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Sample records for intellectuals social knowledge

  1. Knowledge Citizens? Intellectual Disability and the Production of Social Meanings within Educational Research

    Taylor, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Intellectual disability may appear to many as a barrier to participation in or the production of educational research. Indeed, a common perception of individuals seen as having cognitive impairments, and especially those with minimal or no verbal communication, is that they are incapable of the reasoning or lack the deliberative capacities…

  2. Good Enough Support? Exploring the Attitudes, Knowledge and Experiences of Practitioners in Social Services and Child Welfare Working with Mothers with Intellectual Disability

    Strnadová, Iva; Bernoldová, Jana; Adamcíková, Zdenka; Klusácek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the attitudes, knowledge and experiences of practitioners in social services and child welfare working with mothers with intellectual disability. Method: The authors used a national survey, which was completed by 329 participants. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were generated, and the associations…

  3. Managing Intellectual Capital in Knowledge Economy

    Mercier-Laurent, Eunika

    2014-01-01

    Part 4: Components of Knowledge Flow; International audience; Strategic Knowledge Management considers Intellectual Capital (IC) as roots of all organizations activities. The success of organizations strongly depends on the way they manage all facets of knowledge and skills. Artificial Intelligence brought some methods and techniques for handling intellectual assets of companies, expertise management, knowledge transfer and training. This paper presents an overview of experiences and research...

  4. Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Skovvang Christensen, Karina; Mouritsen, Jan

    From various angles and perspectives this book shows how knowledge management is actually practised in many different European firms. New dimensions of well-known management principles and concepts emerge by focusing on knowledge. Leading researchers and experts from European business schools offer...... new insight into the range of practical problems that can be addressed and methods that can be applied when knowledge is put on the management agenda....

  5. Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Skovvang Christensen, Karina; Mouritsen, Jan

    From various angles and perspectives this book shows how knowledge management is actually practised in many different European firms. New dimensions of well-known management principles and concepts emerge by focusing on knowledge. Leading researchers and experts from European business schools offer...

  6. The traditional knowledge and the intellectual property

    Calle Vasquez, Rosangela

    1999-01-01

    This article seeks to describe the state of the art in the international context of the traditional knowledge, its content, its recognition, and its valuation. The prosperous results of the biotechnical industry in the scientific and commercial field, has had a great impact in the valuation of the intellectual property, in the context of the globalization of the market. Traditionally the ancestral knowledge of the ethnic communities in the relative thing to the appropriation of the nature for their survival, it has not been considered neither valued in the same terms that the scientific knowledge and therefore, neither it has been analyzed as intellectual property, just as the western right it has structured this special form of property. The convention of the biodiversity, put in undoubtedly the traditional knowledge should be protected and valued, for this reason starting from 1992, the commercial agreements consecrate and they recognize this theme

  7. Impact of socially responsible human resources policies on intellectual capital

    Jesus Barrena-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the benefits that social responsibility can report on the area of human resources, examined the impact of a socially responsible configuration of human resource policies and practices in the generation value process for the company, and more specifically in its intellectual capital. Design/methodology/approach: The study performed a regression analysis, testing the individual effects of socially responsible human resource policies on intellectual capital, broken down into three main variables such as human, social and organizational capital. Findings: The results shed light on how the introduction of socially responsible aspects in the management of human resources can facilitate the exchange of knowledge, skills and attitudes human--capital; lead to improvements in communication, trust, cooperation among employees social-capital and, in turn, generates an institutionalized knowledge encoded in the own organizational culture –organizational capital–. Research limitations/implications: The study only provides information from large companies with over 250 employees. Practical implications: There are important implications in the measure of corporate social responsibility concerns in the area of human resources. Social implications: Also important intangible effects on non-economic variables are confirmed, such as intellectual capital. Originality/value: The value of the study lies in its novelty, testing socially responsible configurations of human resources as well as the direct effects of different policies on intellectual capital.

  8. Knowledge strategies aiming to improve the intellectual capital of universities

    Bejinaru Ruxandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new construct of the intellectual capital structure, based on the multifield theory of knowledge and the concept of nonlinear integrators and to identify the knowledge strategies to enhance the intellectual capital of universities. The paper presents a new approach, based on metaphorical thinking and thermodynamics logic in structuring the intellectual capital, based on the multifield theory of knowledge into its basic building blocks. Considering the two levels of intellectual capital, the paper presents the main knowledge strategies to enhance the university intellectual capital. The basic building blocks of the intellectual capital are: rational, emotional, and spiritual intellectual capital. Each building block is based on the corresponding field of knowledge. There are two significant levels of intellectual capital: potential and operational. Analyzing the university intellectual capital by using this new approach is much more realistic than in the previous approaches. The new approach is based on a thermodynamics paradigm, which means we need to develop new ways of thinking, evaluating, and enhancing the intellectual capital. The paper presents an original approach, based on metaphorical thinking, by considering basic ideas from the energy realm and thermodynamics theory. Also, the paper presents a matrix of possible knowledge strategies to increase the intellectual capital of universities.

  9. Exploring intellectual capital through social network analysis: a conceptual framework

    Ivana Tichá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to assess intellectual capital. Intellectual capital is a key element in an organization’s future earning potential. Theoretical and empirical studies show that it is the unique combination of the different elements of intellectual capital and tangible investments that determines an enterprise´s competitive advantage. Intellectual capital has been defined as the combination of an organization´s human, organizational and relational resources and activities. It includes the knowledge, skills, experience and abilities of the employees, its R&D activities, organizational, routines, procedures, systems, databases and its Intellectual Property Rights, as well as all the resources linked to its external relationships, such as with its customers, suppliers, R&D partners, etc. This paper focuses on the relational capital and attempts to suggest a conceptual framework to assess this part of intellectual capital applying social network analysis approach. The SNA approach allows for mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between, people, groups, organizations, computers, URLs, and other connected information/knowledge entities. The conceptual framework is developed for the assessment of collaborative networks in the Czech higher education sector as the representation of its relational capital. It also builds on the previous work aiming at proposal of methodology guiding efforts to report intellectual capital at the Czech public universities.

  10. Knowledge Dynamics Impact on Intellectual Capital in Organizations

    Ruxandra BEJINARU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the influence of knowledge dynamics processes upon the intellectual capital in organizations. In the literature, the authors focus on knowledge dynamics and knowledge management or intellectual capital but very few papers discuss the influence of knowledge dynamics upon the structure and functionality of intellectual capital in organizations. We use a conceptual approach based on the theory of multifield organizational knowledge and the theory of organizational integrators to demonstrate that intellectual capital structure results from the organizational knowledge dynamics. The well-known model of intellectual capital based on human capital, structural capital and relational capital appears as a meta-model that can be decomposed into rational capital, emotional capital and spiritual capital in organizations.

  11. Mapping Knowledge and Intellectual Capital in Academic Environments

    Hellström, Tomas; Husted, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that knowledge mapping may provide a fruitful avenue for intellectual capital management in academic environments such as university departments. However, while some research has been conducted on knowledge mapping and intellectual capital management in the public sector, the university has so far not been directly considered for this type of management. The paper initially reviews the functions and techniques of knowledge mapping and assesses these in the light ...

  12. Challenges for the University Intellectual Capital in the Knowledge Economy

    Contantin BRĂTIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities have always been fundamental institutions in any society due to their enduring mission of creating new knowledge through research, of training generations of professionals, and providing service for community. They have a long life cycle and need to adapt continuously to their changing environments. In the last decades, the emergence and development of knowledge society put forward new challenges to universities and to managing their intellectual capital. The purpose of this paper is to present three main challenges for the university intellectual capital in the knowledge economy, and to discuss how these challenges can be achieved. These challenges are the following: 1 to unfold the Gordian knot of the canonical model of intellectual capital; 2 to go beyond the Newtonian logic in intellectual capital evaluation and reporting; and 3 to integrate intellectual capital in the strategic thinking of the university. All of these challenges are strongly related to the university performance.

  13. Collaborative Infrastructures for Mobilizing Intellectual Resources: assessing intellectual bandwidth in a knowledge intensive organization

    R. Verhoef; S. Qureshi (Sadja)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe use of intellectual assets of key professionals to provide customized goods and services is seen to be a key characteristic of knowledge intensive organizations. While knowledge management efforts have become popular in organizations that depend on the knowledge and skills of their

  14. Mapping Knowledge and Intellectual Capital in Academic Environments

    Hellström, Tomas; Husted, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that knowledge mapping may provide a fruitful avenue for intellectual capitalmanagement in academic environments such as university departments. However, while some researchhas been conducted on knowledge mapping and intellectual capital management in the public sector...... reflect of the uses of knowledge mapping at their departments and institutes. Finally a number ofsuggestions are made as to the rationale and conduct of knowledge mapping in academe.Keywords: Knowledge mapping, academic, intellectual capital management, focus group, researchmanagement......,the university has so far not been directly considered for this type of management. The paper initiallyreviews the functions and techniques of knowledge mapping and assesses these in the light of academicdemands. Secondly, the result of a focus group study is presented, where academic leaders were askedto...

  15. Knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability

    Jasielska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability. The premises relating to mental functioning of these children suggest that this knowledge is poorer and less complex than the knowledge of their peers in the intellectual norm. The study used the authoring tool to measure children’s knowledge of emotions including the joy. This tool takes into account the cognitive representation of the basic emotions available in three codes: image, verbal, semantic and interconnection between the codes - perception, symbolization and conceptualization which perform the functions of perception, expression and understanding. The study included children with the intellectual norm (N = 30 and children with mild intellectual disability (N = 30. The obtained results mainly indicate the differences in how the happiness is understood by particular groups, to the detriment of children with disability. The character of the results is largely determined by the level of organization of knowledge about the joy and accompanying mental operations. The results will be discussed, among others, in the context of the adjustment of the programs of lasting increase of happiness for people with intellectual disability.

  16. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  17. Towards Ontology as Knowledge Representation for Intellectual Capital Measurement

    Zadjabbari, B.; Wongthongtham, P.; Dillon, T. S.

    For many years, physical asset indicators were the main evidence of an organization’s successful performance. However, the situation has changed after information technology revolution in the knowledge-based economy. Since 1980’s business performance has not been limited only to physical assets instead intellectual capital are increasingly playing a major role in business performance. In this paper, we utilize ontology as a tool for knowledge representation in the domain of intellectual capital measurement. The ontology classifies ways of intangible capital measurement.

  18. The role of intellectual capital in promoting knowledge management initiatives

    Mansour Esmaeil Zaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of intellectual capital in promotion of successful knowledge management (KM initiatives. The conclusions are based on the results of field studies conducted in the subsidiary companies of Ministry of Energy of Islamic Republic of Iran (Sistan & Baluchestan Province. Before designing the conceptual framework, relevant literature pertaining to the history of the work at hand, was reviewed by the researcher. Based on the opinions of external experts, university professors and organization’s experienced executives, a research model was developed. Tools such as textual analysis and interviews were employed to explore relationships between intellectual capital and knowledge management. A survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire which measured research variables like intellectual capital indexes and KM processes. The output of structural equations models (SEM and LISREL statistical software showed that intellectual capital and its components have direct effects in promoting KM processes in the subsidiary companies of Ministry of Energy of Islamic Republic of Iran (Sistan & Baluchestan Province. By improving intellectual capital and its indexes, knowledge management can be improved.

  19. Developments in Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge Protection

    Anderson, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In order to protect indigenous/traditional knowledge, intellectual property law must be leveraged in a way that is responsive to the dynamic inter-relationships between law, society and culture. Over the last decade, increased attention to Indigenous concerns has produced a wealth of literature and prompted recognition of the diverse needs of…

  20. THE ROLE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN KNOWLEDGE - BASED SOCIETY

    Denisa-Elena Parpandel

    2013-01-01

    In a knowledge - based society, organizations undergo permanent changes and transformations, and the key factor of such changes is intellectual capital regarded as one of the most critical, yet most strategic values an organization might own. Analyzing intelectual capital and knowledge society over the last decades has primarily emerged in private companies, whereas at present there is an increasing concern in all the fields of activity. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the im...

  1. THE ROLE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL IN KNOWLEDGE - BASED SOCIETY

    Denisa-Elena Parpandel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a knowledge - based society, organizations undergo permanent changes and transformations, and the key factor of such changes is intellectual capital regarded as one of the most critical, yet most strategic values an organization might own. Analyzing intelectual capital and knowledge society over the last decades has primarily emerged in private companies, whereas at present there is an increasing concern in all the fields of activity. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the importance of intellectual capital as a source of innovation and novelty used to create competitive advantages for organizations in the era of knowledge where man must rely on intellect, intuition and creativity. The present paper is an exploratory endeavour based on the qualitative method as various information sources are resorted to in order to conceptualize the terms of intellectual capital and knowledge society: specialty literature, case studies, mass-media articles, reports of in-field organizations etc. Organizations should use all the tangible or non-tangible resources they have in order to secure their success and also to build a knowledge society which involves going a long way, based on an ample, complex process where innovation has a major role and a global nature.

  2. Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital: Establishing a Field of Practice

    and techniques involving many different management areas have been introduced. Taking a variety of angles and perspectives this book shows how knowledge management is actually practised in many different European firms. By focusing on knowledge, new dimensions of well-known management principles and concepts......Evidence in recent years of increasing interest in knowledge and how to manage it can be observed not only in the management literature but also in companies. The introduction of new views has taken place under headings such as "knowledge management" and intellectual capital. Several new methods...... emerge. Leading researchers and experts from European business schools offer new insight into the range of practical problems that can be addressed and methods that can be applied when knowledge is put on the management agenda....

  3. Some Tax Implications of Traditional Knowledge Under Conventional Intellectual Property

    T Gutuza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed incorporation of traditional intellectual property into the definition of copyright, trade-marks and designs as defined in the Copyright Act 98 of 1978, the Trade Marks Act 94 of 1993 and the Designs Act 195 of 1993 may affect the income tax liability of parties where traditional knowledge is the object of such a transaction. The aim of this contribution is to consider the potential income tax consequences of this incorporation for those receiving income and incurring expenditure in relation to the use or disposal of traditional knowledge.

  4. Public Knowledge, Private Knowledge: The Intellectual Capital of Entrepreneurs. NBER Working Paper No. 14797

    Link, Albert; Ruhm, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the innovative actions of entrepreneurs, namely their tendency to reveal the intellectual capital that results from their research efforts either in the form of public knowledge (publications) or private knowledge (patents). Using data collected by the National Research Council within the U.S. National Academies from their…

  5. The transposition of musical knowledge in intellectual education

    Carla Cuomo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European citizenship in the era of complexity requires that the transmission of knowledge be directed towards an intellectual formation, that is, the ‘shaping’ of a critical mind, one that is able to problematize, and hence to discern. This can be achieved by educating towards comprehension. In facing this issue, musicologists ask themselves ‘what to teach’ and ‘how to teach’ it, in order to prepare students to the comprehension of music – these questions form the basis of music didactics as the science of ‘transposing’ savoir savant (learned knowledge into savoir enseigné (didactic knowledge. The paper proposes a model appraoch to music comprehension, through the didactic transposition of a piece by Claude Debussy, La cathédrale engloutie. The example is based on a strategy developed by musicological and methodological-didactic research, and focuses on the continuity among listening, music performance, and music history.

  6. The transposition of musical knowledge in intellectual education

    Carla Cuomo; Maria Rosa De Luca

    2014-01-01

    The construction of European citizenship in the era of complexity requires that the transmission of knowledge be directed towards an intellectual formation, that is, the ‘shaping’ of a critical mind, one that is able to problematize, and hence to discern. This can be achieved by educating towards comprehension. In facing this issue, musicologists ask themselves ‘what to teach’ and ‘how to teach’ it, in order to prepare students to the comprehension of music – these questions form the basis of...

  7. Social Media for Knowledge Management

    Dyrby, Signe

    2013-01-01

    of social media as a tool for knowledge management presents an interesting addition to existing knowledge management initiatives. In this research in progress paper, social media for knowledge management is explored through investigating the research question, how can social media influence knowledge...... and show multiple opportunities and challenges for adopting these initiatives into organizational practices. In recent years social media technologies have entered the organizational spheres with the objective of connecting people and enabling them to share and build knowledge. The application and use...... management practices in organizations? The investigation builds on a theoretical reflection of the concepts of knowledge management practices and social media. The method for the theoretical investigation is based in the outline of core literature perspectives dealing with knowledge management practices...

  8. Understanding Sources of Knowledge for Coaches of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities

    MacDonald, Dany J.; Beck, Katie; Erickson, Karl; Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent research has investigated development of coaching knowledge; however, less research has investigated the development of coaches who coach athletes with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this study was to understand how coaches of athletes with intellectual disabilities gain their knowledge. Method: Forty-five Special…

  9. The role of HRM practices in building intellectual capital in knowledge-based teams

    Jørgensen, Frances; Becker, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the ways HRM systems support development of intellectual capital in teams in three case studies of knowledge-intensive firms (KIFs) in Denmark. By focusing on team composition and structure, findings build on the rapidly growing body of literature on HRM’s role....... The findings also have managerial implications regarding the need to align team composition and structure, HRM systems, and intellectual capital focus to support development of team-based intellectual capital....

  10. Knowledge Strategies in Using Social Networks

    Contantin BRĂTIANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge strategy selection is a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM problem, and requires adequate methods to solve it appropriately. Knowledge strategies are also intrinsically linked to individuals and their ability to comprehend the world and leverage their intellectual assets to respond e!ectively to a fast changing environment. the essential features of social networking sites include but are not limited to: blogging, grouping, networking and instant messaging. Since the social networks facilitate communication and interaction among users, there is a continuous need of researches to examine what are the motives that a!ect the acceptance of usage of the social networks. This study aims at examining the role of the knowledge strategies that individuals employ in using social networks with respect to the overall objective of increasing the knowledge level. For this purpose we have used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP mathematical model since it allows us a structuring of the overall objective on the main components. For the present research we considered a structure composed of three levels: L1 – the purpose of networking, L2 – strategies used to achieve that purpose, and L3 – activities needed for strategies implementation. At the upper level (L1, the main objective of a person in using social networks is to increase its knowledge level. To obtain the aforementioned objective we considered for the second level (L2 the following strategies: S1 – to learn from other persons; S2 – to make new friends; S3 – to increase the personal experience and visibility. the implementation of these strategies is realized through the following activities considered at the third hierarchy level (L3: A1– joining general social networks (e.g. Facebook, Google+, MySpace, Hi5 etc.; A2– joining professional social networks (e.g. LinkedIn etc.; A3– creating a personal blog (e.g. Blogster, Wordpress etc.; A4– joining online communities of

  11. Attitudes towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities among nursing, social work and medical students.

    Kritsotakis, George; Galanis, Petros; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Meidani, Flora; Philalithis, Anastas E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Sourtzi, Panayota

    2017-12-01

    To examine and compare undergraduate healthcare students' attitudes towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities in Greece. The experience that people with disabilities have with health care is a complex interaction between their medical condition and the social and physical environment. Attitudes of the nursing and healthcare staff affect the quality of care and people's adaptation to their disability, self-image and rehabilitation outcomes. Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Nursing, Social Work and Medicine students (N = 1007, 79.4% female) attending three universities (Athens, Crete) completed during 2014-2016 two standardised scales regarding physical (ATDP-B) and intellectual disability (CLAS-ID). Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Attitudes towards people with physical disabilities in Greece (ATDP-B scores) were poor with scores just above the mid-point. Medical studies and higher knowledge and work with individuals with physical disabilities signified marginally more positive attitudes. Gender and age displayed no associations with attitudes. Regarding intellectual disability (CLAS-ID scores), nursing students had slightly less positive attitudes in "Similarity" but more positive attitudes in "Sheltering" subscales. Previous work and contact was related to more favourable and higher age to less favourable "Similarity" and "Sheltering" attitudes. Males had higher "Exclusion" scores. Those who knew people with intellectual disabilities had less favourable "Empowerment" attitudes. Knowledge was related to more positive attitudes in all four CLAS-ID subscales. Greek health and social care students showed poor attitudes towards people with physical and intellectual disability. When holding unfavourable attitudes, healthcare professionals become less involved with the people they care for and they do not provide nursing care to the best of their abilities. Undergraduate and continuing education, along with

  12. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  13. Entrepreneurial dynamics and social responsibility: mapping an expanded intellectual territory

    Blundel, Richard; Spence, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To provide a constructive critique of the interface between the entrepreneurial growth dynamics research and social responsibility literatures; (2) to explore opportunities for making new connections between these literatures in order to address substantive ‘gaps’ in research and policy-making ; (3) to map the broader intellectual territory implied by this critique; (4) to outline a tentative research agenda. \\ud Prior work: The paper draws on two main strands of research: ent...

  14. Thinking Socially: Teaching Social Knowledge to Foster Social Behavioral Change

    Crooke, Pamela J.; Winner, Michelle Garcia; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the complexity of what it means to "be social" from the perspective of social thinking. This perspective recognizes social cognitive processing abilities as the foundation for social knowledge and, in turn, social behaviors. The article further describes variables that influence how one understands how to do what…

  15. Social web and knowledge management

    Dolog, Peter; Kroetz, Markus; Schaffert, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge Management is the study and practice of representing, communicating, organizing, and applying knowledge in organizations. Moreover, being used by organizations, it is inherently social. The Web, as a medium, enables new forms of communications and interactions and requires new ways...... to represent knowledge assets. It is therefore obvious that the Web will influence and change Knowledge Management, but it is very unclear what the impact of these changes will be. This chapter raises questions and discusses visions in the area that connects the Social Web and Knowledge Management – an area...... of research that is only just emerging. The World Wide Web conference 2008 in Beijing hosted a workshop on that question, bringing together researchers and practitioners to gain first insights toward answering questions of that area....

  16. Traditional Knowledge, Biological Resources and Intellectual Property Rights in Asia: The Example of the Philippines

    Antons, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights has become a topic for intensive debates at the national level, in various international settings and within and among different UN agencies, including the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), UNESCO, UNCTAD and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). However, a consensus on a definition of traditional knowledge has yet to emerge due to persisten...

  17. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT PROCESSES: AN INTEGRATED CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    HENAO-CALAD, MONICA; RIVERA-MONTOYA, PAULA; URIBE-OCHOA, BEATRIZ

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intellectual property management, knowledge management are disciplines that have been treated independently, both in academia and in the organizational field. Through the legal discipline of intellectual property, the former manages intangible assets that are eligible for protection (copyright, patents and trademarks, among others) leaving aside those assets that cannot be realized in any way. The latter is devoted to the processes of knowledge management in general, namely, the know...

  18. Socially responsible intellectual property: a solution?

    Abbe E. L. Brown

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the extent to which the present global IP system contains an inherent imbalance between the rights of IP owning corporations and IP users, and the public benefit. It also studies the potential relevance of human rights in redressing any imbalance within existing institutional and legal fora. The article focuses on the relevance of corporate social responsibility (“CSR” related concepts, particularly in conjunction with legal human rights based arguments, to redress any imbalance by tempering the global conduct of IP owning corporations; how this new approach could be enforced, if at all, and the resulting lessons for IP and its future.

  19. General Nutrition Knowledge among Carers at Group Homes for People with Intellectual Disability

    Hamzaid, N. H.; Flood, V. M.; Prvan, T.; O'Connor, H. T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Good nutrition knowledge among carers of people with intellectual disability (ID) living in group homes is essential as they have a primary role in food provision for residents. Research on the nutrition knowledge of carers is limited. Method: This cross-sectional study assessed the level of general nutrition knowledge in a convenience…

  20. Social support and intellectual disabilities: a comparison between social networks of adults with intellectual disability and those with physical disability.

    Lippold, T; Burns, J

    2009-05-01

    Social support has been identified as a major protective factor in preventing mental health problems and also as a major contributor to quality of life. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been identified as having limited social support structures. Interventions have been focused on promoting their social presence and integration. However, previous studies have shown that this does not always lead to the formation of social relationships. To date few studies have looked at how having an ID leads to impoverished social networks. This study aimed to do this by contrasting the social relationships of people with physical disabilities (PD) and people with ID. Two groups of participants were recruited; 30 people with mild ID and 17 people with PD. Social and functional support networks were assessed, in addition to life experiences. Between and within group differences were then explored statistically. Adults with ID had more restricted social networks than PD, despite being involved in more activities. Social support for adults with ID was mainly provided by family and carers and few relationships with non-disabled people were identified. In contrast adults with PD had larger social networks than had been reported in the mainstream literature and had a balance of relationships with disabled and non-disabled people. The results suggest that there are additional processes attached to having an ID, which lead to continued impoverished lifestyles. The findings also endorse other work that suggests being physically integrated and engaged in a wide range of activities does not guarantee good social and emotional support.

  1. Strengthening the Knowledge Base for Public Interest Intellectual ...

    Rigid intellectual property norms and intensified enforcement have prompted media and medicine suppliers alike to price their products beyond the reach of all but the most affluent segment of the population. This is particularly the case in large middle income countries such as Brazil, India, Russia and South Africa.

  2. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  3. Social Interaction with Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Having Fun and Hanging Out

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…

  4. Social Inclusion and People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour: A Systematic Review

    Bigby, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. Method: A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been…

  5. Intellectual skills needed for the effective learning and application of chemical knowledge

    Drummond, Helen P.; Selvaratnam, Mailoo

    2009-01-01

    Many students' difficulties in learning and applying chemical knowledge are associated with their being incompetent in a few widely applicable intellectual skills and strategies. This paper discusses the results of a study that was done to test first year university students' competence in some types of intellectual skills that are important in chemistry. The skills tested include language skills, mathematical skills, graphical skills, three-dimensional visualization skills, information proce...

  6. Prioritizing the Relative Dominance of Drivers for Intellectual Entrepreneuring Through the Tertiary Knowledge Industry.

    Jonathan N. Agwe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge industry is becoming the dominant contributor to sustainable growth. It is causing a paradigm drift towards knowledge capitalization for improvement of productivity-driven competition to attain better economic performance, wealth generation, and development. Research has identified an “intellectual entrepreneurial capacity gap” as the constraint to attaining equity between developed and developing economies. The gap is fuelling the growing technological innovation divide – the widening boundary between developed and developing economies. As a contribution to reducing the gap, this paper presents a conceptual framework of drivers for intellectual entrepreneurial capacity in knowledge capitalization for technological and economic leapfrogging in development.

  7. Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind and social adjustment in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Fiasse, Catherine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind (ToM) and social adjustment were investigated in 45 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) compared with 45 typically developing (TD) preschoolers, matched for developmental age assessed by means of the Differential Scales of Intellectual Efficiency-Revised edition (EDEI-R, Perron-Borelli, 1996). Children's understanding of beliefs and emotions was assessed by means of ToM belief tasks (Nader-Grosbois & Thirion-Marissiaux, 2011) and ToM emotion tasks (Nader-Grosbois & Thirion-Marissiaux, 2011). Seven items from the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for children (PSPCSA, Harter & Pike, 1980) assessed children's perceived social acceptance. Their teachers completed the Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hughes, Soares-Boucaud, Hochmann, & Frith, 1997). For both groups together, the results showed that perceived social acceptance mediates the relation between ToM skills and social adjustment. The presence or absence of intellectual disabilities does not moderate the relations either between ToM skills and perceived social acceptance, or between perceived social acceptance and social adjustment. The study did not confirm the difference hypothesis of structural and relational patterns between these three processes in children with ID, but instead supported the hypothesis of a similar structure that develops in a delayed manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research Paper: Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Behavioral Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Abbas Nesayan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This research showed that social skills training were not significantly effective on behavioral problems in adolescents with intellectual disability. Although our results were not effective, research evidence shows that people with cognitive delays (such as intellectual disability require social skill training programs that include all of their academic, career, daily life, and social skills. As social skills learning plays a role in personal and social adjustment, it is necessary to pay more attention to these skills.

  9. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group.

    Wilson, Nathan J; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L

    2017-09-01

    People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived experiences of a supported social group. Data were analysed using descriptive phenomenology. Two themes emerged (i) supported engagement fosters wellbeing, and (ii) developing social belonging and connectedness. Participants not only acknowledged the support that they needed to participate, but also that the social group had changed their lives in many ways. Adults with intellectual disability want to socialise, have friends and be part of their community. For this to be achieved, they recognise the need to seek some form of support. With appropriate and targeted support, adults with intellectual disability can move from social exclusion towards supported inclusion and experience richer lives. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Methods: Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived…

  11. Leveraging Social Capital of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities through Participation on Facebook.

    Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

    2018-01-01

    Participation in social networking sites has considerable potential to leverage the individual's social capital, including persons with intellectual disabilities, whose real-world social networks are fairly limited. This study aimed to understand how individuals with intellectual disabilities use Facebook to access social capital benefits, if at all. Qualitative interviews and observations were conducted with 20 adult Facebook users with intellectual disabilities. The online participation enhanced their bonding social capital as well as contributed to their psychological well-being through increasing their online visibility, popularity and sense of belonging. At the same time, they experienced stress and frustration due to usage difficulties, which prevented them from enhancing their bridging social capital. Participation in social networking sites may also leverage bridging social capital of persons with intellectual disabilities, but they need a more accessible platform and ongoing support to ensure safe and fruitful participation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Social inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities in the military.

    Werner, Shirli; Hochman, Yael

    2017-06-01

    Despite policies advocating the social inclusion of persons with disabilities in all settings that are a part of everyday life within society, individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are usually excluded from service in the military. This study examined the meaning of service in the military for individuals with ID from the perspective of various stakeholder groups. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 individuals with ID, 36 relatives, and 28 commanders. The recent model for social inclusion developed by Simplican et al. (2015) served as the basis for analyses. Findings suggest a successful social inclusion process for individuals with ID, which resulted in them feeling as an integral part and as contributing members of the military unit and of society at large. Social inclusion in the military was described with reference to two overlapping and interacting domains of interpersonal relationships and community participation. The interaction between interpersonal relationships within the military and community participation has led to positive outcomes for soldiers with ID. Recommendations are provided for the continued inclusion of individuals with ID in the military and in other everyday settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT COUPLED TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM LEAD TO BUSINESS SUCCESS

    Stevan Živojinović

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available From the vantage point of contemporary management paradigm shift and new knowledge-based economy, we underscore the importance of relations and support of quality management system - QMS (according to ISO 9001 standard for management of knowledge and intellectual capital. QMS implementation, documenting, application, maintenance and continuous improvement, as a catalyst of effective organization management, provides a foundation for effective knowledge management and intellectual capital enlargement, via knowledge, skills, management systems, procedures, information and product flow, culture, inovation, relations with customers and other stakeholders. Simultaneous implementation and dynamic interaction of these advanced management concepts intended to attain competitive advantage can result in synergic effects and improved performance. From the perspective of knowledge, as a central unifying notion, organizational behavior based on learning influences long-term business success, process effectiveness and customer satisfaction.

  14. The role of nurses/social workers in using a multidimensional guideline for diagnosis of anxiety and challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities

    Pruijssers, A.; Meijel, B. van; Maaskant, M.; Keeman, N.; Teerenstra, S.; Achterberg, T. van

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study seeks (1) to investigate the impact of the implementation of the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and challenging behaviours in clients with intellectual disability' on nurses/social workers' knowledge and self-efficacy; and (2) to evaluate the role of nurses/social

  15. The role of nurses/social workers in using a multidimensional guideline for diagnosis of anxiety and challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities

    Pruijssers, A.; van Meijel, B.; Maaskant, M.; Keeman, N.; Teerenstra, S.; van Achterberg, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: This study seeks (1) to investigate the impact of the implementation of the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and challenging behaviours in clients with intellectual disability' on nurses/social workers' knowledge and self-efficacy; and (2) to evaluate the role of nurses/social

  16. Meme media and meme market architectures knowledge media for editing distributing and managing intellectual resources

    Tanaka, Y

    2003-01-01

    "In this book, Yuzuru Tanaka proposes a powerful new paradigm: that knowledge media, or "memes," operate in a way that closely resembles the biological function of genes, with their network publishing repository working as a gene pool to accelerate the evolution of knowledge shared in our societies. In Meme Media and Meme Market Architectures: Knowledge Media for Editing, Distributing, and Managing Intellectual Resources, Tanaka outlines a ready-to-use knowledge media system, supplemented with sample media objects, which allows readers to experience the knowledge media paradigm."--Jacket.

  17. Knowledge Management, Innovation and Intellectual Capital for Corporate Value in the United States

    Bleoca, Lavinia

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic capabilities of 74 publicly listed U.S. companies are examined to determine their knowledge management’s effects on shareholder value. R&D practices, patenting and intellectual capital are examined in a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to offer insights into the temporal dyna...

  18. Carer Knowledge and Experiences with Menopause in Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    Willis, Diane S.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Muir, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Overall life expectancy for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) is now significantly extended, and many will live long enough to experience menopause. Little is known about how carers support women with ID through this important stage in their lives. This study investigated carer knowledge of how menopause affects women with ID under their…

  19. Expanding the Intellectual Property Knowledge Base at University Libraries: Collaborating with Patent and Trademark Resource Centers

    Wallace, Martin; Reinman, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Patent and Trademark Resource Centers are located in libraries throughout the U.S., with 43 being in academic libraries. With the importance of incorporating a knowledge of intellectual property (IP) and patent research in university curricula nationwide, this study developed and evaluated a partnership program to increase the understanding of IP…

  20. Social Knowledge for Financial Markets

    Gertraude Mikl-Horke

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial literacy is an important issue today, but it is directed/limited to improve the practical skills of people taking financial markets and their present working for granted. However, financial markets are social institutions and social processes involving network relations as well as rules and norms. Globalization has resulted in a dominating role of financial markets over the economy with importance for the transformation of capitalistic society. The sociological perspectives on financial markets have relevance also for the present crisis for which several explanations have been suggested. Most explanations overlook, however, the process of disembedding of the financial markets from the societal context, which is represented by the reliance on a specific kind of knowledge. To illustrate the need for reintegrating financial markets in the economy and making them more responsive to societal concerns, financial knowledge requires to be embedded into social knowledge about the function of financial markets for society, the importance of norms and the social character of markets.Finanzerziehung ist ein wichtiges Anliegen in der Gegenwart, aber die „finanzielle Alphabetisierung“ beschränkt sich auf die Vermittlung praktischen Wissens, ohne die Finanzmärkte und ihr Funktionieren zu hinterfragen. Aber Finanzmärkte sind soziale Institutionen und soziale Prozesse, die Netzwerkbeziehungen sowie Regeln und Normen umfassen. Die Globalisierung resultierte in einer dominierenden Rolle des Finanzsystems im Verhältnis zur Wirtschaft und mit Implikationen für die Transformation der kapitalistischen Gesellschaft. Die soziologischen Perspektiven auf Finanzmärkte sind auch für die gegenwärtige Krise relevant, die verschieden zu erklären versucht wird. Diese Erklärungen übersehen jedoch vielfach den Prozess der Entbettung der Finanzmärkte aus den gesellschaftlichen Kontexten, der sich auch durch die Betonung einer spezifischen Art von Wissen

  1. The intellectual structure and substance of the knowledge utilization field: a longitudinal author co-citation analysis, 1945 to 2004.

    Estabrooks, Carole A; Derksen, Linda; Winther, Connie; Lavis, John N; Scott, Shannon D; Wallin, Lars; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne

    2008-11-13

    It has been argued that science and society are in the midst of a far-reaching renegotiation of the social contract between science and society, with society becoming a far more active partner in the creation of knowledge. On the one hand, new forms of knowledge production are emerging, and on the other, both science and society are experiencing a rapid acceleration in new forms of knowledge utilization. Concomitantly since the Second World War, the science underpinning the knowledge utilization field has had exponential growth. Few in-depth examinations of this field exist, and no comprehensive analyses have used bibliometric methods. Using bibliometric analysis, specifically first author co-citation analysis, our group undertook a domain analysis of the knowledge utilization field, tracing its historical development between 1945 and 2004. Our purposes were to map the historical development of knowledge utilization as a field, and to identify the changing intellectual structure of its scientific domains. We analyzed more than 5,000 articles using citation data drawn from the Web of Science. Search terms were combinations of knowledge, research, evidence, guidelines, ideas, science, innovation, technology, information theory and use, utilization, and uptake. We provide an overview of the intellectual structure and how it changed over six decades. The field does not become large enough to represent with a co-citation map until the mid-1960s. Our findings demonstrate vigorous growth from the mid-1960s through 2004, as well as the emergence of specialized domains reflecting distinct collectives of intellectual activity and thought. Until the mid-1980s, the major domains were focused on innovation diffusion, technology transfer, and knowledge utilization. Beginning slowly in the mid-1980s and then growing rapidly, a fourth scientific domain, evidence-based medicine, emerged. The field is dominated in all decades by one individual, Everett Rogers, and by one paradigm

  2. Management and Communication of the Companies' Knowledge; Guidelines for Intellectual Capital Statement

    Justyna Fijalkowska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the development of guidelines on Intellectual Capital Statement, providing a comparison of them and presenting their importance within the knowledge management process of the today's companies. We entered the Knowledge Era in which the basic economic resources are no longer financial capital, physical resources, or labor, but knowledge, called also intellectual capital (IC. Many analysts and investors demand for more information and they highlight the gap that exists between the information found in companies' annual reports and the financial information regarding intangible part of the company requested by the market. Knowledge of the company should be measured and the effects should be communicated, as measurement without any further action has no sense. Intellectual capital statement seems an appropriate tool for that and becomes an integral part of the knowledge management of the modern enterprise. This kind of statement emphasizes the role of IC in relation to the value creation and communicates how knowledge resources are managed in the firms within a strategic objectives. This paper compares different approaches to IC statement preparation: underlines similarities and differences concerning the scope, methodology and terminology used and ensuing consequences. It raises significant implications for managers of the companies, researches and policy makers.

  3. Evaluation of a Social Network Intervention for People with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at enhancing the social networks of people with intellectual disabilities. This study explores the results of such an intervention. How did the clients with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and their support workers evaluate the intervention? What did they learn…

  4. Evaluation of a social network intervention for people with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    van Asselt-Goverts, A.E.; Embregts, P.J.C.M; Hendriks, A.H.C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at enhancing the social networks of people with intellectual disabilities. This study explores the results of such an intervention. How did the clients with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and their support

  5. Sibling Relationship Quality and Social Functioning of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Floyd, Frank J.; Purcell, Susan E.; Richardson, Shana S.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2009-01-01

    We examined sibling relationships for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and assessed implications for their social functioning. Targets (total N = 212) had either intellectual disability, a chronic illness/physical disability, or no disability. Nontarget siblings reported on relationship quality, sibling interactions were…

  6. Social Empowerment of Intellectually Impaired through a Cloud Mobile System

    Laura Freina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is not a unique definition of “empowerment”, nevertheless the idea that it involves, on the one hand, people having control over their own lives and, on the other, some social aspects seems to be a common characteristic. Most authors recognize three levels of empowerment: individual, group, and community level, which are interconnected and changes at one level influence the others. Enhancing individual competence and self-esteem has a direct effect on the control of one’s own life and, in turn, on the social components of empowerment. In this paper we present Smart Angel, a project that aims at creating a network involving families, caregivers, experts, and tutors, as well as the final users and their friends, based on a mobile cloud system in support of both everyday living and urban mobility for people with medium-mild intellectual disabilities, with particular attention to the Down syndrome. The system can be seen as a tool to empower its users to be more independent and therefore increasing their possibility to have an active role in their life and an active participation to the community.

  7. Social Enterprises in Brazil: Socially Produced Knowledge Versus Social Innovation.

    Edileusa Godói-de-Sousa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether socially produced knowledge in social ventures in Brazil has promoted social innovation and local development. The research is exploratory and descriptive, and was developed in two stages. At first, the sample group was composed of 378 projects selected from the mapping of Solidarity Economic Enterprises, conducted by the National Secretary of Solidarity Economy (Secretaria Nacional de Economia Solidária. The sample was surveyed to verify the main characteristics of these enterprises. After that, interviews were conducted with key managers in a sample of 32 projects. The results indicate challenges in the long path of favoring dynamic learning, with a generation of knowledge from the collective experiences of socialization: there is a lack of joint discussion and a predominance of individualized learning actions.

