously published methodology. Our final goal is to provide a complete methodology for the use of different steps in order to compare the results obtained in Computational Intelligence problems, as well as from other fields, such as for bioinformatics, cheminformatics, etc., given that our proposal is open and modifiable.

  6. A methodology for the design of experiments in computational intelligence with multiple regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernandez-Lozano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of experiments and the validation of the results achieved with them are vital in any research study. This paper focuses on the use of different Machine Learning approaches for regression tasks in the field of Computational Intelligence and especially on a correct comparison between the different results provided for different methods, as those techniques are complex systems that require further study to be fully understood. A methodology commonly accepted in Computational intelligence is implemented in an R package called RRegrs. This package includes ten simple and complex regression models to carry out predictive modeling using Machine Learning and well-known regression algorithms. The framework for experimental design presented herein is evaluated and validated against RRegrs. Our results are different for three out of five state-of-the-art simple datasets and it can be stated that the selection of the best model according to our proposal is statistically significant and relevant. It is of relevance to use a statistical approach to indicate whether the differences are statistically significant using this kind of algorithms. Furthermore, our results with three real complex datasets report different best models than with the previously published methodology. Our final goal is to provide a complete methodology for the use of different steps in order to compare the results obtained in Computational Intelligence problems, as well as from other fields, such as for bioinformatics, cheminformatics, etc., given that our proposal is open and modifiable.

  7. SOA enabled ELTA: approach in designing business intelligence solutions in Era of Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Dmitriyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents a new approach for designing business intelligence solutions. In the Era of Big Data, former and robust analytical concepts and utilities need to adapt themselves to the changed market circumstances. The main focus of this work is to address the acceleration of building process of a “data-centric” Business Intelligence (BI solution besides preparing BI solutions for Big Data utilization. This research addresses the following goals: reducing the time spent during business intelligence solution’s design phase; achieving flexibility of BI solution by adding new data sources; and preparing BI solution for utilizing Big Data concepts. This research proposes an extension of the existing Extract, Load and Transform (ELT approach to the new one Extract, Load, Transform and Analyze (ELTA supported by service-orientation concept. Additionally, the proposed model incorporates Service-Oriented Architecture concept as a mediator for the transformation phase. On one side, such incorporation brings flexibility to the BI solution and on the other side; it reduces the complexity of the whole system by moving some responsibilities to external authorities.

  8. Evolutionary and Comparative Genomics to Drive Rational Drug Design, with Particular Focus on Neuropeptide Seven-Transmembrane Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael; Seong, Jae Young

    2017-01-01

    Seven transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), also known as G protein-coupled receptors, are popular targets of drug development, particularly 7TMR systems that are activated by peptide ligands. Although many pharmaceutical drugs have been discovered via conventional bulk analysis techniques the increasing availability of structural and evolutionary data are facilitating change to rational, targeted drug design. This article discusses the appeal of neuropeptide-7TMR systems as drug targets and provides an overview of concepts in the evolution of vertebrate genomes and gene families. Subsequently, methods that use evolutionary concepts and comparative analysis techniques to aid in gene discovery, gene function identification, and novel drug design are provided along with case study examples.

  9. Intelligent Systems and Advanced User Interfaces for Design, Operation, and Maintenance of Command Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1998-01-01

    Historically Command Management Systems (CMS) have been large, expensive, spacecraft-specific software systems that were costly to build, operate, and maintain. Current and emerging hardware, software, and user interface technologies may offer an opportunity to facilitate the initial formulation and design of a spacecraft-specific CMS as well as a to develop a more generic or a set of core components for CMS systems. Current MOC (mission operations center) hardware and software include Unix workstations, the C/C++ and Java programming languages, and X and Java window interfaces representations. This configuration provides the power and flexibility to support sophisticated systems and intelligent user interfaces that exploit state-of-the-art technologies in human-machine systems engineering, decision making, artificial intelligence, and software engineering. One of the goals of this research is to explore the extent to which technologies developed in the research laboratory can be productively applied in a complex system such as spacecraft command management. Initial examination of some of the issues in CMS design and operation suggests that application of technologies such as intelligent planning, case-based reasoning, design and analysis tools from a human-machine systems engineering point of view (e.g., operator and designer models) and human-computer interaction tools, (e.g., graphics, visualization, and animation), may provide significant savings in the design, operation, and maintenance of a spacecraft-specific CMS as well as continuity for CMS design and development across spacecraft with varying needs. The savings in this case is in software reuse at all stages of the software engineering process.

  10. Classroom acoustics design for speakers’ comfort and speech intelligibility: a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, David Pelegrin; Rasmussen, Birgit; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    . The recommended values of reverberation time in fully occupied classrooms for exible teaching methods are between 0.45 s and 0.6 s (between 0.6 and 0.7 s in an unoccupied but furnished condition) for classrooms with less than 40 students and volumes below 210 m 3 . When designing larger classrooms, a dedicated......Current European regulatory requirements or guidelines for reverberation time in classrooms have the goal of enhancing speech intelligibility for students and reducing noise levels in classrooms. At the same time, school teachers suffer frequently from voice problems due to high vocal load...... intelligibility for students. Two room acoustic parameters are shown relevant for a speaker: the voice support, linked to vocal effort, and the decay time derived from an oral-binaural impulse response, linked to vocal comfort. Theoretical prediction models for room-averaged values of these parameters...

  11. An intelligent human-machine system based on an ecological interface design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, N.

    1995-01-01

    It seems both necessary and promising to develop an intelligent human-machine system, considering the objective of the human-machine system and the recent advance in cognitive engineering and artificial intelligence together with the ever-increasing importance of human factor issues in nuclear power plant operation and maintenance. It should support human operators in their knowledge-based behaviour and allow them to cope with unanticipated abnormal events, including recovery from erroneous human actions. A top-down design approach has been adopted based on cognitive work analysis, and (1) an ecological interface, (2) a cognitive model-based advisor and (3) a robust automatic sequence controller have been established. These functions have been integrated into an experimental control room. A validation test was carried out by the participation of experienced operators and engineers. The results showed the usefulness of this system in supporting the operator's supervisory plant control tasks. ((orig.))

  12. The role of networks and artificial intelligence in nanotechnology design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, D L; Cohen, M E

    2004-05-01

    Techniques with their origins in artificial intelligence have had a great impact on many areas of biomedicine. Expert-based systems have been used to develop computer-assisted decision aids. Neural networks have been used extensively in disease classification and more recently in many bioinformatics applications including genomics and drug design. Network theory in general has proved useful in modeling all aspects of biomedicine from healthcare organizational structure to biochemical pathways. These methods show promise in applications involving nanotechnology both in the design phase and in interpretation of system functioning.

  13. Design of intelligent power consumption optimization and visualization management platform for large buildings based on internet of things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Shulan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The buildings provide a significant contribution to total energy consumption and CO2 emission. It has been estimated that the development of an intelligent power consumption monitor and control system will result in about 30% savings in energy consumption. This design innovatively integrates the advanced technologies such as the internet of things, the internet, intelligent buildings and intelligent electricity which can offer open, efficient, convenient energy consumption detection platform in demand side and visual management demonstration application platform in power enterprises side. The system was created to maximize the effective and efficient the use of energy resource. It was development around sensor networks and intelligent gateway and the monitoring center software. This will realize the highly integration and comprehensive application in energy and information to meet the needs with intelligent buildings

  14. Balancing intuition and rationality for improving innovation decision-making : The role of design consultancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabretta, G.; Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    To contain risks and increase the profitability of innovation efforts, firms frequently engage in joint innovation activities with external sources of knowledge, like design consultancies. Innovation literature has given limited consideration to the strategic role that design consultancies can play

  15. Identification of novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors through rational drug design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mymoona Akhter

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Structure based drug design can be used as an effective tool for the design of new cheiocal entity. Number of novel agents have been identified as antitubercular agents whose mechanism of action needs to be ascertained.

  16. Rational design of reduced graphene oxide for superior performance of supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid

    2016-10-24

    Strategies to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) abound but, in most studies, research teams select one particular oxidation-reduction method without providing a methodic reasoning for doing so. Herein, it is analyzed how diverse oxidation-reduction strategies commonly used can result in considerable performance differences of rGO for supercapacitor applications. Depending on the graphite oxidation method followed, the surface chemistry analysis of the products confirms that there is a marked disparity in the degree of oxidation and the nature of the oxygen functional groups present. Subsequent reduction of the oxidized graphite (using three different methods) showed that the maximum specific capacitance of rGOs produced from the classical Hummers\\' method was 128 F g−1 whereas an analogous material obtained from an improved Hummers\\' method reached ∼274 F g−1 (both via an hydrothermal reduction route). Besides showing that the improved oxidation method results in superior capacitance performance, explained by the higher number of structural defects allied to a surface chemistry where residual hydroxyl and epoxy functional groups predominate, this study highlights the need to rationalize the oxidation-reduction strategies followed when investigating applications of rGO materials.

  17. Rational design of temperature swing adsorption cycles for post-combustion CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joss, Lisa; Gazzani, Matteo; Mazzotti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The design of temperature swing adsorption (TSA) cycles aimed at recovering the heavy product at high purity is investigated by model-based design and applied to the capture of CO2 from flue gases. This model based design strategy and an extensive parametric analysis enables gaining an understanding

  18. Designing Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Personalization Strategy using Case-Based Reasoning and Multi-Agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía LAZA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs are educational systems that use artificial intelligence techniques for representing the knowledge. ITSs design is often criticized for being a complex and challenging process. In this article, we propose a framework for the ITSs design using Case Based Reasoning (CBR and Multiagent systems (MAS. The major advantage of using CBR is to allow the intelligent system to propose smart and quick solutions to problems, even in complex domains, avoiding the time necessary to derive those solutions from scratch. The use of intelligent agents and MAS architectures supports the retrieval of similar students models and the adaptation of teaching strategies according to the student profile. We describe deeply how the combination of both technologies helps to simplify the design of new ITSs and personalize the e-learning process for each student

  19. Rational design and validation of an anti-protein kinase C active-state specific antibody based on conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Andrade, Victor Piana de; Silva, Gabriela Ávila Fernandes; Neves, José Ivanildo; Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes de; Alves, Maria Julia Manso; Devi, Lakshmi A; Schechtman, Deborah

    2016-02-25

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays a regulatory role in key pathways in cancer. However, since phosphorylation is a step for classical PKC (cPKC) maturation and does not correlate with activation, there is a lack of tools to detect active PKC in tissue samples. Here, a structure-based rational approach was used to select a peptide to generate an antibody that distinguishes active from inactive cPKC. A peptide conserved in all cPKCs, C2Cat, was chosen since modeling studies based on a crystal structure of PKCβ showed that it is localized at the interface between the C2 and catalytic domains of cPKCs in an inactive kinase. Anti-C2Cat recognizes active cPKCs at least two-fold better than inactive kinase in ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays, and detects the temporal dynamics of cPKC activation upon receptor or phorbol stimulation. Furthermore, the antibody is able to detect active PKC in human tissue. Higher levels of active cPKC were observed in the more aggressive triple negative breast cancer tumors as compared to the less aggressive estrogen receptor positive tumors. Thus, this antibody represents a reliable, hitherto unavailable and a valuable tool to study PKC activation in cells and tissues. Similar structure-based rational design strategies can be broadly applied to obtain active-state specific antibodies for other signal transduction molecules.

  20. The design and results of an algorithm for intelligent ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Matthew; Milam, Justin; Tote, Caleb; Riggins, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the design, design method, test platform, and test results of an algorithm used in autonomous navigation for intelligent vehicles. The Bluefield State College (BSC) team created this algorithm for its 2009 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) robot called Anassa V. The BSC robotics team is comprised of undergraduate computer science, engineering technology, marketing students, and one robotics faculty advisor. The team has participated in IGVC since the year 2000. A major part of the design process that the BSC team uses each year for IGVC is a fully documented "Post-IGVC Analysis." Over the nine years since 2000, the lessons the students learned from these analyses have resulted in an ever-improving, highly successful autonomous algorithm. The algorithm employed in Anassa V is a culmination of past successes and new ideas, resulting in Anassa V earning several excellent IGVC 2009 performance awards, including third place overall. The paper will discuss all aspects of the design of this autonomous robotic system, beginning with the design process and ending with test results for both simulation and real environments.

  1. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  2. Pre-Rationalized Parametric Designing of Roof Shells Formed by Repetitive Modules of Catalan Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dzwierzynska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop an original, methodical, and practical approach to the early stages of parametric design of roof shells formed by repetitive modules of Catalan surfaces. It is presented on the example of designing the roof shells compound of four concrete elements. The designing process proposed by us consists in linking geometric shaping of roofs’ models with their structural analysis and optimization. Contrary to other methods, which use optimization process in order to find free roof forms, we apply it in order to explore and improve design alternatives. It is realized with the application of designing tools working in Rhinoceros 3D software. The flexible scripts elaborated by us, in order to achieve roofs’ models of regular and symmetrical shapes, are converted into simulation models to perform structural analysis. It is mainly focused on how the roof shells perform dependently on their geometric characteristics. The simulation enables one to evaluate various roof shells’ shapes, as well as to select an optimal design solution. The proposed approach to the conceptual design process may drive the designing to achieve geometric and structural forms which not only follow the design intentions but also target better results.

  3. Model business intelligence system design of quality products by using data mining in R Bakery Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, R.; Saragih, J.; Luthfiana, N.

    2017-12-01

    R Bakery company is a company that produces bread every day. Products that produced in that company have many different types of bread. Products are made in the form of sweet bread and wheat bread which have different tastes for every types of bread. During the making process, there were defects in the products which the defective product turns into reject product. Types of defects that are produced include burnt, sodden bread and shapeless bread. To find out the information about the defects that have been produced then by applying a designed model business intelligence system to create database and data warehouse. By using model business Intelligence system, it will generate useful information such as how many defect that produced by each of the bakery products. To make it easier to obtain such information, it can be done by using data mining method which data that we get is deep explored. The method of data mining is using k-means clustering method. The results of this intelligence business model system are cluster 1 with little amount of defect, cluster 2 with medium amount of defect and cluster 3 with high amount of defect. From OLAP Cube method can be seen that the defect generated during the 7 months period of 96,744 pieces.

  4. Rationalization of safety factors for breakwater design in hurricane-prone areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.; Kanning, W.; Verhagen, H.J.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a semi-probabilistic method for armour layer design of rubble mound breakwaters, which is based on the use of safety factors. The objective is to introduce an approach that is both attractive to designers and sufficiently reliable when a high degree of

  5. A Novel Rational Design Method for Laminated Composite Structures Exhibiting Complex Geometrically Nonlinear Buckling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel FEM-based approach for fiber angle optimal design of laminated composite structures exhibiting complicated nonlinear buckling behavior, thus enabling design of lighter and more cost-effective structures. The approach accounts for the geometrically nonlinear behavior of...

  6. Design and development of an intelligent nursing bed - a pilot project of "joint assignment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiehui Jiang; Tingwei Liu; Yuting Zhang; Yu Song; Mi Zhou; Xiaosong Zheng; Zhuangzhi Yan

    2017-07-01

    The "joint assignment" is a creative bachelor education project for Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Shanghai University (SHU), China. The objective of this project is to improve students' capabilities in design thinking and teamwork through practices in the process of the design and development of complex medical product. As the first step, a pilot project "design and development of intelligent nursing bed" was set up in May 2015. This paper describes details of how project organization and management, various teaching methods and scientific evaluation approaches were achieved in this pilot project. For example, a method containing one main line and four branches is taken to manage the project and "prototyping model" was used as the main research approach. As a result a multi-win situation was achieved. The results showed, firstly, 62 bachelor students including 16 BME students were well trained. They improved themselves in use of practical tools, communication skills and scientific writing; Secondly, commercial companies received a nice product design on intelligent nursing bed, and have been working on industrializing it; Thirdly, the university and associated schools obtained an excellent practical education experience to supplement traditional class education; Fourthly and most importantly, requirements from end-users will be met. The results also showed that the "joint assignment" task could become a significant component in BME bachelor education.

  7. Teaching intelligent design or sparking interest in science? What players do with Will Wright's Spore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Trevor

    2012-12-01

    The 2008 commercial video game Spore allowed more than a million players to design their own life forms. Starting from single-celled organisms players played through a caricature of natural history. Press coverage of the game's release offer two frames for thinking about the implications of the game. Some scientists and educators saw the game as a troubling teacher of intelligent design, while others suggested it might excite public interest in science. This paper explores the extent to which these two ways of thinking about the game are consistent with what players have done with the game in its online community. This analysis suggests that, at least for the players participating in this community, the game has not seduced them into believing in intelligent design. Instead the activities of these players suggest that the game has played a catalytic role in engaging the public with science. These findings indicate that designers of educational games may wish to consider more deeply tensions between prioritizing accuracy of content in educational games over player engagement.

  8. The Design of Intelligent Repair Welding Mechanism and Relative Control System of Big Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective repair of worn big gear has large influence on ensuring safety production and enhancing economic benefits. A kind of intelligent repair welding method was put forward mainly aimed at the big gear restriction conditions of high production cost, long production cycle and high- intensity artificial repair welding work. Big gear repair welding mechanism was designed in this paper. The work principle and part selection of big gear repair welding mechanism was introduced. The three dimensional mode of big gear repair welding mechanism was constructed by Pro/E three dimensional design software. Three dimensional motions can be realized by motor controlling ball screw. According to involute gear feature, the complicated curve motion on curved gear surface can be transformed to linear motion by orientation. By this way, the repair welding on worn gear area can be realized. In the design of big gear repair welding mechanism control system, Siemens S7-200 series hardware was chosen. Siemens STEP7 programming software was chosen as system design tool. The entire repair welding process was simulated by experiment simulation. It provides a kind of practical and feasible method for the intelligent repair welding of big worn gear.

  9. Final Report: Rational Design of Wide Band Gap Buffer Layers for High-Efficiency Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lordi, Vincenzo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to enable rational design of wide band gap buffer layer materials for CIGS thin-film PV by building understanding of the correlation of atomic-scale defects in the buffer layer and at the buffer/absorber interface with device electrical properties. Optimized wide band gap buffers are needed to reduce efficiency loss from parasitic absorption in the buffer. The approach uses first-principles materials simulations coupled with nanoscale analytical electron microscopy as well as device electrical characterization. Materials and devices are produced by an industrial partner in a manufacturing line to maximize relevance, with the goal of enabling R&D of new buffer layer compositions or deposition processes to push device efficiencies above 21%. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the reference material for analysis, as the prototypical high-performing buffer material.

