Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny
This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in
Gilboa, Yafit; Fuchs, Reut
We aim to examine the pattern of participation of children with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD) or global developmental delay (GDD) in comparison with typically developing preschoolers. In addition, to identify environmental and personal factors associated with their participation, 20 children with mild to moderate GDD or IDD, and 24 age- and gender-matched controls, aged 3 to 6 years, were assessed using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation and the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire. Significant differences were found between the groups, both for general scales of participation and for each activity area. For the IDD/GDD group, participation was significantly negatively correlated with environmental restrictions at home. For the control group, participation was correlated with demographic variables. Typically developing children participate at a higher frequency and in a more diverse range of activities compared with children with IDD/GDD. Associations between participation and contextual factors varied depending on the child's health condition.
Participation in social networking sites has considerable potential to leverage the individual's social capital, including persons with intellectual disabilities, whose real-world social networks are fairly limited. This study aimed to understand how individuals with intellectual disabilities use Facebook to access social capital benefits, if at all. Qualitative interviews and observations were conducted with 20 adult Facebook users with intellectual disabilities. The online participation enhanced their bonding social capital as well as contributed to their psychological well-being through increasing their online visibility, popularity and sense of belonging. At the same time, they experienced stress and frustration due to usage difficulties, which prevented them from enhancing their bridging social capital. Participation in social networking sites may also leverage bridging social capital of persons with intellectual disabilities, but they need a more accessible platform and ongoing support to ensure safe and fruitful participation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fullana, Judit; Pallisera, Maria; Català, Elena; Puyalto, Carolina
This article presents the results of evaluating a research training programme aimed at developing the skills of people with intellectual disabilities to actively participate in inclusive research. The present authors opted for a responsive approach to evaluation, using a combination of interviews, questionnaires and focus groups to gather information on the views of students, trainers and members of the research team regarding how the programme progressed, the learning achieved and participants' satisfaction with the programme. The evaluation showed that most of the participants were satisfied with the programme and provided guidelines for planning contents and materials, demonstrating the usefulness of these types of programme in constructing the research group and empowering people with intellectual disabilities to participate in research. The evaluation revealed that the programme had been a positive social experience that fostered interest in lifelong learning for people with intellectual disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ryan, Stephanie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Weiss, Jonathan A
Little is known about sport participation in youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study examined sport characteristics (frequency, diversity, positive social experiences [PSE]) for youth with ASD and intellectual disability compared to youth with intellectual disability alone and explored the personal and contextual correlates of involvement. Parents (N = 409) completed an online survey, and multiple mediation analyses were used to examine the factors that explained the relationships between sport involvement in youth with ASD and intellectual disability. No significant main effects of ASD status were found for frequency or diversity, but youth with intellectual disability alone had higher scores for PSE compared to youth with ASD and intellectual disability. Sociocommunicative abilities, coach relationship and resources mediated the relationship between ASD status and PSE. A better understanding of the factors related to sport is essential for allowing families, service providers and policy makers to improve involvement for youth with ASD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…
Holwerda, A.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among
Ninot, G.; Bilard, J.; Delignieres, D.
Background: The purpose was to examine the effects of the type of athletic programme (integrated vs. segregated) on the athletic domain of perceived competence and on general self-worth. Methods: Participants were 32 adolescent females with intellectual disabilities (ID), divided equally into four groups: (1) segregated swimming; (2) integrated…
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…
Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.
Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…
McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Olick, Robert S
Attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability inform research policy and practice, impact interest in and support for research participation, and promote or discourage the generation of new knowledge to promote health among adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about these beliefs among the public and the scientific community. We quantitatively studied attitudes among adults with intellectual disability, family and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members. We predicted that adults with intellectual disability, and researchers would espouse views most consistent with disability rights, whereas IRB members, and to a lesser degree family, friends, and service providers, would espouse more protective views. We surveyed five hundred and twelve members of the five participant stakeholder groups on their attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found broad support for research about people with intellectual disability, though slightly more tempered support for their direct participation therein. In general, IRB members and to some extent adults with intellectual disability endorsed direct participation less than others. We also found that adults with intellectual disability strongly believed in their consent capacity. Resources should be directed toward health-related research with adults with intellectual disability, and interventions should be pursued to address ethical challenges and promote beliefs consistent with human rights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introdution: People with intellectual disability are similar to normal people with regards to their sexual needs. The aim of the present research was to compare sexual problems in mentally retarded and normal adolescents girls aged between 12– 15 years in Tehran. Methods: This analaytical and cross- sectional research included 90 cases of EMR and 90 cases of normal girls who were chosen by the cluster random sampling method. The statistical tests included Independent t-test, Chi-square,Spearman and Pearson coefficient tests. Results: The result of the present research indicated that the sexual problems in the EMR Girls was more than normal girls and there was no correlation between the sexual problems and variable demography. Conclusion: EMR girls with low IQ and adjustment behavior disorder have more problems as compared to normal girls and these can lead to additional problems for themselves and their family.
Northway, Ruth; Howarth, Joyce; Evans, Lynne
The aim of this paper is to explore how making reasonable adjustments to the process of securing ethical approval for research can facilitate the meaningful involvement of people with intellectual disabilities as members of a research team. This is achieved through critical reflection upon the approach taken within one participatory research study whose objective was to explore how people with intellectual disabilities understand abuse. Internationally participatory research studies (in which active involvement of community members in all stages of the research process is sought) are becoming increasingly common in the context of health care and, more specifically, within research involving people with intellectual disabilities. However, whilst it is acknowledged that participatory research gives rise to specific ethical challenges, how (or if) involvement in securing ethical approval is facilitated, is not discussed in most research reports. The significance of this paper is that it seeks to address this gap by exploring how meaningful participation can be promoted by making reasonable adjustments. Within the study, the research team worked in collaboration with the ethics committee to identify potential barriers that could prevent the participation of members of the research team who had intellectual disabilities. Reasonable adjustments (such as redesigning forms) were made to the processes involved in securing ethical approval. This study demonstrated that it is possible to ensure that ethical standards are upheld and the requirements of ethics committees met whilst also facilitating the meaningful involvement of people with intellectual disabilities. The reasonable adjustments approach explored within this paper can be translated into the context of clinical practice: making changes to the way that services are delivered can promote greater involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in their own health care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This study aimed to understand and describe the views of family members and direct support staff regarding the use of Facebook by persons with intellectual disability (ID) within the context of social capital. In-depth, semistructured interviews conducted with 16 family members and direct support staff of persons with ID who use Facebook revealed that most participants favored Facebook use by persons with ID for bonding and bridging social capital and for normalization. Most participants noted the empowering effect of online activity on persons with ID, yet some reported risks and usage difficulties. Although Facebook use enhances the well-being of persons with ID, findings highlighted the participants' need for formal guidelines regarding social media best-practices for people with ID.
Renwick, Rebecca; Schormans, Ann Fudge; Shore, Deborah
Adults with intellectual/developmental disability (IDD), and their occupational participation, are vastly under-represented in Hollywood films. Because films often provide individuals' only experience of people with IDD, cinematic representations can influence audience perceptions. Thus, films can help inform public perceptions about desired and appropriate occupational participation for people with IDD, potentially impacting their access to meaningful occupational participation and achievement of occupational potential. Accordingly, this research examined occupational portrayals of adults with IDD in contemporary Hollywood films. Occupational portrayals, as defined here, refer to representations of the dynamic process of the person participating in occupation(s) in a context. Grounded theory methods guided coding and analysis of qualitative data collected from eight contemporary films using an occupation-focused tool. Two major, striking themes emerging from the qualitative analysis--infantilization and simplification of participation in complex occupations (with three associated sub-themes)--are discussed. Implications of the findings and future research directions are considered.
Participant direction allows people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and/or their families to direct services; in doing so, participant direction shifts participants from passive recipients to active consumers. Medicaid encourages, but does not require, states to allow participant direction. The aim of this study was to…
Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P
Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored associations between workplace participation, need fulfillment and job satisfaction. A total of 117 persons with intellectual disabilities, recruited from a Dutch care organization, were interviewed on need fulfillment at work and job satisfaction. Data on workplace participation was obtained from staff. Questionnaires were based on well-established instruments. Basic psychological need fulfillment predicted higher levels of job satisfaction. Level of workplace participation was not associated with need fulfillment or job satisfaction. Allowing workers with intellectual disabilities to act with a sense of volition, feel effective, able to meet challenges, and connected to others is essential and contributes to job satisfaction. It is needed to pay attention to this, both in selection and design of workplaces and in support style. Implications for rehabilitation Knowledge on factors that contribute to job satisfaction is necessary to improve employment situations and employment success of people with intellectual disabilities. In order to achieve job satisfaction, it is essential that workplaces allow for fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence of people with intellectual disabilities. People with intellectual disabilities are able to report on their needs and satisfaction, and it is important that their own perspective is taken into account in decisions regarding their employment situation.
Hermans, H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Evenhuis, H.M.
Objectives Older people with intellectual disabilities (ID) may experience more and different symptoms of anxiety than older people with normal intelligence. Study questions: (1) Is the reported severity of anxiety in this group similar to that in the general older population; (2) Are specific
Arvidsson, Patrik; Granlund, Mats; Thyberg, Mikael
Background: Self-rated participation is a clinically relevant intervention outcome for people with mild intellectual disability. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse empirical studies that explored relationships between either environmental factors or individual characteristics "and" aspects of participation in young adults with mild…
Olsen, Darren L.
Social participation is an important resource for parents in old age, and may be particularly important for parents living with adult offspring with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To evaluate whether socializing with friends and family and participating in social organizations protects against depression in old age, this study…
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 ≤ IQ ≥ 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in both groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and a self-report measure were used to assess children's gross motor skills and sports participation, respectively. The children with ID scored significantly lower on almost all specific motor skill items than the typically developing children. Children with mild ID scored lower on the locomotor skills than children with borderline ID. Furthermore, we found in all groups that children with higher object-control scores participated more in organized sports than children with lower object-control scores. Our results support the importance of attention for well-developed gross motor skills in children with borderline and mild ID, especially to object-control skills, which might contribute positively to their sports participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Working memory is activated in situations which require active control of directing attention, processing information and making it available for a short time. Its content is limited in capacity and changes with regard to the context of a performed activity. Self-control is the capacity of a voluntary conscious effort to persist in achieving a previously set goal. The aim of this research was to determine the relation of verbal and visuospatial aspects of working memory with self-control skills in persons with mild intellectual disability (ID. The sample included 40 participants 8-12 years of age (M=10.65, SD=1.19. Memorizing a Maze task, adapted for participants with ID, was used to determine the capacity of visuospatial aspect of working memory. Memorizing Animals task was used to assess verbal aspect of working memory, and Self-Control Rating Scale was used to determine the acquisition level of self-control skills. It was determined that verbal aspects of working memory were significantly related to the acquired level of self-control skills (p=0.002. There was no significant relation between the results of tasks assessing the capacity of visuospatial working memory and the success on the scale assessing self-control capacity (p=0.089. The relation between self-control and verbal aspect of working memory may be explained by close links between using speech and applying self-regulation strategies.
Researchers claim that a lack of social skills might be the main reason why pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in inclusive classrooms often experience difficulties in social participation. However, studies that support this assumption are scarce, and none include pupils with an intellectual disability (ID). This article seeks to make an…
Robertson, Janet; Emerson, Eric; Baines, Susannah; Hatton, Chris
Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for mortality. Adults with intellectual disability are extremely inactive, but less is known about physical activity levels in children and youth with intellectual disability. This paper examines the participation by adolescents and young adults with and without mild to moderate intellectual disability in sport/exercise. Secondary analysis was undertaken of Next Steps, an annual panel study that followed a cohort from early adolescence into adulthood. Participants with mild to moderate intellectual disability were identified through data linkage with educational records. Sport/exercise participation rates were consistently lower for adolescents and young people with mild to moderate intellectual disability than for their peers without intellectual disability. Matching participants on between-group differences in exposure to extraneous risk factors did not impact on these between-group differences in participation in sport/exercise. The results support limited existing evidence regarding the low level of participation of children and young people with intellectual disability in sport/exercise compared with their peers. Future work on promoting sport/exercise and physical activity in children and young people with intellectual disability may play a role in helping to reduce the health inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disability.
Saaltink, R.; MacKinnon, G.; Owen, F.; Tardif-Williams, C.
Background: Research suggests that persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) are expected to be more compliant than persons without disabilities and that expectations for compliance begin in childhood. No study, however, seems yet to have included a primary focus on the participatory rights, or rights to express opinions, desires and preferences…
Robertson, Janet Margaret; Emerson, Eric Broughton; Baines, Susannah May Johnston; Hatton, Christopher Rowan
Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for mortality. Adults with intellectual disability are extremely inactive, but less is known about physical activity levels in children and youth with intellectual disability. This paper examines the participation by adolescents and young adults with and without mild to moderate intellectual disability in sport/exercise. Methods: Secondary analysis was undertaken of Next Steps, an annual panel study that followed a cohort from early adolescence int...
