WorldWideScience

Sample records for intelligence programming languages

  1. Artificial intelligence programming languages for computer aided manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Samet, H.; Rosenberg, J.

    1979-01-01

    Eight Artificial Intelligence programming languages (SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, CONNIVER, MLISP, POP-2, AL, and QLISP) are presented and surveyed, with examples of their use in an automated shop environment. Control structures are compared, and distinctive features of each language are highlighted. A simple programming task is used to illustrate programs in SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, and CONNIVER. The report assumes reader knowledge of programming concepts, but not necessarily of the languages surveyed.

  2. Implementing embedded artificial intelligence rules within algorithmic programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyock, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Most integrations of artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities with non-AI (usually FORTRAN-based) application programs require the latter to execute separately to run as a subprogram or, at best, as a coroutine, of the AI system. In many cases, this organization is unacceptable; instead, the requirement is for an AI facility that runs in embedded mode; i.e., is called as subprogram by the application program. The design and implementation of a Prolog-based AI capability that can be invoked in embedded mode are described. The significance of this system is twofold: Provision of Prolog-based symbol-manipulation and deduction facilities makes a powerful symbolic reasoning mechanism available to applications programs written in non-AI languages. The power of the deductive and non-procedural descriptive capabilities of Prolog, which allow the user to describe the problem to be solved, rather than the solution, is to a large extent vitiated by the absence of the standard control structures provided by other languages. Embedding invocations of Prolog rule bases in programs written in non-AI languages makes it possible to put Prolog calls inside DO loops and similar control constructs. The resulting merger of non-AI and AI languages thus results in a symbiotic system in which the advantages of both programming systems are retained, and their deficiencies largely remedied.

  3. Intelligence of programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, D

    1982-01-01

    A general discussion about the level of artificial intelligence in computer programs is presented. The suitability of various languages for the development of complex, intelligent programs is discussed, considering fourth-generation language as well as the well established structured COBOL language. It is concluded that the success of automation in many administrative fields depends to a large extent on the development of intelligent programs.

  4. Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Neil

    Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for…

  5. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  6. Combination of artificial intelligence and procedural language programs in a computer application system supporting nuclear reactor operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Town, G.G.; Stratton, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A computer application system is described which provides nuclear reactor power plant operators with an improved decision support system. This system combines traditional computer applications such as graphics display with artificial intelligence methodologies such as reasoning and diagnosis so as to improve plant operability. This paper discusses the issues, and a solution, involved with the system integration of applications developed using traditional and artificial intelligence languages

  7. Combination of artificial intelligence and procedural language programs in a computer application system supporting nuclear reactor operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, R.C.; Town, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    A computer application system is described which provides nuclear reactor power plant operators with an improved decision support system. This system combines traditional computer applications such as graphics display with artifical intelligence methodologies such as reasoning and diagnosis so as to improve plant operability. This paper discusses the issues, and a solution, involved with the system integration of applications developed using traditional and artificial intelligence languages

  8. A Rather Intelligent Language Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Stefano; Breuker, Joost

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of DART (Didactic Augmented Recursive Transition), an ATN-based system for writing intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) programs that is available on the PLATO system are described. DART allows writing programs in an ATN dialect, compiling them in machine code for the PLATO system, and executing them as if the original…

  9. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  10. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  11. Production Systems as a Programming Language for Artificial Intelligence Applications. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    modification of the detailed semantics of specific relations and attributes. That correspondence to more important problems provides some motivation for...pursuing the present study. More motivation comes from the desire to develop a flexible PS-based approach to natural language processing, and to test...mD- .300 4 w(ON2041 10 619C I 31- I - C3-1 i0 U-a P0C- r1953- OA BLC- N 4 0611IOKZ9090 )ILC- M 0 PS4 -M 5TW?1 hJISS- V4-134- U1- 1-2*4 1- 1- 1- U490

  12. Social Skills Via Emotional intelligence: Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Osman

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this essay to draw an outline of the effect of various types of intelligence, paying particular attention to the concept of so called "Emotional Intelligence" with a language teacher's perspective. Throughout the essay it is aimed to create an awareness of different intelligence capacity of each individual learner in an ideal language teaching environment. While doing this literature on the area has been scanned and case studies have been performed on learners of various cultu...

  13. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Šmit, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  14. Modern programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  15. Mixed language programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burow, Burkhard D.

    1996-01-01

    Computing in the next millennium will be using software from this millennium. Programming languages evolve and new ones continue to be created. The use of legacy code demonstrates why some present and future applications may span programming languages. Even a completely new application may mix programming languages, if it allows its components to be more conveniently expressed. Given the need, mixed language programming should be easy and robust. By resolving a variety of difficulties, the well established cfortran.h package provides, the desired convenient interface across the C and Fortran programming languages, as demonstrated using CERN's Book. (author)

  16. C++ Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  17. Intelligence Community Programs, Management, and Enduring Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-08

    books, journal papers, conference presentations, working papers, and other electronic and print publications. Intelligence Community Programs... Intelligence Community Programs, Management, and Enduring Issues Anne Daugherty Miles Analyst in Intelligence and National Security Policy...

  18. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Programming Language Pragmatics is the most comprehensive programming language textbook available today. Taking the perspective that language design and language implementation are tightly interconnected, and that neither can be fully understood in isolation, this critically acclaimed and bestselling book has been thoroughly updated to cover the most recent developments in programming language design. With a new chapter on run-time program management and expanded coverage of concurrency, this new edition provides both students and professionals alike with a solid understanding of the most impo

  19. Programming language structures

    CERN Document Server

    Organick, Elliott Irving; Plummer, Robert P

    1978-01-01

    Programming Language Structures deals with the structures of programming languages and introduces the reader to five important programming languages: Algol, Fortran, Lisp, Snobol, and Pascal. The fundamental similarities and differences among these languages are discussed. A unifying framework is constructed that can be used to study the structure of other languages, such as Cobol, PL/I, and APL. Several of the tools and methodologies needed to construct large programs are also considered.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with a summary of the relevant concepts and principles about al

  20. A Different Kind of Language: Prolog, Programming in Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, D.

    1986-01-01

    Prolog is one of the most successful "very high level languages." Describes this programming language (a product of artificial intelligence research) and attempts to show how it functions by using some short examples to illustrate its essential features. (JN)

  1. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Thoroughly updated to reflect the most current developments in language design and implementation, the second edition*Addresses key developments in programming language design:+ Finalized C99 standard+ Java 5+ C# 2.0+ Java concurrency package (JSR 166) and comparable mechanisms in C#+ Java and C# generics*Introduces and discusses scripting languages throughout the book and in an entire new chapter that covers:+ Application domains: shell languages, text processing and report generation, mathematics and statistics, "glue" languages and general purpose scripting, extension languages, scripting t

  2. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Productive Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Gülten; Kulusakh, Emine; Aydin, Savas

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has recently attracted educators' attention around the world. Educators who try to investigate the factors in language learning achievement have decided to pave the way to success through emotional intelligence. The relationship between emotional intelligence and language learning is the major concern of this study. The…

  3. Programming Language Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2013-01-01

    This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  4. Programming Languages RESONAN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Programming languages for computers are developed with the ... detailed algorithm to solve a problem is the starting point and it is expressed as ... All modern programming .... which precisely specify the 'words' of the language, and how they may .... network within an organization using protocols and providing.

  5. INTELLIGENCE, COGNITION AND LANGUAGE OF GREEN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eTrewavas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A summary definition of some 70 descriptions of intelligence provides a definition for all other organisms including plants that stresses fitness. Barbara McClintock, a plant biologist, posed the notion of the ‘ thoughtful cell’ in her Nobel prize address. The systems structure necessary for a thoughtful cell is revealed by comparison of the interactome and connectome. The plant root cap, a group of some 200 cells that act holistically in responding to numerous signals, likely possesses a similar systems structure agreeing with Darwin’s description of acting like the brain of a lower organism. Intelligent behaviour requires assessment of different choices and taking the beneficial one. Decisions are constantly required to optimise the plant phenotype to a dynamic environment and the cambium is the assessing tissue diverting more or removing resources from different shoot and root branches through manipulation of vascular elements. Environmental awareness likely indicates consciousness. Spontaneity in plant behaviour, ability to count to five and error correction indicate intention. Volatile organic compounds are used as signals in plant interactions and being complex in composition may be the equivalent of language accounting for self and alien recognition by individual plants. Game theory describes competitive interactions. Interactive and intelligent outcomes emerge from application of various games between plants themselves and interactions with microbes. Behaviour profiting from experience, another simple definition of intelligence, requires both learning and memory and is indicated in the priming of herbivory, disease and abiotic stresses.

  6. Intelligence, Cognition, and Language of Green Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    A summary definition of some 70 descriptions of intelligence provides a definition for all other organisms including plants that stresses fitness. Barbara McClintock, a plant biologist, posed the notion of the 'thoughtful cell' in her Nobel prize address. The systems structure necessary for a thoughtful cell is revealed by comparison of the interactome and connectome. The plant root cap, a group of some 200 cells that act holistically in responding to numerous signals, likely possesses a similar systems structure agreeing with Darwin's description of acting like the brain of a lower organism. Intelligent behavior requires assessment of different choices and taking the beneficial one. Decisions are constantly required to optimize the plant phenotype to a dynamic environment and the cambium is the assessing tissue diverting more or removing resources from different shoot and root branches through manipulation of vascular elements. Environmental awareness likely indicates consciousness. Spontaneity in plant behavior, ability to count to five and error correction indicate intention. Volatile organic compounds are used as signals in plant interactions and being complex in composition may be the equivalent of language accounting for self and alien recognition by individual plants. Game theory describes competitive interactions. Interactive and intelligent outcomes emerge from application of various games between plants themselves and interactions with microbes. Behavior profiting from experience, another simple definition of intelligence, requires both learning and memory and is indicated in the priming of herbivory, disease and abiotic stresses.

  7. The Ruby programming language

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    2008-01-01

    This book begins with a quick-start tutorial to the language, and then explains the language in detail from the bottom up: from lexical and syntactic structure to datatypes to expressions and statements and on through methods, blocks, lambdas, closures, classes and modules. The book also includes a long and thorough introduction to the rich API of the Ruby platform, demonstrating -- with heavily-commented example code -- Ruby's facilities for text processing, numeric manipulation, collections, input/output, networking, and concurrency. An entire chapter is devoted to Ruby's metaprogramming capabilities. The Ruby Programming Language documents the Ruby language definitively but without the formality of a language specification. It is written for experienced programmers who are new to Ruby, and for current Ruby programmers who want to challenge their understanding and increase their mastery of the language.

  8. Emotional Intelligence in Language Instruction in Oman: The Missing Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Chandrika; Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma

    2016-01-01

    The field of English Language Teaching (ELT) has long sought to identify traits of good language learners, in an effort to teach these traits to less successful language learners (Rubin, 1975). Emotional Intelligence has recently come to the forefront of research on language learning and teaching, and is now increasingly recognized as an important…

  9. The multiple intelligence theory for the teaching of languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Encarnación Carrillo García

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the following essay we analyse the Multiple Intelligence Theory of Howard Gardner focus on the teaching of languages, in order to describe its main points, such us: its description; the types of intelligences explained in it; and the activities, that some authors describe, for developing this theory in the teaching and learning language context.

  10. Analysing Student Programs in the PHP Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragama, Dinesha; Reye, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Programming is a subject that many beginning students find difficult. The PHP Intelligent Tutoring System (PHP ITS) has been designed with the aim of making it easier for novices to learn the PHP language in order to develop dynamic web pages. Programming requires practice. This makes it necessary to include practical exercises in any ITS that…

  11. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  12. An on-line gas control system using an artificial intelligence language: PROLOG II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, C.

    1990-01-01

    An application of Artificial Intelligence to a real physics experiment is presented. This allows comparison with classical programming techniques. The PROLOG language appears as a convenient on-line language, easily interfaced to the low level service routines, for which algorithmic languages can still be used. Steering modules have been written for a gas acquisition and analysis program, and for a control system with graphic human interface. This system includes safety rules and automatic action sequences

  13. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  14. Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Annamalai, Muthiah

    2009-01-01

    Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezh...

  15. Database Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Database Programming Languages (DBPL 2007), held in Vienna, Austria, on September 23-24, 2007. DBPL 2007 was one of 15 meetings co-located with VLBD (the International Conference on Very Large Data Bases). DBPL continues...

  16. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  17. The programming language EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    EFL is a comprehensive language designed to make it easy to write portable, understandable programs. It provides a rich set of data types and structures, a convenient operator set, and good control flow forms. The lexical form is easy to type and to read. Whenever possible, EFL uses the same forms that Ratfor does; in this sense EFL may be viewed as a superset of Ratfor. EFL is a well-defined language; this distinguishes it from most FORTRAN preprocessors which only add simple flow of control constructs to FORTRAN. The EFL compiler generates (possibly tailored) Standard FORTRAN as its output. EFL should catch and diagnose all syntax errors.

  18. Intelligent Flight Control Simulation Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stolarik, Brian

    2007-01-01

    ...). Under the program, entitled "Intelligent Flight Control Simulation Research Laboratory," a variety of technologies were investigated or developed during the course of the research for AFRL/VAC...

  19. The C++ programming language

    CERN Document Server

    Stroustrup, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    The new C++11 standard allows programmers to express ideas more clearly, simply, and directly, and to write faster, more efficient code. Bjarne Stroustrup, the designer and original implementer of C++, has updated his definitive reference and tutorial for everyone who uses the language and needs to understand its latest version. The C++ Programming Language, Fourth Edition, delivers meticulous, richly explained, and integrated coverage of the entire language—its facilities, abstraction mechanisms, standard libraries, and key design techniques. Throughout, Stroustrup presents concise, “pure C++11” examples, which have been carefully crafted to clarify both usage and program design. To promote deeper understanding, the author provides extensive cross-references, both within the book and to the ISO standard.

  20. C programming language essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Ernest C

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. C Programming Language discusses fundamental notions, data types and objects, expressions, statements, declarations, function and program structure, the preprocessor, and the standar

  1. Java Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Java seminar covers the fundamentals of Java programming language. No prior programming experience is required for participation in the seminar. The first part of the seminar covers introductory concepts in Java programming including data types (integer, character, ..), operators, functions and constants, casts, input, output, control flow, scope, conditional statements, and arrays. Furthermore, introduction to Object-Oriented programming in Java, relationships between classes, using packages, constructors, private data and methods, final instance fields, static fields and methods, and overloading are explained. The second part of the seminar covers extending classes, inheritance hierarchies, polymorphism, dynamic binding, abstract classes, protected access. The seminar conclude by introducing interfaces, properties of interfaces, interfaces and abstract classes, interfaces and cailbacks, basics of event handling, user interface components with swing, applet basics, converting applications to applets, the applet HTML tags and attributes, exceptions and debugging.

  2. Tutor system for the application of programming through intelligence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelisse Teresa Machín-Torres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article is part of a research for the development of an intelligent tutor system for the application of programming in the José Martí University of Sancti -Spíritus. The objective of the implementation of this system is to enhance the management knowledge related to programming issues and improve the orientation in solving problems in the university. In order to carry out the implementation of the intelligent tutoring system, the intelligent tutor systems currently in the programming area described the tools and technologies used in the developed solution (methodology, patterns, softwares, programming languages, etc.. It allowed an efficient implementation in a short time of the proposed system. The foregoing is reflected positively in a better student satisfaction and therefore in a higher performance in the teaching-learning process of the university.

  3. Conscience in Language Teaching and its Relationship with Language Proficiency and Emotional Intelligence of EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Jalili Kalangestani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the relationship among Iranian EFL teachers’ language teaching conscience, language proficiency, and emotional intelligence. To this purpose, 82 homogenized language teachers, M.A. students and M.A. holders in TEFL, English literature, and English translation, both males and females, were taken as the participants.  The result of the data analysis showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the emotional intelligence of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .83, p < .05, 2. There was also a statistically significant relationship between the language teaching conscience and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .59, p < .05. And finally, there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, rs(80 = .52, p < .05. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers can benefit from the findings of this study.

  4. Mutual intelligibility between closely related language in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent; Golubovic, Jelena; Schüppert, Anja; Swarte, Femke; Voigt, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  5. Mutual intelligibility between closely related languages in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Golubović, J.; Schüppert, A.; Swarte, F.; Voigt, S.

    2017-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  6. Particle Physics and Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    A SeaLang meetup - a presentation discussing various programming languages used in particle physics, from pushing common modern languages a bit past where they should be pushed, to an embedded DSL, to some full blown ones written.

  7. The Army Method Revisited: The Historical and Theoretical Backgrounds of the Military Intensive Language Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuk, Milla; Bayuk, Barry S.

    A program currently in use by the military that gives instruction in the so-called "sensitive" languages is based on the "Army Method" which was initiated in military language programs during World War II. Attention to the sensitive language program initiated a review of the programs, especially those conducted by the military intelligence schools…

  8. Analysis of computer programming languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risset, Claude Alain

    1967-01-01

    This research thesis aims at trying to identify some methods of syntax analysis which can be used for computer programming languages while putting aside computer devices which influence the choice of the programming language and methods of analysis and compilation. In a first part, the author proposes attempts of formalization of Chomsky grammar languages. In a second part, he studies analytical grammars, and then studies a compiler or analytic grammar for the Fortran language

  9. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    The goal of research in programming languages should be to develop languages that integrates the best of concepts and constructs from the various programming paradigms. We do not argue for a multi-paradigm language, where the programmer alternates between the different paradigms/styles. Instead, we...... find that the languages of the future should integrate the best available concepts and constructs in such a way that the programmer does not think of multiple paradigms when using a given language. In this paper, we describe to what extent the BETA language has been successful in obtaining a unified...... style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual...

  10. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual......The goal of research in programming languages should be to develop languages that integrates the best of concepts and constructs from the various programming paradigms. We do not argue for a multi-paradigm language, where the programmer alternates between the different paradigms/styles. Instead, we...... procedures and classes, higher order classes, methods and functions, part objects, block-structure, and class-less objects....

  11. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  12. Building an intelligence-led security program

    CERN Document Server

    Liska, Allan

    2014-01-01

    As recently as five years ago, securing a network meant putting in a firewall, intrusion detection system, and installing antivirus software on the desktop. Unfortunately, attackers have grown more nimble and effective, meaning that traditional security programs are no longer effective. Today's effective cyber security programs take these best practices and overlay them with intelligence. Adding cyber threat intelligence can help security teams uncover events not detected by traditional security platforms and correlate seemingly disparate events across the network. Properly-implemented inte

  13. Software reliability and programming language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberger, W.

    1983-01-01

    When discussing advantages and drawbacks of programming languages, it is sometimes suggested to use these languages also for safety-related tasks. The author states the demands to be made on programming languages for this purpose. His recommendations are based on the work of TC7 of the European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems and WG A3 of IEC SC 45a. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Providing Language Instructor with Artificial Intelligence Assistant

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pietroszek

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—This paper presents the preliminary results ofdeveloping HAL for CALL, an artificial intelligenceassistant for language instructor. The assistant consists of achatbot, an avatar (a three-dimensional visualization of thechatbot), a voice (text-to-speech engine interface) andinterfaces to external sources of language knowledge. Sometechniques used in adapting freely available chatbot for theneed of a language learning system are presented.Integration of HAL with Second Life virtual wor...

  15. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  16. Providing Language Instructor with Artificial Intelligence Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pietroszek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—This paper presents the preliminary results ofdeveloping HAL for CALL, an artificial intelligenceassistant for language instructor. The assistant consists of achatbot, an avatar (a three-dimensional visualization of thechatbot, a voice (text-to-speech engine interface andinterfaces to external sources of language knowledge. Sometechniques used in adapting freely available chatbot for theneed of a language learning system are presented.Integration of HAL with Second Life virtual world isproposed. We will discuss technical challenges and possiblefuture work directions.

  17. Natural language processing in psychiatry. Artificial intelligence technology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, D A; Rapp, C; Evens, M

    1992-04-01

    The potential benefit of artificial intelligence (AI) technology as a tool of psychiatry has not been well defined. In this essay, the technology of natural language processing and its position with regard to the two main schools of AI is clearly outlined. Past experiments utilizing AI techniques in understanding psychopathology are reviewed. Natural language processing can automate the analysis of transcripts and can be used in modeling theories of language comprehension. In these ways, it can serve as a tool in testing psychological theories of psychopathology and can be used as an effective tool in empirical research on verbal behavior in psychopathology.

  18. Programming languages for circuit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  19. Statistical Software and Artificial Intelligence: A Watershed in Applications Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, John C.

    1984-01-01

    AUTOBJ and AUTOBOX are revolutionary software programs which contain the first application of artificial intelligence to statistical procedures used in analysis of time series data. The artificial intelligence included in the programs and program features are discussed. (JN)

  20. Statistical Language Models for Intelligent XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blanken, Henk; Grabs, T.; Schek, H-J.; Schenkel, R.; Weikum, G.

    2003-01-01

    The XML standards that are currently emerging have a number of characteristics that can also be found in database management systems, like schemas (DTDs and XML schema) and query languages (XPath and XQuery). Following this line of reasoning, an XML database might resemble traditional database

  1. Statistical language Models for Intelligent XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blanken, H.M.; Grabs, T.; Schek, H-J.; Schenkel, R.; Weikum, G.

    2003-01-01

    The XML standards that are currently emerging have a number of characteristics that can also be found in database management systems, like schemas (DTDs and XML schema) and query languages (XPath and XQuery). Following this line of reasoning, an XML database might resemble traditional database

  2. Introducing artificial intelligence into structural optimization programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozwiak, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence /AI/ is defined as the branch of the computer science concerned with the study of the ideas that enable computers to be intelligent. The main purpose of the application of AI in engineering is to develop computer programs which function better as tools for engineers and designers. Many computer programs today have properties which make them inconvenient to their final users and the research carried within the field of AI provides tools and techniques so that these restriction can be removed. The continuous progress in computer technology has lead to developing efficient computer systems which can be applied to more than simple solving sets of equations. (orig.)

  3. Spanish language teacher program

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    These one-week programmes are held in one of the national languages of CERN Member States. National teacher programmes are also open for teachers from other countries speaking the same language. To follow up after each teacher programme, the lecture material and video recordings of selected lectures are archived to act as unique resources for all physics teachers when introducing particle physics into the classroom. CERN provides all scientific, administrative and technical support for the programme free of charge. This includes the scientific content and provision of national language facilitators, lecturers, and guides. However, costs for travel, accommodation and meals have to be covered individually by the teachers or by official sources, e.g. educational foundations or national authorities.

  4. Complementary Machine Intelligence and Human Intelligence in Virtual Teaching Assistant for Tutoring Program Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Huang, Bau-Hung; Lin, Chi-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a virtual teaching assistant (VTA) to share teacher tutoring tasks in helping students practice program tracing and proposes two mechanisms of complementing machine intelligence and human intelligence to develop the VTA. The first mechanism applies machine intelligence to extend human intelligence (teacher answers) to evaluate…

  5. Contribution to Language Teaching and Learning: A Review of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucaromana, Usaporn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the importance of emotional intelligence and the extent to which emotional intelligence can be implemented and used to improve language teaching and learning. Since emotional intelligence is perceived to play a crucial part in every aspect of people's lives, it can be extended to language teaching and…

  6. Programming Language: Concepts and Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Lizama, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the concepts that govern around the programming languages and the paradigms of the programming and the influence in the development of the software. El artículo presenta los conceptos que rigen a los lenguajes de programación y los paradigmas de la programación y como estos influyen en el desarrollo del software.

  7. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his...... operational semantics can be expressed as a reduction semantics: for deterministic languages, a reduction semantics is a structural operational semantics in continuation style, where the reduction context is a defunctionalized continuation. As the defunctionalized counterpart of the continuation of a one...

  8. Programming model for distributed intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztipanovits, J.; Biegl, C.; Karsai, G.; Bogunovic, N.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Christiansen, T.

    1988-01-01

    A programming model and architecture which was developed for the design and implementation of complex, heterogeneous measurement and control systems is described. The Multigraph Architecture integrates artificial intelligence techniques with conventional software technologies, offers a unified framework for distributed and shared memory based parallel computational models and supports multiple programming paradigms. The system can be implemented on different hardware architectures and can be adapted to strongly different applications.

  9. A Note on Intelligence Assessment within Studies of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarata, Stephen; Swisher, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Research procedures used to evaluate the intelligence of children with specific language impairment are reviewed. Almost half of the 167 studies did not include adequate descriptions of intelligence assessment. (Author/JDD)

  10. Intelligent programs-expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, V X

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, computer scientists have developed what are called expert systems. These programs have three fundamental components: a knowledge base, which changes with experience; an inference engine which enables the program to make decisions; and an interface that allows the program to communicate with the person using the system. Expert systems have been developed successfully in areas such as medical diagnosis, geology, and computer maintenance. This paper describes the evolution and basic principles of expert systems and give some examples of their use.

  11. Language skills and intelligence quotient of protein energy malnutrition survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, May F; Shaaban, Sanaa Y; Nassar, Jilan F; Younis, Neveen T; Abdel-Mobdy, Ahmad E

    2012-06-01

    The study was conducted on 33 children aged 3-6 years who suffered from protein energy malnutrition (PEM) during infancy in comparison to 30 matching children to assess the long-term deficits in cognition and language skills. The patients' files were revised to record their admission and follow-up data and history, clinical examination, intelligence quotient and language assessment were done. The study revealed that 2-5 years from the acute attack the PEM patients were still shorter than the controls and their cognitive abilities were poorer. Their mental ages and language skills were mostly determined by their height and the duration of follow-up during their acute illness. Additionally their diet after the 3-5 years is still defective and does not meet their recommended daily allowance. These observations urge us to continue following these patients for longer durations to make sure no permanent damage occurs due to the PEM insult to the growing brain.

  12. Learner Differences among Children Learning a Foreign Language: Language Anxiety, Strategy Use, and Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-ju; Chen, Ting-Han

    2014-01-01

    This study mainly investigates language anxiety and its relationship to the use of learning strategies and multiple intelligences among young learners in an EFL educational context. The participants were composed of 212 fifth- and sixth-graders from elementary schools in central Taiwan. Findings indicated that most participants generally…

  13. Designing Surveys for Language Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    A discussion of survey methodology for investigating second language programs and instruction examines two methods: oral interviews and written questionnaires. Each method is defined, and variations are explored. For interviews, this includes individual, group, and telephone interviews. For questionnaires, this includes self-administered and…

  14. Multi-Language Programs. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio-Papadaki, Evienia; Matsalia, Joan; Bowie, Paula; Wardle, Francis; Bruno, Holly Elissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents five articles on multi-language programs in early childhood education: "Bilingualism/Multilingualism and Language Acquisition Theories" (Evienia Papadaki-D'Onofrio); "Training and Supporting Caregivers Who Speak a Language Different from Those in Their Community" (Joan Matsalia and Paula Bowie); "Language Immersion Programs for Young…

  15. LANGUAGE SCHOOLS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDYING PROGRAMS IN PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Hritchenko, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the description and characterizing of language schools and foreign language studying programs in Portugal. The relevance of language learning for professional, mobility, self-developing means is shown. The main courses and programs are observed and the advantages and disadvantages of each of them are given. It is stated that Portuguese courses mostly follow the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. A small synopsis of the abilities for each level is p...

  16. A survey of functional programming language principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the area of functional programming languages has intensified in the 8 years since John Backus' Turing Award Lecture on the topic was published. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the ideas of functional programming languages. The paper assumes the reader is comfortable with mathematics and has knowledge of the basic principles of traditional programming languages, but does not assume any prior knowledge of the ideas of functional languages. A simple functional language is defined and used to illustrate the basic ideas. Topics discussed include the reasons for developing functional languages, methods of expressing concurrency, the algebra of functional programming languages, program transformation techniques, and implementations of functional languages. Existing functional languages are also mentioned. The paper concludes with the author's opinions as to the future of functional languages. An annotated bibliography on the subject is also included.

  17. Intelligent Performance Analysis with a Natural Language Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuso, Esko K.

    2017-09-01

    Performance improvement is taken as the primary goal in the asset management. Advanced data analysis is needed to efficiently integrate condition monitoring data into the operation and maintenance. Intelligent stress and condition indices have been developed for control and condition monitoring by combining generalized norms with efficient nonlinear scaling. These nonlinear scaling methodologies can also be used to handle performance measures used for management since management oriented indicators can be presented in the same scale as intelligent condition and stress indices. Performance indicators are responses of the process, machine or system to the stress contributions analyzed from process and condition monitoring data. Scaled values are directly used in intelligent temporal analysis to calculate fluctuations and trends. All these methodologies can be used in prognostics and fatigue prediction. The meanings of the variables are beneficial in extracting expert knowledge and representing information in natural language. The idea of dividing the problems into the variable specific meanings and the directions of interactions provides various improvements for performance monitoring and decision making. The integrated temporal analysis and uncertainty processing facilitates the efficient use of domain expertise. Measurements can be monitored with generalized statistical process control (GSPC) based on the same scaling functions.