  8. The intellectual and social organization of the sciences

    Whitley, Richard

    2000-01-01

    In a rapidly changing and inter-disciplinary world it is important to understand the nature and generation of knowledge, and its social organization. Increasing attention is paid in the social sciences and management studies to the constitution and claims of different theories, perspectives, and 'paradigms'. This book is one of the most respected and robust analyses of these issues. For this new paperback edition Richard Whitley - a leading figure in European business education - has written a new introduction which addresses the particular epistemological issues presented by management and business studies. He approaches the sciences as differently organized systems for the production and validation of knowledge - systems which become established in particular contexts and which generate different sorts of knowledge. He identifies seven major types of scientific field and discusses the establishment and growth of these sciences, including the major consequences of the nineteenth-century expansion of employme...

  9. The Intellectual Property Management Through Assessment of Intellectual Potential of Scientific Organization in Conditions of Knowledge Economy

    Tomakh Viktoriia V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching and improving the process of the intellectual property management through assessment of innovation potential of scientific organizations in the conditions of knowledge economy. Theoretical and methodical questions of management of innovation processes and methodical support to assessment of innovative potential were analyzed. A methodical support of assessment of innovation potential of scientific organizations has been proposed, which takes into consideration the following stages: description of goals and choice of indicators, development of work plan, definition of the necessary list of indicators of components of innovation potential, data collection, calculation and analysis of the obtained data for assessment, identification of «strong» and «weak» sides of enterprise, calculation of particular indicators and comparison with planned values, calculation of the integral index, adjustment of strategy for development of enterprise.

  10. Extracurricular Activities and the Development of Social Skills in Children with Intellectual and Specific Learning Disabilities

    Brooks, B. A.; Floyd, F.; Robins, D. L.; Chan, W. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill…

  11. Extracurricular activities and the development of social skills in children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities.

    Brooks, B A; Floyd, F; Robins, D L; Chan, W Y

    2015-07-01

    Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill acquisition. Participation in social activities is positively related to children's social adjustment, but little is known about the benefits of activity participation for children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities. This study investigated the association between frequency and type of social activity participation and the social competence of 8-11-year-old children with intellectual disability (n = 40) and specific learning disabilities (n = 53), in comparison with typically developing peers (n = 24). More time involved in unstructured activities, but not structured activities, was associated with higher levels of social competence for all children. This association was strongest for children with intellectual disability, suggesting that participation in unstructured social activities was most beneficial for these children. Future research on the quality of involvement is necessary to further understand specific aspects of unstructured activities that might facilitate social development. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Perceived stigma, self-esteem and social comparison of people with intellectual disability

    Stanković Ivana; Milačić-Vidojević Ivona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-esteem, perceived stigma and social comparison of persons with intellectual disabilities. The sample consisted of 100 persons with mild and moderate intellectual disability, aged 18 years and older, of different sexes, with or without stigmatized characteristics, who lived in an institution or in a family. We used questionnaires of Perceived stigma, Adapted Scale of Social Comparison and Adapted Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. ...

  13. Self-image of adolescents with mild intellectual disability in connection with social factors

    Dolar Borštnar, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this master’s thesis is to analyse common self-image of adolescents with mild intellectual disability in mental development and social factors that influence its formation. We used questionnaire as an instrument with which we investigated the following fields: self -contentment, social and intellectual status, anxiety, popularity and physical appearance. We have also analysed the connection between recognized general and academic self-image and reached educational achievement at th...

  14. Social inclusion and people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour: a systematic review.

    Bigby, Christine

    2012-12-01

    Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been researched and operationalised in the empirical literature, and aimed to determine what evidence exists about the extent of social inclusion by people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. A thematic analysis of the 14 papers identified that social inclusion has been poorly defined and measured, and that the little research that has occurred in respect of people with challenging behaviour has demonstrated their potential to be socially included. Clearer conceptualisation of inclusion, and greater understanding of practices that support social inclusion and system level mechanisms, which ensure goals around inclusion gain prominence in funding and support plans, may address the neglect of this critical quality-of-life domain for people with challenging behaviour.

  15. Citation analysis: A social and dynamic approach to knowledge organization

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge organization (KO) and bibliometrics have traditionally been seen as separate subfields of library and information science, but bibliometric techniques make it possible to identify candidate terms for thesauri and to organize knowledge by relating scientific papers and authors to each...... be considered superior for all purposes. The main difference between traditional knowledge organization systems (KOSs) and maps based on citation analysis is that the first group represents intellectual KOSs, whereas the second represents social KOSs. For this reason bibliometric maps cannot be expected ever...... other and thereby indicating kinds of relatedness and semantic distance. It is therefore important to view bibliometric techniques as a family of approaches to KO in order to illustrate their relative strengths and weaknesses. The subfield of bibliometrics concerned with citation analysis forms...

  16. Social knowledge and signals in primates.

    Bergman, Thore J; Sheehan, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Primates are notable for having a rich and detailed understanding of their social environment and there has been great interest in the evolution and function of social knowledge in primates. Indeed, primates have been shown to have impressive understandings of not only other group members but also the complex relationships among them. To be useful, however, social knowledge requires memories from previous encounters and observations about individual traits that are stable. Here, we argue that social systems or traits that make social knowledge more costly or less accurate will favor signals that either supplement or replace social knowledge. Thus, the relationship between signals and social knowledge can be complementary or antagonistic depending on the type of signal. Our goal in this review is to elucidate the relationships between signals and social knowledge in primates. We categorize signals into three types, each with different relationships to social knowledge. (1) Identity signals directly facilitate social knowledge, (2) current-state signals supplement information gained through social knowledge, and (3) badges of status replace social knowledge. Primates rely extensively on identity information, but it remains to be determined to what extent this is based on receiver perception of individual variation or senders using identity signals. Primates frequently utilize current-state signals including signals of intent to augment their interactions with familiar individuals. Badges of status are rare in primates, and the cases where they are used point to a functional and evolutionary trade-off between badges of status and social knowledge. However, the nature of this relationship needs further exploration. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Social anxiety and parental overprotection in young adults with and without intellectual disabilities.

    Hemm, Cahley; Dagnan, Dave; Meyer, Thomas D

    2018-05-01

    Developmental literature highlights peer relationships and parental overprotection as factors implicated in the development of social anxiety. These factors are highly prevalent in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities; however research has not examined whether these factors are associated with social anxiety for this population. Twenty-one individuals without intellectual disabilities and 21 individuals with intellectual disabilities (aged 16-24 years) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents with follow-up questions, the Glasgow Anxiety Scale-Intellectual disabilities and the parental overprotection subscale of the Parental Bonding Instrument with follow-up questions. Aspects of general and social anxiety were significantly greater in the intellectual disabilities group. There were no significant differences in parental overprotection between groups, however, qualitative analyses revealed differences in experiences of social anxiety and parental overprotection. Further research into factors associated with social anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities may inform adaptations to therapies and early intervention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Socialization as key process in knowledge management

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The editorial of this second issue of volume 17,corresponding to 2016, is devoted to socialization process in the knowledge management in order to complement the special section about Social Networks and Education.

  19. Stigma and restriction on the social life of families of children with intellectual disabilities in Vietnam.

    Ngo, Hong; Shin, Jin Y; Nhan, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Lawrence H

    2012-07-01

    Intellectual disabilities are as prevalent in East Asian countries as in the West (0.06%-1.3%). Widespread discrimination against intellectual disabilities in Asia may initiate stigma that places unfair restrictions on the social life of these individuals and their caregivers. We utilised established stigma frameworks to assess the extent to which a child's intellectual disability contributes to the social exclusion of caregivers in Vietnam. A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was employed to examine the experience of social life restriction among parents of children with intellectual disabilities. The child's disability level and restrictions on caregivers' social experiences were assessed among 70 mothers and fathers recruited from schools in Hue City, Vietnam. Qualitative responses describing social exclusion were also recorded. Caregivers reported elevated levels of social exclusion. As hypothesised, parents of children with greater intellectual disability experienced more restrictions on their social life (Beta = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.27-1.30, standard error = 0.26, p stigma, which in turn restricts key social interactions among caregivers. Psycho-educational interventions may address the social domains in which caregivers are impacted and encourage sustained help-seeking among caregivers for their children.

  20. Estimation of intellectual capital in the European Union using a knowledge model

    Domingo Nevado Peña

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model aimed at measuring intellectual capital as the potential knowledge of a country and apply it to the European Union. The method consists of activating accountable expenses, assumed to generate knowledge. In order to do so, efficiency indicators are used, derived from a summary of variables of structural, human and technological capitals by means of factor analysis. The results of this study for the EU25 in 2006 explain why Northern Europe has greater intellectual capital potential. They are more productive, as they manage and apply new technologies better. In human capital, Eastern countries have strong potential. The paper concludes that, at the conceptual level, this information should be used to design convergence policies and balanced development strategies to ensure economic growth.

  1. E-LEARNING AS A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL UTILIZATION

    Issa SHEHABAT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the university knowledge management process. Teachers' knowledge in any important topic or field should be managed in a way that the university can benefit from it in case of teacher leaving or retired. Hence, intellectual personal knowledge management will be explored through the development of e-learning systems. Some concepts from the Artificial Intelligence field can be used in developing such systems. The potential for utilizing human knowledge in the university environment will optimize the resources and can be of cost effective and quality assurance factors and provide the university with a sustainable competitive advantage. Assuring the proper knowledge management within the university environment is a more complex issue. This is due to the diverse of topics in one hand and the behavior of the student and the lecturers on the other hand. Effective implementation and success requires a lot of efforts that will guarantee the utilization of the intellectual capital within the university environment.

  2. E-LEARNING AS A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL UTILIZATION

    Issa SHEHABAT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the university knowledge management process. Teachers' knowledge in any important topic or field should be managed in a way that the university can benefit from it in case of teacher leaving or retired. Hence, intellectual personal knowledge management will be explored through the development of e-learning systems. Some concepts from the Artificial Intelligence field can be used in developing such systems.The potential for utilizing human knowledge in the university environment will optimize the resources and can be of cost effective and quality assurance factors and provide the university with a sustainable competitive advantage.Assuring the proper knowledge management within the university environment is a more complex issue. This is due to the diverse of topics in one hand and the behavior of the student and the lecturers on the other hand. Effective implementation and success requires a lot of efforts that will guarantee the utilization of the intellectual capital within the university environment.

  3. Social Intervention for Adolescents with Autism and Significant Intellectual Disability: Initial Efficacyof Reciprocal Imitation Training

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Walton, Katherine; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with…

  4. Social skills in children with intellectual disabilities with and without autism

    de Bildt, A; Serra, M; Luteijn, E; Kraijer, D; Sytema, S; Minderaa, R

    Background Social skills were studied in 363 children with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) and 147 with moderate ID with and without autism (age 4 through 18). The objective was to investigate the value of the Children's Social Behaviour Questionnaire (CSBQ), as a measure of subtle social

  5. Rethinking Social Network Assessment for Students with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in Postsecondary Education

    Eisenman, Laura T.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth; Culnane, Mary; Freedman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Social networks of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been characterized as smaller and less diverse than those of typical peers. Advocates have focused on strengthening those social networks by expanding circles of social support, protection, and friendship. As young adults with ID experience increasing levels of community…

  6. The Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Phenomenology of Their Experiences

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…

  7. Social Service Utilisation Patterns among Children with Mild Intellectual Disability--Differences between Children Integrated into Mainstream Classes and Children in Self-Contained Classes

    Olsson, Lena M.; Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth; Granlund, Mats; Huus, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with a mild intellectual disability (ID) and their families often require social services; however, because of the characteristics of the formal service system, these families may be at risk of not receiving necessary services. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge regarding the types and number of services that…

  8. Relating Successful Business Models to Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management Practices

    Nielsen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    management, mediated by intellectual capital, and draws up a schema by which the relationships can be described and discussed. It concludes by synthesizing a future research agenda to further address these relationships and to strengthen our understanding of how they improve the value creation......There are a number of natural links between the fields of business models and knowledge management. The contemporary understanding of business models is that they are concerned with describing and analyzing the methods of value creation and the alternative ways of delivering use value to customers...... that are applied by organizations. Similarly, knowledge management also has intricate connections with mechanisms of value creation, through the structuring and improvement of knowledge processes in a given organization. Ensuring that the right knowledge is present is an important part of any business model...

  9. Research in Social Work: the future in the present. Reflections on the portuguese knowledge building process

    Raquel Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate surrounding the construction of scientific knowledge within social work is discussed. The social work class seeks new foundations that allow within the context of structural change, the strengthening of professional identity and challenge of the vestiges of intellectual segregation that historical constraints have left. This paper seeks to outline a research strategy for reconciliation and coordination of intellectual and professional work in order to give visibility to new and different domains of interpretation and action, while claiming that considering pluri-perspectives potentiates the knowledge transformation process. Underlining this confluence of complex thinking elements, this article incorporates the space-time dimension and discusses and recognizes the unavoidable circularity as a way to interrogate knowledge that is compartmentalized and fragmented, placing an emphasis both on knowledge and on the interrelationship between knowing, doing, being and relating. In addition, examines the recognition of the nature of those relationships among various disciplines and perspectives.

  10. Social Connections for Older People with Intellectual Disability in Ireland: Results from Wave One of IDS-TILDA

    McCausland, Darren; McCallion, Philip; Cleary, Eimear; McCarron, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: The literature on influences of community versus congregated settings raises questions about how social inclusion can be optimised for people with intellectual disability. This study examines social contacts for older people with intellectual disability in Ireland, examining differences in social connection for adults with intellectual…

  11. Application complementarity of the knowledge management and internal marketing concepts in the aim of increasing enterprise's intellectual capital

    Krstić Bojan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise competitiveness in the era of knowledge economy is most directly connected to human and other intellectual resources. Managers and other employees become vital resource in the 21st century, and their knowledge is the key of creating and delivering superior value to the customers. Nowadays, they are one of the most important segments of assets without which enterprise cannot exist. Crucial question for management is how to enlarge other knowledge resources based on human resources knowledge, that is, their economically- relevant form - intellectual capital. Initial hypothesis of this paper is that, internal marketing, which has enterprise's employees in the focus, can create adequate basis for specializing and enlarging knowledge resources - intellectual resources or intellectual capital as a key factor of competitiveness in the era of knowledge economy. Knowledge management is observed as a segment of intellectual capital management process within an enterprise, with aim to direct the efficient usage of all kinds of knowledge (individual, group-team, organizational in order to create new business opportunities and successful commercialisations of products/services. The aim of this paper is to indicate that complementary application of the concept of internal marketing and the concept of knowledge management may result in synergetic effect of enlargement and specialisation of the knowledge resources - intellectual capital. In the paper we use methods of scientific observation, testing and connecting, as well as methods of analysis and synthesis. The purpose of obtained results application and conclusions from this research is to show to the enterprise management the importance of simultaneous effective application of internal marketing concept and knowledge transfer through processes and practices of knowledge management.

  12. Educators' evaluations of children's ideas on the social exclusion of classmates with intellectual and learning disabilities.

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Brown, Jason D; Dare, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    Reasons underlying the social exclusion of children with intellectual or learning disabilities are not entirely understood. Although it is important to heed the voices of children on this issue, it is also important to consider the degree to which these ideas are informed. The present authors invited educators to evaluate the content of children's ideas on the causes of social exclusion. Educators thematically sorted and rated children's ideas on why classmates with intellectual or learning disabilities are socially excluded. Sorted data were analysed with multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. Six thematic clusters were identified differing in content to those provided by children in an earlier study. Educators generally rated children's ideas as showing somewhat uninformed ideas about why social exclusion occurs. Educators indicated that children need to be better informed about intellectual and learning disabilities. Limitations and implications are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Defining social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities: an ecological model of social networks and community participation.

    Simplican, Stacy Clifford; Leader, Geraldine; Kosciulek, John; Leahy, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Social inclusion is an important goal for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, families, service providers, and policymakers; however, the concept of social inclusion remains unclear, largely due to multiple and conflicting definitions in research and policy. We define social inclusion as the interaction between two major life domains: interpersonal relationships and community participation. We then propose an ecological model of social inclusion that includes individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and socio-political factors. We identify four areas of research that our ecological model of social inclusion can move forward: (1) organizational implementation of social inclusion; (2) social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities living with their families, (3) social inclusion of people along a broader spectrum of disability, and (4) the potential role of self-advocacy organizations in promoting social inclusion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Organizational Politics, Social Network, and Knowledge Management

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Kang, Sora; Lee, Jongwon

    This research identifies the social relationship and structure among members as well as organization’s political inclination, through which, it also identifies the current status of knowledge management. The result shows that the socio-technological factors (individual, knowledge and IT factors) affect knowledge transfer and the knowledge transfer influences performance and that the members’ relationship based on the political inclination of the organization has a major moderating effect on the above two relation.

  15. Social Ontology Documentation for Knowledge Externalization

    Aranda-Corral, Gonzalo A.; Borrego-Díaz, Joaquín; Jiménez-Mavillard, Antonio

    Knowledge externalization and organization is a major challenge that companies must face. Also, they have to ask whether is possible to enhance its management. Mechanical processing of information represents a chance to carry out these tasks, as well as to turn intangible knowledge assets into real assets. Machine-readable knowledge provides a basis to enhance knowledge management. A promising approach is the empowering of Knowledge Externalization by the community (users, employees). In this paper, a social semantic tool (called OntoxicWiki) for enhancing the quality of knowledge is presented.

  16. Using the Teaching Interactions Procedure to Teach Social Skills to Children with Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Ng, Aubrey Hui Shyuan; Schulze, Kim; Rudrud, Eric; Leaf, Justin B.

    2016-01-01

    This study implemented a modified teaching interaction procedure to teach social skills to 4 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with an intellectual disability. A multiple baseline design across social skills and replicated across participants was utilized to evaluate the effects of the modified teaching interaction procedure. The…

  17. Video Modeling to Teach Social Safety Skills to Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Spivey, Corrine E.; Mechling, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling with a constant time delay procedure to teach social safety skills to three young women with intellectual disability. A multiple probe design across three social safety skills (responding to strangers who: requested personal information; requested money; and entered the participant's…

  18. Relation between paralinguistic skills and social skills in adults with mild and moderate intellectual disability

    Đorđević Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions and prosodic acoustic characteristics jointly present paralinguistic features of communication. By analyzing literature, we observe that respondents with intellectual disabilities manifest emphasized difficulties in detecting emotions in tasks of facial and vocal expression. However, we do not know if there are data on how paralinguistic abilities correlate with social skills in adults with intellectual disabilities. This research was conducted in order to determine the relation between the ability of paralinguistic production and paralinguistic understanding, on one side, and social skills on the other side. The sample consisted of 44 adults of both genders with mild (N=22 and moderate intellectual disabilities (N=22, aged between 20 and 50 (M=32.41, SD=9.36. The Paralinguistic scale from the battery for the assessment of communication (The Assessment Battery for Communication, Abaco, Sacco et al., 2008 was used for the assessment of paralinguistic skills, and three subscales of Vineland adaptive behavior scale - teaching form (Sparrow, Cicchetti & Balla, 2006 were used for the assessment of social skills. The results show that the achievement on subscales of Playing and leisure time positively correlated with the ability to understand emotions in communication (r = 0.486, p < 0.05 in respondents with mild intellectual disability. Achievements on the subscales Skills of adapting had a moderate and positive correlation with the ability to understand emotions in communication (r=0.522, p<0.05 in subjects with mild intellectual disability. Statistically significant correlations between the examined variables were not observed in the group of respondents with moderate intellectual disability. We can conclude that in adults with mild intellectual disability the ability to understand emotional paralinguistic elements significantly correlates with the ability to organize social activities and to adapt behavior in social interactions.

  19. "Knowledge Must Become Capability": Institutional Intellectualism as an Agent for Military Transformation

    Knott, Steven

    2004-01-01

    .... Institutional intellectualism is system-sponsored critical thinking that focuses synergistic intellectual capital to effect transformational change and continual renewal within an organization...

  20. Integrasi Intellectual Capital dan Knowledge Management serta Dampaknya pada Kinerja Bisnis Perusahaan Farmasi

    Sigit Hermawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the integration of Intellectual Capital (IC and Knowledge Management (KM on the performance of the pharmaceutical company’s business in East Java. This study included an explanatory research using finance and accounting manager 44 pharmaceutical companies in East Java as the respondent. The variables used in this study is human capital (HC, structural capital (SC, relational capital (RC, knowledge management (KM enablers, knowledge management (KM process and business performance (BP. The results stated that integration of IC and KM can be done either partially or simultaneously and proven effect on the business performance of pharmaceutical companies in East Java .

  1. Increases in knowledge following a course of sex education for people with intellectual disabilities.

    Lindsay, W R; Bellshaw, E; Culross, G; Staines, C; Michie, A

    1992-12-01

    Although sex education programmes are thought to be useful in teaching people with intellectual disabilities, there is very little evidence that the material taught is retained by clients. This paper reports data which has been collected routinely on a sex education programme. Forty-six subjects were assessed on their level of sexual knowledge in seven areas: parts of the body, masturbation, male puberty, female puberty, intercourse, pregnancy and childbirth, and birth control and venereal disease. They were retested after a 9-month sex education programme and tested again at a 3-month follow-up. A control group of 14 subjects were tested on two occasions, 4 months apart. There were significant and substantial increases in sexual knowledge on all areas for the experimental group. The control group showed no corresponding increases in knowledge.

  2. Constructing a knowledge-based identity: Experiences from working with intellectual capital statements

    Kjærgaard, Isa Jensen

    2003-01-01

    how it wishes to define its activities both externally and internally. The paper concludes that, by working with IC statements, a company can achieve a way of constructing a new identity. Furthermore, the process of creating an IC statement can legitimize the whole idea of changing towards a knowledge......This paper analyses the inter-relationship between organizational identity and intellectual capital (IC) statements and suggests the IC statement as a framework for developing a knowledge-based identity. The results are based on a case study of a Danish electricity transmission system company......, which started the process of changing its public provider identity towards a knowledge-based identity in a changing market by applying the framework of an IC statement. The IC statement, as a new way of defining and working with strategic company resources, makes it possible for a company to communicate...

  3. The Relationship between Social Participation and Social Skills of Pupils with an Intellectual Disability: A Study in Inclusive Classrooms

    Garrote, Ariana

    2017-01-01

    Researchers claim that a lack of social skills might be the main reason why pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in inclusive classrooms often experience difficulties in social participation. However, studies that support this assumption are scarce, and none include pupils with an intellectual disability (ID). This article seeks to make an…

  4. The Combined Use of Video Modeling and Social Stories in Teaching Social Skills for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Gül, Seray Olçay

    2016-01-01

    There are many studies in the literature in which individuals with intellectual disabilities exhibit social skills deficits and which show the need for teaching these skills systematically. This study aims to investigate the effects of an intervention package of consisting computer-presented video modeling and Social Stories on individuals with…

  5. The Agrupation-Cluster of Knowledge. The intellectual capital of Vasque Country

    Panera Mendieta, F.; Luengo Valderrey, M. J.; Perianez Canadillas, I.; Panda Garcia, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to identify the influence of the activities of the Agrupacion-Cluster de Conocimiento in the improvement of the Intellectual Capital of its partners, especially of their Relational Capital through the generation of inter-organizational spaces for our organizations in the Basque Country. The transmission of this knowledge requires the physical proximity of the people between whom the exchange can to be made. This exchange is facilitated when spaces are created with an atmosphere of total confidence and equality, in which one can express in complete liberty. (Author)

  6. Does assistive technology contribute to social inclusion for people with intellectual disability? A systematic review protocol.

    Owuor, John; Larkan, Fiona; Kayabu, Bonnix; Fitzgerald, Geraldine; Sheaf, Greg; Dinsmore, John; McConkey, Roy; Clarke, Mike; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2018-02-10

    The aim of this review is to answer the following question: Does assistive technology contribute to social inclusion for people with intellectual disability? Previous research on assistive technology has focused on socioeconomic impacts such as education, employment and access to healthcare by people with intellectual disability. There is a need to consolidate evidence on the interaction between intellectual disability, assistive technology, community living and social inclusion. The review will consider studies from all settings: geographical, socioeconomic and care (institutional and community care), published in English. Studies reported in other languages with abstracts in English will be included if they can be translated using Google Translate, otherwise such studies will be included in the appendix. The review will include both qualitative and quantitative studies. The intervention in this review refers to the use of assistive technology to promote community participation or interpersonal relationships (social inclusion) for people with intellectual disability. The outcomes will be behavioural and social benefits of using assistive technology by people with intellectual disability. Enhanced interpersonal relationships and community participation by people with intellectual disability. Data analysis will be in two phases. The first phase will involve analysis of individual study designs separately. The second phase will be narrative/thematic synthesis of all study groups. The review will not create any ethical or safety concerns. At least one peer-reviewed article in a leading journal such as the BMJ is planned. The findings will also be disseminated through a seminar session involving internal audience at Trinity College Dublin and within the Assistive Technologies for people with Intellectual Disability and Autism research programme. CRD42017065447; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  7. SOCIAL CRM FOR CUSTOMER KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    Dorota Buchnowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent development and expansion of Web 2.0 technologies have created remarkable opportunities for Customer Knowledge Management (CKM. The goals of this paper are to analyze how organizations can apply Social CRM (social technologies integrated with traditional CRM systems systems for CKM and to investigate what benefits they may derive from the use of social technologies. To achieve these objectives, the article shows the concept of Social CRM, differences between CRM and SCRM, and a review of CKM models presented in the literature. Then, there are indicated the possibilities of using SCRM solutions in the processes of customer knowledge management, and there are presented examples of the use of different types of social media in the management of different types of customer knowledge.

  8. Incremental Knowledge Discovery in Social Media

    Tang, Xuning

    2013-01-01

    In light of the prosperity of online social media, Web users are shifting from data consumers to data producers. To catch the pulse of this rapidly changing world, it is critical to transform online social media data to information and to knowledge. This dissertation centers on the issue of modeling the dynamics of user communities, trending…

  9. Knowledge sharing and social interaction within MNEs

    Noorderhaven, N.G.; Harzing, A.W.K.

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction between managers from different units of a multinational enterprise (MNE) has been shown to be an important factor stimulating intra-MNE knowledge-sharing. Face-to-face social interactions form a communication channel particularly conducive to the transfer of tacit, non-codified

  10. Social Media, Health Policy, and Knowledge Translation.

    Roland, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Social media has been cited as a methodology for reducing the knowledge translation gap, creating communities of practice, and reducing traditional hierarchical divisions. Social movements have also embraced social media as a means of spreading their aims and reaching wide audiences. However, its impact on health policy is seldom considered. The author examines the complexity of clinicians' use of social media to influence policy and how policy and government groups may use social media to help their own objectives. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting social inclusion through Unified Sports for youth with intellectual disabilities: a five-nation study.

    McConkey, R; Dowling, S; Hassan, D; Menke, S

    2013-10-01

    Although the promotion of social inclusion through sports has received increased attention with other disadvantaged groups, this is not the case for children and adults with intellectual disability who experience marked social isolation. The study evaluated the outcomes from one sports programme with particular reference to the processes that were perceived to enhance social inclusion. The Youth Unified Sports programme of Special Olympics combines players with intellectual disabilities (called athletes) and those without intellectual disabilities (called partners) of similar skill level in the same sports teams for training and competition. Alongside the development of sporting skills, the programme offers athletes a platform to socialise with peers and to take part in the life of their community. Unified football and basketball teams from five countries--Germany, Hungary, Poland, Serbia and Ukraine--participated. Individual and group interviews were held with athletes, partners, coaches, parents and community leaders: totalling around 40 informants per country. Qualitative data analysis identified four thematic processes that were perceived by informants across all countries and the two sports to facilitate social inclusion of athletes. These were: (1) the personal development of athletes and partners; (2) the creation of inclusive and equal bonds; (3) the promotion of positive perceptions of athletes; and (4) building alliances within local communities. Unified Sports does provide a vehicle for promoting the social inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities that is theoretically credible in terms of social capital scholarship and which contains lessons for advancing social inclusion in other contexts. Nonetheless, certain limitations are identified that require further consideration to enhance athletes' social inclusion in the wider community. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  12. The Social-Emotional Well-Being of Children of Mothers with Intellectual Impairment: A Population-Based Analysis

    Hindmarsh, Gabrielle; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Emerson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with intellectual impairment are thought to be at risk for poor social-emotional well-being. This study investigated the relationship between maternal intellectual impairment and poor child social-emotional well-being. Method: Secondary analysis of data from waves 2-4 of the Millennium Cohort Study (UK).…

  13. Social Networks of Adults with an Intellectual Disability from South Asian and White Communities in the United Kingdom: A Comparison

    Bhardwaj, Anjali K.; Forrester-Jones, Rachel V. E.; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Little research exists comparing the social networks of people with intellectual disability (ID) from South Asian and White backgrounds. This UK study reports on the barriers that South Asian people with intellectual disability face in relation to social inclusion compared to their White counterparts. Materials and methods: A…

  14. Informal social networks of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : Relationship with age, communicative abilities and current living arrangements

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; Post, W.J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regression analysis for 200 people

  15. Seeking a potential system in managing organizational knowledge flow towards enhancing individual learning and intellectual capital

    Intan Soraya Rosdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge-based economy of today heralds an era where the business environment is characterized by complex and ever-changing conditions, driven by rapid technological advancements. With knowledge regarded as the main competitive resource, continuous learning becomes critical to firms as they try to keep up with the latest technology and business practices. Moreover, knowledge resides within individual employees, and the challenge is to ensure that knowledge is acquired, applied, and shared to benefit the firm. The situation becomes more complex when it is established that there exists different human capital in firms at any one time, differentiated based on the types of knowledge they contribute to the firm. Further, scant literature exists on the relationship dynamics between the different human capital groups and their influences on individual learning. This paper aims to propose a potential system to manage interaction between the different human capital groups within firms, and its link to enhancing different types of individual learning and intellectual capital.

  16. EL CAPITAL INTELECTUAL Y LA GESTIÓN DEL CONOCIMIENTO / INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    Marusia Monagas-Docasal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo expone el análisis de los conceptos de gestión del conocimiento y de capital intelectual, así como la valoración de 12 modelos para la medición del capital intelectual; los cuales, por sus características y conceptos de aplicación, pudieran, de manera total o parcial, emplearse en las condiciones de las empresas hoteleras cubanas. Se identifican insuficiencias en los modelos analizados, que no imposibilitan utilizar los indicadores contenidos en ellos en la medición del capital intelectual en empresas hoteleras. Como resultado, se deciden utilizar los indicadores del modelo Skandia, concentrados en 4 grupos: cliente, recursos humanos, renovación y desarrollo y procesos. De los 85 indicadores de este modelo, los expertos consideran que 23 de ellos resultan de posible aplicación en las empresas hoteleras cubanas.AbstractThe article presents an analysis of the concepts of knowledge management and intellectual capital, as well as the assessment of 12 models for measuring intellectual capital, which could be used, totally or partially, in Cuban hotel companies, due to their characteristics and application concepts. Some inadequacies in the above mentioned models are identified, which do not limit the use of their indicators in measuring intellectual capital in hotel companies. As a result, the decision is to use the indicators of the Skandia model, concentrated into 4 groups: client, human resources, renovation and development, and processes. Out of the 85 indicators of this model, experts consider that 23 can be applied in Cuban hotel companies.

  17. Teachers' and Parents' Views on the Internet and Social Media Usage by Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

    Molin, Martin; Sorbring, Emma; Löfgren-Mårtenson, Lotta

    2015-01-01

    This article reports experiences from a Swedish study, discussing teachers' and parents' views on how young people with intellectual disabilities use the Internet and social media. Five semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with teachers (n = 8) in special programmes in upper secondary schools for pupils with intellectual…

  18. Stigma, Social Comparison and Self-Esteem in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    Paterson, Lucy; McKenzie, Karen; Lindsay, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paper examines the perception of stigma in 43 adults with an intellectual disability, the relationship this has with their psychological well-being and whether the process of social comparison has a moderating effect on this relationship. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, within-participant design was used. Participants…

  19. Socializing Intellectual Talk: A Case Study of Instructor Follow-Up Statements in Classroom Discourse

    Parsons, Caroline S.

    2017-01-01

    By analyzing the audio recording and transcription of classroom discourse, this case study focused on the ways in which the instructor used follow-up statements to socialize students into intellectual talk. Four relevant categories of follow-up statements emerged: (a) revoicing, (b) contextualization, (c) parallel elaboration, and (d) assistive…

  20. Employing a Social Justice Framework to Promote Postsecondary Transition for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Cook, Amy L.

    2017-01-01

    Transition from high school to postsecondary education (PSE) and employment can be challenging for all youth, and particularly for youth with intellectual disability (ID). Promoting equity and access to PSE for students with ID is a social justice mandate, and high school counselors are uniquely positioned to assist youth with ID in accessing…

  1. Social Peer Interactions in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…

  2. Connecting stories: a narrative approach of social inclusion of persons with intellectual disability

    Meininger, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion is a leading goal of policy and practice in care and support for persons with intellectual disabilities. However, its conceptualization, moral presuppositions and effects are far from clear. In answering the call for reconceptualization, the author refers to cultural-historical,

  3. Measuring Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Vermeer, Adri; Lijnse, Margot; Lindhout, Marleen

    2004-01-01

    The results of a study examining the psychometric quality of a pictorial scale to measure perceived physical competence, perceived cognitive competence and perceived social acceptance by peers and caregivers in individuals with intellectual disabilities are reported. The scale was administered twice to 100 subjects. The stability of the scale…

  4. Social Inclusion and Community Participation of Individuals with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities

    Amado, Angela Novak; Stancliffe, Roger J.; McCarron, Mary; McCallion, Philip

    2013-01-01

    As more individuals with intellectual/developmental disabilities are physically included in community life, in schools, neighborhoods, jobs, recreation, and congregations, the challenge of going beyond physical inclusion to true social inclusion becomes more apparent. This article summarizes the status of the research about community participation…

  5. Cultural and Intellectual Openness Differentially Relate to Social Judgments of Potential Work Partners.

    Porter, Caitlin M; Parrigon, Scott E; Woo, Sang Eun; Saef, Rachel M; Tay, Louis

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the differential functioning of cultural and intellectual openness (the two aspects of Openness to Experience) in relation to social cognitive processes by examining how they influence people's perceptions and interpretations of social information when deciding to initiate working relationships. Using a policy-capturing design, 681 adult participants were asked to rate their similarity to and preference to work with potential work partners characterized by varying nationalities and levels of work-related competence. Multilevel moderated mediation was conducted to simultaneously evaluate whether the indirect effects of potential work partners' characteristics (i.e., nationalities and levels of work-related competence) on work partner preference through perceived similarity were moderated by cultural and intellectual openness. Perceived similarity mediated the relationships between work partner nationality and work-related competence and participants' work partner preferences. Furthermore, the negative indirect effect of work partner nationality on work partner preference via perceived similarity was attenuated by cultural openness, and the positive indirect effect of work partner work-related competence on work partner preference via perceived similarity was strengthened by intellectual openness. Cultural and intellectual openness may have distinct functions that influence how people perceive, evaluate, and appreciate social information when making social judgments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Examining intellectual stimulation, idealised influence and individualised consideration as an antecedent to knowledge sharing: Evidence from Ghana

    Franklin Gyamfi Agyemang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformational leadership and its relationship with knowledge sharing have been well noted in knowledge management literature. However, how the individual dimensions within Transformational leadership theory contribute to knowledge sharing has been scarcely investigated. This paper explores whether Intellectual stimulation, Idealised Influence and individualised consideration affect knowledge sharing among employees in Ghana. A cross–sectional survey design was employed. The study employed a convenience sampling technique to select a sample size of 500. However, out of the 500 questionnaires distributed, 283 were used in the final analysis; thus, those that were correctly filled. Data was analyzed using multiple regression. The study found that there is a significant positive relationship between idealised influence and knowledge sharing. However, the relationship between intellectual stimulation and individualised consideration and knowledge sharing was found to be insignificant.

  7. Training needs of nurses and social workers in the end-of-life care for people with intellectual disabilities: a national survey.

    Bekkema, Nienke; de Veer, Anke J E; Albers, Gwenda; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Francke, Anneke L

    2014-04-01

    Nurses and social workers caring for people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly confronted with clients in need of end-of-life care. Previous studies, however, suggest that professionals in intellectual disability care services lack knowledge and experience concerning end-of-life care. Moreover, the proportion of nurses within the staff of intellectual disability services has declined in recent years, while the proportion of social workers has increased, which may have consequences for the quality of end-of-life care. To gain insight into the quality of end-of-life care, past vocational training, training needs and expert consultation opportunities of nurses and social workers working in intellectual disability care services. Survey questionnaire study conducted in the Netherlands. Intellectual disability care services. The study sample was recruited from an existing nationally representative research panel of care professionals. In 2011, all 181 nurses and social workers in the research panel who worked in intellectual disability care services were sent our survey questionnaire. Postal survey addressing education, views and needs regarding end-of-life care. The response was 71.8%. Respondents positively evaluated the quality of end-of-life care. However, most respondents felt inadequately trained in end-of-life care issues. Nurses had received more training in end-of-life care and had fewer training needs than social workers. Respondents wished for additional training, especially in supporting clients in dealing with the impending death and farewell process. Half of the respondents were unaware of the availability of external consultation facilities. This study shows that although nurses and social workers positively appraise the quality of end-of-life care for people with intellectual disabilities, the majority feel inadequately trained to provide good end-of-life care. As the number of people with intellectual disability in need of end-of-life care

  8. THE PROGRAM SUPPORT SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a description of the author’s program to support the social and psychological safety of children with intellectual disabilities enrolled in boarding school of VIII kind. The object of the study were children with intellectual disabilities. The subject of research – features of formation to children with intellectual disabilities the social and psychological safety. The methodological base are the special psychology (L.S. Vygotsky, S.L. Rubinstein, A. Speck. The results. Complex psychological and pedagogical support of social and psychological safety of children with intellectual disabilities reflects the content of psychological and pedagogical tasks (target function and technologies of their solution (instrumental function aimed at reducing internal and external risk factors. The target functions are: social and psychological adaptation, personal and developmental, the function of social support and psychological and pedagogical assistance, preventive and correctional function. Psycho-pedagogical objectives are the formation of skills of safe behavior and confront the dangers through the development of appropriate social skills, mental, physical and cognitive abilities, establishing a real and more comfortable with social contact (including municipal and educational environment, thereby ensuring individual protection and psychosocial well-being, support emotional balance, development of harmonious personality, to facilitate adaptation to the social environment, correction of risk factors of dysontogenesis. The program includes informative, technological and diagnostic modules. The basis for the construction of educational information in the field of security us based on the principle of integratively – interdisciplinary cooperation of academic subjects; a mix of mandatory core classes and extra-curricular and remedial work. Technological support included the following teaching methods: interactive (psychotechnical

  9. Systemic therapy and the social relational model of disability: enabling practices with people with intellectual disability

    Haydon-Laurelut, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Therapy has been critiqued for personalizing the political (Kitzinger, 1993). The social-relational model (Thomas, 1999) is one theoretical resource for understanding the practices of therapy through a political lens. The social model(s) have viewed therapy with suspicion. This paper highlights – using composite case examples and the authors primary therapeutic modality, systemic therapy – some systemic practices with adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) that enact a position that it is s...

  10. Effects of intellectual capital and knowledge management on Thai food industry organizational performance: A conceptual perspective

    Pimsara Yaklai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rising urbanization and an expanding middle class, Thailand will rely more on processed foods. This is combined with a 22% export market to other Southeast Asian nations, as well as China and Japan. With an abundance of natural resources combined with significant investments in technology, food safety, R&D, and more efforts at adhering to international quality standards, Thailand has become the ‘Kitchen of the World’, becoming the largest sole net food exporter in Asia. Therefore, the researchers aspire to develop a structural equation model of factors affecting intellectual capital and knowledge management on the Thai food industry organizational performance using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Questionnaires using a 7-point Likert scale are to be analysed using SEM techniques, with focus being given to financial performance, internal processes and learning and growth and their contributions in enhancing the industry’s global competitiveness and sustainability.