Okrainec, J. Alexa; Hughes, M. Jeffry
This study investigated the features of verbal disagreements arising among 25 adolescent students with mild intellectual disabilities and 25 of their typical peers. Transcripts of a learning task were coded using an adaptation of Eisenberg's (1992) scheme for analyzing verbal conflicts. Findings of the study indicate: (1) in verbal conflict…
Tint, A; Thomson, K; Weiss, J A
Special Olympics (SO) is commonly cited to play an important role in the lives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of the current review was to (a) synthesise key findings regarding the physical, psychological/emotional, social and/or intellectual/cognitive correlates of SO participation for individuals with ID and (b) highlight limitations in the extant research as well as directions for future research. A systematic review of electronic databases was undertaken. A total of 46 articles were confirmed to meet study criteria. Quality assessments of included studies were conducted using checklists from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network methodology checklists (SIGN 50; SIGN 2008). There was a larger amount of support for physical, psychological/emotional and social outcomes as compared with cognitive/intellectual outcomes; however, many studies were confounded by measurement difficulties, sampling procedures and a lack of replicable methods, which hinder generalisation of results. This review highlights the need for a continued critical focus on SO programme evaluation research with more rigorous and replicable methods. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Hall, Allison Cohen; Quinlan, Jerrilyn; Jockell, Catherine
As individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities become more engaged in community employment, it will be critical to consider how their employment experience changes as they age. Similar to other seniors, individuals will need to consider whether they want to maintain their employment, reduce their work commitment, or retire…
Amado, Angela Novak; Stancliffe, Roger J.; McCarron, Mary; McCallion, Philip
As more individuals with intellectual/developmental disabilities are physically included in community life, in schools, neighborhoods, jobs, recreation, and congregations, the challenge of going beyond physical inclusion to true social inclusion becomes more apparent. This article summarizes the status of the research about community participation…
Simplican, Stacy Clifford; Leader, Geraldine; Kosciulek, John; Leahy, Michael
Social inclusion is an important goal for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, families, service providers, and policymakers; however, the concept of social inclusion remains unclear, largely due to multiple and conflicting definitions in research and policy. We define social inclusion as the interaction between two major life domains: interpersonal relationships and community participation. We then propose an ecological model of social inclusion that includes individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and socio-political factors. We identify four areas of research that our ecological model of social inclusion can move forward: (1) organizational implementation of social inclusion; (2) social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities living with their families, (3) social inclusion of people along a broader spectrum of disability, and (4) the potential role of self-advocacy organizations in promoting social inclusion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Taua, Chris; Neville, Christine; Hepworth, Julie
Balancing the demands of research and ethics is always challenging, and even more so when recruiting vulnerable groups. Within the context of current legislation and international human rights declarations, it is strongly advocated that research can and must be undertaken with all recipients of health-care services. Research in the field of intellectual disability presents particular challenges in regards to consenting processes. This paper is a reflective overview and analysis of the complex processes undertaken, and events that occurred in gaining informed consent from people with intellectual disability to participate in a study exploring their experiences of being an inpatient in mental health hospitals within Aotearoa/New Zealand. A framework based on capacity, information, and voluntariness is presented, with excerpts from the field provided to explore consenting processes. The practical implications of the processes utilized are then discussed in order to stimulate debate regarding clearer and enhanced methods of gaining informed consent from people with intellectual disability. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Selvi, Sezgin; Demir, Selçuk Besir
This qualitative study was conducted to compare the perceptions of students with gifted intelligence and students with those of normal intelligence about social science and social scientists. The data obtained from 23 gifted intelligent and 23 normal participants within the same age group was analysed using content analysis and results were…
Molinari, E; Sartori, A; Ceccarelli, A; Marchi, S
It is well established that children with short stature frequently have problems in cognitive development, personality, self-esteem and social relations. This is partly due to the fact that many parents view them as more vulnerable than other children of normal stature and do not allow them to face the normal experiences that correspond to their actual age. The aim of the present study was to assess, through the administration of appropriate psychological tools, a series of psychological and cognitive characteristics [i.e. anxiety, depression, good adjustment, social functioning, feeling of guilt, interpersonal relationship, intelligence quotient (IQ)], as well as variables linked to development of body image, in a group of children suffering from normal growth variants [familial short stature (FSS), no. 10, 4 males/6 females; with constitutional growth delay (CGD), no. 4,4 males; height standard deviation score (HSDS) ranging between -2.4 and -1.9] and in a control group children of normal stature (HSDS between -0.1 and +0.1). Children with short stature significantly differed from normal statured controls as far as Colored Progressive Matrices (CPMs, centiles), IQ (IQ, obtained using the Goodenough test), "Good Adjustment" (Draw-a-Person index, DAP), "Feelings of Guilt" (DAP index), "Height" (as emerges from drawings of the body) are concerned. Significant relationships were found between the height of the subjects (in centiles) and cognitive skills, measured both using CPMs (r=0.408; p=0.017) and Draw-a-Man (DAM) (r=0.359; p=0.037) and between height and feelings of guilt (r=0.325; p=0.027), measured using DAP. CPM scores correlated positively with the "Good Adjustment" index of DAP (r=0.354; p=0.05) and negatively with Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) (r=-0.609; p=0.01), "School Anxiety" index (r=-0.427; p=0.05) and "Total Anxiety" index (r=-0.436; p=0.05) of the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire for the Age of Development, and with 2 indices of DAP, namely
Buttimer, John; Tierney, Edel
The aim of this study was to investigate the leisure and recreational activities of a cohort of 34 students attending a full-time special school as reported by the students and their parents. Leisure activities which were mostly solitary and passive in nature were identified as those being most commonly engaged in. Barriers to leisure were also identified, with 'access to' and 'location of' the leisure facilities being barriers perceived by both students and parents. Data on aspects of leisure use, e.g. enjoyment, participation, assistance required, socialization and choice, were also collected.
McGillivray, Jane A.; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Newton, Danielle C.; Richardson, Ben A.
Background: Many offenders with intellectual disabilities have substance use issues. Offending behaviour may be associated with substance use. Materials and Methods: Prisoners with and without intellectual disabilities were compared in terms of their substance use prior to imprisonment, the influence of substance use on offending, and their…
Mckenzie, Judith Anne; Macleod, Catriona Ida
In this paper we argue that human rights approaches for intellectually disabled people have failed to recognise the complexity of rights claims made by and on behalf of this group. Drawing on a research project into discourses of education for intellectually disabled people in the Eastern Cape, South Africa we discern three rights discourses;…
Rodolfo SOTO; Mauricio LÓPEZ
Participation of children with intellectual disabilities [ID] is promoted from a rights-based approach and inclusive education. However, in Chile these children tend to be segregated by existing educational programs. The objective of this study is to understand the experiences of participation of children with ID in the regular school context. In order to respond to this objective, individual interviews were conducted with 15 children with mild ID who attended the second basic cycle in two sc...
Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.
Purpose: Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored
Full Text Available Learning scientific concepts are crucial for both normally achieving and intellectually disabled students attending inclusion classes. This research study aimed to reveal intellectually disabled students’ conceptions and thinkings utilizing data of interviews and drawings concerning the earth and heavenly bodies and comparing them with the findings belonging to those showing normal mental achievement. Thirty intellectually disabled students (19 boys and 11 girls participated to this research. They were questioned individually using clinical interview technique. Intellectually disabled students have main similarities to those of normally achieving concerning the phenomenon. All the students participating in the present research study do have misconceptions concerning the phenomenon. Their thinking approaches (tendencies and the way they are affected by certain context while constructing their conceptions is similar to those of normally achieving. They used their concepts consistently and showed theory-like mental constructions.
Boulton, Natalie E.; Williams, Jonathan; Jones, Robert S. P.
Background: People with intellectual disabilities are entitled to equitable access to psychological support. Traditional therapeutic approaches often rely on a person's ability to verbally articulate a description of their life, which can be particularly difficult for emotionally salient information. Methods: A systematic literature review was…
Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.
Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…
Full Text Available Data suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all schizophrenia cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC across intellectual level. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 & HC n = 13, intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 & HC n = 115 and intellectually superior (IQ > 120; SZ n = 20 & HC n = 50. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.
Full Text Available Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index.
Dumbili, Emeka; Williams, Clare
Most research on drinking games (DGs) and the associated risks focuses on Western countries. In the Nigerian context, DGs activity has not attracted scholarly attention but growing media reports indicate that Nigerian youths play DGs, and that a number of gamers have died during or immediately after game-playing. Drawing on gender performance scripts, we explored the performance of gender through DGs practices and the factors that motivate DGs participation. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with male and female college students (aged 19-23 years) at a university in south-eastern Nigeria. The participants discussed the popularity of the DGs that students play on this campus, identifying the spaces where each game is played and the motivations for game-playing. Collective, contextual constructions of gender identities through 'Fastest-Drinker' DG were identified, and the participants also performed gender through 'Truth-or-Dare' and 'Endurance' DGs. Men dominated 'First-to-Finish' DGs, which are played at parties and bars, and consumed beer or stout, while women, who mainly played Truth-or-Dare games, drank spirits or sweetened alcoholic beverages. Boredom and fun seeking provoked game-playing among women while adherence to masculinity norms, which engendered the public performance of masculinity and gambling activities, motivated men to play DGs. To avoid 'collective shame', men's friendship groups provided support/care for inebriated game-playing members, but the immediacy of this support/care varied according to DGs type. DGs appear to normalize heavy drinking and the culture of intoxication on this campus. Measures to monitor alcohol sales outlets around campuses and interventions that target students' leisure spaces should be developed.
Axelsson, Anna Karin; Imms, Christine; Wilder, Jenny
Participation throughout one's life plays a significant role for development and emotional well-being. For this reason, there is a need to identify ways to facilitate participation in family activities for children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The study design was qualitative and explorative, based on semi structured interviews with 11 parents and 9 personal assistants of children with PIMD. The interviews revealed participation-facilitating strategies relating to the children's/adolescent's proximal environment, such as "Availability and acceptability of the activity", "Good knowledge about the child" and a "A positive attitude of people close to the child", as well as strategies related to the children/adolescents themselves: "Sense of belonging", "Possible for the child/adolescent to understand", "Opportunities to influence" and "Feeling of being needed". Children and adolescents with PIMD are dependent on support obtained through their environment. The identified strategies, individually adapted through awareness and knowledge by the parents and the personal assistants, provide important evidence to assist our understanding in gaining understanding about how to improve participation in family activities of children and adolescents with PIMD. Participation-facilitating strategies related to the child/adolescent and his or her proximal environments are identified to improve participation in children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Examples of strategies for the child's/adolescents' proximal environment include "good knowledge about the child/adolescent", and, for the child/adolescent, include creating "sense of belonging" and "opportunities to influence". Identifying and making these strategies explicit may assist in enhancing the participation of children and adolescents with PIMD in family activities. People in the child's/adolescent's proximal environment need to set
Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek
This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…
Maliepaard, Marianne; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Okkerse, Jolanda M E
To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional outcomes were assessed by using standardized measures: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)/6-18, Disruptive Behavior Disorder rating scale (DBD), and the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. We included 82 children (39 boys) aged 6 to 13 years who have syndromic craniosynostosis. Mean Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) was in the normal range (M = 96.6; SD = 21.6). However, children who have syndromic craniosynostosis had a 1.9 times higher risk for developing intellectual disability (FSIQ intellectual disability, internalizing, social, and attention problems. Higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems were related to lower levels of intellectual functioning.
Hempe, Eva-Maria; Morrison, Cecily; Holland, Anthony
There are arguments that a specialist service for adults with intellectual disabilities is needed to address the health inequalities that this group experiences. The boundary of such a specialist service however is unclear, and definition is difficult, given the varying experiences of the multiple stakeholder groups. The study reported here quantitatively investigates divergence in stakeholders' views of what constitutes a good specialist service for people with intellectual disabilities. It is the first step of a larger project that aims to investigate the purpose, function and design of such a specialist service. The results are intended to support policy and service development. A Delphi study was carried out to elicit the requirements of this new specialist service from stakeholder groups. It consisted of three panels (carers, frontline health professionals, researchers and policymakers) and had three rounds. The quantification of stakeholder participation covers the number of unique ideas per panel, the value of these ideas as determined by the other panels and the level of agreement within and between panels. There is some overlap of ideas about of what should constitute this specialist service, but both carers and frontline health professionals contributed unique ideas. Many of these were valued by the researchers and policymakers. Interestingly, carers generated more ideas regarding how to deliver services than what services to deliver. Regarding whether ideas are considered appropriate, the variation both within and between groups is small. On the other hand, the feasibility of solutions is much more contested, with large variations among carers. This study provides a quantified representation of the diversity of ideas among stakeholder groups regarding where the boundary of a specialist service for adults with learning disabilities should sit. The results can be used as a starting point for the design process. The study also offers one way to measure the
Conclusion: DGs appear to normalize heavy drinking and the culture of intoxication on this campus. Measures to monitor alcohol sales outlets around campuses and interventions that target students' leisure spaces should be developed.
Swinson, John V.
Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)
Arvidsson, Patrik; Granlund, Mats; Thyberg, Ingrid; Thyberg, Mikael
To explore internal consistency and correlations between perceived ability, performance and perceived importance in a preliminary selection of self-reported items representing the activity/participation component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Structured interview study. Fifty-five Swedish adolescents and adults with a mild intellectual disability. Questions about perceived ability, performance and perceived importance were asked on the basis of a 3-grade Likert-scale regarding each of 68 items representing the 9 ICF domains of activity/participation. Internal consistency for perceived ability (Cronbach's alpha for all 68 items): 0.95 (values for each domain varied between 0.57 and 0.85), for performance: 0.86 (between 0.27 and 0.66), for perceived importance: 0.84 (between 0.27 and 0.68). Seventy-two percent of the items showed correlations >0.5 (mean=0.59) for performance vs perceived importance, 41% >0.5 (mean=0.47) for perceived ability vs performance and 12% >0.5 (mean=0.28) for perceived ability vs perceived importance. Measures of performance and perceived importance may have to be based primarily on their estimated clinical relevance for describing aspects of the ICF participation concept. With a clinimetric approach, parts of the studied items and domains may be used to investigate factors related to different patterns and levels of participation, and outcomes of rehabilitation.
Full Text Available Participation of children with intellectual disabilities [ID] is promoted from a rights-based approach and inclusive education. However, in Chile these children tend to be segregated by existing educational programs. The objective of this study is to understand the experiences of participation of children with ID in the regular school context. In order to respond to this objective, individual interviews were conducted with 15 children with mild ID who attended the second basic cycle in two schools in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. Production of information was based on narrative-visual techniques such as participatory photography and episodic interviews in combination with photo-elicitation. The analysis was based on the Grounded Theory. The results show that the experiences of participation take place mainly in two types of activities: 1 didactic activities that involve the construction of physical and/or symbolic material and 2 games of a group character. These results allow the identification, from the perspective of children with ID, of universal resources and supports existing in the school community environment to promote their participation, motivation, learning and quality of life.
Omid Rostam Zadeh
Conclusion The results showed that the children with CP have a lower level of participation in occupations compared to their normally-developing counterparts. One of the reasons for the low participation level of children with CP could be the lack of goal-oriented and occupation-oriented interventions. Thus, this finding will help the healthcare providers to create and develop appropriate therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions so as to meet the needs of these children and promote their participation level and wellbeing.
Murphy, Melissa Ai; McFerran, Katrina
This article explores the literature on social connectedness and music for young people with disability. It then critically examines the level of congruence between the reported literature to date and current rights-based disability studies discourse. A critical interpretive synthesis was used to examine 27 articles referencing the use of music for social connectedness. Areas of focus in the review are the nature of connections being fostered in music programs, the use of voice and collaboration. The majority of music programs reported on closed groups. Outdated 'expert' models of working persist. The use of participants' voice in the literature is growing, although there is a lack of collaboration and negative reporting. A shift in thinking heralds greater collaboration with participants, although this could be broadened to include decisions on research agendas, planning and evaluation. There is also need for active fostering of broader socio-musical pathways.
Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Goozee, Kathryn; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kaikai; Shah, Tejal; Asih, Prita R; Dave, Preeti; ManYan, Candice; Taddei, Kevin; Chung, Roger; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Martins, Ralph N
The disruption of neurofilament, an axonal cytoskeletal protein, in neurodegenerative conditions may result in neuronal damage and its release into the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neurofilament light chain (NFL), a neurofilament subunit, is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Investigate the association of plasma NFL with preclinical-AD features, such as high neocortical amyloid-β load (NAL) and subjective memory complaints, and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults. Plasma NFL concentrations were measured employing the single molecule array platform in participants from the Kerr Anglican Retirement Village Initiative in Ageing Health cohort, aged 65- 90 years. Participants underwent a battery of neuropsychological testing to evaluate cognitive performance and were categorized as low NAL (NAL-, n = 65) and high NAL (NAL+, n = 35) assessed via PET, and further stratified into subjective memory complainers (SMC; nNAL- = 51, nNAL+ = 25) and non-SMC (nNAL- = 14, nNAL+ = 10) based on the Memory Assessment Clinic- Questionnaire. Plasma NFL inversely correlated with cognitive performance. No significant difference in NFL was observed between NAL+ and NAL- participants; however, within APOEɛ4 non-carriers, higher NAL was observed in individuals with NFL concentrations within quartiles 3 and 4 (versus quartile 1). Additionally, within the NAL+ participants, SMC had a trend of higher NFL compared to non-SMC. Plasma NFL is inversely associated with cognitive performance in elderly individuals. While plasma NFL may not reflect NAL in individuals with normal global cognition, the current observations indicate that onset of axonal injury, reflected by increased plasma NFL, within the preclinical phase of AD may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.
PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR, STRABISMUS AND AMBLYOPIA AMONG CHILDREN WITH NORMAL DEVELOPMENT OR GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY/INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY ATTENDING OPHTHALMOLOGY OPD AT KLES HOSPITAL, BELAGAVI- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
Smitha K. S
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Global developmental delay/intellectual disability are on a rise in children in the present time. Ocular and visual anomalies are frequently associated with it of which refractive errors are the most frequent. This if goes unnoticed leads to strabismus and amblyopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error, strabismus and amblyopia among children with normal development or global developmental delay/intellectual disability attending ophthalmology OPD at KLES Hospital, Belagavi. Case records of all 200 new patients less than or equal to 12 years of age group who attended KLES, Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital between January 2015 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS The male:female ratio was 1.22:1. Out of the total evaluated 200 cases, 130 cases were with normal development and 70 with GDD/ID. Refractive errors were 85%, whereas the cases of amblyopia was 45.50% and strabismus 39.50%. Amblyopia with refractive error having GDD/ID was stastically significant as compared to amblyopia with refractive error having normal development (p=0.001. CONCLUSION Refractive error was the most common ocular disorder seen. Refractive error with amblyopia is more in children with GDD/ID as compared to normal children. Owing to the high percentage of visual anomalies, ophthalmological referral becomes essential in children with developmental anomalies.
Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…
Gallace, Alberto; Boschin, Erica; Spence, Charles
We investigated whether there are reliable crossmodal associations between foods/flavours and words in neurologically normal individuals. Participants were given a range of foods to taste, and had to rate each one along a number of dimensions. These included scales anchored with the words "takete/maluma" and "bouba/kiki". The results highlight the existence of robust crossmodal associations between complex foods/flavours and words in normal (i.e., nonsynesthetic) individuals. For example, crisps (potato chips) and cranberry sauce are rated as being more "takete" than brie cheese, while mint chocolate is rated as more "kiki" than regular chocolate. On the basis of these results, we suggest that our brains can extract supramodal/conceptual properties from foods/flavours (just as has been demonstrated previously using auditory and visual stimuli) and meaningfully match them crossmodally. The possibility that this process is based on the global Gestalt of a food rather than on any specific sensory qualities is also discussed.
Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.
Tyrer, Stephen P.; Wigham, Ann; Cicchetti, Domenic; Margallo-Lana, Marisa; Moore, P. Brian; Reid, Barbara E.
The Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test (PCFT) directly measures the cognitive abilities of people with intellectual impairment. This study examined the relationship between this instrument and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) and two shorter versions of the same scale. High correlations between the verbal and performance sections of the…
Leary, Mark R; Diebels, Kate J; Davisson, Erin K; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Raimi, Kaitlin T; Deffler, Samantha A; Hoyle, Rick H
Four studies examined intellectual humility-the degree to which people recognize that their beliefs might be wrong. Using a new Intellectual Humility (IH) Scale, Study 1 showed that intellectual humility was associated with variables related to openness, curiosity, tolerance of ambiguity, and low dogmatism. Study 2 revealed that participants high in intellectual humility were less certain that their beliefs about religion were correct and judged people less on the basis of their religious opinions. In Study 3, participants high in intellectual humility were less inclined to think that politicians who changed their attitudes were "flip-flopping," and Study 4 showed that people high in intellectual humility were more attuned to the strength of persuasive arguments than those who were low. In addition to extending our understanding of intellectual humility, this research demonstrates that the IH Scale is a valid measure of the degree to which people recognize that their beliefs are fallible.
Vasilyev, Igor A.
Full Text Available In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.
In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...
John M. Novak
Full Text Available Book jackets sometimes provide insightful provocation about the content and flavour of a text. Certainly the designers of the front jacket for Steve Fuller’s The Intellectual intended to be provocative when they placed the words, “the positive power of negative thinking,” at the top centre.
Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Christensen, Karina Skovvang
Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...
St. Clair, Gloriana
Discusses issues of copyright and the transfer or use of intellectual property as they relate to librarians. Topics addressed include the purpose of copyright laws, financial losses to publishers from pirating, cultural views of pirating, the fair use doctrine, concerns of authors of scholarly materials, impact of increasing library automation and…
Maliepaard, M.; Mathijssen, I.M.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Okkerse, J.M.E.
OBJECTIVES: To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. METHODS: A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual,
Mueller, Horst H.; And Others
Metaanalytical procedures examined the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised subtest performance patterns of 36 samples of below average, normal average, learning disabled average, and above average IQ children from research. Relative patterning of WISC-R subtests as reflected in children's Bannatyne-recategorized performance profiles appeared to be…
The Intellectual disabled child is characterized by significantly sub average general intellectual ... by abnormal development, learning difficulties, and problem in social ... softened and classifications redefined some what to mild (IQ of 55 –70) moderate .... parents do not like the isolation of their children from normal children.
MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi
Full Text Available Montenue, a distinct French scholar of intellectual property, has suggested that IP is a “tool which surprisingly helps a lot”, and this definition on science, arts, culture, since the 16th century. Now, what would be the definition of intellectual property for the 21st century? Apparently not a “strange” tool, but a necessary tool, primary for enriching human knowledge, and for the new world order, especially in the global market sphere. Intellectual property is an integral part of international trade, and its importance keeps increasing, since effective use of knowledge is increasingly influencing the economic prosperity of peoples. One may say that there is little originality in the creative sphere. Naturally, this originality can only be reflected by individuality and human identity in intellectual creativity The author rights in the Kosovo legislation is a novelty, a necessity of developing a creative environment in the fields of science, arts and industrial property. First and foremost, the individual benefit, which is secured by the author as the creator of the work, is a moral and material right. Secondly, there is a need for harmonization, not only of values for the creator, but also for the development of science, culture, increased competitive advantage, and the public sphere, as a benefit for the public health and security, and the fiscal policy. The deficiency one must record is with the Office for Copy Rights, which is to play a strong role in implementing and protecting copy rights and other related rights by licensing collective management agencies, imposing administrative fines, awareness raising, provision of information, and other capacity building and educative measures. Naturally, the enactment of good legislation is a system without any meaning or sense if not associated with the court practice. Any establishment of a legal system not pursued with enforcement mechanisms remains only in legal frameworks.
Liu, Justina Yat-Wa; Ma, Ka Wai
The Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI) was developed to measure reintegration to normal living after major traumas/illnesses. Its psychometric properties remain unknown when used to measure participation restriction under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) framework. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version-RNLI to measure WHO-ICF participation restriction among community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older people. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community and day-care centres in Hong Kong between May 2015 and January 2016. Through face-to-face interviews, information was collected on the participants' demographic background, medical history, frailty status, depressive mood, functional performance in daily activities, and participation restriction. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct and convergent validity of the C-RNLI were assessed. Two hundred and ninety-nine pre-frail or frail community-dwelling older people with a mean age of 79.53 were recruited. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the C-RNLI has a two-factor structure comprised of "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events". The test-retest coefficient was 0.71. The Cronbach's alpha of the total C-RNLI score, and those of the factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" were 0.88, 0.82 and 0.84, respectively. Pre-frail older people had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -5.05, older people. Older people from community centres had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -4.48, older people from day-care centres. The factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" of the C-RNLI were significantly convergent with depressive mood (r s = -0
Krause, Sharon; Ware, Robert; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; O'Callaghan, Michael
Studies from a number of countries have indicated an increased risk of obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability. Whether risk factors for adults with intellectual disability apply to adolescents however is uncertain. This study examines obesity in a community sample of adolescents with intellectual disability in Australia, and investigates risk factors associated with obesity and overweight. A cross-sectional survey and medical record review on 261 adolescents with intellectual disability attending special education facilities in South-East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and September 2010 was conducted. Information on age, gender, weight, height, syndrome specific diagnoses, problematic behaviours, mobility, taking psychotropic or epileptic medication, and perceived household financial difficulties was collected. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and participants categorised as normal/underweight, overweight or obese according to the International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Overall 22.5% (95% CI: 17.8-28.0%) of adolescents were obese, and 23.8% (95% CI: 19.0-29.4%) were overweight, a marked increase compared to Australian norms. Adolescents with Down syndrome were more likely to be obese than other participants (odds ratio=3.21; 95% CI: 1.41-7.30). No association was found with other risk factors examined. Prevalence of obesity and overweight were increased compared to general Australian adolescents. The only significant risk factor was the presence of Down syndrome. These findings reinforce the need for a health policy and practice response to obesity that is inclusive of individuals with intellectual disability. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.
Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…
Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.
Background There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and
Ying Li, Eria Ping
The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the first generation of sibling advocates in Hong Kong. A qualitative approach was adopted and six sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities from one non-government organization were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method and content analysis. Findings revealed that the six participants were reactive in the process of taking up the caregiver responsibility and they performed three functions: to advocate for more service provision, to improve service quality, and to facilitate communication between individual service units and family members of people with intellectual disabilities. All of the participants expressed that they needed support from service providers when they tried to function as the sibling advocates. Strategies to promote the involvement of siblings of people with intellectual disabilities as advocates are discussed and it is expected that more siblings of people with intellectual disabilities will be supported to have a higher level of involvement in advocacy.
Mastroeni, Silmara S B S; Munasinghe, Lalani L; Pham, Truong-Minh; Loehr, Sarah A; Ekwaru, John Paul; Mastroeni, Marco F; Veugelers, Paul J
The hypothesized effect of vitamin D on C-reactive protein (CRP) has received substantial attention as a potential means to alleviate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, observational studies have been inconsistent in their reporting of associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and CRP concentrations, and trials and meta analyses have been inconsistent in their conclusions regarding the effect of vitamin D supplementation on CRP concentrations. These supplementation trials were mostly conducted among patients with more or less inflammatory complications and did not consider potential distinctive effects by weight status. To further our understanding of the potential influences of vitamin D on CRP, we analyzed longitudinal observations of 6755 participants of a preventative health program. On average, serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 88.3 to 121.0 nmol/L and those of CRP decreased from 1.7 to 1.6 mg/L between baseline and follow up. Relative to obese participants without temporal increases in 25(OH)D, those who showed improvements of <25, 25-50, 50-75, and more than 75 nmol/L at follow up were 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.88), 0.54 (0.34-0.85), 0.49 (0.30-0.80), and 0.48 (0.29-0.78) times as likely to have elevated CRP concentrations (≥1 mg/L), respectively. These associations were less pronounced and not statistically significant for normal weight and overweight participants. Herewith, the findings suggest that promotion of adequate serum 25(OH)D concentrations among obese individuals along with healthy lifestyles may alleviate the public health burden associated with cardiovascular disease.
Educación ambiental y participación ciudadana en la Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori (Environmental education and citizen participation at Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori
Martha Stella Manosalva Corredor
Full Text Available Resumen: Frente al deterioro de las condiciones ambientales, el equipo ambiental de la Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori de Bogotá y el Colectivo Acción Ciudadana convocan a instituciones gubernamentales locales y ciudadanos habitantes de calle a un diálogo de saberes para encontrar soluciones concertadas a la problemática ambiental. En el mismo sentido, el proyecto Educación ambiental y participación ciudadana: estrategias de una política de desarrollo sustentable de la ENSDMM trabaja en la propuesta del Plan Institucional de Gestión Ambiental, por lo que realiza una evaluación estratégica ambiental y señala que la educación ambiental y la participación ciudadana son posibles si logran vincular educación y gestión en la definición de los procesos, actividades y actuaciones, con principios de una ética de responsabilidad social, para alcanzar las metas ambientales sustentables.Abstract: With the aim of facing up to the deterioration of the environmental condition, the environmental team of Escuela Normal Superior Distrital María Montessori and the Collective Citizen Action convoke the local government institutions and the citizen street inhabitants to have a dialogue of knowledge to find concerted solutions for the current environmental problems. In the same sense, the project Environmental Education and Citizen Participation: Strategies for a policy of sustainable development at ENSDMM works on the proposal of the Environmental Management Institutional Plan. It helps to develop a strategic environmental evaluation and points out that the environmental education and citizen participation are possible if education and management are involved in the processes, activities and actions based on principles of social responsibility ethics to achieve the sustainable environmental goals.
Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.
For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...
Dasteh Goli N.*BSc
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.
Patel, Meera; Rose, John
The aim of the study was to investigate attitudes held by a British student population towards individuals with an intellectual disability. Students participated in focus groups addressing their attitudes, behaviours and perceptions of individuals with an intellectual disability. Thematic analysis was the method used to identify emergent themes.…
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…
McDonald, Katherine E.; Kidney, Colleen A.
There are important benefits to including adults with intellectual disabilities in research. Calls for their increased participation in research co-occur with notable discussion about how to conduct ethically strong research with adults with intellectual disabilities, a population widely considered vulnerable in the context of research. The…
Begum, Gazi; Blacher, Jan
The sibling relationship of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities was examined. Participants were 70 sibling dyads--each dyad was comprised of one 12-year old adolescent with (N = 23) or without intellectual disabilities (N = 47). Sibling relationships, behavior problems, and social skills were assessed using mother reports.…
This essay explores three orientations to knowledge: the scholar, the intellectual, and the bricoleur. It argues that although the scholar and the intellectual are tied closely to the Liberal Arts and Humanities and dominate academic public relations discourse, both students and faculty increasingly use the practice of bricolage to gather and…
Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke
Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...