  18. 2APL: a practical agent programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a BDI-based agent-oriented programming language, called 2APL (A Practical Agent Programming Language). This programming language facilitates the implementation ofmulti-agent systems consisting of individual agents thatmay share and access external environments. It realizes

  19. Intelligent Virtual Agents as Language Trainers Facilitate Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eMacedonia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new generation of language trainers: intelligent virtual agents (IVAs with human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary. We report results from studies that we have conducted with Billie, an IVA employed as a vocabulary trainer, as well as research findings on the acceptance of the agent as a trainer by adults and children. The results show that Billie can train humans as well as a human teacher can and that both adults and children accept the IVA as a trainer. The advantages of IVAs are multiple. First, their teaching methods can be based on neuropsychological research findings concerning memory and learning practice. Second, virtual teachers can provide individualized training. Third, they coach users during training, are always supportive, and motivate learners to train. Fourth, agents will reside in the user’s mobile devices and thus be at the user’s disposal everywhere and anytime. Agents in apps will make foreign language training accessible to anybody at low cost. This will enable people around the world, including physically, financially and geographically disadvantaged persons, to learn a foreign language and help to facilitate multilingualism.

  20. What Has Personality and Emotional Intelligence to Do with "Feeling Different" while Using a Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanska-Ponikwia, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the link between personality traits (OCEAN Personality test), emotional intelligence (EI) (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire) and the notion of "feeling different" while using a foreign language among 102 Polish-English bilinguals and Polish L2 users of English who were immersed in a foreign language and…

  1. Intelligence and Metacognition as Predictors of Foreign Language Achievement: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Khajavy, Gholam Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of metacognition and intelligence in foreign language achievement on a sample of 143 Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Participants completed Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices as a measure of intelligence, and Metacognitive Awareness Inventory as a measure of metacognition. Learners' scores at…

  2. Pre-Service English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Perceptions of the Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Perihan

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence, language, and learning is a challenging field of study. One way to study how this relationship occurs and works is to investigate the perceptions of advanced language learners. Therefore, this paper reports a study that was conducted to explore 160 pre-service English language teachers' perceptions about…

  3. Developing an Intelligent Diagnosis and Assessment E-Learning Tool for Introductory Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenn-Jung; Chen, Chun-Hua; Luo, Yun-Cheng; Chen, Hong-Xin; Chuang, Yi-Ta

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a lot of open source e-learning platforms have been offered for free in the Internet. We thus incorporate the intelligent diagnosis and assessment tool into an open software e-learning platform developed for programming language courses, wherein the proposed learning diagnosis assessment tools based on text mining and machine learning…

  4. Using Scripting Languages to Teach Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Syropoulos, Apostolos; Stavrianos, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, scripting programming languages like Python, Perl and Ruby are widely used in system programming, scientific computing, etc. Although solving a particular problem in these languages requires less time, less programming effort, and less concepts to be taught to achieve the desired goal, still they are not used as teaching tools. Therefore, the use of scripting languages as a teaching vehicle for programming course is very promising. On the other hand, GUI programming, when performed ...

  5. The Interplay among Emotional Intelligence, Classroom Management, and Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the interplay among Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence, classroom management, and their general English language proficiency. The result of the data analysis showed that: 1 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the classroom management of Iranian EFL teachers, 2 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, and 3 there was a statistically significant relationship between the classroom management and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers may benefit from the findings of the present research.

  6. [Union-Endicott Schools: Foreign Language Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Raymond S.

    This brochure describing language programs to both parents and prospective high school language students in Endicott, New York focuses on developing student motivation and interest. Topics discussed include: (1) reasons for studying foreign language, (2) stages of foreign language learning, (3) course offerings, (4) homework, and (5) examinations.…

  7. INDUSTRIAL ROBOT ARM SIMULATION SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT USING JAVA-3D AND MATLAB SIMULINK PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Wirabhuana, Arya

    2011-01-01

    Robot Arms Simulation Software development using Structured Programming Languages, Third Party Language, and Artificial Intelligence Programming Language are the common techniques in simulating robot arms movement. Those three techniques are having its strengths and weaknesses depend on several constraints such as robot type, degree of operation complexity to be simulated, operator skills, and also computer capability. This paper will discuss on Robot Arms Simulation Software (RSS) developmen...

  8. Intelligent virtual agents as language trainers facilitate multilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Manuela; Groher, Iris; Roithmayr, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    intelligent virtual agents (IVAs) with human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary. We report results from studies that we have conducted with Billie, an IVA employed as a vocabulary trainer, as well as research findings on the acceptance of the agent as a trainer by adults and children. The results show that Billie can train humans as well as a human teacher can and that both adults and children accept the IVA as a trainer. The advantages of IVAs are multiple. First, their teaching methods can be based on neuropsychological research findings concerning memory and learning practice. Second, virtual teachers can provide individualized training. Third, they coach users during training, are always supportive, and motivate learners to train. Fourth, agents will reside in the user's mobile devices and thus be at the user's disposal everywhere and anytime. Agents in apps will make foreign language training accessible to anybody at low cost. This will enable people around the world, including physically, financially, and geographically disadvantaged persons, to learn a foreign language and help to facilitate multilingualism.

  9. COMPARISON OF PYTHON (AN OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE) WITH OTHER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Kumar*1 & Richa Aggarwal2

    2018-01-01

    Language is a communication tool through which we can communicate with each other like Hindi, English etc any other language. So if we want to communicate with computer, we need computer programming languages. So in computer we have two types of languages, one is low level language which is easily understood by computer but difficult to learn. Second is high level language which is same like English language, not understood by computer but easy to learn. Python is a high level language. This...

  10. Object-Oriented Programming in the Beta Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger; Nygaard, Kristen

    This is a book on object-oriented programming and the BETA programming language. Object-oriented programming originated with the Simula languages developed at the Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo, in the 1960s. The first Simula language, Simula I, was intended for writing simulation programs....... Simula I was later used as a basis for defining a general purpose programming language, Simula 67. In addition to being a programming language, Simula1 was also designed as a language for describing and communicating about systems in general. Simula has been used by a relatively small community for many...... years, although it has had a major impact on research in computer science. The real breakthrough for object-oriented programming came with the development of Smalltalk. Since then, a large number of programming languages based on Simula concepts have appeared. C++ is the language that has had...

  11. An IBM 370 assembly language program verifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a program written in SNOBOL which verifies the correctness of programs written in assembly language for the IBM 360 and 370 series of computers. The motivation for using assembly language as a source language for a program verifier was the realization that many errors in programs are caused by misunderstanding or ignorance of the characteristics of specific computers. The proof of correctness of a program written in assembly language must take these characteristics into account. The program has been compiled and is currently running at the Center for Academic and Administrative Computing of The George Washington University.

  12. Fuzzy Markup language : a new solution for transparent intelligent agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.

    2011-01-01

    From an industrial and technological point of view, fuzzy control theory deals with the development of a particular system controller on a specific hardware by means of an open or legacy programming language that is useful to address, in a high-level fashion, the hardware constraints. Independently

  13. The programming language 'PEARL' and its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelz, K.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the real time programming language PEARL, its history and design principles and the portability techniques involved in the implementation of a subset of the language on four computer systems. (Auth.)

  14. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin Azwary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering System in the chatbot using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language are able to communicate and deliver information. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Template Matching, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML Teknologi kecerdasan buatan saat ini dapat diolah dengan berbagai macam bentuk, seperti ChatBot, dan berbagai macam metode, salah satunya menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML menggunakan metode template matching yaitu dengan membandingkan pola-pola tertentu pada database. Proses perancangan template AIML diawali dengan menentukan informasi yang diperlukan, kemudian dibentuk menjadi pertanyaan, pertanyaan tersebut disesuaikan dengan bentuk pattern AIML. Hasil penelitian dapat diperoleh bahwa Question-Answering System dalam bentuk ChatBot menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language dapat berkomunikasi dan menyampaikan informasi. Kata kunci : Kecerdasan Buatan, Pencocokan Pola, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML

  15. TEACHING ALGORITHMIZATION AND PROGRAMMING USING PYTHON LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lvov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes requirements to educational programming languages and considers the use of Python as the first programming language. The issues of introduction of this programming language into teaching and replacing Pascal by Python are examined. The advantages of such approach are regarded. The comparison of popular programming languages is represented from the point of view of their convenience of use for teaching algorithmization and programming. Python supports lots of programming paradigms: structural, object-oriented, functional, imperative and aspect-oriented, and learning can be started without any preparation. There is one more advantage of the language: all algorithms are written easily and structurally in Python. Therefore, due to all mentioned above, it is possible to affirm that Python pretends to become a decent replacement for educational programming language PASCAL both at schools and on the first courses of higher education establishments.

  16. Bibliography: Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Annotates reference material on artificial intelligence, mostly at an introductory level, with applications to education and learning. Topics include: (1) programing languages; (2) expert systems; (3) language instruction; (4) tutoring systems; and (5) problem solving and reasoning. (JM)

  17. Data Processing Languages for Business Intelligence. SQL vs. R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin FOTACHE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As data centric approach, Business Intelligence (BI deals with the storage, integration, processing, exploration and analysis of information gathered from multiple sources in various formats and volumes. BI systems are generally synonymous to costly, complex platforms that require vast organizational resources. But there is also an-other face of BI, that of a pool of data sources, applications, services developed at different times using different technologies. This is “democratic” BI or, in some cases, “fragmented”, “patched” (or “chaotic” BI. Fragmentation creates not only integration problems, but also supports BI agility as new modules can be quickly developed. Among various languages and tools that cover large extents of BI activities, SQL and R are instrumental for both BI platform developers and BI users. SQL and R address both monolithic and democratic BI. This paper compares essential data processing features of two languages, identifying similarities and differences among them and also their strengths and limits.

  18. Normal Language Skills and Normal Intelligence in a Child with de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Thomas H.; Kelly, Desmond P.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this case report is a two-year, seven-month-old girl with de Lange syndrome, normal intelligence, and age-appropriate language skills. She demonstrated initial delays in gross motor skills and in receptive and expressive language but responded well to intensive speech and language intervention, as well as to physical therapy.…

  19. 77 FR 57640 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office, the ITS PAC makes...

  20. 78 FR 64048 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office (JPO...

  1. 77 FR 26067 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office, the ITS PAC...

  2. Visual dataflow language for educational robots programming

    OpenAIRE

    ZIMIN G.A.; MORDVINOV D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Visual domain-specific languages usually have low entry barrier. Sometimes even children can program on such languages by working with visual representations. This is widely used in educational robotics domain, where most commonly used programming environments are visual. The paper describes a novel dataflow visual programming environment for embedded robotic platforms. Obviously, complex dataflow languages are not simple for understanding. The purpose of our tool is to "bridge" between light...

  3. On Using Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Real-Life Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Luiz A.; Meurers, Detmar

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the motivation and prerequisites for successful integration of Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) tools into current foreign language teaching and learning (FLTL) practice. We focus on two aspects, which we argue to be important for effective ICALL system development and use: (i) the relationship between…

  4. Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

  5. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron

    1982-01-01

    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  6. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his......This document illustrates how functional implementations of formal semantics (structural operational semantics, reduction semantics, small-step and big-step abstract machines, natural semantics, and denotational semantics) can be transformed into each other. These transformations were foreshadowed...... students have further observed that functional implementations of small-step and of big-step abstract machines are related using fusion by fixed-point promotion and that functional implementations of reduction semantics and of small-step abstract machines are related using refocusing and transition...

  7. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system.

  8. Factors Influencing Verbal Intelligence and Spoken Language in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Zahra; Keramati, Nasrin; Rohani, Farzaneh; Jalaei, Shohre

    2015-05-01

    To determine verbal intelligence and spoken language of children with phenylketonuria and to study the effect of age at diagnosis and phenylalanine plasma level on these abilities. Cross-sectional. Children with phenylketonuria were recruited from pediatric hospitals in 2012. Normal control subjects were recruited from kindergartens in Tehran. 30 phenylketonuria and 42 control subjects aged 4-6.5 years. Skills were compared between 3 phenylketonuria groups categorized by age at diagnosis/treatment, and between the phenylketonuria and control groups. Scores on Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence for verbal and total intelligence, and Test of Language Development-Primary, third edition for spoken language, listening, speaking, semantics, syntax, and organization. The performance of control subjects was significantly better than that of early-treated subjects for all composite quotients from Test of Language Development and verbal intelligence (Pphenylketonuria subjects.

  9. Type Soundness in the Dart Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strocco, Fabio

    Many mainstream programming languages are dynamically typed. This allows for rapid software development and programming flexibility because it gives programmers the freedom to use powerful programming patterns that are not allowed in statically typed programming languages. Nevertheless......, this freedom does not come without drawbacks: static bugs detection, IDE support, and compiler optimization techniques are harder to implement. In the last decades, the research literature and mainstream programming languages have been aiming to reach a trade-off between statically typed and dynamically typed...... languages. We investigate the trade-off, focusing on the area of optional typing, which allows programmers to choose when to use static type checking in parts of pro- grams. Our primary focus is Dart, an optionally typed programming language with a type system that is unsound by design. What makes Dart...

  10. Prerequisites for Emotional Intelligence Formation in Second Language Learning and Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklashova, Tatiana A.; Galishnikova, Elena M.; Khafizova, Liliya A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is due to the enhancing role of emotional intelligence in second language learning. The article aims to substantiate that emotional intelligence (EI) strengthens training quality of future professionals, gives it an emotional color, and thereby increases a variety of intellectual skills. The leading methodical approaches…

  11. Using Learning Analytics to Understand the Design of an Intelligent Language Tutor – Chatbot Lucy

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Fei Wang; Stephen Petrina

    2013-01-01

    the goal of this article is to explore how learning analytics can be used to predict and advise the design of an intelligent language tutor, chatbot Lucy. With its focus on using student-produced data to understand the design of Lucy to assist English language learning, this research can be a valuable component for language-learning designers to improve second language acquisition. In this article, we present students’ learning journey and data trails, the chatting log architecture and result...

  12. Computer Programming Languages for Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Joseph T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of standard high level programming languages for medical computing. It recommends that U.S. Government agencies having health care missions implement coordinated policies that encourage the use of existing standard languages and the development of new ones, thereby enabling them and the medical computing community at large to share state-of-the-art application programs. Examples are based on a model that characterizes language and language translator influence upon the specification, development, test, evaluation, and transfer of application programs.

  13. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING:A BRAIN-BASED PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Arnold

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory is presented as a cognitive perspective on intelligence which has profound implications for education in general. More specifically, it has led to the application of eight of these frames to language teaching and learning. In this chapter, we will argue in favour of the application of MIT to the EFL classroom, using as support some of the major insights for language teaching from brain science.

  14. Laboratory automation in a functional programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, Colin; Clare, Amanda; Harkness, Rob

    2014-12-01

    After some years of use in academic and research settings, functional languages are starting to enter the mainstream as an alternative to more conventional programming languages. This article explores one way to use Haskell, a functional programming language, in the development of control programs for laboratory automation systems. We give code for an example system, discuss some programming concepts that we need for this example, and demonstrate how the use of functional programming allows us to express and verify properties of the resulting code. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. Language constructs for modular parallel programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.

    1996-03-01

    We describe programming language constructs that facilitate the application of modular design techniques in parallel programming. These constructs allow us to isolate resource management and processor scheduling decisions from the specification of individual modules, which can themselves encapsulate design decisions concerned with concurrence, communication, process mapping, and data distribution. This approach permits development of libraries of reusable parallel program components and the reuse of these components in different contexts. In particular, alternative mapping strategies can be explored without modifying other aspects of program logic. We describe how these constructs are incorporated in two practical parallel programming languages, PCN and Fortran M. Compilers have been developed for both languages, allowing experimentation in substantial applications.

  16. Structured Design Language for Computer Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Walter H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Box language used at all stages of program development. Developed to provide improved productivity in designing, coding, and maintaining computer programs. BOX system written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution.

  17. Ada--Programming Language of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, David

    1983-01-01

    Ada is a programing language developed for the Department of Defense, with a registered trademark. It was named for Ada Augusta, coworker of Charles Babbage and the world's first programer. The Department of Defense hopes to prevent variations and to establish Ada as a consistent, standardized language. (MNS)

  18. PILOT: A Programming Language for Beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr, Janice M.

    The presentation describes PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching), a special programing language easy for beginners to learn and available for several brands of microcomputers. PILOT is explained to contain substantially fewer commands than most other languages and to be written in an easy to understand manner. Edit commands and their…

  19. a New Architecture for Intelligent Systems with Logic Based Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, K. K.; Saini, Sanju

    2008-10-01

    People communicate with each other in sentences that incorporate two kinds of information: propositions about some subject, and metalevel speech acts that specify how the propositional information is used—as an assertion, a command, a question, or a promise. By means of speech acts, a group of people who have different areas of expertise can cooperate and dynamically reconfigure their social interactions to perform tasks and solve problems that would be difficult or impossible for any single individual. This paper proposes a framework for intelligent systems that consist of a variety of specialized components together with logic-based languages that can express propositions and speech acts about those propositions. The result is a system with a dynamically changing architecture that can be reconfigured in various ways: by a human knowledge engineer who specifies a script of speech acts that determine how the components interact; by a planning component that generates the speech acts to redirect the other components; or by a committee of components, which might include human assistants, whose speech acts serve to redirect one another. The components communicate by sending messages to a Linda-like blackboard, in which components accept messages that are either directed to them or that they consider themselves competent to handle.

  20. Programming languages for MIS concepts and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Computers Computer Programming Languages     Role of Computer Programming Language      Software Systems     Taxonomies of Computer Programming LanguagesComputing Architecture in the Internet Environment Key Characteristics Shared by All Procedural Programming Languages      Syntax, Sentence, and Word     Variable     Arithmetic Operation     Execution Sequence      If-Then-Else Logic      Loop      Module C++ Introduction to Function-Oriented and Object-Oriented Programming A Tour of C Language      C and C++ Keyword and User-Defined Word      Comment Statements      Preprocessor

  1. 77 FR 20872 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory..., development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint...

  2. 77 FR 51845 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory..., development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint...

  3. 75 FR 77955 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research and Innovative Technology Administration Intelligent... the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory Committee (ITSPAC). The meeting will be... of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office (JPO), the...

  4. 78 FR 16030 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice.... Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory... Transportation on all matters relating to the study, development, and implementation of intelligent...

  5. BSN Program Admittance Criteria: Should Emotional Intelligence Be Included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to identify and monitor emotions and remain aware of how emotions affect thoughts and actions. Emotional intelligence has been discussed as a better predictor of personal and occupational success than performance on intellectual intelligence tests. Despite the importance of one's emotional intelligence, BSN (Bachelor of Science in Nursing) nursing schools routinely admit candidates based on the student's cumulative college course grade point average (GPA). Nursing is a profession that requires one's ability to empathize, care, and react in emotionally sound manners. Is the GPA enough to determine if a student will evolve into a professional nurse? This article will explore the routine admittance criteria for BSN nursing programs and propose the concept of using the emotional intelligence tool as an adjunct to the cumulative college course GPA. The emotional intelligence theory will be identified and applied to the nursing profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS OFFERED IN TURKISH UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengül CETINTAS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available n this study, the departments of philology and teaching, which take place in higher education programs in Turkey and give education in foreign language, have been examined. 23 different languages are offered to philology students who wants to attend to faculty of literature. Students can prefer classical languages besides modern languages. However, English, German, French, Arabic and Japanese are offered to the students of teaching department. To teach another foreign language, pedagogical formation is also required.This study focuses on the departments of German Language Teaching and German Language and Literature. From this point, the place and the importance of other philology and foreign language teaching departments in Turkish higher education have been examined.

  7. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorina Negreanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment’s evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  8. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreanu, Lorina

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  9. Learners Programming Language a Helping System for Introductory Programming Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL NAVEED

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Programming is the core of computer science and due to this momentousness a special care is taken in designing the curriculum of programming courses. A substantial work has been conducted on the definition of programming courses, yet the introductory programming courses are still facing high attrition, low retention and lack of motivation. This paper introduced a tiny pre-programming language called LPL (Learners Programming Language as a ZPL (Zeroth Programming Language to illuminate novice students about elementary concepts of introductory programming before introducing the first imperative programming course. The overall objective and design philosophy of LPL is based on a hypothesis that the soft introduction of a simple and paradigm specific textual programming can increase the motivation level of novice students and reduce the congenital complexities and hardness of the first programming course and eventually improve the retention rate and may be fruitful in reducing the dropout/failure level. LPL also generates the equivalent high level programs from user source program and eventually very fruitful in understanding the syntax of introductory programming languages. To overcome the inherent complexities of unusual and rigid syntax of introductory programming languages, the LPL provide elementary programming concepts in the form of algorithmic and plain natural language based computational statements. The initial results obtained after the introduction of LPL are very encouraging in motivating novice students and improving the retention rate.

  10. Developing a market-sensitive intelligent transportation systems educational program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Results of research undertaken to evaluate the educational needs of the emerging field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) are presented, and whether course offerings in academic programs meet these needs is ascertained. A survey was conduct...

  11. Listening Comprehension Performance Viewed in the Light of Emotional Intelligence and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Alavinia, Parviz

    2013-01-01

    The researchers in the current study were after probing the potential relationship between emotional intelligence, foreign language listening anxiety (FLLA), and listening comprehension performance of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 233 participants, studying English language and literature at three different Universities in Urmia, were…

  12. Programming Language Software For Graphics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Brian C.

    1993-01-01

    New approach reduces repetitive development of features common to different applications. High-level programming language and interactive environment with access to graphical hardware and software created by adding graphical commands and other constructs to standardized, general-purpose programming language, "Scheme". Designed for use in developing other software incorporating interactive computer-graphics capabilities into application programs. Provides alternative to programming entire applications in C or FORTRAN, specifically ameliorating design and implementation of complex control and data structures typifying applications with interactive graphics. Enables experimental programming and rapid development of prototype software, and yields high-level programs serving as executable versions of software-design documentation.

  13. Practical Leader Development Program Using Emotional Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Jakob Rømer; Bakkegaard, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Army has more than ten years of experience working with developing emotional intelligence in the Royal Danish Army Officers’ Academy (RDAOA), and the Academy has developed military leaders who have benefitted from emotional intelligence training. Today many of the military leaders...... are better at understanding themselves as well as their ability to build relationships whilst under great pressure e.g. during combat operations. On the basis of field experience, qualitative research and quantitative data the effects of working with emotional intelligence in a structured way is presented...

  14. Principles of a reversible programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The principles of reversible programming languages are explicated and illustrated with reference to the design of a high-level imperative language, Janus. The fundamental properties for such languages include backward as well as forward determinism and reversible updates of data. The unique design...... languages, and demonstrate this for Janus. We show the practicality of the language by implementation of a reversible fast Fourier transform. Our results indicate that the reversible programming paradigm has fundamental properties that are relevant to many different areas of computer science....... features of the language include explicit post-condition assertions, direct access to an inverse semantics and the possibility of clean (i.e., garbage-free) computation of injective functions. We suggest the clean simulation of reversible Turing machines as a criterion for computing strength of reversible...

  15. How specific is second language-learning ability? A twin study exploring the contributions of first language achievement and intelligence to second language achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimfeld, K; Dale, P S; Plomin, R

    2015-09-22

    Learning a second language is crucially important in an increasingly global society, yet surprisingly little is known about why individuals differ so substantially in second language (SL) achievement. We used the twin design to assess the nature, nurture and mediators of individual differences in SL achievement. For 6263 twin pairs, we analyzed scores from age 16 UK-wide standardized tests, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). We estimated genetic and environmental influences on the variance of SL for specific languages, the links between SL and English and the extent to which the links between SL and English are explained by intelligence. All SL measures showed substantial heritability, although heritability was nonsignificantly lower for German (36%) than the other languages (53-62%). Multivariate genetic analyses indicated that a third of genetic influence in SL is shared with intelligence, a third with English independent of intelligence and a further third is unique to SL.

  16. Starting a New Language Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Early years and primary teachers have a unique opportunity to apply their strong teaching practices, classroom management and understanding of childhood literacy development to teaching a language. This paper reports on a project from Independent Schools Queensland to increase language programs in schools by retraining classroom teachers.…

  17. Abstraction Mechanisms in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1983-01-01

    . It is then necessary that the abstraction mechanisms are powerful in order to define more specialized constructs. BETA is an object oriented language like SIMULA 67 ([SIMULA]) and SMALLTALK ([SMALLTALK]). By this is meant that a construct like the SIMULA class/subclass mechanism is fundamental in BETA. In contrast......]) --- covering both data, procedural and control abstractions, substituting constructs like class, procedure, function and type. Correspondingly objects, procedure activation records and variables are all regarded as special cases of the basic building block of program executions: the entity. A pattern thus......The BETA programming language is developed as part of the BETA project. The purpose of this project is to develop concepts, constructs and tools in the field of programming and programming languages. BETA has been developed from 1975 on and the various stages of the language are documented in [BETA...

  18. Writing Kurdish Alphabetics in Java Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Rebwar Mala Nabi; Sardasht M-Raouf Mahmood; Mohammed Qadir Kheder; Shadman Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, Kurdish programmers usually suffer when they need to write Kurdish letter while they program in java. More to say, all the versions of Java Development Kits have not supported Kurdish letters. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop Java Kurdish Language Package (JKLP) for solving writing Kurdish alphabetic in Java programming language. So that Kurdish programmer and/or students they can converts the English-alphabetic to Kurdish-alphabetic. Furthermore, adding Kurdish langua...

  19. Hierarchical data structures for graphics program languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonauser, M.; Schinner, P.; Weiss, J.

    1978-01-01

    Graphic data processing with a computer makes exacting demands on the interactive capability of the program language and the management of the graphic data. A description of the structure of a graphics program language which has been shown by initial practical experiments to possess a particularly favorable interactive capability is followed by the evaluation of various data structures (list, tree, ring) with respect to their interactive capability in processing graphics. A practical structure is proposed. (orig.) [de

  20. Several types of types in programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Regular Submissions; International audience; Types are an important part of any modern programming language, but we often forget that the concept of type we understand nowadays is not the same it was perceived in the sixties. Moreover, we conflate the concept of " type " in programming languages with the concept of the same name in mathematical logic, an identification that is only the result of the convergence of two different paths, which started apart with different aims. The paper...

  1. A study on intelligent nuclear systems, (HASP: human acts simulation program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kiyoshi; Uenaka, Junji; Kambayashi, Shaw; Higuchi, Kenji; Kume, Etsuo; Fujisaki, Masahide; Fujii, Minoru; Yokokawa, Mitsuo

    1989-03-01

    In 1987 Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has started a ten-years program named HASP, i.e., Human Acts Simulation Program, for artificial intelligence and robotics research. In the HASP, a human-shaped robot reads and understands orders written in natural language, planning and producing a required sequence of actions, accesses to a device or an instrument recognizing its entity and dose the ordered work for plant maintenance. All of these processes including calculation of the radiation exposure of the robot are simulated by logical and numerical computations. The simulated actions of the robot in three-dimensional environments are displayed using a high speed computer for graphics. The aim of the HASP project is threefold, i.e., (1) to develop fundamental technologies for design of intelligent robots, (2) to develop technologies for automated and/or intelligent plants, (3) to provide researchers and engineers in nuclear field with basic and systematized artificial intelligence techniques. The research items are natural language understanding, goal planning by LISP calculus, pattern recognitions by neural network methods, plant modelling by solid modeller, biped robot simulations, graphic display of the robot motion, and a study of design concept of a Monte Carlo vector processor for high speed calculation of the radiation exposure. In this report research results attained in the second year of the HASP project are described. (author)

  2. 78 FR 43273 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research and Innovative Technology Administration Intelligent... Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory Committee (ITS PAC) will hold a meeting on August 7..., development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint...

  3. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    OpenAIRE

    Fajrin Azwary; Fatma Indriani; Dodon T. Nugrahadi

    2016-01-01

    Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML). AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering...