  10. Rationally Designed Peptides and Peptidomimetics as Inhibitors of Amyloid-β (Aβ) Aggregation: Potential Therapeutics of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepti; Shuaib, Suniba; Mann, Sukhmani; Goyal, Bhupesh

    2017-02-13

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no clinically accepted treatment to cure or halt its progression. The worldwide effort to develop peptide-based inhibitors of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation can be considered an unplanned combinatorial experiment. An understanding of what has been done and achieved may advance our understanding of AD pathology and the discovery of effective therapeutic agents. We review here the history of such peptide-based inhibitors, including those based on the Aβ sequence and those not derived from that sequence, containing both natural and unnatural amino acid building blocks. Peptide-based aggregation inhibitors hold significant promise for future AD therapy owing to their high selectivity, effectiveness, low toxicity, good tolerance, low accumulation in tissues, high chemical and biological diversity, possibility of rational design, and highly developed methods for analyzing their mode of action, proteolytic stability (modified peptides), and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.

  11. Model-based rational feedback controller design for closed-loop deep brain stimulation of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelic, P.; Schiff, S. J.; Sinha, A.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. To explore the use of classical feedback control methods to achieve an improved deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithm for application to Parkinson's disease (PD). Approach. A computational model of PD dynamics was employed to develop model-based rational feedback controller design. The restoration of thalamocortical relay capabilities to patients suffering from PD is formulated as a feedback control problem with the DBS waveform serving as the control input. Two high-level control strategies are tested: one that is driven by an online estimate of thalamic reliability, and another that acts to eliminate substantial decreases in the inhibition from the globus pallidus interna (GPi) to the thalamus. Control laws inspired by traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) methodology are prescribed for each strategy and simulated on this computational model of the basal ganglia network. Main Results. For control based upon thalamic reliability, a strategy of frequency proportional control with proportional bias delivered the optimal control achieved for a given energy expenditure. In comparison, control based upon synaptic inhibitory output from the GPi performed very well in comparison with those of reliability-based control, with considerable further reduction in energy expenditure relative to that of open-loop DBS. The best controller performance was amplitude proportional with derivative control and integral bias, which is full PID control. We demonstrated how optimizing the three components of PID control is feasible in this setting, although the complexity of these optimization functions argues for adaptive methods in implementation. Significance. Our findings point to the potential value of model-based rational design of feedback controllers for Parkinson's disease.

  12. Rationalization design on large equipment dismantling facility. The cell fire-extinguishing examination (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donomae, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Takita, Koji; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Katoh, Noriyoshi; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tanimoto, Ken-ichi

    2002-07-01

    In order to rationalize for Large Equipment Dismantling Facility (LEDF), the plan of removing vaporizer belong to Cell-fire-extinguishing-system was investigated. When a vaporizer is cut down, it is necessary to grasp a fire-extinguishing performance. The fire-extinguishing performance check examination by liquefaction carbon dioxide in the cell fire-extinguishing examination (I) was carried out in 1999 fiscal year. As the result, the good performance was obtained to polyethylene. But there was the deep-seated fire about a piece of wood. Then, the check items were carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and CO2 concentration holding time for the deep-seated fire in the cell fire-extinguishing examination (III). The results were as follows; (1) By use of the combustion model in which a piece of wood and cotton were put is lit, temperature inside model, mass reduction, and combustion situation were examined. The model burned remarkably in 30∼60 min. The peak temperature rise to 680 degC (MAX), and attained smoldering after (ignition) 70 min. Moreover, in order to determine the generating conditions of a deep-seated fire, the situation of CO2 extinguishing after ignition by the time lag of 50∼90 min were examined. The model around ignition 50 minutes was the most difficult to extinguish, and it turned out that they are the conditions which were most suitable for the deep-seated fire examination model of an exam. (2) In order to decide on CO2 concentration and concentration holding time required for fire extinguishing of the deep-seated fire in LEDF, the fire-extinguishing performance was investigated by 40 ∼ 65% of CO2 concentration. Consequently, CO2 concentration required for deep-seated fire extinguishing was understood that 60% or more was required when safety was taken into consideration at 50% or more. Moreover, when it was 50% or more of CO2 concentration and the holding time of CO2 concentration was 180 minutes or more and 60% or more of CO2 concentration, it

  13. Reflections on architectural design education: The return of rationalism in the studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Bashier

    2014-12-01

    The Department of Architecture and Urban Planning at the Ethiopian Institute of Technology EiT of Mekelle University (MU is currently developing a research program in which the development of and reflection on design methods is a key research area. Within this framework, the present study is intends to be an introductory effort to guide future empirical research. The present study aims to describe the design process of architects, and introduces theoretical and technical frameworks. The integrated design paradigm as a system of inquiry within the spatial relationship strategy is framed.

  14. Pragmatics & rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Allott, N. E.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about the reconciliation of realistic views of rationality with inferential-intentional theories of communication. Grice (1957 1975) argued that working out what a speaker meant by an utterance is a matter of inferring the speaker's intentions on the presumption that she is acting rationally. This is abductive inference: inference to the best explanation for the utterance. Thus an utterance both rationalises and causes the interpretation the hearer constructs. Human rationality...

  15. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTELLIGENT INSTRUCTIVE SYSTEM: Scholastic Tutor (St*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebiyi MARION O.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS is an act of impacting knowledge while computer teaches or acts as the tutors which is a supplement to human teachers. The ability to teach each student based on their individual abilities a major advantage posed by ITS and that is why it is being embraced in this work. This work describes the design of an Intelligent Tutoring System that was tagged Scholastic tutor (St*, which has the individual learning and collaborative problem-solving modules. The individual tutoring module was designed to provide appropriate lessons to individuals based on his/her background knowledge level, interest, and learning style and assimilation rate prior to using the tutoring system. A software agent is used to monitor and process these parameters, arrange the learning topic, and exercises, for each individual. The collaborative problem-based tutoring module was designed to present tutorial problems and provides facilities to assist learners with some useful information and advice for problem solving. This is because the present lecturing methodology which is the conventional teaching methodology provides an interactive classroom setting that promotes the open exchange of ideas and allows for the lecturer to communicate directly with the students but has a great disadvantage of not teaching all the students according to their own learning rate and pace. The intelligent tutor solves this problem by providing individualised learning for each student where they can learn according to their own pace and learning abilities it will provide remedy and advice when learners encounter difficulties during learning session. The classical model of ITS architecture has four main modules; domain model, student model, tutoring model and the user interface model.

  16. THE CHOICE OF A RATIONAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF ELECTRODYNAMIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Radchenko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The design schemes of electrodynamic maglev systems with a plane track structure are developed and the results of investigation of levitating motion of such systems along rectilinear or curvilinear tracks are presented.

  17. Rational Design of Regulators of Programmed Cell Death in Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowburn, David

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a better understanding of the intricate pathways of cell death and their contributions to breast cancers, with the goal of designing potential therapeutic...

  18. Rational and Safe Design of Concrete Transportation Structures for Size Effect and Multi-Decade Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project was to improve the safety and sustainability in the design of large : prestressed concrete bridges and other transportation structures. The safety of large concrete : structures, including bridges, has been insufficie...

  19. Targeting a heterologous protein to multiple plant organelles via rationally designed 5? mRNA tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voges, M.J.; Silver, P.A.; Way, J.C.; Mattozzi, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant bioengineers require simple genetic devices for predictable localization of heterologous proteins to multiple subcellular compartments. Results We designed novel hybrid signal sequences for multiple-compartment localization and characterize their function when fused to GFP in

  20. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Evgeny

    2018-01-01

    The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches th...

  1. Biophysically inspired rational design of structured chimeric substrates for DNAzyme cascade engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Lakin

    Full Text Available The development of large-scale molecular computational networks is a promising approach to implementing logical decision making at the nanoscale, analogous to cellular signaling and regulatory cascades. DNA strands with catalytic activity (DNAzymes are one means of systematically constructing molecular computation networks with inherent signal amplification. Linking multiple DNAzymes into a computational circuit requires the design of substrate molecules that allow a signal to be passed from one DNAzyme to another through programmed biochemical interactions. In this paper, we chronicle an iterative design process guided by biophysical and kinetic constraints on the desired reaction pathways and use the resulting substrate design to implement heterogeneous DNAzyme signaling cascades. A key aspect of our design process is the use of secondary structure in the substrate molecule to sequester a downstream effector sequence prior to cleavage by an upstream DNAzyme. Our goal was to develop a concrete substrate molecule design to achieve efficient signal propagation with maximal activation and minimal leakage. We have previously employed the resulting design to develop high-performance DNAzyme-based signaling systems with applications in pathogen detection and autonomous theranostics.

  2. Designing training programs for the development of emotional intelligence in adolescents with behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Degtyarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, deviant behavior is considered as a combination of different manifestations of personality, leading eventually to its social desaptation. It is shown that an effective method of preventing deviant behavior is psychological training. Group training activity helps to solve the problems associated with the development of various behavioral skills, to provide psychological support, and can be used as a means of psychological work with teenagers with behavioral problems. We discuss the basic points required to effectively create and conduct training programs in general, as well as the challenges and opportunities of designing trainings in order to develop emotional intelligence as a method of prevention of deviant behavior

  3. Concept design and cluster control of advanced space connectable intelligent microsatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Shuang; She, Yuchen

    2017-12-01

    In this note, a new type of advanced space connectable intelligent microsatellite is presented to extend the range of potential application of microsatellite and improve the efficiency of cooperation. First, the overall concept of the micro satellite cluster is described, which is characterized by autonomously connecting with each other and being able to realize relative rotation through the external interfaces. Second, the multi-satellite autonomous assembly algorithm and control algorithm of the cluster motion are developed to make the cluster system combine into a variety of configurations in order to achieve different types of functionality. Finally, the design of the satellite cluster system is proposed, and the possible applications are discussed.

  4. Design of Intelligent Transportation Inquiry System Based on MapX in the Environment of VC++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applied MapInfo, the professional soft ware tool of GIS, integrated secondary exploiture combining with elctronic maps, and made use of the exploiture flat roof Visual C++ as the tool of visualize development, transferred MapX, a control of MapInfo, integrated them. The paper designed the Inquiry System in Intelligent Transportation, which including query system of road information, query system of bus information, query system of district information. It can be carried out space analysis and query function based on GIS. Adopted SQL Server manage attribute data, by data binding, attribute data in SQL Server and victor picture data were combined.

  5. New evaluation methods for conceptual design selection using computational intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Liu, Yu; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Zhonglai [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Xue, Lihua [Higher Education Press, Beijing (China)

    2013-03-15

    The conceptual design selection, which aims at choosing the best or most desirable design scheme among several candidates for the subsequent detailed design stage, oftentimes requires a set of tools to conduct design evaluation. Using computational intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural network, genetic algorithm, and physical programming, several design evaluation methods are put forth in this paper to realize the conceptual design selection under different scenarios. Depending on whether an evaluation criterion can be quantified or not, the linear physical programming (LPP) model and the RAOGA-based fuzzy neural network (FNN) model can be utilized to evaluate design alternatives in conceptual design stage. Furthermore, on the basis of Vanegas and Labib's work, a multi-level conceptual design evaluation model based on the new fuzzy weighted average (NFWA) and the fuzzy compromise decision-making method is developed to solve the design evaluation problem consisting of many hierarchical criteria. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated via several illustrative examples.

  6. New evaluation methods for conceptual design selection using computational intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Liu, Yu; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Zhonglai; Xue, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    The conceptual design selection, which aims at choosing the best or most desirable design scheme among several candidates for the subsequent detailed design stage, oftentimes requires a set of tools to conduct design evaluation. Using computational intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural network, genetic algorithm, and physical programming, several design evaluation methods are put forth in this paper to realize the conceptual design selection under different scenarios. Depending on whether an evaluation criterion can be quantified or not, the linear physical programming (LPP) model and the RAOGA-based fuzzy neural network (FNN) model can be utilized to evaluate design alternatives in conceptual design stage. Furthermore, on the basis of Vanegas and Labib's work, a multi-level conceptual design evaluation model based on the new fuzzy weighted average (NFWA) and the fuzzy compromise decision-making method is developed to solve the design evaluation problem consisting of many hierarchical criteria. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated via several illustrative examples.

  7. Intelligent stochastic optimization routine for in-core fuel cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G.T.

    1988-01-01

    Any reactor fuel management strategy must specify the fuel design, batch sizes, loading configurations, and operational procedures for each cycle. To permit detailed design studies, the complex core characteristics must necessarily be computer modeled. Thus, the identification of an optimal fuel cycle design represents an optimization problem with a nonlinear objective function (OF), nonlinear safety constraints, many control variables, and no direct derivative information. Most available library routines cannot tackle such problems; this paper introduces an intelligent stochastic optimization routine that can. There has been considerable interest recently in the application of stochastic methods to difficult optimization problems, based on the statistical mechanics algorithms originally attributed to Metropolis. Previous work showed that, in optimizing the performance of a British advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel stringer, a rudimentary version of the Metropolis algorithm performed as efficiently as the only suitable routine in the Numerical Algorithms Group library. Since then the performance of the Metropolis algorithm has been considerably enhanced by the introduction of self-tuning capabilities by which the routine adjusts its control parameters and search pattern as it progresses. Both features can be viewed as examples of artificial intelligence, in which the routine uses the accumulation of data, or experience, to guide its future actions

  8. Designing an Intelligent Mobile Learning Tool for Grammar Learning (i-MoL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Shuib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available English is the most important second language in most non-English speaking countries, including Malaysia. A good English proficiency comes from good grasp of grammar. To conquer the problems of low English proficiency among Malaysians, it is important to identify the key motivators that could facilitate the process of grammar learning. In this digital age, technology can play a very important role and mobile technology could be one of it. Thus, this study aims at designing a mobile learning tool, namely the Intelligent Mobile Learning Tool for Grammar Learning (i-MoL to act as the “on-the-go” grammar learning support via mobile phones. i-MoL helps reinforce grammar learning through mobile phone with game-like applications, inquiry-based activities and flashcard-like information. The intelligent part of i-MoL lies in its ability to map the mobile-based grammar learning content to individual’s preferred learning styles based on Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM. The instructional system design through the ADDIE model was used in this study as a systematic approach in designing a novel and comprehensive mobile learning tool for grammar learning. In terms of implications, this study provides insights on how mobile technologies can be utilized to meet the mobility demand among language learners today.

  9. The DelFly design, aerodynamics, and artificial intelligence of a flapping wing robot

    CERN Document Server

    de Croon, G C H E; Remes, B D W; Ruijsink, R; De Wagter, C

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the topics most relevant to autonomously flying flapping wing robots: flapping-wing design, aerodynamics, and artificial intelligence. Readers can explore these topics in the context of the "Delfly", a flapping wing robot designed at Delft University in The Netherlands. How are tiny fruit flies able to lift their weight, avoid obstacles and predators, and find food or shelter? The first step in emulating this is the creation of a micro flapping wing robot that flies by itself. The challenges are considerable: the design and aerodynamics of flapping wings are still active areas of scientific research, whilst artificial intelligence is subject to extreme limitations deriving from the few sensors and minimal processing onboard. This book conveys the essential insights that lie behind success such as the DelFly Micro and the DelFly Explorer. The DelFly Micro, with its 3.07 grams and 10 cm wing span, is still the smallest flapping wing MAV in the world carrying a camera, whilst the DelFly Expl...

  10. Roles of Glutamates and Metal ions in a Rationally Designed Nitric Oxide Reductase Based on Myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Lin; N Yeung; Y Gao; K Miner; S Tian; H Robinson; Y Lu

    2011-12-31

    A structural and functional model of bacterial nitric oxide reductase (NOR) has been designed by introducing two glutamates (Glu) and three histidines (His) in sperm whale myoglobin. X-ray structural data indicate that the three His and one Glu (V68E) residues bind iron, mimicking the putative FeB site in NOR, while the second Glu (I107E) interacts with a water molecule and forms a hydrogen bonding network in the designed protein. Unlike the first Glu (V68E), which lowered the heme reduction potential by {approx}110 mV, the second Glu has little effect on the heme potential, suggesting that the negatively charged Glu has a different role in redox tuning. More importantly, introducing the second Glu resulted in a {approx}100% increase in NOR activity, suggesting the importance of a hydrogen bonding network in facilitating proton delivery during NOR reactivity. In addition, EPR and X-ray structural studies indicate that the designed protein binds iron, copper, or zinc in the FeB site, each with different effects on the structures and NOR activities, suggesting that both redox activity and an intermediate five-coordinate heme-NO species are important for high NOR activity. The designed protein offers an excellent model for NOR and demonstrates the power of using designed proteins as a simpler and more well-defined system to address important chemical and biological issues.

  11. Advanced Energy Storage Devices: Basic Principles, Analytical Methods, and Rational Materials Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Xu, Chaohe; Li, Chunzhong; Lin, Jianyi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tremendous efforts have been dedicated into the development of high‐performance energy storage devices with nanoscale design and hybrid approaches. The boundary between the electrochemical capacitors and batteries becomes less distinctive. The same material may display capacitive or battery‐like behavior depending on the electrode design and the charge storage guest ions. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms and the electrochemical processes occurring upon charge storage may be confusing for researchers who are new to the field as well as some of the chemists and material scientists already in the field. This review provides fundamentals of the similarities and differences between electrochemical capacitors and batteries from kinetic and material point of view. Basic techniques and analysis methods to distinguish the capacitive and battery‐like behavior are discussed. Furthermore, guidelines for material selection, the state‐of‐the‐art materials, and the electrode design rules to advanced electrode are proposed. PMID:29375964

  12. Selection of rational technical solutions in designing a robotized assembly complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, B.M.; Rasulbekov, R.I.