Einfeld, Stewart L.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Hofer, Scott M.; Taffe, John; Gray, Kylie M.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hoffman, Lesa R.; Parmenter, Trevor; Tonge, Bruce J.
Context Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood. Objective To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Design, Setting, and Participants The participants of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, an epidemiological cohort of 578 children and adolescents recruited in 1991 from health, education, and family agencies that provided services to children with intellectual disability aged 5 to 19.5 years in 6 rural and urban census regions in Australia, were followed up for 14 years with 4 time waves of data collection. Data were obtained from 507 participants, with 84% of wave 1 (1991-1992) participants being followed up at wave 4 (2002-2003). Main Outcome Measures The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), a validated measure of psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability, completed by parents or other caregivers. Changes over time in the Total Behaviour Problem Score and 5 subscale scores of the DBC scores were modeled using growth curve analysis. Results High initial levels of behavioral and emotional disturbance decreased only slowly over time, remaining high into young adulthood, declining by 1.05 per year on the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. Overall severity of psychopathology was similar across mild to severe ranges of intellectual disability (with mean Total Behaviour Problem Scores of approximately 44). Psychopathology decreased more in boys than girls over time (boys starting with scores 2.61 points higher at baseline and ending with scores 2.57 points lower at wave 4), and more so in participants with mild intellectual disability compared with those with severe or profound intellectual disability who diverged from
Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…
McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.
Including adults with intellectual disability in research promotes direct benefits to participants and larger societal benefits. Stakeholders may have different views of what count as benefits and their importance. We compared views on benefits in research with adults with intellectual disability among adults with intellectual disability, family…
Agran, Martin; MacLean, William; Andren, Katherine Anne Kitchen
Despite an increasing commitment in promoting the full inclusion of people with intellectual disability in their communities, it appears that few adults with intellectual disability participate in elections as registered voters. We surveyed a variety of stakeholders about voting by people with intellectual disability using quantitative and…
Petner-Arrey, Jami; Copeland, Susan R.
This study from the south-western United States investigated the perceptions of persons with intellectual disability receiving support and of persons providing support regarding the autonomy of people with intellectual disability. The participants included 10 people with intellectual disability and 10 support workers. Through interviews, this…
Carvajal, Fernando; Fernandez-Alcaraz, Camino; Rueda, Maria; Sarrion, Louise
The processing of facial expressions of emotions by 23 adults with Down syndrome and moderate intellectual disability was compared with that of adults with intellectual disability of other etiologies (24 matched in cognitive level and 26 with mild intellectual disability). Each participant performed 4 tasks of the Florida Affect Battery and an…
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.
This study examined how educational expectations parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children’s attainment, and how parents’ own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study that followed participants from ages 18 to 64. Compared to the norm, parents with mild intellectual deficits expected thei...
Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte
implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...
... for Educators Search English Español What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... learning and becoming an independent person. What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...
Full Text Available Anesthetizing an intellectually disabled patient is a challenge due to lack of cognition and communication which makes perioperative evaluation difficult. The presence of associated medical problems and lack of cooperation further complicates the anesthetic technique. An online literature search was performed using keywords anesthesia, intellectually disabled, and mentally retarded and relevant articles were included for review. There is scarcity of literature dealing with intellectually disabled patients. The present review highlights the anesthetic challenges, their relevant evidence-based management, and the role of caretakers in the perioperative period. Proper understanding of the associated problems along with a considerate and unhurried approach are the essentials of anesthetic management of these patients.
Alison M. Lewis
Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.
Alison M. Lewis
Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.
Bekkers, R.N.A.; Catalini, C.; Martinelli, A.; Simcoe, T.
Firms often collaborate to produce inter-operability standards so that independently designed products can work together. When this process takes place in a Standard Setting Organization (SSO), participants are typically required to disclose any intellectual property rights (IP) that would be
Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis
We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…
Akkerman, A.; Janssen, C.G.C.; Kef, S.; Meininger, H.P.
Background: This study explored the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on themes relevant to their job satisfaction in integrated and sheltered employment. Method: The photovoice method was used. Nine participants with moderate to mild intellectual disabilities, working in
In total, 106 youths with and without intellectual disabilities participated in the ... teaching motor skills to an inclusive group of learners with and without disability. ... noted in motor performance for both participants with and without disabilities.
Coppens-Hofman, Marjolein C; Terband, Hayo R; Maassen, Ben A M; van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, Henny M J; van Zaalen-op't Hof, Yvonne; Snik, Ad F M
In individuals with an intellectual disability, speech dysfluencies are more common than in the general population. In clinical practice, these fluency disorders are generally diagnosed and treated as stuttering rather than cluttering. To characterise the type of dysfluencies in adults with intellectual disabilities and reported speech difficulties with an emphasis on manifestations of stuttering and cluttering, which distinction is to help optimise treatment aimed at improving fluency and intelligibility. The dysfluencies in the spontaneous speech of 28 adults (18-40 years; 16 men) with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (IQs 40-70), who were characterised as poorly intelligible by their caregivers, were analysed using the speech norms for typically developing adults and children. The speakers were subsequently assigned to different diagnostic categories by relating their resulting dysfluency profiles to mean articulatory rate and articulatory rate variability. Twenty-two (75%) of the participants showed clinically significant dysfluencies, of which 21% were classified as cluttering, 29% as cluttering-stuttering and 25% as clear cluttering at normal articulatory rate. The characteristic pattern of stuttering did not occur. The dysfluencies in the speech of adults with intellectual disabilities and poor intelligibility show patterns that are specific for this population. Together, the results suggest that in this specific group of dysfluent speakers interventions should be aimed at cluttering rather than stuttering. The reader will be able to (1) describe patterns of dysfluencies in the speech of adults with intellectual disabilities that are specific for this group of people, (2) explain that a high rate of dysfluencies in speech is potentially a major determiner of poor intelligibility in adults with ID and (3) describe suggestions for intervention focusing on cluttering rather than stuttering in dysfluent speakers with ID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc
Familial ring (18) mosaicism in a 23-year-old young adult with 46,XY,r(18) (::p11→q21::)/46,XY karyotype, intellectual disability, motor retardation and single maxillary incisor and in his phenotypically normal mother, karyotype 47,XX,+r(18)(::p11→q21::)/46,XX.
Balci, Sevim; Tümer, Celal; Karaca, Ciğdem; Bartsch, Oliver
We report on a 23-year-old man with craniofacial findings of the holoprosencephaly spectrum disorder (microcephaly, hypotelorism, depressed nasal bridge, single median maxillary central incisor), fusion of C2-C3 vertebrae, intellectual disability, and severe sleep apnea. Chromosome analysis of blood lymphocytes showed 75% ring (18) cells and 25% normal cells, karyotype mos 46,XY,r(18)(::p11→q21::)/46,XY. His mother was phenotypically normal except for a double ureter and bifid renal pelvis as in his son. She had a supernumerary ring (18) in 10% of blood lymphocytes, karyotype mos 47,XX,+r(18)(::p11→q21::)/46,XX. Familial ring (18) is a rare cytogenetic abnormality. This is the first report of a mother with a supernumerary ring (18) and a son with ring (18) mosaicism. Interestingly, the son showed a true mosaicism (mixoploidy) of ring (18) and normal cells. The mother's 46,XX cells could be easily explained by mitotic instability and ring loss during cell division. However, the coexistence of ring (18) and normal cells in the son is unusual. Possibly, during early postzygotic divisions of a 47,XY,+r(18) zygote, two (possibly subsequent) genetic events could have occurred, one when one normal chromosome 18 was lost (resulting in a cell line with ring 18), and one when the ring 18 was lost (resulting in a cell line without ring, "escape to normal"). Alternatively, the zygote of the son could have been 46,XY,r(18), and postzygotic loss of the ring 18 could have resulted in monosomy 18 cells followed by duplication of chromosome 18 in these cells (a rare mechanism for cell survival previously described as "compensatory" isodisomy). Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Brown, J L; Pollitt, E
New findings with important policy implications have revealed that malnutrition in childhood impairs intellectual function in more ways than was previously recognized, but also that some of the damage to the brain caused by malnutrition may be reversed. Early research indicated that malnourished animals lacked the energy to interact with their environment and, thus, performed poorly on tests of mental ability. To determine the effect of poor diet and an impoverished environment on mental development in humans, an extensive follow-up study was made of Guatemalan children who received two different nutritional supplements in a 1969-77 study. Mothers and children in two villages received a high-protein supplement (Atole), and those in two additional villages received a supplement with no protein (Fresco). Both supplements reduced mortality, but Atole villages saw a 69% reduction in infant mortality (vs. 24% in the Fresco villages). The 1988-89 follow-up of 70% of the original participants involved extensive cognitive testing and socioeconomic assessment. Atole subjects performed significantly better on the cognitive tests, and the lowest-income children did as well as their more economically advantaged (but still poor) peers. Those who received Atole exhibited an increased benefit from their years of education and grew up faster and stronger than those who received Fresco. Smaller children who appear younger than their age may receive less stimulation from adult expectations than larger children. These findings indicate that the deleterious effects of early malnutrition on intellectual development can continue into adulthood. Other research has revealed that iron supplements can improve the intellectual and motor abilities of infants. While enriched educational programs can ameliorate some of the problems associated with malnutrition, poor children rarely live where such programs are available. The best and least expensive policy would be to prevent malnutrition among
Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.
Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.
Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…
Both thought-action fusion (TAF: i.e., a cognitive bias implying an inflated sense of responsibility for one's own thoughts) and thought suppression have been claimed to contribute to the development of obsession-like intrusions. Therefore, it seems plausible that conjunction of these phenomena results in highly intense intrusions. However, possible interactions between TAF and thought suppression have not yet been investigated experimentally. In the current study, healthy volunteers were exposed to a TAF-like intrusion. They were, then, randomly assigned to a suppression (n=21) or non-suppression condition (n=19). Next, visual analogue scales (VASs) were completed measuring anxiety, feelings of responsibility and guilt, urge to neutralise and so on. Contrary to expectation, several VAS scores were lower for participants in the suppression group than for those in the non-suppression group. Hence, it is concluded that thought suppression may, at least in the short term, alleviate discomfort caused by TAF-like intrusions.
Parker, Latofia P.
The purpose of this study was to examine high school counselors' attitudes toward the sexuality of students with intellectual disabilities. One hundred and twenty-two high school counselors in Alabama were the participants for this study. Participants completed the "Attitudes towards Sexuality and Students with Intellectual Disability…
Meer-Kooistra, Jeltje van der; Zijlstra, Siebren M.
In today’s knowledge-based economy intellectual capital (IC) is becoming a major part of companies’ value. Being able to manage and control IC requires that companies can identify, measure and report internally on IC. As financial accounting rules ban full disclosure of IC in the annual report the
... for loving and fulfilling relationships with others. Individual rights to sexuality, which is essential to human health and well-being, have been denied. This loss has negatively affected people with intellectual disabilities in gender identity, friendships, self-esteem, body image ...
Suggests that working beyond the academy should be understood not as an abandonment of the academic job market, a response to failure, or a curse: instead, it should be understood as a new avenue for intellectual work, one that neither graduate-school programs nor the Modern Language Association would be wise to ignore. (RS)
Hall, James C.
Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same…
Full Text Available Cognitive development significantly influences efficiency and results of child’s understanding and comprehension of the world. Attention and cognition play a significant role to ensure academic achievement and success. Attention is essential for purposeful planning of action and systematic work. Attention is necessary to follow the study material and for physical survival in everyday life. Cognition is significant in decision making and evaluating possible outcomes, being especially important in children with cognitive development disorders. The aim of the present study was to find out the peculiarities of the cognitive processes in 9 to 11-year-old children with cognitive development disorders. Previous literature suggests that children with intellectual development disorders are at increased risk of general cognitive disorders. To test this assumption and establish cognitive abilities in children with intellectual development disorders, the following subtests of the Vienna Test System (VTS were used: CPM/S2 (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, B19 (Double Labyrinth Test and WAFF (Perception and Attention Functions: Focused Attention. VTS is one of the leading computer-based psychophysiological testing systems in Europe. In addition to testing, behavioural observations were also carried out. Study results reveal that children with a shared diagnosis are not as similar when it comes to cognition and attention. Not all children within the sample group exhibited reduced attention and concentration, although the whole participant sample was diagnosed with intellectual development disorder. Meanwhile, risk factors hindering normal cognitive development were identified.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research is designing a computerized program, in game format, for working memory training in mild intellectual disabled children. Methods: 24 students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerized Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub- tests, and secondary tests, which contained three parts: dual visual-spatial test, auditory test, and a one-syllable word recalling test. Results: The results showed significant differnces between working memory capacity in the intellectually disabled children and normal ones (P-value<0.00001. After using the computerized working memory training, Visual-spatial WM, auditory WM, and speaking were improved in the trained group. The mentioned four tests showed significant differences between pre-test and post-test. The trained group showed more improvements in forward tasks. The trained participant’s processing speed increased with training. Discussion: According to the results, comprehensive human-computer interfaces and the aplication of computer in children training, especially in traing of intellectual disabled children with impairements in visual and auditory perceptions, could be more effective and vaulable.
Full Text Available Article is devoted to theoretical analysis of nature and structure of intellectual property relations. Types of intellectual property relations and its role in public reproduction are investigated. Peculiarities of intellectual property relations are considered. Two groups of approaches to classification of intellectual property objects are analysed: classification of objects depending on its characteristics which is based on the analysis of their most essential features, specificity of their protection, features of realisation of the property and non-property rights; classification on the basis of various minor criterions which do not reveal nature and character of objects but at the same time allow to divide them into groups according to concrete tasks of research. Necessity of defining of incorporeal objects of intellectual property which cannot be labelled as objects of copyright, industrial property or branding tools is proved. Criteria of classification of party’s to intellectual property relations are investigated. The subject structure of intellectual property relations according to the legislation of Ukraine is defined. New approaches to classification of party’s to intellectual property relations depending on their role in relations of intellectual property and their economic functions are offered, which allow to embrace as much as possible all participants of intellectual property relations, consider their role in the process of commercialisation, and draw attention to subjects which carry out regulating and mediatorial functions on the intellectual property market.
Townsend, Michael; Hassall, John
Background: Schools in New Zealand do not normally include students with intellectual disability in their sports programmes. This study examined regular students' attitudes towards the possible inclusion of students with an intellectual disability in an integrated sports programme within their school. Materials and Methods: A total of 170 school…
Rose, E.; Bramham, J.; Young, S.; Paliokostas, E.; Xenitidis, K.