  4. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Academic Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomer, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    "Know the Earth.Show the Way." In fulfillment of its vision, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) provides geospatial intelligence in all its forms and from whatever source-imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial data and information-to ensure the knowledge foundation for planning, decision, and action. To achieve this, NGA conducts a multi-disciplinary program of basic research in geospatial intelligence topics through grants and fellowships to the leading investigators, research universities, and colleges of the nation. This research provides the fundamental science support to NGA's applied and advanced research programs. The major components of the NGA Academic Research Program (NARP) are: - NGA University Research Initiatives (NURI): Three-year basic research grants awarded competitively to the best investigators across the US academic community. Topics are selected to provide the scientific basis for advanced and applied research in NGA core disciplines. - Historically Black College and University - Minority Institution Research Initiatives (HBCU-MI): Two-year basic research grants awarded competitively to the best investigators at Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Minority Institutions across the US academic community. - Director of Central Intelligence Post-Doctoral Research Fellowships: Fellowships providing access to advanced research in science and technology applicable to the intelligence community's mission. The program provides a pool of researchers to support future intelligence community needs and develops long-term relationships with researchers as they move into career positions. This paper provides information about the NGA Academic Research Program, the projects it supports and how other researchers and institutions can apply for grants under the program.

  5. The BLAZE language - A parallel language for scientific programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Van Rosendale, John

    1987-01-01

    A Pascal-like scientific programming language, BLAZE, is described. BLAZE contains array arithmetic, forall loops, and APL-style accumulation operators, which allow natural expression of fine grained parallelism. It also employs an applicative or functional procedure invocation mechanism, which makes it easy for compilers to extract coarse grained parallelism using machine specific program restructuring. Thus BLAZE should allow one to achieve highly parallel execution on multiprocessor architectures, while still providing the user with conceptually sequential control flow. A central goal in the design of BLAZE is portability across a broad range of parallel architectures. The multiple levels of parallelism present in BLAZE code, in principle, allow a compiler to extract the types of parallelism appropriate for the given architecture while neglecting the remainder. The features of BLAZE are described and it is shown how this language would be used in typical scientific programming.

  6. The BLAZE language: A parallel language for scientific programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, P.; Vanrosendale, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Pascal-like scientific programming language, Blaze, is described. Blaze contains array arithmetic, forall loops, and APL-style accumulation operators, which allow natural expression of fine grained parallelism. It also employs an applicative or functional procedure invocation mechanism, which makes it easy for compilers to extract coarse grained parallelism using machine specific program restructuring. Thus Blaze should allow one to achieve highly parallel execution on multiprocessor architectures, while still providing the user with onceptually sequential control flow. A central goal in the design of Blaze is portability across a broad range of parallel architectures. The multiple levels of parallelism present in Blaze code, in principle, allow a compiler to extract the types of parallelism appropriate for the given architecture while neglecting the remainder. The features of Blaze are described and shows how this language would be used in typical scientific programming.

  7. Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program provides funds to institutions of higher education, a consortia of such institutions, or partnerships between nonprofit organizations and institutions of higher education to plan, develop, and implement programs that strengthen and improve undergraduate instruction in…

  8. Language Program Evaluation: Decisions, Problems, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of second and foreign language programs, focusing on whether such evaluations should be summative or formative; use outside experts or program staff; emphasize qualitative or quantitative data; and concentrate on the process or the product. An annotated bibliography discusses six important works in the field. (78…

  9. An Empirical Examination of the Association between Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Self-Efficacy among TEFL University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafian, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the association between multiple intelligences and language learning efficacy expectations among TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) university students. To fulfill the aim of the study, 108 junior and senior TEFL students were asked to complete the "Multiple Intelligence Developmental Assessment…

  10. How Emotional Intelligence and Language Learning Strategies Interact in an EFL Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shakarami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Looking at learning procedure in general and language learning in particular, variations abound in learning processes and styles.  Along this journey, some learners travel/move ahead smoothly and some others are faced with challenges of different sorts.  Among the significant factors contributing to more effective and efficient language learning output, motivation, attitude, and personality traits play major roles. However, the role played by the intelligence seems to be critical in any language learning tasks and activities. Emotional Intelligence, which is believed to harmonize cognitive and emotional dispositions, seems to be indispensable to the interrelation between the learner’s Multiple Intelligence makeup and respective preferred learning strategies.   This can be used to develop materials and teaching tasks to become more or less compatible with the learners’ varying preferences and abilities, thereby promoting their achievements. The findings of the study pertaining to the interrelation of students’ Multiple Intelligence profile and their preferred Language Learning Strategies can be used to plan and categorize language learning and teaching tasks and materials in order to modify them more in accordance with the choice of the students. The educators might use the findings to choose from among various teaching materials to satisfy the needs of their learners with different illiteracies through conducting need analysis prior to choosing any learning and teaching content materials.

  11. IDA: An Intelligent Data Access Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sagalowicz, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    .... The first component of LADDER is INLAND (Informal Natural Language Access to Navy Data), which allows the user to ask questions in English about information contained in databases similar to those currently...

  12. Discount method for programming language evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtev, Svetomir; Christensen, Tommy Aagaard; Thomsen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work in progress on developing a Discount Method for Programming Language Evaluation inspired by the Discount Usability Evaluation method (Benyon 2010) and the Instant Data Analysis method (Kjeldskov et al. 2004). The method is intended to bridge the gap between small scale...... internal language design evaluation methods and large scale surveys and quantitative evaluation methods. The method is designed to be applicable even before a compiler or IDE is developed for a new language. To test the method, a usability evaluation experiment was carried out on the Quorum programming...... language (Stefik et al. 2016) using programmers with experience in C and C#. When comparing our results with previous studies of Quorum, most of the data was comparable though not strictly in agreement. However, the discrepancies were mainly related to the programmers pre-existing expectations...

  13. Language Issues in Mobile Program Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    primitives for instance synchronous operations Nondeterminism and Privacy Now suppose we introduce nondeterminism via a simple concurrent language...code setting is that the only observable events are those that can be observed from within a mobile program using language primitives and any host...Possibilistic NI is given in It uses a main thread and two triggered threads each with a busy wait loop implementing a semaphore to copy every bit of

  14. HomeNL: Homecare Assistance in Natural Language. An Intelligent Conversational Agent for Hypertensive Patients Management.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Barahona , Lina Maria; Quaglini , Silvana; Stefanelli , Mario

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The prospective home-care management will probably of- fer intelligent conversational assistants for supporting patients at home through natural language interfaces. Homecare assistance in natural lan- guage, HomeNL, is a proof-of-concept dialogue system for the manage- ment of patients with hypertension. It follows up a conversation with a patient in which the patient is able to take the initiative. HomeNL pro- cesses natural language, makes an internal representation...

  15. Effects of Cooperative Learning Method Type Stad, Language Aptitude, and Intelligence on the Achievement English Hotel at Medan Tourism Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Ritonga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available STAD cooperative learning method which is considered effective in achieving the goal of learning the English language, especially for students majoring in Tourism Academy who are required to master English for Specific Purposes (ESP in accordance with their needs. This study uses factorial design 2x3x3 version of the non-equivalent control group design with ANOVA 3 Ways. The subjects were students MDK III / 5 A and B courses MDK III.5 Rooms Division department Hospitality Academy Year 2015/2016. The samples are saturated samples. Data were collected through a pretest, posttest, and instrument of Language Aptitude and Intelligence parametric statistics analyzed by parametric statistics with significance level of 0.05%. The results showed that: (1 there are differences between method STAD cooperative learning and expository on Hospitality English achievement, (2 there are differences between the students who have high language aptitude and low language aptitude on English achievement, (3 there are differences between students who have high language aptitude and medium on Hospitality English achievement, (4 there are differences between students who have the medium language aptitude and low language aptitude on Hospitality English achievement, (5 there are differences between students who have high intelligence and low intelligence\\ on Hospitality English achievement, (6 there are no differences between who have high intelligence and medium intelligence on Hospitality English achievement, (7 there are differences between students who have the medium intelligence and low intelligence on Hospitality English achievement, (8 there is no interaction between the learning method and language aptitude on Hospitality English achievement, (9 there is an interaction between the learning method and the intelligence on Hospitality English achievement, (10 there is no interaction between intelligence and language aptitude on Hospitality English achievement. (11

  16. How to Improve Artificial Intelligence through Web

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Lupasc

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent agents, intelligent software applications and artificial intelligent applications from artificial intelligence service providers may make their way onto the Web in greater number as adaptive software, dynamic programming languages and Learning Algorithms are introduced into Web Services. The evolution of Web architecture may allow intelligent applications to run directly on the Web by introducing XML, RDF and logic layer. The Intelligent Wireless Web’s significant potential for ra...

  17. Reviewing the development of an artificial intelligence based risk program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.; Hinton, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    A successful application of nonconventional programming methods has been achieved in computer-assisted probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The event tree sequence importance calculator, SQUIMP, provides for prompted data entry, generic expansion, on-line pruning, boolean reductions, and importance factor selection. SQUIMP employs constructs typically found in artificial intelligence (AI) programs. The development history of SQUIMP is outlined and its internal structure described as background for a discussion on the applicability of symbolic programming methods in PRA

  18. Programming language for computations in the Interkosmos program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K.

    1975-01-01

    The programming system for Intercosmos data processing, based on the structural programming theory, which considers a program as an ordered set of standardized elementary parts, from which the user programs are automatically generated, is described. The programs are comprised of several modules, which are briefly summarized. The general structure of the programming system is presented in a block diagram. A programming control language developed to formulate the problem quickly and completely is presented along with basic symbols which are characteristic of the Intercosmos programming system.

  19. Programming languages for business problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shouhong

    2007-01-01

    It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin

  20. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  1. A survey of object oriented languages in programming environments

    OpenAIRE

    Haakonsen, Harald

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis addresses object oriented programming languages; and a restrictive definition of object oriented programming languages is presented and defended. Differences between programming languages are discussed and related to interactive integrated programming environments. Topics related to user friendly interface to the computer system and modem programming practice are discussed. The thesis especially addresses features in ...

  2. Methods and models for quantative assessment of speech intelligibility in cross-language communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Steeneken, H.J.M.; Houtgast, T.

    2001-01-01

    To deal with the effects of nonnative speech communication on speech intelligibility, one must know the magnitude of these effects. To measure this magnitude, suitable test methods must be available. Many of the methods used in cross-language speech communication research are not very suitable for

  3. Why Is an Application of Multiple Intelligences Theory Important for Language Learning and Teaching Speaking Ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonma, Malai; Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee

    2014-01-01

    This article calls for a strong need to propose the theoretical framework of the Multiple Intelligences theory (MI) and provide a suitable answer of the doubt in part of foreign language teaching. The article addresses the application of MI theory following various sources from Howard Gardner and the authors who revised this theory for use in the…

  4. Using Intelligent Personal Assistants for Second Language Learning: A Case Study of Alexa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of smartphones has given rise to intelligent personal assistants (IPAs), software that helps users accomplish day-to-day tasks. However, little is known about IPAs in the context of second language (L2) learning. Therefore, the primary objectives of this case study were twofold: to assess the ability of Amazon's IPA, Alexa, to…

  5. Testing the Theory of Successful Intelligence in Teaching Grade 4 Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Jarvin, Linda; Birney, Damian P.; Naples, Adam; Stemler, Steven E.; Newman, Tina; Otterbach, Renate; Parish, Carolyn; Randi, Judy; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed whether prior successes with educational interventions grounded in the theory of successful intelligence could be replicated on a larger scale as the primary basis for instruction in language arts, mathematics, and science. A total of 7,702 4th-grade students in the United States, drawn from 223 elementary school classrooms in…

  6. Using Multiple Intelligences To Improve Retention in Foreign Language Vocabulary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Virginia B.

    The report describes an experiment for increasing retention of foreign language vocabulary by using multiple intelligence approaches and memory enhancement tools. The targeted population was approximately 100 seventh- and eighth-grade Latin students. Student difficulty with vocabulary retention had been ascribed to the teacher's emphasis on…

  7. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  8. Programming language concepts for software developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This note describes and motivates our current plans for an undergraduate course on programming language concepts for software development students. We describe the competences we expect students to acquire as well as the topics covered by the course. We plan to use C# and Scheme as instruction...

  9. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  10. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  11. Programming Languages for Distributed Computing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, H.E.; Steiner, J.G.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    When distributed systems first appeared, they were programmed in traditional sequential languages, usually with the addition of a few library procedures for sending and receiving messages. As distributed applications became more commonplace and more sophisticated, this ad hoc approach became less

  12. RAY TRACING IMPLEMENTATION IN JAVA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Aybars UĞUR; Mustafa TÜRKSEVER

    2002-01-01

    In this paper realism in computer graphics and components providing realism are discussed at first. It is mentioned about illumination models, surface rendering methods and light sources for this aim. After that, ray tracing which is a technique for creating two dimensional image of a three-dimensional virtual environment is explained briefly. A simple ray tracing algorithm was given. "SahneIzle" which is a ray tracing program implemented in Java programming language which ...

  13. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Robotics and Intelligent Systems Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of the newly formed Robotics and Intelligent Systems Program are discussed. The application of the remote systems technology developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program for the Department of Energy is presented. The activities (satellite refueling and space station truss assembly) with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are presented in a videotape format with narration by the presenter. The goals of technology transfer to the private sector and the potential positive impact on the community conclude the oral presentation

  14. Java Decaffeinated: experiences building a programming language from components

    OpenAIRE

    Farragher, Linda; Dobson, Simon

    2000-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Most modern programming languages are complex and feature rich. Whilst this is (sometimes) an advantage for industrial-strength applications, it complicates both language teaching and language research. We describe our experiences in the design of a reduced sub-set of the Java language and its implementation using the Vanilla language development framework. We argue that Vanilla???s component-based approach allows the language???s feature set to be varied quickly and simp...

  15. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Rosendahl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In David Schmidt's PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen as a programming paradigm and be used to write programs in a circular style.

  16. 76 FR 22940 - Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...-363; 5 U.S.C. app. 2), a Web conference of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program... implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office (JPO...

  17. HAL/SM language specification. [programming languages and computer programming for space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. P. W., Jr.; Ross, C.

    1975-01-01

    A programming language is presented for the flight software of the NASA Space Shuttle program. It is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. To achieve this, it incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks. It is a higher order language designed to allow programmers, analysts, and engineers to communicate with the computer in a form approximating natural mathematical expression. Parts of the English language are combined with standard notation to provide a tool that readily encourages programming without demanding computer hardware expertise. Block diagrams and flow charts are included. The semantics of the language is discussed.

  18. Logic-programming language enriches design processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.

    1984-03-22

    With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.

  19. Teaching Adaptability of Object-Oriented Programming Language Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…

  20. An Intelligent Computer-Based System for Sign Language Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…

  1. The dynamic interplay among EFL learners’ ambiguity tolerance, adaptability, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Alahdadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and language achievement as manifestations of the above competencies within a single model. The participants comprised one hundred eighty BA and MA Iranian university students studying English language teaching and translation. The instruments used in this study consisted of the translated versions of four questionnaires: second language tolerance of ambiguity scale, adaptability taken from emotional intelligence inventory, cultural intelligence (CQ inventory, and the revised study process questionnaire measuring surface and deep learning. The results estimated via structural equation modeling (SEM revealed that the proposed model containing the variables under study had a good fit with the data. It was found that all the variables except adaptability directly influenced language achievement with deep approach having the highest impact and ambiguity tolerance having the lowest influence. In addition, ambiguity tolerance was a positive and significant predictor of deep approach. CQ was found to be under the influence of both ambiguity tolerance and adaptability. The findings were discussed in the light of the yielded results.

  2. A Natural Language Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Sodiya, Adesina Simon

    2007-01-01

    Natural languages are the latest generation of programming languages, which require processing real human natural expressions. Over the years, several groups or researchers have trying to develop widely accepted natural language languages based on artificial intelligence (AI). But no true natural language has been developed. The goal of this work is to design a natural language preprocessing architecture that identifies and accepts programming instructions or sentences in their natural forms ...

  3. A Natural Language Intelligent Tutoring System for Training Pathologists - Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Saadawi, Gilan M.; Tseytlin, Eugene; Legowski, Elizabeth; Jukic, Drazen; Castine, Melissa; Fine, Jeffrey; Gormley, Robert; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We developed and evaluated a Natural Language Interface (NLI) for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) in Diagnostic Pathology. The system teaches residents to examine pathologic slides and write accurate pathology reports while providing immediate feedback on errors they make in their slide review and diagnostic reports. Residents can ask for help at any point in the case, and will receive context-specific feedback. Research Questions We evaluated (1) the performance of our natural language system, (2) the effect of the system on learning (3) the effect of feedback timing on learning gains and (4) the effect of ReportTutor on performance to self-assessment correlations. Methods The study uses a crossover 2×2 factorial design. We recruited 20 subjects from 4 academic programs. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions - two conditions for the immediate interface, and two for the delayed interface. An expert dermatopathologist created a reference standard and 2 board certified AP/CP pathology fellows manually coded the residents' assessment reports. Subjects were given the opportunity to self grade their performance and we used a survey to determine student response to both interfaces. Results Our results show a highly significant improvement in report writing after one tutoring session with 4-fold increase in the learning gains with both interfaces but no effect of feedback timing on performance gains. Residents who used the immediate feedback interface first experienced a feature learning gain that is correlated with the number of cases they viewed. There was no correlation between performance and self-assessment in either condition. PMID:17934789

  4. A programming language for composable DNA circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-08-06

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing.

  5. Overview of the Novel Intelligent JAXA Active Rotor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada; Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Young, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    The Novel Intelligent JAXA Active Rotor (NINJA Rotor) program is a cooperative effort between JAXA and NASA, involving a test of a JAXA pressure-instrumented, active-flap rotor in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. The objectives of the program are to obtain an experimental database of a rotor with active flaps and blade pressure instrumentation, and to use that data to develop analyses to predict the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of rotors with active flaps. An overview of the program is presented, including a description of the rotor and preliminary pretest calculations.

  6. A performance analysis for evaluation of programming languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, several programming Languages exist from general purpose to special purpose programming languages that are used in one application domain. People always find difficulties about which programming language should be learnt and adopt to develop particular software. In this paper, three (3) most commonly ...

  7. Software and the future of programming languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Alfred V

    2004-02-27

    Although software is the key enabler of the global information infrastructure, the amount and extent of software in use in the world today are not widely understood, nor are the programming languages and paradigms that have been used to create the software. The vast size of the embedded base of existing software and the increasing costs of software maintenance, poor security, and limited functionality are posing significant challenges for the software R&D community.

  8. Some Competition Programming Problems as the Beginning of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Boris MELNIKOV; Elena MELNIKOVA

    2007-01-01

    We consider in this paper some programming competition problems (which are near to some problems of ACM competitions) of the following subjects: we can make their solution using both Prolog and a classical procedure-oriented language. Moreover, the considered problems are selected that their solution in Prolog and in a classical procedure-oriented language are similar - i.e., in other words, they use the same working mechanism, the same approach to constructing recursive functions etc. Howeve...

  9. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY – A MILESTONE INNOVATION IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NIŠ MEDICAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bakić-Mirić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory of multiple intelligences is considered an innovation in both teaching and learning English language because it helps students develop all the eight intelligences that are grouped as verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, musical/rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. The aforementioned intelligences are thought to represent ways in which individuals understand and perceive the world, solve problems and learn. Correspondingly, by focusing on the problem solving activities, teachers, by implementing theory of multiple intelligences encourage students not only to build-up their existing language knowledge but also learn new content and skills. The implementation of the theory of multiple intelligences in teaching the English language at the University of Niš Medical School has had a positive impact on learning English language and increased students' interest in language learning. Genarally speaking, this theory offers a better understanding of students’ intelligence and a greater appreciation of their strengths. It provides numerous opportunities for students to use and develop all the eight intelligences not just the few they excel in prior to enrolling a university or college.

  10. Implementation of multiple intelligences theory in the English language course syllabus at the University of Nis Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakić-Mirić, Natasa

    2010-01-01

    Theory of multiple intelligences (MI) is considered an innovation in learning the English language because it helps students develop all eight intelligences that, on the other hand, represent ways people understand the world around them, solve problems and learn. They are: verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, bodily/kinaesthetic, musical/rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. Also, by focusing on the problem-solving activities, teachers, by implementing theory of multiple intelligences, encourage students not only to build their existing language knowledge but also learn new content and skills. The objective of this study has been to determine the importance of implementation of the theory of multiple intelligences in the English language course syllabus at the University of Nis Medical School. Ways in which the theory of multiple intelligences has been implemented in the English language course syllabus particularly in one lecture for junior year students of pharmacy in the University of Nis Medical School. The English language final exam results from February 2009 when compared with the final exam results from June 2007 prior to the implementation of MI theory showed the following: out of 80 junior year students of pharmacy, 40 obtained grade 10 (outstanding), 16 obtained grade 9 (excellent), 11 obtained grade 8 (very good), 4 obtained grade 7 (good) and 9 obtained grade 6 (pass). No student failed. The implementation of the theory of multiple intelligences in the English language course syllabus at the University of Nis Medical School has had a positive impact on learning the English language and has increased students' interest in language learning. Genarally speaking, this theory offers better understanding of students' intelligence and greater appreciation of their strengths. It provides numerous opportunities for students to use and develop all eight intelligences not just the few they excel in prior to enrolling in a

  11. RAY TRACING IMPLEMENTATION IN JAVA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aybars UĞUR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper realism in computer graphics and components providing realism are discussed at first. It is mentioned about illumination models, surface rendering methods and light sources for this aim. After that, ray tracing which is a technique for creating two dimensional image of a three-dimensional virtual environment is explained briefly. A simple ray tracing algorithm was given. "SahneIzle" which is a ray tracing program implemented in Java programming language which can be used on the internet is introduced. As a result, importance of network-centric ray tracing software is discussed.

  12. Recent Technological Advances in Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nishal Pradeepkumar

    2012-01-01

    A recent advance in computer technology has permitted scientists to implement and test algorithms that were known from quite some time (or not) but which were computationally expensive. Two such projects are IBM's Jeopardy as a part of its DeepQA project [1] and Wolfram's Wolframalpha[2]. Both these methods implement natural language processing (another goal of AI scientists) and try to answer questions as asked by the user. Though the goal of the two projects is similar, both of them have a ...

  13. Programming Language Use in US Academia and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Arfa Rabai, Latifa; Cohen, Barry; Mili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the same way that natural languages influence and shape the way we think, programming languages have a profound impact on the way a programmer analyzes a problem and formulates its solution in the form of a program. To the extent that a first programming course is likely to determine the student's approach to program design, program analysis,…

  14. Effectiveness of an Emotional Intelligence Program in Elementary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mª Merchán

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to demonstrate the positive effects of the implementation of a program to develop emotional competence in first year students of primary education. This population has been taking as public school students in the city of Badajoz during the course 2012-2013, selecting a sample of 78 pupils aged between 5 and 7 years, divided into experimental group and control group. The methodological procedure focuses on a descriptive-interpretative approach with two data collection techniques: sociometric test and test emotional intelligence. Designed and implemented a program of emotional intelligence with students in the experimental group, measured before and after the intervention the level of emotional competence and social relations of the class group. Similarly, measurements were taken of the degree of emotional competence and social relations of the students in the control group, which did not participate in the intervention. The results show that the program was effective to increase the emotional intelligence of students that make up the experimental group improved with it the degree of friendship and social relations of the class group.

  15. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  16. SDIO Producibility and Manufacturing Intelligent Processing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottlemyer, Greg

    1992-01-01

    SDIO has to fashion a comprehensive strategy to insert the capability of an industrial base into ongoing design tradeoffs. This means that there is not only a need to determine if something can be made to the precision needed to meet system performance, but also what changes need to be made in that industry sector to develop a deterministic approach to fabrication precision components. Developing and introducing advanced production and quality control systems is part of this success. To address this situation, SDIO has developed the MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Labs) program. MODILs were developed into three areas: Survivable Optics, Electronics and Sensors, and Spacecraft Fabrication and Test.

  17. Men Who Compliment a Woman's Appearance Using Metaphorical Language: Associations with Creativity, Masculinity, Intelligence and Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Language may have evolved as a signal of mental fitness. However, it remains unclear what language form and topic men use to covertly signal mate quality. In this study 69 men created compliments to impress unfamiliar women they chose to either date or work with and provided hand scans to compute 2D4D ratio as a proxy for prenatal testosterone exposure and masculinity indicator. Compliments were coded in terms of form (literal vs. metaphorical and topic (women's appearance vs. non-appearance, with metaphorical ones being subsequently rated by 114 women for psycholinguistic features, indices of intelligence and willingness to have a romantic relationship with the author. Results showed that in a dating context, men produced more metaphorical form compliments targeting appearance compared to the working context and they were associated with men's art creativity and negatively with 2D4D ratio (i.e., positively with masculinity. Women preferred establishing a romantic relationship with a higher proportion of the men producing metaphorical compliments in a dating than a working context. Furthermore, in the dating but not the working context, women perceived men producing such compliments as being more intelligent, and importantly this correlated with the men's actual verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest that men may use metaphorical language compliments targeting women's appearance in a dating context to signal covertly their mate quality.

  18. Men Who Compliment a Woman's Appearance Using Metaphorical Language: Associations with Creativity, Masculinity, Intelligence and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhao; Yang, Qi; Ma, Xiaole; Becker, Benjamin; Li, Keshuang; Zhou, Feng; Kendrick, Keith M

    2017-01-01

    Language may have evolved as a signal of mental fitness. However, it remains unclear what language form and topic men use to covertly signal mate quality. In this study 69 men created compliments to impress unfamiliar women they chose to either date or work with and provided hand scans to compute 2D4D ratio as a proxy for prenatal testosterone exposure and masculinity indicator. Compliments were coded in terms of form (literal vs. metaphorical) and topic (women's appearance vs. non-appearance), with metaphorical ones being subsequently rated by 114 women for psycholinguistic features, indices of intelligence and willingness to have a romantic relationship with the author. Results showed that in a dating context, men produced more metaphorical form compliments targeting appearance compared to the working context and they were associated with men's art creativity and negatively with 2D4D ratio (i.e., positively with masculinity). Women preferred establishing a romantic relationship with a higher proportion of the men producing metaphorical compliments in a dating than a working context. Furthermore, in the dating but not the working context, women perceived men producing such compliments as being more intelligent, and importantly this correlated with the men's actual verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest that men may use metaphorical language compliments targeting women's appearance in a dating context to signal covertly their mate quality.

  19. Rain: A New Concurrent Process-Oriented Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the design of a new concurrent process-oriented programming language, Rain. The language borrows heavily from occam-p and C++ to create a new language based on process-oriented programming, marrying channel-based communication, a clear division between statement and expression, and elements of functional programming. An expressive yet simple type system, coupled with templates, underpins the language. Modern features such as Unicode support and 64-bit integers are included ...

  20. Report on Networking and Programming Languages 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Bjorner, Nikolaj

    2017-10-26

    The third workshop on Networking and Programming Lan-guages, NetPL 2017, was held in conjunction with SIG-COMM 2017. The workshop series attracts invited speakers from academia and industry and a selection of contributed abstracts for short presentations. NetPL brings together re-searchers from the networking community and researchers from the programming languages and verification communities. The workshop series is a timely forum for exciting trends, technological and scientific advances in the intersection of these communities. We describe some of the high-lights from the invited talks through the lens of three trends: Advances in network machine architectures, network programming abstractions, and network verification. NetPL included five invited speakers, four from academia, and one from industry. The program contained six contributed talks out of eight submitted for presentation. The workshop organizers reviewed the abstracts for quality and scope. A total of 42 registrations were received and the attendance occupied the lecture room to the brink. Slides and abstracts from all talks are available from the workshop home page.1 Videos of the presentations are available in the NetPL YouTube channel.2.

  1. Report on Networking and Programming Languages 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Bjorner, Nikolaj; Canini, Marco; Sultana, Nik

    2017-01-01

    The third workshop on Networking and Programming Lan-guages, NetPL 2017, was held in conjunction with SIG-COMM 2017. The workshop series attracts invited speakers from academia and industry and a selection of contributed abstracts for short presentations. NetPL brings together re-searchers from the networking community and researchers from the programming languages and verification communities. The workshop series is a timely forum for exciting trends, technological and scientific advances in the intersection of these communities. We describe some of the high-lights from the invited talks through the lens of three trends: Advances in network machine architectures, network programming abstractions, and network verification. NetPL included five invited speakers, four from academia, and one from industry. The program contained six contributed talks out of eight submitted for presentation. The workshop organizers reviewed the abstracts for quality and scope. A total of 42 registrations were received and the attendance occupied the lecture room to the brink. Slides and abstracts from all talks are available from the workshop home page.1 Videos of the presentations are available in the NetPL YouTube channel.2.