    1984-01-01

    One of the methods permitting a more objective approach to decision making in design is the method of ordered search which, in combination with the methods of expert estimate was used in designing the robotized assembly-finishing complex for automobile tires. The assembly-finishing complex consists of a number of functionally independent parts, i.e., modules provided with manipulators and mutually connected by a transport system with intermediate storage. The modified method of ordered search, examined in the present work, was therefore used for each module separately, and not for the complex as a whole. We will examine the main principles of our approach to the selection of design solutions for the example of a module for laying on the bottom-cushion cords

  13. Two is better than one; toward a rational design of combinatorial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hong; Lahav, Galit

    2016-12-01

    Drug combination is an appealing strategy for combating the heterogeneity of tumors and evolution of drug resistance. However, the rationale underlying combinatorial therapy is often not well established due to lack of understandings of the specific pathways responding to the drugs, and their temporal dynamics following each treatment. Here we present several emerging trends in harnessing properties of biological systems for the optimal design of drug combinations, including the type of drugs, specific concentration, sequence of addition and the temporal schedule of treatments. We highlight recent studies showing different approaches for efficient design of drug combinations including single-cell signaling dynamics, adaption and pathway crosstalk. Finally, we discuss novel and feasible approaches that can facilitate the optimal design of combinatorial therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Theoretical Study on the Rational Design of Cyano-Substituted P3HT Materials for OSCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Meng; Brandt, Rasmus Guldbæk; Niu, Yingli

    2015-01-01

    Calculations have been made regarding the strong electron-withdrawing cyano (-CN) group, which was introduced onto the backbone of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), as an effective way to improve the parameters essential for the photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells (OSCs). The substitution...... useful information for better design strategy for OSCs....

  15. Rational design and dynamics of self-propelled colloidal bead chains: from rotators to flagella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vutukuri, Hanumantha Rao|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838926; Bet, Bram|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530667; van Roij, Rene|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152978984; Dijkstra, Marjolein|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123538807; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2017-01-01

    The quest for designing new self-propelled colloids is fuelled by the demand for simple experimental models to study the collective behaviour of their more complex natural counterparts. Most synthetic self-propelled particles move by converting the input energy into translational motion. In this

  16. The rational design of a Au(I) precursor for focused electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marashdeh, Ali; Tiesma, Thiadrik; van Velzen, Niels J. C.; Harder, Sjoerd; Havenith, Remco W. A.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.; van Dorp, Willem F.

    2017-01-01

    Au(I) complexes are studied as precursors for focused electron beam induced processing (FEBIP). FEBIP is an advanced direct-write technique for nanometer-scale chemical synthesis. The stability and volatility of the complexes are characterized to design an improved precursor for pure Au deposition.

  17. Evaluation and rational design of guide RNAs for efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in Ciona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Shashank; Haeussler, Maximilian; Razy-Krajka, Florian; Christiaen, Lionel; Stolfi, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has emerged as an important tool for various genome engineering applications. A current obstacle to high throughput applications of CRISPR/Cas9 is the imprecise prediction of highly active single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). We previously implemented the CRISPR/Cas9 system to induce tissue-specific mutations in the tunicate Ciona. In the present study, we designed and tested 83 single guide RNA (sgRNA) vectors targeting 23 genes expressed in the cardiopharyngeal progenitors and surrounding tissues of Ciona embryo. Using high-throughput sequencing of mutagenized alleles, we identified guide sequences that correlate with sgRNA mutagenesis activity and used this information for the rational design of all possible sgRNAs targeting the Ciona transcriptome. We also describe a one-step cloning-free protocol for the assembly of sgRNA expression cassettes. These cassettes can be directly electroporated as unpurified PCR products into Ciona embryos for sgRNA expression in vivo, resulting in high frequency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in somatic cells of electroporated embryos. We found a strong correlation between the frequency of an Ebf loss-of-function phenotype and the mutagenesis efficacies of individual Ebf-targeting sgRNAs tested using this method. We anticipate that our approach can be scaled up to systematically design and deliver highly efficient sgRNAs for the tissue-specific investigation of gene functions in Ciona. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rational Design of in Vivo Tau Tangle-Selective Near-Infrared Fluorophores: Expanding the BODIPY Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwilst, Peter; Kim, Hye-Ri; Seo, Jinho; Sohn, Nak-Won; Cha, Seung-Yun; Kim, Yeongmin; Maeng, Sungho; Shin, Jung-Won; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Jong Seung

    2017-09-27

    The elucidation of the cause of Alzheimer's disease remains one of the greatest questions in neurodegenerative research. The lack of highly reliable low-cost sensors to study the structural changes in key proteins during the progression of the disease is a contributing factor to this lack of insight. In the current work, we describe the rational design and synthesis of two fluorescent BODIPY-based probes, named Tau 1 and Tau 2. The probes were evaluated on the molecular surface formed by a fibril of the PHF6 ( 306 VQIVYK 311 ) tau fragment using molecular docking studies to provide a potential molecular model to rationalize the selectivity of the new probes as compared to a homologous Aβ-selective probe. The probes were synthesized in a few steps from commercially available starting products and could thus prove to be highly cost-effective. We demonstrated the excellent photophysical properties of the dyes, such as a large Stokes shift and emission in the near-infrared window of the electromagnetic spectrum. The probes demonstrated a high selectivity for self-assembled microtubule-associated protein tau (Tau protein), in both solution and cell-based experiments. Moreover, the administration to an acute murine model of tauopathy clearly revealed the staining of self-assembled hyperphosphorylated tau protein in pathologically relevant hippocampal brain regions. Tau 1 demonstrated efficient blood-brain barrier penetrability and demonstrated a clear selectivity for tau tangles over Aβ plaques, as well as the capacity for in vivo imaging in a transgenic mouse model. The current work could open up avenues for the cost-effective monitoring of the tau protein aggregation state in animal models as well as tissue staining. Furthermore, these fluorophores could serve as the basis for the development of clinically relevant sensors, for example based on PET imaging.

  19. Rational Design of Mixed-Metal Oxides for Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal via Coupled Computational-Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Amit [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Li, Fanxing [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Santiso, Erik [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-09-18

    Energy and global climate change are two grand challenges to the modern society. An urgent need exists for development of clean and efficient energy conversion processes. The chemical looping strategy, which utilizes regenerable oxygen carriers (OCs) to indirectly convert carbonaceous fuels via redox reactions, is considered to be one of the more promising approaches for CO2 capture by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). To date, most long-term chemical looping operations were conducted using gaseous fuels, even though direct conversion of coal is more desirable from both economics and CO2 capture viewpoints. The main challenges for direct coal conversion reside in the stringent requirements on oxygen carrier performances. In addition, coal char and volatile compounds are more challenging to convert than gaseous fuels. A promising approach for direct conversion of coal is the so called chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) technique. In the CLOU process, a metal oxide that decomposes at the looping temperature, and releases oxygen to the gas phase is used as the OC. The overarching objective of this project was to discover the fundamental principles for rational design and optimization of oxygen carriers (OC) in coal chemical looping combustion (CLC) processes. It directly addresses Topic Area B of the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) in terms of “predictive description of the phase behavior and mechanical properties” of “mixed metal oxide” based OCs and rational development of new OC materials with superior functionality. This was achieved through studies exploring i) iron-containing mixed-oxide composites as oxygen carriers for CLOU, ii) Ca1-xAxMnO3-δ (A = Sr and Ba) as oxygen carriers for CLOU, iii) CaMn1-xBxO3-δ (B=Al, V, Fe, Co, and Ni) as oxygen carrier for CLOU and iv) vacancy creation energy in Mn-containing perovskites as an indicator chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling.

  20. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  1. One consideration about rational design of the multi tunnels in geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Kazuhiko; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Morita, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    In the geological disposal facility of the high-level radioactive waste, a group of galleries is designed in parallel at the depth of more than 300 m below surface. This is an unprecedented structure in the field of conventional engineering, and it is necessary to take this characteristic into consideration in the design of the galleries. In the geological disposal facility, as well as ensuring the dynamic stability of the gallery during construction and operational periods, it is necessary to dynamic characteristic of rock mass for long-term stability after the closure. In this study, analysis of the 'multi tunnels model' which represents the whole gallery group was performed and the results about load to act on a pillar. (author)

  2. Rational Design and Enhanced Biocompatibility of a Dry Adhesive Medical Skin Patch

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Moon Kyu

    2011-07-28

    A new type of medical skin patch is developed that contains high-density, mushroom-like micropillars. Such dry-adhesive micropillars are highly biocompatible, have minimized side effects, and provide reasonable normal adhesion strength. To arrive at optimal conditions for the dry adhesive skin patch, the proper design of various structural and material parameters of micropillars is investigated. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Fluorescence detection of natural RNA using rationally designed "clickable" oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Anders; Kjems, Jørgen; Astakhova, Kira

    2014-01-01

    Herein a reliable approach to the design of effective fluorescent probes for RNA detection is described. The fluorescence signalling of hybridization by internally positioned polyaromatic hydrocarbons and rhodamine dyes was achieved with a low fluorescence background signal, high fluorescence qua...... quantum yields at ambient and elevated temperature, high selectivity and signal specificity of the probes when binding to miR-7 and circRNA targets....

  4. Activation of Hsp90 Enzymatic Activity and Conformational Dynamics through Rationally Designed Allosteric Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Sara; Tao, Jiahui; Vettoretti, Gerolamo; Moroni, Elisabetta; Pennati, Marzia; Lopergolo, Alessia; Morelli, Laura; Bugatti, Antonella; Zuehlke, Abbey; Moses, Mike; Prince, Thomas; Kijima, Toshiki; Beebe, Kristin; Rusnati, Marco; Neckers, Len; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Agard, David A; Bernardi, Anna; Colombo, Giorgio

    2015-09-21

    Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone of pivotal importance for multiple cell pathways. ATP-regulated internal dynamics are critical for its function and current pharmacological approaches block the chaperone with ATP-competitive inhibitors. Herein, a general approach to perturb Hsp90 through design of new allosteric ligands aimed at modulating its functional dynamics is proposed. Based on the characterization of a first set of 2-phenylbenzofurans showing stimulatory effects on Hsp90 ATPase and conformational dynamics, new ligands were developed that activate Hsp90 by targeting an allosteric site, located 65 Å from the active site. Specifically, analysis of protein responses to first-generation activators was exploited to guide the design of novel derivatives with improved ability to stimulate ATP hydrolysis. The molecules' effects on Hsp90 enzymatic, conformational, co-chaperone and client-binding properties were characterized through biochemical, biophysical and cellular approaches. These designed probes act as allosteric activators of the chaperone and affect the viability of cancer cell lines for which proper functioning of Hsp90 is necessary. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Rational design and synthesis of an orally bioavailable peptide guided by NMR amide temperature coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Conan K.; Northfield, Susan E.; Colless, Barbara; Chaousis, Stephanie; Hamernig, Ingrid; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Nielsen, Daniel S.; Schroeder, Christina I.; Liras, Spiros; Price, David A.; Fairlie, David P.; Craik, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing the oral bioavailability of peptide drug leads is a major challenge in drug design. As such, methods to address this challenge are highly sought after by the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we propose a strategy to identify appropriate amides for N-methylation using temperature coefficients measured by NMR to identify exposed amides in cyclic peptides. N-methylation effectively caps these amides, modifying the overall solvation properties of the peptides and making them more membrane permeable. The approach for identifying sites for N-methylation is a rapid alternative to the elucidation of 3D structures of peptide drug leads, which has been a commonly used structure-guided approach in the past. Five leucine-rich peptide scaffolds are reported with selectively designed N-methylated derivatives. In vitro membrane permeability was assessed by parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and Caco-2 assay. The most promising N-methylated peptide was then tested in vivo. Here we report a novel peptide (15), which displayed an oral bioavailability of 33% in a rat model, thus validating the design approach. We show that this approach can also be used to explain the notable increase in oral bioavailability of a somatostatin analog. PMID:25416591

  6. Assessing barriers to a rational chemoprevention trial design in young patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanna P; Howells, Lynne M; Brown, Karen; Thomas, Anne L

    2017-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Colonic adenomas form and almost all patients will develop colorectal cancer if they are not managed at an early stage. The safest preventive strategy is surgical resection of the colon, most commonly performed in late teenage years. There is a paucity of trials investigating the use of primary chemoprevention to delay polyp formation in paediatric FAP. There are extensive preclinical and early clinical data demonstrating that curcumin may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent in reducing the polyp burden in this disease. We ultimately proposed to design and conduct a clinical study to assess whether curcumin treatment delays the need for surgery and/or prevents cancer in young patients with FAP. Research into clinical trial protocols has demonstrated that assessing patients' perceptions at the initial stage leads to better outcomes. We therefore conducted a questionnaire study of patients and parents of children affected by FAP to gain information to aid the protocol design. Results demonstrated that there are some FAP patients for whom this study is relevant and desirable. Those with a personal history of curcumin use reported that it was well tolerated. However, the response rate was poor (25%), indicating that there are potential difficulties ensuring adequate recruitment to the proposed trial. This report draws on lessons learnt from prior trials and the findings from the questionnaire to outline the challenges faced in designing such a study.

  7. Using design science and artificial intelligence to improve health communication: ChronologyMD case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Kreps, Gary L; Morrison, Kathleen; Athanasoulis, Marcos; Kirienko, Nikolai; Van Brunt, Deryk

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes how design science theory and methods and use of artificial intelligence (AI) components can improve the effectiveness of health communication. We identified key weaknesses of traditional health communication and features of more successful eHealth/AI communication. We examined characteristics of the design science paradigm and the value of its user-centered methods to develop eHealth/AI communication. We analyzed a case example of the participatory design of AI components in the ChronologyMD project intended to improve management of Crohn's disease. eHealth/AI communication created with user-centered design shows improved relevance to users' needs for personalized, timely and interactive communication and is associated with better health outcomes than traditional approaches. Participatory design was essential to develop ChronologyMD system architecture and software applications that benefitted patients. AI components can greatly improve eHealth/AI communication, if designed with the intended audiences. Design science theory and its iterative, participatory methods linked with traditional health communication theory and methods can create effective AI health communication. eHealth/AI communication researchers, developers and practitioners can benefit from a holistic approach that draws from theory and methods in both design sciences and also human and social sciences to create successful AI health communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advancements in rationally designed PGM-free fuel cell catalysts derived from metal–organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Liu, Di-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived platinum group metal free (PGM-free) electrocatalysts have gained considerable attention due to their high efficiency and low cost as potential replacement for platinum in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this review, we summarize the recent advancements in design, synthesis and characterization of MOF-derived ORR catalysts and their performances in acidic and alkaline media. As a result, we also discuss the key challenges such as durability and activity enhancement critical in moving forward this emerging electrocatalyst science.

  9. Rational Design of Alpha-Helical Antimicrobial Peptides: Do's and Don'ts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggerhøj, Lars Erik; Poulsen, Tanja Juul; Munk, Jens Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates for battling multiresistant bacteria. Despite extensive research, structure–activity relationships of AMPs are not fully understood, and there is a lack of structural data relating to AMPs in lipids. Here we present the NMR structure of anoplin...... (GLLKRIKTLL-NH2) in a micellar environment. A vast library of substitutions was designed and tested for antimicrobial and hemolytic activity, as well as for changes in structure and lipid interactions. This showed that improvement of antimicrobial activity without concomitant introduction of strong hemolytic...

  10. Towards Rational Design Method for Strengthening of Concrete Structures by External Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuuchi H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many infrastructures need to be repaired or strengthened due to various reasons, such as unexpected deterioration and changes in performance requirement. This paper presents the following recent achievements by the authors’ group on design method for flexural strengthening of concrete structures by external bonding; (i fracture characteristics of interface between substrate concrete and cementitious overlay, (ii crack spacing of flexural strengthened beams, which affects debonding strength, (iii strengths of intermediate crack (IC debonding and end peeling, (iv strength of concrete cover separation, and (v effectiveness of strengthening by external bonding. A unified approach for flexural strengthening by steel plate, fiber reinforced polymer lami¬nate and cementitious overlay, for both intermediate crack (IC debonding, including end peeling, and concrete cover separation is pre¬sented with consideration of crack spacing in the streng¬thened members. Appropriate interfacial rough¬¬¬ness to achieve efficient interface bond property is clari¬fied and the concept of effectiveness of strengthen¬ing is proposed for better strengthening design.

  11. Rational design and dynamics of self-propelled colloidal bead chains: from rotators to flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuri, Hanumantha Rao; Bet, Bram; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2017-12-01

    The quest for designing new self-propelled colloids is fuelled by the demand for simple experimental models to study the collective behaviour of their more complex natural counterparts. Most synthetic self-propelled particles move by converting the input energy into translational motion. In this work we address the question if simple self-propelled spheres can assemble into more complex structures that exhibit rotational motion, possibly coupled with translational motion as in flagella. We exploit a combination of induced dipolar interactions and a bonding step to create permanent linear bead chains, composed of self-propelled Janus spheres, with a well-controlled internal structure. Next, we study how flexibility between individual swimmers in a chain can affect its swimming behaviour. Permanent rigid chains showed only active rotational or spinning motion, whereas longer semi-flexible chains showed both translational and rotational motion resembling flagella like-motion, in the presence of the fuel. Moreover, we are able to reproduce our experimental results using numerical calculations with a minimal model, which includes full hydrodynamic interactions with the fluid. Our method is general and opens a new way to design novel self-propelled colloids with complex swimming behaviours, using different complex starting building blocks in combination with the flexibility between them.

  12. Rational computational design for the development of andrographolide molecularly imprinted polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hemavathi; Islam, K. M. Shafiqul; Hamzah, Zainab; Ahmad, Mohd Noor

    2017-10-01

    Andrographolide is a popular medicinal compound derived from Andrographis Paniculata (AP). Molecularly Imprint Polymer (MIP) is a "Lock and Key" approach, where MIP is the lock and Andrographolide is the key which fits to the MIP lock by both physically and chemically. MIP will be used as selective extraction tool to enrich Andrographolide bioactive compound. Pre-polymerization step is crucial to design MIP. This work investigates molecular interactions and the Gibbs free binding energies on the development of MIP. The structure of Andrographolide (template) and functional monomers were drawn in HyperChem 8.0.10. A hybrid quantum chemical model was used with a few functional monomers. Possible conformations of template and functional monomer as 1:n (n < 4) were designed and simulated to geometrically optimize the complex to the lowest energy in gas phase. The Gibbs free binding energies of each conformation were calculated using semi-empirical PM3 simulation method. Results proved that functional monomers that contain carboxylic group shows higher binding energy compared to those with amine functional group. Itaconic acid (IA) chosen as the best functional monomer at optimum ratio (1:3) of template: monomer to prepare andrographolide MIP. This study demonstrates the importance of studying intermolecular interaction among template, functional monomer and template-monomer ratio in developing MIP.