This study aimed to characterise the neuropsychological functioning of adults with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disability. Individuals with ADHD and mild-borderline range intelligence (N=59) and individuals with ADHD and normal intellectual functioning (N=95) were compared on attentional and response…
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to obtain answers about the most important questions involving dishonesty in science. If we consider scientific work, we have to mention that various forms of errors need to be divided into two groups: reputable and disreputable errors. The third group, called the “grey zone”, includes “cooking” and “trimming”. When we consider the problem of dishonesty in science we should mention the most important question: who and for what reasons commits plagiarism and other forms of intellectual crookedness? Is it for financial benefits or for advancement? It is difficult to say, but it is necessary to use all available remedies to eradicate all forms of intellectual dishonesty, which is hard, especially in biomedical sciences. However, some reputable journals in this field use some special software packages to detect plagiarism.
Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Reichstein, Toke
-identify with and which will allow companies to focus on the IP and IP Management issues most relevant to them. By doing so, the authors offer further insights as to the use of IP and IP management practices across firms. By looking at empirical data covering the population of firms, the findings not only pertain......Intellectual Property Rights Management explores how the entire toolbox of intellectual property (IP) protection and management are successfully combined and how firms generate value from IP. In particular, this book provides a framework of archetypes which firms will be able to self...... to large organization but also reflect the practices and operations that reside in SMEs. This volume also utilizes labor market and firm data to determine whether there is a definitive relationship between IP and economic performance on the firm level....
Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding
The present paper aims to assess the hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia prevalence of adolescents with intellectual disabilities, and to recognize the health disparities between the study participants and the general population. This study conducted a cross-sectional medical chart analysis of 856 students who participated in school…
Mercier, C; Picard, S
The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a team dedicated to homeless persons. (1) To describe the characteristics, history and current situation of these persons; and (2) to report within-group differences as a function of gender and current residential status. The data were collected from files using an anonymous chart summary. Descriptive statistics on the whole sample (n = 68) and inferential statistics on cross-tabulations by gender and residential status were performed. Persons with ID exhibited several related problems. Some of these persons, primarily women, experienced relatively short periods of homelessness and their situations stabilised once they were identified and followed up. Other persons with ID experienced chronic homelessness that appeared to parallel the number and severity of their other problems. When compared with a previous epidemiological study of the homeless in Montreal, the population of homeless persons with ID differed from the overall homeless population in a number of respects. The results suggest prevention and intervention targets. The need for epidemiological research appears particularly clear in light of the fact that below-average intellectual functioning has been identified as a risk factor for homelessness and a predisposing factor for vulnerability among street people. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The present thesis investigates behaviour problems and their relationship to psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability living in the northern part of Norway, as well as the concordances between four of the most commonly used assessment instruments for psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability. A total of one hundred and eighty-one individuals with intellectual disability living in the counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark participated in the studies. ...
Mannix, John G.
Because of the importance of intellectual property rights to the private sector, NASA has developed a reference guide to assist business leaders in understanding how the Intellectual Property Articles of the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station will be implemented. This reference guide discusses the statutory, regulatory and programmatic strictures on the deployment, utilization and ownership of intellectual property within the Space Station program. This guide presents an analysis of the intellectual property law aspects of the international agreements and documents pertaining to the International Space Station, and then relates them to NASA's authorities for entering into research and development agreements with private entities. This paper will discuss the reference guide and should aid potential agreement participants in understanding the legal environment for entering into agreements with NASA to fly research and development payloads on the International Space Station.
Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan
Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the relationship between intellectual capital and financial capital using a case study. This makes it possible to discuss how intellectual capital is related to value creation with a degree of nuance that is absent from most statistical studies of relationships...... between human, organisational, relational and financial capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study of a firm that invests in intellectual capital in order to develop financial capital. It traces the relationship between intellectual capital elements and financial capital via...... interviews. This allows the development of a nuanced account of the performance of intellectual capital. This account questions the universality of the linear model typically found in statistical studies. The model makes it possible to show how items of intellectual capital not only interact but also compete...
Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario
Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent...
Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov
Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...
Witsø, Aud Elisabeth; Hauger, Brit
This study illuminates how adults with intellectual disabilities understand and describe their everyday life and its shortcomings when it comes to equal rights in the context of Norwegian community living. An inclusive research design, including nine persons with mild intellectual disability, two university researchers and two intellectual disability nurses from the municipality, was undertaken. An inductive thematic analysis of data identified three key themes: everyday life - context, rhythm and structure, social participation and staff - an ambiguous part of everyday life. Results show that service provision had institutional qualities; participants experienced lack of information and reduced possibilities for social inclusion and community participation like everyone else. More attention on the role of policy development, support staff and leadership, in relation to facilitating an everyday life with more user involvement, social inclusion and community participation of people needing support, is essential. Participatory, appreciative, action and reflection in workshops for persons with intellectual disabilities and support staff represent a promising approach to promote the voices and interests of persons with intellectual disabilities. Accessible abstract This article tells you about the everyday life of people with intellectual disabilities living in Norway. Nine people with intellectual disabilities worked together with two university researchers and two intellectual disability nurses in the community, in workshops. The people with intellectual disabilities liked to have their own apartment and going to work every day. They said that they wanted more social participation with friends and more participation in activities in the community, just like everyone else. They wanted to be treated with more respect by their staff. All participants in the project saw great value in working together and some of them are working together in a new project about
Lloyd, Meghann; Foley, John T; Temple, Viviene A
Individuals with intellectual disabilities are at higher risk for health disparities including overweight and obesity; however, little is known at the population level about the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities. This study is a secondary analysis of BMI status (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) in children and youth (8-Olympics by country economic status. A total of 14,032 participants (n=8,856 male) measured height and weight records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database. The 141 countries in the database were re-coded according to the World Bank's classification of country economic status. BMI prevalence rates were calculated for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity for children and youth using IOTF cutoffs by economic status. Chi-squared analyses and Fisher's exact test were used to examine differences in weight status by economy and sex. Overall, 27.87% of Special Olympics participants from low-income economies, 31.04% from lower middle-income, 25.29% from upper middle-income, and 42.36% from high-income economies had BMI levels outside of the normal range. The low-income countries had higher rates of underweight and the high-income countries had higher rates of obesity. The high levels of both underweight and overweight/obesity found in this population of children and youth participating in Special Olympics represents a double burden of health risk. More research is needed to understand why this population experiences such disparities in BMI status and to develop health promotion initiatives targeted at this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, L.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Long, X.; Cluitmans, P.J.M.; van Dijk, J.P.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) features are crucial for the seizure detection performance. Traditional algorithms are designed for a population with normal brain development. However, for patients with an intellectual disability the seizure detection performance is still largely unknown. In addition,
in favour of worthy causes. However, it is also very rewarding to draw on the creativity, enthusiasm and rapidly improving technical skills of young students, and to guide them to use video equipment themselves for documentary, for philosophical film essays and intellectual debate. In the digital era......Like everyone else university students of the humanities are quite used to watching Hollywood productions and professional TV. It requires some didactic effort to redirect their eyes and ears away from the conventional mainstream style and on to new and challenging ways of using the film media...
Yildiran, Hatice; Holt, Rachel R.
The study focused on the effectiveness of group mindfulness for people with intellectual disabilities in an assessment and treatment unit. Six participants with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The interviews focused on identifying the benefits and difficulties of using mindfulness. The…
Kim, Youngdeok; Park, Ilhyeok; Kang, Minsoo
The purpose of this study was to investigate rater effects on the TGMD-2 when it applied to children with intellectual disability. A total of 22 children with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. Children's performances in each of 12 subtests of the TGMD-2 were recorded via video and scored by three adapted physical activity…
Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen
The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to
McMahon, Don D.; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel E.; Bell, Sherry Mee
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of an emerging technology called augmented reality to teach science vocabulary words to college students with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. One student with autism and three students with an intellectual disability participated in a multiple probe across behaviors (i.e.,…
Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom
To test the efficacy, acceptability, and appropriateness of a nutrition education and support program, 4 community-based group homes for adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities participated in a pilot intervention with extended baseline period and pre--post-test design. Adults (N = 32) with intellectual or developmental…
Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa
Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…
McCracken, W.; Lumm, J.; Laoide-Kemp, S.
Background: The Special Olympics offer the opportunity for athletes with intellectual disabilities to participate in a range of sports at regional, national and international level. A parallel Healthy Athletes programme was introduced to ensure safety at the games but also to collect data on the health needs of those with intellectual disabilities…
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Chien, Wu-Chien; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chu, Cordia M.
The aims of the preset study were to describe the profile of serum uric acid, the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its risk factors among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 941 children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (aged 4-18 years) who participated in annual health…
Gustavsson, Marie; Starke, Mikaela
Background: Parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are often socially isolated and need support. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study is based on participant observations of a group for parents with with intellectual disabilities. Data were categorized and interpreted in the framework of social capital and symbolic interactionism.…
Kim, Jeongil; Kwon, Miyoung
Background: Task performance is a critical factor for learning in individuals with intellectual disabilities. This study aimed to examine mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) to improve task performance for children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: Three elementary school children with ID participated in the study. A multiple baseline…
Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Xingli; He, Yunfeng; Shi, Jiannong
This study examined three aspects of the clustering strategy used by participants: the differences of clustering strategy between intellectually gifted and average children; the relationship between clustering strategy and recall performance in intellectually gifted and average children; and the differences in recall performance on collaborative…
Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Shinsho, F; Takatorige, T; Murakami, S; Fukuda, H
To examine the prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning and its correlates in community-residing elderly people, a randomly selected sample of 1,405 people aged 65 and over living in Settsu, Osaka, were investigated in October 1992. Data for assessing intellectual dysfunctioning were obtained from 1,364 people (97.1%), excluding 21 clinically demented people (1.5%); 17.6/100, 5.6/100, and 3.3/100 of the population showed minor, moderate, and appreciable intellectual dysfunctioning, respectively, and the prevalence of intellectual dysfunctioning increased with age. By multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age over 75, poor general health, including current medical treatment, and psychosocial conditions such as no participation in social activities, no life worth living (no Ikigai), and anxiety about the future were independent risk factors for intellectual dysfunctioning. We conclude that intellectual dysfunctioning is closely associated with health and psychosocial conditions.
Alfano, Mark; Iurino, Kathryn; Stey, Paul; Robinson, Brian; Christen, Markus; Yu, Feng; Lapsley, Daniel
This paper presents five studies on the development and validation of a scale of intellectual humility. This scale captures cognitive, affective, behavioral, and motivational components of the construct that have been identified by various philosophers in their conceptual analyses of intellectual humility. We find that intellectual humility has four core dimensions: Open-mindedness (versus Arrogance), Intellectual Modesty (versus Vanity), Corrigibility (versus Fragility), and Engagement (versus Boredom). These dimensions display adequate self-informant agreement, and adequate convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity. In particular, Open-mindedness adds predictive power beyond the Big Six for an objective behavioral measure of intellectual humility, and Intellectual Modesty is uniquely related to Narcissism. We find that a similar factor structure emerges in Germanophone participants, giving initial evidence for the model's cross-cultural generalizability.
Madsen, Susan R.
Suggests that one of the most important keys for improving individual and organizational performance is in developing and strengthening intellectual capital (IC) and explores the similarities and differences between the concepts of intellectual capital, human capital, and knowledge management. Presents four IC characteristics and addresses the…
ALA Editions, 2010
Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social…
Full Text Available Pragmatic competence means the use of language in social context. Persons with intellectual disability experience numerous problems in this aspect of communication, but they are relatively pragmatically skilled in well-known situations, in which they are not subjected to significant cognitive and social requirements. The aim of this paper is to determine the level of pragmatic abilities of children and youth with mild intellectual disability and to perceive its relation to chronological age, speech comprehension, speech production, the level of intellectual functioning, gender and bilingualism of the participants. The level of pragmatic competence was tested in the sample of 120 children with mild intellectual disability, aged between 8 and 16, by using the Test of pragmatic language competence. The Clinical scales of Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological battery for children were also used. The results obtained in this research suggest that general level of achievement of children with mild intellectual disability in this domain of development is far below the expectations based on their chronological age. Significant progress appears between 12 and 14 years of age, but there are also two critical periods in their development. Important relations of pragmatic skills with speech comprehension, speech production, chronological age and intellectual level were established.
García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; Wolfe, Marie; O'Doherty, Siobhain
Internationally, people with intellectual disability are socially marginalized, and their rights under the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are often ignored. This paper aims to define the key concerns of adults with an intellectual disability in relation to their participation in society using an inclusive research strategy for both data gathering and data analysis. A national study involving 23 focus groups and 168 persons was conducted on the island of Ireland with people with intellectual disability as co-facilitators. A thematic content analysis was undertaken of the verbatim transcripts initially by university co-researchers, and 19 themes were identified. Co-researchers with intellectual disability joined in identifying the eight core themes. These were as follows: living options, employment, relationships, citizenship, leisure time, money management, self-advocacy, and communication. The concerns are discussed within the framework of the CRPD, and implications for transforming service policy are drawn. Why we did the research In many countries, people with intellectual disability have difficulties doing things other people without disabilities do, for example to study, to get a job or to live independently. They also find that their rights are not respected under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (the Convention). We did this study to Learn what are the main issues for adults with intellectual disability in Ireland. Do research with people with intellectual disability. How we did the research People with intellectual disability and their supporters worked with university researchers to plan and do the research. We met with people in groups and 168 people told us about things important to them. What we found out We found that there were very important things that people talked about in the groups. We chose the most important: living options, employment, relationships, rights, leisure, money
Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Bejanin, Alexandre; Gonneaud, Julie; Wirth, Miranka; La Joie, Renaud; Mutlu, Justine; Gaubert, Malo; Landeau, Brigitte; de la Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Chételat, Gaël
The brain mechanisms underlying the effect of intellectual enrichment may evolve along the normal aging Alzheimer's disease (AD) cognitive spectrum and may include both protective and compensatory mechanisms. We assessed the association between early intellectual enrichment (education, years) and average cortical florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio as well as performed voxel-wise analyses in a total of 140 participants, including cognitively normal older adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD patients. Higher education was associated with lower cortical florbetapir positron emission tomography (florbetapir-PET) uptake, notably in the frontal lobe in normal older adults, but with higher uptake in frontal, temporal, and parietal regions in MCI after controlling for global cognitive status. No association was found in AD. In MCI, we observed an increased fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake with education within the regions of higher florbetapir-PET uptake, suggesting a compensatory increase. Early intellectual enrichment may be associated with protection and compensation for amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition later in life, before the onset of dementia. Previous investigations have been controversial as regard to the effects of intellectual enrichment variables on Aβ deposition; the present findings call for approaches aiming to evaluate mechanisms of resilience across disease stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna
This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.
Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna
Full Text Available This article deals with the selection of intellectual capital management strategy. The attention is paid to the structure of intellectual capital, which consists of human capital, customer capital, process capital, intellectual property, intangible assets. The algorithm of selection of intellectual capital management strategy was created by author.