  11. Social capital through workplace connections: opportunities for workers with intellectual disabilities.

    Hall, Allison Cohen; Kramer, John

    2009-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, this study examined the experiences of individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) in sheltered workshops and compared them to those in community employment. In particular, the study investigated how employment affects opportunities for the creation of social capital. Primary respondents were individuals with ID and secondary respondents were family members and employment services staff. Findings revealed that a form of social capital was created through workplace connections. Community employment did not increase social capital per se, but it did produce opportunities not available in the workshop. The role of family members emerged as critical in the support of community employment and its potential for social capital development.

  12. The role of nurses/social workers in using a multidimensional guideline for diagnosis of anxiety and challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disabilities.

    Pruijssers, Addy; van Meijel, Berno; Maaskant, Marian; Keeman, Noortje; Teerenstra, Steven; van Achterberg, Theo

    2015-07-01

    This study seeks (1) to investigate the impact of the implementation of the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and challenging behaviours in clients with intellectual disability' on nurses/social workers' knowledge and self-efficacy; and (2) to evaluate the role of nurses/social workers in the diagnostic process when applying the guideline. Nurses/social workers have extensive contact with clients with intellectual disabilities. Despite this key position, the contribution of nurses/social workers to the diagnosis of mental health problems and challenging behaviours is rather limited. The authors developed the multidimensional 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and challenging behaviours'. In this article, the implementation of this guideline is evaluated concerning knowledge and self-efficacy of nurses/social workers, as well the role of nurses/social workers in the diagnostic process. This study employed a comparative multiple case study design. Qualitative and quantitative research methods. Working with the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and challenging behaviours' led to a statistically significant increase in knowledge and self-efficacy among the nurses/social workers in the experimental condition, compared with nurses/social workers in the control condition. Nurses/social workers and psychologists appreciated the more active contribution of the nurses/social workers in the diagnostic process. Working with the guideline increased the knowledge and self-efficacy of nurses/social workers, and led to more active participation of nurses/social workers in the diagnostic process. After following a training programme, nurses/social workers can effectively contribute to the diagnostic process in clients with anxiety and related challenging behaviours. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Death of the Concerned Intellectual?

    Chongyi Feng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a definition of the intellectual covering both professional and moral dimensions: An intellectual is a specialist who creates and communicates symbolised knowledge as means of living, and hopefully intervenes in social and political affairs in the name of universal values, truth and justice. "Symbolised knowledge" is used in the definition to avoid the confusion with other forms of knowledge derived from direct personal experience in production and life. The purpose of using "specialist" as the subject term is to exclude those categories such politicians, soldiers and business people who exercise political, military, financial and other forms of power instead of intellectual power in their social function. This paper argues that there are many roles played by intellectuals, and the social location and function of intellectuals can be fundamentally different in different societies. When production and communication of knowledge are taken as the primary concern of intellectuals, ‘the death of the concerned intellectual’ becomes an unwarranted anxiety, because there is no reason to believe that knowledge and truth will no longer be pursued and valued by humankind. Political marginalisation of critical intellectuals, where it is a reality, seems to be caused not so much by the lack of power of intellectuals as by the lack of solidarity among intellectuals to fight for a common cause. The problem lies as much in the lack of enthusiasm among intellectuals to transcend the boundaries of their professional relevance and intervene in broad social and political issues, as in institutional structures consuming too much energy and time of the intellectuals and seducing them to give up their social responsibilities for personal career.

  14. Communication, knowledge, social network and family planning ...

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Tanzania; 2Centre for International Development Initiatives Nijmegen (CIDIN) and ... demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 ..... FP method varies with urban- rural and regional ...... Pile JM and Simbakalia C. Tanzania Case Study: A.

  15. Communication, knowledge, social network and family planning ...

    Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in ...

  16. Implementation of a new social skills training program for adults with intellectual disabilities

    Fernanda Sequera Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has the purpose to develop and apply a new training program in order to promote the use of social skills in a group of adults with intellectual disabilities. It contains a quasi-experimental methodological design to prove the program effectiveness. The sample used consists of 21 adults with intellectual disabilities, users of an occupational therapy day entity (10 persons participated in the program and 11 did not. The social skills were evaluated using an adjusted version of the Social Skills Scale Model of Gismero (2010. The outcomes of this study show a significant improvement in the overall score of the group included in the program in comparison with the rest of the group. Likewise, the group under the program obtained an increase in the scores within 5 out of 6 subscales evaluated. The identified improvements are key elements for the individual development of this group. The implications of the results are discussed.

  17. Socio-Educational Work in Social Service in Gramscian thinking: the Organic Intellectual

    Adriana Giaqueto Jacinto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses the contribution of Gramscian thinking to social service using as a reference the apprehension of the relations between politics and culture, with an emphasis on the educational dimension of the work of social assistants. The central questioning is: can social assistants, as professionals who work with the class that has been expropriated of its basic rights, assume the role of organic intellectuals, in the Gramscian concept? It uses the history of the life and work of Gramsci to situate the concept of the organic intellectual and his relationship with other contents imbricated in the theme of politics and culture, reflecting on the expansion of the understanding of pedagogical practice, grasping it in the broad process of the class struggles, linked to the issue of hegemony.

  18. Mode-2 social science knowledge production?

    Kropp, Kristoffer; Blok, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The notion of mode-2 knowledge production points to far-reaching transformations in science-society relations, but few attempts have been made to investigate what growing economic and political demands on research may entail for the social sciences. This case study of new patterns of social science...... knowledge production outlines some major institutional and cognitive changes in Danish academic sociology during 'mode-2' times, from the 1980s onwards. Empirically, we rely on documentary sources and qualitative interviews with Danish sociologists, aiming to reconstruct institutional trajectories...... show how a particular cognitive modality of sociology — 'welfare reflexivity' — has become a dominant form of Danish sociological knowledge production. Welfare reflexivity has proven a viable response to volatile mode-2 policy conditions....

  19. The Effect of Theory of Mind Training on Social Skills Improvement in Intellectually Disabled Students

    mahboub bakhshi-Barzili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The development of theory of mind is considered as one aspect of social cognition by researchers and have attracted their attention in recent years. The purpose was to determine the effect of theory of mind training on social skills in male students with intellectual disability in Meshkinshahr City. Materials & Methods: In present experimental study, pretest-posttest design with control group were used. All intellectually disabled male students (aged 8-12 years old who educating in Meshkinshahr (43 individuals answered to theory of mind tests. Students who could not pass the tests (39 individuals selected as a sample and their teachers completed Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS Gresham & Elliot, 1990 for them. They assigned randomly to experimental and control groups. Experimental group participated in 8 training sessions (for 2 weeks, 30 minutes per session. After last session, theory of mind tests and SSRS administered for all subjects again. Data were assesed with analysis of covariance.  Results: Analysis of covariance showed that experimental group performed better than control group in social skills index, cooperation and self-control components significantly (P=0.001. But, two groups were not significantly different in assertion component.  Conclusion: theory of mind training leads to improvement in social skills and its components of intellectually disabled students and will guarantee their success on these areas in adulthood.

  20. Features of Social Dilemmas Solving in Older Adolescents with Different Levels of Intellectual Abilities

    Belova S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss one of the aspects of social competence formation in older teens relevant in the light of the requirements of the second generation of Federal Educational Standards. The general hypothesis: Features of reasoning and decision-making in senior teenagers in social dilemmas are related to the level of their intellectual abilities and have sex specificity. The subject of the study was the relationship of intellectual abilities of students in grades 9-10 (N = 115, 65% were girls, 35% were boys and their activity and critical reasoning, categorical position in solving social dilemmas. We revealed that verbal intelligence in older adolescents is positively related to criticality argument. Verbal intelligence relationship with the activity of reasoning and categorical position on social dilemmas was gender-specific. Girls with higher verbal intelligence have higher activity and low categorical reasoning; boys have higher categorical position. We conclude that verbal intellectual abilities are the cognitive basis of the processes of social cognition in older teens

  1. Home and School Environments as Determinant of Social Skills Deficit among Learners with Intellectual Disability in Lagos State

    Isawumi, Oyeyinka David; Oyundoyin, John Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    The study examined home and school environmental factors as determinant of social skills deficit among learners with intellectual disability in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopted survey research method using a sample size of fifty (50) pupils with intellectual disability who were purposively selected from five special primary schools in Lagos…

  2. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

  3. Social Skills Training for Adolescents With Intellectual Disabilities: A School-Based Evaluation.

    O'Handley, Roderick D; Ford, W Blake; Radley, Keith C; Helbig, Kate A; Wimberly, Joy K

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often demonstrate impairments in social functioning, with deficits becoming more apparent during adolescence. This study evaluated the effects of the Superheroes Social Skills program, a program that combines behavioral skills training and video modeling to teach target social skills, on accurate demonstration of three target social skills in adolescents with ID. Skills taught in the present study include Expressing Wants and Needs, Conversation, and Turn Taking. Four adolescents with ID participated in a 3-week social skills intervention, with the intervention occurring twice per week. A multiple baseline across skills design was used to determine the effect of the intervention on social skill accuracy in both a training and generalization setting. All participants demonstrated substantial improvements in skill accuracy in both settings, with teacher ratings of social functioning further suggesting generalization of social skills to nontraining settings. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. University Knowledge Transfer Offices and Social Responsibility

    Irene Martín-Rubio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies and reviews about University Knowledge Transfer Offices (UKTO have been written, but there are few that focus on Social Responsibility (SR. We present a systematic review of the research on both fields. We consider not only logics from agency theory and resource-based view, but also the dynamic approach from institutional theory, as they aim to generate sustainable economic and social value. The evolution of Knowledge Transfer Offices depends on their role as brokers of collaborations among different stakeholders, according to their mission and capacity to confront the innovation gap. We follow the line of SR viewed as a response to the specific demands of large stakeholders. Building upon recent conceptualizations of different theories, we develop an integrative model for understanding the institutional effects of the UKTO on university social responsibility.

  5. Knowledge that people with intellectual disabilities have of their inhaled asthma medications: messages for pharmacists.

    Davis, Sharon R; Durvasula, Seeta; Merhi, Diana; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela; Bosnic Anticevich, Sinthia Z

    2016-02-01

    Fifteen percent of Australians with intellectual disability (ID) are reported to have asthma. People with ID are at risk of poor health knowledge due to deficits in intellectual and adaptive functioning, but their medication knowledge has largely been ignored in research to date. To explore the level of understanding of asthma medication use of people with ID who self-administer their inhaled medications, in order to inform future educational support. Setting The research was conducted in NSW, Australia, at the participants' homes, the point of health care access, or the offices of relevant support organisations. In this qualitative study face-to-face interviews were conducted with people with ID using a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Main outcome Identification of barriers to asthma medication self-management by people with ID. Seventeen people with ID who self-administer their asthma medications were interviewed. Factors influencing their asthma medication knowledge and use included understanding of their illness and the need for medication; aspects of self-management and autonomy versus dependence. This sample of people with ID had a good understanding of the importance of using their inhaled asthma medications, as well as asthma triggers, and the difference between use of preventer and reliever medications. Both enablers and barriers to asthma medication self-management were identified in the domains of managing attacks, adherence, knowledge of side effects and sources of information on correct use of inhalers. The level of autonomy for medication use varied, with motivation to self-manage asthma influenced by the level of support that was practically available to individual participants. This research investigated aspects of asthma medication self-management of people with ID. Based on the barriers identified, pharmacists should promote use of spacers and written asthma action plans as well

  6. Social Networks and Health Knowledge in India

    Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    such as education and access to social networks explain part of the gap, a substantial part of the health knowledge gap is left unexplained. All groups have greater health knowledge in urban than in rural areas, but the gap is even wider in urban than in rural areas. Additionally, high caste women benefit more...... in terms of health knowledge from having health networks than women from other groups; except if the health person is of the same caste/religion, in which case low caste and Muslim women sometimes benefit by as much as double that of high caste women, or even more. It may therefore not be enough to give...... individuals access to high quality networks if caste and religion-related gaps in health knowledge are to be reduced; such networks also have to be homophilous, to have the maximum effect. Improved treatment from and confidence in the medical profession is found to be part of the mechanism linking health...

  7. Extended Performance Reporting: Evaluating Corporate Social Responsibility And Intellectual Capital Management

    James Guthrie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent corporate scandals have resulted in heightened attention towards the shortcomings of traditional financial reporting frameworks. Concurrently, the rise of the corporate social responsibility imperative has led to criticisms that financial reports resent an incomplete account  of a firm‟s activities. In addition, growing acknowledgement of the importance of a firm‟s intangibles and intellectual capital has been associated with increased commentary about the need for extra disclosures if a more complete picture of the firm‟s value is to be provided to external stakeholders. This paper responds to these concerns by developing an extended performance reporting framework to the Australian Food and Beverage Industry, which is characterised by both corporate social responsibility and intellectual capital issues.  In relation to the latter, this framework presents a novel attempt to develop an industry-customised framework as called for by both industry bodies and researchers in the area.

  8. Extended Performance Reporting: Evaluating Corporate Social Responsibility And Intellectual Capital Management

    James Guthrie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent corporate scandals have resulted in heightened attention towards the shortcomings of traditional financial reporting frameworks. Concurrently, the rise of the corporate social responsibility imperative has led to criticisms that financial reports resent an incomplete account of a firm‟s activities. In addition, growing acknowledgement of the importance of a firm‟s intangibles and intellectual capital has been associated with increased commentary about the need for extra disclosures if a more complete picture of the firm‟s value is to be provided to external stakeholders. This paper responds to these concerns by developing an extended performance reporting framework to the Australian Food and Beverage Industry, which is characterised by both corporate social responsibility and intellectual capital issues. In relation to the latter, this framework presents a novel attempt to develop an industry-customised framework as called for by both industry bodies and researchers in the area.

  9. Dynamic neural architecture for social knowledge retrieval.

    Wang, Yin; Collins, Jessica A; Koski, Jessica; Nugiel, Tehila; Metoki, Athanasia; Olson, Ingrid R

    2017-04-18

    Social behavior is often shaped by the rich storehouse of biographical information that we hold for other people. In our daily life, we rapidly and flexibly retrieve a host of biographical details about individuals in our social network, which often guide our decisions as we navigate complex social interactions. Even abstract traits associated with an individual, such as their political affiliation, can cue a rich cascade of person-specific knowledge. Here, we asked whether the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) serves as a hub for a distributed neural circuit that represents person knowledge. Fifty participants across two studies learned biographical information about fictitious people in a 2-d training paradigm. On day 3, they retrieved this biographical information while undergoing an fMRI scan. A series of multivariate and connectivity analyses suggest that the ATL stores abstract person identity representations. Moreover, this region coordinates interactions with a distributed network to support the flexible retrieval of person attributes. Together, our results suggest that the ATL is a central hub for representing and retrieving person knowledge.

  10. Causal beliefs about intellectual disability and schizophrenia and their relationship with awareness of the condition and social distance.

    Scior, Katrina; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-30

    Evidence on mental illness stigma abounds yet little is known about public perceptions of intellectual disability. This study examined causal beliefs about intellectual disability and schizophrenia and how these relate to awareness of the condition and social distance. UK lay people aged 16+(N=1752), in response to vignettes depicting intellectual disability and schizophrenia, noted their interpretation of the difficulties, and rated their agreement with 22 causal and four social distance items. They were most likely to endorse environmental causes for intellectual disability, and biomedical factors, trauma and early disadvantage for schizophrenia. Accurate identification of both vignettes was associated with stronger endorsement of biomedical causes, alongside weaker endorsement of adversity, environmental and supernatural causes. Biomedical causal beliefs and social distance were negatively correlated for intellectual disability, but not for schizophrenia. Causal beliefs mediated the relationship between identification of the condition and social distance for both conditions. While all four types of causal beliefs acted as mediators for intellectual disability, for schizophrenia only supernatural causal beliefs did. Educating the public and promoting certain causal beliefs may be of benefit in tackling intellectual disability stigma, but for schizophrenia, other than tackling supernatural attributions, may be of little benefit in reducing stigma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Teachers' perceptions of virtual worlds as a medium for social inclusion for adults with intellectual disability.

    Balandin, Susan; Molka-Danielsen, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore educators' perceptions of a virtual world Second Life TM as an environment for social interaction and social inclusion for the Norwegian adult students with intellectual disability that they supported. Five educators who supported a total of 10 adult students with intellectual disability in computer classes in community Adult Education Centres participated in individual in-depth interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content analysis. Participants were positive about Second Life although they did not perceive that it offered a successful context for social interaction or inclusion. They identified a number of benefits to using a virtual world and for students participating in virtual world research. Barriers identified included language, literacy, and technology issues along with the complexity of participating independently in a virtual world. Some people with intellectual disability can use virtual worlds but the skills required need additional research. Virtual worlds may provide a stimulating, safe, and exciting context for a range of activities but the level of support required by many people is high and consequently expensive.

  12. Cognitive performance and engagement in physical, social and intellectual activities in older adults: The FIBRA study

    Giovana Sposito

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline in aging can negatively impact quality of life in the elderly. However, studies have shown that elderly engaged in advanced activities of daily living (AADLs can maintain or enhance global cognitive function or specific domains.Objective:To investigate the relationship between engagement in AADLs and domains of cognition in elderly from seven different locations in Brazil.Methods:A cross-sectional study involving 2,549 elderly without cognitive deficits suggestive of dementia was conducted. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, health status, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE by subdomain (orientation, memory, attention/calculus, language and constructional praxis, and engagement in AADL grouped under physical, social and intellectual activities.Results:Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed an association, albeit modest, between intellectual AADLs and the domains orientation, attention/calculus, language and constructional praxis (R2=0.005, 0.008, 0.021, and 0.021 respectively. Social AADLs were correlated with memory (R2=0.002 and language (R2=0.004 domains. No association was found between physical AADLs and MMSE domains. Schooling and family income were the sociodemographic variables exhibiting the strongest relationship with cognitive domains.Conclusion:The study found associations between intellectual and social AADLs with higher cognitive performance, suggesting that active aging can provide opportunities to attenuate cognitive decline in aging.

  13. Children's thoughts on the social exclusion of peers with intellectual or learning disabilities.

    Nowicki, E A; Brown, J; Stepien, M

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has shown that children with intellectual or learning disabilities are at risk for social exclusion by their peers but little is known of children's views on this topic. In this study, we used concept mapping to investigate elementary school children's thoughts on why they believe their peers with intellectual or learning disabilities are sometimes socially excluded at school. Participants were 49 grade five and six children who attended inclusive classrooms. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. We extracted 49 unique statements from the transcribed data, and then invited participants to sort the statements into meaningful categories. Sorted data were entered into matrices, which were summed and analysed with multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis. A four-cluster solution provided the best conceptual fit for the data. Clusters reflected themes on (1) the thoughts and actions of other children; (2) differences in learning ability and resource allocation; (3) affect, physical characteristics and schooling; and (4) negative thoughts and behaviours. The overarching reason for social exclusion focused on differences between children with and without disabilities. This study also provided evidence that children are effective, reliable and competent participants in concept mapping. Educational and research implications are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  14. Difficulties in social functioning of adolescents with different family and intellectual status

    Jelić Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind limited effects of interventions focused on the child and its limitations the attention of researches is more and more directed to immediate and wider ambience factors in the prevention of negative forms of behaviour of children. The aim of the research was to determine the level of connectedness of family and intellectual status of adolescents and different aspects of their social functioning. The sample of 416 adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was divided into two groups. The group without parental care included 210 respondents (130 with typical development - TD and 80 with mild intellectual disability - MID, and the group with parental care (130 TD and 76 MID. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with subscales: behavioral problems, emotional problems and problems with peers. Family problems were divided in socioeconomic problems, partners' problem, mental health of parents, abuse, and neglect. The results confirmed that the young without parental care showed more problems in behavior than their peers with parental care, and that family status affects behavior more than intellectual status. Family is the protective factor for the development of emotional problems of the young TD students, while it is risky for MID students. Problems with peers are not significantly connected with family or intellectual status. Some implications of the results are stressed.

  15. Social workers' attributions towards individuals with dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental illness.

    Araten-Bergman, T; Werner, S

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to explore the applicability of the attribution model to social workers' attributions towards clients with dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and psychiatric illness. Specifically, the study examined the relations between social workers' attribution of responsibility, causality, stereotypes of dangerousness, their emotional reactions and behavioural reactions towards clients with dual diagnosis. Social workers (N = 279) completed questionnaires measuring attributions of responsibility, causation and dangerousness, and reported on their emotional and behavioural reactions to clients diagnosed with DD. Most social workers reported high levels of helping behaviours. The strongest predictor of discriminatory behaviours was the stereotype of dangerousness. Social workers who reported feeling less anger and more pity towards clients with DD tended to report higher levels of helping behaviour. But contrary to attribution theory, fear and anger did not predict discriminatory behaviours. The results are discussed in relation to the core values of social work and to professional identity. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Staffs' Knowledge and Perceptions of Working with Women with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Problems

    Taggart, L.; McMillan, R.; Lawson, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: There is a growing evidence of the physical and mental health inequalities in people with intellectual disability (ID) although less has been written concerning the mental health of women with ID (International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities). This is compared with the substantive literature published within…

  17. Propriedade Intelectual: proteção e gestão estratégica do conhecimento Intellectual Property: protection and management of knowledge

    Elza Fernandes Araújo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Além de garantir o direito de propriedade e exclusividade ao titular da criação intelectual, a proteção da propriedade intelectual permite o avanço da inovação e a divulgação dos conhecimentos, equilibrando os interesses do titular e acarretando benefícios para a sociedade. Neste sentido, a Propriedade Intelectual é estratégica no cenário globalizado e competitivo, no qual o conhecimento e a capacidade de inovar têm papel importante para o desenvolvimento de um país. Assim, visando à gestão da propriedade intelectual, com foco na inovação, faz-se necessário incentivar a cooperação entre a ICT e a empresa, para a realização de pesquisas e desenvolvimento tecnológico conjuntos, bem como dinamizar os processos de licenciamento e transferência de tecnologia. Nesse sentido, as ICTs com o auxílio dos NITs devem adotar políticas de gestão da Propriedade Intelectual, elaborando instrumentos jurídicos adequando o ambiente acadêmico ao contexto regulatório. Cabe às ICTs, por meio do NITs, estimularem a cultura da proteção da propriedade intelectual gerada na Instituição, podendo as mesmas atuarem em rede, aprimorando e avançando na gestão da propriedade intelectual. A Propriedade Intelectual é um fator estratégico para a inovação científica e tecnológica e, no Brasil, tem-se buscado a convergência dos setores público e empresarial, com o propósito de contribuir para o desenvolvimento científico, tecnológico e social do país, por meio de um processo contínuo com ações conjuntas e coordenadas.Besides ensuring property and exclusive rights to holders of intellectual creation, intellectual property protection allows innovation and spread of knowledge, balancing the interests of the holder and the benefits to society. In this sense, Intellectual Property is strategic in the globalized and competitive world scenario, in which knowledge and innovation capacity play an important role in the development of a

  18. Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2013-01-01

    Social skills are important treatment targets for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan. However, few treatments are available for adolescents and adults with ASD who also have severe to profound intellectual disability (S/PID). Several social skill interventions have been described that may improve social skills in…

  19. Later Life Impacts of Social Participation on Parents of Adult Offspring with and without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Olsen, Darren L.

    2018-01-01

    Social participation is an important resource for parents in old age, and may be particularly important for parents living with adult offspring with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To evaluate whether socializing with friends and family and participating in social organizations protects against depression in old age, this study…

  20. Implicit Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Relationship with Explicit Attitudes, Social Distance, Emotions and Contact.

    Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants' level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary), gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field.

  1. Implicit Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Relationship with Explicit Attitudes, Social Distance, Emotions and Contact.

    Michelle Clare Wilson

    Full Text Available Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants' level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary, gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field.

  2. The benefits of chess for the intellectual and social-emotional enrichment in schoolchildren.

    Aciego, Ramón; García, Lorena; Betancort, Moisés

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the benefits of regularly playing chess for the intellectual and social-emotional enrichment of a group of 170 schoolchildren from 6-16 years old. It is based on a quasi-experimental design, where the independent variable was the extracurricular activity of chess (n = 170) versus extracurricular activities of soccer or basketball (n = 60). The dependent variable was intellectual and socio-affective competence, which was measured by an IQ test (WISC-R), a self-report test (TAMAI) and a hetero-report questionnaire (teacher-tutor's criterion) applied at the beginning and the end of the academic year. In contrast to the comparison group, it was found that chess improves cognitive abilities, coping and problem-solving capacity, and even socioaffective development of children and adolescents who practice it. The results are modulated, particularly in the area socioaffective, by the personal profile of students who choose practice this activity.

  3. Social Networks Impacts on Knowledge Sharing Among Public ...

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Keywords- Social networks, Social media, Facebook, Twitter, and. Linkedin, Knowledge ... of knowledge sharing among public education students which the researcher see as .... frankness with teaching sphere. The American ...

  4. Parents' emotion expression as a predictor of child's social competence: children with or without intellectual disability.

    Green, S; Baker, B

    2011-03-01

    Parents' expression of positive emotion towards children who are typically developing (TD) is generally associated with better social development. However, the association between parents' negative emotion expression and social development can be positive or negative depending upon a number of factors, including the child's emotion regulation abilities. Given the lower emotion regulation capabilities of children with intellectual disability (ID), we hypothesised that parents' negative emotion expression would be associated with lower social development in children with ID compared to those with TD. Participants were 180 families of children with or without ID enrolled in a longitudinal study. Parents' positive and negative affect were coded live from naturalistic home interactions at child ages 5-8 years, and child's social skills were measured by using mother report at child ages 6-9 years. We examined mothers' and fathers' emotion expression as a time-varying predictor of social skills across ages 5-9 years. Mothers, but not fathers, expressed less positive affect and more negative affect with ID group children. Parents' positive affect expression was related to social skills only for TD children, with mothers' positive affect predicting higher social skills. Contrary to expectations, fathers' positive affect predicted lower social skills. Parents' negative affect predicted significantly lower social skills for children with ID than for children with TD. Findings support the theory that low to moderate levels of negative expression may be less beneficial or detrimental for children with ID compared to children with TD. Implications for further research and intervention are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. E-Inclusion: Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities - A Participatory Design.

    Louw, Julia S

    2017-01-01

    By examining the role of digital tools and social media, this paper discusses an innovative prospective research study to enhance social inclusion of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The paper begins with an overview of how individuals with disabilities have historically been excluded from society based on limited access and minimal opportunities afforded to them. Next, the paper presents the caveats that may hinder the improvement of social inclusion of young adults with ID and the oversights when developing digital technologies. Details about a prospective intervention research study are described that include a mobile application and a social media component. Finally, implications for research and practice are highlighted to emphasize the fundamental call for an insightful deliberation of these caveats that needs to be addressed in the design of a research study of this nature.

  6. Societal Dynamics Understanding Social Knowledge and Wisdom

    Betz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    At both a micro-information level and a macro-societal level, the concepts of “knowledge” and “wisdom” are complementary – in both decisions and in social structures and institutions.  At the decision level, knowledge is concerned with how to make a proper choice of means, where “best” is measured as the efficiency toward achieving an end.  Wisdom is concerned with how to make a proper choice of ends  that attain “best” values. At a societal level, knowledge is managed through science/technology and innovation.  And while science/technology is society's way to create new means with high efficiencies, they reveal nothing about values.  Technology can be used for good or for evil, to make the world into a garden or to destroy all life.  It is societal wisdom which should influence the choice of proper ends -- ends to make the world a garden. How can society make progress in wisdom as well as knowledge?  Historically, the disciplines of the physical sciences and biology have provided sci...

  7. Effect of a classroom-based intervention on the social skills of pupils with intellectual disability in Southwest Nigeria

    Adeniyi, Yetunde C.; Omigbodun, Olayinka O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated that social skill interventions and classroom supports are effective for pupils with intellectual disability. Such interventions have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of developing mental disorders, majority of which have their onset during the period of youth. Most young people with intellectual disability in low-resource settings do not have access to interventions that would enable or enhance their participation in society. The aim of this study was...

  8. Social networks of people with mild intellectual disabilities: characteristics, satisfaction, wishes and quality of life.

    van Asselt-Goverts, A E; Embregts, P J C M; Hendriks, A H C

    2015-05-01

    A supportive social network is crucial for facilitating social inclusion, which can, in turn, contribute to the quality of life (QOL) for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study, we investigate how people with mild ID perceive their social networks and which network characteristics relate to satisfaction with the network and perceived QOL. Data were gathered from 33 young adults with a mild to borderline ID using structured questionnaires: the MSNA to map the social network, the IDQOL-16 to assess QOL, and a questionnaire to determine satisfaction and wishes with regard to the social network. The majority of the participants (73.1%) were satisfied with their social networks. Improvement in the area of strengthening existing ties (e.g. more frequent contact, better contact) was desired as opposed to expansion of the network. Affection--especially towards family and professionals--was most strongly related to perceived QOL. It appears to be essential that relatives live in the same town, can frequently meet up and provide both emotional and practical support. The significance of family and the importance of high-quality interpersonal relationships between professional and client in the lives of young adults with ID cannot be overestimated. Although measures of satisfaction and wishes can have limitations, in actual practice it is considered useful to assess the opinions of clients with respect to their social networks. Interventions can then be tailored to the needs and wishes of the persons themselves. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: AN INTERVENTION TO PROMOTE MENTAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING

    Marilyn Campbell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents with intellectual disability have higher rates of mental health problems compared with there typically developing peers. Social support has been identified as an important protective factor for psychological well - being. In this paper we discuss the benefits of social support networks, and consider approaches for promoting children’s perceptions of the availability of social support. We describe an evidence-based intervention that has been specially adapted and implemented for students with intellectual disability in school settings. In a randomised controlled trial, the Aussie Optimism Resilience Skills Program was associated with improved perceptions of social support following a 10-week intervention. Educators need to be aware of the increased vulnerability of students with intellectual disability to the development mental health problems and the proactive ways in which they can promote psychological well - being within their classrooms.

  10. Socio-emotional regulation in children with intellectual disability and typically developing children, and teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment.

    Baurain, Céline; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Dionne, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which socio-emotional regulation displayed in three dyadic interactive play contexts (neutral, competitive or cooperative) by 45 children with intellectual disability compared with 45 typically developing children (matched on developmental age, ranging from 3 to 6 years) is linked with the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. A Coding Grid of Socio-Emotional Regulation by Sequences (Baurain & Nader-Grosbois, 2011b, 2011c) focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behavior and Behavior toward Social Rules in children was applied. The Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hugues, Soares-Boucaud, Hochman, & Frith, 1997) and the Assessment, Evaluation and Intervention Program System (AEPS, Bricker, 2002) were completed by teachers. Regression analyses emphasized, in children with intellectual disability only, a positive significant link between their Behavior toward Social Rules in interactive contexts and the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. Children with intellectual disabilities who listen to and follow instructions, who are patient in waiting for their turn, and who moderate their externalized behavior are perceived by their teachers as socially adapted in their daily social relationships. The between-groups dissimilarity in the relational patterns between abilities in socio-emotional regulation and social adjustment supports the "structural difference hypothesis" with regard to the group with intellectual disability, compared with the typically developing group. Hierarchical cluster cases analyses identified distinct subgroups showing variable structural patterns between the three specific categories of abilities in socio-emotional regulation and their levels of social adjustment perceived by teachers. In both groups, several abilities in socio-emotional regulation and teachers' perceptions of social adjustment vary depending on children's developmental age. Chronological age in children with

  11. Effects of a School-Based Social Skills Training Program for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Kaid, Tiffany; MacFarland, Mari C.

    2015-01-01

    Social deficits are a core characteristic of individuals with autism spectrum disorders and co-occurring intellectual disabilities (ASD-ID). Despite persistence of these deficits into adolescence, few social skills interventions have been empirically evaluated for older individuals with ASD-ID. The present investigation adapted an efficacious…

  12. Contribution of Leisure Satisfaction, Acceptance Disability, and Social Relationship to Life Satisfaction among Korean Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Kim, Junhyoung; Schilling, Mary Lou; Kim, May; Han, Areum

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature that explores the relationships among leisure satisfaction, acceptance of disability, social relationships, and life satisfaction among adults with intellectual disability from Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to examine how leisure satisfaction, disability acceptance, and social relationships are…

  13. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  14. Advancing social inclusion in the neighbourhood for people with an intellectual disability: an exploration of the literature

    Overmars-Marx, T.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Verdonschot, M.; Meininger, H.

    2013-01-01

    The shift from segregated facilities to community settings did not automatically lead to social inclusion for people with an intellectual disability (ID). Policies are increasingly decentralized but little is known about the factors that are important to realize social inclusion in the

  15. Social Goals and Conflict Strategies of Individuals with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities Who Present Problems of Aggression

    Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A few recent studies have adopted a social cognitive perspective to explore how individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs), who present problems of aggression, view their social world. The focus has mainly been on participants' perceptions of others' behaviour within conflict situations. The present exploratory study aims to…

  16. Social networks of adults with an intellectual disability from South Asian and White communities in the United Kingdom: A comparison.

    Bhardwaj, Anjali K; Forrester-Jones, Rachel V E; Murphy, Glynis H

    2018-03-01

    Little research exists comparing the social networks of people with intellectual disability (ID) from South Asian and White backgrounds. This UK study reports on the barriers that South Asian people with intellectual disability face in relation to social inclusion compared to their White counterparts. A mixed-methods research design was adopted to explore the social lives of 27 men (15 White; 12 South Asian) and 20 women (10 White; 10 South Asian with intellectual disability). Descriptive and parametric tests were used to analyse the quantitative data. The average network size of the whole group was 32 members. South Asian participants had more family members whilst White participants had more service users and staff in their networks; 96% network members from White intellectual disability group were also of White background, whilst the South Asian group had mixed ethnic network members. Social networks of individuals with intellectual disability in this study were found to be larger overall in comparison with previous studies, whilst network structure differed between the White and South Asian population. These differences have implications relating to future service planning and appropriateness of available facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Using tablet assisted Social Stories™ to improve classroom behavior for adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Kim, Mi-Seon; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho; Lim, Kyoung-Won

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined the use of tablet assisted Social Stories™ intervention for three high school students with severe intellectual disabilities whose problem behavior interfered with their learning and caused classroom disruptions. A multiple probe design across participants was employed to test the impact of the tablet assisted SS on the participants' target behaviors. During intervention, the participants read the Social Stories that were created on Prezi and accessed via Quick Response (QR) codes using a Galaxy Tap smart tablet before participating in an academic period. Data indicated that the SS intervention decreased disruptive behavior and increased academic engagement in all three participants. All three demonstrated generalization of behaviors to a nontargeted academic period and maintenance of improved behaviors at the 2-week follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Leveraging Intellectual Capital: Visionary "Knowledge Management" by the School Business Administrator.

    Armstrong, William I.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how school business officials can identify, locate, and collaborate with those individuals both inside and outside the school system who possess the necessary intellectual capital to contribute to the long-term improvement of students, staff, and the community. (PKP)

  19. Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disability: Knowledge, Barriers, and Facilitators

    Caton, Sue; Chadwick, Darren; Chapman, Melanie; Turnbull, Sue; Mitchell, Duncan; Stansfield, Jois

    2012-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) are more likely to have health problems than people without disability. Little previous research has investigated health from the perspective of the people with ID themselves. We aimed to focus on what people with ID understand being healthy to mean and what their experiences are of healthy…

  20. Open-Mindedness: An Intellectual Virtue in the Pursuit of Knowledge and Understanding

    Taylor, Rebecca M.

    2016-01-01

    Open-mindedness is widely valued as an important intellectual virtue. Definitional debates about open-mindedness have focused on whether open-minded believers must possess a particular first-order attitude toward their beliefs or a second-order attitude toward themselves as believers, taking it for granted that open-mindedness is motivated by the…

  1. Cancer Prevention and Health Promotion for People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Study of Staff Knowledge

    Hanna, L. M.; Taggart, L.; Cousins, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are living longer, their chances of developing cancer also increases. However, recognising the early signs and symptoms of cancer in a population with cognitive impairment and communication difficulties poses difficulties for both family carers and professional care staff. Engagement in…

  2. Intellectual property and pharmaceutical innovation : a model for managing the creation of knowledge under proprietary conditions

    Reekum, Antonie Henric van

    1999-01-01

    This study focused on IP management in the context of pharmaceutical innovation. The pharmaceutical industry was chosen because, in an early stage of the project, several indications were found that intellectual property is of particular concern to management in this industry. The theoretical

  3. Facilitating employment opportunities for adults with intellectual and developmental disability through parents and social networks.

    Petner-Arrey, Jami; Howell-Moneta, Angela; Lysaght, Rosemary

    2015-07-01

    People with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) have historically had high unemployment and underemployment rates and continue to face significant barriers to attaining and sustaining employment. The purpose of this research, conducted in Ontario, Canada was to better understand the experiences of people with IDD gaining and keeping productivity roles. We used qualitative semi-structured interviews with 74 participants with IDD and their families or caregivers as proxies regarding the employment of a person with IDD. We selected a sample of persons from three different geographic regions in Ontario, Canada, and analyzed data through coding methods consistent with a grounded theory approach. Our results demonstrate the importance of parents and other members of social and family networks relative to connecting with work options and sustaining work over time, especially through continued advocacy and investment. Parents helped individuals with IDD negotiate the right job fit, though they often encountered challenges as a result of their efforts. Practitioners must understand how to support parents to be effective advocates for their adult children with IDD, assist them to develop and maintain their social networks and help them to avoid caregiver burnout. Implications for Rehabilitation People with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) face numerous challenges in indentifying work options and overcoming barriers to employment. Parents and other non-paid support members of social networks can be instrumental in ensuring that persons with IDD not only secure initial job placements, but also sustain employment and employment alternatives. Professionals that support persons with IDD can direct their efforts to helping persons with IDD develop strong social connections, as well as helping parents to prevent burnout.

  4. Development of knowledge base of intellectual system for support of formal and informal training of IT staff

    Kurvaeva, L. V.; Gavrilova, I. V.; Mahmutova, M. V.; Chichilanova, S. A.; Povituhin, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    The choice of educational digital content, according to education goals (descriptors which are formed by competences, labor functions, etc.), becomes an important practical task because of the variety of existing educational online systems that is available to persons within formal, informal IT education formats. Ontologies can form a basis for working out knowledge bases, which are center of intellectual system support in IT specialist training. The paper describes a technology of ontological model creation; analyzes the structure and the content of basic data. The structure of knowledge interrelation of the considered subject and IT education is considered. This knowledge base is applied for solving tasks of educational and methodical supplementation of educational programs of the higher and additional professional education, corporate training; for creating systems of certification and testing for students and practicing experts; for forming individual trajectories of training and career development.

  5. Relation between Working Memory and Self-Regulation Capacities and the Level of Social Skills Acquisition in People with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Ducic, Bojan; Gligorovic, Milica; Kaljaca, Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Background: Social competence deficit is one of the main characteristics of intellectual disability. The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of working memory (WM) and self-regulation (SR) on social skills in persons with moderate intellectual disability (MID). Method: The sample included 41 participants with MID, aged 14-21.…

  6. Knowledge Sharing via Social Networking Platforms in Organizations

    Kettles, Degan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge Management Systems have been actively promoted for decades within organizations but have frequently failed to be used. Recently, deployments of enterprise social networking platforms used for knowledge management have become commonplace. These platforms help harness the knowledge of workers by serving as repositories of knowledge as well…

  7. Do Social Networks Differ? Comparison of the Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disabilities, People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other People Living in the Community

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.; Wegman, K. M.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences in social network characteristics, satisfaction and wishes with respect to the social network between people with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities (ID), people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a reference group. Data were gathered from 105 young adults…

  8. Predicting maternal parenting stress in middle childhood: the roles of child intellectual status, behaviour problems and social skills.