  2. Sign language recognition and translation: a multidisciplined approach from the field of artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Becky Sue

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, research has progressed steadily in regard to the use of computers to recognize and render sign language. This paper reviews significant projects in the field beginning with finger-spelling hands such as "Ralph" (robotics), CyberGloves (virtual reality sensors to capture isolated and continuous signs), camera-based projects such as the CopyCat interactive American Sign Language game (computer vision), and sign recognition software (Hidden Markov Modeling and neural network systems). Avatars such as "Tessa" (Text and Sign Support Assistant; three-dimensional imaging) and spoken language to sign language translation systems such as Poland's project entitled "THETOS" (Text into Sign Language Automatic Translator, which operates in Polish; natural language processing) are addressed. The application of this research to education is also explored. The "ICICLE" (Interactive Computer Identification and Correction of Language Errors) project, for example, uses intelligent computer-aided instruction to build a tutorial system for deaf or hard-of-hearing children that analyzes their English writing and makes tailored lessons and recommendations. Finally, the article considers synthesized sign, which is being added to educational material and has the potential to be developed by students themselves.

  3. 1957-2007: 50 Years of Higher Order Programming Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Lovrenčić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty years ago one of the greatest breakthroughs in computer programming and in the history of computers happened -- the appearance of FORTRAN, the first higher-order programming language. From that time until now hundreds of programming languages were invented, different programming paradigms were defined, all with the main goal to make computer programming easier and closer to as many people as possible. Many battles were fought among scientists as well as among developers around concepts of programming, programming languages and paradigms. It can be said that programming paradigms and programming languages were very often a trigger for many changes and improvements in computer science as well as in computer industry. Definitely, computer programming is one of the cornerstones of computer science.Today there are many tools that give a help in the process of programming, but there is still a programming tasks that can be solved only manually. Therefore, programming is still one of the most creative parts of interaction with computers.Programmers should chose programming language in accordance to task they have to solve, but very often, they chose it in accordance to their personal preferences, their beliefs and many other subjective reasons.Nevertheless, the market of programming languages can be merciless to languages as history was merciless to some people, even whole nations. Programming languages and developers get born, live and die leaving more or less tracks and successors, and not always the best survives. The history of programming languages is closely connected to the history of computers and computer science itself. Every single thing from one of them has its reflexions onto the other. This paper gives a short overview of last fifty years of computer programming and computer programming languages, but also gives many ideas that influenced other aspects of computer science. Particularly, programming paradigms are described, their

  4. Total Immersion Language Program: A New Approach to Foreign Language Instruction. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Stefano

    A three-year experimental program established in 1966 in Spanish language instruction at the secondary level is reported in this study. Students at Commack High School North, New York, participated in a total immersion language program in Spanish, taking two to four classes of instruction in the target language per day. Classes included regular…

  5. Educator Language Ideologies and a Top-Down Dual Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon; Palmer, Deborah; Henderson, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Dual language bilingual education (DLBE) programs are framed to reflect pluralist discourses (de Jong, E. [2013]. "Policy Discourses and U.S. Language in Education Policies." "Peabody Journal of Education" 88 (1): 98-111) and affiliated language ideologies. The continued expansion of DLBE programs not surprisingly brings to…

  6. Teaching Culture and Language through the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching Model in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This paper will demonstrate how to enhance second language (L2) learners' linguistic and cultural competencies through the use of the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching (MIFT) model. The paper will introduce two ideas to teachers of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL). First, the paper shows how L2 learners learn linguistic and…

  7. AES ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION IN PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Information encryption represents the usage of an algorithm to convert an unknown message into an encrypted one. It is used to protect the data against unauthorized access. Protected data can be stored on a media device or can be transmitted through the network. In this paper we describe a concrete implementation of the AES algorithm in the Java programming language (available from Java Development Kit 6 libraries and C (using the OpenSSL library. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm formally adopted by the U.S. government and was elected after a long process of standardization.

  8. Exposure to audiovisual programs as sources of authentic language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to audiovisual programs as sources of authentic language input and second ... Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... The findings of the present research contribute more insights on the type and amount of ...

  9. This article discusses the programming language LISP. The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    LISP is fundamentally a functional language inspired by the lambda ... of most programming languages in one form or another. ..... Java and C++ in significant ways. ... [8]. Eugene Charniak, Christopher K Riesbeck, Drew V McDermott, and.

  10. The Coast Guard Intelligence Program Enters the Intelligence Community. A Case Study of Congressional Influence on Intelligence Community Evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wirth, Kevin E

    2007-01-01

    .... Although the United States Coast Guard has utilized intelligence capabilities since the service's inception in 1790, the Coast Guard was not included as a formal member of the Intelligence Community until December 2002. Mr...

  11. Language Analysis and Generation in Algebra Tutorial Dialogues for Language-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Jung

    2004-01-01

    The North Carolina A&T State University algebra tutoring dialogue project collects and analyzes algebra tutoring dialogues with the aim of describing tutoring strategies and language with enough rigor that they may...

  12. Hybrid Applications Of Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Gary C.

    1988-01-01

    STAR, Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning, is interactive, interpreted programming language for development and operation of artificial-intelligence application systems. Couples symbolic processing with compiled-language functions and data structures. Written in C language and currently available in UNIX version (NPO-16832), and VMS version (NPO-16965).

  13. The ulam Programming Language for Artificial Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, David H; Ackley, Elena S

    2016-01-01

    Traditional digital computing demands perfectly reliable memory and processing, so programs can build structures once then use them forever-but such deterministic execution is becoming ever more costly in large-scale systems. By contrast, living systems, viewed as computations, naturally tolerate fallible hardware by repairing and rebuilding structures even while in use-and suggest ways to compute using massive amounts of unreliable, merely best-effort hardware. However, we currently know little about programming without deterministic execution, in architectures where traditional models of computation-and deterministic ALife models such as the Game of Life-need not apply. This expanded article presents ulam, a language designed to balance concurrency and programmability upon best-effort hardware, using lifelike strategies to achieve robust and scalable computations. The article reviews challenges for traditional architecture, introduces the active-media computational model for which ulam is designed, and then presents the language itself, touching on its nomenclature and surface appearance as well as some broader aspects of robust software engineering. Several ulam examples are presented; then the article concludes with a brief consideration of the couplings between a computational model and its physical implementation.

  14. Why is an Application of Multiple Intelligences Theory Important for Language Learning and Teaching Speaking Ability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malai Boonma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article calls for a strong need to propose the theoretical framework of the Multiple Intelligences theory (MI and provide a suitable answer of the doubt in part of foreign language teaching. The article addresses the application of MI theory following various sources from Howard Gardner and the authors who revised this theory for using in the field of the English speaking improvement domain. In other word, this article combines and summarizes appropriate elements for the person on how to start teaching with this theory. The article also describes sequences and implication of the theory into practice. MI theory with the description of eight intelligences characteristic is presented. Following is the parts of activities catering and the processes of teaching with MI are provided. This article ends with the reviews of the ways for assessment and examples of lesson plan integrated with MI theory.

  15. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.

  16. Swift vs. Objective-C: A New Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian González García

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we compare the new programming language of Apple, Swift, with the main programming language of Apple before Swift, Objective-C. We are going to show the differences, characteristics and novelties to verify the words of Apple about Swift. With that we want to answer the next question: Is Swift a new programming language easier, more secure and quicker to develop than Objective-C?

  17. Programming languages and operating systems used in data base systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, T.G.

    1977-06-01

    Some apsects of the use of the programming languages and operating systems in the data base systems are presented. There are four chapters in this paper. In the first chapter we present some generalities about the programming languages. In the second one we describe the use of the programming languages in the data base systems. A classification of the programming languages used in data base systems is presented in the third one. An overview of the operating systems is made in the last chapter. (author)

  18. Second Language Learners' Vocabulary Expansion Is Associated with Improved Second Language Vowel Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Kroos, Christian; Tyler, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests the predictions of the vocabulary-tuning model of second language (L2) rephonologization in the domain of L2 segmental production. This model proposes a facilitating effect of adults' L2 vocabulary expansion on L2 perception and production and suggests that early improvements in L2 segmental production may be positively associated…

  19. Which programming language should follow Scratch? JavaScript?

    OpenAIRE

    Bevčič, Mateja

    2017-01-01

    Pupils start with Scratch programming already in the second triennium of primary school. Scratch is a visual programming language where users learn basic programming by stacking blocks of commands. The problems then arise when switching to text-based programming as this represents a great and demanding step for pupils. It is for this very reason very important which programming language and environment we select as we try to make this step as easy as possible for pupils. Pyt...

  20. Annotated Bibliography of Materials for Elementary Foreign Language Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobb, Fred

    An annotated bibliography contains about 70 citations of instructional materials and materials concerning curriculum development for elementary school foreign language programs. Citations are included for Arabic, classical languages, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, and Spanish. Items on exploratory language courses and general works on…

  1. Knowledge acquisition and representation for the Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamster, Thomas L.; Eike, David R.; Ames, Troy J.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on knowledge acquisition and its application to the development of an expert module and a user interface for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) ITS is being developed to assist NASA control center personnel in learning a command and control language as it is used in mission operations rooms. The objective of the tutor is to impart knowledge and skills that will permit the trainee to solve command and control problems in the same way that the STOL expert solves those problems. The STOL ITS will achieve this object by representing the solution space in such a way that the trainee can visualize the intermediate steps, and by having the expert module production rules parallel the STOL expert's knowledge structures.

  2. Improving Emotional Intelligence through Personality Development: The Effect of the Smart Phone Application based Dharma Life Program on Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonamallee, Latha; Harrington, Alex M.; Nagpal, Manisha; Musial, Alec

    2018-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is established to predict success in leadership effectiveness in various contexts and has been linked to personality factors. This paper introduces Dharma Life Program, a novel approach to improving emotional intelligence by targeting maladaptive personality traits and triggering neuroplasticity through the use of a smart-phone application and mentoring. The program uses neuroplasticity to enable users to create a more adaptive application of their maladaptive traits, thus improving their emotional intelligence. In this study 26 participants underwent the Dharma Life Program in a leadership development setting. We assessed their emotional and social intelligence before and after the Dharma Life Program intervention using the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI). The study found a significant improvement in the lowest three competencies and a significant improvement in almost all domains for the entire sample. Our findings suggest that the completion of the Dharma Life Program has a significant positive effect on Emotional and Social Competency scores and offers a new avenue for improving emotional intelligence competencies. PMID:29527182

  3. Improving Emotional Intelligence through Personality Development: The Effect of the Smart Phone Application based Dharma Life Program on Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Poonamallee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence is established to predict success in leadership effectiveness in various contexts and has been linked to personality factors. This paper introduces Dharma Life Program, a novel approach to improving emotional intelligence by targeting maladaptive personality traits and triggering neuroplasticity through the use of a smart-phone application and mentoring. The program uses neuroplasticity to enable users to create a more adaptive application of their maladaptive traits, thus improving their emotional intelligence. In this study 26 participants underwent the Dharma Life Program in a leadership development setting. We assessed their emotional and social intelligence before and after the Dharma Life Program intervention using the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI. The study found a significant improvement in the lowest three competencies and a significant improvement in almost all domains for the entire sample. Our findings suggest that the completion of the Dharma Life Program has a significant positive effect on Emotional and Social Competency scores and offers a new avenue for improving emotional intelligence competencies.

  4. Improving Emotional Intelligence through Personality Development: The Effect of the Smart Phone Application based Dharma Life Program on Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonamallee, Latha; Harrington, Alex M; Nagpal, Manisha; Musial, Alec

    2018-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is established to predict success in leadership effectiveness in various contexts and has been linked to personality factors. This paper introduces Dharma Life Program, a novel approach to improving emotional intelligence by targeting maladaptive personality traits and triggering neuroplasticity through the use of a smart-phone application and mentoring. The program uses neuroplasticity to enable users to create a more adaptive application of their maladaptive traits, thus improving their emotional intelligence. In this study 26 participants underwent the Dharma Life Program in a leadership development setting. We assessed their emotional and social intelligence before and after the Dharma Life Program intervention using the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI). The study found a significant improvement in the lowest three competencies and a significant improvement in almost all domains for the entire sample. Our findings suggest that the completion of the Dharma Life Program has a significant positive effect on Emotional and Social Competency scores and offers a new avenue for improving emotional intelligence competencies.

  5. Adding Wildcards to the Java Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torgersen, Mads; Hansen, Christian Plesner; Ernst, Erik

    2004-01-01

    , by using '?' to denote unspecified type arguments. Thus they essentially unify the distinct families of classes often introduced by parametric polymorphism. Wildcards are implemented as part of the upcoming addition of generics to the Java™ programming language, and will thus be deployed world-wide as part...... of the reference implementation of the Java compiler javac available from Sun Microsystems, Inc. By providing a richer type system, wildcards allow for an improved type inference scheme for polymorphic method calls. Moreover, by means of a novel notion of wildcard capture, polymorphic methods can be used to give...... symbolic names to unspecified types, in a manner similar to the "open" construct known from existential types. Wildcards show up in numerous places in the Java Platform APIs of the upcoming release, and some of the examples in this paper are taken from these APIs....

  6. Adding Wildcards to the Java Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torgersen, Mads; Hansen, Christian Plesner; Ernst, Erik

    2004-01-01

    , by using ‘?’ to denote unspecified type arguments. Thus they essentially unify the distinct families of classes that parametric polymorphism introduces. Wildcards are implemented as part of the addition of generics to the JavaTM programming language, and is thus deployed world-wide as part...... of the reference implementation of the Java compiler javac available from Sun Microsystems, Inc. By providing a richer type system, wildcards allow for an improved type inference scheme for polymorphic method calls. Moreover, by means of a novel notion of wildcard capture, polymorphic methods can be used to give...... symbolic names to unspecified types, in a manner similar to the “open� construct known from existential types. Wildcards show up in numerous places in the Java Platform APIs of the newest release, and some of the examples in this paper are taken from these APIs....

  7. Scientific Computing in the CH Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Cheng

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a general-purpose block-structured interpretive programming Ianguage. The syntax and semantics of this language called CH are similar to C. CH retains most features of C from the scientific computing point of view. In this paper, the extension of C to CH for numerical computation of real numbers will be described. Metanumbers of −0.0, 0.0, Inf, −Inf, and NaN are introduced in CH. Through these metanumbers, the power of the IEEE 754 arithmetic standard is easily available to the programmer. These metanumbers are extended to commonly used mathematical functions in the spirit of the IEEE 754 standard and ANSI C. The definitions for manipulation of these metanumbers in I/O; arithmetic, relational, and logic operations; and built-in polymorphic mathematical functions are defined. The capabilities of bitwise, assignment, address and indirection, increment and decrement, as well as type conversion operations in ANSI C are extended in CH. In this paper, mainly new linguistic features of CH in comparison to C will be described. Example programs programmed in CH with metanumbers and polymorphic mathematical functions will demonstrate capabilities of CH in scientific computing.

  8. An intelligent tutoring system that generates a natural language dialogue using dynamic multi-level planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chong Woo; Evens, Martha W; Freedman, Reva; Glass, Michael; Shim, Leem Seop; Zhang, Yuemei; Zhou, Yujian; Michael, Joel

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this research was to build an intelligent tutoring system capable of carrying on a natural language dialogue with a student who is solving a problem in physiology. Previous experiments have shown that students need practice in qualitative causal reasoning to internalize new knowledge and to apply it effectively and that they learn by putting their ideas into words. Analysis of a corpus of 75 hour-long tutoring sessions carried on in keyboard-to-keyboard style by two professors of physiology at Rush Medical College tutoring first-year medical students provided the rules used in tutoring strategies and tactics, parsing, and text generation. The system presents the student with a perturbation to the blood pressure, asks for qualitative predictions of the changes produced in seven important cardiovascular variables, and then launches a dialogue to correct any errors and to probe for possible misconceptions. The natural language understanding component uses a cascade of finite-state machines. The generation is based on lexical functional grammar. Results of experiments with pretests and posttests have shown that using the system for an hour produces significant learning gains and also that even this brief use improves the student's ability to solve problems more then reading textual material on the topic. Student surveys tell us that students like the system and feel that they learn from it. The system is now in regular use in the first-year physiology course at Rush Medical College. We conclude that the CIRCSIM-Tutor system demonstrates that intelligent tutoring systems can implement effective natural language dialogue with current language technology.

  9. Clean translation of an imperative reversible programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2011-01-01

    We describe the translation techniques used for the code generation in a compiler from the high-level reversible imperative programming language Janus to the low-level reversible assembly language PISA. Our translation is both semantics preserving (correct), in that target programs compute exactly...... the same functions as their source programs (cleanly, with no extraneous garbage output), and efficient, in that target programs conserve the complexities of source programs. In particular, target programs only require a constant amount of temporary garbage space. The given translation methods are generic......, and should be applicable to any (imperative) reversible source language described with reversible flowcharts and reversible updates. To our knowledge, this is the first compiler between reversible languages where the source and target languages were independently developed; the first exhibiting both...

  10. La langue aymara: Des cimes andines a l'intelligence des ordinateurs (The Aymara Language: Andean Peaks for the Intelligence of Computers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbin, Christina

    1987-01-01

    Research suggests that Aymara, an ancient language still spoken in parts of South America, may be well suited for use as a "bridge" language in translation because of its extremely regular and coherent grammar. A machine translation program using the language has already been developed. (MSE)

  11. An Investigation into Emotional Intelligence, Foreign Language Anxiety and Empathy through a Cognitive-Affective Course in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhani, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence, as concerned with how an individual recognizes and regulates his or her emotions, has been in limelight quite recently. The present study seeks to fill a small gap in the literature on emotional intelligence, together with foreign language anxiety and empathy. To this end, short literary readings are used in a cognitive-affective reading-based course to see how emotional intelligence, foreign language anxiety and empathy are affected. Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2002 Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, Cooper's (1996/1997 EQ-Map, Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope's (1986 Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Test (FLCAS and Caruso and Mayer's (1998 Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale (MDEES were administered to 70 Iranian EFL undergraduate students in a pretest posttest quasi-experimental design. MANOVA and ANCOVA were conducted. The results revealed that the cognitive-affective reading-based course in which literary readings were used significantly improved the subjects' emotional intelligence scores from the MSCEIT measure as well as empathy (MDEES scores, but significantly decreased their foreign language anxiety (FLCAS scores. The pedagogical implications for learners, teachers, educators and materials developers are presented.

  12. Introducing ALAS: A Novel Agent-Oriented Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Vidaković, Milan

    2011-09-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages represent a family of programming languages that provide developers with high-level abstractions and constructs necessary for implementing and using agent-related concepts. In this paper a novel agent-oriented programming language for rapid and efficient development of reactive agents, named ALAS, is presented. The simple, but powerful set of language constructs is designed to support the execution of agents in heterogenous environments, and to enable easy employment of advanced agent features, such as mobility and web service integration.

  13. Programming parallel architectures: The BLAZE family of languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1988-01-01

    Programming multiprocessor architectures is a critical research issue. An overview is given of the various approaches to programming these architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. Also described is recent work by the author in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described, as well as the relations of this work to other current language research projects.

  14. Real-Time Multiprocessor Programming Language (RTMPL) user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpasi, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A real-time multiprocessor programming language (RTMPL) has been developed to provide for high-order programming of real-time simulations on systems of distributed computers. RTMPL is a structured, engineering-oriented language. The RTMPL utility supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations and types by generating assembly language programs according to user-specified targeting information. Many programming functions are assumed by the utility (e.g., data transfer and scaling) to reduce the programming chore. This manual describes RTMPL from a user's viewpoint. Source generation, applications, utility operation, and utility output are detailed. An example simulation is generated to illustrate many RTMPL features.

  15. Programming parallel architectures - The BLAZE family of languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various approaches to programming multiprocessor architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive, since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. This paper also describes recent work in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described.

  16. Using Problem Solving to Teach a Programming Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrandt, George

    1995-01-01

    Computer studies courses should incorporate as many computer concepts and programming language experiences as possible. A gradual increase in problem difficulty will help the student to understand various computer concepts, and the programming language's syntax and structure. A sidebar provides two examples of how to establish a learning…

  17. SYNCOM: A general syntax conversion language and computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, D.C.

    1972-09-01

    The problems of syntax conversion are discussed and the reasons given for the choice of the Interpretive method. A full description is given of the SYNCON language and computer program together with brief details of some programs written in the language. (author)

  18. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras (Ensayo metodologico) (Programming Foreign Languages [A Methodological Study])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Stresses the importance of language laboratories and other technical devices used in foreign language teaching, particularly in programed language instruction. Illustrates, by means of taxonomies, the various stages a foreign language learning program should follow. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  19. A Mexican Study of Multiple Intelligences for Pre-Service Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Carlín, Rebeca Elena; Castillo Salazar, María del Carmen; Velázquez Cortés, Susana

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study conducted in a Mexican English teacher education program about multiple intelligences. Seventy-four first year students participated in the study. Findings reveal that the highest kinds of intelligences were the bodily kinesthetic, the interpersonal, the intrapersonal, and the musical; the lowest ones were the…

  20. A Mexican Study of Multiple Intelligences for Pre-Service Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Elena Tapia Carlín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study conducted in a Mexican English teacher education program about multiple intelligences. Seventy-four first year students participated in the study. Findings reveal that the highest kinds of intelligences were the bodily kinesthetic, the interpersonal, the intrapersonal, and the musical; the lowest ones were the naturalist, the existential, the verbal linguistic, the logical mathematical, and the visual spatial. The authors suggest that it is important to diagnose and promote these intelligences in trainees in a systematic way in order to equip them with knowledge and experience of multiple intelligences in order to use them in their future teacher practice.

  1. Language Enabled Airmen Program: Language Intensive Training Events 2011 Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    and teachers regarding the language learning pedagogy , curriculum, and assessments. The LITE sites need to be evaluated to identify what is working...other participants in their cohort. The lessons include the use of PowerPoint presentations, video clips, audio clips, websites, news articles

  2. Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  3. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  4. Language Learning Shifts and Attitudes Towards Language Learning in an Online Tandem Program for Beginner Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Tolosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students’ learning with a free writing activity done as pretest and posttest and used a semi-structured interview to explore their attitudes towards language learning and their perceived development of their native language. Data analysis indicated statistically significant gains in foreign language writing and positive attitudinal changes toward foreign and native language learning.

  5. Processing sequence annotation data using the Lua programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yutaka; Arita, Masanori; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The data processing language in a graphical software tool that manages sequence annotation data from genome databases should provide flexible functions for the tasks in molecular biology research. Among currently available languages we adopted the Lua programming language. It fulfills our requirements to perform computational tasks for sequence map layouts, i.e. the handling of data containers, symbolic reference to data, and a simple programming syntax. Upon importing a foreign file, the original data are first decomposed in the Lua language while maintaining the original data schema. The converted data are parsed by the Lua interpreter and the contents are stored in our data warehouse. Then, portions of annotations are selected and arranged into our catalog format to be depicted on the sequence map. Our sequence visualization program was successfully implemented, embedding the Lua language for processing of annotation data and layout script. The program is available at http://staff.aist.go.jp/yutaka.ueno/guppy/.

  6. Alma-0: an imperative language that supports declarative programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Apt (Krzysztof); J. Brunekreef; V. Partinton; A. Schaerf

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe describe here an implemented small programming language, called Alma, that augments the expressive power of imperative programming by a limited number of features inspired by the logic programming paradigm. These additions encourage declarative programming and make it a more

  7. A Cross-Language Study of Acoustic Predictors of Speech Intelligibility in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjung; Choi, Yaelin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare acoustic models of speech intelligibility in individuals with the same disease (Parkinson's disease [PD]) and presumably similar underlying neuropathologies but with different native languages (American English [AE] and Korean). Method: A total of 48 speakers from the 4 speaker groups (AE speakers with…

  8. The Effect of Early Childhood Language Training Programs on the Contemporary Formation of Grammar Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Kamhöfer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    While there is a big literature on the benefits of pre-school education, only little is known why kindergarten attendance improves later-life outcomes. This is partly because most studies analyze the effect of complete 2 years pre-school programs. In order to shed light into the black box of kindergarten education, I am using the German National Educational Panel Study and regress the level of grammar skills - a main intelligence component - on the participation in a nationwide-used language ...

  9. A strategy for automatically generating programs in the lucid programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for automatically generating and verifying simple computer programs is described. The programs are specified by a precondition and a postcondition in predicate calculus. The programs generated are in the Lucid programming language, a high-level, data-flow language known for its attractive mathematical properties and ease of program verification. The Lucid programming is described, and the automatic program generation strategy is described and applied to several example problems.

  10. [Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, Manfred; Renner, Gerolf

    2015-01-01

    Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities? A review of 23 German intelligence test manuals shows that test-authors do not exclude the use of their tests for children with disabilities. However, these special groups play a minor role in the construction, standardization, and validation of intelligence tests. There is no sufficient discussion and reflection concerning the issue which construct-irrelevant requirements may reduce the validity of the test or which individual test-adaptations are allowed or recommended. Intelligence testing of children with disabilities needs more empirical evidence on objectivity, reliability, and validity of the assessment-procedures employed. Future test construction and validation should systematically analyze construct-irrelevant variance in item format, the special needs of handicapped children, and should give hints for useful test-adaptations.

  11. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of its...

  12. A comparison of common programming languages used in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Mathieu; Gillings, Michael R

    2008-02-05

    The performance of different programming languages has previously been benchmarked using abstract mathematical algorithms, but not using standard bioinformatics algorithms. We compared the memory usage and speed of execution for three standard bioinformatics methods, implemented in programs using one of six different programming languages. Programs for the Sellers algorithm, the Neighbor-Joining tree construction algorithm and an algorithm for parsing BLAST file outputs were implemented in C, C++, C#, Java, Perl and Python. Implementations in C and C++ were fastest and used the least memory. Programs in these languages generally contained more lines of code. Java and C# appeared to be a compromise between the flexibility of Perl and Python and the fast performance of C and C++. The relative performance of the tested languages did not change from Windows to Linux and no clear evidence of a faster operating system was found. Source code and additional information are available from http://www.bioinformatics.org/benchmark/. This benchmark provides a comparison of six commonly used programming languages under two different operating systems. The overall comparison shows that a developer should choose an appropriate language carefully, taking into account the performance expected and the library availability for each language.

  13. Teacher and Student Language Practices and Ideologies in a Third-Grade Two-Way Dual Language Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kathryn I.; Palmer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth exploration of the language ecologies of two classrooms attempting to implement a two-way dual language (TWDL) program and its mediating conditions. Drawing on ethnographic methods and a sociocultural understanding of language, we examined both teachers' and students' language ideologies and language practices,…

  14. Effects of a College Outdoor Orientation Program on Trait Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Forrest; Belknap, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we investigated the effects of participation in a college outdoor orientation program (OOP) on participants' trait emotional intelligence (TEI). Three hundred seventeen outdoor orientation participants completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) before and after participation in an OOP. Four…

  15. Justifying Innovative Language Programs in an Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pkurgat

    Justifying Innovative Language Programs in an Environment of Change: The Case ... Key words: project management, change management, educational management, .... the sustainability of the course considering that there were and continue to be problems .... language teaching in general on a sound scientific base.

  16. Does emotional intelligence influence success during medical school admissions and program matriculation?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian Jaeger; Cook, Chad E; Hilton, Tiffany N

    2016-01-01

    It aimed at determining whether emotional intelligence is a predictor for success in a medical school program and whether the emotional intelligence construct correlated with other markers for admission into medical school. Three databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and ERIC) were searched up to and including July 2016, using relevant terms. Studies written in English were selected if they included emotional intelligence as a predictor for success in medical school, markers of success such as examination scores and grade point average and association with success defined through traditional medical school admission criteria and failures, and details about the sample. Data extraction included the study authors and year, population description, emotional intelligence I tool, outcome variables, and results. Associations between emotional intelligence scores and reported data were extracted and recorded. Six manuscripts were included. Overall, study quality was high. Four of the manuscripts examined emotional intelligence as a predictor for success while in medical school. Three of these four studies supported a weak positive relationship between emotional intelligence scores and success during matriculation. Two of manuscripts examined the relationship of emotional intelligence to medical school admissions. There were no significant relevant correlations between emotional intelligence and medical school admission selection. Emotional intelligence was correlated with some, but not all, measures of success during medical school matriculation and none of the measures associated with medical school admissions. Variability in success measures across studies likely explains the variable findings.