Francis Gurry has led WIPO as Director General since 1st October, 2008. He was reappointed in May 2014 for a second six-year term, which runs until September 2020. Under his leadership, WIPO is addressing major challenges. These include managing the stress on the international patent and copyright systems produced by rapid technological change, by globalisation and increased demand; reducing the knowledge gap between developed and developing countries; and ensuring that the intellectual property (IP) system serves its fundamental purpose of encouraging creativity and innovation in all countries. Every year, WIPO publishes the Global Innovation Index (GII), which provides detailed metrics about the innovation performance of countries and economies around the world. The 2016 edition highlighted CERN as an example of successful, regional innovation initiatives. In this seminar Mr. Gurry will share his knowledge and views on the role of IP in innovation. You can read a message from Mr. Gurry here : http://...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the effects of intellectual capital components; namely, human capital, structural capital and relational capital on company performance in Iranian auto industry. The study uses a questionnaire consists of 100 questions to cover intellectual capital and company performance in Likert scale and it is distributed among 180 experts in one of Iranian auto industry. Cronbach alphas for intellectual capital components, i.e. human capital, relational capital and structural capital are 0.82, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. In addition, Cronbach alpha for company performance is 0.82. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and company performance. The study has also determined a positive and meaningful relationship between human capital and structural capital. Among components of performance, efficiency maintained the highest effect while innovation represents the minimum effect.
Background: Rehabilitation has emerged as a comprehensive approach to addressing intellectually-disabled peoples' skill deficits, improving competencies and facilitating optimal functioning in order to provide the greatest possible measure of social and economic participation, self-reliance and independence. Objective: ...
Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hermans, Heidi; Penning, Corine; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.
Problems encountered in epidemiologic health research in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are how to recruit a large-scale sample of participants and how to measure a range of health variables in such a group. This cross-sectional study into healthy ageing started with founding a
Study investigated why teachers exclude children with intellectual disability from the regular classrooms in Nigeria. Participants were, 169 regular teachers randomly selected from Oyo and Ogun states. Questionnaire was used to collect data result revealed that 57.4% regular teachers could not cope with children with ID ...
Flores, Noelia; Jenaro, Cristina; Orgaz, M. Begona; Martin, M. Victoria
Background: This paper examines the perceived quality of working life of workers with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, this paper looks at participants' perceptions in relation to perceived job demands and resources and their impact on experienced job satisfaction. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 507 workers with intellectual…
This is a study of word decoding in adolescents with Down syndrome and in adolescents with Intellectual Deficits of unknown etiology. It was designed as a replication of studies of word decoding in English speaking and in Hebrew speaking adolescents with Williams syndrome ( and ). Participants' IQ was matched to IQ in the groups with…
Reidy, Mary; Denieffe, Suzanne; Foran, Sinéad
In the Republic of Ireland, more than 8000 women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), aged 20 years and over, are registered for service provision. Their health needs challenge preventative health services including breast and cervical cancer screening programmes. This review explores the literature about cancer screening participation rates and…
Walker, Zachary; Vasquez, Eleazar; Wienke, Wilfred
The purpose of this research study was to explore the efficacy of role-playing and coaching in mixed-reality environments for the acquisition and generalization of social skills leading to successful job interview performance. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, five young adults with intellectual disability practiced…
Grandisson, Marie; Tetreault, Sylvie; Freeman, Andrew R.
Background: Promoting the health and social participation of adolescents with intellectual disability is important as they are particularly vulnerable to encountering difficulties in those areas. Integration of these individuals in integrated sports is one strategy to address this issue. Methods: The main objective of this study was to gain a…
Hall, Sarah A.
The voice of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills. It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…
Carpenter, Donald A.
Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…
Kumar, Akhilesh; Singh, Rajani Ranjan; Thressiakutty, A. T.
The radical changes towards services for persons with disabilities were brought by Principle of Normalization, originated in 1969. As a consequence of Normalization, disability as a whole, and intellectual disability in particular, received the attention of the masses and the intelligentsia began advocating normalization ideologies which became…
Allain, Albert N.
This investigation examines WAIS performance in groups of 32 sociopaths and 33 normal controls defined by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory criteria. Sociopaths and normal controls show no differences in overall level of intellectual functioning. (Author)
García Parra, Mercedes; Simó Guzmán, Pep; Sallán Leyes, José María; Mundet Hiern, Joan
Purpose – Most models of intellectual capital measurment equal intellectual capital with intellectual assets. Nevertheless, companies sometimes must incur liabilities to make intellectual assets truly actionable. This fact suggests the existence of intangible liabilities. The aim of this paper is to refine the methods of assessment of intellectual capital by refining and extending the concept of intangible liabilities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper consists of a literature revi...
Taking responsibility for your own health has been a central tenet of public health policy internationally for a number of decades. Governments in the UK and internationally continue to promote a plethora of health promotion strategies, encouraging individuals and communities to adopt healthy lifestyle choices. Although it is widely recognised that men are not as proactive in seeking out medical help or taking on health promotion advice as women, limited gender-sensitive research exists in the field of intellectual disability. Despite many health promotion policy and practice strategies targeted at this population, little research exists exploring whether men with intellectual disability acknowledge health promotion advice. The study aimed to explore how men with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability understood and perceived their health and what health promotion messages they acted upon. The study was based on a participatory approach which enabled 11 men with intellectual disability to contribute as steering group members and as participants through one-to-one interviews. Data were collected between September 2011 and July 2012. Thematic analysis was undertaken. The participants demonstrated a capacity to understand their own health. This was inclusive of a concern about associating being obese with being unhealthy. The participants reported good relationships with their general practitioners (GPs) and felt valued, in particular when the GP was prepared to offer specific intellectual disability and health promotion advice. More gendered research inclusive of the views of this male population is required and the study reiterates the importance of promoting the health of men and women with intellectual disability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maire, J.P.; Coudin, B.; Demeaux, H.; Celerier, D.; Caudry, M.; Guerin, J.
Thirty adult patients treated for brain tumors by radiation therapy were tested by the Weschler intelligence scale (WAIS). All patients were in complete clinical and scanographic remission. Intellectual quotient (IQ) and deterioration coefficient were evaluated. This coefficient was determined by separate study of intellectual faculties according to their relationship to external agressions. During the first months, IQ and deterioration coefficient are similar to those observed in the normal population. From 7 to 30 months, there is a significant diminution of the intellectual faculties (p = 0,01) noted on the deterioration coefficient but without global IQ alteration. After 30 months appears a decrease in the global IQ, testifying of further alteration of intellectual faculties. Radiation therapy seems to be the predominant factor in the induction of this deterioration and the importance of the irradiation volume appears to be essential. On the other hand, neurosurgery, chemotherapy and emotional status seem to be less important. Intellectual deterioration makes professionnal reinsertion difficult but not impossible. Further studies are necessary to define what place take other factors like age, vascular status, tumor site, type and number of chemotherapy cycles, acute radiation tolerance, in the induction of this deterioration [fr
Cardol, M.; Rijken, M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. van
Objective: To explore how professional caregivers in communal living arrangements support people with a mild or moderate intellectual disability (ID) who have diabetes. Methods: A qualitative study, 13 caregivers participated in semi-structured interviews. Results: Professional caregiver support in
Cardol, M.; Rijken, M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M. van
OBJECTIVE: To explore how professional caregivers in communal living arrangements support people with a mild or moderate intellectual disability (ID) who have diabetes. METHODS: A qualitative study, 13 caregivers participated in semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Professional caregiver support in
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.
Finds that both experienced scientists and college students found it difficult to carry out intellectual teamwork involving collaboratively authored documents without the interactivity and expressiveness permitted by face-to-face communication. (SR)
Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim
Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been use...
The following article discusses the relationship between the model of intellectual disability and the attitudes towards sexuality of people with disabilities. This correlation has been verified during the author's own research conducted on students of several medical faculties such as nursing, public health, emergency medical services and physiotherapy. Tools of the author's design have been used in the research. Likert-type scale "Perspective of intellectual disability" has been used to determine the model of disability seen from the medical (individual) or social perspective. To examine the attitudes towards sexuality two tools of the author's own design have been used: a Likert-type scale "The essence of sexuality in persons with an intellectual disability" which has been used to analyze the cognitive aspect of the attitudes, and a semantic differential with notions concerning physical and psychosocial aspects of sexuality including the affective-evaluative aspect. As expected, significant correlations have been found between the model and the attitudes both in the cognitive and the affective-evaluative aspect. Higher scores for the individual model correlated with: (a) lover scores for most aspects of sexuality of people with intellectual disability, (b) perceiving them as asexual, (c) biological determinism in the sexual sphere. The social model concurred with positive values given to sexuality of people with intellectual disability and its normalization in the sphere of its determinants and symptoms.
San Martín, Alvaro; Pagani, Mario Rafael
Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McDonald, Katherine E.; Schwartz, Nicole M.; Gibbons, Colleen M.; Olick, Robert S.
Perceptions, attitudes, and ethical concerns related to conducting research with adults with intellectual disability hinder scientific innovation to promote health. Yet we lack an understanding of community views on effective research policy and practice. To address this knowledge void, we qualitatively studied the views of adults with intellectual disability and those who provide them support regarding research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found substantial suppor...
Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Solera Martinez, M; Rodriguez Moya, Alejandro; Perez, Y; Martinez Vizcaino, V
Purpose: To use confirmatory factor analysis to test whether a four factor might explain the clustering of the components of the physical fitness in adults with intellectual disabilities (FID). Relevance: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are significantly weaker than individuals without ID at all stages of life. These subjects might be particularly susceptible to loss of basic function because of poor physical fitness. Participants: We studied 267 adults with intellectual...
Jacobs, Myrthe; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Hunter, Simon C
Children with intellectual disabilities have high rates of behaviour problems. This study explored parents' causal beliefs and attributions for general problematic child behaviour in children with different aetiologies of intellectual disabilities. Ten parents of children with intellectual disabilities participated in interviews about their child's problematic behaviour. Thematic analysis using NVivo revealed that parents viewed their child's problematic behaviour not only as caused by the child's intellectual disabilities but also by other causes unrelated to the intellectual disabilities, as well as by aspects of the social environmental context. Some causes were viewed as stable and uncontrollable and others as unstable and controllable. In addition, parents showed a strong sense of responsibility for child behaviour. Parents of children with intellectual disabilities do not solely interpret their child's problematic behaviour through the intellectual disabilities but incorporate the environment and causes and attributions that are not related to the intellectual disabilities, which may help to promote more effective parenting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marilene Bortolotti Boraschi
Full Text Available This article focuses on the role and learning of reading and wrinting to human development as a social practice, considering the necessary condition to reading and writing as an exercise in citizenship. Aims to reflect on the occurrence of reading-writing processes and literacy in children with intellectual disabilities. The study was conducted by means of literature, and are based on a qualitative research. The reflections made throughout the investigation brought some considerations on intellectual disability, charactering it. Allowed some notes on the processes of reading-writing and literacy. As the survey results, some thoughts were about the possible occurrence of the processes of reading-writing and literacy in intellectually disabled children, discussing how these processes can take place through pedagogical practices in classrooms common regular education, contributing to the appropriation of the world literate and active participation by such child in society.
Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.
The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for
This paper deals with intellectual property as the results of various intellectual activities such as R & D, and intellectual proprietary rights which protect it. New technology, designs, literary works, computer programs, semiconductor chips, new plant breeding, brands, trading secrets, CI and others, and legislations which protect them are described. Then, the background of the fact that intellectual proprietary rights are emphasized as analyzed. The author points out items as follows; movement toward much larger size of R & D, generation of the areas to be newly protected, trend in enforcement of intellectual property protection, commercialization of intellectual property, trend in software evolution, movement in technological protectionism, and the present status on each item.
Parsi, Kayhan P; Geraghty, Karen E
Public intellectuals have long played a role in American culture, filling the gap between the academic elite and the educated public. According to some commentators, the role of the public intellectual has undergone a steady decline for the past several decades, being replaced by the academic expert. The most notable cause of this decline has been both the growth of the academy in the twentieth century,which has served to concentrate intellectual activity within its confines, and the changing nature of the media, which has framed the way in which information is conveyed to the public. We argue that although bioethics has developed primarily within the academic tradition and utilized the role of expert when dealing with the public, bioethicists are well suited to don the mantle of the public intellectual. Indeed, because they address issues in medicine and science of great relevance for the general public, bioethicists have a duty to revitalize the tradition of public intellectuals as a necessary complement to the important, but narrower role of the expert.
Paula – Angela VIDRAŞCU
Full Text Available This paper supports the understanding of the definition of intellectual property rights and strong connection with intangible assets and, on the other hand, provides a brief presentation of the organizations supporting the protection of such rights. The essential aim of this article is represented by the detailed information obtained as a result of research carried out in order to define, identify and study the application of IPR in general and especially in our country. At the end of the paper I mentioned what involves protecting intellectual property rights and brought little concerned how our country is perceived to protect such rights. Most often, intellectual property is defined as a formal document of title, like a lease, which means that the property is a legal concept distinct from real property that are actually good without concrete material form. Constitute a special category of assets being perceived as an original creation, derived from creative ideas; has or may have a commercial value due to its contribution to earnings for its owner. The need for protection of intellectual property rights has emerged because of the changes in the contemporary society. The aim and purpose of which is to protect human intelligence product and, at the same time, ensuring that consumers benefit from the use of the attributes of this product. Always remember that the violation of intellectual property rights, causes injury to major economic, signifying a strong threat to the consumers health and safety.
Tannir, Abir; Al-Hroub, Anies
This research study investigates effects of character education activities on the self-esteem of intellectually able and less able students in the lower elementary level in Kuwait. The participants were 39 students in grade three with an average age of eight years old. Students were first divided into two ability subgroups (intellectually able vs.…
Akkerman, Alma; Janssen, Cees G. C.; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.
Background: This study explored the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on themes relevant to their job satisfaction in integrated and sheltered employment. Method: The photovoice method was used. Nine participants with moderate to mild intellectual disabilities, working in integrated and sheltered employment, took pictures of…
Jacobs, Paula; MacMahon, Ken
Background: Siblings often play significant roles in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities. This study aimed to give voice to young adults whose siblings have an intellectual disability and are in residential care. Materials and Methods: Six participants were interviewed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology…
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Kroger, Teppo; Fu, Li-yeh
The effects of caregiving on mothers of adults with intellectual disability was examined by determining whether there are differences in quality of life and related factors between mothers with different employment status. Study participants were 302 working-age mothers who had adult children with intellectual disability based on the 2008 census…
Shepley, Sally B.; Smith, Katie A.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Alexander, Jennifer L.