  13. Band engineering and rational design of high-performance thermoelectric materials by first-principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Xi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and manipulation of the band structure are important in designing high-performance thermoelectric (TE materials. Our recent work has involved the utilization of band structure in various topics of TE research, i.e., the band convergence, the conductive network, dimensionality reduction by quantum effects, and high throughput material screening. In non-cubic chalcopyrite compounds, we revealed the relations between structural factors and band degeneracy, and a simple unity-η rule was proposed for selecting high performance diamond-like TE materials. Based on the deep understanding of the electrical and thermal transport, we identified the conductive network in filled skutterudites with the “phonon glass-electron crystal” (PGEC paradigm, and extended this concept to caged-free Cu-based diamond-like compounds. By combining the band structure calculations and the Boltzmann transport theory, we conducted a high-throughput material screening in half-Heusler (HH systems, and several promising compositions with high power factors were proposed out of a large composition collection. At last, we introduced the Rashba spin-splitting effect into thermoelectrics, and its influence on the electrical transport properties was discussed. This review demonstrated the importance of the microscopic perspectives for the optimization and design of novel TE materials.

  14. Case-control study on uveal melanoma (RIFA: rational and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Pokrzywniak Andrea

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a rare disease, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence rate of up to 1.0 per 100,000 persons per year in Europe. Only a few consistent risk factors have been identified for this disease. We present the study design of an ongoing incident case-control study on uveal melanoma (acronym: RIFA study that focuses on radiofrequency radiation as transmitted by radio sets and wireless telephones, occupational risk factors, phenotypical characteristics, and UV radiation. Methods/Design We conduct a case-control study to identify the role of different exposures in the development of uveal melanoma. The cases of uveal melanoma were identified at the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Essen, a referral centre for tumours of the eye. We recruit three control groups: population controls, controls sampled from those ophthalmologists who referred cases to the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Duisburg-Essen, and sibling controls. For each case the controls are matched on sex and age (five year groups, except for sibling controls. The data are collected from the study participants by short self-administered questionnaire and by telephone interview. During and at the end of the field phase, the data are quality-checked. To estimate the effect of exposures on uveal melanoma risk, we will use conditional logistic regression that accounts for the matching factors and allows to control for potential confounding.

  15. Rational Design of a Hierarchical Tin Dendrite Electrode for Efficient Electrochemical Reduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Da Hye; Choi, Chang Hyuck; Chung, Jaehoon; Chung, Min Wook; Kim, Eun-Hee; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2015-09-21

    Catalysis is a key technology for the synthesis of renewable fuels through electrochemical reduction of CO2 . However, successful CO2 reduction still suffers from the lack of affordable catalyst design and understanding the factors governing catalysis. Herein, we demonstrate that the CO2 conversion selectivity on Sn (or SnOx /Sn) electrodes is correlated to the native oxygen content at the subsurface. Electrochemical analyses show that the reduced Sn electrode with abundant oxygen species effectively stabilizes a CO2 (.-) intermediate rather than the clean Sn surface, and consequently results in enhanced formate production in the CO2 reduction. Based on this design strategy, a hierarchical Sn dendrite electrode with high oxygen content, consisting of a multi-branched conifer-like structure with an enlarged surface area, was synthesized. The electrode exhibits a superior formate production rate (228.6 μmol h(-1)  cm(-2) ) at -1.36 VRHE without any considerable catalytic degradation over 18 h of operation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Organic fluorescent dye-based nanomaterials: Advances in the rational design for imaging and sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svechkarev, Denis; Mohs, Aaron M

    2018-02-25

    Self-assembled fluorescent nanomaterials based on small-molecule organic dyes are gaining increasing popularity in imaging and sensing applications over the past decade. This is primarily due to their ability to combine spectral property tunability and biocompatibility of small molecule organic fluorophores with brightness, chemical, and colloidal stability of inorganic materials. Such a unique combination of features comes with rich versatility of dye-based nanomaterials: from aggregates of small molecules to sophisticated core-shell nanoarchitectures involving hyperbranched polymers. Along with the ongoing discovery of new materials and better ways of their synthesis, it is very important to continue systematic studies of fundamental factors that regulate the key properties of fluorescent nanomaterials: their size, polydispersity, colloidal stability, chemical stability, absorption and emission maxima, biocompatibility, and interactions with biological interfaces. In this review, we focus on the systematic description of various types of organic fluorescent nanomaterials, approaches to their synthesis, and ways to optimize and control their characteristics. The discussion is built on examples from reports on recent advances in design and applications of such materials. Conclusions made from this analysis allow a perspective on future development of fluorescent nanomaterials design for biomedical and related applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Rational design and evaluation of HBsAg polymeric nanoparticles as antigen delivery carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Hitesh Kumar; Pandey, Tarun; Maurya, Lakshmi; Singh, Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    The present work is focused on the development and evaluation of single dose sustained-release Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loaded nanovaccine for Hepatitis B. The conventional treatment suffers from repeated administration and hence requires a booster dose. Therefore, polymeric nanovaccine of HBsAg was developed by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, utilizing central composite design for formulation optimization. The effects of independent variables (like polymer amount, stabilizer concentration, aqueous/organic phase ratio and homogenizer speed) were also studied on critical quality attributes like particle size and entrapment efficiency. Nanovaccine was characterized in terms of physicochemical parameters, release, internalization and in vivo immunological evaluation in BALB/c mice after administration by different routes such as oral, sub-cutaneous, nasal and intramuscular. The designed nanovaccine demonstrated nanometric size with smooth surface, negative zeta potential, maximum entrapment, sustained release and better internalization in macrophage and MRC-5 cell line. The immune-stimulating activity of nanovaccine administered by different routes was evaluated by measuring anti-HBsAg titre like specific immunoglobulin IgG and IgA response and cytokine level (interleukin-2, interferon-Y) measurement. The results indicated that the nanovaccine administered by intramuscular route produced better humoral as well as cellular responses and potential carriers for antigen delivery at single dose administration via intramuscular route. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rational Design of Cyclic Antimicrobial Peptides Based on BPC194 and BPC198

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Cirac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the design of antimicrobial cyclic peptides derived from the lead compounds c(KKLKKFKKLQ (BPC194 and c(KLKKKFKKLQ (BPC198 is reported. First, the secondary β-structure of BPC194 and BPC198 was analyzed by carrying out molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Then, based on the sequence pattern and the β-structure of BPC194 or BPC198, fifteen analogues were designed and synthesized on solid-phase. The best peptides (BPC490, BPC918, and BPC924 showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values <6.2 μM against Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, and an MIC value of 12.5 to 25 μM against Erwinia amylovora, being as active as BPC194 and BPC198. Interestingly, these three analogues followed the structural pattern defined from the MD simulations of the parent peptides. Thus, BPC490 maintained the parallel alignment of the hydrophilic pairs K1–K8, K2–K7, and K4–K5, whereas BPC918 and BPC924 included the two hydrophilic interactions K3–Q10 and K5–K8. In short, MD simulations have proved to be very useful for ascertaining the structural features of cyclic peptides that are crucial for their biological activity. Such approaches could be further employed for the development of new antibacterial cyclic peptides.

  19. Development of intelligent code system to support conceptual design of nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro

    1997-01-01

    An intelligent reactor design system IRDS has been developed to support conceptual design of new type reactor cores in the fields of neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and fuel behavior. The features of IRDS are summarized as follows: 1) a variety of computer codes to cover various design tasks relevant to 'static' and 'burnup' problems are implemented, 2) all the information necessary to the codes implemented is unified in a data base, 3) several data and knowledge bases are referred to in order to proceed design process efficiently for non-expert users, 4) advanced man-machine interface to communicate with the system through an interactive and graphical user interface is equipped and 5) a function to search automatically a design window, which is defined as a feasible parameter range to satisfy design requirement and criteria is employed to support the optimization or satisfication process. Applicability and productivity of the system are demonstrated by the design study of fuel pin for new type FBR cores. (author)

  20. Rational design of biaryl pharmacophore inserted noscapine derivatives as potent tubulin binding anticancer agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoshi, Seneha; Manchukonda, Naresh Kumar; Suri, Charu; Sharma, Manya; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Joseph, Silja; Lopus, Manu; Kantevari, Srinivas; Baitharu, Iswar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-03-01

    We have strategically designed a series of noscapine derivatives by inserting biaryl pharmacophore (a major structural constituent of many of the microtubule-targeting natural anticancer compounds) onto the scaffold structure of noscapine. Molecular interaction of these derivatives with α,β-tubulin heterodimer was investigated by molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation. The predictive binding affinity indicates that the newly designed noscapinoids bind to tubulin with a greater affinity. The predictive binding free energy (ΔGbind, pred) of these derivatives (ranging from -5.568 to -5.970 kcal/mol) based on linear interaction energy (LIE) method with a surface generalized Born (SGB) continuum solvation model showed improved binding affinity with tubulin compared to the lead compound, natural α-noscapine (-5.505 kcal/mol). Guided by the computational findings, these new biaryl type α-noscapine congeners were synthesized from 9-bromo-α-noscapine using optimized Suzuki reaction conditions for further experimental evaluation. The derivatives showed improved inhibition of the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549), compared to natural noscapine. The cell cycle analysis in MCF-7 further revealed that these compounds alter the cell cycle profile and cause mitotic arrest at G2/M phase more strongly than noscapine. Tubulin binding assay revealed higher binding affinity to tubulin, as suggested by dissociation constant (Kd) of 126 ± 5.0 µM for 5a, 107 ± 5.0 µM for 5c, 70 ± 4.0 µM for 5d, and 68 ± 6.0 µM for 5e compared to noscapine (Kd of 152 ± 1.0 µM). In fact, the experimentally determined value of ΔGbind, expt (calculated from the Kd value) are consistent with the predicted value of ΔGbind, pred calculated based on LIE-SGB. Based on these results, one of the derivative 5e of this series was used for further toxicological

  1. The rational design of a peptide-based hydrogel responsive to H2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Raoul; Chen, Ganchao; Lei, Haipeng; Zhang, Mei; Gao, Liqian; Lee, Su Seong; Wang, Zuankai; Sun, Hongyan

    2015-12-18

    The development of hydrogels that are responsive to external stimuli in a well-controlled manner is important for numerous biomedical applications. Herein we reported the first example of a hydrogel responsive to hydrogen sulphide (H2S). H2S is an important gasotransmitter whose deregulation has been associated with a number of pathological conditions. Our hydrogel design is based on the functionalization of an ultrashort hydrogelating peptide sequence with an azidobenzyl moiety, which was reported to react with H2S selectively under physiological conditions. The resulting peptide was able to produce hydrogels at a concentration as low as 0.1 wt%. It could then be fully degraded in the presence of excess H2S. We envision that the novel hydrogel developed in this study may provide useful tools for biomedical research.

  2. Rational Design of Glycomimetic Compounds Targeting the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transglycosylase Gas2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delso, Ignacio; Valero-González, Jessika; Marca, Eduardo; Tejero, Tomás; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramón; Merino, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    The transglycosylase Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gas2 (ScGas2) belongs to a large family of enzymes that are key players in yeast cell wall remodeling. Despite its biologic importance, no studies on the synthesis of substrate-based compounds as potential inhibitors have been reported. We have synthesized a series of docking-guided glycomimetics that were evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy and saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments, revealing that a minimum of three glucose units linked via a β-(1,3) linkage are required for achieving molecular recognition at the binding donor site. The binding mode of our compounds is further supported by STD-NMR experiments using the active site-mutants Y107Q and Y244Q. Our results are important for both understanding of ScGas2-substrate interactions and setting up the basis for future design of glycomimetics as new antifungal agents. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Multilevel Molecular Modeling Approach for a Rational Design of Ionic Current Sensors for Nanofluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Alexsandro; de Almeida, James M; Miranda, Caetano R

    2018-05-10

    The complexity displayed by nanofluidic-based systems involves electronic and dynamic aspects occurring across different size and time scales. To properly model such kind of system, we introduced a top-down multilevel approach, combining molecular dynamics simulations (MD) with first-principles electronic transport calculations. The potential of this technique was demonstrated by investigating how the water and ionic flow through a (6,6) carbon nanotube (CNT) influences its electronic transport properties. We showed that the confinement on the CNT favors the partially hydrated Na, Cl, and Li ions to exchange charge with the nanotube. This leads to a change in the electronic transmittance, allowing for the distinguishing of cations from anions. Such an ionic trace may handle an indirect measurement of the ionic current that is recorded as a sensing output. With this case study, we are able to show the potential of this top-down multilevel approach, to be applied on the design of novel nanofluidic devices.

  4. Glutamic acid and its derivatives: candidates for rational design of anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Wani, Waseem A; Haque, Ashanul; Saleem, Kishwar

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the history of human civilizations, cancer has been a major health problem. Its treatment has been interesting but challenging to scientists. Glutamic acid and its derivative glutamine are known to play interesting roles in cancer genesis, hence, it was realized that structurally variant glutamic acid derivatives may be designed and developed and, might be having antagonistic effects on cancer. The present article describes the state-of-art of glutamic acid and its derivatives as anticancer agents. Attempts have been made to explore the effectivity of drug-delivery systems based on glutamic acid for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Moreover, efforts have also been made to discuss the mechanism of action of glutamic acid derivatives as anticancer agents, clinical applications of glutamic acid derivatives, as well as recent developments and future perspectives of glutamic acid drug development have also been discussed.

  5. Work process and task-based design of intelligent assistance systems in German textile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhrer, M.; Ziesen, N.; Altepost, A.; Saggiomo, M.; Gloy, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    The mid-sized embossed German textile industry must face social challenges e.g. demographic change or technical changing processes. Interaction with intelligent systems (on machines) and increasing automation changes processes, working structures and employees’ tasks on all levels. Work contents are getting more complex, resulting in the necessity for diversified and enhanced competencies. Mobile devices like tablets or smartphones are increasingly finding their way into the workplace. Employees who grew up with new forms of media have certain advantages regarding the usage of modern technologies compared to older employees. Therefore, it is necessary to design new systems which help to adapt the competencies of both younger and older employees to new automated production processes in the digital work environment. The key to successful integration of technical assistance systems is user-orientated design and development that includes concepts for competency development under consideration of, e.g., ethical and legal aspects.

  6. A survey on the design of multiprocessing systems for artificial intelligence applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Li, Guo Jie

    1989-01-01

    Some issues in designing computers for artificial intelligence (AI) processing are discussed. These issues are divided into three levels: the representation level, the control level, and the processor level. The representation level deals with the knowledge and methods used to solve the problem and the means to represent it. The control level is concerned with the detection of dependencies and parallelism in the algorithmic and program representations of the problem, and with the synchronization and sheduling of concurrent tasks. The processor level addresses the hardware and architectural components needed to evaluate the algorithmic and program representations. Solutions for the problems of each level are illustrated by a number of representative systems. Design decisions in existing projects on AI computers are classed into top-down, bottom-up, and middle-out approaches.

  7. Cognitive Tutoring based on Intelligent Decision Support in the PENTHA Instructional Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dall'Acqua, Luisa

    2010-06-01

    The research finality of this paper is how to support Authors to develop rule driven—subject oriented, adaptable course content, meta-rules—representing the disciplinary epistemology, model of teaching, Learning Path structure, and assessment parameters—for intelligent Tutoring actions in a personalized, adaptive e-Learning environment. The focus is to instruct the student to be a decision manager for himself, able to recognize the elements of a problem, select the necessary information with the perspective of factual choices. In particular, our research intends to provide some fundamental guidelines for the definition of didactical rules and logical relations, that Authors should provide to a cognitive Tutoring system through the use of an Instructional Design method (PENTHA Model) which proposes an educational environment, able to: increase productivity and operability, create conditions for a cooperative dialogue, developing participatory research activities of knowledge, observations and discoveries, customizing the learning design in a complex and holistic vision of the learning / teaching processes.

  8. The Viewpoint Paradigm: a semiotic based approach for the intelligibility of a cooperative designing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Jean Charrel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of viewpoint is studied in the field of the modelling and the knowledge management concerned in the upstream phases of a designing process. The concept is approached by semiotics, i.e. in dealing with the requirements so that an actor gives sense to an object. This gives means to transform the intuitive concepts of viewpoint and relation between viewpoints into the Viewpoint Paradigm: the sense of an object is the integration of the viewpoints which exert on it. The elements of this paradigm are integrated in a general model, which defines two concepts formally: Viewpoint and Correlation of viewpoints. The Viewpoint Paradigm is then implemented in operational concerns which are related with the intelligibility of the designing process. Two models of viewpoint and correlation are proposed. They raise of viewpoints management such as one can identify them in the written documents of a project.