  17. Does emotional intelligence influence success during medical school admissions and program matriculation?: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jaeger Cook

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose It aimed at determining whether emotional intelligence is a predictor for success in a medical school program and whether the emotional intelligence construct correlated with other markers for admission into medical school. Methods Three databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and ERIC were searched up to and including July 2016, using relevant terms. Studies written in English were selected if they included emotional intelligence as a predictor for success in medical school, markers of success such as examination scores and grade point average and association with success defined through traditional medical school admission criteria and failures, and details about the sample. Data extraction included the study authors and year, population description, emotional intelligence I tool, outcome variables, and results. Associations between emotional intelligence scores and reported data were extracted and recorded. Results Six manuscripts were included. Overall, study quality was high. Four of the manuscripts examined emotional intelligence as a predictor for success while in medical school. Three of these four studies supported a weak positive relationship between emotional intelligence scores and success during matriculation. Two of manuscripts examined the relationship of emotional intelligence to medical school admissions. There were no significant relevant correlations between emotional intelligence and medical school admission selection. Conclusion Emotional intelligence was correlated with some, but not all, measures of success during medical school matriculation and none of the measures associated with medical school admissions. Variability in success measures across studies likely explains the variable findings.

  18. a performance analysis for evaluation of programming languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed et al.

    PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES BASED ON MOBILE COMPUTING. FOR NIGERIA ... Finally, Vb.net is suitable for data Transfer using upload scheme. Keywords: ... INTRODUCTION .... java, Julia, python, matlab, mathematica and Ruby by.

  19. A Demonstration of the Grrr Graph Rewriting Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

    2000-01-01

    This paper overviews the graph rewriting programming language, Grrr. The serial graph rewriting strategy is detailed, and key elements of the user interface are described. The system is illustrated by a simple example.

  20. Quantifying the effect of disruptions to temporal coherence on the intelligibility of compressed American Sign Language video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramello, Frank M.; Hemami, Sheila S.

    2009-02-01

    Communication of American Sign Language (ASL) over mobile phones would be very beneficial to the Deaf community. ASL video encoded to achieve the rates provided by current cellular networks must be heavily compressed and appropriate assessment techniques are required to analyze the intelligibility of the compressed video. As an extension to a purely spatial measure of intelligibility, this paper quantifies the effect of temporal compression artifacts on sign language intelligibility. These artifacts can be the result of motion-compensation errors that distract the observer or frame rate reductions. They reduce the the perception of smooth motion and disrupt the temporal coherence of the video. Motion-compensation errors that affect temporal coherence are identified by measuring the block-level correlation between co-located macroblocks in adjacent frames. The impact of frame rate reductions was quantified through experimental testing. A subjective study was performed in which fluent ASL participants rated the intelligibility of sequences encoded at a range of 5 different frame rates and with 3 different levels of distortion. The subjective data is used to parameterize an objective intelligibility measure which is highly correlated with subjective ratings at multiple frame rates.

  1. The new competitive intelligence agents: "Programming" competitive intelligence ethics into corporate cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Betsy Van der Veer Martens; Emilie Steele Giustozzi

    2011-01-01

    This article examines some of the ethical issues involved in competitive intelligence activities on the Internet. We discuss the importance of an ethical framework for the performance of competitive intelligence, especially the Code of Ethics of SCIP (the leading professional association for strategic and competitive professionals), in the context of today's networked global environment. The virtual borderlines separating national economic and military territories online are becoming increasi...

  2. Multi-Language Programming Environments for High Performance Java Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Getov; Paul Gray; Sava Mintchev; Vaidy Sunderam

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in processor capabilities, software tools, programming languages and programming paradigms have brought about new approaches to high performance computing. A steadfast component of this dynamic evolution has been the scientific community’s reliance on established scientific packages. As a consequence, programmers of high‐performance applications are reluctant to embrace evolving languages such as Java. This paper describes the Java‐to‐C Interface (JCI) tool which provides ...

  3. Real-Time MENTAT programming language and architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Silberman, Ami; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time MENTAT, a programming environment designed to simplify the task of programming real-time applications in distributed and parallel environments, is described. It is based on the same data-driven computation model and object-oriented programming paradigm as MENTAT. It provides an easy-to-use mechanism to exploit parallelism, language constructs for the expression and enforcement of timing constraints, and run-time support for scheduling and exciting real-time programs. The real-time MENTAT programming language is an extended C++. The extensions are added to facilitate automatic detection of data flow and generation of data flow graphs, to express the timing constraints of individual granules of computation, and to provide scheduling directives for the runtime system. A high-level view of the real-time MENTAT system architecture and programming language constructs is provided.

  4. A Debate over the Teaching of a Legacy Programming Language in an Information Technology (IT) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azad; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a debate between two faculty members regarding the teaching of the legacy programming course (COBOL) in a Computer Science (CS) program. Among the two faculty members, one calls for the continuation of teaching this language and the other calls for replacing it with another modern language. Although CS programs are notorious…

  5. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student. ...

  6. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either: (a...

  7. Usage of the Python programming language in the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, R; Hegner, B; Jones, C D

    2010-01-01

    Being a highly dynamic language and allowing reliable programming with quick turnarounds, Python is a widely used programming language in CMS. Most of the tools used in workflow management and the GRID interface tools are written in this language. Also most of the tools used in the context of release management: integration builds, release building and deploying, as well as performance measurements are in Python. With an interface to the CMS data formats, rapid prototyping of analyses and debugging is an additional use case. Finally in 2008 the CMS experiment switched to using Python as its configuration language. This paper will give an overview of the general usage of Python in the CMS experiment and discuss which features of the language make it well-suited for the existing use cases.

  8. HI-VISUAL: A language supporting visual interaction in programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monden, N.; Yoshino, Y.; Hirakawa, M.; Tanaka, M.; Ichikawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a language named HI-VISUAL which supports visual interaction in programming. Following a brief description of the language concept, the icon semantics and language primitives characterizing HI-VISUAL are extensively discussed. HI-VISUAL also shows a system extensively discussed. HI-VISUAL also shows a system extendability providing the possibility of organizing a high level application system as an integration of several existing subsystems, and will serve to developing systems in various fields of applications supporting simple and efficient interactions between programmer and computer. In this paper, the authors have presented a language named HI-VISUAL. Following a brief description of the language concept, the icon semantics and language primitives characterizing HI-VISUAL were extensively discussed

  9. Engineering of educational programs through the application of intelligent technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail S. Gasparian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key tasks of the present stage of the education system development in Russia is to improve the practical orientation of specialists’ training for the modern labor market. On the agenda, there are the issues of modernization of educational programs in the direction of a closer relationship between education and professional standards, which is the main purpose of this study.Rapidly changing business needs, especially in the field of the booming ITindustry indicate the need for continuous improvement of mechanisms for the acquisition of new knowledge, abilities and skills of students, which in turn requires the development of special tools for the development of educational technologies. The article discusses the issues of flexible engineering education programs of higher education in accordance with the needs of the labour market, presented in professional standards. The methods of semantic modeling of informational and educational space, allowing to systematize the knowledge of the professional area in the form of conceptual models of ontologies and repositories of learning objects are offered as the methods of engineering.As the result of the correlation analysis of the categories of existing educational and professional standards, the mechanism to overcome the contradictions between the language of professional competences of educational standards and requirements of the labour functions of the professional standards is proposed. The paper describes the characteristics of the knowledge and skills of educational programs in the categories: scope, sphere and types of tasks of professional activities.The professional competences are differentiated due to profiles of training and types of professional tasks.The proposed universal algorithm for the development of educational programs of profile training on the base of the analysis of generalized labour functions and labour functions of professional standards can be useful to

  10. Dedicated Programming Language for Small Distributed Control Divices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz; Borch, Ole

    2007-01-01

    . This paper describes a new, flexible and simple language for programming distributed control tasks. The compiler for this language generates a target code that is very easy to interpret. A interpreter, that can be easy ported to different hardwares, is described. The new language is simple and easy to learn...... become a reality if each of these controlling computers can be configured to perform a cooperative task. This again requires the necessary communicating facilities. In other words this requires that all these simple and distributed computers can be programmed in a simple and hardware independent way...

  11. Towards an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran

    2012-09-01

    Scala and its multi-threaded model based on actors represent an excellent framework for developing purely reactive agents. This paper presents an early research on extending Scala with declarative programming constructs, which would result in a new agent-oriented programming language suitable for developing more advanced, BDI agent architectures. The main advantage the new language over many other existing solutions for programming BDI agents is a natural and straightforward integration of imperative and declarative programming constructs, fitted under a single development framework.

  12. Beginning R The Statistical Programming Language

    CERN Document Server

    Gardener, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Conquer the complexities of this open source statistical language R is fast becoming the de facto standard for statistical computing and analysis in science, business, engineering, and related fields. This book examines this complex language using simple statistical examples, showing how R operates in a user-friendly context. Both students and workers in fields that require extensive statistical analysis will find this book helpful as they learn to use R for simple summary statistics, hypothesis testing, creating graphs, regression, and much more. It covers formula notation, complex statistics

  13. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  14. A study on intelligent nuclear systems (HASP: Human Acts Simulation Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kiyoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Higuchi, Kenji; Kume, Etsuo; Ohtani, Takayuki; Far, B.H.; Kambayashi, Shaw; Akimoto, Masayuki

    1991-06-01

    The fourth year progress of the Human Acts Simulation Program HASP in short, has been presented in this report. The HASP started in 1987 at JAERI as a ten-year research and development program of underlying technologies for intelligent robots, intelligent nuclear plants and so on. It consists of the research and development of technologies of a knowledge-base system, robot vision, robot kinematics/kinetics, plant geometry database, dose evaluation and high speed Monte Carlo machine. (author)

  15. Towards programming languages for genetic engineering of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew

    2009-08-06

    Synthetic biology aims at producing novel biological systems to carry out some desired and well-defined functions. An ultimate dream is to design these systems at a high level of abstraction using engineering-based tools and programming languages, press a button, and have the design translated to DNA sequences that can be synthesized and put to work in living cells. We introduce such a programming language, which allows logical interactions between potentially undetermined proteins and genes to be expressed in a modular manner. Programs can be translated by a compiler into sequences of standard biological parts, a process that relies on logic programming and prototype databases that contain known biological parts and protein interactions. Programs can also be translated to reactions, allowing simulations to be carried out. While current limitations on available data prevent full use of the language in practical applications, the language can be used to develop formal models of synthetic systems, which are otherwise often presented by informal notations. The language can also serve as a concrete proposal on which future language designs can be discussed, and can help to guide the emerging standard of biological parts which so far has focused on biological, rather than logical, properties of parts.

  16. Applying Aspect-Oriented Programming to Intelligent Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    I discuss a component-centered, aspect-oriented system, the Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), NASA's initiative on Intelligent Synthesis Environments (ISE), and the application of OIF to the architecture of ISE.

  17. Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Education--A Personal View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Mark H.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: how artificial intelligence (AI) can advance education; if the future of software lies in AI; the roots of intelligent computer-assisted instruction; protocol analysis; reactive environments; LOGO programming language; student modeling and coaching; and knowledge-based instructional programs. Numerous examples of AI programs are cited.…

  18. An Ecosystem of Intelligent ICT Tools for Speech-Language Therapy Based on a Formal Knowledge Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; López-Nores, Martín; Pazos-Arias, José; Quisi-Peralta, Diego; García-Duque, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The language and communication constitute the development mainstays of several intellectual and cognitive skills in humans. However, there are millions of people around the world who suffer from several disabilities and disorders related with language and communication, while most of the countries present a lack of corresponding services related with health care and rehabilitation. On these grounds, we are working to develop an ecosystem of intelligent ICT tools to support speech and language pathologists, doctors, students, patients and their relatives. This ecosystem has several layers and components, integrating Electronic Health Records management, standardized vocabularies, a knowledge database, an ontology of concepts from the speech-language domain, and an expert system. We discuss the advantages of such an approach through experiments carried out in several institutions assisting children with a wide spectrum of disabilities.

  19. HAL/S - The programming language for Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    HAL/S is a higher order language and system, now operational, adopted by NASA for programming Space Shuttle on-board software. Program reliability is enhanced through language clarity and readability, modularity through program structure, and protection of code and data. Salient features of HAL/S include output orientation, automatic checking (with strictly enforced compiler rules), the availability of linear algebra, real-time control, a statement-level simulator, and compiler transferability (for applying HAL/S to additional object and host computers). The compiler is described briefly.

  20. Bricklayer: An Authentic Introduction to the Functional Programming Language SML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Winter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional programming languages are seen by many as instrumental to effectively utilizing the computational power of multi-core platforms. As a result, there is growing interest to introduce functional programming and functional thinking as early as possible within the computer science curriculum. Bricklayer is an API, written in SML, that provides a set of abstractions for creating LEGO artifacts which can be viewed using LEGO Digital Designer. The goal of Bricklayer is to create a problem space (i.e., a set of LEGO artifacts that is accessible and engaging to programmers (especially novice programmers while providing an authentic introduction to the functional programming language SML.

  1. Python as First Textual Programming Language in Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos GARCÍA MONSÁLVEZ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the recent introduction of Programming in the K-12 curricula there is an opportunity to include Computer Science fundamental concepts. This paper presents the origin and evolution of Python as well as their main features that configure it as an ideal programming language. We also review and classify some educational tools in the Python ecosystem. Such tools cover a wide-open spectrum of resources from interactive books to libraries which ease the construction of student elaborated software artefacts. This work presents a multidisciplinary proposal to use the Python programming language in all levels of Secondary Stage.

  2. Commercial Video Programs: A Component to Enhance Language Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, H. A.

    After the passage of a resolution by the South Dakota Board of Regents to place greater emphasis on the study of foreign language, Northern State College introduced commercial video programs in Spanish for classroom use. After installing a parabolic antenna and the other necessary equipment, the department selected and edited a series of programs,…

  3. Developing College English as a Second Language (ESL) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Irina A.; Kennedy, Jelane A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines available literature on college English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. The literature available on college ESL programs falls into three categories: (1) research reports and articles, (2) recent theoretical discussions on ESL teaching, and (3) thought pieces discussing college ESL curriculum development and assessment…

  4. Dynamic Learning Objects to Teach Java Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…

  5. The UCLA-Philippine Language Program, 1957-1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, J. Donald

    This document discusses in detail the development and operation of a language program implemented in the Philippines, beginning in 1957, with the assistance of the University of California, Los Angeles, through the Rockefeller Foundation. The program faced a number of difficulties including a school system in the process of post-war rebuilding, a…

  6. Library Literacy Programs for English Language Learners. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurrer, Eileen; Terrill, Lynda

    This digest summarizes the history of public libraries and library literacy programs; describes current delivery models; and discusses initiatives in library literacy, profiling one successful public library program that serves adult English language learners and their families. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  7. Whatever Happened to Richard Reid's List of First Programming Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Robert M.; Greco, Daniel M.; Miceli, Nicholas G.; Siegfried, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, Richard Reid of Michigan State University maintained a list showing the first programming language used in introductory programming courses taken by computer science and information systems majors; it was updated for several years afterwards by Frances Van Scoy of West Virginia University. However, it has been 5 years since…

  8. Comparing Pascal and Modula-2 as systems programming languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Bormann, J.

    The high-level programming languages Pascal [JEN76] and Modula-2 [WIR82] are evaluatedas tools lor system programming. The construction of operating system utilities in Pascal is the focal point of the first part of the paper. Pascal is shown to be adequate for this limited class of applications, on

  9. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Davison

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  10. Trends in Programming Languages for Neuroscience Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew P.; Hines, Michael L.; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing. PMID:20198154

  11. Programming a real code in a functional language (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, C.P.

    1991-09-10

    For some, functional languages hold the promise of allowing ease of programming massively parallel computers that imperative languages such as Fortran and C do not offer. At LLNL, we have initiated a project to write the physics of a major production code in Sisal, a functional language developed at LLNL in collaboration with researchers throughout the world. We are investigating the expressibility of Sisal, as well as its performance on a shared-memory multiprocessor, the Y-MP. An interesting aspect of the project is that Sisal modules can call Fortran modules, and are callable by them. This eliminates the rewriting of 80% of the production code that would not benefit from parallel execution. Preliminary results indicate that the restrictive nature of the language does not cause problems in expressing the algorithms we have chosen. Some interesting aspects of programming in a mixed functional-imperative environment have surfaced, but can be managed. 8 refs.

  12. Identifying College Students' Multiple Intelligences to Enhance Motivation and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Magda; Mohamed, Rafik Ahmed Abdel Moati

    2016-01-01

    While most research studies on the theory of multiple intelligences focused on the application of the multiple intelligences domains as separate components, this quasi-experimental research targeted the effect of multiple intelligences as integrated abilities for teaching and learning English at higher education. The purpose of this study was to…

  13. A Study of Two English Language Coursebooks in Turkey: Focus on Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Arda; Soydan, Elif; Isler, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze two coursebooks, namely, "Texture of English 4" and "My English 5" on the basis of to what extent the activities and tasks included reflect the intelligent types proposed by multiple intelligences theory. Taking the general characteristics of the intelligences into account, a checklist has been…

  14. Requirements for a geometry programming language for CFD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Arvel E.

    1992-01-01

    A number of typical problems faced by the aerodynamicist in using computational fluid dynamics are presented to illustrate the need for a geometry programming language. The overall requirements for such a language are illustrated by examples from the Boeing Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS). Some of the problems in building such a system are also reviewed along with suggestions as to what to look for when evaluating new software problems.

  15. A graph rewriting programming language for graph drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes Grrr, a prototype visual graph drawing tool. Previously there were no visual languages for programming graph drawing algorithms despite the inherently visual nature of the process. The languages which gave a diagrammatic view of graphs were not computationally complete and so could not be used to implement complex graph drawing algorithms. Hence current graph drawing tools are all text based. Recent developments in graph rewriting systems have produced computationally com...

  16. Constraints and Logic Programming in Grammars and Language Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Constraints are an important notion in grammars and language analysis, and constraint programming techniques have been developed concurrently for solving a variety of complex problems. In this chapter we consider the synthesis of these branches into practical and effective methods for language...... methods that combine constraints with logic grammars such as Definite Clause Grammars and CHR Grammars, and show also a direct relationship to abductive reasoning....

  17. On the Expressive Power of Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank D.

    2002-01-01

    The tcc paradigm is a formalism for timed concurrent constraint programming. Several tcc languages differing in their way of expressing infinite behavior have been proposed in the literature. In this paper we study the expressive power of some of these languages. In particular, we show that: (1......) recursive procedures with parameters can be encoded into parameterless recursive procedures with dynamic scoping, and viceversa. (2) replication can be encoded into parameterless recursive procedures with static scoping, and viceversa. (3) the languages from (1) are strictly more expressive than...

  18. Training Engineers for the Ambient Intelligence Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Fulvio; De Russis, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the new breed of distributed intelligent systems, such as the Internet of Things, which require a diversity of languages and protocols, can only be tamed with design and programming best practices. Interest is also growing for including the human factor, as advocated by the "ambient intelligence" (AmI)…

  19. Suggestibility in neglected children: The influence of intelligence, language, and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedan, Laura; Powell, Martine B; Zajac, Rachel; Lum, Jarrad A G; Snow, Pamela

    2018-05-01

    We administered the GSS-2, a standardised measure of suggestibility, to 5- to 12-year-old children to ascertain whether neglected children's responses to leading questions distinguish them from those of their non-neglected counterparts. Neglected children (n = 75) were more likely than an age-matched sample of non-neglected children (n = 75) to yield to leading questions, despite no difference in their ability to recall the test stimuli. Subsequent collection of individual difference data from the neglected sample revealed that this effect could not be attributed to intelligence, language ability, problem behaviours, age at onset of neglect, or time spent in out-of-home care. With respect to social skill, however, suggestibility was positively correlated with communicative skill, and marginally positively correlated with assertion and engagement. While on the surface our social skills findings seem counter-intuitive, it is possible that maltreated children with relative strengths in these areas have learned to comply with adults in their environment as a way to protect themselves or even foster belonging. Our data, while preliminary, raise interesting questions about whether targeted interventions could help these children to more actively participate in decisions about their lives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of an artificial intelligence program to therapy of high-risk surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, R S; Adibi, J; Shoemaker, W C

    1996-11-01

    We developed an artificial intelligence program from a large computerized database of hemodynamic and oxygen transport measurements together with prior studies defining survivors' values, outcome predictors, and a branched-chain decision tree. The artificial intelligence program was then tested on the data of 100 survivors and 100 nonsurvivors not used for the development of the program or other analyses. Using the predictor as a surrogate outcome measure, the therapy recommended by the program improved the predicted outcome 3.16% per therapeutic intervention while the actual therapy given increased outcome 1.86% in surviving patients; the artificial intelligence-recommended therapy improved outcome 7.9% in nonsurvivors, while the actual therapy given increased predicted outcome -0.29% in nonsurvivors (p < .05). There were fewer patients whose predicted outcome decreased after recommended treatment (14%) than after the actual therapy given (37%). Review of therapy recommended by the program did not reveal instances of inappropriate or potentially harmful recommendations.

  1. Analysis of Logic Programs Using Regular Tree Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The eld of nite tree automata provides fundamental notations and tools for reasoning about set of terms called regular or recognizable tree languages. We consider two kinds of analysis using regular tree languages, applied to logic programs. The rst approach is to try to discover automatically...... a tree automaton from a logic program, approximating its minimal Herbrand model. In this case the input for the analysis is a program, and the output is a tree automaton. The second approach is to expose or check properties of the program that can be expressed by a given tree automaton. The input...... to the analysis is a program and a tree automaton, and the output is an abstract model of the program. These two contrasting abstract interpretations can be used in a wide range of analysis and verication problems....

  2. Advanced programming languages for industrial robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, H.

    1983-02-01

    With this report, the sponsor of the project on automation in manufacture introduces to the public several new programming procedures for industrial robots which are still under construction. In addition to the programming systems SRL - which, as already previously reported, represent an further development of the AL and ROBEX systems - two additional programming procedures are being described. These are adjusted to perform interactive work at the production site. As introduction to this report, a survey is offered on the status and development of robot programming in the Federal Republic of Germany and in other countries. (orig.) [de

  3. [Development and effects of emotional intelligence program for undergraduate nursing students: mixed methods research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oi Sun; Gu, Mee Ock

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to develop and test the effects of an emotional intelligence program for undergraduate nursing students. The study design was a mixed method research. Participants were 36 nursing students (intervention group: 17, control group: 19). The emotional intelligence program was provided for 4 weeks (8 sessions, 20 hours). Data were collected between August 6 and October 4, 2013. Quantitative data were analyzed using Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, t-test, repeated measure ANOVA, and paired t-test with SPSS/WIN 18.0. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Quantitative results showed that emotional intelligence, communication skills, resilience, stress coping strategy, and clinical competence were significantly better in the experimental group compared to the control group. According to the qualitative results, the nursing students experienced improvement in emotional intelligence, interpersonal relationships, and empowerment, as well as a reduction in clinical practice stress after participation in the emotional intelligence program. Study findings indicate that the emotional intelligence program for undergraduate nursing students is effective and can be recommended as an intervention for improving the clinical competence of undergraduate students in a nursing curriculum.

  4. Visual Teaching Model for Introducing Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehane, Ronald; Sherman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines detailed usage of online training videos that were designed to address specific course problems that were encountered in an online computer programming course. The study presents the specifics of a programming course where training videos were used to provide students with a quick start path to learning a new programming…

  5. The Scratch Programming Language and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel; Rusk, Natalie; Silverman, Brian; Eastmond, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer programming while working on personally meaningful projects such as animated stories and games. A key design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed learning through tinkering and collaboration with peers. This article explores how the…

  6. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  7. Integrated Task And Data Parallel Programming: Language Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; West, Emily A.

    1998-01-01

    his research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers '95 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program m. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  8. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2013-01-01

    examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus...... in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen...

  9. The Varieties of Programming Language Semantics (and Their Uses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2001-01-01

    ; and regular expressions are extensively used for searching and transforming text. In contrast, formal semantic descriptions are widely regarded as being of interest only to theoreticians. This paper surveys the main frameworks available for describing the dynamic semantics of programming languages......Formal descriptions of syntax are quite popular: regular and context-free grammars have become accepted as useful for documenting the syntax of programming languages, as well as for generating efficient parsers; attribute grammars allow parsing to be linked with typechecking and code generation...

  10. Abstraction and Modularization in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    abstraction mechanisms and lead to a number of new possibilities. Patterns and their instances are intended for modeling concepts and phenomena in the application domain and provide the logical structure of a given system. Modularization is viewed as a means for describing the physical structure of a program....... Modules are units of program text that may be edited, stored in libraries, exist in different variants, be separately compiled, etc. Modularization is provided by a language-independent mechanism based on the context-free grammar of the language. In principle, any correct sequence of terminal...

  11. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  12. The relationship between multiple intelligence profiles and reading strategy use of successful English as a Foreign Language (EFL readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan lyitoglu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study relied on Sheorey and Mokhtari's (2001 metacognitive knowledge about reading strategies,which was influenced by a number of factors, including previous experiences, beliefs, culture-specific instructional practices and proficiency in a second language (L2. This study is thereby built on the premise that EFL readers' metacognitive awareness of reading strategies was also influenced by their multiple intelligence profiles. The purpose of this study is to explore the integrated impact of multiple intelligences and reading strategies on EFL learners' reading performance. This was an explanatory sequential study, combining quantitative and qualitative research design. A convenience sample of 60 high school EFL learners from one of the Anatolian high schools in Istanbul, Turkey participated in this study. Two quantitative surveys and an achievement test, followed by a qualitative observation checklist, were used in this study to collect the data. The results of the study indicated that females were found to be more successful than males in EFL reading in addition to employing more support and problem solving reading strategies. In addition, this study also found that successful readers in EFL seemed to use more global strategies and tended to support reading strategies if they were dominant in musical, intrapersonal intelligences. Moreover, successful musically or verbally intelligent readers were found to use more problem-solving strategies. As a result, this study provides EFL teachers and curriculum designers with valuable information that will foster awareness of the role of these intelligence-strategy relations may play in triggering success in EFL reading, and thus, in their overall proficiency in the language.

  13. Using Software Zelio Soft in Educational Process to Simulation Control Programs for Intelligent Relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Peter; Mital, Dusan; Zajac, Jozef; Brezikova, Katarina; Duplak, Jan; Hatala, Michal; Radchenko, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    Article deals with point to using intelligent relay and PLC systems in practice, to their architecture and principles of programming and simulations for education process on all types of school from secondary to universities. Aim of the article is proposal of simple examples of applications, where is demonstrated methodology of programming on real simple practice examples and shown using of chosen instructions. In practical part is described process of creating schemas and describing of function blocks, where are described methodologies of creating program and simulations of output reactions on changeable inputs for intelligent relays.

  14. Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Petri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.

  15. Abstract Machines for Programming Language Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, Stephan; Hartel, Pieter H.; Sestoft, Peter

    We present an extensive, annotated bibliography of the abstract machines designed for each of the main programming paradigms (imperative, object oriented, functional, logic and concurrent). We conclude that whilst a large number of efficient abstract machines have been designed for particular

  16. Appropriate language for introducing object oriented programming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Object Oriented Programming (OOP) has attained a level of acceptance in the software development community so much so that one is now considered a charlatan to have a degree in computing without the flare for OOP. Computing students must therefore be equipped with this skill. The need to do this using the most ...

  17. Interdialect Translatability of the Basic Programming Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Gerald L.

    A study was made of several dialects of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC). The purpose was to determine if it was possible to identify a set of interactive BASIC dialects in which translatability between different members of the set would be high, if reasonable programing restrictions were imposed. It was first…

  18. Towards Bridging the Gap Programming Language and Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Partial evaluation is a program-transformation technique that automatically specializes a program with respect to user-supplied invariants. Despite successful applications in areas such as graphics, operating systems, and software engineering, partial evaluators have yet to achieve widespread use....... One reason is the difficulty of adequately describing specialization opportunities. Indeed, under-specialization or over-specialization often occurs, without any direct feedback to the user as to the source of the problem.We have developed a high-level, module-based language allowing the programmer...... to guide the choice of both the code to specialize and the invariants to exploit during the specialization process. To ease the use of partial evaluation, the syntax of this language is similar to the declaration syntax of the target language of the partial evaluator. To provide feedback to the programmer...

  19. Artificial intelligence and information-control systems of robots - 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plander, I.