    Neece, C; Baker, B

    2008-12-01

    Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children's early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention.

  9. Social exclusion and people with intellectual disabilities: a rural-urban comparison.

    Nicholson, L; Cooper, S-A

    2013-04-01

    Research suggests that social exclusion is a problem both for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and for people living in rural areas. This may give rise to a double disadvantage for people with ID living in rural areas. Conversely, aspects of rural life such as community spirit and social support may protect against social exclusion in this population. This study was designed to compare a number of measures of social exclusion in adults with ID living in rural and urban areas, with the aim of identifying whether a double disadvantage exists. Adults with ID were recruited from a rural and an urban area in Scotland. Participants participated in a face-to-face interview and their medical notes were accessed. Social exclusion was investigated using a number of measures comprising: daytime opportunities and physical access to community facilities (using part of the British Institute of Learning Disabilities questionnaire), recent contact with others and the quality of personal relationships (using a modified Interview Measure of Social Relationships questionnaire) and area deprivation by postcode (using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation). The data were analysed using a series of binary logistic regression models that adjusted for variables including age, gender, level of ID, mental illhealth and common physical co-morbidities. A representative sample of adults with ID from rural (n = 39) and urban (n = 633) areas participated. Participants from rural areas were significantly more likely to have any regular daytime opportunity [odds ratio (OR) = 10.8, 95% CI = 2.3-51.5] including employment (OR = 22.1, 95% CI = 5.7-85.5) and attending resource centres (OR = 6.7, 95% CI = 2.6-17.2) than were participants from urban areas. They were also more likely to have been on holiday (OR = 17.8, 95% CI = 4.9-60.1); however, were less likely to use community facilities on a regular basis. Participants from urban and rural areas had a similar number of contacts with

  10. Conceptualising Intellectual Capital (IC) as Language Game and Power

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual Capital (IC) can be viewed as knowledge about knowledge, knowledge creation and how such processes might be leveraged into value. Developing a critical understanding of IC requires a historical and contextual understanding of how IC has emerged and how IC is used. This paper, drawing...... this process of social construction. The paper concludes by proposing some methodological guidelines for conducting critical genealogical research on intellectual capital....

  11. Caring for a family member with intellectual disability and epilepsy: practical, social and emotional perspectives.

    Thompson, Rose; Kerr, Mike; Glynn, Mike; Linehan, Christine

    2014-11-01

    To examine the caregiving impact of those who support a family member with intellectual disability and epilepsy. An online, qualitative international survey was conducted via the auspices of the International Bureau of Epilepsy with various stakeholders who support individuals who have intellectual disability and epilepsy. Qualitative comments were analyzed from respondents who identified themselves as family members (n=48; 36%) who referred specifically to the impact of supporting a family member with these combined disabilities. Four main domains, which were comprised of ten themes, were derived from the qualitative data using Braun and Clarke's qualitative framework. These domains comprised (1) practical concerns, (2) disrupted family dynamics, (3) emotional burden and (4) positive experiences. In combination these themes illustrate the pervasive impact on family life for those supporting an individual with complex needs. Financial concerns, coordination and responsibility of care, diverted attention from other family members and social isolation all contributed a significant burden of care for family members. Positive aspects were, however, also cited including the closeness of the family unit and a fostering of altruistic behavior. The study provides an insight into an under-researched area. The burden of caring for a family member across the lifespan has a largely negative and pervasive impact. Targeted service provision could contribute to an amelioration of the challenges faced by these families. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conceptualizing Intellectual Capital as Language Game and Power

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge is deemed to be the increasingly important factor of production in creating economic and social value. Intellectual capital (IC) has emerged as a key concept encompassing this development. As such IC can be viewed as knowledge about knowledge, knowledge creation and how such processes...

  13. Social skills: differences among adults with intellectual disabilities, co-morbid autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy.

    Smith, Kimberly R M; Matson, Johnny L

    2010-01-01

    Assessing social skills is one of the most complex and challenging areas to study because behavioral repertoires vary depending on an individual's culture and context. However, researchers have conclusively demonstrated that individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have impaired social skills as well as those with co-morbid autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy. However, it is unknown how these groups differ. Assessment of social skills was made with the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Individuals with Severe Retardation. One hundred participants with ID were matched and compared across four equal groups comprising 25 participants with ID, 25 participants with epilepsy, 25 participants with ASD, and 25 participants with combined ASD and epilepsy. When controlling for age, gender, race, level of ID, and hearing and visual impairments, significant differences were found among the four groups on the MESSIER, Wilks's Λ=.58, F(18, 257)=3.05, psocial skills than the ID only or groups containing only a single co-morbid factor with ID (ASD or epilepsy only). Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge dynamics in the tourism-social entrepreneurship nexus

    Phi, Giang; Whitford, Michelle; Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is often employed as a vehicle for facilitating social-economic development, however its usefulness has been somewhat limited in relation to addressing social issues, and in particular, those issues relating to poverty. This is partly due to the lack of cross-sectoral interactions...... the creation and synergising of social innovation that addresses persistent social issues. Yet to date, the utility of cross-sectoral knowledge dynamics still remains largely under-researched in both the social entrepreneurship and tourism literature. This chapter introduces readers to the concept of knowledge...... dynamics and discusses knowledge dynamics in the tourism and social entrepreneurship nexus via a case study of community-based tourism in Mai Hich, Vietnam. We argue that by gaining an enhanced understanding of cross-sectoral knowledge dynamics, we can strengthen the overall praxis of tourism and social...

  15. Do Social Information-Processing Models Explain Aggressive Behaviour by Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Residential Care?

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…

  16. Effects of Video Feedback on Social Behaviour of Young People with Mild Intellectual Disability and Staff Responses.

    Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

    2002-01-01

    A study evaluated effects of a multifaceted training procedure on the inappropriate and appropriate social behavior of five adolescents with mild intellectual disability and on staff responses. The training included video feedback and self-management procedures and staff training with video and graphic feedback. Results indicated increases in…

  17. Changes in the Social Networks of Three Women with an Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Follow-Up Study

    Saarinen, Minna; Holm, Laura; Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta

    2018-01-01

    There is ample evidence to show that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) face an increased risk of being socially excluded. The longer life expectancy of persons with ID carries new challenges. In this paper, we report on a follow-up case study of three Finnish women with ID. The women were interviewed twice (in 1995 and in 2013) and…

  18. An Evaluation of Social and Adaptive Skills in Adults with Bipolar Disorder and Severe/Profound Intellectual Disability

    Matson, Johnny L.; Terlonge, Cindy; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Rivet, Tessa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship of social and adaptive skills in adults with bipolar disorder and severe or profound intellectual disability. A bipolar group (N=14), a severe psychopathology group without bipolar disorder (N=14), and a control group with no DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (N=14) were compared on the…

  19. Promoting Leisure Physical Activity Participation among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Validation of Self-Efficacy and Social Support Scales

    Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…

  20. Social Work Science and Knowledge Utilization

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…

  1. Effect of a classroom-based intervention on the social skills of pupils with intellectual disability in Southwest Nigeria.

    Adeniyi, Yetunde C; Omigbodun, Olayinka O

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that social skill interventions and classroom supports are effective for pupils with intellectual disability. Such interventions have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of developing mental disorders, majority of which have their onset during the period of youth. Most young people with intellectual disability in low-resource settings do not have access to interventions that would enable or enhance their participation in society. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a social skills training for pupils with intellectual disability attending a special school in Southwest Nigeria. Thirty pupils with mild to moderate intellectual disability participated in the study. Utilising the Explore social skills curriculum, teachers were trained to give lessons to the participants 3-4 times a week for 8 weeks in their classrooms. Social skills level of participants was assessed with the Matson evaluation of social skills for individuals with severe retardation (MESSIER) at baseline and immediately after the intervention. Paired t tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis Test were used to assess for pre and post intervention changes in social skills scores and analysis of changes in social skills across socio-demographic variables at p social skills impairment, 2 (6.7 %) had none or minimal impairments and 10 (30 %) had severe impairments. At the end of the intervention, there was a 20 % reduction in the number of participants in the severe social skills impairment category and 13.3 % increase in the number of participants in the 'none or minimal' social skills category. The mean pre and post- intervention total social skills scores were 126.63 ± 17.91 and 135.97 ± 20.81 respectively with a mean difference of 9.34 (t = 3.71; p = 0.001). The social skills of pupils with intellectual disability who participated in this study improved significantly during the 8 weeks the Explore social

  2. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  3. 'Knowledge,' Curriculum and Social Justice

    Wrigley, Terry

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the place of knowledge in developing a socially just curriculum. It pursues the unusual route of a critique of Social Realism, a small but influential tendency in curriculum studies which claims that knowledge has been squeezed out by recent curriculum reforms and that there has been a descent into relativism. This paper…

  4. Comparing Social and Intellectual Appeals to Reduce Disgust of Eating Crickets

    Sheppard, Barry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Research on disgust, to date, has focused on general sensitivity. This experiment looks at disgust specific to eating crickets, how it can be reduced, whether there are differences with gender and whether age correlate with that disgust. Methods. A convenience sample of 352 participants completed an online questionnaire, were randomly assigned into groups who viewed an intellectual appeal (text or a social appeal (video. They rated before and after, as a measure of disgust, their likelihood of eating a whole cricket and also a bar which contained cricket flour. Results. Members of the social appeal group had a significantly greater change in likelihood to eat a cricket bar (p = .028, BF10 = 3.92, but not a whole cricket (p = .316, BF10 = 0.13. Female participants were less likely than male participants to eat a whole cricket (p < .001, BF10 = 4828.84 or a cricket bar (p = .001, BF10 = 181.18. Older participants were less likely to eat a whole cricket (p = .01, BF10 = 4.98 or a cricket bar (p = .005, BF10 = 34.12. Conclusions. Results support the role of social influence in disgust of eating crickets.

  5. Knowledge Productivity for Sustainable Innovation: Social Capital as HRD Target

    Ehlen, Corry; van der Klink, Marcel; Roentgen, Uta; Curfs, Emile; Boshuizen, Henny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of a conceptual model on relations between organisational innovation, knowledge productivity and social capital. It explores processes of knowledge productivity for sustainable innovation and associated HRD implications in knowledge intensive organisations, taking the perspective that…

  6. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    Ewa Krok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for people to share knowledge. The article attempts to interpret the willingness to share knowledge through the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Impact Theory, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This analysis leads to the following conclusions: •we share our knowledge and expect a return; •we share our knowledge when we believe that the benefits of this action outweigh the costs; •we are pushed to share knowledge by the power of empathy; •workers’ willingness to share knowledge is influenced by three social processes: subordination, identification and internalisation; •the decision to share knowledge is preceded by an intention formed under the influence of an individual attitude towards that behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control; and •the decision to share knowledge is also influenced by additional components, including the knowledge and skills to implement this behaviour, environmental limitations, behavioural emphasis and habits.

  7. Knowledge productivity for sustainable innovation: social capital as HRD target

    Ehlen, Corry; Van der Klink, Marcel; Roentgen, Uta; Curfs, Emile; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of a conceptual model on relations between organisational innovation, knowledge productivity and social capital. It explores processes of knowledge productivity for sustainable innovation and associated HRD implications in knowledge

  8. (Social) Cognitive skills and social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline

  9. Social Technologies and Informal Knowledge Sharing within and across Organizations

    Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…

  10. An Online Life Like Any Other: Identity, Self-Determination, and Social Networking Among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Chadwick, Darren D; Fullwood, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Research focusing on online identity and the personal experiences of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is currently limited. Eleven adults with ID were interviewed regarding personal experiences of being online and using social media. Data were analyzed qualitatively using thematic network analysis. Two global themes, online relatedness and sharing and online agency and support, highlighted the positive potential of social media in enabling the development and maintenance of social bonds, valued social roles, and feelings of enjoyment, competence, autonomy, and self-worth. Participants reported sharing various expressed online identities that did not focus on or hide impairment, challenging notions of dependency, with participants both providing support and being supported online.

  11. Digital literacy of youth and young adults with intellectual disability predicted by support needs and social maturity.

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between digital propensity and support needs as well as predictors of digital propensity in the context of support intensity, age, gender, and social maturity. A total of 118 special education teachers rated the support intensity, digital propensity, and social maturity of 352 students with intellectual disability. Leveraging the Digital Propensity Index, Supports Intensity Scale, and the Social Maturity Scale, descriptive statistics, correlations, multiple regressions, and regression analyses were employed. The findings revealed significant relationships between digital propensity and support needs. In addition, significant predictors of digital propensity were found with regard to support intensity, age, gender, and social maturity.

  12. Training of Residential Social Care Staff to Meet the Needs of Older People with Intellectual Disabilities who Develop Age-Related Health Problems: An Exploratory Study.

    Northway, Ruth; Jenkins, Robert; Holland-Hart, Daniella

    2017-09-01

    Despite awareness of the age related health needs of people with intellectual disabilities little is known regarding how residential social care staff are prepared to meet such needs. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews from 14 managers of supported living settings. Transcripts were thematically analysed. Staff may work in supported living settings with no prior experience of care work, and previous knowledge/experience of supporting people in relation to their health is not required. Whilst health related training is provided there is a lack of specific training regarding healthy ageing, and training seems to be reactive to changing needs of tenants meaning that proactive monitoring for changes in health status may not occur. Whilst some training is provided for residential social care staff in relation to health and ageing a more proactive approach is required which should include a focus on healthy ageing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Proposing a Model for Successful Application of Knowledge Sharing II (Social Knowledge Sharing) within Organizations

    Mehdi Shamizanjani; Seyed Mohammad Ghasemtabar Shahri

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is the development of a success model of Knowledge Sharing 2.0 (social knowledge sharing) through organizations. A three-step strategy is used in this research as stated below: In the first step, identification of social software and extraction of factors effective on success of each for knowledge sharing were obtained from literature review. Execution of Delphi method and identification of critical factors were done in the second step. At l...

  14. THE SOCIAL PRACTICE OF READING AND WRITING INSTRUCTIONIN SCHOOLS FOR INTELLECTUALLY DISABLED PUPILS

    Monica REICHENBERG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, schooling for children who are regarded as intellectually disabled is organised in a special school, Särskolan. The overall aim of this article was to investigate the teachers’ attitudes towards the social practice of reading and writing instruction in Särskolan.Therefore, 40 teachers from Northern Swedenwere sampled for the em­pi­rical study. The teachers were asked to fill out a questionnaire. One of the findings was that the teachers reported different attitudes towards the social practice of reading and writing instruction. Another finding was that the teachers reported they did not practice the documentation of reading and writing difficulties. Furthermore, the practice of documentation was associated with professio­nal competence in reading and writing literacy. The study suggests that literacy educa­tion did have an effect on teachers’ attitu­des towards their practice of docu­men­ting.However, the openness towards organizational learning was polarized, and consequently, it produced a threshold for change. Accordingly, more studies are necessary for further descrip­tion and explanation of the complexities of the present findings.

  15. Social skills knowledge and performance among adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Goldstein, Tina R; Miklowitz, David J; Mullen, Kimberley L

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated social skills deficits among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Adolescents with DMS-IV bipolar disorder (n = 18) and their parents completed social skills assessments when they were experiencing minimal mood symptoms. The control group (n = 18) consisted of adolescents with no history of psychiatric disorders. Participants and their parents rated the adolescents' social performance using the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters. We measured the adolescents' knowledge of appropriate social skills using the Interpersonal Negotiation Strategy Interview. Raters 'blind' to psychiatric status rated the adolescents' responses and their social interactions with an examiner during the assessment. Adolescents with bipolar disorder displayed significantly more social skills performance deficits than controls. No significant differences emerged between the groups in social skills knowledge. Ratings of social interactions with the examiner failed to distinguish bipolar from control teens, but raters were successful in guessing the psychiatric status of the participants. These findings indicate that bipolar adolescents lag behind their peers in social skills performance, but not social skills knowledge. Results support the hypothesis that difficulties with emotion regulation interfere with the consistent exhibition of appropriate social behaviors.

  16. Relationships between structural social capital, knowledge identification capability and external knowledge acquisition

    Beatriz Ortiz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the mediating effect of the identification of valuable external knowledge on the relationship between the development of inter-organizational ties (structural social capital and the acquisition of external knowledge. Design/methodology/approach - Using a sample of 87 firms from Spanish biotechnology and pharmaceutics industries, the authors have tested the proposed mediation hypothesis by applying the partial least squares technique to a structural equations model. Findings - The study results show that those firms with stronger, more frequent and closer inter-relationships are able to increase the amount of intentionally acquired knowledge, partly due to the greater level of development of their knowledge identification capability. Thus, firms with a higher capability to recognize the value of the knowledge embedded in their inter-organizational networks will be more likely to design better strategies to acquire and integrate such knowledge into their current knowledge bases for either present or future use. Originality/value - This research contributes to knowledge management and social capital literature by means of the study of two key determinants of knowledge acquisition – structural social capital and knowledge identification capability – and the explanation of their relationships of mutual influence. The paper thus tries to fill this literature gap and connects the relational perspective of social capital with the knowledge-based view from a strategic point of view.

  17. Measuring successful knowledge sharing among academia through social media

    Ghazali, Saadiah; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zabidi, Nerda Zura; Omar, Mohd Faizal; Alias, Rose Alinda

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to study the influence of social media on knowledge sharing among academia. Previously, many researches have been done to explore the importance emergence of social media for public use, but there are still limited studies on how this technological advancement affects the academia. For this study, Facebook is chosen as one of the online social networking tools as the medium of knowledge sharing. To begin with, this study is started with the identification of factors that encourage the academia to share their knowledge through social media. These factors are then categorized based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). After this knowledge has successfully shared, the level of successful knowledge sharing through Facebook is modeled using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy inputs for this study are the number of like, comment and share. Findings from this study indeed showed that there are many reasons encouraging academia to utilize social media for their work. Besides, this paper contributes new knowledge to fuzzy logic application as it is the first known research in measuring Facebook engagement for knowledge sharing purposes. In conclusion although there exist some barriers and limitations with the use of social media, academia are showing a positive shift in the application of these tools for work.

  18. Teaching social perception skills to adolescents with autism and intellectual disabilities using video-based group instruction.

    Stauch, Tiffany A; Plavnick, Joshua B; Sankar, Sudha; Gallagher, Annie C

    2018-05-17

    Few interventions focus on teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) that are consistently used during interactions with peers ( Carter et al., 2014). The present study evaluated the effects of video-based group instruction (VGI) on the acquisition of social perception skills of five adolescents with ASD or ID in a public school setting. Social perception involves observing affective behaviors of others, discriminating relevant environmental stimuli, and differentially reinforcing the affective behavior of another person. Typically developing peers supported VGI implementation as social partners for participants. A multiple probe design across behaviors demonstrated the effectiveness of VGI for teaching social perception skills. Four of five participants acquired and maintained the targeted social perception skills, and we observed some transfer to a nontreatment setting. Results of this study suggest VGI may support the acquisition of social perception among adolescents with ASD or ID. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Role of the Knowledge in the Political Socialization of Adults

    Bogomir Novak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses a thesis of the ambivalent structure of the knowledge and the political socialization, the school's knowledge and the political socialisation dilemma in recent circum­ stances. The adults socialize themselves in postsociali­stic transition for a new system of democracy in the independent state of Slovenia. The adults are cleaved between nostalgia for the past and neces­sity of (active adaptation in present. Our political culture has a low level because the knowledge was not consider as a value. A new democratic political culture already arises in the postsocialist countries. The knowledge, which we get through the social relationships and logical, critical thinking, has double structure: it is repetition and creativi­ty, the knowledge for power over extern, physic world and knowledge for human, psycho-social world, partialised and holistic knowledge. The adults, who are included in process of long-life education addes the Jack of school knowledge with learning of contemporary knowledge. In this way they resocialize themselves for accomplish­ ing of the complex tasks of the postsocialist socie­ty.

  20. E-Learning as a Knowledge Management Approach for Intellectual Capital Utilization

    Shehabat, Issa; Mahdi, Saad A.; Khoualdi, Kamel

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the…

  1. Theoretical backgrounds of investigating of intellectual and human capital

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the theoretical aspects of a company's intellectual capital. This capital consists of stock and movement of knowledge which is useful for organizing. There are three components of intellectual capital - human, social and organizational capital. The differences of intellectual and human capital are established. In particular, if human capital is characterized by mundane knowledge, the intellectual one - by the new, and if the products of human capital are the usual goods and services, the products of intellectual capital are the result of translating and implementing new knowledge. The coincidence of research subjects of the theory of intellectual capital and the theory of innovative enterprise development is shown. The concept of "intellectual potential of the enterprise" is introduced and the building structure is discussed. This potential consists of intellectual capital, patents and licenses unrealized by the enterprises, formalized ideas and hypotheses and undiscovered creative potential of the staff. Finally, a realization model of the intellectual potential of the company is proposed.

  2. Understanding the social dimension of knowledge through complex network analysis

    Mas Tur, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents five studies on the social dimension of knowledge, with a focus on its creation and diffusion processes. Broadly speaking, the creation and diffusion of knowledge are phenomena inherent to human society as a whole. In this sense, the results of the works in this thesis can be

  3. Tacit Knowledge in Online Learning: Community, Identity, and Social Capital

    Oztok, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities that tacit knowledge could provide for social constructivist pedagogies; in particular, pedagogies for online learning. Arguing that the tacit dimension of knowledge is critical for meaning making in situated learning practices and for a community of practice to function, the article considers whether…

  4. Job Stress Across Gender: The Importance of Emotional and Intellectual Demands and Social Support in Women

    María José Montero-Simó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse whether any differences exist between the genders with respect to the effect of perceived Job Demands, Control and Support (JDCS model on how individuals reach high levels of job stress. To do this, the perceived risk of suffering an illness or having an accident in the workplace is used as an outcome measure. The study is based on the First Survey on Working Conditions in Andalusia, which has a sample of 5,496 men and 2,779 women. We carry out a multi-sample analysis with structural equation models, controlling for age and sector. The results show that the generation of job stress has a different pattern in men and women. In the case of men, the results show that only one dimension of the job demands stressor is significant (quantitative demands, whose effect on job stress is weakened slightly by the direct effects of control and support. With women, in contrast, emotional and intellectual aspects (qualitative demands are also statistically significant. Moreover, social support has a greater weakening effect on the levels of job stress in women than in men. These results suggest that applying the JDCS model in function of the gender will contribute to a greater understanding of how to reduce the levels of job stress in men and women, helping the design of more effective policies in this area.

  5. Efforts to increase social contact in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: Analysing individual support plans in the Netherlands.

    Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette Aj; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content of ISPs with respect to the social contacts of people with PIMD. ISPs for 60 persons with PIMD in the Netherlands were inductively coded and illustrated with quotations. It turned out that every ISP contained information about social contacts. Of all the quotations extracted, 71.2% were about current conditions, 6.2% were about the future and less than 1% concerned actual goals. The social contacts of people with PIMD are mentioned in their ISPs, but this is rarely translated into goals. The results of the current study suggest that attention should be paid to ensuring that professionals understand the importance of social contacts and their application in practice.

  6. Socially Responsible Knowledge and Behaviors: Comparing Upper vs. Lower Classmen

    Kozar, Joy M.; Connell, Kim Y. Hiller

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a sample of undergraduate students and survey research methods, this study examined knowledge on issues of social responsibility within the apparel and textiles industry, comparing the sophistication among upper- versus lower-classmen. The study also investigated the differences between students in their socially responsible apparel…

  7. The effects of social capital and organizational commitment on the staff’s intellectual contribution in the central building of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Leila Malek Makan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays human capital is the main asset in organizations. Thus, the employees’ intellectual involvement is a key factor in the success of organizations. Hence organizations should seek for factors that affect and boost the employees’ intellectual involvement. Therefore, the present research aimed at discovering the relationship between organizational commitment and social capital with intellectual involvement among employees of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Method: The study population consisted of staff employees at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. A sample of 224 employees was selected using cluster sampling. Data were collected using three questionnaires including social capital, organizational commitment, and intellectual involvement. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: It was found that the level of social capital, organizational commitment, and intellectual involvement was at an average level. There was a significant relationship between intellectual involvement and degree (p<0.01 and marital status (p<0.05. Other demographic variables had no significant relationship with research variables. Moreover, all research variables and their dimensions had a significant relationship with each other (p<0.01. Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that with improvement in each of the research variables, other variables will improve. For example, as a result of improvement in social capital or organization commitment, intellectual involvement will increase and the organization could use its competitive advantage

  8. Knowledge Contribution in Virtual Communities: Accounting for Multiple Dimensions of Social Presence through Social Identity

    Shen, Kathy Ning; Yu, Angela Yan; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Integrating social presence theory and social identity theory, this study brings system design and social influence aspects together to explain their joint effects on knowledge contribution in virtual communities (VCs). Different from most prior information systems (IS) research that adopts a uni-dimensional approach and restricts social presence…

  9. Knowledge Transmission versus Social Transformation: A Critical Analysis of Purpose in Elementary Social Studies Methods Textbooks

    Butler, Brandon M.; Suh, Yonghee; Scott, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate the extent to which 9 elementary social studies methods textbooks present the purpose of teaching and learning social studies. Using Stanley's three perspectives of teaching social studies for knowledge transmission, method of intelligence, and social transformation; we analyze how these texts prepare…

  10. Knowledge dynamics in the tourism-social entrepreneurship nexus

    Phi, Giang; Whitford, Michelle; Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is often employed as a vehicle for facilitating social-economic development, however its usefulness has been somewhat limited in relation to addressing social issues, and in particular, those issues relating to poverty. This is partly due to the lack of cross-sectoral interactions and knowledge exchange between private, public and third sectors that are needed to create effective and appropriate initiatives to leverage tourism for social benefits. Such traditional sectoral boundaries ...

  11. Generation of human and structural capital: lessons from knowledge management

    Agndal, Henrik; Nilsson, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Interorganizational and social relationships can be seen as part of the intellectual capital of a firm. Existing frameworks of intellectual capital, however, fail to address how relationships should be managed to generate more intellectual capital. Drawing on the interaction approach and the fields of intellectual capital and knowledge management, this paper develops a framework for managing relationships. The framework is illustrated with a case study. It is also noted that firms can improve...

  12. Do social networks and technological capabilities help knowledge management?

    Encarnación García-Sánchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic capabilities are currently becoming an important extension of the theory of resources and capabilities that enables companies to adapt better in the current competitive environment. This paper examines how knowledge management, a dynamic function related to management or administration of a set of knowledge flows, develops thanks to the greater dynamism of social networks. It then shows how this relationship is especially strengthened by different technological capabilities. To achieve these goals, the paper examines the main tools that permit companies to develop an ability to achieve competitive advantage relative to the technological capabilities of managers and workers, social networks and knowledge management.

  13. Research and production of knowledge in Social Work

    Aldaíza Sposati

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns research paths in the field of Social Work. It begins with the polemic concerning the potential and ability of Social Work as a social practice to produce knowledge. It revives the debate concerning the "war of the sciences" between physicists and mathematicians with social analysts, in which the later do not recognize the scientific dimension of research in the social realm. It analyzes the growth of scientific production in Social Work through dissertations and theses in the Graduate Social Work Program. To do so it comments on the analyses of Iamamoto, Silva and Silva and Carvalho and indicates the need to establish a research policy, orient the epistemic community in Social Work and organize a network of researchers centers.

  14. Motivation and Knowledge Sharing through Social Media within Danish Organizations

    Nielsen, Pia; Razmerita, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Based on an empirical quantitative study, this article investigates employee motivation in Danish companies and aims at determining which factors affect employees’ knowledge sharing through social media in a working environment. Our findings pinpoint towards the potential social media have......, but it is the influence from the combination of individual and organizational factors, which affect the adoption of the platforms. A key finding in the study is that knowledge sharing is not a ‘social dilemma’ as previous studies have found. The study shows a positive development in employees’ willingness to share...

  15. From Knowledge to Firm Performance: An Empirical analysis of Intellectual Capital Impact in Polish and Dutch Listed Firms

    Koen Verduijn

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Empirical results about the direct relation of knowledge leading to financial performance at a firm is dispersed. This study aims to examine the impact intellectual capital (IC has on firm performance in Polish and Dutch listed firms.Methodology: Quantitative data is collected based on audited annual reports from the top 20 companies listed at the Warsaw Stock Exchange and Amsterdam Stock Exchange between 2007 and 2011. IC is measured using the VAIC methodology with its individual elements of HCE, SCE, and CEE. Direct relations between ICE, HCE, and SCE and five measures of firm performance are statistically analysed.Results: The results suggest that there is a direct positive relationship between ICE and firm performance of Polish and Dutch listed firms, particularly with ROA, ROE, EP, and to a lesser extent with ATO. Firms listed in Poland provide a stronger positive ICE relation to ROA and ROE where firms listed in the Netherlands provide a stronger positive ICE relation to EP. Regarding individual elements, HCE relates highly positive to ROA, ROE, and EP where SCE finds only partial negative relation with ATO.Implications: Nurturing IC and in particular HC confirms the importance of firm knowledge and employees with right training and other support. Additionally, further clarification regarding SC is required.Originality: This paper presents the first study of the IC relationship with firm performance in Poland as well in the Netherlands. Additionally, the comparison between firms of both countries establishes a novelty in IC research.

  16. Looking Through a Social Lens: Conceptualising Social Aspects of Knowledge Management for Global Health Practitioners.

    Limaye, Rupali J; Sullivan, Tara M; Dalessandro, Scott; Jenkins, Ann Hendrix

    2017-04-13

    Knowledge management plays a critical role in global health. Global health practitioners require knowledge in every aspect of their jobs, and in resource-scarce contexts, practitioners must be able to rely on a knowledge management system to access the latest research and practice to ensure the highest quality of care. However, we suggest that there is a gap in the way knowledge management is primarily utilized in global health, namely, the systematic incorporation of human and social factors. In this paper, we briefly outline the evolution of knowledge management and then propose a conceptualization of knowledge management that incorporates human and social factors for use within a global health context. Our conceptualization of social knowledge management recognizes the importance of social capital, social learning, social software and platforms, and social networks , all within the context of a larger social system and driven by social benefit . We then outline the limitations and discuss future directions of our conceptualization, and suggest how this new conceptualization is essential for any global health practitioner in the business of managing knowledge.

  17. Social capital and knowledge sharing: effects on patient safety.

    Chang, Chia-Wen; Huang, Heng-Chiang; Chiang, Chi-Yun; Hsu, Chiu-Ping; Chang, Chia-Chen

    2012-08-01

    This article is a report on a study that empirically examines the influence of social capital on knowledge sharing and the impact of knowledge sharing on patient safety. Knowledge sharing is linked to many desirable managerial outcomes, including learning and problem-solving, which are essential for patient safety. Rather than studying the tangible effects of rewards, this study examines whether social capital (including social interaction, trust and shared vision) directly supports individual knowledge sharing in an organization. This cross-sectional study analysed data collected through a questionnaire survey of nurses from a major medical centre in northern Taiwan. The data were collected over a 9-month period from 2008 to 2009. The data analysis was conducted using the Partial Least Squares Graph v3.0 program to evaluate the measurement properties and the structural relationships specified in the research model. Based on a large-scale survey, empirical results indicate that Registered Nurses' perceptions of trust and shared vision have statistically significant and direct effects on knowledge sharing. In addition, knowledge sharing is significantly and positively associated with patient safety. The findings suggest that hospital administrators should foster group trust and initiate a common vision among Registered Nurses. In addition, administrators and chief knowledge officers of hospitals should encourage positive intentions towards knowledge sharing. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Impact of Sex Education Programs on Sexual Knowledge and Feelings of Men with a Mild Intellectual Disability.

    Garwood, Monique; McCabe, Marita P.

    2000-01-01

    After participating in 6 to 10 sex education sessions, six adolescent and adult men with mild mental retardation showed minimal increases in their knowledge of friendship, contraception, pregnancy, sexual interaction, and social skills. Following sex education, negative feelings developed about marriage, having children, and being present during…

  19. Transforming the Subject Matter: Examining the Intellectual Roots of Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Deng, Zongyi

    2007-01-01

    This article questions the basic assumptions of pedagogical content knowledge by analyzing the ideas of Jerome Bruner, Joseph Schwab, and John Dewey concerning transforming the subject matter. It argues that transforming the subject matter is not only a pedagogical but also a complex curricular task in terms of developing a school subject or a…

  20. Learn and apply: using multi-sensory storytelling to gather knowledge about preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities--three case studies.

    Brug, Annet Ten; Van der Putten, Annette A J; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about the preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs) is crucial for providing appropriate activities. Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) can be an ideal activity for gathering such knowledge about children with PIMDs. The aim of this study was to analyse whether using MSST did lead to changes in teachers' knowledge about preferences and abilities and whether this knowledge was then applied in practice. Three dyads of children with PIMDs and their teachers read an MSST book 20 times during a 10-week period. A questionnaire designed to identify the teachers' current knowledge was filled in before the 1st and again after the 10th and 20th reading sessions. Also, the teachers were asked for their opinion about their newly gathered knowledge. In all three cases, changes in the teachers' knowledge were observed. However, teachers are insufficiently aware of their new knowledge and do not apply it in practice.

  1. The effects of online social networks on tacit knowledge transmission

    Zhu, Hong-Miao; Zhang, Sheng-Tai; Jin, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Due to the popular use of online social networks in today's world, how to propagate employees' tacit knowledge via online social networks has attracted managers' attention, which is critical to enhance the competitiveness of firms. In this paper, we propose a tacit knowledge transmission model on networks with even mixing based on the propagation property of tacit knowledge and the application of online social networks. We consider two routes of transmission, which are contact through online social networks and face-to-face physical contact, and derive the threshold that governs whether or not a kind of tacit knowledge can be shared in an organization with few initial employees who have acquired it. The impact of the degree distribution of the users' contact network on the transmission is investigated analytically. Some numerical simulations are presented to support the theoretical results. We perform the sensitivity analysis of the threshold in terms of the propagation parameters and confirm that online social networks contribute significantly to enhancing the transmission of tacit knowledge among employees.

  2. SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, RESEARCH AND INNOVATION NETWORKS FOR INCLUSION

    Sandra Ace vedo Zapata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to describe the social management of knowledge through research and innovation networks to promote social inclusion. The reflection of the exploratory stage is presented within the doctoral thesis analyzing the challenges of the universities in the achievement of social inclusion with networks of research and innovation. A descriptive work was done, with documentary tracking, systematization and analysis. The findings show that it is necessary to articulate efforts in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary networks with different actors: state, company, education, scientists, technologists and vulnerable, excluded populations, to build policies and strategies for social inclusion.

  3. WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP: EFFECT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL, INNOVATION AND MARKET KNOWLEDGE

    BANAFSHEH DASTOURIAN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Women entrepreneurship plays a key role in the economic growth. This study investigates the mediatory role of innovation concerning the effect of social capital on entrepreneurship. The sample population included 130 female entrepreneurs in Ilam province, Iran. Using questionnaire as the main means of data collection, the correlation among variables of entrepreneurship, innovation, social capital and market knowledge was evaluated. Data analysis was performed by structural equation modeling in LISREL software. The findings showed that social capital and innovation had a positive and significant effect on entrepreneurship. However, the impact of social capital on innovation was not confirmed.

  4. Knowledge sharing in virtual communities: A social exchange theory perspective

    Li Jinyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The author tried to identify the knowledge sharing behaviors on the internet, using structural equation modeling methods, proposing a model based on social exchange theory in which share willingness, trust, reciprocity, altruism tended to have impact on people’s knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: We presented an empirical research which integrated social exchange theory and structural equation modeling methods to analyze several important factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Findings: We analyzed the knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. We found that members’ altruism can not predict knowledge sharing behaviors. We also found that members’ sharing willingness is the most important factor on virtual community knowledge sharing behaviors compared with trust, reciprocity and altruism. Originality/value: From the perspective of social exchange theory, we did empirical test and verified the proposed research model by using structural equation modeling methods. Our finding can help recognize people’s incentive about knowledge sharing.

  5. Knowledge of results and learning to tell the time in an adult male with an intellectual disability: a single-subject research design.

    Applegate, Samantha L; Rice, Martin S; Stein, Franklin; Maitra, Kinsuk K

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated whether knowledge of results, in the form of visual and audible feedback, would increase the accuracy of time-telling in an individual with an intellectual disability. A 19-year-old male with mild intellectual disability participated in this A1-B1-A2-B2 single-subject study design. The task involved correctly identifying the time given on a computer. Data, based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, showed that the participant demonstrated a greater number of correct responses during the intervention phases. Incorporating knowledge of results into a learning strategy for this individual with intellectual disability resulted in an increased ability to accurately identify the correct time on an analogue clock. There is a need to replicate the study design to increase the external validity and generalization of results. The strategies described in the present study may also be useful for occupational therapists who teach individuals with intellectual disability to gain skills in their everyday activities of daily living (ADLs). (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Social Network Perspective: Model of Student Knowledge Sharing On Social Network Media

    Bentar Priyopradono; Danny Manongga; Wiranto H. Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the role and development of information technology especially the internet, gives impact and influence in social relationship especially for social network site services users. The impact and influence the use of Internet which is related to exchange information and knowledge sharing still become one of the interesting topics to be researched. Now, the use of social media network by students are the best way to them to increase their knowledge as communication media such as, exchang...

  7. Perceptions of the Risks and Benefits of Internet Access and Use by People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Quinn, Sally; Fullwood, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Information and communication technologies, with the Internet at the forefront, have the potential to enhance the knowledge, service, employment, development and social interactional opportunities available to people with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, people with intellectual disabilities are not accessing the Internet to…

  8. Social media for knowledge sharing in automotive repair

    Finkbeiner, Patric

    2017-01-01

    This book explores, describes and explains the predictors essential for the acceptance of social media as a digital platform to share professional knowledge in the field of automotive repair in Germany. It reports a rigorous literature review covering key elements of social media, knowledge management and technology acceptance studies. The book assumes a pragmatist approach and applies mixed methods in an exploratory sequential design, combining qualitative and quantitative methods to ensure robust collection and analysis of the collected data. Based on a survey on German automotive repair shops, the author provides a framework, for various stakeholders, to comprehend the motivations for knowledge sharing for automotive repair professionals in Germany. This book not only adds to the existing academic body of knowledge but also provides implications for industry and legislation on a European scale. .

  9. Social Networks in context of cyberspace. Consumers, electronic commerce and intellectual property in the light of the Cuban case

    Nelvys Mendoza Gurdián

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Face the state of vulnerability in the context of cyberspace, it is necessary to reflect on the social networks and law, from a holistic approach aimed at the vulnerability of rights associated with the information in this environment. This work general objective is to analyse the phenomenon of online social networks and the information society, emphasizing on the study of the legal aspects related to consumers, electronic commerce and intellectual property. The methodology used aims to conceptualize the category of social networks, examinate the aspects associated with law in the use of social networks and establish the conceptual, legal and conflicting points of relevance. This will allow describing the problems under study and propose alternatives for a sphere of integrative protection that harmonizes the edges of the preventive, the corrective and the prophylactic.

  10. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Diana-Maria CISMARU; Cristina LEOVARIDIS

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of...

  11. Uncertainties as Barriers for Knowledge Sharing with Enterprise Social Media

    Trier, Matthias; Fung, Magdalene; Hansen, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    become a barrier for the participants’ adoption. There is only limited existing research studying the types of uncertainties that employees perceive and their impact on knowledge transfer via social media. To address this gap, this article presents a qualitative interview-based study of the adoption...... of the Enterprise Social Media tool Yammer for knowledge sharing in a large global organization. We identify and categorize nine uncertainties that were perceived as barriers by the respondents. The study revealed that the uncertainty types play an important role in affecting employees’ participation...

  12. Impact of nurses' cross-cultural competence on nursing intellectual capital from a social cognitive theory perspective.