  9. Towards Rational Design of Functional Fluoride and Oxyfluoride Materials from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nenian

    Complex transition metal compounds (TMCs) research has produced functional materials with a range of properties, including ferroelectricity, colossal magnetoresistance, nonlinear optical activity and high-temperature superconductivity. Conventional routes to tune properties in transition metal oxides, for example, have relied primarily on cation chemical substitution and interfacial effects in thin film heterostructures. In heteroanionic TMCs, exhibiting two chemically distinct anions coordinating the same or different cations, engineering of the anion sub-lattice for property control is a promising alternative approach. The presence of multiple anions provides additional design variables, such as anion order, that are absent in homoanionic counterparts. The more complex structural and chemical phase space of heteroanionic materials provides a unique opportunity to realize enhanced or unanticipated electronic, optical, and magnetic responses. Although there is growing interest in heteroanionic materials, and synthetic and characterization advances are occurring for these materials, the crystal-chemistry principles for realizing structural and property control are only slowing emerging. This dissertation employs anion engineering to investigate phenomena in transition metal fluorides and oxyfluorides compounds using first principles density functional theory calculations. Oxyfluorides are particularly intriguing owing their tendency to stabilize highly ordered anion sublattices as well as the potential to combine the advantageous properties of transition metal oxides and fluorides. This work 1) addresses the challenges of studying fluorides and oxyfluorides using first principles calculations; 2) evaluates the feasibility of using external stimuli, such as epitaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure, to control properties of fluorides and oxyfluorides; and 3) formulates a computational workflow based on multiple levels of theory and computation to elucidate structure

  10. Rational design of a fibroblast growth factor 21-based clinical candidate, LY2405319.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Kharitonenkov

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a novel hormonal regulator with the potential to treat a broad variety of metabolic abnormalities, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disease. Human recombinant wild type FGF21 (FGF21 has been shown to ameliorate metabolic disorders in rodents and non-human primates. However, development of FGF21 as a drug is challenging and requires re-engineering of its amino acid sequence to improve protein expression and formulation stability. Here we report the design and characterization of a novel FGF21 variant, LY2405319. To enable the development of a potential drug product with a once-daily dosing profile, in a preserved, multi-use formulation, an additional disulfide bond was introduced in FGF21 through Leu118Cys and Ala134Cys mutations. FGF21 was further optimized by deleting the four N-terminal amino acids, His-Pro-Ile-Pro (HPIP, which was subject to proteolytic cleavage. In addition, to eliminate an O-linked glycosylation site in yeast a Ser167Ala mutation was introduced, thus allowing large-scale, homogenous protein production in Pichia pastoris. Altogether re-engineering of FGF21 led to significant improvements in its biopharmaceutical properties. The impact of these changes was assessed in a panel of in vitro and in vivo assays, which confirmed that biological properties of LY2405319 were essentially identical to FGF21. Specifically, subcutaneous administration of LY2405319 in ob/ob and diet-induced obese (DIO mice over 7-14 days resulted in a 25-50% lowering of plasma glucose coupled with a 10-30% reduction in body weight. Thus, LY2405319 exhibited all the biopharmaceutical and biological properties required for initiation of a clinical program designed to test the hypothesis that administration of exogenous FGF21 would result in effects on disease-related metabolic parameters in humans.

  11. Open-source intelligence in the Czech military knowledge syst em and process design

    OpenAIRE

    Krejci, Roman

    2002-01-01

    Owing to the recent transitions in the Czech Republic, the Czech military must satisfy a large set of new requirements. One way the military intelligence can become more effective and can conserve resources is by increasing the efficiency of open-source intelligence (OSINT), which plays an important part in intelligence gathering in the age of information. When using OSINT effectively, the military intelligence can elevate its responsiveness to different types of crises and can also properly ...

  12. Rational Catalyst Design of Titanium-Silica Materials Aided by Site-Specific Titration Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Todd Robert

    between particle and crystal size, as obtained from XRD. In the course of establishing these relationships we've gained the knowledge of how to control TiO x structure, which enables the design of new and better catalysts. Understanding the synthesis-structure-function relationships allow for the design of a tandem photo/thermocatalytic reaction system for producing and consuming H2O2. By partially overcoating a TiO 2 photocatalyst with a ˜2 nm silica layer we observe a 56-fold rate improvement compared to bare-TiO2 for H2O2 synthesis from the proton-assisted reduction of O2. Addition of metal-SiO2 thermocatalysts (metal=Ti, Nb, or Ta) with sites needed for H2O2 activation creates a tandem system wherein the H2O2 produced in situ is utilized for alkene epoxidation. Compared to a thermocatalytic-only system, the tandem system accelerates epoxidation for cis-cyclooctene(11x faster), styrene(20x) and 1-octene(30x). This approach demonstrates a means for epoxidation with O2 that avoids H2O2 purification and transport, simplifies the total process, provides new opportunities for control by independent H2O2 production and consumption in the same reactor, and enhances rates relative to thermocatalytic-only epoxidation by intimately coupling H2O2 generation and consumption. Critically, establishment of titanium-silica synthesis-structure-function relationships enables the design of new catalysts and systems that are less energy- and material-intensive, leading towards more sustainable chemistry.

  13. High-throughput identification and rational design of synergistic small-molecule pairs for combating and bypassing antibiotic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan A Wambaugh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify. High-throughput identification of synergistic pairs is limited by the scale of potential combinations: a modest collection of 1,000 small molecules involves 1 million pairwise combinations. Here, we describe a high-throughput method for rapid identification of synergistic small-molecule pairs, the overlap2 method (O2M. O2M extracts patterns from chemical-genetic datasets, which are created when a collection of mutants is grown in the presence of hundreds of different small molecules, producing a precise set of phenotypes induced by each small molecule across the mutant set. The identification of mutants that show the same phenotype when treated with known synergistic molecules allows us to pinpoint additional molecule combinations that also act synergistically. As a proof of concept, we focus on combinations with the antibiotics trimethoprim and sulfamethizole, which had been standard treatment against urinary tract infections until widespread resistance decreased efficacy. Using O2M, we screened a library of 2,000 small molecules and identified several that synergize with the antibiotic trimethoprim and/or sulfamethizole. The most potent of these synergistic interactions is with the antiviral drug azidothymidine (AZT. We then demonstrate that understanding the molecular mechanism underlying small-molecule synergistic interactions allows the rational design of additional

  14. High-throughput identification and rational design of synergistic small-molecule pairs for combating and bypassing antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Morgan A; Shakya, Viplendra P S; Lewis, Adam J; Mulvey, Matthew A; Brown, Jessica C S

    2017-06-01

    Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify. High-throughput identification of synergistic pairs is limited by the scale of potential combinations: a modest collection of 1,000 small molecules involves 1 million pairwise combinations. Here, we describe a high-throughput method for rapid identification of synergistic small-molecule pairs, the overlap2 method (O2M). O2M extracts patterns from chemical-genetic datasets, which are created when a collection of mutants is grown in the presence of hundreds of different small molecules, producing a precise set of phenotypes induced by each small molecule across the mutant set. The identification of mutants that show the same phenotype when treated with known synergistic molecules allows us to pinpoint additional molecule combinations that also act synergistically. As a proof of concept, we focus on combinations with the antibiotics trimethoprim and sulfamethizole, which had been standard treatment against urinary tract infections until widespread resistance decreased efficacy. Using O2M, we screened a library of 2,000 small molecules and identified several that synergize with the antibiotic trimethoprim and/or sulfamethizole. The most potent of these synergistic interactions is with the antiviral drug azidothymidine (AZT). We then demonstrate that understanding the molecular mechanism underlying small-molecule synergistic interactions allows the rational design of additional combinations that

  15. A Rational Electrode-Electrolyte Design for Efficient Ammonia Electrosynthesis under Ambient Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Suryanto, Bryan Harry Rahmat

    2018-04-25

    Renewable energy driven ammonia electrosynthesis by N2 reduction reaction (NRR) at ambient conditions is vital for the sustainability of the global population and energy demand. However, NRR under ambient conditions to date has been plagued with low yield rate and selectivity (<10%) due to the more favourable hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in aqueous media. Herein, surface area enhanced α-Fe nanorods grown on carbon fibre paper was used as a NRR cathode in an aprotic fluorinated solvent – ionic liquid mixture. Through this design, a significantly enhanced NRR activity with NH3 yield rate of ~2.35 × 10-11 mol s-1 cmGSA-2, (3.71 × 10-13 mol s-1 cmECSA-2) and selectivity of ~32% has been achieved under ambient conditions. This study reveals that the use of hydrophobic fluorinated aprotic electrolyte effectively limits the availability of protons and thus suppresses the competing HER. Therefore, electrode-electrolyte engineering is essential in advancing the NH3 electrosynthesis technology.

  16. Rational design of dendrimer/lipid nanoassemblies in drug delivery for cancer chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qihang

    Nanocarriers can minimize the side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Although some success has been achieved via active or passive drug delivery to tumor cells, the known nanocarriers are far from satisfying therapeutic efficacy expectations. This is because they usually fail in one of the four crucial requirements, that is, to retain drug in blood circulation but release it reliably in tumor cells and to be stealthy in transport in circulation and tumor tissue but sticky upon arrival at the tumor cell. Therefore, the goal of this work is to fabricate nanoassemblies of dendrimers and lipids to address all these challenges. Particularly, nanoassemblies designed and prepared in this work are illustrated to improve the tumor tissue penetration. Examples of dendrimers synthesized in this work are water-insoluble, pH-dependent water-insoluble and water-soluble biodegradable polyester dendrimers. These dendrimers are shown to be encapsulated by commonly used fusogenic and long-circulating lipids to form reliable nanoassemblies. The dendrimer/lipid nanocarriers are used to demonstrate a cascade drug delivery. They are expected to be stable in circulation, due to their appropriately large size, but to release the drug-loaded dendrimers in tumor tissue. The released dendrimers carrying drugs are much smaller and hence expected to have a much deeper penetration throughout the tumor tissue.

  17. Rational Design and Nanoscale Integration of Multi-Heterostructures as Highly Efficient Photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xiangfeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    The central goal of this project is to design and synthesize complex multi-hetero-nanostructures and fundamental investigation of their potential as efficient and robust photocatalysts. Specifically, the project aims to develop a nanoscale light-harvesting antenna that can efficiently convert solar photon energy into excited electrons and holes, and integrate such antenna with efficient redox nanocatalysts that can harness the photo-generated carriers for productive electrochemical processes. Focusing on this central goal, we have investigated several potential light-harvesting antennas including: silicon nanowires, nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanowires and the emerging perovskite materials. We also devoted considerable effort in developing electrocatalysts including: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts and oxygen reduction reaction catalysts (ORR). In previous annual reports, we have described our effort in the synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of silicon, TiO2, perovskite-based materials and heterostructures. Here, we focus our discussion on the recent effort in investigating charge transport dynamics in organolead halide perovskites, as well as carbon nanostructure and platinum nanostructure-based electrocatalysts for energy conversion and storage.

  18. A Alternative Analog Circuit Design Methodology Employing Integrated Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Jeffery L.

    In consideration of the computer processing power now available to the designer, an alternative analog circuit design methodology is proposed. Computer memory capacities no longer require the reduction of the transistor operational characteristics to an imprecise formulation. Therefore, it is proposed that transistor modelling be abandoned in favor of fully characterized transistor data libraries. Secondly, availability of the transistor libraries would facilitate an automated selection of the most appropriate device(s) for the circuit being designed. More specifically, a preprocessor computer program to a more sophisticated circuit simulator (e.g. SPICE) is developed to assist the designer in developing the basic circuit topology and the selection of the most appropriate transistor. Once this is achieved, the circuit topology and selected transistor data library would be downloaded to the simulator for full circuit operational characterization and subsequent design modifications. It is recognized that the design process is enhanced by the use of heuristics as applied to iterative design results. Accordingly, an artificial intelligence (AI) interface is developed to assist the designer in applying the preprocessor results. To demonstrate the retrofitability of the AI interface to established programs, the interface is specifically designed to be as non-intrusive to the host code as possible. Implementation of the proposed methodology offers the potential to speed the design process, since the preprocessor both minimizes the required number of simulator runs and provides a higher acceptance potential of the initial and subsequent simulator runs. Secondly, part count reductions may be realizable since the circuit topologies are not as strongly driven by transistor limitations. Thirdly, the predicted results should more closely match actual circuit operations since the inadequacies of the transistor models have been virtually eliminated. Finally, the AI interface

  19. Evaluation of design parameters in soil-structure systems through artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremonini, M.G.; Vardanega, C.; Parvis, E.

    1989-01-01

    This study refers to development of an artificial intelligence tool to evaluate design parameters for a soil-structure system as the foundations of Class 1 buildings of a nuclear power plant (NPP). This is based on an expert analysis of a large amount of information, collected during a comprehensive program of site investigations and laboratory tests and stored on a computer data-bank. The methodology comprises the following steps: organization of the available information on the site characteristics in a data-base; implementation and extensive use of a specific knowledge based expert system (KBES) devoted to both the analysis, interpretation and check of the information in the data-base, and to the evaluation of the design parameters; determination of effective access criteria to the data-base, for purposes of reordering the information and extracting design properties from a large number of experimental data; development of design profiles for both index properties and strength/strain parameters; and final evaluation of the design parameters. Results are obtained in the form of: local and general site stratigraphy; summarized soil index properties, detailing the site setting; static and dynamic stress-strain parameters, G/G max behavior and damping factors; condolidation parameters and OCR ratio; spatial distribution of parameters on site area; identification of specific local conditions; and cross correlation of parameters, thus covering the whole range of design parameters for NPP soil-structure systems

  20. A rational design approach to nanostructured catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacki, Christopher

    . The role of the support is to provide lattice oxygen in an activated state (O2-) for oxidation of adsorbed CO the Au NP:support interface. Furthermore, the primary interest is the energy associated Au NP in proximity to the support surface. Advancing the understanding of this region is believed to be crucial to the future design of active nanostructured materials that function under ambient conditions. The proposed model involves a structure consisting of properly sized and highly dispersed Au NP supported on a hydroxylated form of nanocrystalline zirconia. This type of zirconia is in a highly polymorphic form consisting of aggregates of small crystals less than 10 nm. The structure is highly porous, containing undercoordinated zirconium atoms, and provides an environment for rapid dissociation of molecular water. In this research and in collaboration with Mogilevsky et al., 37 I introduce a novel method for quantifying the surface concentration of two major forms of hydroxide that form on zirconia. Furthermore, in this research I show how both the porosity of the zirconia support and the size of the crystalline aggregates affect the type and surface concentration of hydroxyl groups. This relationship is thus directly related to the oxidation activity of the catalyst consisting of Au NP supported on hydroxylated ZrO 2. These phenomena are exemplified by a reduction in structural porosity and surface hydroxyl groups with increasing temperature treatments of the zirconia support. Gold NP and ZrO2 supports were extended to studies that included interactions with activated carbons. This work was done on the premise that graphitic carbons, based on their tunable porosities and surface chemistries, can enhance or stabilize the catalytic activity of neighboring Au NP. Gold dispersed on active carbon and hybrid structures consisting of Au/ZrO 2/C shows interesting properties, which lend themselves to catalytic particle stabilization and to the advancement of multifunctional

  1. A Rational Engineering Strategy for Designing Protein A-Binding Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin A.; Sulea, Traian; van Faassen, Henk; Hussack, Greg; Purisima, Enrico O.; MacKenzie, C. Roger; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and streptococcal protein G (SpG) affinity chromatography are the gold standards for purifying monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic applications. However, camelid VHH single-domain Abs (sdAbs or VHHs) are not bound by SpG and only sporadically bound by SpA. Currently, VHHs require affinity tag-based purification, which limits their therapeutic potential and adds considerable complexity and cost to their production. Here we describe a simple and rapid mutagenesis-based approach designed to confer SpA binding upon a priori non-SpA-binding VHHs. We show that SpA binding of VHHs is determined primarily by the same set of residues as in human mAbs, albeit with an unexpected degree of tolerance to substitutions at certain core and non-core positions and some limited dependence on at least one residue outside the SpA interface, and that SpA binding could be successfully introduced into five VHHs against three different targets with no adverse effects on expression yield or antigen binding. Next-generation sequencing of llama, alpaca and dromedary VHH repertoires suggested that species differences in SpA binding may result from frequency variation in specific deleterious polymorphisms, especially Ile57. Thus, the SpA binding phenotype of camelid VHHs can be easily modulated to take advantage of tag-less purification techniques, although the frequency with which this is required may depend on the source species. PMID:27631624

  2. Rationally designed turn promoting mutation in the amyloid-β peptide sequence stabilizes oligomers in solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Rajadas

    Full Text Available Enhanced production of a 42-residue beta amyloid peptide (Aβ(42 in affected parts of the brain has been suggested to be the main causative factor for the development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. The severity of the disease depends not only on the amount of the peptide but also its conformational transition leading to the formation of oligomeric amyloid-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs in the brain of AD patients. Despite being significant to the understanding of AD mechanism, no atomic-resolution structures are available for these species due to the evanescent nature of ADDLs that hinders most structural biophysical investigations. Based on our molecular modeling and computational studies, we have designed Met35Nle and G37p mutations in the Aβ(42 peptide (Aβ(42Nle35p37 that appear to organize Aβ(42 into stable oligomers. 2D NMR on the Aβ(42Nle35p37 peptide revealed the occurrence of two β-turns in the V24-N27 and V36-V39 stretches that could be the possible cause for the oligomer stability. We did not observe corresponding NOEs for the V24-N27 turn in the Aβ(21-43Nle35p37 fragment suggesting the need for the longer length amyloid peptide to form the stable oligomer promoting conformation. Because of the presence of two turns in the mutant peptide which were absent in solid state NMR structures for the fibrils, we propose, fibril formation might be hindered. The biophysical information obtained in this work could aid in the development of structural models for toxic oligomer formation that could facilitate the development of therapeutic approaches to AD.

  3. Rational design of organic semiconductors for texture control and self-patterning on halogenated surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ward, Jeremy W.