    1987-01-01

    Independent research areas of artificial intelligence represent the following problems: automatic problem solving and new knowledge discovering, automatic program synthesis, natural language, picture and scene recognition and understanding, intelligent control systems of robots equipped with sensoric subsystems, dialogue of two knowledge systems, as well as studying and modelling higher artificial intelligence attributes, such as emotionality and personality. The 4th Conference draws on the problems treated at the preceding Conferences, and presents the most recent knowledge on the following topics: theoretical problems of artificial intelligence, knowledge-based systems, expert systems, perception and pattern recognition, robotics, intelligent computer-aided design, special-purpose computer systems for artificial intelligence and robotics

  20. Limits of visual communication: the effect of signal-to-noise ratio on the intelligibility of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, M; Sperling, G; Riedl, T; Vanderbeek, A

    1987-12-01

    To determine the limits of human observers' ability to identify visually presented American Sign Language (ASL), the contrast s and the amount of additive noise n in dynamic ASL images were varied independently. Contrast was tested over a 4:1 range; the rms signal-to-noise ratios (s/n) investigated were s/n = 1/4, 1/2, 1, and infinity (which is used to designate the original, uncontaminated images). Fourteen deaf subjects were tested with an intelligibility test composed of 85 isolated ASL signs, each 2-3 sec in length. For these ASL signs (64 x 96 pixels, 30 frames/sec), subjects' performance asymptotes between s/n = 0.5 and 1.0; further increases in s/n do not improve intelligibility. Intelligibility was found to depend only on s/n and not on contrast. A formulation in terms of logistic functions was proposed to derive intelligibility of ASL signs from s/n, sign familiarity, and sign difficulty. Familiarity (ignorance) is represented by additive signal-correlated noise; it represents the likelihood of a subject's knowing a particular ASL sign, and it adds to s/n. Difficulty is represented by a multiplicative difficulty coefficient; it represents the perceptual vulnerability of an ASL sign to noise and it adds to log(s/n).

  1. A Relational Algebra Query Language for Programming Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Anderson, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Relational Algebra Query Language (RAQL) and Relational Algebra Query (RAQ) software product we have developed that allows database instructors to teach relational algebra through programming. Instead of defining query operations using mathematical notation (the approach commonly taken in database textbooks), students…

  2. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  3. Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurzeig, Wallace; Papert, Seymour A.

    2011-01-01

    Formal mathematical methods remain, for most high school students, mysterious, artificial and not a part of their regular intuitive thinking. The authors develop some themes that could lead to a radically new approach. According to this thesis, the teaching of programming languages as a regular part of academic progress can contribute effectively…

  4. Bio-Intelligence: A Research Program Facilitating the Development of New Paradigms for Tomorrow's Patient Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Sieu; Famili, Fazel; Liu, Ziying; Peña-Castillo, Lourdes

    The advancement of omics technologies in concert with the enabling information technology development has accelerated biological research to a new realm in a blazing speed and sophistication. The limited single gene assay to the high throughput microarray assay and the laborious manual count of base-pairs to the robotic assisted machinery in genome sequencing are two examples to name. Yet even more sophisticated, the recent development in literature mining and artificial intelligence has allowed researchers to construct complex gene networks unraveling many formidable biological puzzles. To harness these emerging technologies to their full potential to medical applications, the Bio-intelligence program at the Institute for Information Technology, National Research Council Canada, aims to develop and exploit artificial intelligence and bioinformatics technologies to facilitate the development of intelligent decision support tools and systems to improve patient care - for early detection, accurate diagnosis/prognosis of disease, and better personalized therapeutic management.

  5. Eliom: A core ML language for Tierless Web programming

    OpenAIRE

    Radanne , Gabriel; Vouillon , Jérôme; Balat , Vincent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Eliom is a dialect of OCaml for Web programming in which server and client pieces of code can be mixed in the same file using syntactic annotations. This allows to build a whole application as a single distributed program, in which it is possible to define in a composable way reusable widgets with both server and client behaviors. Our language also enables simple and type-safe communication. Eliom matches the specificities of the Web by allowing the programmer to inter...

  6. The FORCE: A highly portable parallel programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Alaghband, Gita; Jakob, Ruediger

    1989-01-01

    Here, it is explained why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory microprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared memory multiprocessor executing them.

  7. The FORCE - A highly portable parallel programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Alaghband, Gita; Jakob, Ruediger

    1989-01-01

    This paper explains why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory multiprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low-level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high-level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared-memory multiprocessor executing them.

  8. Language Learning Shifts and Attitudes towards Language Learning in an Online Tandem Program for Beginner Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Constanza; Ordóñez, Claudia Lucía; Guevara, Diana Carolina

    2017-01-01

    We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students' learning with a free writing…

  9. Students' Perspective on the First Programming Language: C-Like or Pascal-Like Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinogalos, Stelios; Pitner, Tomáš; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Savic, Miloš

    2018-01-01

    The choice of the first programming language (FPL) has been a controversial issue for several decades. Nearly everyone agrees that the FPL is important and affects students' subsequent education on programming. The study presented in this article investigates the suitability of various C-like and Pascal-like programming languages as a FPL.…

  10. A Survey on Visual Programming Languages in Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Ray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual programming has transformed the art of programming in recent years. Several organizations are in race to develop novel ideas to run visual programming in multiple domains with Internet of Things. IoT, being the most emerging area of computing, needs substantial contribution from the visual programming paradigm for its technological propagation. This paper surveys visual programming languages being served for application development, especially in Internet of Things field. 13 such languages are visited from several popular research-electronic databases (e.g., IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, Springer Link, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Postscapes and compared under four key attributes such as programming environment, license, project repository, and platform supports. Grouped into two segments, open source and proprietary platform, these visual languages pertain few crucial challenges that have been elaborated in this literature. The main goal of this paper is to present existing VPLs per their parametric proforma to enable naïve developers and researchers in the field of IoT to choose appropriate variant of VPL for particular type of application. It is also worth validating the usability and adaptability of VPLs that is essential for selection of beneficiary in terms of IoT.

  11. Head First Programming A learner's guide to programming using the Python language

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David

    2009-01-01

    Looking for a reliable way to learn how to program on your own, without being overwhelmed by confusing concepts? Head First Programming introduces the core concepts of writing computer programs -- variables, decisions, loops, functions, and objects -- which apply regardless of the programming language. This book offers concrete examples and exercises in the dynamic and versatile Python language to demonstrate and reinforce these concepts. Learn the basic tools to start writing the programs that interest you, and get a better understanding of what software can (and cannot) do. When you're fi

  12. The programming language HAL: A specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    HAL accomplishes three significant objectives: (1) increased readability, through the use of a natural two-dimensional mathematical format; (2) increased reliability, by providing for selective recognition of common data and subroutines, and by incorporating specific data-protect features; (3) real-time control facility, by including a comprehensive set of real-time control commands and signal conditions. Although HAL is designed primarily for programming on-board computers, it is general enough to meet nearly all the needs in the production, verification and support of aerospace, and other real-time applications.

  13. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds to... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs...

  14. Introduction to the Atari Computer. A Program Written in the Pilot Programming Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Designed to be an introduction to the Atari microcomputers for beginners, the interactive computer program listed in this document is written in the Pilot programing language. Instructions are given for entering and storing the program in the computer memory for use by students. (MES)

  15. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (El) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged fro...

  16. Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching to Integrate Language Skills in an EFL Program at a Colombian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Zúñiga, Eulices

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative research study conducted with six first semester students of an English as a foreign language program in a public university in Colombia. The aim of the study was to implement task-based language teaching as a way to integrate language skills and help learners to improve their communicative…

  17. Artificial intelligence program in a computer application supporting reactor operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, R.C.; Town, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    Improving nuclear reactor power plant operability is an ever-present concern for the nuclear industry. The definition of plant operability involves a complex interaction of the ideas of reliability, safety, and efficiency. This paper presents observations concerning the issues involved and the benefits derived from the implementation of a computer application which combines traditional computer applications with artificial intelligence (AI) methodologies. A system, the Component Configuration Control System (CCCS), is being installed to support nuclear reactor operations at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II

  18. Software Reviews. PC Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Helmut; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts artificial intelligence and conventional programming languages. Reviews Personal Consultant Plus, Smalltalk/V, and Nexpert Object, which are PC-based products inspired by problem-solving paradigms. Provides information on background and operation of each. (RT)

  19. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.

    1978-01-01

    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  20. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose.

  1. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  2. JASPAR RESTful API: accessing JASPAR data from any programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Mathelier, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    JASPAR is a widely used open-access database of curated, non-redundant transcription factor binding profiles. Currently, data from JASPAR can be retrieved as flat files or by using programming language-specific interfaces. Here, we present a programming language-independent application programming interface (API) to access JASPAR data using the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. The REST API enables programmatic access to JASPAR by most programming languages and returns data in eight widely used formats. Several endpoints are available to access the data and an endpoint is available to infer the TF binding profile(s) likely bound by a given DNA binding domain protein sequence. Additionally, it provides an interactive browsable interface for bioinformatics tool developers. This REST API is implemented in Python using the Django REST Framework. It is accessible at http://jaspar.genereg.net/api/ and the source code is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/CBGR/jaspar under GPL v3 license. aziz.khan@ncmm.uio.no or anthony.mathelier@ncmm.uio.no. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Teaching the tacit knowledge of programming to noviceswith natural language tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. Chad; Vanlehn, Kurt

    2005-09-01

    For beginning programmers, inadequate problem solving and planning skills are among the most salient of their weaknesses. In this paper, we test the efficacy of natural language tutoring to teach and scaffold acquisition of these skills. We describe ProPL (Pro-PELL), a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system that elicits goal decompositions and program plans from students in natural language. The system uses a variety of tutoring tactics that leverage students' intuitive understandings of the problem, how it might be solved, and the underlying concepts of programming. We report the results of a small-scale evaluation comparing students who used ProPL with a control group who read the same content. Our primary findings are that students who received tutoring from ProPL seem to have developed an improved ability to solve the composition problem and displayed behaviors that suggest they were able to think at greater levels of abstraction than students in the read-only group.

  4. Test of user- and system programs coded in real time languages - requirements on program language and testing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertlin, J.; Mackert, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper the functions are presented, which should be part of a test system for user programs in a higher treat time programming language, taking into account time sequences and competitive processes. As can be shown by the problem of testing, use of higher level real time programming languages renders the task of program development essentially easier, however performance of test procedures without appropriate test systems is very difficult. After the presentation of notions and methods for the testing of programs, general requirements on testing tools are described and the test system functions for a program test, beeing uncritical with respect to time, are placed together. Thereby, for every individual function, the interface between the test system, the program under test, and the residual program-generation system (compiler, binder, operating system, delay-time system, and loader) is given too. For the time-critical test, a series of desirable functions are described, which can be implemented with acceptable expense. (orig.) [de

  5. Examining the Relevance of Emotional Intelligence within Educational Programs for the Gifted and Talented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Al; Gore, David; Sturgis, Judy

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between emotional intelligence, locus of control, and self-efficacy among gifted and talented students participating in a two week long summer educational program. Results revealed statistically significant correlations between these variables. Gender was found to moderate the relationships. The study also…

  6. An intelligent tutor to learn the evaluation of microcontroller I/O programming expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Hugo; Heeren, B.J.; Keuning, H.W.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2017-01-01

    Embedded systems engineers need to learn how I/O programming expressions for microcontrollers evaluate. We designed, implemented, and tested an intelligent tutoring system prototype for learning such evaluations. The Microcontroller Knowledge (MicK) tutor guides a student step-by-step towards a

  7. Design and Implementation of the Futhark Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Troels

    In this thesis we describe the design and implementation of Futhark, a small data-parallel purely functional array language that offers a machine-neutral programming model, and an optimising compiler that generates efficient OpenCL code for GPUs. The overall philosophy is based on seeking a middle...... a lightweight system of size-dependent types that enables the compiler to reason symbolically about the size of arrays in the program, and that reuses general-purpose compiler optimisations to infer relationships between sizes. Third, we furnish Futhark with novel parallel combinators capable of expressing...... reasoning. Fifth, we perform an evaluation on 21 benchmarks that demonstrates the impact of the language and compiler features, and shows application-level performance that is in many cases competitive with hand-written GPU code. Sixth, we make the Futhark compiler freely available with full source code...

  8. WNetKAT: A Weighted SDN Programming and Verification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Schmid, Stefan; Xue, Bingtian

    2017-01-01

    Programmability and verifiability lie at the heart of the software-defined networking paradigm. While OpenFlow and its match-action concept provide primitive operations to manipulate hardware configurations, over the last years, several more expressive network programming languages have been...... developed. This paper presents WNetKAT, the first network programming language accounting for the fact that networks are inherently weighted, and communications subject to capacity constraints (e.g., in terms of bandwidth) and costs (e.g., latency or monetary costs). WNetKAT is based on a syntactic...... generalize to more complex (and stateful) network functions and service chains. For example, WNetKAT allows to model flows which need to traverse certain waypoint functions, which can change the traffic rate. This paper also shows the relationship between the equivalence problem of WNet...

  9. Paradigms of artificial intelligence programming case studies in common Lisp

    CERN Document Server

    Norvig, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Paradigms of AI Programming is the first text to teach advanced Common Lisp techniques in the context of building major AI systems. By reconstructing authentic, complex AI programs using state-of-the-art Common Lisp, the book teaches students and professionals how to build and debug robust practical programs, while demonstrating superior programming style and important AI concepts. The author strongly emphasizes the practical performance issues involved in writing real working programs of significant size. Chapters on troubleshooting and efficiency are included, along with a discussion of th

  10. Belief Revision in the GOAL Agent Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurkeland, Johannes Svante; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Agents in a multiagent system may in many cases find themselves in situations where inconsistencies arise. In order to properly deal with these, a good belief revision procedure is required. This paper illustrates the usefulness of such a procedure: a certain belief revision algorithm is consider...... in order to deal with inconsistencies and, particularly, the issue of inconsistencies, and belief revision is examined in relation to the GOAL agent programming language....

  11. A Programming Language Approach to Safety in Home Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kjeld Høyer; Schougaard, Kari Rye; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    , even in a worst-case scenario where an unauthorized user gains remote control of the facilities. We address this safety issue at the programming language level by restricting the operations that can be performed on devices according to the physical location of the user initiating the request......-based restrictions on operations. This model has been implemented in a middleware for home AV devices written in Java, using infrared communication and a FireWire network to implement location awareness....

  12. A Programming Language Approach to Safety in Home Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kjeld Høyer; Schougaard, Kari Sofie Fogh; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2003-01-01

    , even in a worst-case scenario where an unauthorized user gains remote control of the facilities. We address this safety issue at the programming language level by restricting the operations that can be performed on devices according to the physical location of the user initiating the request......-based restrictions on operations. This model has been implemented in a middleware for home AV devices written in Java, using infrared communication and a FireWire network to implement location awareness....

  13. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  14. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. M. Van Esch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test battery implemented in four languages. Tests of the intelligibility of speech, resolution, loudness recruitment, and lexical decision making were measured using headphones in five centers: in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Correlations and stepwise linear regression models were calculated. In sum, 72 hearing-impaired listeners aged 22 to 91 years with a broad range of hearing losses were included in the study. Several significant correlations were found with the intelligibility of speech in noise. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that pure-tone average, age, spectral and temporal resolution, and loudness recruitment were significant predictors of the intelligibility of speech in fluctuating noise. Complex interrelationships between auditory factors and the intelligibility of speech in noise were revealed using the Auditory Profile data set in four languages. After taking into account the effects of pure-tone average and age, spectral and temporal resolution and loudness recruitment had an added value in the prediction of variation among listeners with respect to the intelligibility of speech in noise. The results of the lexical decision making test were not related to the intelligibility of speech in noise, in the population studied.

  15. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  16. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Multi-Language Programming Environments for High Performance Java Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Getov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in processor capabilities, software tools, programming languages and programming paradigms have brought about new approaches to high performance computing. A steadfast component of this dynamic evolution has been the scientific community’s reliance on established scientific packages. As a consequence, programmers of high‐performance applications are reluctant to embrace evolving languages such as Java. This paper describes the Java‐to‐C Interface (JCI tool which provides application programmers wishing to use Java with immediate accessibility to existing scientific packages. The JCI tool also facilitates rapid development and reuse of existing code. These benefits are provided at minimal cost to the programmer. While beneficial to the programmer, the additional advantages of mixed‐language programming in terms of application performance and portability are addressed in detail within the context of this paper. In addition, we discuss how the JCI tool is complementing other ongoing projects such as IBM’s High‐Performance Compiler for Java (HPCJ and IceT’s metacomputing environment.

  18. Writing cases as a knowledge capture process in a competitive intelligence program

    OpenAIRE

    Mallowan , Monica; Marcon , Christian

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Students in Competitive Intelligence (CI) programs submit a report following their internship in an organisation. It is proposed that the result of their experiences be shared with their peers, in the form of cases written for in-class analysis. A knowledge base is thus created, which gradually becomes the program's memory and, by its constant renewal and connection with the reality, the most useful teaching tool for the professor.

  19. Intelligent Testing of Traffic Light Programs: Validation in Smart Mobility Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Ferrer; José García-Nieto; Enrique Alba; Francisco Chicano

    2016-01-01

    In smart cities, the use of intelligent automatic techniques to find efficient cycle programs of traffic lights is becoming an innovative front for traffic flow management. However, this automatic programming of traffic lights requires a validation process of the generated solutions, since they can affect the mobility (and security) of millions of citizens. In this paper, we propose a validation strategy based on genetic algorithms and feature models for the automatic generation of different ...

  20. Teaching Object-Oriented Programming is more than teaching Object-Oriented Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen Lindskov; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1988-01-01

    the research area gives additional insight into the research area and its underlying theoretical foundation. In this paper we will report on our approach to teaching programming languages as a whole and especially teaching object-oriented programming. The prime message to be told is that working from...... a theoretical foundation pays off. Without a theoretical foundation, the discussions are often centered around features of different languages. With a foundation, discussions may be conducted on solid pound. Furthermore, the students have significantly fewer difficulties in grasping the concrete programming...

  1. The Functional Programming Language R and the Paradigm of Dynamic Scientific Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trancón y Widemann, B.; Bolz, C.F.; Grelck, C.; Loidl, H.-W.; Peña, R.

    2013-01-01

    R is an environment and functional programming language for statistical data analysis and visualization. Largely unknown to the functional programming community, it is popular and influential in many empirical sciences. Due to its integrated combination of dynamic and reflective scripting on one

  2. Machine intelligence and knowledge bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K

    1981-09-01

    The basic functions necessary in machine intelligence are a knowledge base and a logic programming language such as PROLOG using deductive reasoning. Recently inductive reasoning based on meta knowledge and default reasoning have been developed. The creative thought model of Lenit is reviewed and the concept of knowledge engineering is introduced. 17 references.

  3. A study to investigate the effectiveness of successful intelligence training program to increase academic hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Samavatian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of successful intelligence training program on academic hopefulness of probation students of Esfahan University of Technology. The research is semi-experimental of pre-test, post-test type with control group. Research population includes all probation students of Esfahan University of Technology. The study chooses 30 female and male students and assigns them randomly into two groups of experimental and control. Experimental group participate in 13 successful intelligence-training sessions for 13 weeks. Research tools consists of, Hope in certain aspects. Statistical analysis is conducted using SPSS18 on inferential statistics level proportionate to data analysis level. Statistical test hypothesis are analyzed through univariate covariance and multivariate covariance analysis. The results show that successful intelligence program training was effective to enhance hopefulness of probation students (p < 0.05. Given the results of present research, successful intelligence program training can be used as an intervention method in order to decrease harms because of dormitory and student life.

  4. 76 FR 14954 - National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview... to provide instruction that accelerates ELs' acquisition of language, literacy, and content knowledge.... Rosalinda Barrera, Assistant Deputy Secretary and Director for English Language Acquisition, Language...

  5. Providing Graduated Corrective Feedback in an Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Haiyang

    2017-01-01

    Corrective feedback (CF), a response to linguistic errors made by second language (L2) learners, has received extensive scholarly attention in second language acquisition. While much of the previous research in the field has focused on whether CF facilitates or impedes L2 development, few studies have examined the efficacy of gradually modifying…

  6. The Dynamic Interplay among EFL Learners' Ambiguity Tolerance, Adaptability, Cultural Intelligence, Learning Approach, and Language Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahdadi, Shadi; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    A key objective of education is to prepare individuals to be fully-functioning learners. This entails developing the cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, cultural, and emotional competencies. The present study aimed to examine the interrelationships among adaptability, tolerance of ambiguity, cultural intelligence, learning approach, and…

  7. Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, Natural Language Interfaces, Knowledge Engineering and the Librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jim

    This paper begins by examining concepts of artificial intelligence (AI) and discusses various definitions of the concept that have been suggested in the literature. The nesting relationship of expert systems within the broader framework of AI is described, and expert systems are characterized as knowledge-based systems (KBS) which attempt to solve…

  8. 34 CFR 669.1 - What is the Language Resource Centers Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... improving the nation's capacity for teaching and learning foreign languages effectively. (Authority: 20 U.S... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Language Resource Centers Program? 669.1... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 669.1 What is the...

  9. The Effects of Web 2.0 Technologies Usage in Programming Languages Lesson on the Academic Success, Interrogative Learning Skills and Attitudes of Students towards Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençtürk, Abdullah Tarik; Korucu, Agah Tugrul

    2017-01-01

    It is observed that teacher candidates receiving education in the department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education are not able to gain enough experience and knowledge in "Programming Languages" lesson. The goal of this study is to analyse the effects of web 2.0 technologies usage in programming languages lesson on the…

  10. Programming Collective Intelligence Building Smart Web 2.0 Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby

    2008-01-01

    This fascinating book demonstrates how you can build web applications to mine the enormous amount of data created by people on the Internet. With the sophisticated algorithms in this book, you can write smart programs to access interesting datasets from other web sites, collect data from users of your own applications, and analyze and understand the data once you've found it.

  11. Evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, K L

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences. Forty-six nutrition educators provided a series of 12 lessons to 6102 preschool-age children. The program was evaluated using a pretest/post-test design to assess differences in fruit and vegetable identification, healthy snack choices, willingness to taste foods, and eating behaviors. Subjects showed significant improvement in food identification and recognition, healthy snack identification, willingness to taste foods, and frequency of fruit, vegetable, meat, and dairy consumption. The evaluation indicates that the program was an effective approach for educating preschool children about nutrition.

  12. Effects of an Emotional Intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, 4 assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (one year after the conclusion of the intervention. The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1 emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, emotional repair; (2 assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3 internal control of anger; and (4 the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  13. A Domain-Specific Programming Language for Secure Multiparty Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janus Dam; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2007-01-01

    We present a domain-specific programming language for Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC). Information is a resource of vital importance and considerable economic value to individuals, public administration, and private companies. This means that the confidentiality of information is crucial...... on secret values and results are only revealed according to specific protocols. We identify the key linguistic concepts of SMC and bridge the gap between high-level security requirements and low-level cryptographic operations constituting an SMC platform, thus improving the efficiency and security of SMC...

  14. Refinement and Validation of a Military Emotional Intelligence Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    program development is the Bodily Reaction Tool. This is an activity that helps learners to understand that experiencing an emotion can induce differing... emotions throughout our bodies. Figure 3 shows the evidence based body map figure and a preliminary beta version of the tool that is being developed...and an emotion assessment grid (see Figure 5). The Behavior Mind Map is is an activity that helps learners to see that there are many different

  15. Basic Research in Artificial Intelligence and Foundations of Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    abstracted models of The creation and management of large knowledge (rule models) as a guide to knowledge bases has become a central problem acquisition...real about the use of knowledge. world settings. Both of these mean an emphasis on the accumulation and management - AIM-281 CS-567 of large collections...contribute to the development of such theories. knowlede about the program’s subject domain This paper concentrates on the assumptions (e.g. numbers

  16. Examination of Sign Language Education According to the Opinions of Members from a Basic Sign Language Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav

    2016-01-01

    Being hearing impaired limits one's ability to communicate in that it affects all areas of development, particularly speech. One of the methods the hearing impaired use to communicate is sign language. This study, a descriptive study, intends to examine the opinions of individuals who had enrolled in a sign language certification program by using…

  17. Research and Development in Natural Language Understanding as Part of the Strategic Computing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    facilities. BBN is developing a series of increasingly sophisticated natural language understanding systems which will serve as an integrated interface...Haas, A.R. A Syntactic Theory of Belief and Action. Artificial Intelligence. 1986. Forthcoming. [6] Hinrichs, E. Temporale Anaphora im Englischen

  18. Does it really matter whether students' contributions are spoken versus typed in an intelligent tutoring system with natural language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Sidney K; Dowell, Nia; Graesser, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    There is the question of whether learning differs when students speak versus type their responses when interacting with intelligent tutoring systems with natural language dialogues. Theoretical bases exist for three contrasting hypotheses. The speech facilitation hypothesis predicts that spoken input will increase learning, whereas the text facilitation hypothesis predicts typed input will be superior. The modality equivalence hypothesis claims that learning gains will be equivalent. Previous experiments that tested these hypotheses were confounded by automated speech recognition systems with substantial error rates that were detected by learners. We addressed this concern in two experiments via a Wizard of Oz procedure, where a human intercepted the learner's speech and transcribed the utterances before submitting them to the tutor. The overall pattern of the results supported the following conclusions: (1) learning gains associated with spoken and typed input were on par and quantitatively higher than a no-intervention control, (2) participants' evaluations of the session were not influenced by modality, and (3) there were no modality effects associated with differences in prior knowledge and typing proficiency. Although the results generally support the modality equivalence hypothesis, highly motivated learners reported lower cognitive load and demonstrated increased learning when typing compared with speaking. We discuss the implications of our findings for intelligent tutoring systems that can support typed and spoken input.

  19. Logic Programs as a Specification and Description Tool in the Design Process of an Intelligent Tutoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Möbus, Claus

    1987-01-01

    We propose the use of logic programs when designing intelligent tutoring systems. With their help we specified the small-step semantics of the learning curriculum, designed the graphical user interface, derived instructions and modelled students' knowledge.

  20. The Intelligent Transportation Systems Public Safety Program : opportunities for technological advancement in detecting, responding, and recovering from community emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2000, a group of high level public safety and transportation officials was brought together by the US Department of Transportations (USDOT) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program to consider the interaction bet...

  1. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development program...

  2. An iconic programming language for sensor-based robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertz, Matthew; Stewart, David B.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we describe an iconic programming language called Onika for sensor-based robotic systems. Onika is both modular and reconfigurable and can be used with any system architecture and real-time operating system. Onika is also a multi-level programming environment wherein tasks are built by connecting a series of icons which, in turn, can be defined in terms of other icons at the lower levels. Expert users are also allowed to use control block form to define servo tasks. The icons in Onika are both shape and color coded, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, thus providing a form of error control in the development of high level applications.

  3. BioRuby: bioinformatics software for the Ruby programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Naohisa; Prins, Pjotr; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Bonnal, Raoul; Aerts, Jan; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2010-10-15

    The BioRuby software toolkit contains a comprehensive set of free development tools and libraries for bioinformatics and molecular biology, written in the Ruby programming language. BioRuby has components for sequence analysis, pathway analysis, protein modelling and phylogenetic analysis; it supports many widely used data formats and provides easy access to databases, external programs and public web services, including BLAST, KEGG, GenBank, MEDLINE and GO. BioRuby comes with a tutorial, documentation and an interactive environment, which can be used in the shell, and in the web browser. BioRuby is free and open source software, made available under the Ruby license. BioRuby runs on all platforms that support Ruby, including Linux, Mac OS X and Windows. And, with JRuby, BioRuby runs on the Java Virtual Machine. The source code is available from http://www.bioruby.org/. katayama@bioruby.org

  4. Blue Sky Ideas in Artificial Intelligence Education from the EAAI 2017 New and Future AI Educator Program

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Eric; Koenig, Sven; Schulz, Claudia; Maurelli, Francesco; Lee, John; Eckroth, Joshua; Crowley, Mark; Freedman, Richard G.; Cardona-Rivera, Rogelio E.; Machado, Tiago; Williams, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The 7th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence (EAAI'17, co-chaired by Sven Koenig and Eric Eaton) launched the EAAI New and Future AI Educator Program to support the training of early-career university faculty, secondary school faculty, and future educators (PhD candidates or postdocs who intend a career in academia). As part of the program, awardees were asked to address one of the following "blue sky" questions: * How could/should Artificial Intelligence (AI) courses ...