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    To understand the relationships among certain key factors such as organizational climate, self-efficacy and outcome expectation on registered nurses, with regard to the development of registered nurses' cross-cultural competence. The focus is specifically on the use of a social cognitive framework for nurses for providing intercultural nursing care to international patients. This study also aims to examine the relationship between nurses' cross-cultural competence and nursing intellectual capital. Given the influence of globalization on healthcare services, healthcare providers need to have enough cross-cultural competence to effectively care for patients from different cultures. Thus, the development of cross-cultural competence in nursing care has become an important issue. A quantitative method and a cross-sectional design were employed in this study. Data were collected from 309 RN working in 16 healthcare institutions in Taiwan from May to August 2013. Structural equation modelling, in combination with the smart partial least squares method, was used to measure the relationships in the research model. The results show that outcome expectation has a stronger impact on nurses' cross-cultural competence than self-efficacy. In addition, it was found that the cross-cultural competence of nurses has a positive impact on nursing intellectual capital. Nursing supervisors should promote a higher level of outcome expectation on nurses to enhance the improvement of their cross-cultural competence. Raising the cross-cultural competence of nurses will aid in the accumulation of nursing intellectual capital. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Knowledge Management System in Health & Social Care: Review on 20 Practiced Knowledge Management

    Muhammad Saiful Ridhwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of managing medical information has become very critical in the healthcare delivery system. Medical information nowadays are optimized towards serving different areas such as; diagnosing of diseases, planning and administration, treatment and monitoring of patient outcomes, services and costs. This article provides a review into various Health and Social Care systems which encompasses the Knowledge Management value. For analysis, more than 30 systems that are related to Health and Social Care were gathered via Internet research, only 20 of these systems were finally selected based on recent system development and popularity of the system.Keywords: Health Care, Knowledge, Knowledge Management, Social Care, systemdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.4 How to cite this article:Ridhwan, M.S., and Oyefolahan, I.O. (2013. Knowledge Management System in Health & Social Care: Review on 20 Practiced Knowledge Management. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 92-101. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.4

  14. Seeking and Sharing Knowledge Using Social Media in an Organization: The Impact of Social Influence, Organization Structure and Social Capital

    Schutz, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The prolific use of social media tools such as blogs and wikis is leading several organizations to adopt these tools. However, success of social media depends on its use by employees to share and seek knowledge. Based on a unique data set obtained from a large multi-national corporation, I examined three different aspects of knowledge seeking and…

  15. The Importance of Knowledge Management in Terms of Increasing Social Capital in Selected Slovene Technology Parks

    Riko Novak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the importance of knowledge management (KM and how it is influencing social capital (SC in selected organisations that are members of Slovene technology parks. The purpose of this article is to point out statistical important characteristics between the dependant variable and several independent variables on the basis of preliminary studied empirical data based on a population of 667 organisations chosen from the subjects of the innovative environment database maintained by the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI. On the basis of a multivariate regression analysis we wanted to present empirical findings, namely, whether communication technologies and the capability (ability of the employed to access information sources influences KM. With this article we want to present the final findings which define the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the influence of KM in small and medium sized companies on the development of social capital. We came to the conclusion that in an organisation the importance of intellectual and social capital, intangible capital assets and their continuous measurement has to be emphasised in order to increase the importance (awareness of KM.

  16. Expertise, Fluency and Social Realism about Professional Knowledge

    Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the sociology of education has seen a renewed interest in realist accounts of knowledge and its place in education. Inspired by "social realist" thinking, a body of work has emerged that criticises the dominance of generic and process-based thinking about (especially) professional education and advocates instead a…

  17. Sense making of (Social) sustainability: A behavioral and knowledge approach

    Faber, N R; Peters, K; Maruster, L; Van Haren, R; Jorna, R

    2010-01-01

    Although sustainability is often discussed solely in ecological terms, it cannot be disconnected from the way humans behave in their social environment. This article presents a theoretical approach toward sustainability that takes a human behavior and knowledge view on sustainability as a starting

  18. The problem of social reabilitation of children-orphans with immaturity of intellectual development in the foreign and russian literature

    V A Bichkov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to discussion of a problem of social rehabilitation of children-orphans with the immaturity of intellectual development in the scientific literature. The maintenance of the term «rehabilitation» is considered into different theoretical aspects. The new contents of concept rehabilitation is offered as a system of the complex measures directed on preparation of the pupils of VIII type school of a kind to transition in the new environment (independent life for high-grade functioning in society.

  19. A comparison of the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings.

    Hardiman, Sharon; Guerin, Suzanne; Fitzsimons, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to compare the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. A convenience sample was recruited through two large ID services. The sample comprised 45 children across two groups: Group 1 (n=20; inclusive school) and Group 2 (n=25; segregated school). Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Adaptive Behaviour Scale-School: 2nd edition. A series of 2 x 2 ANOVAs were carried out on social competence scores using educational placement type (inclusive vs segregated school) and proxy rater (parent vs teacher) as the independent variables. Key findings indicated that children in inclusive schools did not differ significantly from children in segregated schools on the majority of proxy ratings of social competence. This supports the belief that children with intellectual disabilities can function well in different educational settings. Present findings highlight the importance of utilising the functional model of ID when selecting and designing school placements for children with moderate ID.

  20. A comparison of the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings.

    Hardiman, Sharon

    2009-03-01

    This is the first study to compare the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. A convenience sample was recruited through two large ID services. The sample comprised 45 children across two groups: Group 1 (n=20; inclusive school) and Group 2 (n=25; segregated school). Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Adaptive Behaviour Scale-School: 2nd edition. A series of 2 x 2 ANOVAs were carried out on social competence scores using educational placement type (inclusive vs segregated school) and proxy rater (parent vs teacher) as the independent variables. Key findings indicated that children in inclusive schools did not differ significantly from children in segregated schools on the majority of proxy ratings of social competence. This supports the belief that children with intellectual disabilities can function well in different educational settings. Present findings highlight the importance of utilising the functional model of ID when selecting and designing school placements for children with moderate ID.

  1. Leveraging Social Capital of Persons With Intellectual Disabilities Through Facebook Participation: The Perspectives of Family Members and Direct Support Staff.

    Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to understand and describe the views of family members and direct support staff regarding the use of Facebook by persons with intellectual disability (ID) within the context of social capital. In-depth, semistructured interviews conducted with 16 family members and direct support staff of persons with ID who use Facebook revealed that most participants favored Facebook use by persons with ID for bonding and bridging social capital and for normalization. Most participants noted the empowering effect of online activity on persons with ID, yet some reported risks and usage difficulties. Although Facebook use enhances the well-being of persons with ID, findings highlighted the participants' need for formal guidelines regarding social media best-practices for people with ID.

  2. From transmission to dialogue: Personalised and social knowledge media

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2009-01-01

    and outside of institutions. How can cultural and educational institutions learn from informal learning situations, how can they utilise digital media to move beyond their physical boundaries and websites, and how can they move from transmission and broadcasting to a dialogical approach?......The purpose of the article is to develop an approach to the use of digital media to support learning. Based on socio-cultural theory, the article develops the concept of knowledge media and argues that personalised and social media can support new ways of learning with media. Personalised...... and social knowledge media take the individual as the starting point and support the activities of individuals rather than transmitting or broadcasting content. The concept of knowledge media is intended to describe individuals' use of media for learning in both formal and informal situations inside...

  3. The Association between Social Skills and Mental Health in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, with and without Intellectual Disability

    Ratcliffe, Belinda; Wong, Michelle; Dossetor, David; Hayes, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with social skills deficits and co-occurring mental health difficulties. ASD frequently co-occurs with Intellectual Disability (ID). There is scant literature exploring the association between social skills and mental health in children with ASD, with or without ID. Participants were 292 children aged…

  4. Efforts in enhancing social contacts of persons with severe of profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : Analysing individual support plans in the Netherlands

    Kamstra, Aafke; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Most people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited social contact and it is unclear what is done to maintain or increase these contacts. Individual support planning (ISP) can be used in the systematic enhancement of social contacts. This study analyses the content

  5. Do Children Do What They Say? Responses to Hypothetical and Real-Life Social Problems in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviour Problems

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Bijman, E. R.; Lamberix, I. C. W.; Wijnroks, L.; de Castro, B. Orobio; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Background Most research on children's social problem-solving skills is based on responses to hypothetical vignettes. Just how these responses relate to actual behaviour in real-life social situations is, however, unclear, particularly for children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Method: In the present study, the spontaneous…

  6. Do children do what they say? Responses to hypothetical and real-life social problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and behaviour problems

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Bijman, ER; Lamberix, ICW; Wijnroks, L; de Castro, BO; Vermeer, A; Matthys, W

    Background Most research on children's social problem-solving skills is based on responses to hypothetical vignettes. Just how these responses relate to actual behaviour in real-life social situations is, however, unclear, particularly for children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Method

  7. Stress, Depression, Workplace and Social Supports and Burnout in Intellectual Disability Support Staff

    Mutkins, E.; Brown, R. F.; Thorsteinsson, E. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff providing support to people with intellectual disabilities are exposed to stressful work environments which may put them at an increased risk of burnout. A small prior literature has examined predictors of burnout in disability support staff, but there is little consensus. In this study, we examined direct and indirect…

  8. The Social Influences on the Realization of Genetic Potential for Intellectual Development.

    Guo, Guang; Stearns, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Hypothesizes that a child's realization of genetic potential for intellectual development depends on socioeconomic environment. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test results were examined for a large sibling sample of African American and White adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. When SES factors were considered…

  9. Stigma, Self-Perception and Social Comparisons in Young People with an Intellectual Disability

    O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla

    2017-01-01

    Whether individuals who have a diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID) perceive and experience stigma has been a matter of some debate. In this paper, we consider the role of the level of ID and gender on perception of stigma in individuals with ID who attend a segregated special secondary school and whether reports of stigma impact…

  10. Scholars, Intellectuals, and Bricoleurs

    Papson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores three orientations to knowledge: the scholar, the intellectual, and the bricoleur. It argues that although the scholar and the intellectual are tied closely to the Liberal Arts and Humanities and dominate academic public relations discourse, both students and faculty increasingly use the practice of bricolage to gather and…

  11. Intellectual Capital.

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  12. Intellectual property

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Montenue, a distinct French scholar of intellectual property, has suggested that IP is a “tool which surprisingly helps a lot”, and this definition on science, arts, culture, since the 16th century. Now, what would be the definition of intellectual property for the 21st century? Apparently not a “strange” tool, but a necessary tool, primary for enriching human knowledge, and for the new world order, especially in the global market sphere. Intellectual property is an integral part of international trade, and its importance keeps increasing, since effective use of knowledge is increasingly influencing the economic prosperity of peoples. One may say that there is little originality in the creative sphere. Naturally, this originality can only be reflected by individuality and human identity in intellectual creativity The author rights in the Kosovo legislation is a novelty, a necessity of developing a creative environment in the fields of science, arts and industrial property. First and foremost, the individual benefit, which is secured by the author as the creator of the work, is a moral and material right. Secondly, there is a need for harmonization, not only of values for the creator, but also for the development of science, culture, increased competitive advantage, and the public sphere, as a benefit for the public health and security, and the fiscal policy. The deficiency one must record is with the Office for Copy Rights, which is to play a strong role in implementing and protecting copy rights and other related rights by licensing collective management agencies, imposing administrative fines, awareness raising, provision of information, and other capacity building and educative measures. Naturally, the enactment of good legislation is a system without any meaning or sense if not associated with the court practice. Any establishment of a legal system not pursued with enforcement mechanisms remains only in legal frameworks.

  13. Toward a Conceptual Model for Social Mechanisms Enabling Knowledge Sharing: Dynamic Relationships among Three Dimensions of Social Capital

    Jo, Sung Jun

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge sharing is important because individual knowledge is not transformed into organizational knowledge until it is shared. The conceptual model presents how social factors create the conditions for effective knowledge sharing. It illustrates how three dimensions of social capital impact with each other and with knowledge sharing. Social…

  14. Closing global knowledge gaps : Producing generalized knowledge from case studies of social-ecological systems

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Ellis, Erle C.; Allington, Ginger R.H.; de Bremond, Ariane; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Mertz, Ole; Messerli, Peter; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Seppelt, Ralf; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over rapid widespread changes in social-ecological systems and their consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, food security, and human livelihoods are driving demands for globally comprehensive knowledge to support decision-making and policy development. Claims of regional or

  15. Knowledge and female entrepreneurship: A competence and social dimension

    M. Belén García-Palma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, the result of a broader research on female entrepreneurship, aims to analyze the competence dimension of knowledge on women entrepreneurs. The method used is qualitative, comparatively analyzing the speech and enterprising entrepreneurs develop knowledge about and taking these as a constitutive dimension of competencies, while a construction linked to processes and social structures. To this end, a descriptive analysis and a sociological analysis level were conducted, trying to identify whether there are specific features in such dimension on female entrepreneurs. The results show that a particular construction of knowledge in women entrepreneurs, whose justification would be given by the educational level and starting the process of building knowledge and learning process thereof may occur.

  16. A theory-informed qualitative exploration of social and environmental determinants of physical activity and dietary choices in adolescents with intellectual disabilities in their final year of school.

    Stevens, Gemma; Jahoda, Andrew; Matthews, Lynsay; Hankey, Catherine; Melville, Craig; Murray, Heather; Mitchell, Fiona

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is higher in those with intellectual disabilities than the general population. The aim of the study was to understand the determinants of physical activity and dietary patterns in this population during their final year of school. Qualitative data were generated from 10 interviews with adolescents with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities. Data were analysed using deductive thematic analysis, employing Self-Determination Theory as a theoretical framework. Adolescents' environment and social interactions play a pivotal role in influencing physical activity and dietary patterns. Three themes emerged from the analysis: situatedness, motivation and wider environmental influences. School structure, high self-efficacy and social connectedness facilitate increased physical activity and healthier diet in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Home life, low self-efficacy and a lack of social connectedness can serve as a barrier to PA and a healthy diet. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Individual, social, and cultural approaches to knowledge sharing

    Widen, Gunilla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Workplace knowledge sharing is a complex process and there are a large number of studies in the area. In this article three theoretical approaches in library and information science are used to discuss knowledge sharing in the workplace. The approaches are information behavior, social capital, and information culture, and they bring important insights that need to be considered from a holistic management point of view when it comes to knowledge sharing. The individual's relation to different levels of context is important, meaning both in relation to work roles, work tasks, situations, organizational structures, and culture. The frameworks also shed light on where and how knowledge sharing activities are present in the organization. From a knowledge management point of view, it is important to acknowledge that when knowledge is valued, there is also an awareness of the knowledge sharing activities. Also, in addition to more traditional views of context, the frameworks bring forward different views on context, such as time and space as contextual factors.

  18. Expanding the test of counterfeit deviance: are sexual knowledge, experience and needs a factor in the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability?

    Lockhart, Karen

    2010-01-01

    It is posited within the literature that the sexualised challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disability may be influenced by low levels of sexual knowledge, lack of sexual experience and unmet sexual needs. In this study, individuals with sexualised challenging behaviour were identified and matched for gender, age and ability level with individuals recruited to the non-sexualised and no challenging behaviour groups. All (n=24) were interviewed using the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Tool - Revised (SSKAAT-R) and the Sexual Knowledge, Experience and Needs Scale for Intellectual Disability (Sex-Ken-ID) to assess their sexual knowledge, experience and needs. Adaptive behaviour was measured as a covariate. In the current study, contrary to expectations in the wider literature, the sexualised challenging behaviour group showed significantly higher levels of sexual knowledge in several areas when adaptive behaviour was controlled. Their needs in relation to Dating and Intimacy were also significantly higher but no differences were found between groups in relation to sexual experience. The implications of these findings for service provision are outlined along with the considerations of directions for future research.

  19. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  20. The challenges of knowledge sharing in practice a social approach

    Widen-Wulff, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    Addresses the key skills that are required in organisations in the information intensive society. The book examines the power of information behaviour on the construction of different kinds of shared knowledge and social identity in a group. An introduction to the different dimensions of social capital that is structural and cognitive, and looks at the relational aspects of information behaviour in organisations. Experiences are analysed in two different case studies - in the financial and biotechnology industries - in order to gain additional insights in how the internal organisation environm

  1. [Assessment of social networks between developmental physicians and welfare facilities/specialists for children with intellectual disabilities in Japan].

    Inagaki, Masumi; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kaga, Makiko

    2004-05-01

    The social networks between Japanese child neurologists and welfare facilities/specialists for children with mental retardation (MR) were assessed. A total of 113 physicians answered our mail-in questionnaire. Most of the doctors had various connections with nursery homes for children with MR or severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) and with public health centers, and often collaborated with teachers of schools and kindergartens. On the other hand, most physicians had little relation with residential and vocational facilities for adults with MR, and with specialists in residential or community care. There was a statistical correlation between the number of facilities or collaborated specialists and the number of persons seen by each physician; however, the physicians' experience and affiliations had no relation. In view of 'social participation', physicians who usually see children with developmental disorders can play an important role in decision making of their life-style with their families.

  2. A systematic review of interventions to promote social support and parenting skills in parents with an intellectual disability.

    Wilson, S; McKenzie, K; Quayle, E; Murray, G

    2014-01-01

    The family support needs of parents with an intellectual disability (ID) are relatively unknown. This paper reviewed two types of intervention for parents with ID: those designed to strengthen social relationships and those teaching parenting skills. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a limited number of evaluative studies were found. The evidence for interventions aimed at strengthening social relationships was inconclusive; although positive changes were observed, there were limitations in study design which restricted the generalizability of the results. The evidence for parental skills teaching suggested that behavioural based interventions are more effective than less intensive forms such as lesson booklets and the provision of normal services, although these studies also had limitations. There is a need for further large scale controlled studies in this area to provide clearer evidence and to explore additional factors relating to child, parent and family which may impact on outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Relationship between Stress and Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and without Intellectual Disability

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face substantial challenges accomplishing basic tasks associated with daily living, which are exacerbated by their broad and pervasive difficulties with social interactions. These challenges put people with ASD at increased risk for psychophysiological distress, which likely factors heavily into social functioning for adults with ASD, as suggested by a growing literature on stress in children that indicates that children with ASD have differential responses to stress than healthy children. We hypothesized that adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n=38) would experience more stress than healthy volunteers (n=37) and that there would be an inverse relationship between stress and social functioning in individuals with ASD. Baseline, semi-structured interview data from a randomized-controlled trial of two treatments for adults with ASD were used to assess differences in stress between adults with ASD and healthy volunteers and to assess the relationship between stress response and social functioning in adults with ASD. Findings indicate that adults with ASD experience greater perceived and interviewer-observed stress than did healthy volunteers and that stress is significantly related to social functioning in adults with ASD. These findings highlight the role of stress in adult functioning and outcomes and suggest the need to develop and assess treatments designed to target stress and coping in adults with ASD. PMID:25524571

  4. Evolving the theory and praxis of knowledge translation through social interaction: a social phenomenological study

    Forbes Dorothy

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research approach. This paper presents phenomenological investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Methods Social phenomenology was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203, including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social phenomenology strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Results Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' approaches within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social phenomenology analysis approaches, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical

  5. [Social representations of illness: Comparison of "expert" knowledge and "naïve" knowledge].

    Jeoffrion, C; Dupont, P; Tripodi, D; Roland-Lévy, C

    2016-06-01

    The link between social practices and representations is now well known. But while many studies have focused on the social representation of mental illness, in various populations, few studies have focused on the notion of disease/illness by comparing professionals and non-professionals health workers representations. Indeed, the disease is both a reality described, explained and treated by medicine; for those who are affected by a disease, it is an individual experience with psychological, social and cultural impacts. The social representation is determined by the structure of the social groups in which it develops; therefore, it is a form of knowledge socially shaped and shared by the members of a social group. Several theoretical extensions have been elaborated and particularly, the structural approach and the central core theory. These approaches sustain the arguments of a hierarchical organization of a social representation with a central core surrounded by peripheral zones. The central core is common and shared by the majority of the members of a given group, whereas the peripheral zones provide space for the individualization of the social knowledge. The main goal of our study is to highlight the social representations of disease in health professionals (HP) and in non-health professionals (NHP). The group of HP has been differentiated into three subgroups: "medical doctors", "nurses" and "pharmacists", while that of NHP in two subgroups: those submitted to a "long period medical treatment" and those "without treatment". Our aim is to show that there are different social and professional Representations of disease. The professional representations are specific social representations related to professional contexts. We formulate the following assumptions (a) that the social representations of HP and NHP will be articulated around a common central core. Nevertheless, we expect to find specific peripheral elements related to professional status, based on

  6. Special Issue: Intellectual Property in the Information Age: Knowledge as Commodity and its Legal Implications for Higher Education

    Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…

  7. Paid Support Workers for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities; Their Current Knowledge of Hearing Loss and Future Training Needs

    McShea, Lynzee; Fulton, John; Hayes, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities are more likely to have hearing loss than the general population. For those unable to self-advocate, the responsibility of detection and management falls to their caregivers. Methods: This is the first cycle of a project using action research methodology to improve services. Twenty care workers…

  8. Test of an Intervention to Improve Knowledge of Women with Intellectual Disabilities about Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    Swaine, J. G.; Parish, S. L.; Luken, K.; Son, E.; Dickens, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a critical need for evidence-based health education interventions for women with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to promote receipt of preventive health screenings. Previous research has established "Women Be Healthy," an 8-week classroom-style intervention designed to teach women with IDs about breast and cervical…

  9. Intellectual Property.

    Swinson, John V.

    2000-01-01

    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  10. Irony comprehension: social conceptual knowledge and emotional response.

    Akimoto, Yoritaka; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Miyazawa, Shiho; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-04-01

    Verbal irony conveys various emotional messages, from criticism to humor, that differ from the meaning of the actual words. To understand irony, we need conceptual knowledge of irony in addition to an understanding of context. We investigated the neural mechanism of irony comprehension, focusing on two overlooked issues: conceptual knowledge and emotional response. We studied 35 healthy subjects who underwent functional MRI. During the scan, the subject examined first-person-view stories describing verbal interactions, some of which included irony directed toward the subject. After MRI, the subject viewed the stories again and rated the degree of irony, humor, and negative emotion evoked by the statements. We identified several key findings about irony comprehension: (1) the right anterior superior temporal gyrus may be responsible for representing social conceptual knowledge of irony, (2) activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior inferior temporal gyrus might underlie the understanding of context, (3) modulation of activity in the right amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus is associated with the degree of irony perceived, and (4) modulation of activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex varies with the degree of humor perceived. Our results clarified the differential contributions of the neural loci of irony comprehension, enriching our understanding of pragmatic language communication from a social behavior point of view. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Using personal goal setting to promote the social inclusion of people with intellectual disability living in supported accommodation.

    McConkey, R; Collins, S

    2010-02-01

    The social exclusion of persons with intellectual disability is more marked in congregated than in individualised supported accommodation. Goal setting was used as a means of increasing individuals' choices and engaging support staff in personalised planning. Method People living in four different housing and support options were invited to identify up to three 'social inclusion' goals they wanted to achieve in the coming months. Nine months later, a review was undertaken to see if their goals had been attained and also to identify what had helped or hindered individuals in doing this. The goal selection was then repeated and reviewed again after a further 9 months. Results The most commonly chosen goals were around social activities with other people and over half the participants were reported to have attained at least one of their goals within 9 months, particularly those in supported living arrangements that had greater hours of individual staff support. In the second 9-month period, fewer people chose goals, although the same proportion as before were successful. The main reason given for goal attainment was the information and support provided by staff. Conclusions Goal setting seems a suitable way of promoting social inclusion as it can be tailored to the needs and aspirations of individuals, although extra efforts may be needed to implement and sustain it with staff across all accommodation options.

  12. The Social Information Processing Model as a Framework for Explaining Frequent Aggression in Adults with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    Larkin, Peter; Jahoda, Andrew; MacMahon, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is an established evidence base concerning the use of anger management interventions with violent offenders who have intellectual disabilities. However, there has been limited research investigating the role of social cognitive factors underpinning problems of aggression. Psychosocial sources of aggression in the non-disabled…

  13. Anti-Social Behaviour and Police Contact among 13- to 15-Year-Old English Adolescents with and without Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Emerson, Eric; Halpin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the rates of anti-social behaviour (ASB) among adolescents with/without mild/moderate intellectual disability (MMID). To estimate whether any differences could be attributable to differences in exposure to extraneous risk factors. Design: Secondary analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. Methods:…

  14. Sexual Understanding, Sources of Information and Social Networks; the Reports of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Non-Disabled Peers

    Jahoda, A.; Pownall, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual development plays a vital part in young people's emotional adjustment. Method: This study compared the sexual understanding of 30 adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) and 30 non-disabled adolescents, along with their reports of where they obtained sexual information, and the nature of their social networks…

  15. Changes on Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Social Support for Activities and Physical Fitness in People with Intellectual Disabilities through Multimodal Intervention

    Pérez-Cruzado, David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability have poor levels of physical activity, quality of life, fitness condition and self-efficacy and social support when they want to undertake physical activity so it is very important to improve these parameters in this population. Method: A prospective study was conducted. Data were measured before and…

  16. Direct Support Professionals and Reversed Integration of People With Intellectual Disabilities : Impact of Attitudes, Perceived Social Norms, and Meta-Evaluations

    Venema, Eleonora; Otten, Sabine; Vlaskamp, Carla

    Direct support professionals (DSPs) play an important role in the process of integration of people with intellectual disabilities. Nevertheless, little is currently known about what determines the level of effort exerted by DSPs to enable the social integration of their clients. The aim of this

  17. Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Program on Psycho-Social Attributes of Youth with and without Intellectual Disability

    Ozer, D.; Baran, F.; Aktop, A.; Nalbant, S.; Aglamis, E.; Hutzler, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sports (UNS) soccer program on psycho-social attributes of youth with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 76 male youth with (n = 38) and without (n = 38) ID. Participants with ID were randomly allocated into a SO athletes group (n…

  18. Chronic Neglect and Services without Borders: A Guiding Model for Social Service Enhancement to Address the Needs of Parents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Azar, Sandra T.; Robinson, Lara R.; Proctor, Stephon N.

    2012-01-01

    Child neglect has negative effects throughout the life span. Although an argument for a link between intellectual disabilities and neglectful parenting can be made, this article argues for a more fine-grained view of the cognitive problems that underlie child neglect perpetration and provides evidence for a social information processing model of…

  19. Effects of Dog-Assisted Therapy on Communication and Basic Social Skills of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study.

    Scorzato, Ivano; Zaninotto, Leonardo; Romano, Michela; Menardi, Chiara; Cavedon, Lino; Pegoraro, Alessandra; Socche, Laura; Zanetti, Piera; Coppiello, Deborah

    2017-06-01

    Thirty-nine adults with severe to profound intellectual disability (ID) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 18). Assessment was blinded and included selected items from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), the Behavioral Assessment Battery (BAB), and the Learning Accomplishment Profile (LAP). The experimental group, who attended a dog-assisted treatment intervention over a 20-week period, showed significant improvements in several cognitive domains, including attention to movement (BAB-AM), visuomotor coordination (BAB-VM), exploratory play (BAB-EP), and motor imitation (BAB-CO-MI), as well as in some social skills, as measured by LAP items. Effects were specific to the intervention and independent of age or basic level of disability.

  20. Development and Validation of a Video-Based Social Knowledge Test for Junior Commissioned Army Officers

    Schneider, R. J; Johnson, J. W

    2004-01-01

    Social knowledge/skill are increasingly critical to the success of U.S. Army officers. In this paper, we describe development and criterion-related validation of an experimental video-based social knowledge test...

  1. Internal Communication and Social Dialogue in Knowledge-Based Organizations

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of Eurofound shows that knowledge-based organizations have a low number of trade unions, while professional associations are more relevant for them. There is no tradition to defend through negotiation the working conditions of employees, thus it is important for managers to use the best practices, in order to increase the employees’ loyalty. We conducted a qualitative research concerning the quality of professional life of employees in five sectors of knowledge-based services: advertising-marketing, IT, banking and finance, research and development, and higher education; 15-20 employees from each sector were interviewed. Some of the questions referred directly to trade unions and affiliation, and also to internal communication. Although the results showed a different situation in each of the five sectors, there are few common characteristics: descendant communication is more frequent than ascendant communication, trade unions were reported as missing, unrepresentative or not very active, and the greatest part of employees in this sector are not affiliated, facts that limits the possibility of maintaining employees’ motivation on long term.

  2. Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship in a Social Capital Perspective

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    In 1989 Mitton suggested that success for start-ups not only depends on who you are but also on whom you know. To study the importance of social capital and networks in relation to entrepreneurial activities, research in a Danish start-up context in two knowledge-intensive sectors has been carried...... to entrepreneurial networking activities in new technology-based small firms shows that teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters', that networking patterns and resource acquisition are highly influenced by entrepreneurs' attitude to and perception of networking....

  3. Permanent Temporariness? Changes in Social Contracts in Knowledge Work

    Bente Rasmussen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sociologists have argued that work no longer plays the central role in contemporary life experience because we have entered an age of insecurity in relation to employment, and knowledge workers are often pictured as egoistical portfolio workers who are only interested in their careers and no longer loyal to their employers. Cappelli (1999 on the other hand argues that more insecure employment relations is a result of employers’ strategy to buy workers rather than offering them long-term relations. Using case studies from seven different knowledge work contexts in Norway, this article argues that more temporary employment relations is not the result of career-seeking portfolio workers, but of changes in employment practices of their employers. These are not primarily changes in the formal employment contracts from permanent to temporary employment, but in the social contracts as they are practiced by the employers and experienced by the knowledge workers in the different contexts of knowledge work. The reason for more temporary relations was not because work does not matter for knowledge workers. On the contrary, we found that they accepted insecure conditions because work mattered and because they were eager to take on new tasks, learn the trade in new fields, and show that they were able to do the job. When they left their employer, it was because they were not able to do a good job in their positions or because they were increasingly directly exposed to an insecure market that signaled that they were not profitable (enough for their employer. Although changes in employment practices by the employers toward more short-term relations are not caused by disloyal portfolio workers, these practices may produce the problem of disloyal workers who have to secure their employment in the labor market.

  4. Reliability of two social cognition tests: The combined stories test and the social knowledge test.

    Thibaudeau, Élisabeth; Cellard, Caroline; Legendre, Maxime; Villeneuve, Karèle; Achim, Amélie M

    2018-04-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common in psychiatric disorders. Validated social cognition measures with good psychometric properties are necessary to assess and target social cognitive deficits. Two recent social cognition tests, the Combined Stories Test (COST) and the Social Knowledge Test (SKT), respectively assess theory of mind and social knowledge. Previous studies have shown good psychometric properties for these tests, but the test-retest reliability has never been documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and the inter-rater reliability of the COST and the SKT. The COST and the SKT were administered twice to a group of forty-two healthy adults, with a delay of approximately four weeks between the assessments. Excellent test-retest reliability was observed for the COST, and a good test-retest reliability was observed for the SKT. There was no evidence of practice effect. Furthermore, an excellent inter-rater reliability was observed for both tests. This study shows a good reliability of the COST and the SKT that adds to the good validity previously reported for these two tests. These good psychometrics properties thus support that the COST and the SKT are adequate measures for the assessment of social cognition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Introducing serendipity in a social network model of knowledge diffusion

    Cremonini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Serendipity as a control mechanism for knowledge diffusion in social network. • Local communication enhanced in the periphery of a network. • Prevalence of hub nodes in the network core mitigated. • Potential disruptive effect on network formation of uncontrolled serendipity. - Abstract: In this paper, we study serendipity as a possible strategy to control the behavior of an agent-based network model of knowledge diffusion. The idea of considering serendipity in a strategic way has been first explored in Network Learning and Information Seeking studies. After presenting the major contributions of serendipity studies to digital environments, we discuss the extension to our model: Agents are enriched with random topics for establishing new communication according to different strategies. The results show how important network properties could be influenced, like reducing the prevalence of hubs in the network’s core and increasing local communication in the periphery, similar to the effects of more traditional self-organization methods. Therefore, from this initial study, when serendipity is opportunistically directed, it appears to behave as an effective and applicable approach to social network control.

  6. Caregiving and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Affected by Dementia

    Courtenay, Ken; Jokinen, Nancy S.; Strydom, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Authors conducted a systematic review of the available Dutch, English, and German language literature for the period 1997-2008 on the current knowledge on social-psychological and pharmacological caregiving with respect to older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) affected by dementia. Authors note that caregiving occurs on a personal level…

  7. Harnessing the Power of Intellectual Capital.

    Bassi, Laurie J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes intellectual capital--employees' brainpower, know-how, knowledge, and processes--and knowledge management--the processes by which a company creates and leverages intellectual capital--as the primary sources of competitive advantage in many industries. Offers ways to measure intellectual capital, a glossary, and additional resources. (JOW)

  8. The Ethics of Teaching for Social Justice: A Framework for Exploring the Intellectual and Moral Virtues of Social Justice Educators

    Taylor, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Pursuing social justice in education raises ethical questions about teaching practice that have not been fully addressed in the social justice literature. Hytten (2015) initiated a valuable way forward in developing an ethics of social justice educators, drawing on virtue ethics. In this paper, I provide additional support to this effort by…

  9. From the Actor to the Actions. Sociology and the Transformations of Intellectuals towards Network Society

    Francesco Antonelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the transformation of intellectuals in contemporary global post-industrial society, through a critical review on sociological studies and researches. The thesis is that contemporary intellectuals should not consider a socio-cultural élite or vanguard but a swarm of social actors defined by their relationship with the digital media and the economic sphere. After two introductive paragraphs focused on the critic approach – it is based on the new knowledge sociology –  the third and the fourth ones argues the most important studies on intellectuals wrote in industrial society age (theory of the New Class, New-Marxism theory, Weberanian theory, sociology of knowledge. The least paragraphs are focused on a discussion about the new sociology of intellectuals in a post-industrial society and the problem of the relationships between digital media and the intellectual actions in contemporary world.

  10. Knowledge Sharing Among Tourists via Social Media: A Comparison Between Facebook and TripAdvisor

    Okazaki Ono, Shintaro; Andreu, Luisa; Campo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines tourists’ knowledge sharing behavior in social media. Based on social capital theory, we aim to examine the effects of three dimensions of social capital—structural (social interaction ties), cognitive (shared vision), and relational (trust)—for two different types of social media: Facebook and TripAdvisor. We propose a structural model that connects an antecedent (homophily) and a consequence (knowledge sharing through posting) of these main dimensions of social capital. ...

  11. Legal Knowledge as a Tool for Social Change

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In May 2006, Colombia’s Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman’s health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court’s ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa por la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision’s implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region. We argue that La Mesa’s strategy is an innovative one in the field of legal mobilization insofar as it presumes that law can be shaped not just by public officials and universities but also by social actors engaged in the creation and diffusion of legal knowledge. In this regard, La Mesa has become a legal expert on abortion by accumulating knowledge about the multiple legal rules affecting the practice of abortion and about the situations in which these rules are to be applied. In addition, by becoming a legal expert, La Mesa has been able to persuade health providers that they will not risk criminal prosecution or being fired if they perform abortions. We call this effect of legal mobilization a “pedagogical effect” insofar as it involves the production of expertise and appropriation of knowledge by health professionals. We conclude by discussing La Mesa’s choice to become a legal expert on abortion as opposed to recruiting academics to do this work or encouraging women to produce and disseminate this knowledge. PMID:28630545

  12. Parents' Emotion Expression as a Predictor of Child's Social Competence: Children with or without Intellectual Disability

    Green, S.; Baker, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Parents' expression of positive emotion towards children who are typically developing (TD) is generally associated with better social development. However, the association between parents' negative emotion expression and social development can be positive or negative depending upon a number of factors, including the child's emotion…

  13. Social Skill Development and Academic Competence in Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    Murphy, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Social skills and academic competence are key factors influencing children's development and functioning across early childhood and through adolescence. There is a great need to understand the longitudinal patterns of growth in social and academic skills in order to further inform intervention, particularly for at-risk groups such as individuals…

  14. Social Competence in Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Delayed Development of Theory of Mind Across All Complexity Levels

    Baglio, Gisella; Blasi, Valeria; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Baglio, Francesca; Valle, Annalisa; Zanette, Michela; Marchetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that this population still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study children with BIF investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) as a pillar of social competence. Children with BIF (N = 28, 16 male/12 female, and mean age 9.46 ± 1.26 years) and children with typical development (TD; N = 31, 17 male/14 female; mean age 8.94 years ± 0.99) underwent a neurocognitive assessment and a ToM assessment. Children with BIF showed a significant lower performance across all the levels of ToM development investigated compared to the control group, and a correlation between executive functions and the advanced levels of ToM reasoning. These results constitute a first step in the direction of defining the clinical profile of children with BIF concerning ToM development, opening the way to future interventions in order to support the developmental evolution of this population in an adaptive direction. PMID:27818637

  15. Social Competence in Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Delayed Development of Theory of Mind Across All Complexity Levels.

    Baglio, Gisella; Blasi, Valeria; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Baglio, Francesca; Valle, Annalisa; Zanette, Michela; Marchetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that this population still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study children with BIF investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) as a pillar of social competence. Children with BIF ( N = 28, 16 male/12 female, and mean age 9.46 ± 1.26 years) and children with typical development (TD; N = 31, 17 male/14 female; mean age 8.94 years ± 0.99) underwent a neurocognitive assessment and a ToM assessment. Children with BIF showed a significant lower performance across all the levels of ToM development investigated compared to the control group, and a correlation between executive functions and the advanced levels of ToM reasoning. These results constitute a first step in the direction of defining the clinical profile of children with BIF concerning ToM development, opening the way to future interventions in order to support the developmental evolution of this population in an adaptive direction.

  16. Social competence in children with borderline intellectual functioning: delayed development of Theory of Mind across all complexity levels

    Gisella Baglio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF is characterized by heterogeneous cognitive difficulties, with an Intelligence Quotient (IQ between 70-85 points, and a failure to meet the developmental and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility required in daily life. The fact that people with BIF still remain a marginal clinical category, with no ad hoc diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, has stimulated the present research. Our goal was to study BIF children investigating the development of Theory of Mind (ToM as a pillar of social competence. Children with BIF (N=28, 16 male/12 female, mean age 9.46 ± 1.26 years and children with typical development (TD (N=31, 17 male/14 female; mean age 8.94 years ± 0.99 underwent a neurocognitive assessment and a ToM assessment. Children with BIF showed a significant lower performance across all the levels of ToM development investigated compared to the control group, and a correlation between executive functions and the advanced levels of ToM reasoning. These results constitute a first step in the direction of defining the clinical profile of BIF concerning ToM development, opening the way to future interventions in order to support the developmental evolution of this people in an adaptive direction.

  17. The role of support staff in promoting the social inclusion of persons with an intellectual disability.

    McConkey, R; Collins, S

    2010-08-01

    Past studies have found that people supported in more individualised housing options tend to have levels of community participation and wider social networks than those in other accommodation options. Yet, the contribution of support staff in facilitating social inclusion has received relatively scant attention. In all 245 staff working in either supported living schemes, or shared residential and group homes, or in day centres completed a written questionnaire in which they rated in terms of priority to their job, 16 tasks that were supportive of social inclusion and a further 16 tasks that related to the care of the person they supported. In addition staff identified those tasks that they considered were not appropriate to their job. Across all three service settings, staff rated more care tasks as having higher priority than they did the social inclusion tasks. However, staff in supported living schemes rated more social inclusion tasks as having high priority than did staff in the other two service settings. Equally the staff who were most inclined to rate social inclusion tasks as not being applicable to their job were those working day centres; female rather than male staff, those in front-line staff rather than senior staff, and those in part-time or relief positions rather than full-time posts. However, within each service settings, there were wide variations in how staff rated the social inclusion tasks. Staff working in more individualised support arrangements tend to give greater priority to promoting social inclusion although this can vary widely both across and within staff teams. Nonetheless, staff gave greater priority to care tasks especially in congregated service settings. Service managers may need to give more emphasis to social inclusion tasks and provide the leadership, training and resources to facilitate support staff to re-assess their priorities.