Self-instruction for individuals with an intellectual disability can be viewed as a pivotal skill in that once learned this skill has collateral effects on future behaviors in various environments. This study used a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate video modeling to teach high school students with an intellectual disability to…
Wieland, Jannelien; Kapitein-de Haan, Sara; Zitman, Frans G
In the Netherlands, patients with borderline intellectual functioning are eligible for specialized mental health care. This offers the unique possibility to examine the mix of psychiatric disorders in patients who, in other countries, are treated in regular outpatient mental health care clinics. Our study sought to examine the rates of all main Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Axis I psychiatric diagnoses in outpatients with borderline intellectual functioning of 2 specialized regional psychiatric outpatient departments and to compare these with rates of the same disorders in outpatients from regular mental health care (RMHC) and outpatients with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Our study was a cross-sectional, anonymized medical chart review. All participants were patients from the Dutch regional mental health care provider Rivierduinen. Diagnoses of patients with borderline intellectual functioning (borderline intellectual functioning group; n = 235) were compared with diagnoses of patients from RMHC (RMHC group; n = 1026) and patients with mild ID (mild ID group; n = 152). Compared with the RMHC group, psychotic and major depressive disorders were less common in the borderline intellectual functioning group, while posttraumatic stress disorder and V codes were more common. Compared with the mild ID group, psychotic disorders were significantly less common. Mental health problems in people with borderline intellectual functioning may not be well addressed in general psychiatry, or by standard psychiatry for patients with ID. Specific attention to this group in clinical practice and research may be warranted lest they fall between 2 stools.
O'Regan, Philip; O'Donnell, David
Intellectual capital and the management and use of an organization's intellectual resources can be understood from the perspective of Habermas' theory of communicative action. The systematic and reciprocal relations of communicative action create value through the mechanisms of exchange. (SK)
Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of intellectual capital; its management, features and processes by which intellectual capital of a company can be evaluated. The main elements of intellectual capital (human, structural and relationship capital are presented and used in research. After surveying bibliography, intellectual capital evaluation model, which applies to Lithuanian and Latvian companies operating in the transport sector, is created. The research is based on the value-added intellectual capital factor model, the relationship between indicators, multi-asset return correlation and regression analysis and generation of alternatives to intellectual capital performance-enhancing. Following an assessment of intellectual capital of Lithuanian and Latvian transport sectors, on the basis of the results, it was found that the intellectual capital is a key factor in corporation management to increase revenue. Article in Lithuanian
Bastani, Behfar; Fernandez, Dennis
Intellectual property (IP) rights are essential in today's technology-driven age. Building a strategic IP portfolio is economically important from both an offensive and defensive standpoint. After an introduction to intellectual property rights and acquisitions, we provide an overview of current efforts in nanotechnology. Research into nano-scale materials and devices and requirements for their efficient mass production are outlined, with focus on the applicable IP rights and strategies. We present current and future applications of nanotechnology to such fields as electronics, sensors, aerospace, medicine, environment and sanitation, together with the IP rights that can be brought to bear in each. Finally, some challenging issues surrounding the acquisition of intellectual property rights in nanotechnology are presented
Rađenović, Tamara; Krstić, Bojan
The importance of intellectual capital for creating and sustaining competitive advantage of firms has been well established and confirmed in theory and practice. Intellectual resources proved to be the most valuable resources in the process of value creation for various stakeholders. Starting from 1980s onwards, both researchers and practitioners have focused on finding the best solution for measuring intellectual capital in order to enable efficient management and reporting on intellectual c...
Schmitz Vaccaro, Christian
In recent years we have seen a true internationalization of intellectual property laws. So today one can easily familiarize with foreign laws on intellectual property, due to their increasing uniformity and homogeneity. This is the result of numerous international treaties and two international organizations. At the multilateral level, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) administers 24 treaties on intellectual property, and for its part, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is i...
Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack
It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption and in fact the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.
Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.
Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane
The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.
Doody, Mairéad A; Hastings, Richard P; O'Neill, Sarah; Grey, Ian M
There is relatively little research on the relationships between adults with intellectual disability and their siblings, despite the potential importance of these relationships for either individual's psychological well-being and future care roles that might be adopted by adult siblings. In the present study, sibling relationships of adults with adult siblings with (N=63) and without (N=123) intellectual disability were explored. Contact, warmth, conflict, and rivalry were measured using questionnaires available as an on-line survey. Expressed emotion was measured using the Five Minute Speech Sample over the telephone to establish an independently coded measure of criticism from the participant towards their sibling. Overall, there were few group differences in contact and sibling relationship. There was less telephone contact in the intellectual disability group, and less reported warmth in the relationship with siblings with intellectual disability although this was mainly associated with severe/profound intellectual disability. Exploratory analyses were conducted of the correlates of sibling relationships in both the intellectual disability and control groups. These analyses revealed a small number of different associations especially for conflict, which was lower when either the participant or sibling was younger in the control group but associated with relative age in the intellectual disability group.
Bassi, Laurie J.
Describes intellectual capital--employees' brainpower, know-how, knowledge, and processes--and knowledge management--the processes by which a company creates and leverages intellectual capital--as the primary sources of competitive advantage in many industries. Offers ways to measure intellectual capital, a glossary, and additional resources. (JOW)
S N Lebedev
Full Text Available The article is based on the detailed analysis of the intellectual labor and takes into account theoretical and practical aspects of the intellectual labor economics in the transition to the information society. The author describes the nature, specific features, content, structure and the bases for classification of the intellectual labor.
Petersen, Lars Axel
This paper investigates the legitimacy of intellectual property by focusing on three topical issues, viz., the question of indigenous cultural rights, of computer software intellectual rights, and of intellectual property rights to essential drugs. A scheme of different arguments for the legitimacy...... of private property rights is applied to these issues, and each of the arguments assessed....
1. An intellectual property strategy is a policy aimed at improving the international competitiveness of industry and reinvigorating the economy through the creation, protection, and greater use of intellectual property. 2. The realization of IP policies conventionally considered difficult to implement and greater awareness of intellectual property at all levels of society, as demonstrated the establishment of Intellectual Property High Courts that exclusively and solely handle intellectual p...
Kauffman, James M; Hung, Li-Yu
To inform readers of current issues in special education for individuals with intellectual disabilities and summarize recent research and opinion. Two issues dominate special education for students with intellectual disabilities in the early 21st century. First, what should be taught to such students and who should teach them? Second, where should such students be taught - in 'inclusive' settings alongside normal peers or in special settings dedicated to their special needs? Research on teaching reading, arithmetic, and functional daily living skills to students with disabilities suggests the superiority of direct, systematic instruction. Universal design is often seen as supportive of inclusion. Inclusion has been seen as the central issue in special education but is gradually giving way to concern for what students learn. Direct, systematic instruction in reading, arithmetic, and daily living skills is the most effective approach to teaching students with intellectual disabilities. Basic concepts and logic suggest that special and general education cannot be equivalent. We conclude that what students are taught should be put ahead of where they are taught. Our fundamental concern is that students with intellectual disabilities be respected and be taught all they can learn.
McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.
Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board members. We found considerable variance. For example, adults with intellectual disability see exclusion from research as more harmful, but most psychosocial harms as less significant than others. All stakeholders agree that having someone else make the participation decision is harmful. Findings provide insights into the concept of harm and ethical research with adults with intellectual disability. PMID:28095059
McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Kim, Carolyn I; LoBraico, Emily J; Prather, Ellis M; Olick, Robert S
Human subjects research has a core commitment to participant well-being. This obligation is accentuated for once exploited populations such as adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about the public's views on appropriate safeguards for this population. We surveyed adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members to compare views on safeguards. We found many points of convergence of views, particularly for decision-making and participation. One trend is that adults with intellectual disability perceive greater safety in being engaged directly in recruitment, and recruitment by specific individuals. Researchers and IRB members need to consider community views to facilitate the safe and respectful inclusion of adults with intellectual disability.
Fulford, Casey; Cobigo, Virginie
The purpose of this thematic synthesis was to review qualitative studies on perspectives of persons with intellectual disabilities regarding friendships and intimate relationships. A literature search was conducted, including studies published between 2004 and 2014, involving participants 14 years of age or older, who had intellectual disabilities, and participated in focus groups or interviews. Eighteen studies were included. Three master themes were identified: (i) How do I know someone is my friend? (ii) How do I know someone is my boyfriend or girlfriend? and (iii) What helps and hinders relationships? Understanding how people with intellectual disabilities describe relationships, and being aware of factors that support and impede relationships, will aid stakeholders in developing training, policies, programmes and services. Knowledge translation of research that focuses on strategies aimed at supporting relationships is crucial to affect change in applied settings and improve quality of life for persons with intellectual disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li, Eria Ping-Ying; Tam, Alan Sing-Fai; Man, David Wai-Kwong
This study explores the self-concepts of Hong Kong Chinese with intellectual disabilities. Face-to-face and individual interviews were conducted in Cantonese, using the Chinese version of the Adult Source of Self-Esteem Inventory (ASSEI) together with three open-ended questions to explore the participants' self-conceptions in different life domains. An opportunity sample of 135 young adults with intellectual disabilities was interviewed. The findings showed that the family self, the social self and achievement in school and work were the self-concept attributes most important to the participants. The participants of this study had a higher total self-concept than that of a comparison group of people without disabilities when the participants used the in-group social comparison to maintain positive self-perception. The importance of partnership with family, self-concept enhancement strategies and quality employment service are discussed in order to facilitate people with intellectual disabilities to develop more positive self-concepts and thus achieve better community integration.
The article will propose an improved model to cater for AnyTime Access, which is convenient for student needs between lec-tures, and improve the harvesting mechanism in the existing model. Keywords: Intellectualization, Terminology Development, Harvesting, Crowdsourcing, Consultation, Verification, Authentication, ...
Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe
When practicing business model (BM) innovation releasing intellectual capital (IC) strategically from SME´s BMs through the innovation process can be extremely difficult and complex to carry out especially to small and medium size enterprises (SME). There are so many opportunities and resources...
Evers, Colin W.
This author's interest in philosophy derived from a passion for mathematics that developed in middle high school, which he attended in Sydney. In this article, he provides a self-portrait of his intellectual life and his involvement with the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA). He states that despite the research demands of his…
With the share of intellectual property among corporate value constantly rising,management's understanding of the strategic use of patents, trademarks, andcopyrights becomes ever more crucial. The vast majority of articles on patent ortrademark strategies, however, is written by and for lawyers d...... observations in the deployment of patents andtrademarks and inspires them to think more creatively about IPRs than they didbefore....
Darling, Richard L.
Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)
Ienciu Nicoleta Maria
Full Text Available In the classical theory of economics, capital is one of the three factors of production, in addition to land and labor, and refers in particular to buildings, equipment, and machinery etc., used for the production of other goods (the term physical capital is also used by the specialized literature (Bratianu and Jianu, 2006. The present study intend to bring to the forefront the main evalluation methods for intellectual capital, as proposed, supported and criticized at the same time by researchers and practitioners. The study offers response to the following research questions: Which are the advantages and disadvantages of the intellectual capital evaluation methods? And what are the main studies approaching the subject of intellectual capital evaluation at international level? The collection and analysis of intellectual capital evaluation models and the non-participative observation are the main instruments used to bring to the forefront the main international existing evaluation frameworks. The information sources representing the base for these researches are especially constituted by articles published in specialized magazines, both from accounting and economics fields, specialized works relevant to the reference field, legislative documents, official documents, press releases and other documents issued by various national and international bodies. The most representative studies bringing to the forefront the evaluation of intellectual capital are the ones elaborated by Mouritsen et al (Mouritsen et al, 2001, Manea and Gorgan (Manea and Gorgan, 2003, Tayles (Tayles, 2002, Tayles et al (Tayles et al, 2007. The presented approaches offer a general idea on the range of methods, disciplines and operational specializations existing for the evaluation of intellectual capital. Only one of them - Balanced Scorecard is largely used, while the rest of the methods remain too theoretical or too poorly developed to be universally accepted. We believe that
Schmader, Toni; Forbes, Chad E.; Zhang, Shen; Mendes, Wendy Berry
Three studies tested the hypothesis that negative metacognitive interpretations of anxious arousal under stereotype threat create cognitive deficits in intellectually threatening environments. Study 1 showed that among minority and White undergraduates, anxiety about an intelligence test predicted lower working memory when participants were primed with doubt as compared to confidence. Study 2 replicated this pattern with women and showed it to be unique to intellectually threatening environme...
Mok, W. K.; Ling, T. K.
Objective: The aim of this study was to predict the fruit and vegetable consumption intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong by the application of Ajzen?s Theory of Planned Behaviour. Methods: 50 students with mild intellectual disability (30 male and 20 female), ranging in age from 15 to 38 years, were participated in this study. By means of face-to-face interviews, demographic data, Food Preference and variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as Attitude, S...
Manghi Haquin, Dominique; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Otálora Cornejo, Fabiola; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Arancibia M., Marianela; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
Given the need to understand the forms of communication of people with intellectual disability, as to favor their social participation, this study deals with narration as a self-managed instance of discourse beyond language. The purpose is to standardize a methodology which allows us to explore their narrative discourse using a multi-modal perspective. The description corresponds to narrations of fifteen Chilean children of school age with intellectual disability and low development of oral l...
Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom......' continued participation. I show how negotiating the risks of participation may simultaneously satisfy the desire for knowledge and curb erotic desires....
White, David; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S
Injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents worldwide, and injury rates have been shown to be higher among youth with intellectual disability. Despite this, injury among adolescents with intellectual disability remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with injury among adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. A cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability living in southern Queensland, Australia was investigated prospectively between January 2006 and June 2010. Personal characteristics were collected via postal questionnaire. Injury information, including mechanism and location of injury, was extracted from general practitioner records. The association between demographic, social and clinical characteristics of participants and episodes of injury was investigated using negative binomial regression. A total of 289 injuries were recorded from 432 participants over 1627.3 years of study-time. The overall annual injury incidence was 17.5 (95%CI 14.7, 20.9) per 100 person years. Presence of ADHD and less severe disability was associated with increased risk of injury. Down syndrome and reduced verbal communication capacity were associated with decreased risk of injury. Falls accounted for the highest single mechanism of injury (19.0%) with the majority (73.2%) of injuries involving either upper or lower limbs. ADHD is a co-morbidity that increases risk of injury among adolescents with intellectual disability. A critical component of injury prevention is avoidance of the great variety of environmental risk factors for injury relevant to this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper explored the relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intelligence as it occurs in adolescence. Study participants were 345 students (123 males in their third year of high school. Participants were administered three standard tests of intelligence, the SM-ECR-R, and the recently developed Mentalization Questionnaire (MQ. The study also utilized earlier collected data from a sample of 284 employed adults. In line with our research hypothesis, attachment security and mentalization were positively related, with correlations ranging from small to moderate depending on the dimension inspected. Attachment anxiety was found to be higher in the adolescent than in the adult sample, and contrary to expectations was not significantly related to intelligence in the former group. Attachment avoidance did not correlate with intelligence in the total student sample, but did show a small negative association with analogical reasoning and the g-factor when the intellectually gifted were excluded from analyses. This latter group, as well as males from the student sample scored significantly higher on attachment avoidance than their respective comparison groups - intellectually average and female adolescents. Finally, mentalization was found to be positively related to intellectual ability and higher in a gifted than average-ability girls, b girls than boys, and c adults than adolescents. The results are discussed as shedding light on the peculiarities of the attachment system in adolescence, revealing specific associations between attachment avoidance, mentalization, and intellectual ability, highlighting gender differences in both attachment and mentalization, and adding to our understanding of the socioemotional characteristics of intellectually gifted students.