  5. Toward a molecular programming language for algorithmic self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitz, Matthew John

    Self-assembly is the process whereby relatively simple components autonomously combine to form more complex objects. Nature exhibits self-assembly to form everything from microscopic crystals to living cells to galaxies. With a desire to both form increasingly sophisticated products and to understand the basic components of living systems, scientists have developed and studied artificial self-assembling systems. One such framework is the Tile Assembly Model introduced by Erik Winfree in 1998. In this model, simple two-dimensional square 'tiles' are designed so that they self-assemble into desired shapes. The work in this thesis consists of a series of results which build toward the future goal of designing an abstracted, high-level programming language for designing the molecular components of self-assembling systems which can perform powerful computations and form into intricate structures. The first two sets of results demonstrate self-assembling systems which perform infinite series of computations that characterize computably enumerable and decidable languages, and exhibit tools for algorithmically generating the necessary sets of tiles. In the next chapter, methods for generating tile sets which self-assemble into complicated shapes, namely a class of discrete self-similar fractal structures, are presented. Next, a software package for graphically designing tile sets, simulating their self-assembly, and debugging designed systems is discussed. Finally, a high-level programming language which abstracts much of the complexity and tedium of designing such systems, while preventing many of the common errors, is presented. The summation of this body of work presents a broad coverage of the spectrum of desired outputs from artificial self-assembling systems and a progression in the sophistication of tools used to design them. By creating a broader and deeper set of modular tools for designing self-assembling systems, we hope to increase the complexity which is

  6. Developing an Emotional Intelligence Program Training and Study Its Effectiveness on Emotional Intelligence of Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Problems That Living in Single Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Farzaneh; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Beh-pajooh, Ahmad; Yekta, Mohsen Shokoohi; Afrooz, Gholam Ali

    2017-01-01

    Development of children and adolescents' personality is strongly affected by their parents, and absence of one of them has an undesirable effect on their development, and makes them vulnerable to later psychological disorders and behavioral problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an emotional intelligence training program and to…

  7. A New Approach to Programming Language Education for Beginners with Top-Down Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Saito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two basic approaches in learning new programming language: a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach. It has been said that if a learner has already acquired one language, the top-down approach is more efficient to learn another while, for a person who has absolutely no knowledge of any programming languages; the bottom-up approach is preferable. The major problem of the bottom-up approach is that it requires longer period to acquire the language. For quicker learning, this paper applies a top-down approach for a beginners who has not yet acquired any programming languages.

  8. Common Thread? The Role of Professional Orientation in U.S. and Non-U.S. Intelligence Studies Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Smith

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As the field of intelligence studies continue to expand, knowledge of faculty and programs outside the United States remains limited. Beyond a few studies which consider the larger “Anglosphere’, there remains the question of whether programs in different countries are approaching this academic study from a comparable perspective. Utilizing a survey of individual faculty members, as well as interviews with program leadership, this study finds that there is a shared emphasis on practical application. From faculty background to program objectives, intelligence studies degree programs inside and outside of the United States appear to share this common focus.

  9. Spanish-Language Community-Based Mental Health Treatment Programs, Policy-Required Language-Assistance Programming, and Mental Health Treatment Access Among Spanish-Speaking Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the extent to which implementing language assistance programming through contracting with community-based organizations improved the accessibility of mental health care under Medi-Cal (California’s Medicaid program) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency, and whether it reduced language-based treatment access disparities. Methods. Using a time series nonequivalent control group design, we studied county-level penetration of language assistance programming over 10 years (1997–2006) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency covered under Medi-Cal. We used linear regression with county fixed effects to control for ongoing trends and other influences. Results. When county mental health plans contracted with community-based organizations, those implementing language assistance programming increased penetration rates of Spanish-language mental health services under Medi-Cal more than other plans (0.28 percentage points, a 25% increase on average; P language-related disparities. Conclusions. Mental health treatment programs operated by community-based organizations may have moderately improved access after implementing required language assistance programming, but the programming did not reduce entrenched disparities in the accessibility of mental health services. PMID:23865663

  10. Spanish-language community-based mental health treatment programs, policy-required language-assistance programming, and mental health treatment access among Spanish-speaking clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R; McClellan, Sean R

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the extent to which implementing language assistance programming through contracting with community-based organizations improved the accessibility of mental health care under Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid program) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency, and whether it reduced language-based treatment access disparities. Using a time series nonequivalent control group design, we studied county-level penetration of language assistance programming over 10 years (1997-2006) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency covered under Medi-Cal. We used linear regression with county fixed effects to control for ongoing trends and other influences. When county mental health plans contracted with community-based organizations, those implementing language assistance programming increased penetration rates of Spanish-language mental health services under Medi-Cal more than other plans (0.28 percentage points, a 25% increase on average; P language-related disparities. Mental health treatment programs operated by community-based organizations may have moderately improved access after implementing required language assistance programming, but the programming did not reduce entrenched disparities in the accessibility of mental health services.

  11. Standing Strong: Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School Japanese Language and Culture Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhi, Jessica; Yamashita-Iverson, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School (MIMS) is the only elementary school in Waterbury that has a world language program and is one of only two elementary Japanese programs in Connecticut. In the past 15 years, more than 1500 students have participated in its Japanese Language and Culture (JLC) Program in grades Prekindergarten through 5th. The JLC…

  12. Hierarchical programming language for modal multi-rate real-time stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Modal multi-rate stream processing applications with real-time constraints which are executed on multi-core embedded systems often cannot be conveniently specified using current programming languages. An important issue is that sequential programming languages do not allow for convenient programming

  13. A CONCEPT OF SOFTWARE SUPPORT OF LEARNING PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kruglyk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A concept of software support of learning programming language and technologies is regarded in the article. Present systems of independent study of subjects, related to programming, are examined. Necessary components of a system of support learning programming languages and technologies, which is oriented on independent study, are considered.

  14. Cognitive computing and eScience in health and life science research: artificial intelligence and obesity intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Thomas; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffiany; Castelli, Darla; Hoelscher, Deanna

    2017-12-01

    To present research models based on artificial intelligence and discuss the concept of cognitive computing and eScience as disruptive factors in health and life science research methodologies. The paper identifies big data as a catalyst to innovation and the development of artificial intelligence, presents a framework for computer-supported human problem solving and describes a transformation of research support models. This framework includes traditional computer support; federated cognition using machine learning and cognitive agents to augment human intelligence; and a semi-autonomous/autonomous cognitive model, based on deep machine learning, which supports eScience. The paper provides a forward view of the impact of artificial intelligence on our human-computer support and research methods in health and life science research. By augmenting or amplifying human task performance with artificial intelligence, cognitive computing and eScience research models are discussed as novel and innovative systems for developing more effective adaptive obesity intervention programs.

  15. Artificial Intelligence and Second Language Learning: An Efficient Approach to Error Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodigovic, Marina

    2007-01-01

    While theoretical approaches to error correction vary in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, most sources agree that such correction is useful and leads to learning. While some point out the relevance of the communicative context in which the correction takes place, others stress the value of consciousness-raising. Trying to…

  16. Literature in Foreign Language Education Programs: A New Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abukhattala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the studies on the subject of literature as an essential part of the English  education programs in Arab universities  has concentrated on only professors’ views and attitudes to these courses. By contrast, the following article describes a qualitative investigation on how former students and presently in-service English teachers felt about studying English literature during their university years. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with six English-major graduates who teach EFL at high and secondary schools in Misurata. Libya. The study has revealed that participants were not positive about literature courses as they maintain that these courses have contributed little to their language development and teaching careers. They have narrated several factors which limited benefiting from these courses. Some of these factors are the teaching and learning practices in the language classroom, the   difficulty and oddness of  vocabulary and structures of literature texts and the lack of skills in English. Based on the interviews, reflections and implications of these barriers are made.

  17. The Elements of Language Curriculum: A Systematic Approach to Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    A systematic approach to second language curriculum development is outlined, enumerating the phases and activities involved in developing and implementing a sound and effective language program. The first chapter describes a system whereby all language teaching activities can be classified into approaches, syllabuses, techniques, exercises, or…

  18. Handbook for Classroom Testing in Peace Corps Language Programs. Manual T0068.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil J.

    This manual provides instructors in Peace Corps language training programs with information about two kinds of classroom testing: formative, ongoing testing and summative testing that occurs at the end of an instructional period. The first of the manual's four chapters on the purposes of language testing, discusses language testing within a…

  19. Foreign Language Writing Fellows Programs: A Model for Improving Advanced Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Delys Waite; Nielson, Rex P.; Kurzer, Kendon

    2016-01-01

    Within the growing field of scholarly literature on foreign language (FL) writing pedagogy, few studies have addressed pedagogical questions regarding the teaching of writing to advanced language learners. Writing fellows peer tutoring programs, although typically associated with first language writing instruction, likely can benefit and support…

  20. Analyzing Student Performance and Attitudes toward Textual versus Iconic Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Yang, Mei-Ching

    2009-01-01

    In this study half of 52 sixth graders learned to program in MSWLogo and the other half in Drape. An analysis of students' test scores revealed that Drape (an iconic language) seemed to have a steeper learning curve than MSWLogo (a textual language). However, as students gradually became more familiar with either language, the difference in…

  1. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Current Programs and Projects. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    For many years, foreign language teachers have used the computer to provide supplemental exercises in the instruction of foreign languages. In recent years, advances in computer technology have motivated teachers to reassess the computer and consider it a valuable part of daily foreign language learning. Innovative software programs, authoring…

  2. Routine human-competitive machine intelligence by means of genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, John R.; Streeter, Matthew J.; Keane, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Genetic programming is a systematic method for getting computers to automatically solve a problem. Genetic programming starts from a high-level statement of what needs to be done and automatically creates a computer program to solve the problem. The paper demonstrates that genetic programming (1) now routinely delivers high-return human-competitive machine intelligence; (2) is an automated invention machine; (3) can automatically create a general solution to a problem in the form of a parameterized topology; and (4) has delivered a progression of qualitatively more substantial results in synchrony with five approximately order-of-magnitude increases in the expenditure of computer time. Recent results involving the automatic synthesis of the topology and sizing of analog electrical circuits and controllers demonstrate these points.

  3. Global R&D through the Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huray, Paul G.

    1997-01-01

    The industry-led, international intelligent manufacturing systems (IMS) program provides a special vehicle for joint research and development between government, industry and academia in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, and Europe. Since its beginning in 1989, the IMS program has progressed through a feasibility phase which demonstrated that international legal barriers, trade issues, and intellectual property problems could be overcome. The program is constructed to provide higher quality design, customized products, shorter delivery cycles and lower costs. Interactions between partner companies have led to new business opportunities for mutual profit and some claim to have learned strategic information about their international competitors. The IMS program is growing through the participation of hundreds of corporate and university partners who share responsibilities in specific projects and jointly reap benefits for their manufacturing products and processes. The logic for choosing or not choosing the IMS mechanisms will be discussed and R and D projects will be identified.

  4. Computationally intensive econometrics using a distributed matrix-programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornik, Jurgen A; Hendry, David F; Shephard, Neil

    2002-06-15

    This paper reviews the need for powerful computing facilities in econometrics, focusing on concrete problems which arise in financial economics and in macroeconomics. We argue that the profession is being held back by the lack of easy-to-use generic software which is able to exploit the availability of cheap clusters of distributed computers. Our response is to extend, in a number of directions, the well-known matrix-programming interpreted language Ox developed by the first author. We note three possible levels of extensions: (i) Ox with parallelization explicit in the Ox code; (ii) Ox with a parallelized run-time library; and (iii) Ox with a parallelized interpreter. This paper studies and implements the first case, emphasizing the need for deterministic computing in science. We give examples in the context of financial economics and time-series modelling.

  5. Estimating radiological consequences using the Java programming language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.; Hayward, M.; Harris, F.; Domel, R.

    1998-01-01

    At the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) a model is being developed to determine critical parameters affecting radioactive doses to humans following a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Java programming language was chosen because of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) capabilities and its portability across computer platforms, which were a requirement for the application, called RadCon. The mathematical models are applied over the 2D region, performing time varying calculations of dose to humans for each grid point, according to user selected options. The information combined includes: two dimensional time varying air and ground concentrations, transfer factors from soil to plant, plant to animal, plant to humans, plant interception factors to determine amount of radionuclide on plant surfaces, dosimetric data, such as dose conversion factors and user defined parameters, e.g. soil types, lifestyle, diet of animals and humans. Details of the software requirements, pathway parameters and implementation of RadCon are given

  6. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  7. Language-Agnostic Reproducible Data Analysis Using Literate Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Boris; Louhimo, Riku; Ikonen, Elina; Hautaniemi, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    A modern biomedical research project can easily contain hundreds of analysis steps and lack of reproducibility of the analyses has been recognized as a severe issue. While thorough documentation enables reproducibility, the number of analysis programs used can be so large that in reality reproducibility cannot be easily achieved. Literate programming is an approach to present computer programs to human readers. The code is rearranged to follow the logic of the program, and to explain that logic in a natural language. The code executed by the computer is extracted from the literate source code. As such, literate programming is an ideal formalism for systematizing analysis steps in biomedical research. We have developed the reproducible computing tool Lir (literate, reproducible computing) that allows a tool-agnostic approach to biomedical data analysis. We demonstrate the utility of Lir by applying it to a case study. Our aim was to investigate the role of endosomal trafficking regulators to the progression of breast cancer. In this analysis, a variety of tools were combined to interpret the available data: a relational database, standard command-line tools, and a statistical computing environment. The analysis revealed that the lipid transport related genes LAPTM4B and NDRG1 are coamplified in breast cancer patients, and identified genes potentially cooperating with LAPTM4B in breast cancer progression. Our case study demonstrates that with Lir, an array of tools can be combined in the same data analysis to improve efficiency, reproducibility, and ease of understanding. Lir is an open-source software available at github.com/borisvassilev/lir.

  8. Logic Programming: PROLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)

  9. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Vaishnavi; Thies, William

    2010-11-08

    Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains.

  10. The Effect of Data-Based Translation Program Used in Foreign Language Education on the Correct Use of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darancik, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that data-based translation programs are often used both in and outside the class unconsciously and thus there occurs many problems in foreign language learning and teaching. To draw attention to this problem, with this study, whether the program has satisfactory results or not has been revealed by making translations from…

  11. A comparative study of programming languages for next-generation astrodynamics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Helge; Cano, Juan Luis; McLean, Frazer; Anderl, Reiner

    2018-03-01

    Due to the computationally intensive nature of astrodynamics tasks, astrodynamicists have relied on compiled programming languages such as Fortran for the development of astrodynamics software. Interpreted languages such as Python, on the other hand, offer higher flexibility and development speed thereby increasing the productivity of the programmer. While interpreted languages are generally slower than compiled languages, recent developments such as just-in-time (JIT) compilers or transpilers have been able to close this speed gap significantly. Another important factor for the usefulness of a programming language is its wider ecosystem which consists of the available open-source packages and development tools such as integrated development environments or debuggers. This study compares three compiled languages and three interpreted languages, which were selected based on their popularity within the scientific programming community and technical merit. The three compiled candidate languages are Fortran, C++, and Java. Python, Matlab, and Julia were selected as the interpreted candidate languages. All six languages are assessed and compared to each other based on their features, performance, and ease-of-use through the implementation of idiomatic solutions to classical astrodynamics problems. We show that compiled languages still provide the best performance for astrodynamics applications, but JIT-compiled dynamic languages have reached a competitive level of speed and offer an attractive compromise between numerical performance and programmer productivity.

  12. Designing training programs for the development of emotional intelligence in adolescents with behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Degtyarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, deviant behavior is considered as a combination of different manifestations of personality, leading eventually to its social desaptation. It is shown that an effective method of preventing deviant behavior is psychological training. Group training activity helps to solve the problems associated with the development of various behavioral skills, to provide psychological support, and can be used as a means of psychological work with teenagers with behavioral problems. We discuss the basic points required to effectively create and conduct training programs in general, as well as the challenges and opportunities of designing trainings in order to develop emotional intelligence as a method of prevention of deviant behavior

  13. Simulation and off-line programming at Sandia`s Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, P.G.; Fahrenholtz, J.C.; McDonald, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center] [and others

    1997-11-01

    One role of the Intelligent Robotics and System Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories is to address certain aspects of Sandia`s mission to design, manufacture, maintain, and dismantle nuclear weapon components. Hazardous materials, devices, and environments are often involved. Because of shrinking resources, these tasks must be accomplished with a minimum of prototyping, while maintaining high reliability. In this paper, the authors describe simulation, off-line programming/planning, and related tools which are in use, under development, and being researched to solve these problems at the ISRC.

  14. Artificial intelligence. Application of the Statistical Neural Networks computer program in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniak, B.; Cholewinski, W.; Tarkowska, A.

    2005-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) may be a tool alternative and complementary to typical statistical analysis. However, in spite of many computer application of various ANN algorithms ready for use, artificial intelligence is relatively rarely applied to data processing. In this paper practical aspects of scientific application of ANN in medicine using the Statistical Neural Networks Computer program, were presented. Several steps of data analysis with the above ANN software package were discussed shortly, from material selection and its dividing into groups to the types of obtained results. The typical problems connected with assessing scintigrams by ANN were also described. (author)

  15. The NASA Program Management Tool: A New Vision in Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.; Swanson, Keith; Putz, Peter; Bell, David G.; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to business intelligence and program management for large technology enterprises like the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Two key distinctions of the approach are that 1) standard business documents are the user interface, and 2) a "schema-less" XML database enables flexible integration of technology information for use by both humans and machines in a highly dynamic environment. The implementation utilizes patent-pending NASA software called the NASA Program Management Tool (PMT) and its underlying "schema-less" XML database called Netmark. Initial benefits of PMT include elimination of discrepancies between business documents that use the same information and "paperwork reduction" for program and project management in the form of reducing the effort required to understand standard reporting requirements and to comply with those reporting requirements. We project that the underlying approach to business intelligence will enable significant benefits in the timeliness, integrity and depth of business information available to decision makers on all organizational levels.

  16. Intelligent Processing Equipment Research and Development Programs of the Department of Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The intelligence processing equipment (IPE) research and development (R&D) programs of the Department of Commerce are carried out within the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This institute has had work in support of industrial productivity as part of its mission since its founding in 1901. With the advent of factory automation these efforts have increasingly turned to R&D in IPE. The Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory (MEL) of NIST devotes a major fraction of its efforts to this end while other elements within the organization, notably the Material Science and Engineering Laboratory, have smaller but significant programs. An inventory of all such programs at NIST and a representative selection of projects that at least demonstrate the scope of the efforts are presented.

  17. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (EI) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, four assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (1 year after the conclusion of the intervention). The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1) EI (attention, clarity, emotional repair); (2) assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3) internal control of anger; and (4) the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  18. Innovative Mobile Robot Method: Improving the Learning of Programming Languages in Engineering Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Octavio Ortiz; Pastor Franco, Juan Ángel; Alcover Garau, Pedro María; Herrero Martín, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a study of teaching a programming language in a C programming course by having students assemble and program a low-cost mobile robot. Writing their own programs to define the robot's behavior raised students' motivation. Working in small groups, students programmed the robots by using the control structures of structured…

  19. Language Planning and the Programs in Filipino of Higher Education Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Jaine Z. Tarun

    2016-01-01

    This study was focused on the language planning and the programs in Filipino of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Region 02, Philippines. It aimed to evaluate the extent of contributions in the implementation of national and institutional academic language policies and programs on Filipino in the General Education Curriculum (GEC), Bilingual / Multilingual Education, translation of books and articles, instructional materials development using Filipino and other languages in ...

  20. Impact of Augmented Reality on Programming Language Learning: Efficiency and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chin-Hung; Chen, Jr-Yi; Chen, Zhi-Hong

    2018-01-01

    Although the learning of programming language is critical in science and technology education, it might be difficult for some students, especially novices. One possible reason might be the fact that programming language, especially for three-dimensional (3D) applications, is too complex and abstract for these students to understand. Programming…

  1. An empirical study on the usage of the swift programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reboucas, M.; Pinto, G.; Ebert, F.; Torres, W.; Serebrenik, A.; Castor, F.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Apple released Swift, a modern programming language built to be the successor of Objective-C. In less than a year and a half after its first release, Swift became one of the most popular programming languages in the world, considering different popularity measures. A significant part of

  2. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  3. Radboud Sensis program for language, speech, and communication in children with visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Hartog, E. de; Jespers, C.; Wals, T. de

    2005-01-01

    The Radboud Sensis program is intended to promote language, speech, and communication in children with visual impairments and their caregivers. Starting-point has been that such an intervention program can be a useful tool, not only for language and communication itself, but also for attachment,

  4. Dual Language Immersion Program Equity and Access: Is There Equity for All Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Patricia Espinoza

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed methods study of K-12 school administrators with dual language immersion school leadership expertise. The paramount research focus was to identify equity and access issues in dual language immersion programs serving grades K-12, as identified by school administrators who have led such programs. A total pool of 498 were invited to…

  5. The Relationships among Group Size, Participation, and Performance of Programming Language Learning Supported with Online Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among group size, participation, and learning performance factors when learning a programming language in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) context. An online forum was used as the CSCL environment for learning the Microsoft ASP.NET programming language. The collaborative-learning experiment…

  6. Language Immersion Programs for Young Children? Yes . . . but Proceed with Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Anne K.

    2010-01-01

    A dual immersion program in Chinese and English at the 3e International School in Beijing is helping children become fluent in both languages, even though many students spoke neither language when they entered the school. Children enter the program as young as two years old. Studies indicate that bilingual children have higher levels of cognitive…

  7. The Application of Visual Basic Computer Programming Language to Simulate Numerical Iterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Baba HASSAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the application of Visual Basic Computer Programming Language to Simulate Numerical Iterations, the merit of Visual Basic as a Programming Language and the difficulties faced when solving numerical iterations analytically, this research paper encourage the uses of Computer Programming methods for the execution of numerical iterations and finally fashion out and develop a reliable solution using Visual Basic package to write a program for some selected iteration problems.

  8. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  9. Development of Intelligent Database Program for PSI/ISI Data Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Un Su; Park, Ik Keun; Um, Byong Guk; Park, Yun Won; Kang, Suk Chul

    1998-01-01

    For an effective and efficient management of large amounts of preservice/inservice inspection(PSI/ISI) data in nuclear power plants, an intelligent Windows 95-based data management program was developed. This program enables the prompt extraction of previously conducted PSI/ISI conditions and results so that the time-consuming data management, painstaking data processing and analysis in the past are avoided. The program extracts, and the associated remedies. Furthermore, additional inspection data and comments can be easily added or deleted for subsequent PSI/ISI operation. Although the initial version of the program was applied to Kori nuclear power plant, this program can be equally applied to other nuclear power plant. And also this program can be used to offer the fundamental data for application of evaluation data related to fracture mechanics analysis(FMA), probabilistic reliability assessment(PRA) of PSI/ISI results, performance demonstration initiative(PDI) and risk-informed ISI based on probability of detection(POD) information of ultrasonic examination. Besides, the program can be further developed as a unique PSI/ISI data management expert system that can be apart of PSI/ISI data management expert system that can be a part of PSI/ISI Total Support System(TSS) for Korean nuclear power plants

  10. When technology became language: the origins of the linguistic conception of computer programming, 1950-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofre, David; Priestley, Mark; Alberts, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages of logic and linguistics. The article argues that this transformation was related to the appearance of the commercial computer in the mid-1950s. Managers of computing installations and specialists on computer programming in academic computer centers, confronted with an increasing variety of machines, called for the creation of "common" or "universal languages" to enable the migration of computer code from machine to machine. Finally, the article shows how the idea of a universal language was a decisive step in the emergence of programming languages, in the recognition of computer programming as a proper field of knowledge, and eventually in the way we think of the computer.

  11. PROLOG to the Future: A Glimpse of Things to Come in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herther, Nancy K.

    1986-01-01

    Briefly introduces the programming languages of artificial intelligence and presents information on some of the new versions of these languages available for microcomputers. A tutorial for PROLOG-86, a new microcomputer version of PROLOG, is given. Information on other microcomputer versions of these programs and a bibliography are included.…

  12. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib Farooq

    Full Text Available Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL. The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores.

  13. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores.

  14. Benchmarks of programming languages for special purposes in the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoebel, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    Although Ada is likely to be chosen as the principal programming language for the Space Station, certain needs, such as expert systems and robotics, may be better developed in special languages. The languages, LISP and Prolog, are studied and some benchmarks derived. The mathematical foundations for these languages are reviewed. Likely areas of the space station are sought out where automation and robotics might be applicable. Benchmarks are designed which are functional, mathematical, relational, and expert in nature. The coding will depend on the particular versions of the languages which become available for testing.

  15. Development of intelligent database program for PSI/ISI data management of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Byong Guk; Park, Un Su; Park, Ik Keun; Park, Yun Won; Kang, Suk Chul

    1998-01-01

    An intelligent database program has been developed under fully compatible with windows 95 for the construction of total support system and the effective management of Pre-/In-Service Inspection data. Using the database program, it can be executed the analysis and multi-dimensional evaluation of the defects detected during PSI/ISI in the pipe and the pressure vessel of the nuclear power plants. And also it can be used to investigate the NDE data inspected repetitively and the contents of treatment, and to offer the fundamental data for application of evaluation data related to Fracture Mechanics Analysis(FMA). Furthermore, the PSI/ISI database loads and material properties can be utilized to secure the higher degree of safety, integrity, reliability, and life-prediction of components and systems in nuclear power plant.

  16. Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

  17. CAMAC module control from the TPA-1001/i by means of the FOCAL programming language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, A.Kh.; Dubovik, L.V.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of using FOCAL programming language to control CAMAC modules by minicomputer is considered. This language allows to make effective changes in the program and reduce the time necessary for writing and running programmes. To address CAMAC modules a packet of CAMAC subroutines from the CAMAC-tr A/i software is included into FOCAL language, its operational possibilities and linguistic peculiarities being completely preserved. A big fast memory enables one to add three additional functions to the function list of FOCAL language. An example is given illustrating the use of these functions

  18. The comparison and selection of programming languages for high energy physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a comparison is presented of programming languages in the context of high energy physics software applications. The evaluation method uses was specifically devised to address the issues of particular importance to HEP applications, not just the technical features of the languages considered. The candidate languages evaluated were Ada, C, FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 8x, Pascal and PL/I. Some conclusions are drawn and recommendations made regarding the role of FORTRAN and other programming languages in the current and future development of HEP software. (orig.)

  19. Estimating radiological consequences using the Java programming language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, J.; Hayward, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Information Management Div; Harris, F.; Domel, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Safety Div.

    1998-12-31

    At the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) a model is being developed to determine critical parameters affecting radioactive doses to humans following a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Java programming language was chosen because of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) capabilities and its portability across computer platforms, which were a requirement for the application, called RadCon. The mathematical models are applied over the 2D region, performing time varying calculations of dose to humans for each grid point, according to user selected options. The information combined includes: two dimensional time varying air and ground concentrations, transfer factors from soil to plant, plant to animal, plant to humans, plant interception factors to determine amount of radionuclide on plant surfaces, dosimetric data, such as dose conversion factors and user defined parameters, e.g. soil types, lifestyle, diet of animals and humans. Details of the software requirements, pathway parameters and implementation of RadCon are given 10 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-02

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems.

  1. The Julia programming language: the future of scientific computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, John

    2017-11-01

    Julia is an innovative new open-source programming language for high-level, high-performance numerical computing. Julia combines the general-purpose breadth and extensibility of Python, the ease-of-use and numeric focus of Matlab, the speed of C and Fortran, and the metaprogramming power of Lisp. Julia uses type inference and just-in-time compilation to compile high-level user code to machine code on the fly. A rich set of numeric types and extensive numerical libraries are built-in. As a result, Julia is competitive with Matlab for interactive graphical exploration and with C and Fortran for high-performance computing. This talk interactively demonstrates Julia's numerical features and benchmarks Julia against C, C++, Fortran, Matlab, and Python on a spectral time-stepping algorithm for a 1d nonlinear partial differential equation. The Julia code is nearly as compact as Matlab and nearly as fast as Fortran. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1554149.

  2. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  3. Development of Intelligent Method for Differential Diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Dept...Development in a Grammatical SLI boy: Modularity and Innateness, Journal of Neurolinguistics 10, (1997) 75-107. [8] J.P. Craiger, D.F. Goodman, R.J

  4. ENGAGING ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ROBOTICS THROUGH HUMMINGBIRD KIT WITH SNAP! VISUAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Newley; Hasan Deniz; Erdogan Kaya; Ezgi Yesilyurt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hummingbird robotics kit with Snap! programing language was used to introduce basics of robotics to elementary and middle school students. Each student in the robotics program built a robot. The robot building process was open ended. Any specific robotics challenge was not provided to the students. Students’ knowledge about robots and programming language were measured through pre, post, and delayed posttests. Results indicated that students improv...