  18. Integrating Ecological and Social Knowledge: Learning from CHANS Research

    Bruce Shindler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientists are increasingly called upon to integrate across ecological and social disciplines to tackle complex coupled human and natural system (CHANS problems. Integration of these disciplines is challenging and many scientists do not have experience with large integrated research projects. However, much can be learned about the complicated process of integration from such efforts. We document some of these lessons from a National Science Foundation-funded CHANS project (Forests, People, Fire and present considerations for developing and engaging in coupled human and natural system projects. Certainly we are not the first to undertake this endeavor, and many of our findings complement those of other research teams. We focus here on the process of coming together, learning to work as an integrated science team, and describe the challenges and opportunities of engaging stakeholders (agency personnel and citizen communities of interests in our efforts. Throughout this project our intention was to foster dialogue among diverse interests and, thus, incorporate this knowledge into uncovering primary social and ecological drivers of change. A primary tool was an agent-based model, Envision, that used this information in landscape simulation, visualization models, and scenario development. Although integration can be an end in itself, the proof of value in the approach can be the degree to which it provides new insights or tools to CHANS, including closer interaction among multiple stakeholders, that could not have been reached without it.

  19. Social Justice and Lower Attainers in a Global Knowledge Economy

    Sally Tomlinson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More research is needed on what is happening to all these young people who do not do well in competitive education systems and uncertain job markets. This article is taken from a study which set out to discuss with school and college principals, local administrators, teachers and others, who they regard as lower attainers, what sort of education and training programmes are offered to the students, and what policies they think are in place to help young people into work or independent living. Discussions were held with respondents in England, Germany, the USA, Finland and Malta. The article takes Rawls' view that social injustice is mainly due to the inequitable distribution of economic and social resources and the State has a responsibility to ensure that all young people can participate in the economy and the society.

  20. The complex role of social care services in supporting the development of sustainable identities: Insights from the experiences of British South Asian women with intellectual disabilities.

    Malik, Kulsoom Jawaid; Unwin, Gemma; Larkin, Michael; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John

    2017-04-01

    Carers and service users with intellectual disabilities from minority ethnic groups have typically been reported to be dissatisfied with the social care services they receive. However, service users themselves have rarely been asked directly about their experiences of social care. This paper aims to understand the meaning of social care services in the lives of South Asian women with intellectual disabilities, in the United Kingdom. 10 British South Asian women with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities were interviewed about their experiences of social care services. The transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The analysis produced three super-ordinate themes, which focus on how services facilitate the development of complex identities, how the participants explored their sense of being 'stuck' between cultures as they negotiated their journeys towards independence, and the triple disadvantage which they experienced as a consequence of the intersection between gender, ethnicity and disability. The participants were broadly satisfied with the role which services played in these domains, and appeared to find them valuable and helpful. The results suggest that the participants successfully managed complex identity issues, such as acculturation processes, with the support of services. It may be helpful to give more explicit consideration to the positive role which good services can play in supporting people with intellectual disabilities in the development of their identities and goals, alongside the more traditionally 'concrete' objectives of such social care. Engagement with families in 'positive risk-taking' is likely to be an important component of success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Introducing the Intellectual Capital Interplay Model: Advancing Knowledge Frameworks in the Not-for-Profit Environment of Higher Education

    Helm-Stevens, Roxanne; Brown, Kneeland C.; Russell, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management has the potential to develop strategic advantage and enhance the performance of an organization in terms of productivity and business process efficiency. For this reason, organizations are contributing significant resources to knowledge management; investing in information location and implementing knowledge management…

  3. Impact of an implicit social skills training group in children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability: A before-and-after study.

    Jokthan Guivarch

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs have problems with social skills. Social skills training groups are among the proposed therapeutic strategies, but their efficacy still needs to be evaluated.To evaluate the efficacy of an implicit social skills training group in children with ASDs without intellectual disability.A before-and-after study of children with ASD without intellectual disability was conducted in a child psychiatry day hospital, where they participated in an implicit group with cooperative games. Their social skills were assessed using the Social-Emotional Profile (SEP, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS, and the empathy quotient (EQ before and after 22 weeks.Six patients aged 9 to 10 years old were evaluated. A significant increase in overall adaptation and social skills (median 8 and 7.7 points in the SEP was demonstrated in addition to a significant reduction in the CARS score (median: 4 points, including in the field of social relationships. The EQ increased two-fold.This implicit group improved the children's social skills. It would be interesting to evaluate the maintenance of these skills over time, examine more widespread results, and compare implicit and explicit groups.

  4. Impact of an implicit social skills training group in children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability: A before-and-after study.

    Guivarch, Jokthan; Murdymootoo, Veena; Elissalde, Sara-Nora; Salle-Collemiche, Xavier; Tardieu, Sophie; Jouve, Elisabeth; Poinso, François

    2017-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have problems with social skills. Social skills training groups are among the proposed therapeutic strategies, but their efficacy still needs to be evaluated. To evaluate the efficacy of an implicit social skills training group in children with ASDs without intellectual disability. A before-and-after study of children with ASD without intellectual disability was conducted in a child psychiatry day hospital, where they participated in an implicit group with cooperative games. Their social skills were assessed using the Social-Emotional Profile (SEP), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and the empathy quotient (EQ) before and after 22 weeks. Six patients aged 9 to 10 years old were evaluated. A significant increase in overall adaptation and social skills (median 8 and 7.7 points) in the SEP was demonstrated in addition to a significant reduction in the CARS score (median: 4 points), including in the field of social relationships. The EQ increased two-fold. This implicit group improved the children's social skills. It would be interesting to evaluate the maintenance of these skills over time, examine more widespread results, and compare implicit and explicit groups.

  5. Integrating social science knowledge into natural resource management public involvement practice

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    This PhD study explores the long-recognized challenge of integrating social science knowledge into NRM public involvement practice theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, the study draws on research from adult learning, continuing rofessional education and professional knowledge development...... to better understand how social science knowledge can benefit NRM public involvement practice. Empirically, the study explores the potential of NRM continuing professional education as a means for introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. The study finds social science knowledge can...... be of value to NRM public involvement prospectively and retrospectively; and that continuing professional education can be an effective means to introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. In the design of NRM continuing professional education focused on social science knowledge...

  6. Mothering with Intellectual Disabilities: Relationship between Social Support, Health and Well-Being, Parenting and Child Behaviour Outcomes

    Aunos, Marjorie; Feldman, Maurice; Goupil, Georgette

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is a general agreement in the literature that no systematic correlation exists between parental intellectual disability "per se" and parenting performance. Yet, a few studies in the field of parents and parenting with intellectual disability have explored other potential determinants of parenting and child outcomes. In…

  7. Use of Physical and Intellectual Activities and Socialization in the Management of Cognitive Decline of Aging and in Dementia: A Review

    Myuri Ruthirakuhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle nonpharmacological interventions can have a deep effect on cognitive aging. We have reviewed the available literature on the effectiveness of physical activity, intellectual stimulation, and socialization on the incidence of dementia and on the course of dementia itself. Even though physical activity appears to be beneficial in both delaying dementia onset and in the course of the disease, more research is needed before intellectual stimulation and socialization can be considered as treatments and prevention of the disease. Through our paper, we found that all three nonpharmacological treatments provide benefits to cognition and overall well-being in patients with age-related cognitive impairments. These interventions may be beneficial in the management of dementia.

  8. THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING ON INNOVATION CAPABILITY

    Dhyah Harjanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examines social capital and knowledge sharing effect on innovation capability among lectures in universities. Social capital was analyzed using three constructs, namely trust, norm and network, while knowledge sharing was broken down into two variables, namely knowledge collecting and knowledge donating. Innovation capability was explained on an individual level based on personality, behavioral and output perspectives. The research model and hypotheses were developed from the literature. Data collection is conducted through a survey on lecturers of private universities in Surabaya. The obtained data from the questionnaires were analyzed with the Partial Least Square (PLS to investigate the research model. The results suggest that social capital significantly influences innovation capability, while high level of knowledge collecting and knowledge donating can lead to high level of innovation capability. This study offers a foundation to analyze the relationships between social capital, knowledge-sharing process, consisting of knowledge collecting and knowledge donating, and innovation capability

  9. The divided communities of shared concerns: mapping the intellectual structure of e-Health research in social science journals.

    Jiang, L Crystal; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Peng, Tai-Quan; Zhu, Jonathan J H

    2015-01-01

    Social scientific approach has become an important approach in e-Health studies over the past decade. However, there has been little systematical examination of what aspects of e-Health social scientists have studied and how relevant and informative knowledge has been produced and diffused by this line of inquiry. This study performed a systematic review of the body of e-Health literature in mainstream social science journals over the past decade by testing the applicability of a 5A categorization (i.e., access, availability, appropriateness, acceptability, and applicability), proposed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as a framework for understanding social scientific research in e-Health. This study used a quantitative, bottom-up approach to review the e-Health literature in social sciences published from 2000 to 2009. A total of 3005 e-Health studies identified from two social sciences databases (i.e., Social Sciences Citation Index and Arts & Humanities Citation Index) were analyzed with text topic modeling and structural analysis of co-word network, co-citation network, and scientific food web. There have been dramatic increases in the scale of e-Health studies in social sciences over the past decade in terms of the numbers of publications, journal outlets and participating disciplines. The results empirically confirm the presence of the 5A clusters in e-Health research, with the cluster of applicability as the dominant research area and the cluster of availability as the major knowledge producer for other clusters. The network analysis also reveals that the five distinctive clusters share much more in common in research concerns than what e-Health scholars appear to recognize. It is time to explicate and, more importantly, tap into the shared concerns cutting across the seemingly divided scholarly communities. In particular, more synergy exercises are needed to promote adherence of the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  10. The Social and the Psychological: Structure and Context in Intellectual Development

    Psaltis, Charis; Duveen, Gerard; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinct meanings of "internalization" and "interiorization" as ways of rendering intelligible the social constitution of the psychological in a line of research that started with Piaget and extended into a post-Piagetian reformulation of intelligence in successive generations of studies of the relations between social…

  11. Relation between working memory and self-regulation capacities and the level of social skills acquisition in people with moderate intellectual disability.

    Dučić, Bojan; Gligorović, Milica; Kaljača, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    Social competence deficit is one of the main characteristics of intellectual disability. The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of working memory (WM) and self-regulation (SR) on social skills in persons with moderate intellectual disability (MID). The sample included 41 participants with MID, aged 14-21. Memorizing animals and maze tasks were used for WM assessment. SR skills were assessed by the Behavioral Multitask Batteries. Social skills were rated by the Socialization subscale from the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II, which consists of two parts. Social skills part could mainly be predicted from SR scores (β = -.441), followed by WM (β = .390) and IQ score (β = .382). Only WM score (β = .494) had a predictive value for Leisure time part. As WM had a greater influence on social skills, incorporating WM training into programmes for improving social skills in persons with MID should be considered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Association Between Social Skills and Mental Health in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, With and Without Intellectual Disability.

    Ratcliffe, Belinda; Wong, Michelle; Dossetor, David; Hayes, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with social skills deficits and co-occurring mental health difficulties. ASD frequently co-occurs with Intellectual Disability (ID). There is scant literature exploring the association between social skills and mental health in children with ASD, with or without ID. Participants were 292 children aged six to 13 with ASD (217 without ID; 76 with Mild ID). Parents and teachers rated social skills and mental health using standardised questionnaires. Greater mental health difficulties were associated with greater social responsiveness difficulties and poorer social skills across the sample. Effect sizes were large. Social skills explained a significant proportion of the variance in mental health scores across the sample. The study has important implications for treatment and future research.

  13. The Effect of Educational Software, Video Modelling and Group Discussion on Social-Skill Acquisition Among Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities.

    Hetzroni, Orit E; Banin, Irit

    2017-07-01

    People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often demonstrate difficulties in social skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive intervention program on the acquisition of social skills among students with mild IDD. Single subject multiple baseline design across situations was used for teaching five school-age children with mild IDD social skills embedded in school-based situations. Results demonstrate that the intervention program that included video modelling and games embedded with group discussions and simulations increased the level and use of adequate social behaviours within the school's natural environment. Results demonstrate the unique attribution of a comprehensive interactive program for acquisition and transfer of participants' social skills such as language pragmatics and social rules within the school environment. Group discussions and simulations were beneficial and enabled both group and personalized instruction through the unique application of the program designed for the study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Effectiveness of Conceptual Map Training Method on the Achievement of Social-Economic Skill Course in Male Students with Intellectual Disability

    Masoume Pourmohamadreza Tajrishi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of present study was to determine the effectiveness of conceptual map training method on the achievement of social-economic skill course in male students with intellectual disability. Methods: This study was semi-experimental and 34 male students with intellectual disability who were educating in 3rd grade at pre-professional level in high school selected randomly from Talash Exceptional Center in Tabriz City. Their academic achievement in social-economic skill course were assessed by teacher-made and performance tests. Subjects were assigned in control and experimental groups randomly and equally. Experimental group participated in 8 sessions and were trained by conceptual map method for one month (8 sessions 2 sessions weekly. At the end of eightieth session and one month later, subjects answered to teacher-made and performance tests again. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance. Results: Findings showed that the conceptual map training method had positive effect on achievement of social-economic skill in students (P<0.01. But, its effectiveness wasn’t persistent after one month in follow-up test. Discussion: Regarding to positive effects of conceptual map training method on meaningful learning, it seems as an effective method for intellectually disabled male students who require deep learning to understand the content of their lessons.

  15. Intellectual Capital: Comparison and Contrast.

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…

  16. Social tagging as a knowledge collecting strategy in the engineering design change process

    Alduchin-Quintero, G.; Contero, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on analysing the feasibility of using social tagging as a tool for knowledge collection and retrieval in the context of the product development process (PDP). This process is a social activity that involves groups of individuals who share a common goal: to design a product . Traditional knowledge-based systems (KBS) are not very well suited to capture the tacit knowledge that is embedded in this process. Social tagging is proposed in this article as the mechanism to exte...

  17. Assessment of Social Capital in terms of Participation, Knowledge, Trust, and Social Cohesion: Zahedan Case Study

    Maryam Karimian Bostani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that the urban population in developing countries increases more than double from 2000 to 2030. This rapid population transformation to cities will be difficult. Therefore, the municipal administration will be involved in numerous challenges in cities. For this purpose, social capital as a bottom-up planning is one of the appropriate ways of management and dealing with these challenges. The aim of this study was to measure the social capital in four aspects of knowledge, participation, social cohesion, and trust in Zahedan. The research method of this research is descriptive-analytic in an applied type. Library studies and surveying (questionnaire were used to collect the required data. The questions in this survey were designed based on four indicators of social capital. The statistical population of the present study is 575,116 people residing in Zahedan in 2011. One sample T- test was used for calculations. The results of the analysis show that the social capital criteria in the city of Zahedan are undesirable in all four criteria.

  18. The impact of stress and social support on the mental health of individuals with intellectual disabilities Efectos del estrés y del apoyo social sobre la salud mental de individuos con discapacidad intelectual

    Yona Lunsky

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at increased risk for mental health problems than the general population. The reasons for this are both biological and social. Current treatment for mental health problems tends to be reactive in nature with less emphasis on how mental health problems can be prevented. A better understanding of the social contributors to mental health in individuals with ID should lead to the prevention of mental health problems in this particularly vulnerable po...

  19. Knowledge Creation Through Mobile Social Networks and Its Impact on Intentions to Use Innovative Mobile Services

    Kleijnen, M.H.P.; Lievens, A.; de Ruyter, K.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taking a social network perspective, the authors investigate consumers' intentions to use innovative mobile services. With a sociometric survey, they empirically assess how consumers integrate and connect through mobile social networks, as well as how their network position influences knowledge

  20. An Agent-mediated Approach to Promote Knowledge Sharing Through Enterprise Social Networks

    Van Splunter, S.; Sedighi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Broadening adoption of social network tools within the enterprise suggests a new and valuable source for insight into the social structure through organizations. While online social media tools are being evolved by enterprises in recent years, the social media are used much for knowledge sharing.

  1. Intellectual potential of population: theoretical and methodological framework for research

    Galina Valentinovna Leonidova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical and methodological framework for the research into the population’s intellectual potential. The presented materials show that this category is the subject of interdisciplinary studies, including philosophy, psychology, sociology, pedagogics, economics. One of the important conclusions drawn from the analysis of the essence of intellectual potential is the conclusion that the actual level of intelligence is the result of its development. It means that certain efforts on the part of such social institutions like family, education, government, promote not only the formation of smart people, but also the implementation of their potential intellectual capabilities in the production, creation of cultural values, society management, education, etc. when using this approach, the intellect ceases to be just a research object of related disciplines, but it acquires social dimension and becomes a socio-economic category. The basic theories, concepts and approaches, used in its study, were analyzed. The theory of human capital was given a most thorough consideration, because, according to this theory, the income of a person is earned by knowledge, abilities and skills, i.e. the essence of intellectual properties of an individual. The article provides the author’s definition of the intellectual potential of the population, which brings to the fore the following elements necessary for the understanding of this category: relation to socioeconomic development, factors in the formation of the characteristic, including the need for training (reproduction of intelligent people, the psychological aspect (abilities, the carriers of intellectual potential are not ignored, because it is an attribute of the population. The article identifies methodological approaches to the estimation of the population’s intellectual potential, describes the applied procedures and research methods. The authors propose methodological

  2. Collaboration of nuclear knowledge. Execution of science partnership project promoted by MEXT and repercussion effect obtained from the viewpoint of intellectual collaboration

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Sasagawa, Sumiko; Nakano, Koji

    2007-09-01

    The Fujioka Technical High School (FTHS) applied to the Science Partnership Project (SPP-2006), which was financially supported by the MEXT and promoted by the Japan Science and Technology Agency, and was approved the proposal entitled as 'Nuclear Technology and Its Future for Nuclear-Cite Neighboring Students'. FTHS decided to make intellectual linkage with Takasaki Branch, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and with Institute for Environmental Sciences, having with the following 5 menus. 1. Outline of nuclear energy. 2. Outline of radiation application and experimental practice. 3. Radiation and health for understanding the natural radiation and radioactivity. 4. Sightseeing of nuclear facilities around Tokai-mura. 5. Reporting of SPP activities. Adding to normal lectures listed above, the authors made several educational trials from the viewpoint of intellectual linkage. First is to verify the change of interest in students through lectures on nuclear, second is to reveal that which nuclear fields are interested by a majority of students, third is to make direct comparison of intellectual ability between the students and 5 specialists. Resultantly, if one teaches correctly the basic concept of nuclear energy and radiation application as learning inputs, aparting from his mind to nuclear and understanding ability of student increased 3 times than his background level. A comprehensive faculty of the students to the 5 specialists is 1/5 before making lecture but increased markedly to 1/2 after the lecture. A majority of students understand the matter of reprocessing, reactor accidents and food irradiation but understand poorly the location and name of the commercial nuclear power plant as well as the basic function of the power reactors. The latter is however recovered by the sightseeing of commercial power plants and fuel fabrication facilities located around Tokai-mura. Namely, to seeing is to believing. To teach a radiation application and a basic idea of nuclear

  3. El impacto de las representaciones sociales en la psicología de los conocimientos sociales: problemas y perspectivas The impact of social representations on the psychology of social knowledge: issues and perspectives

    José Antonio Castorina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios psicológicos sobre la formación de nociones sociales de los niños se han llevado a cabo en los términos de una actividad intelectual exclusivamente individual y en una secuencia temporal. Se muestran las dificultades de este enfoque, como por ejemplo, que no explican la perduración de nociones "personalizadas" de la historia durante el desarrollo, más allá del avance propiamente conceptual. Se propone utilizar a la teoría de las representaciones sociales, que considera a al niño como un actor social y cuyo foco está en los valores, que no pueden ser organizados en una secuencia lógica. Luego, se examinan los problemas que involucra utilizar las representaciones sociales en la psicología del desarrollo: si su definición es aceptable, si corresponde al orden simbólico y no a una actividad individual; si son irracionales o tienen otra lógica que los conceptos individuales. Finalmente, se aclaran cuáles son las condiciones epistémicas mínimas para establecer un diálogo entre algunos programas de investigación en psicología del conocimiento y la psicología de las representaciones sociales.Psychological studies on the formation of social notions by children have been conducted in terms of an exclusively individual intellectual activity in a time sequence. We show the difficulties of this approach, which does not, for example, explain the persistence of "personalized" notions of history during development, besides actual conceptual advancement. We propose to use the theory of social representations, which considers the child as a social actor and focuses on values, which may not be organized in a logical sequence. We then examine the issues posed by using social representations in developmental psychology: whether its definition is acceptable, whether it corresponds to the symbolic order and not to an individual activity; whether it is irrational or has a logic other than individual concepts. We finally shed light on

  4. Effectiveness of a workplace training programme in improving social, communication and emotional skills for adults with autism and intellectual disability in Hong Kong--a pilot study.

    Liu, Karen P Y; Wong, Denys; Chung, Anthony C Y; Kwok, Natalie; Lam, Madeleine K Y; Yuen, Cheri M C; Arblaster, Karen; Kwan, Aldous C S

    2013-12-01

    This pilot study explored the effectiveness of workplace training programme that aimed to enhance the work-related behaviours in individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities. Fourteen participants with autism and mild to moderate intellectual disability (mean age = 24.6 years) were recruited. The workplace training programme included practices in work context and group educational sessions. A pre-test-post-test design was used with the Work Personality Profile, the Scale of Independent Behaviour Revised and the Observational Emotional Inventory Revised to evaluate the targeted behaviours. Improvement in social and communication skills specific to the workplace was achieved. For emotional control, participants became less confused and had a better self-concept. However, improvement in other general emotional behaviours, such as impulse control, was limited. The results indicated that a structured workplace training programme aimed at improving social, communication and emotional behaviours can be helpful for people with autism and intellectual disability. Further study with a larger sample size and a control group is recommended. The development of specific programme to cater for the emotional control needs at workplace for people with autism is also suggested. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Knowledge Sharing as a Social Dilemma in Pharmaceutical Innovation.

    Kim, Daria

    This article addresses the problem of restricted access to industry-sponsored clinical trial data. In particular, it analyzes the intersection of the competing claims that mandatory disclosure of pharmaceutical test data impedes drug sponsors’ innovation incentives and that access facilitates new drug development. These claims are characterized in terms of public-good and common-resource dilemmas. The analysis finds confidentiality protection of primary research data plays an ambiguous role. While secrecy, as such, does not solve the public-good problem in pharmaceutical innovation (in the presence of regulatory instruments that protect the originator drug against generic competition), it is likely to exacerbate the common-resource problem, in view of data as a source of scientific knowledge. It is argued that the claim by the research-based industry that disclosure of clinical data impedes innovation incentives is misplaced and should not be leveraged against pro-access policies. While much attention has been paid to the problem of appropriability of drug R&D investment, this analysis highlights another consequence resulting from the private provision of clinical trials, i.e., factual confidentiality and possession of data by drug sponsors. The associated social costs are qualified in terms of internalized knowledge externalities. Since, in a competitive environment, companies are unlikely to change the strategy of non-sharing of primary data, the resulting economic inefficiencies at the sector level call for regulatory intervention. To reconcile the competing policy objectives, it is proposed that the rules of access should be designed in such a way that third-party use of primary data does not interfere with protection against generic competition. At the same time, the long-term collective benefit can be maximized when the “cooperative choice” (i.e., when everyone shares data) becomes the “dominant strategy.” This can be achieved only when access is

  6. Socially Grounded Analysis of Knowledge Management Systems and Processes

    Guizzardi, R.S.S.; Perini, A.; Dignum, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the struggle to survive and compete in face of constant technological changes and unstable business environments, organizations recognize knowledge as its most valuable asset. Consequently, these organizations often invest on Knowledge Management (KM), seeking to enhance their internal processes

  7. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  8. The Knowledge Economy and Higher Education: Rankings and Classifications, Research Metrics and Learning Outcomes Measures as a System for Regulating the Value of Knowledge

    Marginson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the global knowledge economy (the k-economy), comprised by (1) open source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all economy the global knowledge economy is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated…

  9. Improving Family Forest Knowledge Transfer through Social Network Analysis

    Gorczyca, Erika L.; Lyons, Patrick W.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Johnson, Teresa R.; Straub, Crista L.

    2012-01-01

    To better engage Maine's family forest landowners our study used social network analysis: a computational social science method for identifying stakeholders, evaluating models of engagement, and targeting areas for enhanced partnerships. Interviews with researchers associated with a research center were conducted to identify how social network…

  10. Geospatial patterns in traditional knowledge serve in assessing intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing in northwest South America

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Svenning, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    medicinal palm (Arecaceae) uses is unique and how much is shared across (i) four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia), (ii) two cultural groups (Amerindian and non-Amerindian), (iii) 52 Amerindian tribes, (iv) six non-Amerindian groups, (v) 41 communities, and (vi) individuals in the 41 communities...... in the number of unshared and shared uses accounted for by the five birth cohorts. Results We found that most knowledge was not shared among countries, cultural groups, tribes, communities, or even individuals within them. Still, a minor knowledge component was widely shared, even across countries. General...

  11. Brand innovation and social media: knowledge acquisition from social media, market orientation, and the moderating role of social media strategic capability

    Nguyen, Bang; Xiaoyu, Yu; Melewar, T. C.; Chen, Junsong

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the relationships between knowledge acquisition from social media, two forms of market orientation (proactive and reactive), social media strategic capability, and brand innovation strategy in the context of China’s online technology industry. Analysis of 357 online technology ventures, created during the past 6 years, suggests that brand innovation is affected by both knowledge acquisition from social media and market orientation. Social media strategic capability positive...

  12. Intellectual Freedom

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  13. Reporting on intellectual capital

    Meer-Kooistra, Jeltje van der; Zijlstra, Siebren M.

    2001-01-01

    In today’s knowledge-based economy intellectual capital (IC) is becoming a major part of companies’ value. Being able to manage and control IC requires that companies can identify, measure and report internally on IC. As financial accounting rules ban full disclosure of IC in the annual report the

  14. "Actually, I Wanted to Learn": Study-Related Knowledge Exchange on Social Networking Sites

    Wodzicki, Katrin; Schwammlein, Eva; Moskaliuk, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Social media open up multiple options to add a new dimension to learning and knowledge processes. Particularly, social networking sites allow students to connect formal and informal learning settings. Students can find like-minded people and organize informal knowledge exchange for educational purposes. However, little is known about in which way…

  15. Knowledge and social engagement change in intention to be screened for colorectal cancer.

    Molina, Yamile; Briant, Katherine J; Sanchez, Janeth I; O'Connell, Mary A; Thompson, Beti

    2018-07-01

    Innovative technologies have been used to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among the underserved. However, the impact of these innovative technologies on knowledge and social engagement likelihood as they relate to subsequent intention to be screened across different populations has not been fully explored. Using a pre-post-test design with an inflatable walk-through colon, we assessed changes in knowledge and social engagement likelihood across populations and their associations with intention to be screened in two community settings. One was a community setting in Washington State (WA); the other, a college campus in New Mexico (NM). Differential effects on knowledge and social engagement likelihood were examined across demographic groups (race/ethnicity, gender, age, education, insurance status, and geographic region). Finally, we assessed if changes in knowledge and social engagement likelihood were associated with CRC screening intention. NM males had greater gains in CRC knowledge than NM females; in WA, Hispanics, younger, less educated, and uninsured participants had greater gains in knowledge. NM females and younger WA participants were more likely to discuss CRC with their social networks than NM males and older WA participants. In WA, Hispanics and older adults reported greater intention to be screened for CRC. Change in social engagement likelihood, but not knowledge, was associated with intention to be screened. The effectiveness of health promotion technologies on knowledge and social engagement may vary across different demographic characteristics. Further, the importance of social engagement likelihood in interacting with intention to be screened was substantiated.

  16. A Canonical Correlation Analysis of Social Capital and Knowledge Exchange for Virtual Members of IT Teams

    Dutton Feliu, Genevieve

    2018-01-01

    Social capital theory conceptualized social capital as key to connecting team members into the flow of valued resources and activities, with knowledge deemed one of the most valuable of these resources. Yet, the literature found teams struggle to effectively share knowledge. This quantitative survey-based study assessed the interrelationship…

  17. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge into Social Work Education: A Case-Based Approach

    Egan, Marcia; Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2011-01-01

    New knowledge from the rapidly growing field of neuroscience has important implications for our understanding of human behavior in the social environment, yet little of this knowledge has made its way into social work education. This article presents a model for integrating neuroscience into instruction on human development, the bio psychosocial…

  18. Documenting Reproduction and Inequality: Revisiting Jean Anyon's "Social Class and School Knowledge"

    Luke, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Jean Anyon's (1981) "Social Class and School Knowledge" was a landmark work in North American educational research. It provided a richly detailed qualitative description of differential, social class-based constructions of knowledge and epistemological stance. This essay situates Anyon's work in two parallel traditions of critical educational…

  19. [The nurse's thought for a significant social contribution by the production and use of scientific knowledge].

    Pépin, Jacinthe

    2015-06-01

    The social contribution of nurses to the health of the population is mainly defined by the knowledge supporting their actions. Conceptualization in nursing guides the production and utilisation of scientific knowledge within the discipline. The purpose of this paper is to present the recent thoughts on nursing theory and to provide some strategies to integrate them within the activities of knowledge mobilization, in practice, research, and education. When nurses are engaged in mobilizing theoretical and empirical knowledge in answering nursing practice questions and in discussing social health issues, they participate in persons, families, and communities health improvement, while affirming their disciplinary and social identity. Called to be change agents in health care systems, with other professional team members, it is important that nurses be prepared to mobilize knowledge and to engage in critical reasoning, and ethical conduct. Their social contribution will be as strong as the value they assign to nursing knowledge and their participation in producing it.

  20. Disentangling the Effects of Collaborative Social Platforms on Organizational Knowledge Practices and Innovation

    Razmerita, Liana; Tan, Chee-Wee

    Social media has given birth to a novel paradigm of knowledge management that entails both formal and informal communication to bring about collaboration via diverse applications. Through online conversations and virtual interactions, the advent of social media is accompanied by unprecedented means...... of sharing, externalizing and retaining knowledge. In doing so, social media allows the articulation of personal and collective knowledge for innovation and value co-creation (Razmerita et al. 2014). Emerging social-collaborative platforms in the likes of Podio, Jive, Trello, Yammer, and Slack promote...... communication, collaboration, and project work. These platforms incorporate social media and networking functionalities for realizing both synchronous and asynchronous cooperative efforts. This study hence takes a critical view of the adoption and deployment of collaborative social platforms in a knowledge...

  1. Knowledge sharing via social media in software development: a systematic literature review

    Sarka, Peter Bo; Ipsen, Christine

    2017-01-01

    communication are driving organizations to leverage social media tools to improve performance. These tools, which have changed the way we share knowledge, enable people to connect, communicate, and collaborate. Research on knowledge sharing via social media is still in its early phases, with a comprehensive......Effective knowledge exchange among software developers is crucial for the competitive performance of their organizations. Today, the constant pressure on businesses to continually innovate and the increasing capability of information technologies to facilitate broader and more distributed...

  2. What happens when organisations embrace social networking? Knowledge sharing at a multinational business solutions corporation

    C. Stafford

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amid widespread resistance to online social networking tools, their effectiveness in promoting knowledge sharing in a knowledge-driven organisation was demonstrated in the study. Usage patterns, user attitudes and perceptions regarding online social networking technologies as a professional application for knowledge sharing within the workplace were investigated. Self-administered questionnaires were administered to a sample of IBM Global Business Services employees in South Africa. Upon completion of the questionnaire analysis an interview was conducted with the knowledge manager for verification and clarification purposes. The results revealed the respondents' positive attitudes regarding the use of social networking tools for knowledge sharing. The culture of knowledge sharing at IBM and the contribution that social networking tools makes within the company were uncovered. Findings disclosed that the online social networking tools were effective and that management at IBM encourages employees to make more and more use of the tools for knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of online social networking tools and serve as encouragement to hesitant organisations to adopt social networking in their business practices.

  3. IMPLEMETATION OF MODEL SAVI (SOMATIC, AUDIOTORY, VISUALIZATION, INTELLECTUAL TO INCREASE CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY IN CLASS IV OF SOCIAL SCIENCE LEARNING ON SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT

    Dadang Iskandar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the lack of critical thinking skills of fourth grade students of SDN Tanjung III, Subang district. On the basis of the need for repairs done either by applying the model of SAVI (Somatic, Auditory, Visualization, Intellectual. So the purpose of this study was to determine the increase critical thinking skills of students in Social Science before and after applying the model SAVI, the performance of teachers in applying the model SAVI, activities and students' response to the model SAVI. The method used in this research is the CAR (Classroom Action Research. Subject of research that fourth grade students of SDN Tanjung III by the number of students as many as 23 people. The instrument used was LKS (Student Worksheet, observation sheet of students and teachers as well as student questionnaire responses. From these results, it can be concluded that by applying the model in study SAVI social science with social problems in the local environment can enhance students' critical thinking skills. The result can be seen from the percentage of the overall level of mastery learning increased from 52.2% in the first cycle, 78.3% in the second cycle and 100% in the third cycle. The average grade class of students increased from 44.3 prasiklus of data with less criteria, up to the third cycle, which reached 91.3 with the criteria very well. With the improvement of students' critical thinking skills that are calculated based on the n-gain of 0.53 with the criteria of being in the first cycle, and 0.65 with the criteria of being on the second cycle, and 0.81 with the high criteria of the third cycle. The results of observations also showed that the ability of teachers and students' activity in applying the model of SAVI increased. Based on questionnaire responses, 100% of students showed interest in learning social science model with SAVI. Therefore, it is suggested that teachers use models SAVI  to enhance the critical thinking

  4. The Impact of Leadership Social Power on Knowledge Management Success

    Scovetta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is said to be the actionable human quality gained from the capacity to derive mental insight from facts that have been placed in context, analyzed, and synthesized using references of past experience, mental comparison, and consideration of consequences. Knowledge, therefore, provides the key to understanding the world around us.…

  5. Modeling Social Influences in a Knowledge Management Network

    Franco, Giacomo; Maresca, Paolo; Nota, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The issue of knowledge management in a distributed network is receiving increasing attention from both scientific and industrial organizations. Research efforts in this field are motivated by the awareness that knowledge is more and more perceived as a primary economic resource and that, in the context of organization of organizations, the…

  6. The Socially Skilled Teacher and the Development of Tacit Knowledge

    Elliott, Julian G.; Stemler, Steven E.; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Hoffman, Newman

    2011-01-01

    Skilled interpersonal relations are crucial for effective teaching and learning but much professional knowledge here is tacit and thus not easily communicated. This article presents the results of a study that examined the tacit knowledge of trainee and experienced teachers in relation to various problematic interpersonal aspects of school life.…

  7. STRUCTURE AND VALIDATION OF A CONTEXTUAL QUALITY OF LIFE SCALE FOR PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN SOCIAL SERVICES: AN ORGANIZATION-ORIENTED MEASURE FROM AN EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE

    Carolina Moliner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop and validate a scale on the Quality of Life (QoL of people with intellectual disabilities as assessed by family members (external perspective. The instrument measures improvement in QoL due to actions by organizations delivering services to individuals with intellectual disabilities (organization-oriented measure. In order to design the items for the scale, focus groups were set up with professionals dedicated to attending to individuals with intellectual disabilities. An initial scale of 20 items was constructed by consensus. A total of 1195 family members answered the questionnaire. In order to assess the structure of the scale, EFA recommended deleting 3 overlapping items. The final scale consisted of 17 items (α=95 and was composed of four main dimensions: self-determination (SD, social inclusion (SI, rights (RI and overall improvement (OI, which explained 74.83% of the variance. Finally, the consistency and validity were assessed. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were satisfactory. Moreover, CFA confirmed the structure of the scale. Main conclusions, limitations and practical implications are discussed.

  8. Governance Mechanisms for the Promotion of Social Capital for Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Corporations

    Gooderham, Paul; Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    are combined with theory on the determinants of social capital. Three governance mechanisms are identified: market-based mechanisms, hierarchical mechanisms, and social mechanisms. The findings, based on data from two Danish MNCs, indicate that although the use of social governance mechanisms promotes positive......The aim of this paper is to extend social capital approaches to knowledge transfer by identifying governance mechanisms that managers can deploy to promote the development of social capital. In order to achieve this objective, insights from the micro-level, knowledge governance approach...... assessment of social capital, hierarchical governance mechanisms constrain its development. The application of market-based governance mechanisms has no significant effect. In addition, the findings provide evidence that social capital has a positive impact on knowledge transfer...

  9. Measuring Teacher Knowledge of Classroom Social Networks: Convergent and Predictive Validity in Elementary School Classrooms

    Madill, Rebecca A.; Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to a growing body of literature focused on the role of the teacher's "invisible hand" in managing students social relationships. The authors focus on one specific aspect of attunement, teachers' social network knowledge, which they conceptualize as the completeness and accuracy of the teacher's social network…

  10. Social Justice in Outdoor Experiential Education: A State of Knowledge Review

    Warren, Karen; Roberts, Nina S.; Breunig, Mary; Alvarez, M. Antonio G.

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor experiential education has often been critiqued for its White, male, middle/upper-class, able-bodied history, thereby causing professionals and programs to consider issues of social justice. This state of knowledge paper will review the literature on social and environmental justice, identify gaps in current social justice literature and…

  11. Applying Indigenous Knowledge to Innovations in Social Work Education

    Hertel, Amy Locklear

    2017-01-01

    Grounded in an indigenous holistic worldview and borrowing from the four Rs (values of relationships, responsibility, reciprocity, and redistribution), this article supports the inclusion of translational science and the integration of core metacompetencies into social work doctoral education as innovations in the field of social work science. The…

  12. Expert knowledge for automatic detection of bullies in social networks

    Dadvar, M.; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a serious social problem in online environments and social networks. Current approaches to tackle this problem are still inadequate for detecting bullying incidents or to flag bullies. In this study we used a multi-criteria evaluation system to obtain a better understanding of

  13. Blessed Oblivion? Knowledge and Metacognitive Accuracy in Online Social Networks

    Moll, Ricarda; Pieschl, Stephanie; Bromme, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    In order to reap the social gratifications of Online Social Networks (OSNs), users often disclose self-related information, making them potentially vulnerable to their online audiences. We give a brief overview of our theoretical ideas and empirical research about additional cognitive and metacognitive factors relevant for the perception of risk…

  14. The Preservation of Traditional Knowledge and the Cultural Expression of Craft Rumah Gadang’s Walls as the Intellectual Property Of West Sumatera

    Riza Armilia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the problems of the preservation of Minangkabau craft culture, especially the problem of Intellectual Property Rights in the form of traditional knowledge that is on the craft of Rumah Gadang’s walls. The method of this research is qualitative. The informant of this study is determined by using purposive sampling. The chosen informants that are people involved in crafting of Rumah Gadang’s walls and the Department of Tourism of West Sumatra Province. This research was conducted at Minangkabau representative area of Luhak Nan Tigo (Agam, Tanah Datar, Lima Puluh Kota. The results of the study shows the extinction of craft of Rumah Gadang's walls was caused by the development factor of modern society's mindset, thus eliminating the value of a local culture of desire to learn old local culture. Moreover, the history and the topic of craft of Rumah Gadang's walls are deleted from Muatan Lokal Subject from the elementary to college level. Besides, the absence of efforts of local governments in trying to preserve the cultural values contained in traditional of craft of Rumah Gadang’s walls.

  15. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zaki

    2011-01-01

    , document/team management system, data warehouses, data mining processes, databases, contact lists, virtual teams, collaboration tools, customer relationship management, applications and news (Davenport and Prusak 1998, Jashapara 2004). Knowledge is not important per se (Agostini et al 2003) instead...