    2014-05-15

    Understanding the interactions at interfaces between the materials constituting consecutive layers within organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is vital for optimizing charge injection and transport, tuning thin-film microstructure, and designing new materials. Here, the influence of the interactions at the interface between a halogenated organic semiconductor (OSC) thin film and a halogenated self-assembled monolayer on the formation of the crystalline texture directly affecting the performance of OTFTs is explored. By correlating the results from microbeam grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (μGIWAXS) measurements of structure and texture with OTFT characteristics, two or more interaction paths between the terminating atoms of the semiconductor and the halogenated surface are found to be vital to templating a highly ordered morphology in the first layer. These interactions are effective when the separating distance is lower than 2.5 dw, where dw represents the van der Waals distance. The ability to modulate charge carrier transport by several orders of magnitude by promoting "edge-on" versus "face-on" molecular orientation and crystallographic textures in OSCs is demonstrated. It is found that the "edge-on" self-assembly of molecules forms uniform, (001) lamellar-textured crystallites which promote high charge carrier mobility, and that charge transport suffers as the fraction of the "face-on" oriented crystallites increases. The role of interfacial halogenation in mediating texture formation and the self-patterning of organic semiconductor films, as well as the resulting effects on charge transport in organic thin-film transistors, are explored. The presence of two or more anchoring sites between a halogenated semiconductor and a halogenated self-assembled monolayer, closer than about twice the corresponding van der Waals distance, alter the microstructure and improve electrical properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hybrid intelligent methodology to design translation invariant morphological operators for Brazilian stock market prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ricardo de A

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid intelligent methodology to design increasing translation invariant morphological operators applied to Brazilian stock market prediction (overcoming the random walk dilemma). The proposed Translation Invariant Morphological Robust Automatic phase-Adjustment (TIMRAA) method consists of a hybrid intelligent model composed of a Modular Morphological Neural Network (MMNN) with a Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QIEA), which searches for the best time lags to reconstruct the phase space of the time series generator phenomenon and determines the initial (sub-optimal) parameters of the MMNN. Each individual of the QIEA population is further trained by the Back Propagation (BP) algorithm to improve the MMNN parameters supplied by the QIEA. Also, for each prediction model generated, it uses a behavioral statistical test and a phase fix procedure to adjust time phase distortions observed in stock market time series. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed method through four Brazilian stock market time series, and the achieved results are discussed and compared to results found with random walk models and the previously introduced Time-delay Added Evolutionary Forecasting (TAEF) and Morphological-Rank-Linear Time-lag Added Evolutionary Forecasting (MRLTAEF) methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Design, Modelling, and Implementation of a Fuzzy Controller for an Intelligent Road Signaling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lozano Domínguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossing points are not always 100% visible for drivers due to different factors (e.g., poor road maintenance, occlusion of vertical signs, and adverse weather conditions. USA estimated in 2015 the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and vehicles in 70,000 of whom 5,376 resulted in deceased people. To contribute in this field, this paper presents the design, implementation, and testing of a smart prototype system applied to pedestrian crossings—not regulated by semaphores—which try to reduce the accident rate on roads. The hardware and software system consists of a set of autonomous, intelligent, and wireless low-cost devices that generate a visual warning barrier perceived by drivers from a suitable distance when pedestrians traverse a crosswalk. In this way, drivers can reduce the speed of their vehicles and stop safely. The system’s intelligence is carried out by a fuzzy controller that performs sensory fusion at both low level and high level with various types of sensors from local and neighboring devices. The tests conducted have determined an average success of 94.64% and a precision of 100%, thus corresponding with a very good test according to a ROC analysis. As a result, the system proposed has been patented and extended to international PCT.

  6. Designing a holistic end-to-end intelligent network analysis and security platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, M.

    2018-03-01

    Firewall protects a network from outside attacks, however, once an attack entering a network, it is difficult to detect. Recent significance accidents happened. i.e.: millions of Yahoo email account were stolen and crucial data from institutions are held for ransom. Within two year Yahoo’s system administrators were not aware that there are intruder inside the network. This happened due to the lack of intelligent tools to monitor user behaviour in internal network. This paper discusses a design of an intelligent anomaly/malware detection system with proper proactive actions. The aim is to equip the system administrator with a proper tool to battle the insider attackers. The proposed system adopts machine learning to analyse user’s behaviour through the runtime behaviour of each node in the network. The machine learning techniques include: deep learning, evolving machine learning perceptron, hybrid of Neural Network and Fuzzy, as well as predictive memory techniques. The proposed system is expanded to deal with larger network using agent techniques.

  7. An Intelligent Method of Product Scheme Design Based on Product Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Song Ai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in order to have some featured products, many customers tend to buy customized products instead of buying common ones in supermarket. The manufacturing enterprises, with the purpose of improving their competitiveness, are focusing on providing customized products with high quality and low cost as well. At present, how to produce customized products rapidly and cheaply has been the key challenge to manufacturing enterprises. In this paper, an intelligent modeling approach applied to supporting the modeling of customized products is proposed, which may improve the efficiency during the product design process. Specifically, the product gene (PG method, which is an analogy of biological evolution in engineering area, is employed to model products in a new way. Based on product gene, we focus on the intelligent modeling method to generate product schemes rapidly and automatically. The process of our research includes three steps: (1 develop a product gene model for customized products; (2 find the obtainment and storage method for product gene; and (3 propose a specific genetic algorithm used for calculating the solution of customized product and generating new product schemes. Finally, a case study is applied to test the usefulness of our study.

  8. An intelligent vehicular traffic signal control system with state flow chart design and fpga prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, U.S.; Memon, T.D.; Noonari, A.S.; Ansari, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language) code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III. (author)

  9. An Intelligent Vehicular Traffic Signal Control System with State Flow Chart Design and FPGA Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMAIR SAEEDSOLANGI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III.

  10. Design of information-measuring and control systems for intelligent buildings. Trends of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Irina Yur’evna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the modern requirements for integrated management systems of a smart home. The authors propose a hierarchical classification of the levels of house automation, which allows allocating different levels of information transfer. The article considers the trends of development of information-measuring and control systems of intelligent buildings. The generalized scheme of information-measuring and control subsystems of an intelligent building are given. The energy-information model of the knowledge base of physical and technical effects described in the article allows developing a system of automated support of the conceptual stage of elements design in information measuring and control systems. With the help of this knowledge base the system allows dozens of times expanding the scope of knowledge actively used by specialists and two or three times reducing the time of creating new solutions by selecting the most efficient of the options and the underlying calculation of the essential characteristics of their conceptual models, which significantly reduces the number of created prototypes and field tests.

  11. A Review of Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Based Intelligent Control Design for Discrete-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the intelligent control methods such as fuzzy logic control (FLC and neural network (NN control have been successfully used in various applications. The rapid development of digital computer based control systems requires control signals to be calculated in a digital or discrete-time form. In this background, the intelligent control methods developed for discrete-time systems have drawn great attentions. This survey aims to present a summary of the state of the art of the design of FLC and NN-based intelligent control for discrete-time systems. For discrete-time FLC systems, numerous remarkable design approaches are introduced and a series of efficient methods to deal with the robustness, stability, and time delay of FLC discrete-time systems are recommended. Techniques for NN-based intelligent control for discrete-time systems, such as adaptive methods and adaptive dynamic programming approaches, are also reviewed. Overall, this paper is devoted to make a brief summary for recent progresses in FLC and NN-based intelligent control design for discrete-time systems as well as to present our thoughts and considerations of recent trends and potential research directions in this area.

  12. Rational Design of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Targeted Nanomedicines for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Forrest M.

    2011-07-01

    Nanotechnology provides a flexible platform for the development of effective therapeutic nanomaterials that can interact specifically with a target in a biological system and provoke a desired biological response. Of the nanomaterials studied, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have emerged as one of top candidates for cancer therapy due to their intrinsic superparamagnetism that enables non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biodegradability favorable for in vivo application. This dissertation is aimed at development of SPION-based nanomedicines to overcome the current limitations in cancer therapy. These limitations include non-specificity of therapy which can harm healthy tissue, the difficulty in delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy, the formation of drug resistance, and the inability to detect and treat micrometastases. First, a SPION-based non-viral gene delivery vehicle was developed through functionalization of the SPION core with a co-polymer designed to provide stable binding of DNA and low toxicity which showed excellent gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. This SPION-based non-viral gene delivery vehicle was then activated with a targeting agent to improve gene delivery throughout a xenograft tumor of brain cancer. It was found that targeting did not promote the accumulation of SPIONs at the tumor site, but rather improved the distribution of SPIONs throughout the tumor so a higher proportion of cells received treatment. Next, the high surface area of SPIONs was utilized for loading large amounts of drug which was shown to overcome the multidrug resistance acquired by many cancer cells. Drug bound to SPIONs showed significantly higher multidrug resistant cell uptake as compared to free drug which translated into improved cell kill. Also, an antibody activated SPION was developed and was shown to be able to target micrometastases in a transgenic animal model of metastatic breast cancer. These SPION-based nanomedicines

  13. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

  14. Adolescent rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  15. The dementia and disability project in Thai elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senanarong Vorapun

    2013-01-01

    .5% of 1964 subjects were free of chronic diseases. Treatment gap (indicating those who have untreated or inadequate treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in Thai elders in this study was 37% and 55.5% respectively. 62.6% of Thai elders have ApoE3E3 allele. Prevalence of positive ApoE4 gene in this study is 22.85%. 38.6% of Thai elders who had MRI brain study have moderate to severe white matter lesions. Conclusion The large and comprehensive set of measurements in DDP allows a wide-ranging explanation of the functional and clinical features to be investigated in relation to white matter lesions or cortical atrophy of the brain in Thai elderly population. An almost 2 year follow up was made available to those with MCI and dementia and some of the cognitively normal elderly. The longitudinal design will provide great understanding of the possible contributors to disability in the elderly and to the progression of cognitive decline in Thai elders.

  16. The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanarong, Vorapun; Harnphadungkit, Kamolthip; Poungvarin, Niphon; Vannasaeng, Sathit; Chongwisal, Samut; Chakorn, Tipa; Jamjumrus, Piyanuch; Raksthaput, Atthapon; Chaichanettee, Sinisa; Aoonkaew, Nattapol; Udompunthurak, Suthipol; Doody, Rachelle S; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-10

    . Treatment gap (indicating those who have untreated or inadequate treatment) of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in Thai elders in this study was 37% and 55.5% respectively. 62.6% of Thai elders have ApoE3E3 allele. Prevalence of positive ApoE4 gene in this study is 22.85%. 38.6% of Thai elders who had MRI brain study have moderate to severe white matter lesions. The large and comprehensive set of measurements in DDP allows a wide-ranging explanation of the functional and clinical features to be investigated in relation to white matter lesions or cortical atrophy of the brain in Thai elderly population. An almost 2 year follow up was made available to those with MCI and dementia and some of the cognitively normal elderly. The longitudinal design will provide great understanding of the possible contributors to disability in the elderly and to the progression of cognitive decline in Thai elders.

  17. Embodying rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrogiorgio, Antonio; Petracca, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The current notions of bounded rationality in economics share distinctive features with Simon’s original notion, which still influences the theoretical and experimental research in the fields of choice, judgment, decision making, problem solving, and social cognition. All these notions of bounded rationality are in fact equally rooted in the information-processing approach to human cognition, expressing the view that reasoning is disembodied and that it can be reduced to the processing of abs...

  18. DESIGN OF AN INTELLIGENT SYSTEM TO DETECT TYPE OF PAIN USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR PATIENTS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY IN SHEFA NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH CENTER

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrolah Nasr HeidarAbadi, Reza Safdari, Peirhossein Kolivand, Amir Javadi, Azimeh Danesh Shahraki1, Marjan Ghazi Saeidi*

    2017-01-01

    Using artificial intelligence in computerized clinical systems helps physicians diagnose disease or choose treatment. Intelligent methods are constantly changed to be more effective and accurate for quick medical diagnosis. Neural networks are a powerful tool to help physicians. The tools can process a high number of data and minimize errors in ignoring patients' information. Intelligent system design based on artificial neural network was performed in 3 phases. Phase1: Designing the data rec...

  19. Ni And Co Segregations On Selective Surface Facets And Rational Design Of Layered Lithium Transition-metal Oxide Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Zhiguo; Teng, Gaofeng; Kuppan, Saravanan; Xiao, Jie; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.; Pan, Feng

    2016-05-05

    The chemical processes occurring on the surface of cathode materials during battery cycling play a crucial role in determining battery’s performance. However, our understanding on such surface chemistry is far from clear due to the complexity of redox chemistry during battery charge/discharge. In this work, through intensive aberration corrected STEM investigation on eight layered oxide cathode materials, we report two important findings on the pristine oxides. First, Ni and Co show strong plane selectivity when building up their respective surface segregation layers (SSL). Specifically, Ni-SSL is exclusively developed on (200)m facet in Li-Mn-rich oxides (monoclinic C2/m symmetry) and (012)h facet in Mn-Ni equally rich oxides (hexagonal R-3m symmetry), while Co-SSL has a strong preference to (20-2)m plane with minimal Co-SSL also developed on some other planes in LMR cathodes. Structurally, Ni-SSLs tend to form spinel-like lattice while Co-SSLs are in a rock-salt-like structure. Secondly, by increasing Ni concentration in these layered oxides, Ni and Co SSLs can be suppressed and even eliminated. Our findings indicate that Ni and Co SSLs are tunable through controlling particle morphology and oxide composition, which opens up a new way for future rational design and synthesis of cathode materials.

  20. Rational Design of Molecular Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells: Direct versus Inverted Device Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisorio, Roberto; Iacobellis, Rosabianca; Listorti, Andrea; De Marco, Luisa; Cipolla, Maria Pia; Manca, Michele; Rizzo, Aurora; Abate, Antonio; Gigli, Giuseppe; Suranna, Gian Paolo

    2017-07-26

    Due to a still limited understanding of the reasons making 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) the state-of-the-art hole-transporting material (HTM) for emerging photovoltaic applications, the molecular tailoring of organic components for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) lacks in solid design criteria. Charge delocalization in radical cationic states can undoubtedly be considered as one of the essential prerequisites for an HTM, but this aspect has been investigated to a relatively minor extent. In marked contrast with the 3-D structure of Spiro-OMeTAD, truxene-based HTMs Trux1 and Trux2 have been employed for the first time in PSCs fabricated with a direct (n-i-p) or inverted (p-i-n) architecture, exhibiting a peculiar behavior with respect to the referential HTM. Notwithstanding the efficient hole extraction from the perovskite layer exhibited by Trux1 and Trux2 in direct configuration devices, their photovoltaic performances were detrimentally affected by their poor hole transport. Conversely, an outstanding improvement of the photovoltaic performances in dopant-free inverted configuration devices compared to Spiro-OMeTAD was recorded, ascribable to the use of thinner HTM layers. The rationalization of the photovoltaic performances exhibited by different configuration devices discussed in this paper can provide new and unexpected prospects for engineering the interface between the active layer of perovskite-based solar cells and the hole transporters.

  1. Rational Design of Zirconium-doped Titania Photocatalysts with Synergistic Brønsted Acidity and Photoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Runyuan; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Bingsen; Yi, Xianfeng; Zheng, Anmin; Deng, Feng; Yan, Xuhua; Pan, Shuxiang; Wei, Xiao; Wang, Kai-Xue; Su, Dang Sheng; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2016-10-06

    The preparation of photocatalysts with high activities under visible-light illumination is challenging. We report the rational design and construction of a zirconium-doped anatase catalyst (S-Zr-TiO 2 ) with Brønsted acidity and photoactivity as an efficient catalyst for the degradation of phenol under visible light. Electron microscopy images demonstrate that the zirconium sites are uniformly distributed on the sub-10 nm anatase crystals. UV-visible spectrometry indicates that the S-Zr-TiO 2 is a visible-light-responsive catalyst with narrower band gap than conventional anatase. Pyridine-adsorption infrared and acetone-adsorption 13 C NMR spectra confirm the presence of Brønsted acidic sites on the S-Zr-TiO 2 sample. Interestingly, the S-Zr-TiO 2 catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity in the degradation of phenol under visible-light illumination, owing to a synergistic effect of the Brønsted acidity and photoactivity. Importantly, the S-Zr-TiO 2 shows good recyclability. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Towards Sustainable H2 Production: Rational Design of Hydrophobic Triphenylamine-based Dyes for Sensitized Ethanol Photoreforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessì, Alessio; Monai, Matteo; Bessi, Matteo; Montini, Tiziano; Calamante, Massimo; Mordini, Alessandro; Reginato, Gianna; Trono, Cosimo; Fornasiero, Paolo; Zani, Lorenzo

    2018-02-22

    Donor-acceptor dyes are a well-established class of photosensitizers, used to enhance visible-light harvesting in solar cells and in direct photocatalytic reactions, such as H 2 production by photoreforming of sacrificial electron donors (SEDs). Amines-typically triethanolamine (TEOA)-are commonly employed as SEDs in such reactions. Dye-sensitized photoreforming of more sustainable, biomass-derived alcohols, on the other hand, was only recently reported by using methanol as the electron donor. In this work, several rationally designed donor-acceptor dyes were used as sensitizers in H 2 photocatalytic production, comparing the efficiency of TEOA and EtOH as SEDs. In particular, the effect of hydrophobic chains in the spacer and/or the donor unit of the dyes was systematically studied. The H 2 production rates were higher when TEOA was used as SED, whereas the activity trends depended on the SED used. The best performance was obtained with TEOA by using a sensitizer with just one bulky hydrophobic moiety, propylenedioxythiophene, placed on the spacer unit. In the case of EtOH, the best-performing sensitizers were the ones featuring a thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole internal unit, needed for enhancing light harvesting, and carrying alkyl chains on both the donor part and the spacer unit. The results are discussed in terms of reaction mechanism, interaction with the SED, and structural/electrochemical properties of the sensitizers. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Exploring G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) Ligand Space via Cheminformatics Approaches: Impact on Rational Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basith, Shaherin; Cui, Minghua; Macalino, Stephani J. Y.; Park, Jongmi; Clavio, Nina A. B.; Kang, Soosung; Choi, Sun

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of rational drug discovery is the identification of selective ligands which act on single or multiple drug targets to achieve the desired clinical outcome through the exploration of total chemical space. To identify such desired compounds, computational approaches are necessary in predicting their drug-like properties. G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest and most important integral membrane protein families. These receptors serve as increasingly attractive drug targets due to their relevance in the treatment of various diseases, such as inflammatory disorders, metabolic imbalances, cardiac disorders, cancer, monogenic disorders, etc. In the last decade, multitudes of three-dimensional (3D) structures were solved for diverse GPCRs, thus referring to this period as the “golden age for GPCR structural biology.” Moreover, accumulation of data about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has garnered much interest toward the exploration of GPCR chemical space. Due to the steady increase in the structural, ligand, and functional data of GPCRs, several cheminformatics approaches have been implemented in its drug discovery pipeline. In this review, we mainly focus on the cheminformatics-based paradigms in GPCR drug discovery. We provide a comprehensive view on the ligand– and structure-based cheminformatics approaches which are best illustrated via GPCR case studies. Furthermore, an appropriate combination of ligand-based knowledge with structure-based ones, i.e., integrated approach, which is emerging as a promising strategy for cheminformatics-based GPCR drug design is also discussed. PMID:29593527

  4. Rationally Designed, Multifunctional Self-Assembled Nanoparticles for Covalently Networked, Flexible and Self-Healable Superhydrophobic Composite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; You, Eun-Ah; Ha, Young-Geun

    2018-03-21

    For constructing bioinspired functional films with various superhydrophobic functions, including self-cleaning, anticorrosion, antibioadhesion, and oil-water separation, hydrophobic nanomaterials have been widely used as crucial structural components. In general, hydrophobic nanomaterials, however, cannot form strong chemical bond networks in organic-inorganic hybrid composite films because of the absence of chemically compatible binding components. Herein, we report the rationally designed, multifunctional self-assembled nanoparticles with tunable functionalities of covalent cross-linking and hydrophobicity for constructing three-dimensionally interconnected superhydrophobic composite films via a facile solution-based fabrication at room temperature. The multifunctional self-assembled nanoparticles allow the systematic control of functionalities of composite films, as well as the stable formation of covalently linked superhydrophobic composite films with excellent flexibility (bending radii of 6.5 and 3.0 mm, 1000 cycles) and self-healing ability (water contact angle > 150°, ≥10 cycles). The presented strategy can be a versatile and effective route to generating other advanced functional films with covalently interconnected composite networks.