  5. Mexican immigrant mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerer, Sharon E; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2007-08-01

    This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention program, located in a large urban city in the Midwestern United States. Mother interviews composed the primary source of data. A secondary source of data included children's therapy files and log notes. Following the analysis of interviews through the constant comparative method, grounded theory was generated. The majority of mothers perceived their children as exhibiting a communication delay. Causal attributions were diverse and generally medical in nature (i.e., ear infections, seizures) or due to familial factors (i.e., family history and heredity, lack of extended family). Overall, mothers seemed more focused on their children's speech intelligibility and/or expressive language in comparison to emergent literacy abilities. To promote culturally responsive intervention, mothers recommended that professionals speak Spanish, provide information about the therapy process, and use existing techniques with Mexican immigrant families.

  6. Fuzzy Arden Syntax: A fuzzy programming language for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterlein, Thomas; Mandl, Harald; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The programming language Arden Syntax has been optimised for use in clinical decision support systems. We describe an extension of this language named Fuzzy Arden Syntax, whose original version was introduced in S. Tiffe's dissertation on "Fuzzy Arden Syntax: Representation and Interpretation of Vague Medical Knowledge by Fuzzified Arden Syntax" (Vienna University of Technology, 2003). The primary aim is to provide an easy means of processing vague or uncertain data, which frequently appears in medicine. For both propositional and number data types, fuzzy equivalents have been added to Arden Syntax. The Boolean data type was generalised to represent any truth degree between the two extremes 0 (falsity) and 1 (truth); fuzzy data types were introduced to represent fuzzy sets. The operations on truth values and real numbers were generalised accordingly. As the conditions to decide whether a certain programme unit is executed or not may be indeterminate, a Fuzzy Arden Syntax programme may split. The data in the different branches may be optionally aggregated subsequently. Fuzzy Arden Syntax offers the possibility to formulate conveniently Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) based on the principle of a continuously graded applicability of statements. Furthermore, ad hoc decisions about sharp value boundaries can be avoided. As an illustrative example shows, an MLM making use of the features of Fuzzy Arden Syntax is not significantly more complex than its Arden Syntax equivalent; in the ideal case, a programme handling crisp data remains practically unchanged when compared to its fuzzified version. In the latter case, the output data, which can be a set of weighted alternatives, typically depends continuously from the input data. In typical applications an Arden Syntax MLM can produce a different output after only slight changes of the input; discontinuities are in fact unavoidable when the input varies continuously but the output is taken from a discrete set of possibilities

  7. Intelligent Testing of Traffic Light Programs: Validation in Smart Mobility Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ferrer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart cities, the use of intelligent automatic techniques to find efficient cycle programs of traffic lights is becoming an innovative front for traffic flow management. However, this automatic programming of traffic lights requires a validation process of the generated solutions, since they can affect the mobility (and security of millions of citizens. In this paper, we propose a validation strategy based on genetic algorithms and feature models for the automatic generation of different traffic scenarios checking the robustness of traffic light cycle programs. We have concentrated on an extensive urban area in the city of Malaga (in Spain, in which we validate a set of candidate cycle programs generated by means of four optimization algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimization for Traffic Lights, Differential Evolution for Traffic Lights, random search, and Sumo Cycle Program Generator. We can test the cycles of traffic lights considering the different states of the city, weather, congestion, driver expertise, vehicle’s features, and so forth, but prioritizing the most relevant scenarios among a large and varied set of them. The improvement achieved in solution quality is remarkable, especially for CO2 emissions, in which we have obtained a reduction of 126.99% compared with the experts’ solutions.

  8. Are They All Language Learners?: Educational Labeling and Raciolinguistic Identifying in a California Middle School Dual Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sera J.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript draws from a 2-year multiple-case ethnography on the educational experiences of Mexican immigrant families with California middle schools. The article explores the influence of the political landscape and raciolinguistic ideologies surrounding the nature and implementation of a middle school dual language bilingual program, and it…

  9. The Military Language Tutor (MILT) Program: An Advanced Authoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Sabol, Mark A.; Wisher, Robert A.; Seidel, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Military Language Tutor (MILT), a language-tutor authoring system, examining the development of a proof of principal version of MILT's two-dimensional Arabic microworld, which uses speech input to control an animated agent in solving an authored problem and describing an evaluation of the speech-driven microworld at Fort Campbell,…

  10. Modularity, Working Memory, and Second Language Acquisition: A Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2017-01-01

    Considerable reason exists to view the mind, and language within it, as modular, and this view has an important place in research and theory in second language acquisition (SLA) and beyond. But it has had very little impact on the study of working memory and its role in SLA. This article considers the need for modular study of working memory,…

  11. Association of mandated language access programming and quality of care provided by mental health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R; Snowden, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between language access programming and quality of psychiatric care received by persons with limited English proficiency (LEP). In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health required county Medicaid agencies to implement a "threshold language access policy" to meet the state's Title VI obligations. This policy required Medi-Cal agencies to provide language access programming, including access to interpreters and translated written material, to speakers of languages other than English if the language was spoken by at least 3,000, or 5%, of the county's Medicaid population. Using a longitudinal study design with a nonequivalent control group, this study examined the quality of care provided to Spanish speakers with LEP and a severe mental illness before and after implementation of mandatory language access programming. Quality was measured by receipt of at least two follow-up medication visits within 90 days or three visits within 180 days of an initial medication visit over a period of 38 quarter-years. On average, only 40% of Spanish-speaking clients received at least three medication follow-up visits within 180 days. In multivariate analyses, language access programming was not associated with receipt of at least two medication follow-up visits within 90 days or at least three visits within 180 days. This study found no evidence that language access programming led to increased rates of follow-up medication visits for clients with LEP.

  12. Critical Language Awareness (CLA) for Spanish Heritage Language Programs: Implementing a Complete Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguín Mendoza, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Experts in the field have advocated for critical approaches to Spanish heritage language (HL) curricula in which learners' proficiency in the language varieties that they bring from their homes and communities is considered an asset and culturally valuable knowledge. The proposal described here focuses on the adoption of a programmatic…

  13. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this...

  14. Compiling the parallel programming language NestStep to the CELL processor

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to create a source-to-source compiler which will translate NestStep code to C code. The compiler's job is to replace NestStep constructs with a series of function calls to the NestStep runtime system. NestStep is a parallel programming language extension based on the BSP model. It adds constructs for parallel programming on top of an imperative programming language. For this project, only constructs extending the C language are relevant. The output code will compil...

  15. Genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for the knapsack problem: first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Peter; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for combinatorial optimization, apply this method to several variants of the multidimensional knapsack problem, and discuss its performance relative to Michalewicz's genetic algorithm with penalty functions. With respect to Michalewicz's approach, we demonstrate that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints improves convergence. A final result is that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints is ideally suited to modeling complementarities between items in a knapsack problem: The more complementarities in the problem, the stronger the performance in comparison to its competitors.

  16. Modern X86 assembly language programming 32-bit, 64-bit, SSE, and AVX

    CERN Document Server

    Kusswurm, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Modern X86 Assembly Language Programming shows the fundamentals of x86 assembly language programming. It focuses on the aspects of the x86 instruction set that are most relevant to application software development. The book's structure and sample code are designed to help the reader quickly understand x86 assembly language programming and the computational capabilities of the x86 platform. Major topics of the book include the following: 32-bit core architecture, data types, internal registers, memory addressing modes, and the basic instruction setX87 core architecture, register stack, special

  17. On the accessibility of phonological, orthographic, and semantic aspects of second language vocabulary learning and their relationship with spatial and linguistic intelligences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the differences in the accessibility of phonological, semantic, and orthographic aspects of words in L2 vocabulary learning. For this purpose, a sample of 119 Iranian intermediate level EFL students in a private language institute in Karaj was selected. All of the participants received the same instructional treatment. At the end of the experimental period, three tests were administered based on the previously-taught words. A subset of Gardner’s’ (1983 Multiple Intelligences questionnaire was also used for data collection. A repeated measures one-way ANOVA procedure was used to analyze the obtained data. The results showed significant differences in the accessibility of phonological, semantic, and orthographic aspects of words in second language vocabulary learning. Moreover, to investigate the relationships between spatial and linguistic intelligences and the afore-mentioned aspects of lexical knowledge, a correlational analysis was used. No significant relationships were found between spatial and linguistic intelligences and the three aspects of lexical knowledge. These findings may have theoretical and pedagogical implications for researchers, teachers, and learners.

  18. Adding question answering to an e-tutor for programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kate; Moore, Simon

    Control over a closed domain of textual material removes many question answering issues, as does an ontology that is closely intertwined with its sources. This pragmatic, shallow approach to many challenging areas of research in adaptive hypermedia, question answering, intelligent tutoring and humancomputer interaction has been put into practice at Cambridge in the Computer Science undergraduate course to teach the hardware description language Veri/og. This language itself poses many challenges as it crosses the interdisciplinary boundary between hardware and software engineers, giving rise to severalhuman ontologies as well as theprogramming language itself We present further results from ourformal and informal surveys. We look at further work to increase the dialogue between studentand tutor and export our knowledge to the Semantic Web.

  19. How to Improve Artificial Intelligence through Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent agents, intelligent software applications and artificial intelligent applications from artificial intelligence service providers maymake their way onto the Web in greater number as adaptive software, dynamic programming languages and Learning Algorithms are introduced intoWeb Services. The evolution of Web architecture may allow intelligent applications to run directly on the Web by introducing XML, RDF and logiclayer. The Intelligent Wireless Web’s significant potential for rapidly completing information transactions may take an important contribution toglobal worker productivity. Artificial intelligence can be defined as the study of the ways in which computers can be made to perform cognitivetasks. Examples of such tasks include understanding natural language statements, recognizing visual patterns or scenes, diagnosing diseases orillnesses, solving mathematical problems, performing financial analyses, learning new procedures for solving problems. The term expert system canbe considered to be a particular type of knowledge-based system. An expert system is a system in which the knowledge is deliberately represented“as it is”. Expert systems are applications that make decisions in real-life situations that would otherwise be performed by a human expert. They areprograms designed to mimic human performance at specialized, constrained problem-solving tasks. They are constructed as a collection of IF-THENproduction rules combined with a reasoning engine that applies those rules, either in a forward or backward direction, to specific problems.

  20. Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Programming Techniques to Tactical Guidance for Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John W.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    A research program investigating the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to aid in the development of a Tactical Decision Generator (TDG) for Within-Visual-Range (WVR) air combat engagements is discussed. The application of AI methods for development and implementation of the TDG is presented. The history of the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) program is traced and current versions of the AML program are compared and contrasted with the TDG system. The Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) used by the TDG to aid in the decision-making process are outlined in detail and example rules are presented. The results of tests to evaluate the performance of the TDG versus a version of AML and versus human pilots in the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) are presented. To date, these results have shown significant performance gains in one-versus-one air combat engagements, and the AI-based TDG software has proven to be much easier to modify than the updated FORTRAN AML programs.

  1. Artificial Intelligence in ADA: Pattern-Directed Processing. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeker, Larry H.; And Others

    To demonstrate to computer programmers that the programming language Ada provides superior facilities for use in artificial intelligence applications, the three papers included in this report investigate the capabilities that exist within Ada for "pattern-directed" programming. The first paper (Larry H. Reeker, Tulane University) is…

  2. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  3. A Randomized Field Trial of the Fast ForWord Language Computer-Based Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Benson, James G.; Overman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an independent assessment of the Fast ForWord Language computer-based training program developed by Scientific Learning Corporation. Previous laboratory research involving children with language-based learning impairments showed strong effects on their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech…

  4. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…

  5. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  6. Japanese Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…

  7. A Framework for International Student Participation in Postsecondary U.S. English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Valeriana

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary English language education is a growing field in the United States. While there has been considerable research on international student mobility in higher education, there is limited research on the population's participation in U.S. English language programs (ELPs). This study examined literature in related fields to create a…

  8. Program Verification with Monadic Second-Order Logic & Languages for Web Service Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders

    applications, this implementation forms the basis of a verification technique for imperative programs that perform data-type operations using pointers. To achieve this, the basic logic is extended with layers of language abstractions. Also, a language for expressing data structures and operations along...

  9. Towards provably correct code generation for a hard real-time programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Müller-Olm, Markus

    1994-01-01

    This paper sketches a hard real-time programming language featuring operators for expressing timeliness requirements in an abstract, implementation-independent way and presents parts of the design and verification of a provably correct code generator for that language. The notion of implementation...

  10. Cognitive Style and Achievement in Imperative and Functional Programming Language Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. Paul, Jr.; Munsinger, Brita

    This paper investigates the relationship between learning style and programming achievement in two paradigms: imperative and functional. An imperative language achieves its effect by changing the value of variables by means of assignment statements while functional languages rely on evaluation of expressions rather than side-effects. Learning…

  11. Punjabi Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year…

  12. Students' Perceptions of Bilingualism in Spanish and Mandarin Dual Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research documents students' outcomes in dual language (DL) programs, but there is little examination of students' perceptions of bilingualism and its impact on students' cognitive functioning and social relationships, especially with comparative studies across different target languages and student backgrounds. This study, which…

  13. Applications of artificial intelligence to space station and automated software techniques: High level robot command language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, James W.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop a system that will allow a person not necessarily skilled in the art of programming robots to quickly and naturally create the necessary data and commands to enable a robot to perform a desired task. The system will use a menu driven graphical user interface. This interface will allow the user to input data to select objects to be moved. There will be an imbedded expert system to process the knowledge about objects and the robot to determine how they are to be moved. There will be automatic path planning to avoid obstacles in the work space and to create a near optimum path. The system will contain the software to generate the required robot instructions.

  14. A Comparison of Inter-Professional Education Programs in Preparing Prospective Teachers and Speech and Language Pathologists for Collaborative Language-Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leanne; McNeill, Brigid; Gillon, Gail T.

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring teacher and speech and language pathology graduates are prepared to work collaboratively together to meet the diverse language literacy learning needs of children is an important goal. This study investigated the efficacy of a 3-h inter-professional education program focused on explicit instruction in the language skills that underpin…

  15. [Emotional Intelligence Index: a tool for the routine assessment of mental health promotion programs in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltro, Franco; Ialenti, Valentina; Morales García, Manuel Alejandro; Gigantesco, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    After critical examination of several aspects relating to the evaluation of some dimensions of emotional intelligence through self-assessment tools, is described the procedure of construction and validation of an Index for its measurement, conceived only for the routine assessment of health promotion programs mental in schools that include among their objectives the improvement of emotional intelligence specifically "outcome-oriented". On the basis of the two most common international tools, are listed 27 items plus 6 of control, illustrated two Focus Group (FG) of students (face validity). The scale obtained by FG was administered to 300 students, and the results were submitted to factorial analysis (construct validity). It was also evaluated the internal consistency with Cronbach's Alpha and studied concurrent validity with the emotional quotient inventory, a scale of perceived self-efficacy and a stress test rating. From the analysis of FG all the original items were modified, deleted 4, and reduced the encoding system from 6 to 4 levels of Likert scale. Of the 23 items included in the analysis have emerged five factors (intra-psychic dimension, interpersonal, impulsivity, adaptive coping, sense of self-efficacy) for a total of 15 items. Very satisfactory were the results of the validation process of internal consistency (0.72) and the concurrent validity. The results are positive. It is obtained in fact the shortest routine assessment tool currently available in Italy which constitutes a real Index, for which compilation are required on average 3 minutes. Is emphasized the characteristic of an Index, and not of questionnaire or interview for clinical use, highlighting the only specific use for mental health promotion programs in schools.

  16. A Programming Language Supporting First-Class Parallel Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Symmetric Lisp later in the thesis. 1.5.1.2 Procedures as Data - Comparison with Lisp Classical Lisp[48, 54] has been altered and extended in many ways... manangement problems. A resource manager controls access to one or more resources shared by concurrently executing processes. Database transaction systems...symmetric languages are related to languages based on more classical models? 3. What are the kinds of uniformity that the symmetric model supports and what

  17. Artefact: the division of artificial intelligence, robotics and expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferber, J

    1983-06-01

    The history of artificial intelligence is traced from its beginnings in 1956 to its current coverage of the areas of problem-solving, expert systems and games, natural-language processing, robotics, picture and speech recognition, automatic programming, and computer-aided design and instruction. Each area is reviewed in turn, programming languages and techniques are discussed, and both apocalyptic forecasts and underestimates of future developments are criticised.

  18. In Support of Military Linguists: Integrating the Internet into U.S. Air Force Language Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentine, Susan

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examines the United States Air Force's (USAF) long range goal of having ten percent of its officers proficient in a foreign language by the year 2005 and argues that current USAF programs are insufficient to reach this goal...

  19. Code Maintenance and Design for a Visual Programming Language Graphical User Interface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierson, Graham

    2004-01-01

    This work adds new functionality to an existing visual programming environment. It applies software maintenance techniques for use with the Java Language in a Microsoft Windows operating system environment...

  20. "We Only Speak English Here": English Dominance in Language Diverse, Immigrant After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Melanie Jones; Okamoto, Dina G.; Feldman, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Past research suggests that community after-school programs (ASPs) are crucial sites for culturally relevant programming for minority and immigrant youth; yet, we know little about how ASPs address language in their programming. Using an ethnographic fieldwork approach, we examine the goals and practices of ASP workers serving immigrant youth with…

  1. Constructing the ScratchJr Programming Language in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelance, Dylan J.; Strawhacker, Amanda L.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the growing literature on children and computer programming by focusing on a programming language for children in Kindergarten through second grade. Sixty-two students were exposed to a 6-week curriculum using ScartchJr. They learned foundational programming concepts and applied those concepts to create personally…

  2. An Implementation of the Object-Oriented Concurrent Programming Language SINA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triphathi, Anand; Berge, Eric; Aksit, Mehmet

    SINA is an object-oriented language for distributed and concurrent programming. The primary focus of this paper is on the object-oriented concurrent programming mechanisms of SINA and their implementation. This paper presents the SINA constructs for concurrent programming and inter-object

  3. L'Enseignement des langues assiste par ordinateur: nouvelle pedagogie? (Computer Assisted Language Instruction: New Pedagogy?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkabas, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Recent second language instruction computer software focuses almost exclusively on the structures and forms of language, and on programed learning instead of developing communicative skills. Until artificial intelligence changes these old behavioristic principles, computer-assisted language instruction can only play a minor role in language…

  4. FOREIGN LANGUAGES: Human Capital Approach Needed to Correct Staffing and Proficiency Shortfalls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Although more than 70 federal agencies have foreign language needs, some of the largest programs are concentrated in the Army, the State Department, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Federal...

  5. The use of technology in the promotion of children’s emotional intelligence : the multimedia program “Developing Emotional Intelligence”

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amico, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    "Developing Emotional Intelligence” is an Italian language multimedia tool created for children between 8 and 12 years of age. The software is based on the four ‘branches’ of model of emotional intelligence proposed by Mayer and Salovey and aims to evaluate and improve abilities in perception of emotions; using emotion to facilitate thought; understanding emotions; and managing emotions. In the software, four characters represent the four branches of emotional intelligence and ...

  6. Development of an Artificial Intelligence Programming Course and Unity3d Based Framework to Motivate Learning in Artistic Minded Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    between technical and artistic minded students is, however, increased once the students reach the sixth semester. The complex algorithms of the artificial intelligence course seemed to demotivate the artistic minded students even before the course began. This paper will present the extensive changes made...... to the sixth semester artificial intelligence programming course, in order to provide a highly motivating direct visual feedback, and thereby remove the steep initial learning curve for artistic minded students. The framework was developed with close dialog to both the game industry and experienced master...

  7. The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Diagnostic Radiology: A Survey at a Single Radiology Residency Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Alvarez, Edilberto; Arheart, Kris

    2018-02-21

    Advances in artificial intelligence applied to diagnostic radiology are predicted to have a major impact on this medical specialty. With the goal of establishing a baseline upon which to build educational activities on this topic, a survey was conducted among trainees and attending radiologists at a single residency program. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed. Comparisons of categorical data between groups (trainees and attending radiologists) were made using Pearson χ 2 analysis or an exact analysis when required. Comparisons were made using the Wilcoxon rank sum test when the data were not normally distributed. An α level of 0.05 was used. The overall response rate was 66% (69 of 104). Thirty-six percent of participants (n = 25) reported not having read a scientific medical article on the topic of artificial intelligence during the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of respondents (n = 12) reported using artificial intelligence tools during their daily work. Trainees were more likely to express doubts on whether they would have pursued diagnostic radiology as a career had they known of the potential impact artificial intelligence is predicted to have on the specialty (P = .0254) and were also more likely to plan to learn about the topic (P = .0401). Radiologists lack exposure to current scientific medical articles on artificial intelligence. Trainees are concerned by the implications artificial intelligence may have on their jobs and desire to learn about the topic. There is a need to develop educational resources to help radiologists assume an active role in guiding and facilitating the development and implementation of artificial intelligence tools in diagnostic radiology. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CRITERIA OF LANGUAGE AND PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT SELECTION FOR USE IN THE CAPACITY OF EDUCATIONAL AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro H. Shevchuk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of educational aids is to a large degree treated to be determinative in provision with its efficiency. The languages and programming environments are stated in the article as those that belong to educational aids. The criteria and backgrounds of their selection for educational purpose at the lessons of programming at comprehensive school are treated in the article. The examples of principle characteristics comparison of Pascal and C# are also cited. The article points at the necessity of further analysis of programming languages sampling for use as educational aids in teaching programming.

  9. Increases in Emotional Intelligence After an Online Training Program Are Associated With Better Decision-Making on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Demers, Lauren A; Weber, Mareen; Berryhill, Sarah M; Killgore, William D S

    2018-01-01

    Higher levels of emotional intelligence have been associated with better inter and intrapersonal functioning. In the present study, 59 healthy men and women were randomized into either a three-week online training program targeted to improve emotional intelligence ( n = 29), or a placebo control training program targeted to improve awareness of nonemotional aspects of the environment ( n = 30). Compared to placebo, participants in the emotional intelligence training group showed increased performance on the total emotional intelligence score of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, a performance measure of emotional intelligence, as well as subscales of perceiving emotions and facilitating thought. Moreover, after emotional intelligence training, but not after placebo training, individuals displayed the ability to arrive at optimal performance faster (i.e., they showed a faster learning rate) during an emotion-guided decision-making task (i.e., the Iowa Gambling Task). More specifically, although both groups showed similar performance at the start of the Iowa Gambling Task from pre- to posttraining, the participants in the emotional intelligence training group learned to choose more advantageous than disadvantageous decks than those in the placebo training group by the time they reached the "hunch" period of the task (i.e., the point in the task when implicit task learning is thought to have occurred). Greater total improvements in performance on the Iowa Gambling Task from pre- to posttraining in the emotional intelligence training group were also positively correlated with pre- to posttraining changes in Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test scores, in particular with changes in the ability to perceive emotions. The present study provides preliminary evidence that emotional intelligence can be trained with the help of an online training program targeted at adults; it also suggests that changes in emotional intelligence, as a

  10. [Improvement of universal salt iodization program on the intelligence quotient among children in Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong-qin; Wang, Yan-ling; Zhu, Xiao-nan; Dou, Yu-gui; Li, Hong-bo; Sun, Wei; Zheng, Jing

    2012-09-01

    To assess the improvement of intelligence quotient through an Universal Salt Iodization Supply Program, among children. 3518 and 1611 children were selected from primary schools in Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu in 2006 and 2010 respectively. Intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured by the revised Chinese Combined Raven Test-C2 (CRT-C2). In 2006, the average IQ of children aged 8-10 was 85.1, including 16.7% of them with IQ ≤ 69. The average IQ was between 80-90 in different counties and cities, with significant differences (P 0.05). The average IQ of children aged 8-10 in 2010 was 97.2 and 12 points higher than in 2006 (P 0.05), but in boys (98.8) and in girls (95.9) the difference was significant (P intelligence. However, the average IQ was still lower than the average level of the whole Gansu province in 2010.

  11. I Scratch and Sense but Can I Program? An Investigation of Learning with a Block Based Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an investigation into undergraduate student experiences and views of a visual or "blocks" based programming language and its environment. An additional and central aspect of this enquiry is to substantiate the perceived degree of transferability of programming skills learnt within the visual environment to a typical…

  12. An intelligent environment for dynamic simulation program generation of nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Hiroaki; Gofuku, Akio; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2004-01-01

    A graphical user interface system was developed for the two dynamic simulation systems based on modular programming methods: MSS and DSNP. The following works were made in conjunction with the system development: (1) conversion of the module libraries of both DSNP and MSS, (2) extension of DSNP- pre-compiler, (3) graphical interface for module integration, and (4) automatic converter of simple language descriptions for DSNP, where (1) and (2) were made on an engineering work station, while the rest (3) and (4), on Macintosh HyperCard. By using the graphical interface, a user can specify the structure of a simulation model, geometrical data, initial values of variables, etc. only by handling modules as icon on the pallet fields. The use of extended DSNP pre-compiler then generates the final product of dynamic simulation program automatically. The capability and effectiveness of the system was confirmed by a sample simulation of PWR SBLOCA transient in PORV stuck open event. (author)

  13. C language program analysis system (CLAS) part 1: graphical user interface (GUI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.K.; Seby, A.; Sen, Gopa; Dhodapkar, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    CLAS (C Language Program Analysis System) is a reverse engineering tool intended for use in the verification and validation (V and V) phase of software programs developed in the ANSI C language. From the source code, CLAS generates data pertaining to two conceptual models of software programs viz., Entity-Relationship (E-R) model and Control Flow Graphs (CFG) model. Browsing tools within CLAS, make use of this data, to provide different graphical views of the project. Static analysis tools have been developed earlier for analysing assembly language programs. CLAS is a continuation of this work to provide automated support in analysis of ANSI C language programs. CLAS provides an integrated Graphical User Interface (GUI) based environment under which programs can be analysed into the above mentioned models and the analysed data can be viewed using the browsing tools. The GUI of CLAS is implemented using an OPEN LOOK compliant tool kit XVIEW on Sun SPARC IPC workstation running Sun OS 4.1.1 rev. B. This report describes the GUI of CLAS. CLAS is also expected to be useful in other contexts which may involve understanding architecture/structure of already developed C language programs. Such requirements can arise while carrying out activities like code modification, parallelising etc. (author). 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 appendix

  14. Kreol: A Language Training Program for Peace Corps-Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancienne, Roger

    A course in French-derived Kreol is designed for language learning among Peace Corps volunteers assigned to the Seychelles. The materials consist of 36 lessons on topics of daily communication needs. Lessons contain a story, dialogue, and/or list of expressions, exercises, and vocabulary and grammar notes and translations in the margin. Some…

  15. Virtualization for Cost-Effective Teaching of Assembly Language Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, José O.; Sherratt, R. Simon; Howlett, Des; Guy, Chris G.; Lundqvist, Karsten O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a virtual system that emulates an ARM-based processor machine, created to replace a traditional hardware-based system for teaching assembly language. The virtual system proposed here integrates, in a single environment, all the development tools necessary to deliver introductory or advanced courses on modern assembly language…

  16. English Language Instruction in the Philippine Basic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizconde, Camilla

    2006-01-01

    The study discusses the dynamics English language instruction in the Philippine basic education curriculum. Although English enjoyed immense popularity as early as 1900s during the American entry to the country, its role in Philippine education has transformed gradually as the country undergoes political, social and economic reconstruction in the…

  17. Justifying Innovative Language Programs in an Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the analysis of the literature that has been written on project management and language issues in development, it attempts to show how the Communication Skills programme could benefit from this knowledge on project management and educational change management in the third millennium. The paper concludes that ...

  18. Redefining the Boundaries of Language Study. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire, Ed.

    The papers in this volume fall into five categories. After "Introduction: Making the Invisible Visible" (Claire Kramsch), Part 1, "Theoretical Boundaries," includes "The Metamorphosis of the Foreign Language Director, or: Waking Up to Theory" (Mark Webber) and "Subjects-in-Process: Revisioning TA Development…

  19. Filling the Void: Community Spanish Language Programs in Los Angeles Serving to Preserve the Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Maria M.; Rodriguez, Rey M.

    2011-01-01

    An extensive body of research documents the successes of immigrant groups in establishing community language schools. Studied within this tradition, Latino immigrant communities appear to come up short, because of the scarcity of such schools for Spanish-speaking children. However, as we show in this paper, Latino immigrant communities do have…

  20. Computer programs in BASIC language for atomic absorption flame spectroscopy. Part 1. Operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, W.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    These instructions describe how to use three BASIC language programs to process data from atomic absorption spectrophotometers operated in the flame mode. These programs will also control an automatic sampler if desired. The instructions cover loading the programs, responding to computer prompts, choosing among various options for processing the data, operating the automatic sampler, and producing reports. How the programs differ is also explained. Examples of computer/operator dialogue are presented for typical cases