  16. Knowledge of the Disease, Perceived Social Support, and Cognitive Appraisals in Women with Urinary Incontinence

    Katarzyna Szymona-Pałkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social support and knowledge of the disease have been shown to facilitate adaptation to a chronic disease. However, the adaptation process is not fully understood. We hypothesized that these factors can contribute to better adaptation to the disease through their impact on disease-related cognitive appraisal. To analyze the links between social support and the knowledge of the disease, on one hand, and disease-related appraisals, on the other hand, one hundred fifty-eight women with stress UI, aged 32 to 79, took part in the study. Questionnaire measures of knowledge of UI, social support, and disease-related appraisals were used in the study. The level of knowledge correlated significantly negatively with the appraisal of the disease as Harm. The global level of social support correlated significantly positively with three disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, and Value. Four subgroups of patients with different constellations of social support and knowledge of the disease were identified in cluster analysis and were demonstrated to differ significantly on four disease-related appraisals: Profit, Challenge, Harm, and Value. Different cognitive appraisals of UI may be specifically related to social support and knowledge of the disease, with social support affective positive disease-related appraisals, and the knowledge affecting the appraisal of Harm.

  17. A Generic Framework for Extraction of Knowledge from Social Web Sources (Social Networking Websites) for an Online Recommendation System

    Sathick, Javubar; Venkat, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    Mining social web data is a challenging task and finding user interest for personalized and non-personalized recommendation systems is another important task. Knowledge sharing among web users has become crucial in determining usage of web data and personalizing content in various social websites as per the user's wish. This paper aims to design a…

  18. Conceptualizing knowledge transfer between expatriates and host country nationals: The mediating effect of social capital

    Maimunah Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to propose a conceptual model of knowledge transfer by relating two specific personal factors of expatriate and host country national (HCN dyads as antecedents of knowledge transfer, and mediated by social capital factors. An intensive literature review method was employed to identify and analyse relevant literatures. The paper used a dyadic bi-directional approach in theorizing knowledge transfer by integrating the social capital theory, and the anxiety and uncertainty management theory. The paper considers two personal factors (cultural intelligence and knowledge-seeking behaviour and two social capital variables (trust and shared vision as mediators of knowledge transfer. Upon model validation, the paper could offer practical interventions for human resource practitioners and managers to assist multinational corporations towards managing knowledge transfer involving expatriates and HCNs.

  19. Aspects of knowledge management: knowledge sharing as a social dilemma; Aspekte zum Wissensmanagement: Wissen-teilen als soziales Dilemma

    Oldigs-Kerber, J. [Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Information Management

    2007-07-01

    Starting from the assumption that knowledge is closely linked with people and that it continues to develop among these people, three major areas can be identified as ''sources of knowledge'' on which approaches to knowledge management can be based. 1. If people make their knowledge available in the form of information in documents, then the need arises for information from this source of ''knowledge'' to be retrievable and extractable easily and systematically once a certain magnitude has been reached (document orientation). Typical approaches to this are e.g. literature databases and search tools including conclusive searches across documents. 2. Since the documents were written by people, it might be thought that people themselves can be regarded as a source of ''knowledge'', coupled with the wish to be able to find and contact these people easily and systematically. Although such a search would not yield any content like documents do, it would reveal people who could disclose such content and probably even more comprehensively than documents. Approaches to this are oriented towards people or the individual knowledge carriers. Typical approaches are Yellow Pages and expert-finding systems. 3.As an alternative to the many one-to-one links of the above approach it is possible to encourage a topic-centered organizational structure within which information is obtained and passed on. The source of ''knowledge'' is the social interaction in organizational structures / the networks, coupled with the wish to promote knowledge sharing across departmental boundaries and to keep knowledge that has been gained alive in the company. Typical approaches are e.g. communities of practice or promotion of learning processes (e.g. lessons learned, best practices, interrupted case study) Knowledge sharing plays an important part in the two last-mentioned points and will therefore considered in greater

  20. Mobilizing Social Science in the Arab World: Knowledge, Capacity ...

    ... project will -institutionalize and strengthen ACSS' ability to implement programs that ... problems -foster a new generation of social scientists integrated into regional ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ... adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  1. Impaired spontaneous anthropomorphizing despite intact perception and social knowledge

    Heberlein, Andrea S.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Humans spontaneously imbue the world with social meaning: we see not only emotions and intentional behaviors in humans and other animals, but also anger in the movements of thunderstorms and willful sabotage in crashing computers. Converging evidence supports a role for the amygdala, a collection of nuclei in the temporal lobe, in processing emotionally and socially relevant information. Here, we report that a patient with bilateral amygdala damage described a film of animated shapes (normally seen as full of social content) in entirely asocial, geometric terms, despite otherwise normal visual perception. Control tasks showed that the impairment did not result from a global inability to describe social stimuli or a bias in language use, nor was a similar impairment observed in eight comparison subjects with damage to orbitofrontal cortex. This finding extends the role of the amygdala to the social attributions we make even to stimuli that are not explicitly social and, in so doing, suggests that the human capacity for anthropomorphizing draws on some of the same neural systems as do basic emotional responses. PMID:15123799

  2. Promoting Social Interactions and Job Independence for College Students with Autism or Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    Gilson, Carly B.; Carter, Erik W.

    2016-01-01

    The employment outcomes for young adults with autism or intellectual disability (ID) lag far behind those of their peers without disabilities. Most postsecondary education programs for students with disabilities incorporate internship experiences to foster employment skills. However, the proximity of job coaches may inadvertently hinder social…

  3. Predicting Maternal Parenting Stress in Middle Childhood: The Roles of Child Intellectual Status, Behaviour Problems and Social Skills

    Neece, C.; Baker, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The…

  4. Effects of Dog-Assisted Therapy on Communication and Basic Social Skills of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    Scorzato, Ivano; Zaninotto, Leonardo; Romano, Michela; Menardi, Chiara; Cavedon, Lino; Pegoraro, Alessandra; Socche, Laura; Zanetti, Piera; Coppiello, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-nine adults with severe to profound intellectual disability (ID) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 18). Assessment was blinded and included selected items from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), the Behavioral Assessment Battery (BAB), and the…

  5. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  6. VIDA - Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare - an inclusive ECEC program

    Holm, Anders; Wang, Camilla; Kousholt, Dorte

    experiments. Thus the program combines professionals’ personal knowledge and practice-based experiences, i.e. combines tacit knowledge with explicit scientifi c knowledge acquisition and sharing. The VIDA and VIDA+ education programs encourage participants to work with both explicit and implicit (tacit...... intervention program Knowledge-based efforts for socially disadvantaged children in daycare – a model program presented in this report, aims at improving all children’s well-being and cognitive functioning, and specifi cally improving the situation for socially disadvantaged children through inclusive efforts...

  7. Innovations in knowledge management the impact of social media, semantic web and cloud computing

    Phillips-Wren, Gloria; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses emerging trends in the field of managing knowledge work due to technological innovations. The book is organized in 3 sections. The first section, entitled "Managing Knowledge, Projects and Networks", discusses knowledge processes and their use, reuse or generation in the context of an organization. The second section, entitled "Managing Knowledge using Social Media", focuses on factors influencing adoption and usage, the role of social media in managing knowledge, and factors that influence employees' acceptance and participation. The third section brings into discussion new approaches and technologies for acquiring knowledge. The book will be useful to both academics engaged in research in knowledge management and practitioners who are considering or implementing strategies for managing one of their most important resources.

  8. The combined impact of social support and perceived stress on quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder and without intellectual disability.

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A; Eack, Shaun M

    2017-06-01

    Identifying modifiable correlates of good quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder is of paramount importance for intervention development as the population of adults with autism spectrum disorder increases. This study sought to examine social support and perceived stress as potential modifiable correlates of quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder. We hypothesized that adults with autism spectrum disorder without co-occurring intellectual disabilities ( N = 40; aged 18-44 years) would report lower levels of social support and quality of life than typical community volunteers who were matched for age, sex, and race ( N = 25). We additionally hypothesized that social support would buffer the effect of perceived stress on quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that adults with autism spectrum disorder reported significantly lower levels of social support and quality of life than matched typical community volunteers. In addition, findings showed significant direct effects of social support and perceived stress on quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Social support did not buffer the effect of perceived stress on quality of life. Interventions that teach adults with autism spectrum disorder skills to help them better manage stress and cultivate supportive social relationships have the potential to improve quality of life.

  9. Knowledge management: implications for human service organizations.

    Austin, Michael J; Claassen, Jennette; Vu, Catherine M; Mizrahi, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management has recently taken a more prominent role in the management of organizations as worker knowledge and intellectual capital are recognized as critical to organizational success. This analysis explores the literature of knowledge management including the individual level of tacit and explicit knowledge, the networks and social interactions utilized by workers to create and share new knowledge, and the multiple organizational and managerial factors associated with effective knowledge management systems. Based on the role of organizational culture, structure, leadership, and reward systems, six strategies are identified to assist human service organizations with implementing new knowledge management systems.

  10. Generic knowledge-based analysis of social media for recommendations

    de Graaff, V.; van de Venis, Anne; van Keulen, Maurice; de By, R.A.; Bogers, Toine; Koolen, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems have been around for decades to help people find the best matching item in a pre-defined item set. Knowledge-based recommender systems are used to match users based on information that links the two, but they often focus on a single, specific application, such as movies to watch

  11. INTIMIDAD Y PROPIEDAD INTELECTUAL EN LAS REDES SOCIALES: EL CASO COLOMBIANO. PRIVACY AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE SOCIAL NETWORKS: THE COLOMBIAN CASE.

    Hugo Nelson Castañeda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los abusos que se hace del derecho a la información en internet y especialmente en las Redes Sociales Virtuales (en adelante RSV son constantes y la posibilidad de restringirlos es mínima. Todo parecería indicar que en el mundo virtual no existirá la censura, pero se evidencia todo lo contrario. Muchos grupos de presión, entre ellos quienes buscan la defensa de intereses económicos, han instado a los gobiernos, como el colombiano, y a las empresas de la web (incluidas las RSV para que constituyan mecanismos de control de todo lo que se difunde por internet y evitar atentados contra el honor, la intimidad y la propiedad intelectual, pero los métodos (legales o de facto que se han implementado se convirtieron en una forma de censura de las expresiones creativas que reduce la disponibilidad de información y paradójicamente la libertad individual. Para demostrar lo anterior, en escrito se utilizó técnicas de estudio documental en los que se pudiera constatar la influencia de las RSV en el Derecho.Abuses of the right to information on the Internet and especially in virtual social networks (VSN from now on are constant and the possibility of restricting them is minimal. Everything would seem to indicate that in the virtual world there is no censorship, but there is evidence of the opposite. Many groups, including those who seek the defense of economic interests, have urged Governments, such as the Colombian one, and the Web companies (including the RSV so that they constitute control mechanisms of everything that is spread via the Internet and prevent the attacks against honor, privacy, and intellectual property, but the (legal or de facto methods that have been implemented have become a form of censorship of creative expressions that reduces the availability of information and paradoxically the individual freedom. In order to prove this, techniques of documentary study were used, in which the influence of the VSN in the Law, could be

  12. Mental health and positive change among Japanese mothers of children with intellectual disabilities: Roles of sense of coherence and social capital.

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    We investigated predictors of mental health and positive change among mothers of children with intellectual disabilities in Japan based on the concept of the Double ABCX model. We used variables of having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and dissatisfaction with systems as stressors, availability of social support and social capital (SC) as existing resources, sense of coherence (SOC) as appraisal of the stressor, and mental health and positive change as adaptation. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 10 intellectual disability-oriented special needs schools in Tokyo, and obtained 613 responses from mothers of children under age 20 attending these schools. The results showed that our Double ABCX model explained 46.0% of the variance in mothers' mental health and 38.9% of the variance in positive change. The most powerful predictor of this model was SOC, and SC may be directly and indirectly related to maternal mental health and positive change through mothers' SOC. Increasing opportunity for interaction between neighbors and family of children with disabilities may be one effective way to enhance SOC through SC. Since maternal SOC, SC, mental health, and positive change were significantly correlated with each other, synergy among these elements could be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Desire for Love: Considerations on Sexuality and Sexual Education of People With Intellectual Disability in Poland.

    Kijak, Remigiusz J

    2011-03-01

    This article is intended to attract public attention to the fact that people with intellectual disability, despite their delayed sexual development, still remain sexual beings, which is connected with many individual and social consequences. The empirical data collected in this work provides knowledge about biological and psychological conditioning of sexual development of individuals with intellectual disability. However, the problem of sexuality for this population should be further analyzed. One should also think about the possibility of supporting the psychological and sexual development of people with more severe intellectual disability.

  14. Information Professionals’ Knowledge Sharing Practices in Social Media: A Study of Professionals in Developing Countries

    Anwarul Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to investigate the perception of informational professionals’ knowledge sharing practices in social media platforms. The specific objectives of the study included learning professionals’ perceptions and awareness of knowledge sharing using social media, understanding their opinions and beliefs, and gaining familiarity with and reasons for using these tools. Open & close ended web-based questions were sent out by email to the international training program (ITP participants. Findings indicated that most of the respondents’ were aware of using social media and that they used social media for knowledge sharing. Speed and ease of use, managing personal knowledge, easier communication with users and colleagues and powerful communication tool are the areas that motivated them to use it. It also stated some barriers like lack of support, familiarity, trust, unfiltered information and fear of providing information. The study was limited to the perceptual aspect of the issue, specifically from the individuals’ opinions and sentiments.

  15. Social Capital, Financial Knowledge, and Hispanic Student College Choices

    O'Connor, Noga; Hammack, Floyd M.; Scott, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Hispanic students are significantly over-represented in community colleges compared to White and Black students. This paper uses a powerful but underutilized statistical technique, the Oaxaca decomposition, to explore the impact of social capital, as manifested through college financial information, on Hispanic student enrollment in 4-year and…

  16. Priors & prejudice : using existing knowledge in social science research

    Van Wesel, F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in the social sciences usually start their research with the formulation of research goals and questions, which, together with studying the existing literature, lead to the formulation of hypotheses. Next, data is collected using experiments or questionnaires and is subsequently

  17. Social Capital in Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    This paper addresses social capital in biotechnology, medico and information communication start-ups using both quantitative and qualitative data. It shows that founding teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters' and that networking patterns are highly influenced by the entrepreneur...

  18. Social Perspective and Educational Knowledge: Edward L. Thorndike Reexamined.

    Franklin, Barry M.

    This paper examines the relationship between educational theorist Edward L. Thorndike's psychology and his social viewpoint. Many of the revisionists in educational history have oversimplified Thorndike's thought by not examining his views from this perspective. Thorndike's educational ideas and practices are reflections of certain fundamental…

  19. The dynamics of meaningful social interactions and the emergence of collective knowledge

    Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2015-07-01

    Collective knowledge as a social value may arise in cooperation among actors whose individual expertise is limited. The process of knowledge creation requires meaningful, logically coordinated interactions, which represents a challenging problem to physics and social dynamics modeling. By combining two-scale dynamics model with empirical data analysis from a well-known Questions & Answers system Mathematics, we show that this process occurs as a collective phenomenon in an enlarged network (of actors and their artifacts) where the cognitive recognition interactions are properly encoded. The emergent behavior is quantified by the information divergence and innovation advancing of knowledge over time and the signatures of self-organization and knowledge sharing communities. These measures elucidate the impact of each cognitive element and the individual actor’s expertise in the collective dynamics. The results are relevant to stochastic processes involving smart components and to collaborative social endeavors, for instance, crowdsourcing scientific knowledge production with online games.

  20. Learning and Collective Knowledge Construction With Social Media: A Process-Oriented Perspective

    Kimmerle, Joachim; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Oeberst, Aileen; Cress, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Social media are increasingly being used for educational purposes. The first part of this article briefly reviews literature that reports on educational applications of social media tools. The second part discusses theories that may provide a basis for analyzing the processes that are relevant for individual learning and collective knowledge construction. We argue that a systems-theoretical constructivist approach is appropriate to examine the processes of educational social media use, namely, self-organization, the internalization of information, the externalization of knowledge, and the interplay of externalization and internalization providing the basis of a co-evolution of cognitive and social systems. In the third part we present research findings that illustrate and support this systems-theoretical framework. Concluding, we discuss the implications for educational design and for future research on learning and collective knowledge construction with social media. PMID:26246643

  1. Social Justice and Lower Attainers in a Global Knowledge Economy

    Sally Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More resea...

  2. The Effects of Procedural Knowledge Transparency on Adoption in Corporate Social Networks

    Jensen, Bjoern J. M.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated how a certain type of organizational knowledge sharing, procedural knowledge transparency, affected innovation adoption rates of members of a corporate social network within a large Scandinavian organization, in its two years of activity. It also explored the mediation of these effects by different types of…

  3. The assessment of intellectual capital in Polish regions

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ophem, van J.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a knowledge-based economy intangible assets are indispensable to achieve competitive advantages. Resources like intellectual capital are perceived as crucial factors especially for regional growth. Intellectual capital is comprehended as a multidimensional concept, defined and explained in many

  4. Intellectual emotions

    Vasilyev, Igor A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.

  5. Persons with Drug Addiction as Knowledge Providers: Their Contribution to Social Work Education

    Shor, Ron; Levit, Shabtay

    2012-01-01

    Social work students' stereotypical perceptions of excluded populations could be decisive in the way they treat those who are excluded. In an attempt to change such perceptions and enhance knowledge about how to work with an excluded population, a dialogue-in-class model was implemented between students of social work in Israel and persons with…

  6. The Collective Knowledge of Social Tags: Direct and Indirect Influences on Navigation, Learning, and Information Processing

    Cress, Ulrike; Held, Christoph; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Tag clouds generated in social tagging systems can capture the collective knowledge of communities. Using as a basis spreading activation theories, information foraging theory, and the co-evolution model of cognitive and social systems, we present here a model for an "extended information scent," which proposes that both collective and individual…

  7. Exploration of Social Capital and Knowledge Sharing: An Empirical Study on Student Virtual Teams

    Liu, Ying Chieh; Li, FengChia

    2012-01-01

    Although research on virtual teams is becoming more popular, there is a gap in the understanding of how social capital affects knowledge sharing and creating, and their impacts on virtual team performance. To fill in this gap, this study establishes a framework by incorporating social capital with the SECI model and further examines it with an…

  8. "A Gentleman's Handshake": The Role of Social Capital and Trust in Transforming Information into Usable Knowledge

    Fisher, Rhiannon

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of various social ties in building trust and providing opportunities for information acquisition and knowledge exchange (IAKE). Social capital is used as a vehicle to explore the relationships between farmers and their advisors using bovine tuberculosis (bTB), a major disease facing the English cattle industry, as a…

  9. The Influence of Social Media on Adult Learners' Knowledge Construction and Democratic Participation

    Feldman, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a resource on the impact of social media on adult learners' construction of knowledge, particularly as it pertains to adult education's role in fostering a robust democratic society. There has been an increase in the literature in recent years that explores the various aspects of social media use, such as the incivility of…

  10. Knowledge of Alzheimer's Disease among Norwegian Undergraduate Health and Social Care Students: A Survey Study

    Kada, Sundaran

    2015-01-01

    With an aging general population and a concurrent increase in the prevalence of dementia, health and social care professional students are increasingly exposed to this group of patients during their clinical placements and after graduation. A sound dementia-related knowledge base among health and social care students is important in providing…

  11. Exploring ideation: Knowledge development in science through the lens of semantic and social networks

    Moser, C.; Birkholz, J.M.; Deichmann, D.; Hellsten, I.; Wang, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore changes in both structural and semantic characteristics of a scientific social network. We trace the emergence of knowledge, what we refer to as ideation, through publication data from two conferences in a sub-field of Computer Science. Social network analysis is used to

  12. Self-knowledge: a social ability to be developed

    Nivia Leonor Moré Mesa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the findings of a research intended to face the lack of a supporting framework of the leading process of self-knowledge in students with behavior problems. Empirical and theoretical methods were used to characterize the object of study both in theory and practice. A sample of students attending lessons at the final grades of primary education “Alfredo Gómez Gendra” school was studied for this purpose. The main finding of the research was the design of a need-tailored educative strategy that help the subjects to a self-appraise their behavior as a requisite for self-controlling their behavior.

  13. Knowledge diffusion in social work: a new approach to bridging the gap.

    Herie, Marilyn; Martin, Garth W

    2002-01-01

    The continuing gap between research and practice has long been a problem in social work. A great deal of the empirical practice literature has emphasized practice evaluation (usually in the form of single-case methodologies) at the expense of research dissemination and utilization. An alternative focus for social work researchers can be found in the extensive theoretical and research literature on knowledge diffusion, technology transfer, and social marketing. Knowledge diffusion and social marketing theory is explored in terms of its relevance to social work education and practice, including a consideration of issues of culture and power. The authors present an integrated dissemination model for social work and use a case example to illustrate the practical application of the model. The OPTIONS (OutPatient Treatment In ONtario Services) project is an example of the effective dissemination of two research-based addiction treatment modalities to nearly 1,000 direct practice clinicians in Ontario, Canada.

  14. Considerations on Intellectual and Academic Leadership of a Scholar in Higher Education: The Descriptive Literature Review

    Žydžiūnaitė Vilma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The search for solutions to the issue of leadership leads to hundreds of leadership studies, most of which are contradictory and inconclusive. The scientific literature on leadership in higher education is focused mainly on educational, academic, managerial or thought leadership. This literature provides the opinion that the intellectual leadership in higher education is directed towards building social and intellectual capital through a scholar’s involvement in decision-making and performance of leadership roles in ways that support the scholar’s collaborative decision-making and empowerment. Scholars see intellectual leadership as the scope of challenging processes, which incorporate ideas, values, understandings, solutions, beliefs, visions, knowledge, approaches, purpose and actions. These aspects must be accepted through collectively-shared understanding and generated contextually for organizational development in higher education. With growth in administrative demands, it becomes difficult for intellectual leaders to achieve an appropriate balance of leadership, teaching and research in higher education.

  15. 8th International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations : Social and Big Data Computing for Knowledge Management

    Wang, Leon; Rodríguez, Juan; Yang, Hsin-Chang; Ting, I-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings from the  eighth KMO conference represent the findings of this international meeting which brought together researchers and developers from industry and the academic world to report on the latest scientific and technical advances on knowledge management in organizations. This conference provided an international forum for authors to present and discuss research focused on the role of knowledge management for innovative services in industries, to shed light on recent advances in social and big data computing for KM as well as to identify future directions for researching the role of knowledge management in service innovation and how cloud computing can be used to address many of the issues currently facing KM in academia and industrial sectors.

  16. Parental social support, coping strategies, resilience factors, stress, anxiety and depression levels in parents of children with MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome) or children with intellectual disabilities (ID).

    Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Wraith, James Edmond; Jones, Simon; Mahon, Louise; Lomax, Michelle; Bigger, Brian; Hare, Dougal

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder, caused by a deficiency in one of four enzymes involved in the catabolism of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate. It is a degenerative disorder, with a progressive decline in children's intellectual and physical functioning. There is currently no cure for the disorder. To date there is a paucity of research on how this disorder impacts parents psychological functioning. Specifically, research in the area has failed to employ adequate control groups to assess if the impact of this disorder on parents psychological functioning differs from parenting a child with intellectual disability (ID). The current study examined child behaviour and parental psychological functioning in 23 parents of children with MPS III and 23 parents of children with ID. Parents completed postal questionnaires about their child's behaviour and abilities and their own psychological functioning. Parents of children with MPS III reported fewer behavioural difficulties as their child aged, more severe level of intellectual disability, and similar levels of perceived social support, coping techniques, stress, anxiety and depression levels as parents of children with ID. Both groups of parents scored above the clinical cut off for anxiety and depression. Parents of children with MPS III rated themselves as significantly less future-orientated and goal directed than parents of children with ID. Services should develop support packages for parents of children with MPS III that incorporate an understanding of the unique stressors and current-difficulty approach of this population. Future research should examine gender differences between parental psychological functioning, using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches, and utilise matched developmental level and typically developing control groups.

  17. The use of social science knowledge in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the use of social science knowledge by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), a division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The use of social science is examined both generally and in relation to a body of knowledge most relevant to the program, the social science risk literature. The study is restricted to the use by headquarters staff in relation to the largest repository and Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) projects. The literature on knowledge utilization and the Sabatier framework on knowledge use and policy learning provide the theoretical framework for the study. The research adopts a multistrategy approach, collecting data from two sources: (1) program documents, policy guidance, and meeting records; and (2) interviews with OCRWM officials. The constructs knowledge and use are conceptualized in different ways, each of which forms the basis for a different analytic approach. The research findings showed a very limited use of social science, more especially by the first repository program. Two reasons are advanced. First, the agency has viewed social science knowledge through technical lens and has applied an approach suited to technical problems to its structuring of waste management policy problems. Second, the degree of societal conflict over nuclear power and nuclear waste has prevented a constructive dialogue among the parties and thus reduced the possibility of policy learning

  18. Roles, trust, and reputation in social media knowledge markets theory and methods

    Matei, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    This title discusses the emerging trends in defining, measuring, and operationalizing reputation as a new and essential component of the knowledge that is generated and consumed online. The book also proposes a future research agenda related to these issues—with the ultimate goal of shaping the next generation of theoretical and analytic strategies needed for understanding how knowledge markets are influenced by social interactions and reputations built around functional roles. Roles, Trust, and Reputation in Social Media Knowledge Markets exposes issues that have not been satisfactorily dealt with in the current literature. In a broader sense, the volume aims to change the way in which knowledge generation in social media spaces is understood and utilized. The tools, theories, and methodologies proposed here offer concrete avenues for developing the next generation of research strategies and applications that will help: tomorrow’s information consumers make smarter choices, developers to create new tools...

  19. Social media, FOAMed in medical education and knowledge sharing: Local experiences with international perspective

    Arif Alper Cevik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media, through the Internet and other web-based technologies, have become a means of communication and knowledge-sharing. In this article, we provide details about the social media traffic of various scientific activities, the organizations of which we have played an active role in. We also provide information in our native language through our FOAMed website, which has been published for about 30 months, with us acting as editors. We are comparing these local and limited ventures with examples from the world and aim to remind that social media sources play a very important role in sharing knowledge in medical training and encouraging local initiatives, like ours, with limited resources. Keywords: Medical education, Social media, FOAMed, Knowledge sharing

  20. Ethics, Intellectual Capital & Knowledge Management

    José Manuel Saíz Álvarez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg Resultado del proceso de globalización económica actual, unido al inicio de la denominada «Primera Crisis Global (PCG, cada vez es mayor la importancia del capital intelectual en las organizaciones, tanto por las ventajas competitivas que genera para la organización, como por permitir que la empresa pueda lograr posiciones de liderazgo sostenible en el tiempo. Dicho capital intelectual se inserta dentro de las organizaciones siguiendo una doble perspectiva basada en la ética y en la gestión del conocimiento. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cuáles son las bases que, desde una gestión del conocimiento basado en la ética aplicada a la empresa, permiten construir organizaciones líderes en el mercado global.

  1. Intellectual History

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  2. The Intellectual

    John M. Novak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Book jackets sometimes provide insightful provocation about the content and flavour of a text. Certainly the designers of the front jacket for Steve Fuller’s The Intellectual intended to be provocative when they placed the words, “the positive power of negative thinking,” at the top centre.

  3. Intellectual Capital

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Christensen, Karina Skovvang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...

  4. Intellectual Property.

    St. Clair, Gloriana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses issues of copyright and the transfer or use of intellectual property as they relate to librarians. Topics addressed include the purpose of copyright laws, financial losses to publishers from pirating, cultural views of pirating, the fair use doctrine, concerns of authors of scholarly materials, impact of increasing library automation and…

  5. Using social media to facilitate knowledge transfer in complex engineering environments: a primer for educators

    Murphy, Glen; Salomone, Sonia

    2013-03-01

    While highly cohesive groups are potentially advantageous they are also often correlated with the emergence of knowledge and information silos based around those same functional or occupational clusters. Consequently, an essential challenge for engineering organisations wishing to overcome informational silos is to implement mechanisms that facilitate, encourage and sustain interactions between otherwise disconnected groups. This paper acts as a primer for those seeking to gain an understanding of the design, functionality and utility of a suite of software tools generically termed social media technologies in the context of optimising the management of tacit engineering knowledge. Underpinned by knowledge management theory and using detailed case examples, this paper explores how social media technologies achieve such goals, allowing for the transfer of knowledge by tapping into the tacit and explicit knowledge of disparate groups in complex engineering environments.

  6. A Holistic Approach to Knowledge Management and Social Learning: lessons learnt from military headquarters

    Leoni Warne

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on research conducted by the Enterprise Social Learning Architecture (ESLA team of the Defence Science and Technology Organisation. The ESLA team is investigating collaborative social learning within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO. Social learning is tightly coupled to knowledge management. Three studies in three different settings have been conducted to date. The studies have provided multi-layered findings about social learning, and validated the use of ethnography for this purpose. Preliminary findings are discussed in this paper in terms of identified enablers and motivators for effective social learning and knowledge management. Although the paper deals with the defence environment, the findings can be generalised to other organisational settings, as the study deals with understanding the issues inherent in building sustainable and adaptive learning organisations.

  7. The influence of self-esteem and social support on the relationship between stigma and depressive symptomology in parents caring for children with intellectual disabilities.

    Cantwell, J; Muldoon, O; Gallagher, S

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the synergistic relationship between stigma, self-esteem and social support, as predictors of depressive symptomology in parents of children with disabilities (e.g. Autism and Down syndrome). One hundred and seventy-three parents (115 parents of children with disabilities and 58 control parents) completed measures of perceived stigma, self-esteem, social support and depressive symptoms. Parents of children with disabilities reported more depressive symptomology; additionally, stigma, self-esteem and social support were associated with depressive symptomology. Moreover, the association between stigma and depressive symptomology was mediated by self-esteem, i.e. parents who reported higher stigma were lower on self-esteem and more depressed. Further, this path varied as a function of emotional support. Results highlight the need for tailored interventions that offer parents effective strategies in dealing with stigma through social support and self-esteem. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Defending the social value of knowledge as a safeguard for public trust.

    Holzer, Felicitas S

    2017-09-01

    The 'socially valuable knowledge' (SVK) principle has been widely acknowledged as one of the most important guiding principles for biomedical research involving human subjects. The principle states that the potential of producing socially valuable knowledge is a necessary requirement, although not sufficient, for the ethical conduct of research projects. This is due to the assumption that the social value of knowledge avoids exploitation of research subjects and justifies the use of health resources. However, more recently, several authors have started interrogating the validity of SVK in research and offered various lines of argument against the SVK principle as a necessary constraint to research. In this article, I will reconstruct the main arguments of this discussion between defenders and debunkers of the SVK principle and offer a third way to consider the social value of knowledge in research studies. I will argue that the social value of knowledge can be supported by an independent justification. This justification of the SVK principle addresses the rationality and common interest of researchers. Thus, I will introduce the SVK principle as a safeguarding principle for public trust based on a conceptual framework by Alex John London. My approach justifies keeping the principle as a precautionary and rational requirement for human health research that all rational stakeholders can agree upon. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Appropriation of social media for fostering effective tacit knowledge sharing: developing conceptual model

    Amidi, A.; Jabar, M.; Jusoh, Y. Y.; Abdullah, R.

    2017-09-01

    With the rising popularity of social media in the past few years, several researches ratiocinate that this type of interactive and collaborative technology could be a beneficial tool for the sharing of tacit knowledge. Nevertheless, very few literatures have tackled the subject of how social media could facilitate tacit knowledge sharing among medical practitioners, and what are its contributions in the area. Thus, the factors that drive individuals to share tacit knowledge need to be investigated further and included in literature. Through a systematic literature review, this study proposes seven enabling conditions which could potentially facilitate the sharing of tacit knowledge. TAM was applied as a novelty in this study in investigating the factors influencing knowledge sharing via social media, whilst taking into account the mediation effects of Attitude in social media usage. This study uncovered an important correlation between virtual settings and the conversion of tacit knowledge, which affects organizational members who are not co-located physically but have a crucial need for sharing information.

  10. The impact of social organizations on HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among migrants in Hefei, China.

    Wang, Wenting; Chen, Ren; Ma, Ying; Sun, Xuehui; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2018-04-25

    There is a growing recognition of the need to provide HIV/AIDS prevention and care to migrant workers. Social involvement, a type of social capital, is considered a 'critical enabler' of effective HIV/AIDS prevention. Designated participation in formal community groups by the government (e.g., political parties) and informal, voluntary local networks by NGOs (e.g., alumni association, cultural & sports club) play different roles in HIV prevention. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of different types of social organizations on HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among migrant workers. A cross-sectional study of 758 migrants was conducted in Hefei, Anhui Province, China. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between different social organizations and HIV/AIDS prevention. Migrants who participated in social organizations had a higher awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge than migrants who do not participate in social organizations. Higher levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge is associated with positive HIV/AIDS behaviors for people who attended political parties (odds ratio [OR] = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.22-9.99). This effect is not significant for alumni association. For both political parties and alumni association members (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.66, OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61, respectively), people who exhibited higher levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge had more negative attitudes than those with less knowledge. Social organizations play an important role in improving HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior in migrants, providing a great opportunity for HIV/AIDS prevention.

  11. An inexorable rise in intellectual disability?

    Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the number of people with intellectual disabilities applying for care. The results are contained in this report. Our inventory reveals that demand for intellectual disability care has risen by an average of 9% pe...

  12. GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA

    JAROSLAVA KUBÁTOVÁ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Web-enabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works. Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

  13. Making the Invisible Visible: modelling social learning in a knowledge management context

    Henry Linger

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The articulation of Knowledge Management as an organisational strategy has occurred in the context of a radical shift towards an information based economy. The most significant aspect for organisations operating in the information economy is their ability to utilise the volumes of information that are now readily available without the constraint of media, geography or time. A critical factor for organisations is the speed at which they are able to productively process such information to enable the organisation to react rapidly to changes in their operating environments. In this context organisation needs to produce and re-produce knowledge. The shift from information to knowledge is an acknowledgment of the significant role of the human actor in the process of transforming information into effective organisational outcomes. Social learning represents important processes that contribute to actors’ ability to understand information, create knowledge from that information and share what they know. Social learning is therefore intrinsic to knowledge management. In this paper we present a knowledge management architecture that supports a learning organisation. This architecture accommodates social learning and processes by which knowledge is internalised and externalised by individuals, work groups and the organisation as a whole. The architecture incorporates a model social learning based on the results of ethnographic studies and a model of learning derived from knowledge management case studies. The architecture is not domain specific but can be applied to activity that can be characterised as knowledge work in an organisational context. As such the architecture can play a variety of roles; as a conceptual framework, as a diagnostic tool to identify breakdown and as a design tool for organisational change.

  14. The Emergence and Representation of Knowledge about Social and Nonsocial Hierarchies

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Melo, Hans Ludwig; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Primates are remarkably adept at ranking each other within social hierarchies, a capacity that is critical to successful group living. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the neurobiology underlying this quintessential aspect of primate cognition. In our experiment, participants first acquired knowledge about a social and a nonsocial hierarchy and then used this information to guide investment decisions. We found that neural activity in the amygdala tracked the development of knowledge about a social, but not a nonsocial, hierarchy. Further, structural variations in amygdala gray matter volume accounted for interindividual differences in social transitivity performance. Finally, the amygdala expressed a neural signal selectively coding for social rank, whose robustness predicted the influence of rank on participants’ investment decisions. In contrast, we observed that the linear structure of both social and nonsocial hierarchies was represented at a neural level in the hippocampus. Our study implicates the amygdala in the emergence and representation of knowledge about social hierarchies and distinguishes the domain-general contribution of the hippocampus. PMID:23141075

  15. States of knowledge the co-production of science and the social order

    2004-01-01

    In the past twenty years, the field of science and technology studies (S&TS) has made considerable progress toward illuminating the relationship between scientific knowledge and political power. These insights are now ready to be synthesized and presented in forms that systematically highlight the connections between S&TS and other social sciences. This timely collection of essays by leading scholars in the field meets this challenge. The book develops the theme of 'co-production', showing how scientific knowledge both embeds and is embedded in social identities, institutions, representations and discourses. Accordingly, the authors argue, ways of knowing the world are inseparably linked to the ways in which people seek to organize and control it. Through studies of emerging knowledges, research practices and political institutions, the authors demonstrate that the idiom of co-production importantly extends the vocabulary of the traditional social sciences, offering fresh analytic perspectives on the...

  16. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands.

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-04-22

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge-as an ontological and/or aesthetic category-has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world.

  17. Expanding Opportunities for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Giangreco, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Research and experience tell us a great deal about how to successfully educate students with intellectual disability, but unfortunately this knowledge remains underutilized and inconsistently applied, writes researcher Michael F. Giangreco. Students with intellectual disability who have virtually identical profiles but live in different locales…

  18. Promoting Social Inclusion: A Structured Intervention for Enhancing Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Stavroussi, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in providing students with disabilities, who are at risk of social isolation, with opportunities to develop social competence and self-determination. Specifically, the provision of opportunities for teaching these students to promote social problem-solving skills is potentially useful for facilitating their…

  19. An Investigation into the Relationship between Social Capital ‎and the Nutritional Knowledge of Athletes

    F. Mohammadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the concept of social capital is one of the most popular concepts in sociological studies. Some experts believe that social capital is among the most important factors with a significant part in individuals’ success in achieving their goals. So, the main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between social capital and the nutritional knowledge of athletes. For this purpose, the theoretical framework and hypotheses of the research are set based on Pierre Bourdieu’s theory. The statistical population of the research includes 2300 athletes in the 2014 Sports Championship held at Shahid Beheshti University; 310 persons were selected by means of Morgan’s table and the stratified sampling method. The survey method and questionnaires were employed to collect the data. The findings of the research indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between social capital and the nutritional knowledge of athletes.

  20. Employee participation in knowledge sharing and change solutions through enterprise social media

    Andersen, Mona Agerholm; Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette; Valentini, Chiara

    Purpose - This paper explores the relationship between the participative style of the immediate manager and employees’ motivation to participate on enterprise social media both in daily knowledge sharing activities and in relation to organizational change solutions. Methodology - This project.......046). Findings - The data shows a positive relationship between the participative style of the immediate manager and the employees’ motivation to participate on enterprise social media both in daily knowledge sharing activities and in creating and discussing change solutions. Key words: Internal social media...... is based on a quantitative study in a global Danish company with approximately 18,000 employees worldwide. The company has a strategic focus on implementing social collaboration platforms to create a global working culture. An online survey was conducted globally and a total of 1.046 employees replied (n=1...

  1. Towards Knowledge Sharing Through Social Media in Software Development: A Systematic Literature Review

    Sarka, Peter Bo; Heisig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    An effective knowledge exchange among software developers is crucial for the competitive performance of their organisations. Today, the constant pressure on business to continually innovate and the increasing capability of information technologies to facilitate broader and more distributed....... Although several studies of the relationship is available, today there exists no comprehensive overview of what has been investigated. Using a systematic literature review approach, this study aims to map the current state of literature on knowledge sharing through social media applicable to software...

  2. Health social workers sources of knowledge for decision making in practice.

    McDermott, Fiona; Henderson, Annabel; Quayle, Carol

    2017-10-01

    This article presents findings from research examining knowledge social workers in a health network in Victoria, Australia identified as informing their decision-making. Data for 13 patients, and in-depth interviews with six social workers who worked with these patients, were studied. A thematic analysis of interviews revealed that participants identified reliance on past experience and contextual/situational information as underpinning their decisions, demonstrating their commitment to person-in-environment perspectives. However, despite the availability of a repository of empirical evidence, no respondent made use of this. This study provided insight into health practitioners' sources of knowledge, highlighting gaps and areas for further exploration.

  3. The Emergence and Representation of Knowledge about Social and Nonsocial Hierarchies

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Melo, Hans?Ludwig; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Primates are remarkably adept at ranking each other within social hierarchies, a capacity that is critical to successful group living. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the neurobiology underlying this quintessential aspect of primate cognition. In our experiment, participants first acquired knowledge about a social and a nonsocial hierarchy and then used this information to guide investment decisions. We found that neural activity in the amygdala tracked the developme...