  5. Combined data preprocessing and multivariate statistical analysis characterizes fed-batch culture of mouse hybridoma cells for rational medium design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarasu, Suresh; Kim, Do Yun; Karimi, Iftekhar A; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2010-10-01

    We present an integrated framework for characterizing fed-batch cultures of mouse hybridoma cells producing monoclonal antibody (mAb). This framework systematically combines data preprocessing, elemental balancing and statistical analysis technique. Initially, specific rates of cell growth, glucose/amino acid consumptions and mAb/metabolite productions were calculated via curve fitting using logistic equations, with subsequent elemental balancing of the preprocessed data indicating the presence of experimental measurement errors. Multivariate statistical analysis was then employed to understand physiological characteristics of the cellular system. The results from principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three major clusters of amino acids with similar trends in their consumption profiles: (i) arginine, threonine and serine, (ii) glycine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, methionine, histidine and asparagine, and (iii) lysine, valine and isoleucine. Further analysis using partial least square (PLS) regression identified key amino acids which were positively or negatively correlated with the cell growth, mAb production and the generation of lactate and ammonia. Based on these results, the optimal concentrations of key amino acids in the feed medium can be inferred, potentially leading to an increase in cell viability and productivity, as well as a decrease in toxic waste production. The study demonstrated how the current methodological framework using multivariate statistical analysis techniques can serve as a potential tool for deriving rational medium design strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation and prediction for energy dissipaters and stilling basins design using artificial intelligence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ahmed Moawad Abdeen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water with large velocities can cause considerable damage to channels whose beds are composed of natural earth materials. Several stilling basins and energy dissipating devices have been designed in conjunction with spillways and outlet works to avoid damages in canals’ structures. In addition, lots of experimental and traditional mathematical numerical works have been performed to profoundly investigate the accurate design of these stilling basins and energy dissipaters. The current study is aimed toward introducing the artificial intelligence technique as new modeling tool in the prediction of the accurate design of stilling basins. Specifically, artificial neural networks (ANNs are utilized in the current study in conjunction with experimental data to predict the length of the hydraulic jumps occurred in spillways and consequently the stilling basin dimensions can be designed for adequate energy dissipation. The current study showed, in a detailed fashion, the development process of different ANN models to accurately predict the hydraulic jump lengths acquired from different experimental studies. The results obtained from implementing these models showed that ANN technique was very successful in simulating the hydraulic jump characteristics occurred in stilling basins. Therefore, it can be safely utilized in the design of these basins as ANN involves minimum computational and financial efforts and requirements compared with experimental work and traditional numerical techniques such as finite difference or finite elements.

  7. Hydrogen initiative: An integrated approach toward rational nanocatalyst design for hydrogen production. Technical Report-Year 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachos, Dionisios G. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Buttrey, Douglas J. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Lauterbach, Jochen A. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2007-03-29

    The overall objective of this grant is to develop a rational framework for the discovery of low cost, robust, and active nano-catalysts that will enable efficient hydrogen production. Our approach will be the first demonstration of integrated multiscale model, nano-catalyst synthesis, and nanoscale characterization assisted high throughput experimentation (HTE). We will initially demonstrate our approach with ammonia decomposition on noble metal catalysts. Our research focuses on many elements of the Hydrogen Initiative in the Focus Area of “Design of Catalysts at the Nanoscale’. It combines high-throughput screening methods with various nanostructure synthesis protocols, advanced measurements, novel in situ and ex situ characterization techniques, and multiscale theory, modeling and simulation. This project directly addresses several of the long-term goals of the DOE/BES program. In particular, new nanoscale catalytic materials will be synthesized, characterized and modeled for the production of hydrogen from ammonia and a computational framework will be developed for efficient extraction of information from experimental data and for rational design of catalysts whose impact goes well beyond the proposed hydrogen production project. In the first year of the grant, we have carried out HTE screening using a 16 parallel microreactor coupled with an FTIR analysis system. We screened nearly twenty single metals and several bimetallic catalysts as a function of temperature, catalyst loading, inlet composition, and temperature (order of 400 experiments). We have found that Ru is the best single metal catalyst and no better catalysts were found among the library of bimetallics we have created so far. Furthermore, we have investigated promoting effects (i.e., K, Cs, and Ba) of the Ru catalyst. We have found that K is the dominant promoter of increased Ru activity. Response surface experimental design has led to substantial improvements of the Ru catalyst with promotion

  8. Design and research of intelligent mobile robot environment detection system based on multi-sensor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Wen Xinling

    2007-01-01

    The intelligent mobile robot environment detection system is researched based on SCM MC68HC908GP3 as core of control system. The four groups of detection systems constituted by ultrasonic sensors and infrared sensors gather information of forward, behind, left and right different directions, solve the problem of blind spot, and make up each other shortage. The distance measurement precision is improved rapidly and the detection precision is less than ±1% through using the way of the pulse shooting, the signal chooses circuit, and the temperature compensation. The system design method and the hardware circuit are introduced in detail. Simultaneity, the system adopts the single chip control technology, it makes the system possess favorable expansibility and gains the practicability in engineering field. (authors)

  9. Intelligent Controller Design for Quad-Rotor Stabilization in Presence of Parameter Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oualid Doukhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the mathematical model of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and the design of robust Self-Tuning PID controller based on fuzzy logic, which offers several advantages over certain types of conventional control methods, specifically in dealing with highly nonlinear systems and parameter uncertainty. The proposed controller is applied to the inner and outer loop for heading and position trajectory tracking control to handle the external disturbances caused by the variation in the payload weight during the flight period. The results of the numerical simulation using gazebo physics engine simulator and real-time experiment using AR drone 2.0 test bed demonstrate the effectiveness of this intelligent control strategy which can improve the robustness of the whole system and achieve accurate trajectory tracking control, comparing it with the conventional proportional integral derivative (PID.

  10. Intelligent Design, A Young Universe, Astrology, UFO's, and More: Tackling Astronomical Pseudo-science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2008-11-01

    During IYA educators and scientists will interact with the public in many ways. There will likely be public questions at IYA events about pseudo-scientific topics. While the particular pseudo-sciences that are in vogue change with time, these days popular astronomical pseudo-science includes creationism and intelligent design (and their denial of the age of the universe), astrology, UFO's as extra-terrestrial spaceships, selling star names, the ``face'' on Mars, the claim that the moon landings were a hoax, etc. We discuss some of the recent surveys of belief in pseudo-science and some ways to respond to questions about these topics. A separate resource guide to help answer questions about astronomical pseudoscience is also included in this volume.

  11. Rational design of anode materials based on Group IVA elements (Si, Ge, and Sn) for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Long; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) represent the state-of-the-art technology in rechargeable energy-storage devices and they currently occupy the prime position in the marketplace for powering an increasingly diverse range of applications. However, the fast development of these applications has led to increasing demands being placed on advanced LIBs in terms of higher energy/power densities and longer life cycles. For LIBs to meet these requirements, researchers have focused on active electrode materials, owing to their crucial roles in the electrochemical performance of batteries. For anode materials, compounds based on Group IVA (Si, Ge, and Sn) elements represent one of the directions in the development of high-capacity anodes. Although these compounds have many significant advantages when used as anode materials for LIBs, there are still some critical problems to be solved before they can meet the high requirements for practical applications. In this Focus Review, we summarize a series of rational designs for Group IVA-based anode materials, in terms of their chemical compositions and structures, that could address these problems, that is, huge volume variations during cycling, unstable surfaces/interfaces, and invalidation of transport pathways for electrons upon cycling. These designs should at least include one of the following structural benefits: 1) Contain a sufficient number of voids to accommodate the volume variations during cycling; 2) adopt a "plum-pudding"-like structure to limit the volume variations during cycling; 3) facilitate an efficient and permanent transport pathway for electrons and lithium ions; or 4) show stable surfaces/interfaces to stabilize the in situ formed SEI layers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Rational design of Sn/SnO{sub 2}/porous carbon nanocomposites as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaojia [Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Xifei, E-mail: xfli2011@hotmail.com [Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Center for Advanced Energy Materials and Devices, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Fan, Linlin; Yu, Zhuxin; Yan, Bo; Xiong, Dongbin; Song, Xiaosheng; Li, Shiyu [Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Adair, Keegan R. [Nanomaterials and Energy Lab., Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Li, Dejun, E-mail: dejunli@mail.tjnu.edu.cn [Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun9@uwo.ca [Nanomaterials and Energy Lab., Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Tianjin International Joint Research Centre of Surface Technology for Energy Storage Materials, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Sn/SnO{sub 2}/porous carbon nanocomposites are rationally designed via a facile strategy. • The porous carbon mitigates the volume change and poor conductivity of Sn/SnO{sub 2}. • The nanocomposites exhibit the enhanced sodium storage performance. - Abstract: Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have successfully attracted considerable attention for application in energy storage, and have been proposed as an alternative to lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to the abundance of sodium resources and low price. Sn has been deemed as a promising anode material in SIBs which holds high theoretical specific capacity of 845 mAh g{sup −1}. In this work we design nanocomposite materials consisting of porous carbon (PC) with SnO{sub 2} and Sn (Sn/SnO{sub 2}/PC) via a facile reflux method. Served as an anode material for SIBs, the Sn/SnO{sub 2}/PC nanocomposite delivers the primary discharge and charge capacities of 1148.1 and 303.0 mAh g{sup −1}, respectively. Meanwhile, it can preserve the discharge capacity approximately of 265.4 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles, which is much higher than those of SnO{sub 2}/PC (138.5 mAh g{sup −1}) and PC (92.2 mAh g{sup −1}). Furthermore, the Sn/SnO{sub 2}/PC nanocomposite possesses better cycling stability with 77.8% capacity retention compared to that of SnO{sub 2}/PC (61.88%) over 50 cycles. Obviously, the Sn/SnO{sub 2}/PC composite with excellent electrochemical performance shows the great possibility of application in SIBs.

  13. Recommendations for the ethical use and design of artificial intelligent care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D

    2014-09-01

    This paper identifies and reviews ethical issues associated with artificial intelligent care providers (AICPs) in mental health care and other helping professions. Specific recommendations are made for the development of ethical codes, guidelines, and the design of AICPs. Current developments in the application of AICPs and associated technologies are reviewed and a foundational overview of applicable ethical principles in mental health care is provided. Emerging ethical issues regarding the use of AICPs are then reviewed in detail. Recommendations for ethical codes and guidelines as well as for the development of semi-autonomous and autonomous AICP systems are described. The benefits of AICPs and implications for the helping professions are discussed in order to weigh the pros and cons of their use. Existing ethics codes and practice guidelines do not presently consider the current or the future use of interactive artificial intelligent agents to assist and to potentially replace mental health care professionals. AICPs present new ethical issues that will have significant ramifications for the mental health care and other helping professions. Primary issues involve the therapeutic relationship, competence, liability, trust, privacy, and patient safety. Many of the same ethical and philosophical considerations are applicable to use and design of AICPs in medicine, nursing, social work, education, and ministry. The ethical and moral aspects regarding the use of AICP systems must be well thought-out today as this will help to guide the use and development of these systems in the future. Topics presented are relevant to end users, AI developers, and researchers, as well as policy makers and regulatory boards. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Rational Design, Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of the (2R)- and (2S)-Stereoisomers of 3-(2-Carboxypyrrolidinyl)-2-methyl Acetic Acid as Ligands for the Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Julie; Storgaard, Morten; Pickering, Darryl S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the rational design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of two new stereoisomeric (S)-glutamate (Glu) analogues. The rational design was based on hybrid structures of the natural product kainic acid, a synthetic analogue CPAA and the high-affinity Glu analogue SYM...

  15. Policy Design for Competitive Retail Electric Institutions: Artificial Intelligence Representations for a Common Property Resource Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Nitin S.

    The U.S. electricity industry is being restructured to increase competition. Although existing policies may lead to efficient wholesale institutions, designing policies for the retail level is more complex because of intricate interactions between individuals and quasi-monopolistic institutions. It is argued that Hirshman's ideas of "exit" and "voice" (Hirshman, 1970) provide powerful abstractions for design of retail institutions. While competition is a known mechanism of "exit," a novel design of the "voice" mechanism is demonstrated through an artificial intelligence (AI) based software process model. The process model of "voice" in retail institutions is designed within the economic context of electricity distribution -- a common property resource (CPR), characterized by technological uncertainty and path-dependency. First, it is argued that participant feedback (voice) has to be used effectively to manage the CPR. Further, it is noted that the decision process, of using participant feedback (voice) to incrementally manage uncertainty and path-dependencies, is non-monotonic because it requires the decision makers to often retract previously made assumptions and decisions. An AI based process model of "voice" is developed using an assumption-based truth maintenance system. The model can emulate the non-monotonic decision making process and therefore assist in decision support. Such a systematic framework is flexible, consistent, and easily reorganized as assumptions change. It can provide an effective, formal "voice" mechanism to the retail customers and improve institutional performance.

  16. Ethical Design of Intelligent Assistive Technologies for Dementia: A Descriptive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienca, Marcello; Wangmo, Tenzin; Jotterand, Fabrice; Kressig, Reto W; Elger, Bernice

    2017-09-22

    The use of Intelligent Assistive Technology (IAT) in dementia care opens the prospects of reducing the global burden of dementia and enabling novel opportunities to improve the lives of dementia patients. However, with current adoption rates being reportedly low, the potential of IATs might remain under-expressed as long as the reasons for suboptimal adoption remain unaddressed. Among these, ethical and social considerations are critical. This article reviews the spectrum of IATs for dementia and investigates the prevalence of ethical considerations in the design of current IATs. Our screening shows that a significant portion of current IATs is designed in the absence of explicit ethical considerations. These results suggest that the lack of ethical consideration might be a codeterminant of current structural limitations in the translation of IATs from designing labs to bedside. Based on these data, we call for a coordinated effort to proactively incorporate ethical considerations early in the design and development of new products.

  17. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Block Design broken configuration errors in nonpenetrating traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, M C; Boake, C; Sherer, M

    2000-01-01

    Final broken configuration errors on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R; Wechsler, 1981) Block Design subtest were examined in 50 moderate and severe nonpenetrating traumatically brain injured adults. Patients were divided into left (n = 15) and right hemisphere (n = 19) groups based on a history of unilateral craniotomy for treatment of an intracranial lesion and were compared to a group with diffuse or negative brain CT scan findings and no history of neurosurgery (n = 16). The percentage of final broken configuration errors was related to injury severity, Benton Visual Form Discrimination Test (VFD; Benton, Hamsher, Varney, & Spreen, 1983) total score and the number of VFD rotation and peripheral errors. The percentage of final broken configuration errors was higher in the patients with right craniotomies than in the left or no craniotomy groups, which did not differ. Broken configuration errors did not occur more frequently on designs without an embedded grid pattern. Right craniotomy patients did not show a greater percentage of broken configuration errors on nongrid designs as compared to grid designs.

  18. New England Faculty and College Students Differ in Their Views About Evolution, Creationism, Intelligent Design, and Religiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-y-Miño C, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Public acceptance of evolution in Northeastern U.S. is the highest nationwide, only 59%. Here, we compare perspectives about evolution, creationism, intelligent design (ID), and religiosity between highly educated New England faculty (n=244; 90% Ph.D. holders in 40 disciplines at 35 colleges/universities) and college students from public secular (n=161), private secular (n=298), and religious (n=185) institutions: 94/3% of the faculty vs. 64/14% of the students admitted to accepting evolution openly and/or privately, and 82/18% of the faculty vs. 58/42% of the students thought that evolution is definitely true or probably true, respectively. Only 3% of the faculty vs. 23% of the students thought that evolution and creationism are in harmony. Although 92% of faculty and students thought that evolution relies on common ancestry, one in every four faculty and one in every three students did not know that humans are apes; 15% of the faculty vs. 34% of the students believed, incorrectly, that the origin of the human mind cannot be explained by evolution, and 30% of the faculty vs. 72% of the students was Lamarckian (believed in inheritance of acquired traits). Notably, 91% of the faculty was very concerned (64%) or somehow concerned (27%) about the controversy evolution vs creationism vs ID and its implications for science education: 96% of the faculty vs. 72% of the students supported the exclusive teaching of evolution while 4% of the faculty vs. 28% of the students favored equal time to evolution, creationism and ID; 92% of the faculty vs. 52% of the students perceived ID as not scientific and proposed to counter evolution or as doctrine consistent with creationism. Although ≈30% of both faculty and students considered religion to be very important in their lives, and ≈20% admitted to praying daily, the faculty was less religious (Religiosity Index faculty=0.5 and students=0.75) and, as expected, more knowledgeable about science (Science Index faculty=2.27 and

  19. Supramolecular Architectures and Mimics of Complex Natural Folds Derived from Rationally Designed alpha-Helical Protein Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavenor, Nathan Albert

    Protein-based supramolecular polymers (SMPs) are a class of biomaterials which draw inspiration from and expand upon the many examples of complex protein quaternary structures observed in nature: collagen, microtubules, viral capsids, etc. Designing synthetic supramolecular protein scaffolds both increases our understanding of natural superstructures and allows for the creation of novel materials. Similar to small-molecule SMPs, protein-based SMPs form due to self-assembly driven by intermolecular interactions between monomers, and monomer structure determines the properties of the overall material. Using protein-based monomers takes advantage of the self-assembly and highly specific molecular recognition properties encodable in polypeptide sequences to rationally design SMP architectures. The central hypothesis underlying our work is that alpha-helical coiled coils, a well-studied protein quaternary folding motif, are well-suited to SMP design through the addition of synthetic linkers at solvent-exposed sites. Through small changes in the structures of the cross-links and/or peptide sequence, we have been able to control both the nanoscale organization and the macroscopic properties of the SMPs. Changes to the linker and hydrophobic core of the peptide can be used to control polymer rigidity, stability, and dimensionality. The gaps in knowledge that this thesis sought to fill on this project were 1) the relationship between the molecular structure of the cross-linked polypeptides and the macroscopic properties of the SMPs and 2) a means of creating materials exhibiting multi-dimensional net or framework topologies. Separate from the above efforts on supramolecular architectures was work on improving backbone modification strategies for an alpha-helix in the context of a complex protein tertiary fold. Earlier work in our lab had successfully incorporated unnatural building blocks into every major secondary structure (beta-sheet, alpha-helix, loops and beta

  20. STANFORD-OHWAKI-KOHS TACTILE BLOCK DESIGN INTELLIGENCE TEST FOR THE BLIND. PART ONE-FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAUTERMAN, WILLIAM L.; SUINN, RICHARD M.

    THIS TEST WAS DEVELOPED TO MEASURE THE INTELLIGENCE OF BLIND ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS. SIX HUNDRED AND THIRTY BLIND SUBJECTS 14 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER WERE USED IN REFINING AND STANDARDIZING THE NONVERBAL, PERFORMANCE OHWAKI-KOHS BLOCK DESIGN TEST FOR USE BY BLIND INDIVIDUALS IN THE UNITED STATES. RESULTS INDICATED STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT…

  1. Teaching Evolution at A-Level: Is "Intelligent Design" a Scientific Theory That Merits Inclusion in the Biology Syllabus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Charles Darwin supposed that evolution involved a process of gradual change, generated randomly, with the selection and retention over many generations of survival-promoting features. Some theists have never accepted this idea. "Intelligent design" is a relatively recent theory, supposedly based on scientific evidence, which attempts to…

  2. Rational Emotive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, William

    1977-01-01

    Rational Emotive Education--an outgrowth of theories developed by Albert Ellis--is a teaching design of mental health concepts and problem-solving activities designed to help students to approach and cope with their problems through experiential learning, via a structured, thematic sequence of emotive education lessons. (MJB)

  3. Intelligent design of mechanical parameters of the joint in vehicle body concept design model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-bin; Zhang, Hong-zhe; Hou, Da-jun; Hu, Ping

    2013-05-01

    In order to estimate the mechanical properties of the overall structure of the body accurately and quickly in conceptual design phase of the body, the beam and shell mixing elements was used to build simplified finite element model of the body. Through the BP neural network algorithm, the parameters of the mechanical property of joints element which had more affection on calculation accuracy were calculated and the joint finite element model based on the parameters was also constructed. The case shown that the method can improve the accuracy of the vehicle simulation results, while not too many design details were needed, which was fit to the demand in the vehicle body conceptual design phase.

  4. Design, Fabrication, and Implementation of an Array-Type MEMS Piezoresistive Intelligent Pressure Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the radiosonde requirement of high sensitivity and linearity, this study designs and implements a monolithically integrated array-type piezoresistive intelligent pressure sensor system which is made up of two groups of four pressure sensors with the pressure range of 0–50 kPa and 0–100 kPa respectively. First, theoretical models and ANSYS (version 14.5, Canonsburg, PA, USA finite element method (FEM are adopted to optimize the parameters of array sensor structure. Combing with FEM stress distribution results, the size and material characteristics of the array-type sensor are determined according to the analysis of the sensitivity and the ratio of signal to noise (SNR. Based on the optimized parameters, the manufacture and packaging of array-type sensor chips are then realized by using the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS and microelectromechanical system (MEMS process. Furthermore, an intelligent acquisition and processing system for pressure and temperature signals is achieved. The S3C2440A microprocessor (Samsung, Seoul, Korea is regarded as the core part which can be applied to collect and process data. In particular, digital signal storage, display and transmission are realized by the application of a graphical user interface (GUI written in QT/E. Besides, for the sake of compensating the temperature drift and nonlinear error, the data fusion technique is proposed based on a wavelet neural network improved by genetic algorithm (GA-WNN for average measuring signal. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using a S3C2440A microprocessor. Finally, the results of calibration and test experiments achieved with the temperature ranges from −20 to 20 °C show that: (1 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity of the array-type pressure sensor are 8330 × 10−4 and 0.052 mV/V/kPa in the range of 0–50 kPa, respectively; (2 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity are 8129 × 10−4 and 0.020 mV/V/kPa in the

  5. Rational BRDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Romain; Salazar Celis, Oliver; Schlick, Christophe; Granier, Xavier; Poulin, Pierre; Cuyt, Annie

    2012-11-01

    Over the last two decades, much effort has been devoted to accurately measuring Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of real-world materials and to use efficiently the resulting data for rendering. Because of their large size, it is difficult to use directly measured BRDFs for real-time applications, and fitting the most sophisticated analytical BRDF models is still a complex task. In this paper, we introduce Rational BRDF, a general-purpose and efficient representation for arbitrary BRDFs, based on Rational Functions (RFs). Using an adapted parametrization, we demonstrate how Rational BRDFs offer 1) a more compact and efficient representation using low-degree RFs, 2) an accurate fitting of measured materials with guaranteed control of the residual error, and 3) efficient importance sampling by applying the same fitting process to determine the inverse of the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) generated from the BRDF for use in Monte-Carlo rendering.

  6. Rational emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.

  7. Design And Implementation of Dsp-Based Intelligent Controller For Automobile Braking System

    OpenAIRE

    S.N. Sidek and M.J.E. Salami

    2012-01-01

    An intelligent braking system has great potential applications especially, in developed countries where research on smart vehicle and intelligent highways are receiving ample attention. The system when integrated with other subsystems like automatic traction control, intelligent throttle, and auto cruise systems, etc will result in smart vehicle maneuver. The driver at the end of the day will become the passenger, safety accorded the highest priority and the journey optimized in term of time ...

  8. Soft Computing Optimizer For Intelligent Control Systems Design: The Structure And Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Panfilov

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Soft Computing Optimizer (SCO as a new software tool for design of robust intelligent control systems is described. It is based on the hybrid methodology of soft computing and stochastic simulation. It uses as an input the measured or simulated data about the modeled system. SCO is used to design an optimal fuzzy inference system, which approximates a random behavior of control object with the certain accuracy. The task of the fuzzy inference system construction is reduced to the subtasks such as forming of the linguistic variables for each input and output variable, creation of rule data base, optimization of rule data base and refinement of the parameters of the membership functions. Each task by the corresponding genetic algorithm (with an appropriate fitness function is solved. The result of SCO application is the design of Knowledge Base of a Fuzzy Controller, which contains the value information about developed fuzzy inference system. Such value information can be downloaded into the actual fuzzy controller to perform online fuzzy control. Simulations results of robust fuzzy control of nonlinear dynamic systems and experimental results of application on automotive semi-active suspension control are demonstrated.

  9. Computational molecular modeling and structural rationalization for the design of a drug-loaded PLLA/PVA biopolymeric membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibeko, B; Pillay, V; Choonara, Y E; Khan, R A; Danckwerts, M P; Modi, G; Iyuke, S E; Naidoo, D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, characterize and assess the influence of triethanolamine (TEA) on the physicomechanical properties and release of methotrexate (MTX) from a composite biopolymeric membrane. Conjugated poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation with and without the addition of TEA. Drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) and release studies were performed in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4, 37 deg. C). Scanning electron microscopy elucidated the membrane surface morphology. Computational and structural molecular modeling rationalized the potential mechanisms of membrane formation and MTX release. Bi-axial force-distance (F-D) extensibility profiles were generated to determine the membrane toughness, elasticity and fracturability. Membranes were significantly toughened by the addition of TEA as a discrete rubbery phase within the co-polymer matrix. MTX-TEA-PLLA-PVA membranes were tougher (F = 89 N) and more extensible (D = 8.79 mm) compared to MTX-PLLA-PVA (F = 35 N, D = 3.7 mm) membranes as a greater force of extension and fracture distance were required (N = 10). DEE values were relatively high (>80%, N = 5) for both formulations. Photomicrographs revealed distinct crystalline layered morphologies with macro-pores. MTX was released by tri-phasic kinetics with a lower fractional release of MTX from MTX-TEA-PLLA-PVA membranes compared to MTX-PLLA-PVA. TEA provided a synergistic approach to improving the membrane physicomechanical properties and modulation of MTX release. The composite biopolymeric membrane may therefore be suitable for the novel delivery of MTX in the treatment of chronic primary central nervous system lymphoma.

  10. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm(2) and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, - one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources.

  11. Rational Design of Adjuvant for Skin Delivery: Conjugation of Synthetic β-Glucan Dectin-1 Agonist to Protein Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadei, Agnese; Gallorini, Simona; Berti, Francesco; O'Hagan, Derek T; Adamo, Roberto; Baudner, Barbara C

    2015-05-04

    The potential benefits of skin delivery of vaccines derive from the presence of a densely connected network of antigen presenting cells in the skin layer, most significantly represented by Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. Targeting these cells by adjuvant conjugated to an antigen should result in enhanced immunogenicity of a vaccine. Since one of the most widely used adjuvants is an insoluble salt of aluminum (aluminum hydroxide) that cannot be used for skin delivery due to reactogenicity, we focused our attention on agonists of receptors present on skin dendritic cells, including the Dectin-1 receptor. β-(1-3)-glucans, which are the most abundant components of the fungal surface, are known to activate the innate immune response by interaction with the C-type lectin-like Dectin-1 receptor. In this work we identified by rational design a well-defined synthetic β-(1-3)-glucan hexasaccharide as a Dectin-1 agonist and chemically conjugated it to the genetically detoxified diphtheria toxin (CRM197) protein antigen, as a means to increase the binding to Dectin-1 receptor and to target to skin dendritic cells. We demonstrated that the in vitro activation of the receptor was significantly impacted by the presentation of the glucan on the protein carrier. In vivo results in mice showed that the conjugation of the synthetic β-(1-3)-glucan when delivered intradermally resulted in higher antibody titers in comparison to intramuscular (i.m.) immunization and was not different from subcutaneous (s.c.) delivery. These findings suggest that weak receptor binders can be turned into more potent agonists by the multivalent presentation of many ligands covalently conjugated to the protein core. Moreover, this approach is particularly valuable to increase the immunogenicity of antigens administered via skin delivery.

  12. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of a Hyperthermophilic Endoglucanase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima Based on Rational Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Zhang

    Full Text Available To meet the demand for the application of high activity and thermostable cellulases in the production of new-generation bioethanol from nongrain-cellulose sources, a hyperthermostable β-1,4-endoglucase Cel12B from Thermotoga maritima was selected for further modification by gene site-directed mutagenesis method in the present study, based on homology modeling and rational design. As a result, two recombinant enzymes showed significant improvement in enzyme activity by 77% and 87%, respectively, higher than the parental enzyme TmCel12B. Furthermore, the two mutants could retain 80% and 90.5% of their initial activity after incubation at 80°C for 8 h, while only 45% for 5 h to TmCel12B. The Km and Vmax of the two recombinant enzymes were 1.97±0.05 mM, 4.23±0.15 μmol·mg(-1·min(-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G-D37V, and 2.97±0.12 mM, 3.15±0.21 μmol·mg(-1·min(-1 of TmCel12B-E225H-K207G, respectively, when using CMC-Na as the substrate. The roles of the mutation sites were also analyzed and evaluated in terms of electron density, hydrophobicity of the modeled protein structures. The recombinant enzymes may be used in the hydrolysis of cellulose at higher temperature in the future. It was concluded that the gene mutagenesis approach of a certain active residues may effectively improve the performance of cellulases for the industrial applications and contribute to the study the thermostable mechanism of thermophilic enzymes.

  13. "Intelligent" design of molecular materials: Understanding the concepts of design in supramolecular synthesis of network solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Brian D.

    This work endeavors to delineate modern paradigms for crystal engineering, i.e. the design and supramolecular synthesis of functional molecular materials. Paradigms predicated on an understanding of the geometry of polygons and polyhedra are developed. The primary focus is on structural determination by single crystal X-ray crystallography, structural interpretation using a suite of graphical visualization and molecular modeling software, and on the importance of proper graphical representation in the presentation and explanation of crystal structures. A detailed analysis of a selected series of crystal structures is presented. The reduction of these molecular networks to schematic representations that illustrate their fundamental connectivity facilitates the understanding of otherwise complex supramolecular solids. Circuit symbols and Schlafli notation are used to describe the network topologies, which enables networks of different composition and metrics to be easily compared. This reveals that molecular orientations in the crystals and networks are commensurate with networks that can be derived from spherical close packed lattices. The development of a logical design strategy for a new class of materials based on our understanding of the chemical composition and topology of these networks is described. The synthesis and crystal structure of a series of new materials generated by exploitation of this design strategy is presented, in addition to a detailed analysis of the topology of these materials and their relationship to a 'parent' structure. In summary, this dissertation demonstrates that molecular polygons can self-assemble at their vertexes to produce molecular architectures and crystal structures that are consistent with long established geometric dogma. The design strategy represents a potentially broad ranging approach to the design of nanoporous structures from a wide range of chemical components that are based on molecular shape rather than chemical

  14. The designing principle and implementation of multi-channel intelligence isotope thickness gauge based on multifunction card PCI-1710

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Zhao Shujun; Guo Maotian; He Jintian

    2006-01-01

    The designing principle, the constitution of system and the implementation of multi-channel intelligence isotope thickness gauge are introduced in the paper in detail, which are based on multifunction card PCI-1710. The paper also discusses the primaryprinciple of isotope thickness gauge, correct factor in measurement and complication of calibration. In the following, the whole frame of multi-channel intelligence isotope thickness gauge is given. The functions, the characteristics and the usage of multifunction card PCI-1710 are described. Furthermore, the developing process and the function modules of software are presented. Finally, the real prototype of multi-channel intelligence isotope thickness gauge is introduced, using 241 Am as a radioactive element. (authors)

  15. Design of Intelligent Hydraulic Excavator Control System Based on PID Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jiao, Shengjie; Liao, Xiaoming; Yin, Penglong; Wang, Yulin; Si, Kuimao; Zhang, Yi; Gu, Hairong

    Most of the domestic designed hydraulic excavators adopt the constant power design method and set 85%~90% of engine power as the hydraulic system adoption power, it causes high energy loss due to mismatching of power between the engine and the pump. While the variation of the rotational speed of engine could sense the power shift of the load, it provides a new method to adjust the power matching between engine and pump through engine speed. Based on negative flux hydraulic system, an intelligent hydraulic excavator control system was designed based on rotational speed sensing method to improve energy efficiency. The control system was consisted of engine control module, pump power adjusted module, engine idle module and system fault diagnosis module. Special PLC with CAN bus was used to acquired the sensors and adjusts the pump absorption power according to load variation. Four energy saving control strategies with constant power method were employed to improve the fuel utilization. Three power modes (H, S and L mode) were designed to meet different working status; Auto idle function was employed to save energy through two work status detected pressure switches, 1300rpm was setting as the idle speed according to the engine consumption fuel curve. Transient overload function was designed for deep digging within short time without spending extra fuel. An increasing PID method was employed to realize power matching between engine and pump, the rotational speed's variation was taken as the PID algorithm's input; the current of proportional valve of variable displacement pump was the PID's output. The result indicated that the auto idle could decrease fuel consumption by 33.33% compared to work in maximum speed of H mode, the PID control method could take full use of maximum engine power at each power mode and keep the engine speed at stable range. Application of rotational speed sensing method provides a reliable method to improve the excavator's energy efficiency and

  16. Confucian Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…

  17. The design schemes of database and intelligent local controller in the SRRC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.J.; Chen, Jenny; Chen, J.S.; Jan, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The control system of the SRRC has been utilized to facilitate commisioning since the beginning, and it provides operators an easy to use environment. Hence, we would like to discuss the design schemes and relationships between the user's interface, the database and the ILC (Intelligent Local Controller) levels. The whole control system in SRRC is a two-level design connected by Ethernet. From operator's view, the upper level is the CONSOLE level and the lower one is the ILC level. Those signals from, or to, equipment are connected to ILCs through analog/digital interfaces, GPIB buses, RS232 serial links, etc.; the ILC is an IEEE 1014 bus (VMEbus) based system running PSOS+ real-time multi-tasking kernel and PNA+ (TCP/IP protocols) communication software. The control software of CONSOLE level is developed in the VMS operating system on DEC workstations, and The Graphic User Interfaces are built on the X-Window/Motif environment. The control system has fulfilled the expectations of the facility commissioning group. It has also proved to be a simple, stable, accurate, easily maintained system. ((orig.))

  18. Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Windowsill System Using Smart Handheld Device and Fuzzy Microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Min; Yang, Ming-Ta; Chen, Po-Lin

    2017-04-11

    With the advance of science and technology, people have a desire for convenient and comfortable living. Creating comfortable and healthy indoor environments is a major consideration for designing smart homes. As handheld devices become increasingly powerful and ubiquitous, this paper proposes an innovative use of smart handheld devices (SHD), using MIT App Inventor and fuzzy control, to perform the real-time monitoring and smart control of the designed intelligent windowsill system (IWS) in a smart home. A compact weather station that consists of environment sensors was constructed in the IWS for measuring of indoor illuminance, temperature-humidity, carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration and outdoor rain and wind direction. According to the measured environment information, the proposed system can automatically send a command to a fuzzy microcontroller performed by Arduino UNO to fully or partly open the electric curtain and electric window for adapting to climate changes in the indoor and outdoor environment. Moreover, the IWS can automatically close windows for rain splashing on the window. The presented novel control method for the windowsill not only expands the SHD applications, but greatly enhances convenience to users. To validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the IWS, a laboratory prototype was built and confirmed experimentally.

  19. Key issues for the successful design of an intelligent, interactive playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, J.A.; Bekker, M.M.; Groenendaal, B.; Wesselink, R.; Eggen, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    An Intelligent Playground is an environment with interactive objects that, using advanced technology such as sensors and actuators, react to the interaction with the children and actively encourage children to play. Thus, an intelligent playground stimulates children to move and play together. In

  20. Humanitarian Intelligence : A Practitioner's Guide to Crisis Analysis and Project Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Humanitarian aid workers are faced with many challenges, from possible terrorist attacks to dealing with difficult stakeholders and securing operational space free from violence. To do their work properly and safely, they need effective intelligence. Humanitarian intelligence refers to the use of