  4. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  5. Knowledge Mobilization, Collaboration, and Social Innovation: Leveraging Investments in Higher Education

    Naomi Nichols

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative literature synthesis in the areas of community-campus collaborations, knowledge mobilization and social innovation. The article aims to be useful to people who work in academic settings, community organizations, public institutions, and government. The authors utilized a purposive sampling methodology to explore the following questions: 1. How can university-based knowledge mobilization leverage investments in higher education research and development (R&D through community-campus collaboration and social innovation? 2. What is the role of university-wide knowledge mobilization projects in supporting community-campus connections and ultimately social innovation strategies that contribute to the public good? Our review indicates considerable interplay between community-campus collaborations, knowledge mobilization and social innovation given that knowledge mobilization facilitates – and is facilitated by – collaboration. With sufficient knowledge mobilization, community-campus collaborations stimulate social innovation. The article concludes with recommendations based on our review of the literature.RÉSUMÉCet article se fonde sur une synthèse littéraire qualitative portant sur les collaborations communautaires/académiques, la mobilisation du savoir et l’innovation sociale. Il se veut utile pour toute personne travaillant dans un milieu académique, un organisme communautaire ou une institution publique. Les auteurs ont recours à une méthode d’échantillonnage raisonné pour répondre aux questions suivantes : 1. Comment la mobilisation du savoir universitaire – au moyen de la collaboration communautaire/académique et de l’innovation sociale – peut-elle faire augmenter les investissements en recherche et développement dans l’enseignement supérieur? 2. Comment les projets de mobilisation du savoir universitaire peuvent-ils resserrer les liens entre campus et communauté et, en fin de compte

  6. Shared cultural knowledge: Effects of music on young children's social preferences.

    Soley, Gaye; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2016-03-01

    Adults use cultural markers to discern the structure of the social landscape. Such markers may also influence the social preferences of young children, who tend to conform to their own group and prefer others who do so. However, the forces that propel these preferences are unknown. Here, we use social preferences based on music to investigate these forces in four- and five-year-old children. First, we establish that children prefer other children whose favorite songs are familiar to them. Then we show that this effect depends on shared knowledge: children both prefer others who know songs they themselves know, and avoid others who know songs they do not know, irrespective of the target children's liking of the songs. These results suggest that young children have a remarkably selective sensitivity to shared cultural knowledge. Shared knowledge may be a powerful determinant of children's social preferences, both because it underpins effective communication and because it is conveyed by others through social interactions and therefore can serve as a marker of social group identity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 228 THE INTELLECTUAL DISABLED (MENTALLY IMPAIRED) IN ...

    Elizabeth

    The Intellectual disabled child is characterized by significantly sub average general intellectual ... by abnormal development, learning difficulties, and problem in social ... softened and classifications redefined some what to mild (IQ of 55 –70) moderate .... parents do not like the isolation of their children from normal children.

  8. Education and knowledge production in social reality: an analysis based on historical and dialectical materialism

    Rose Cléia Ramos da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses education and knowledge production taking into account the social relationships that originate them and the philosophical categories of historical and dialectical materialism. In order to do so, two elements are adopted as references: knowledge society (a reflection of capitalist society in its actual stage of development, which is expressed by productivism and, as a counterpart, education as a form of humanisation and critical knowledge (freedom expression that underlies the educational process. The conclusion is that historical and dialectical materialism contributes to analysing reality, as it unveils it and at the same time potentiates transforming actions by showing the libertarian sense of education.

  9. Social technology transfer? Movement of social science knowledge beyond the academy

    Stöckelová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2012), s. 148-161 ISSN 0959-3543 R&D Projects : GA ČR GP403/09/P203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : impact, knowledge transfer * knowledge transfer * Roma expertise Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.684, year: 2012 http://tap.sagepub.com/content/22/2/148.abstract

  10. How could Theory of Mind contribute to the differentiation of social adjustment profiles of children with externalizing behavior disorders and children with intellectual disabilities?

    Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Houssa, Marine; Mazzone, Stéphanie

    2013-09-01

    This study compared Theory of Mind (ToM) emotion and belief abilities in 43 children with externalized behavior (EB) disorders presenting low intelligence, 40 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and 33 typically developing (TD) preschoolers (as a control group), matched for developmental age. The links between their ToM abilities, their level in seven self-regulation strategies as displayed in social problem-solving tasks and their social adjustment profiles (assessed by the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation, completed by their teachers) were examined. Children with EB presented lower comprehension of causes of emotions and lower self-regulation of joint attention and of attention than children with ID and TD children. In comparison with TD children, lower social adjustment was observed in nearly all dimensions of profiles in both atypical groups. Specifically, children with EB were significantly angrier than children with ID. Although variable patterns of positive correlations were obtained in atypical groups between self-regulation strategies and ToM abilities, the most numerous positive links were obtained in the group with EB. Regression analyses showed that developmental age predicted ToM abilities and certain dimensions of social adjustment profiles in atypical groups. In the ID group, ToM emotions predicted general adaptation, affective adaptation, interactions with peers and with adults and low internalizing problems. In the EB group, general adaptation was predicted by ToM emotions and self-regulation, interactions with peers by ToM beliefs, and a low level of externalizing problems by ToM emotions. Some implications for intervention and perspectives for research are suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analyzing the role of social networks in mapping knowledge flows: A case of a pharmaceutical company in India

    V. Murale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Management literature lays emphasis on the fact that a major chunk of knowledge dissemination occurs through the various forms of social networks that exist within the organizations. A social network is a simple structure comprising of set of actors or nodes that may have relationships ties with one another. The social network analysis (SNA will help in mapping and measuring formal and informal relationships to understand what facilitates or impedes the knowledge flows that bind interacting units. This paper aims at studying the knowledge flows that happen through the social networks. It first, provides a conceptual framework and review of literature on the recent research and application of knowledge mapping and SNA, followed by a discussion on application of SNA for mapping knowledge flows in a pharmaceutical firm. In the last part, Knowledge maps are presented to illustrate the actual knowledge flow in firm.

  12. The impact of stress and social support on the mental health of individuals with intellectual disabilities Efectos del estrés y del apoyo social sobre la salud mental de individuos con discapacidad intelectual

    Yona Lunsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available People with intellectual disabilities (ID are at increased risk for mental health problems than the general population. The reasons for this are both biological and social. Current treatment for mental health problems tends to be reactive in nature with less emphasis on how mental health problems can be prevented. A better understanding of the social contributors to mental health in individuals with ID should lead to the prevention of mental health problems in this particularly vulnerable population. Two promising areas of research when thinking about mental health promotion and ID are stress and social support, which are reviewed here.Las personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI están más expuestas a sufrir problemas de salud mental que la población general. Las razones son tanto biológicas como sociales. El tratamiento actual para los problemas de salud mental tiende a ser reactivo por naturaleza, poniendo menor énfasis en la prevención. Una mejor comprensión de los contribuyentes sociales en la salud mental de los individuos con DI debería llevar a la prevención de problemas de salud mental en esta población particularmente vulnerable. Dos áreas de investigación promisorias cuando se piensa en promoción de la salud mental y DI son el estrés y el apoyo social, que aquí se revisan.

  13. self-criticism to Arab and Muslim intellectuals

    Fachrizal Halim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Arab Thought: Studies in Post-1967 Arab Intellectual Historyis written as a self-criticism addressed to Arab and Muslim intellectuals, especially those who reside in the West. The Arab intellectuals or Muslims alike, who have received Western education and have decided to live in Western countries in the first half of twentieth century, have actually benefited from their modern secular education. The liberalization of U.S. immigration laws in 1965 for non-European immigrants has even enlarged the number of Arabs and Muslims who have trained in the best institutions in the U.S. By the dawn of the twentieth century, the number of Arab intellectuals who reside in the West is estimated to double, as the result of the emergence of a second generation. However, the large number of educated Arab people does not always fulfill the promise of transformation of the social conditions of the Arab World. Far from being ‘organic intellectuals’, to use Gramsci’s favorite term, who would transform Arab societies from imperialism and Western hegemony, and the impact of dependency on the so called ‘globalization,’ most Arab thinkers in the West as well as the elite in the Arab world have been party to Western capitalist interests which aim to control the Arab World. By no means denigrating the works of Isma‘il Raji al-Faruqi, Edward Said, Ghada Hashem Talhami, Halim Barakat, or the feminist Leila Ahmad, to mention some brilliant Arab intellectuals, most Arab thinkers in the West seem to have forgotten the social conditions of the Arab world that have been in acute crisis since the mid nineteenth century or from the time colonialism stepped into the Arab world. Pseudo modernization—to say that there has never been any modernization as it emerged from the middle class as in Europe, but was initiated mainly by the elites—has kept Arab intellectuals in the West completely in the dark and unable to offer radical solution to the crises of

  14. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review.

    Thomas, Aliki; Menon, Anita; Boruff, Jill; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Ahmed, Sara

    2014-05-06

    Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 - May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. This scoping review was the first to examine

  15. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Methods Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 – May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Results Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. Conclusions This

  16. Knowledge Management and Innovation: The Role of Virtual Social Networks in Innovative Consumer Behavior

    Andre Grutzmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks made up of actors with different degrees of innovativeness may allow knowledge management to collect new ideas and measure their acceptance. This research investigates consumer innovativeness and relationships with the uses and participation in social networks. This research has a quantitative exploratory scope, and among the main findings, we can mention that the dimensions of the adopted scale were corroborated by using factor analysis. The findings cannot be generalized, but there are evidences that relationship between social networking and innovative consumer behavior exists. Although there are limitations, correlations were found between the social dimension of innovativeness and information search in the networks and also the use of social networking information for the decision to purchase new products.

  17. Hospital Bioethics: A Beginning Knowledge Base for the Neonatal Social Worker.

    Silverman, Ed

    1992-01-01

    Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…

  18. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  19. The Effects of Knowledge of Child Development and Social Emotional Maturity on Adolescent Attitudes Toward Parenting.

    Larsen, John L.; Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    Parenting, always a complex and difficult task, is even more difficult for teenage parents who are generally less able financially, emotionally, and cognitively than adults to nurture and care for their children. The relationship between the combined effect of knowledge of child development and level of social-emotional maturity, and the extent to…

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Related to AIDS among Prisoners: Implications for Social Work Practice.

    Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman; Olivero, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 33 male and 5 female prisoners examined their knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission modes, current sexual behavior and safe sex practices, and sources of AIDS information and degree of trust in these sources. Discusses implications for social work practices and development of AIDS education for prisoners. (SV)

  1. Social Impact of Participatory Health Research: Collaborative Non-Linear Processes of Knowledge Mobilization

    Abma, Tineke A.; Cook, Tina; Rämgård, Margaretha; Kleba, Elisabeth; Harris, Janet; Wallerstein, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Social impact, defined as an effect on society, culture, quality of life, community services, or public policy beyond academia, is widely considered as a relevant requirement for scientific research, especially in the field of health care. Traditionally, in health research, the process of knowledge transfer is rather linear and one-sided and has…

  2. A Comparative Perspective of Knowledge Management via Social Media: India and China

    Liu, Michelle; Rao, Pramila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This research paper aims to showcase current knowledge management (KM) practices via social media that is being adopted by organizations in India and China. India and China are considered leading economies in today's global market. Any understanding of management practices in these countries will help practitioners in doing businesses in…

  3. Caring Disposition and Subordination. Swedish Health and Social Care Teachers' Conceptions of Important Vocational Knowledge

    Rehn, Helena; Eliasson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Based on the increasing demands for vocational training in upper secondary school to adapt to workplace conditions, the aim of this article is to explore vocational teachers' conceptions regarding vocational knowledge. Drawing on a social constructionist perspective, this study analysed data from 17 interviews. The study showed how power dynamics,…

  4. Book Review: The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in ...

    Cruikshank, Julie. 1998. The Social Life of Stories: Narrative and Knowledge in the Yukon Territory. Columbia: UBC Press. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons ...

  5. Knowledge and Perceived Social Norm Predict Parents' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Lui, Ming; Sin, Kuen-Fung; Yang, Lan; Forlin, Chris; Ho, Fuk-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Parents are key stakeholders in education and their support is pivotal to policy implementation. Through a large-scale survey, the present study investigated the validity of a structural model describing the relationship between attitude, knowledge, and perceived social norm among parents of children with special needs. Results revealed that…

  6. Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

  7. A Creative Way to Utilize Social Media to Enhance Fitness and Health Knowledge

    Polsgrove, Myles Jay; Frimming, Renee Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The social media format can be used to create a physical education community of experienced and new student members. In this setting, opportunities for novel and meaningful student interactions can be made possible. Through access to the insights of experienced members, new or incoming members can more quickly become knowledgeable members.…

  8. Social Realism and the Problem of the Problem of Knowledge in the Sociology of Education

    Moore, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines from a Social Realist perspective a set of issues in the sociology of education regarding the problem of knowledge. It focuses upon the issue of relativism associated with the constructionist approach that since the time of the New Sociology of Education in the 1970s has constituted in different forms the dominant perspective…

  9. Social Capital, IT Capability, and the Success of Knowledge Management Systems

    Irene Y.L. Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations have implemented knowledge management systems to support knowledge management. However, many of such systems have failed due to the lack of relationship networks and IT capability within organizations. Motivated by such concerns, this paper examines the factors that may facilitate the success of knowledge management systems. The ten constructs derived from social capital theory, resource-based view and IS success model are integrated into the current research model. Twenty-one hypotheses derived from the research model are empirically validated using a field survey of KMS users. The results suggest that social capital and organizational IT capability are important preconditions of the success of knowledge management systems. Among the posited relationships, trust, social interaction ties, IT capability do not significantly impact service quality, system quality and IT capability, respectively. Against prior expectation, service quality and knowledge quality do not significantly influence perceived KMS benefits and user satisfaction, respectively. Discussion of the results and conclusion are provided. This study then provides insights for future research avenue.

  10. Development Interventions and Agriculture Adaptation: A Social Network Analysis of Farmer Knowledge Transfer in Ghana

    Kirstie Cadger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Social ties play an important role in agricultural knowledge exchange, particularly in developing countries with high exposure to agriculture development interventions. Institutions often facilitate agricultural training projects, with a focus on agroecological practices, such as agroforestry and agrobiodiversity. The structural characteristics of social networks amongst land managers influences decision-making to adopt such adaptive agroecoloigcal practice; however, the extent of knowledge transfer beyond direct project participants is often unknown. Using a social network approach, we chart the structure of agrarian knowledge networks (n = 131 in six communities, which have been differentially exposed to agriculture development interventions in Ghana. Farmer network size, density and composition were distinctly variable; development project-affiliated farmers were embedded in larger networks, had non-affiliated farmers within their networks, were engaged in more diverse agricultural production and reported adopting and adapting agroecological practice more frequently. Such bridging ties that link across distinctive groups in a network can expose network members to new and innovative agroecological practices, such as increasing agrobiodiversity, thus, contributing to livelihood strategies that mitigate environmental and market risk. Furthermore, we show that these knowledge networks were crop-specific where network size varied given the type of crop produced. Such factors, which may influence the rate and extent of agroecological knowledge diffusion, are critical for the effectiveness of land management practices as well as the persistence of agriculture development interventions.

  11. Managing intellectual capital in libraries beyond the balance sheet

    Kostagiolas, Petros

    2012-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, professionals have to make decisions about non-tangible, non-monetary, and largely invisible resources. Information professionals need to understand the potential uses, contributions, value, structure, and creation of broadly intangible intellectual capital in libraries. In order to fully realize intellectual capital in libraries, new practices and skills are required for library management practitioners and researchers.Managing Intellectual Capital in Libraries provides research advances, guidelines, methods and techniques for managing intellectual capital in a libra

  12. Social Work Students’ Use of Knowledge in Direct Practice – Reasons, Strategies and Effects

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study of Swedish social work students’ use of knowledge during their field practice. Data was collected by using short written narratives, where the students reflect on situations from practice, situations they experienced as critical or problematic. The narratives were analysed with a method inspired by the interpretation theory of Paul Ricoeur. The article starts with a discussion adhering to the present trend of evidence-based social work practice. This is followed by a study of 144 narratives from social work students containing critical or problematic events. A quantitative description of the material as well as qualitative model of two type-strategies, that social work students use, is presented. The results show, among other things, that students use several forms of knowledge, where facts/evidence is one of several. The study also shows that there is a strong adaptation to varying critical situations. A conclusion is that it is difficult to a priori define the types and proportions of knowledge to use in social work practice.

  13. Living Up to the Code's Exhortations? Social Workers' Political Knowledge Sources, Expectations, and Behaviors.

    Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed.

  14. Gaze toward Naturalistic Social Scenes by Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Implications for Augmentative and Alternative Communication Designs

    Liang, Jiali; Wilkinson, Krista

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: A striking characteristic of the social communication deficits in individuals with autism is atypical patterns of eye contact during social interactions. We used eye-tracking technology to evaluate how the number of human figures depicted and the presence of sharing activity between the human figures in still photographs influenced visual…

  15. Intellectually Capable but Socially Excluded? A Review of the Literature and Research on Students with Autism in Further Education

    Chown, Nick; Beavan, Nick

    2012-01-01

    As autism is a social learning disability it is a disadvantage in any social setting such as a classroom. The 1990s saw a surge of young people diagnosed with autism who are now approaching college age; indeed there is evidence that students with autism are becoming a significant cohort in further education. However, anecdotal evidence suggests…

  16. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge—as an ontological and/or aesthetic category—has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world. PMID:26290654

  17. SOCIALIZATION INFLUENCE ON KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIUM MENTALLY-RETARDED CHILDREN AND YOUTH

    Zivko SOKOLOSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of the research are mentally-retarded children and youth, and their possibilities in overcoming the programme contents from educational-upbringing area-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. The research has been conducted in Sremcica-Home for Mentally Disrupted Children and Youth. Results of the re­search presents approximately 50 percent of the positive accomplishments.The research has indicated to us that knowledge learned from a narrow environment (home, family are much better than ones learned from an expansive environment. By these facts we came to the conclusion that the adequate attention hasn’t been paid in realization of the programme contenses concerning familiarizing the expansive environment, especially in the charter SOCIAL INITIATIVE. We know that two basic goals in rehabilitation is not achieved too. However, the results of the research approve us that socialization has essential influence on the knowledge development of the medium mentally retarded

  18. Economic intelligence and intellectual capital in agriculture competitiveness: Case study

    Nešković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization in the last few decades conditioned the many technological, economic and social changes which have transformed the world market of agricultural products and the impact on the competitive environment. In the modern world, creating material value in agricultural production more and more the result of the intangible factors and production is increasingly based on knowledge, skills and innovation of employees. In the industrial age the necessary resources to achieve competitive advantages were capital, natural resources and work, while in today's knowledge-based economy the importance is on the information, innovation, knowledge, intellectual capital and intellectual property - that have become the foundation of creating all other values. These values are, because of their great importance in achieving the modern competitive advantages, very often the target of economic intelligence and therefore require all available forms of protection. The sector of agricultural production can make a significant contribution to improving the overall national competitiveness if it is based on intellectual capital as evidenced by the country with highly developed agriculture. However, by observing global changes can be concluded that Serbia in this sector has unused potential for growth and development.

  19. Exploring Relationships Among Belief in Genetic Determinism, Genetics Knowledge, and Social Factors

    Gericke, Niklas; Carver, Rebecca; Castéra, Jérémy; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; Marre, Claire Coiffard; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-12-01

    Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. Belief in genetic determinism is an educational problem because it contradicts scientific knowledge, and is a societal problem because it has the potential to foster intolerant attitudes such as racism and prejudice against sexual orientation. In this article, we begin by investigating the very nature of belief in genetic determinism. Then, we investigate whether knowledge of genetics and genomics is associated with beliefs in genetic determinism. Finally, we explore the extent to which social factors such as gender, education, and religiosity are associated with genetic determinism. Methodologically, we gathered and analyzed data on beliefs in genetic determinism, knowledge of genetics and genomics, and social variables using the "Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics" (PUGGS) instrument. Our analyses of PUGGS responses from a sample of Brazilian university freshmen undergraduates indicated that (1) belief in genetic determinism was best characterized as a construct built up by two dimensions or belief systems: beliefs concerning social traits and beliefs concerning biological traits; (2) levels of belief in genetic determination of social traits were low, which contradicts prior work; (3) associations between knowledge of genetics and genomics and levels of belief in genetic determinism were low; and (4) social factors such as age and religiosity had stronger associations with beliefs in genetic determinism than knowledge. Although our study design precludes causal inferences, our results raise questions about whether enhancing genetic literacy will decrease or prevent beliefs in genetic determinism.

  20. Knowledge Value Creation Characteristics of Virtual Teams: A Case Study in the Construction Sector

    Vorakulpipat, Chalee; Rezgui, Yacine

    Any knowledge environment aimed at virtual teams should promote identification, access, capture and retrieval of relevant knowledge anytime / anywhere, while nurturing the social activities that underpin the knowledge sharing and creation process. In fact, socio-cultural issues play a critical role in the successful implementation of Knowledge Management (KM), and constitute a milestone towards value creation. The findings indicate that Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) promote value creation when they embed and nurture the social conditions that bind and bond team members together. Furthermore, technology assets, human networks, social capital, intellectual capital, and change management are identified as essential ingredients that have the potential to ensure effective knowledge value creation.

  1. CC2D1A Regulates Human Intellectual and Social Function as well as NF-κB Signaling Homeostasis

    M. Chiara Manzini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and intellectual disability (ID are often comorbid, but the extent to which they share common genetic causes remains controversial. Here, we present two autosomal-recessive “founder” mutations in the CC2D1A gene causing fully penetrant cognitive phenotypes, including mild-to-severe ID, ASD, as well as seizures, suggesting shared developmental mechanisms. CC2D1A regulates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, and we found its strongest effect to be on the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. Cc2d1a gain and loss of function both increase activation of NF-κB, revealing a critical role of Cc2d1a in homeostatic control of intracellular signaling. Cc2d1a knockdown in neurons reduces dendritic complexity and increases NF-κB activity, and the effects of Cc2d1a depletion can be rescued by inhibiting NF-κB activity. Homeostatic regulation of neuronal signaling pathways provides a mechanism whereby common founder mutations could manifest diverse symptoms in different patients.

  2. The Attitudes of Teacher Trainees Towards Life Knowledge and Social Studies Teaching Course

    S. Gulec

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, Social Studies programme basically aims to raise active and productive citizens. This means that teachers are going to inject philosophy of life to the students by means of social studies course. In order to carry out this responsibility, teachers and teachers-to-be should be accustomed to comprehension and learning processes of children and adolescents. By continuous self-improvement, the teachers should try to get more information on methods, materials and tools that can be used in the classroom. A course “Social Studies” gives importance to social behaviour in primary and high schools. This course is given to 1st, 2nd, 3rd grades as “General Life Knowledge” and 4th to 8th grades as “Social Studies”. This study aims to investigate the expectations and attitudes of social studies teachers-to-be towards General Life Knowledge and Social Studies Courses in Primary School Teaching Department. 185 students who had taken General Life Knowledge and Social Studies I and II are included in the study. A questionnaire consisting of 40 questions was used as an instrument. In order for this instrument to reflect the real thoughts and feelings of the students, the students are told not to indicate their names in the questionnaire. The students who had taken the questionnaire do not have any anxiety over failing or passing this course because they had already taken and done with these courses for two semesters. The gathered data were analysed in three dimensions: (i the content and method of General Life Knowledge and Social Studies Course; (ii the contribution of this course to individuals’ being good citizens and socialisation; (iii Social Studies perception level of Teachers-to-be. It is concluded that teachers-to-be think that the present course is necessary and important, the methods used in teaching social studies are sufficient, materials are not of sufficient amount; it is also indicated they are able to relate their social

  3. A theoretical intellectual capital model applied to cities

    José Luis Alfaro Navarro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New Management Information Systems (MIS are necessary at local level as the main source of wealth creation. Therefore, tools and approaches that provide a full future vision of any organization should be a strategic priority for economic development. In this line, cities are “centers of knowledge and sources of growth and innovation” and integrated urban development policies are necessary. These policies support communication networks and optimize location structures as strategies that provide opportunities for social and democratic participation for the citizens. This paper proposes a theoretical model to measure and evaluate the cities intellectual capital that allows determine what we must take into account to make cities a source of wealth, prosperity, welfare and future growth. Furthermore, local intellectual capital provides a long run vision. Thus, in this paper we develop and explain how to implement a model to estimate intellectual capital in cities. In this sense, our proposal is to provide a model for measuring and managing intellectual capital using socio-economic indicators for cities. These indicators offer a long term picture supported by a comprehensive strategy for those who occupy the local space, infrastructure for implementation and management of the environment for its development.

  4. Knowledge Management: An Introduction.

    Mac Morrow, Noreen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…

  5. Intellectual capital management as the integral part of enterprise’s management

    Аліна Олександрівна Осаул

    2016-01-01

    The main levels of the enterprise’s intellectual capital management are analyzed in the article. The distinctive peculiarities of the enterprise’s intellectual capital management are mentioned. Goals and benefits of the intellectual management system are determined. The ways of their improvement are pointed out. Implicit and explicit knowledge as an important integral intellectual capital resources are divided and characterized

  6. Achieving higher efficiency of production through knowledge management via social capital management

    Jana Plchová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows a new approach – how to reach higher efficiency in the production from knowledge management via managing social capital through measurement, motivation and stimulation. The test in a real company on the Toyota system implementation is de-scribed. The active involvement of people is an important part of the Toyota system success. This is obvious in Japan but creates a big problem in Europe. These problems were tested in order to answer the following questions: 1. Is it possible to measure the social system level before the application of the system?, 2. Is it possible to evaluate the necessary level of the social system for successful implementation in advance?, 3. Is it possible to cultivate the social system to the desired level? We try to answer all of these questions adopting the Kopčaj Spiral Management approach. The practical results on an existing company are presented together with managerial recommendations.

  7. Addressing ageing of the workforce issues by enabling knowledge management systems with social networks analysis capabilities

    Perisic, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A method of addressing ageing of the workforce and knowledge transfer issues, especially in the area of potential loss of knowledge, is presented through the integration of social networks analysis capabilities within knowledge management systems. In the context of the ageing of the workforce, a key component is the identification of not only the individuals that are about to retire, but also the knowledge and the knowledge transfer capabilities that they will take with them they do so. This loss impacts decisions made about human resources 'supply side' programs such as education, but also programs for building 'communities of practices' within the IAEA community to foster development and research across regions and countries. Within this context, an integrated social network analysis component provides the ability to map out the network of knowledge on any specific topic. The stability of the network itself is a measure of the robustness of the knowledge within the selected IAEA community. Further, the network, by identifying 'brokers' and 'bridges', pinpoints key weaknesses that have to be addressed. In the case of ageing of the workforce, balancing, stabilizing and building redundancies within this social network is key to maintaining a safe nuclear policy. The core of the method relies on a system that has a holistic view of the body of knowledge accumulated within the IAEA community. For scalability issues, this system cannot replicate the plethora of potential sources of information, but rather has to harvest from each of them a set of metadata which in turn enables the knowledge management system. This metadata is defined and stored in a way to allow the rendering of a complete picture stored within the sub-systems. A key component used by the social network analysis component is, of course, the name of all individuals tied to any knowledge object within the database, but also their affiliation, country, seniority or 'age to retirement' (when

  8. Addressing ageing of the workforce issues by enabling knowledge management systems with social networks analysis capabilities

    Perisic, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A method of addressing ageing of the workforce and knowledge transfer issues, especially in the area of potential loss of knowledge, is presented through the integration of social networks analysis capabilities within knowledge management systems. In the context of the ageing of the workforce, a key component is the identification of not only the individuals that are about to retire, but also the knowledge and the knowledge transfer capabilities that they will take with them they do so. This loss impacts decisions made about human resources 'supply side' programs such as education, but also programs for building 'communities of practices' within the IAEA community to foster development and research across regions and countries. Within this context, an integrated social network analysis component provides the ability to map out the network of knowledge on any specific topic. The stability of the network itself is a measure of the robustness of the knowledge within the selected IAEA community. Further, the network, by identifying 'brokers' and 'bridges', pinpoints key weaknesses that have to be addressed. In the case of ageing of the workforce, balancing, stabilizing and building redundancies within this social network is key to maintaining a safe nuclear policy. The core of the method relies on a system that has a holistic view of the body of knowledge accumulated within the IAEA community. For scalability issues, this system cannot replicate the plethora of potential sources of information, but rather has to harvest from each of them a set of metadata which in turn enables the knowledge management system. This metadata is defined and stored in a way to allow the rendering of a complete picture stored within the subsystems. A key component used by the social network analysis component is, of course, the name of all individuals tied to any knowledge object within the database, but also their affiliation, country, seniority or 'age to retirement' (when

  9. The Survey of the Knowledge and Skills Required for Transition Teachers in High School Divisions of Special Needs Education with Intellectual Disabilities : Based on the opinions of transition teachers in high school divisions of special needs education with intellectual disabilities

    Fujii, Asuka; Ochiai, Toshiro

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the opinions that transition teachers in upper second education division of special school which are requested to themselves on the knowledge and skills needed for transition from school to work. The questionnaires were sent to 574 upper second education divisions of special schools. As the result of statistic analyze, the four domains about the knowledge and skills needed for transition. They were "Needs Assessment", "Coordination" "Job-Coaching" a...

  10. Do persons with intellectual disability have a social life?The Israeli reality ¿Tienen las personas con discapacidad intelectual vida social?La realidad Israelí

    Ilana Duvdevany

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Living in the community does not, in and of itself, guarantee social integration and inclusion for persons with intellectual disability. Social life and leisure participation can indicate the beginning of such a process and its impact on the quality of life. The present study investigated the social life quality of persons with intellectual disability who live in community settings or with foster families and its impact on their quality of life. The sample consisted of 85 adults with intellectual disability, ranging in age from 18 to 55 years. Forty-five of them lived in community residential settings and 40 lived with foster families in Israel. Five questionnaires were used: 1 a demographic questionnaire; 2 Quality of Life Questionnaire;¹ 3 the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale;² 4 Social Relationships List;³ and 5 Leisure Activities List.³ The main findings showed no significant differences between the two groups in social life or feelings of loneliness. Foster residents were more involved and more independent in their leisure activities than were those who lived in community residences. An association between social life and quality of life was partly confirmed. The need for intervention programs and leisure education programs is discussed.El hecho de vivir en una comunidad no garantiza, por sí mismo, ni la integración ni la inclusión de los discapacitados intelectuales. Las amistades y la participación en actividades recreativas pueden ser indicadores de que tal proceso comienza a darse y de su impacto en la calidad de vida. El presente trabajo investigó la calidad de vida social de personas con discapacidad intelectual que viven en residencias comunitarias y con familias adoptivas y su impacto en cuanto a calidad de vida. La muestra consistió de 85 adultos con discapacidad intelectual de edad entre 18 y 55 años. Cuarenta y cinco de ellos viven en áreas comunitarias residenciales y 40 con familias adoptivas en Israel. Se utilizaron

  11. A Generic Framework for Extraction of Knowledge from Social Web Sources (Social Networking Websites for an Online Recommendation System

    Javubar Sathick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mining social web data is a challenging task and finding user interest for personalized and non-personalized recommendation systems is another important task. Knowledge sharing among web users has become crucial in determining usage of web data and personalizing content in various social websites as per the user’s wish. This paper aims to design a framework for extracting knowledge from web sources for the end users to take a right decision at a crucial juncture. The web data is collected from various web sources and structured appropriately and stored as an ontology based data repository. The proposed framework implements an online recommender application for the learners online who pursue their graduation in an open and distance learning environment. This framework possesses three phases: data repository, knowledge engine, and online recommendation system. The data repository possesses common data which is attained by the process of acquiring data from various web sources. The knowledge engine collects the semantic data from the ontology based data repository and maps it to the user through the query processor component. Establishment of an online recommendation system is used to make recommendations to the user for a decision making process. This research work is implemented with the help of an experimental case study which deals with an online recommendation system for the career guidance of a learner. The online recommendation application is implemented with the help of R-tool, NLP parser and clustering algorithm.This research study will help users to attain semantic knowledge from heterogeneous web sources and to make decisions.

  12. Meeting the support needs of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: still a long way to go.

    Nouwens, P J G; Smulders, N B M; Embregts, P J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, C

    2017-12-01

    Among persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning, differences in their characteristics imply that a differentiated approach is required to meet their needs. This retrospective study examined whether the history of support/treatment programs and the type of healthcare providers involved matched the specific support needs of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning. Five (previously identified) profiles of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were used to investigate to what extent the support needs of this group had been met. For the 250 persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning who matched these five profiles, data were collected retrospectively from their case files. Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning received a very similar amount and type of support/treatment programs. Differences between the profiles were found for non-verbal therapy, residential treatment and contacts with social work. Regarding the type of healthcare providers involved, differences between the profiles emerged for specialised intellectual disability services, youth services and specialised addiction services. The support programs for a heterogeneous population of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning seem to be suboptimal, indicating that more differentiation is required in the services offered to these individuals. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Sports Background, Personality, Att Itudes, and Social Competencies of Coaches and Assistant Coaches in the Just Soccer Program for Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

    Schliermann Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to empirically analyze the sports background, personality dimensions, attitudes, and social competencies of adult head coaches and young assistant coaches involved in the German Einfach Fußball (Just Soccer program, which promotes the participation of pupils with intellectual disabilities in soccer/sports and society. Methods. The study recruited 28 head coaches and 29 assistant coaches who completed a questionnaire battery of standardized instruments (NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Social Self-Efficacy as well as self-developed instruments. Analysis of the data involved descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. A descriptive comparison of the assistant coaches with a normative sample of males aged 16-20 years was performed. Results. The head coaches were found with little soccer/sports experience with persons with disabilities prior to participation in the Just Soccer program. However, the majority were familiar with these persons through personal/vocational contacts. Overall, the head coaches were differentiated by formal coaching levels and playing backgrounds, with very few holding any additional formal qualifications in special education. The assistant coaches presented below average scores in the analyzed five personality dimensions when compared with the normative sample. Their attitudes and social competencies did not change during their 8-month involvement in Just Soccer. Conclusions. The findings highlight the important role of the coaching staff in the success of the Just Soccer program. Coaches involved in such activities should be familiarized with needs of people with disabilities, be stress-resistant, and possess a balanced set of personality traits. In addition, the results suggest that such individuals should be coaches/players from conventional soccer clubs instead of special school physical education teachers.

  14. Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning.

    Berkes, Fikret

    2009-04-01

    Over a period of some 20 years, different aspects of co-management (the sharing of power and responsibility between the government and local resource users) have come to the forefront. The paper focuses on a selection of these: knowledge generation, bridging organizations, social learning, and the emergence of adaptive co-management. Co-management can be considered a knowledge partnership. Different levels of organization, from local to international, have comparative advantages in the generation and mobilization of knowledge acquired at different scales. Bridging organizations provide a forum for the interaction of these different kinds of knowledge, and the coordination of other tasks that enable co-operation: accessing resources, bringing together different actors, building trust, resolving conflict, and networking. Social learning is one of these tasks, essential both for the co-operation of partners and an outcome of the co-operation of partners. It occurs most efficiently through joint problem solving and reflection within learning networks. Through successive rounds of learning and problem solving, learning networks can incorporate new knowledge to deal with problems at increasingly larger scales, with the result that maturing co-management arrangements become adaptive co-management in time.

  15. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability.

    Eastgate, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.

  16. Mechanisms of self-organized criticality in social processes of knowledge creation

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick

    2017-09-01

    In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A). Using a large empirical data set from one of such Q&A sites and theoretical modeling, we reveal fundamental characteristics of SOC by investigating the temporal correlations at all scales and the role of cognitive contents to the avalanches of the knowledge-creation process. Our analysis shows that the universal social dynamics with power-law inhomogeneities of the actions and delay times provides the primary mechanism for self-tuning towards the critical state; it leads to the long-range correlations and the event clustering in response to the external driving by the arrival of new users. In addition, the involved cognitive contents (systematically annotated in the data and observed in the model) exert important constraints that identify unique classes of the knowledge-creation avalanches. Specifically, besides determining a fine structure of the developing knowledge networks, they affect the values of scaling exponents and the geometry of large avalanches and shape the multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, we find that the level of the activity of the communities that share the knowledge correlates with the fluctuations of the innovation rate, implying that the increase of innovation may serve as the active principle of self-organization. To identify relevant parameters and unravel the role of the network evolution underlying the process in the social system under consideration, we

  17. Mechanisms of self-organized criticality in social processes of knowledge creation.

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick

    2017-09-01

    In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A). Using a large empirical data set from one of such Q&A sites and theoretical modeling, we reveal fundamental characteristics of SOC by investigating the temporal correlations at all scales and the role of cognitive contents to the avalanches of the knowledge-creation process. Our analysis shows that the universal social dynamics with power-law inhomogeneities of the actions and delay times provides the primary mechanism for self-tuning towards the critical state; it leads to the long-range correlations and the event clustering in response to the external driving by the arrival of new users. In addition, the involved cognitive contents (systematically annotated in the data and observed in the model) exert important constraints that identify unique classes of the knowledge-creation avalanches. Specifically, besides determining a fine structure of the developing knowledge networks, they affect the values of scaling exponents and the geometry of large avalanches and shape the multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, we find that the level of the activity of the communities that share the knowledge correlates with the fluctuations of the innovation rate, implying that the increase of innovation may serve as the active principle of self-organization. To identify relevant parameters and unravel the role of the network evolution underlying the process in the social system under consideration, we

  18. An Integrative Model of Organizational Learning and Social Capital on Effective Knowledge Transfer and Perceived Organizational Performance

    Rhodes, Jo; Lok, Peter; Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to examine the relationships of organizational learning, social capital and the effectiveness of knowledge transfer and perceived organisational performance. Integrating organizational learning capability with social capital networks to shape a holistic knowledge sharing and management enterprise…

  19. Frequent Surfing on Social Health Networks is Associated With Increased Knowledge and Patient Health Activation.

    Grosberg, Dafna; Grinvald, Haya; Reuveni, Haim; Magnezi, Racheli

    2016-08-10

    The advent of the Internet has driven a technological revolution that has changed our lives. As part of this phenomenon, social networks have attained a prominent role in health care. A variety of medical services is provided over the Internet, including home monitoring, interactive communications between the patient and service providers, and social support, among others. This study emphasizes some of the practical implications of Web-based health social networks for patients and for health care systems. The objective of this study was to assess how participation in a social network among individuals with a chronic condition contributed to patient activation, based on the Patient Activation Measure (PAM). A prospective, cross-sectional survey with a retrospective component was conducted. Data were collected from Camoni, a Hebrew-language Web-based social health network, participants in the diabetes mellitus, pain, hypertension, and depression/anxiety forums, during November 2012 to 2013. Experienced users (enrolled at least 6 months) and newly enrolled received similar versions of the same questionnaire including sociodemographics and PAM. Among 686 participants, 154 of 337 experienced and 123 of 349 newly enrolled completed the questionnaire. Positive correlations (Psocial relationships, and chronic disease knowledge. Men surfed longer than women (χ²3=10.104, Psocial health network use were correlated with increased knowledge about a chronic disease. Experienced surfers had higher PAM than newly enrolled, suggesting that continued site use may contribute to increased activation. Web-based social health networks offer an opportunity to expand patient knowledge and increase involvement in personal health, thereby increasing patient activation. Further studies are needed to examine these changes on other aspects of chronic illnesses such as quality of life and costs.

  20. [Knowledge and power at a molecular level; biological psychiatry in a social context].

    Verhoeff, B

    2009-01-01

    How do we acquire our knowledge about psychiatric disorders and how did the current biologically way of thinking in psychiatry originate? With the help of the philosophy of Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose this essay describes the conditions that made possible today's biological approach in psychiatry. It will become clear that research in the life sciences and the psychiatric knowledge arising from this research are shaped and formed in a complex network of social, economic, political and scientific forces. The biological approach to psychiatric disorders is the product of present-day relationships between scientific developments and commercial corporations.