Wilson, Nathan J; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L
People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived experiences of a supported social group. Data were analysed using descriptive phenomenology. Two themes emerged (i) supported engagement fosters wellbeing, and (ii) developing social belonging and connectedness. Participants not only acknowledged the support that they needed to participate, but also that the social group had changed their lives in many ways. Adults with intellectual disability want to socialise, have friends and be part of their community. For this to be achieved, they recognise the need to seek some form of support. With appropriate and targeted support, adults with intellectual disability can move from social exclusion towards supported inclusion and experience richer lives. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.
Balogh, Robert; McMorris, Carly A; Lunsky, Yona; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Bourne, Laurie; Colantonio, Angela; Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C
When compared to the general population, persons with an intellectual disability have lower life expectancy, higher morbidity, and more difficulty finding and obtaining healthcare. Organisational interventions are used to reconfigure the structure or delivery of healthcare services. This is the first update of the original review. To assess the effects of organisational interventions of healthcare services for the mental and physical health problems of persons with an intellectual disability. For this update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and other databases, from April 2006 to 4 September 2015. We checked reference lists of included studies and consulted experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials of organisational interventions of healthcare services aimed at improving care of mental and physical health problems of adult persons with an intellectual disability. We employed standard methodological procedures as outlined in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions, in addition to specific guidance from the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group. We identified one new trial from the updated searches.Seven trials (347 participants) met the selection criteria. The interventions varied but had common components: interventions that increased the intensity and frequency of service delivery (4 trials, 200 participants), community-based specialist behaviour therapy (1 trial, 63 participants), and outreach treatment (1 trial, 50 participants). Another trial compared two active arms (traditional counselling and integrated intervention for bereavement, 34 participants).The included studies investigated interventions dealing with the mental health problems of persons with an intellectual disability; none focused on physical health problems. Four studies assessed the effect of organisational interventions on behavioural problems for persons with an intellectual disability, three assessed care giver burden, and
José Luis Alfaro Navarro
Full Text Available New Management Information Systems (MIS are necessary at local level as the main source of wealth creation. Therefore, tools and approaches that provide a full future vision of any organization should be a strategic priority for economic development. In this line, cities are “centers of knowledge and sources of growth and innovation” and integrated urban development policies are necessary. These policies support communication networks and optimize location structures as strategies that provide opportunities for social and democratic participation for the citizens. This paper proposes a theoretical model to measure and evaluate the cities intellectual capital that allows determine what we must take into account to make cities a source of wealth, prosperity, welfare and future growth. Furthermore, local intellectual capital provides a long run vision. Thus, in this paper we develop and explain how to implement a model to estimate intellectual capital in cities. In this sense, our proposal is to provide a model for measuring and managing intellectual capital using socio-economic indicators for cities. These indicators offer a long term picture supported by a comprehensive strategy for those who occupy the local space, infrastructure for implementation and management of the environment for its development.
Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Yun, Joonkoo; Pavol, Michael J.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Kim, So-Yeun
This study examined whether the walk-to-run transition speed (W-RTS) and the run-to-walk transition speed (R-WTS) were different or more variable between participants with and without intellectual disability (ID). Nine adults with ID and 10 adults without ID completed in a series of walk-to-run and run-to-walk trials on a treadmill. W-RTS and…
Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut
Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...
Sezer, Taner; Balcı, Oya; Özçay, Figen; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Alehan, Füsun
To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in children and adolescents with nonsyndromic intellectual disability, we investigated serum levels of tissue transglutaminase antibody and total IgA from 232 children with nonsyndromic intellectual disability and in a healthy control group of 239 children. Study participants who were positive for tissue transglutaminase antibody underwent a duodenal biopsy. A total of 3 patients in the nonsyndromic intellectual disability group (5.45%) and 1 in the control group (0.41%) had positive serum tissue transglutaminase antibody (P > .05). Duodenal biopsy confirmed celiac disease in only 1 patient who had nonsyndromic intellectual disability. In this present study, children with nonsyndromic intellectual disability did not exhibit a higher celiac disease prevalence rate compared with healthy controls. Therefore, we suggest that screening test for celiac disease should not be necessary as a part of the management of mild and moderate nonsyndromic intellectual disability. However, cases of severe nonsyndromic intellectual disability could be examined for celiac disease. © The Author(s) 2015.
Nikitenko, S. M.; Mesyats, M. A.; Rozhkova, O. V.
This article is devoted to research the characteristics associated with pledge of intellectual property in foreign and domestic practice. Holding intellectual property objects’ pledge transactions accelerates the pace of creating innovative systems in the economy. In present paper the modern scheme for bank loan, financing secured with patented intellectual property is researched. The authors give the brief description of features of pledge security registration for loans in some Europe countries. The Europe Union experience shows that as collateral for monetary loans can be used trademarks, patents on the intellectual property, as well as their registration requests. Russian experience of the pledge operations of the intellectual property is too small. This way of bank lending is at an early stage of development. The main constraint is the difficulty of assessing the value of the pledged intellectual property as intangible assets. However, taking into account world and domestic practice this direction for Russian market is estimated by the authors as promising one. Pledge transactions take place within the framework of the Quadruple-Helix Model concept that involves four participants: “science”, “business”, “government” and “society”. Intellectual property are estimates by the authors as an instrument of interaction between government, business, science and society.
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the oral health status of intellectually disabled (ID children and adolescents from state schools, Valdivia, Chile, 2012. Design: Descriptive study. A sample of students from state schools was assessed for caries history (Decayed, Missing, Filled permanent Teeth (DMFT/decayed, extracted, filled temporal teeth (deft, quality of oral hygiene (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, OHI-S and gingival health (Gingival Index, GI. In addition, questions were asked about dental care habits, degree of ID, presence of systemic disease and medicine use. Results: 195 students with slight to moderate ID and aged from 6 to 21 years were assessed. The average DMFT/deft was 2.19/1.33 for female students and 1.59/1.93 for male students. The OHI-S in 75.9% of participants was moderate, with poorer oral hygiene found in participants with moderate ID. Only 2.6% showed code 0 for GI, reflecting poor oral hygiene. Most participants possessed their own toothbrush (88.2% and could clean their teeth unaided (96.4%.Conclusion: The state of oral health in the assessed population is deficient. The quality of oral hygiene is normal or poor, which leads to poor gingival health.
The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de
Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva
The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....
Wark, Stuart; Hussain, Rafat; Edwards, Helen
Investigations around ageing with an intellectual disability have increased substantially in the past three decades. A research gap continued to exist regarding the detection of ageing issues in this cohort of people, particularly in rural areas where access to specialist support continued to be limited. The purpose of this study was to identify the main signs of ageing in rural people with intellectual disabilities. A multi-round Delphi design was used to examine what signs of ageing were observed by disability support staff, who assisted people with intellectual disability. The project was conducted across nine of the ten rural regions (as defined by the government funding body) in New South Wales (NSW). There were 31 participants representing 14 non-government organisations. The group was composed of 26 women and 5 men, with a mean age of 47 years, who averaged 10-year experience with people with intellectual disabilities. The objective was to gain the direct input of rurally based disability workers to identify the main signs of ageing in people with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-two specific signs of ageing, including emerging mental health issues, grief, loss of identity and aggression, were identified. A thematic analysis indicated two main categories: mental/emotional functioning and physical functioning. When carers have the information and skills needed to identify the main signs of ageing, they can more accurately recognise and address potential problems in a timely manner. Such understandings have the potential to reduce premature admissions to residential aged-care. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Lifshitz, Hefziba; Shtein, Sarit; Weiss, Izhak; Vakil, Eli
This meta-analysis combines the effect size (ES) of 40 explicit memory experiments in populations with intellectual disability (ID). Eight meta-analyses were performed, as well as contrast tests between ES. The explicit memory of participants with ID was inferior to that of participants with typical development (TD). Relatively preserved explicit…
Merriman, S.; Haw, C.; Kirk, J.; Stubbs, J.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK. The aim of this study was to screen inpatients with mild or borderline intellectual disability, many of whom also have mental illness, for risk factors for CHD. Participants were interviewed, measured and had blood samples taken. Of the 53 participants, 20 (37.7%)…
Hurley, Anne D
This article examines reviews and research on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in people with intellectual disability published from September 2004 to December 2005. Patients with intellectual disability have limitations in verbal ability, and with increasing levels of disability may have an atypical clinical presentation. Thus, methods to diagnose mood disorders were a major research focus. Informant-rating scales and two self-report instruments provided data on thought patterns, aberrant behavior, appetite, and suicidality. Behavioral symptoms such as aggression were frequently associated with mood disorders. Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy were found to be effective treatments. Mood disorders were frequently identified in people with intellectual disability, although suicide was still quite rare. Patients with milder levels of disability can use self-report measures and can be diagnosed using standard criteria with little modification. For those with more severe disability, diagnosis is challenging and often requires the use of residual categories. Atypical clinical presentation, including maladaptive behaviors, lent support for 'behavioral equivalent' substitutes of standard criteria. Typical pharmacological agents were effective for depression and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.
Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim
Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.
Werner, Shirli; Hochman, Yael
Identity development among individuals with disabilities may depend on their being included in central institutions in society. The centrality of the military in Israeli society makes it a highly important setting for inclusion and identity development. We examined the self-identity of young adults with intellectual disabilities who serve in the "Equal in Uniform" project. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 31 individuals with intellectual disabilities. Findings showed that military service helped develop the identity of soldiers, which enhanced their self-efficacy. Participants described their participation in the military as an opportunity to take an active part in socially valued roles. Findings are discussed with reference to the effect of the project on the self-identity of individuals with intellectual disabilities. The meaning of successfully serving in socially valued roles for self-efficacy is discussed. Implications for rehabilitation Completing socially valued roles leads to greater self-efficacy, enhanced self-esteem and greater psychological well-being among individuals with intellectual disabilities. Inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities within a central community setting (specifically the military) allows them to deal with issues of identity development, as it does for other young people without intellectual disabilities. Receiving ongoing positive input from others for one's abilities and success is a conducive factor in positive identity formation.
O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; García-Iriarte, Edurne
Inclusive research with people with intellectual disabilities is growing internationally but with few studies examining its feasibility. In undertaking a national study exploring what life was like in Ireland for people with intellectual disabilities, a community of practice was developed involving a core group of co-researchers: five people with intellectual disabilities, four university researchers and three service support staff. An additional cadre of 15 co-researchers with intellectual disabilities was recruited to undertake data gathering and analysis with 23 focus groups involving 168 participants. The research experience was documented through oral feedback, progress reports, minutes and a project review. The key learning is documented arising from the setting up of an inclusive advisory group and implementation of each of six research steps. The study demonstrates feasibility and the added value of university co-researchers recruiting and developing skills together with co-researchers with intellectual disabilities. Topics for further research and development are identified. This paper tells you about how people with intellectual disabilities worked with a group of university researchers. Both groups were called co-researchers and together they ran 23 focus groups across Ireland. People with intellectual disabilities talked about their lives and what could make them better. They said they needed to have a good place to live; a job; enough money; relationships; and acceptance as respected citizens. The university co-researchers wrote about what it was like doing research together and how people with intellectual disabilities joined the advisory group; decided on the questions; ran focus groups; and presented findings. Together they grew into a community of researchers where the university co-researchers shared their research skills and people with intellectual disabilities shared what it was like living with a disability. They both saw great value in
Trollor, Julian N; Eagleson, Claire; Turner, Beth; Salomon, Carmela; Cashin, Andrew; Iacono, Teresa; Goddard, Linda; Lennox, Nicholas
Individuals with intellectual disability experience chronic and complex health issues, but face considerable barriers to healthcare. One such barrier is inadequate education of healthcare professionals. To establish the quantity and nature of intellectual disability content offered within Australian nursing degree curricula. A two-phase national audit of nursing curriculum content was conducted using an interview and online survey. Australian nursing schools offering pre-registration courses. Pre-registration course coordinators from 31 universities completed the Phase 1 interview on course structure. Unit coordinators and teaching staff from 15 universities in which intellectual disability content was identified completed the Phase 2 online survey. Quantity of compulsory and elective intellectual disability content offered (units and teaching time) and the nature of the content (broad categories, specific topics, and inclusive teaching) were audited using an online survey. Over half (52%) of the schools offered no intellectual disability content. For units of study that contained some auditable intellectual disability content, the area was taught on average for 3.6h per unit of study. Units were evenly distributed across the three years of study. Just three participating schools offered 50% of all units audited. Clinical assessment skills, and ethics and legal issues were most frequently taught, while human rights issues and preventative health were poorly represented. Only one nursing school involved a person with intellectual disability in content development or delivery. Despite significant unmet health needs of people with intellectual disability, there is considerable variability in the teaching of key intellectual disability content, with many gaps evident. Equipping nursing students with skills in this area is vital to building workforce capacity. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laverghetta, Antonio; Stewart, Juliana; Weinstein, Lawrence
To estimate correlations for scores on a student anti-intellectualism scale with scores on a measure of political conservatism, 235 students were given a survey containing a student anti-intellectualism scale, a political conservatism scale, and a demographics questionnaire identifying the participants' sex, college classification, ethnicity, political party affiliation, and self-described political ideology. The political conservatism scale contained two factors, Religiosity and Economic Conservatism, both of which were scored separately in addition to an overall Conservatism score. Students' Anti-intellectualism scores were correlated with Political Conservatism scores (r = .37, p < .01), with Religiosity scores (r = .42, p < .01), and with Economic Conservatism scores (r = .17, p < .05). An analysis of variance indicated a significant difference in students' Anti-intellectualism scores based on college classification (F4,233 = 2.27, p < .04). Specifically, freshman had significantly higher scores than graduate students.
Alicia Villar Ezcurra
Full Text Available Miguel de Unamuno, one of the most prominent intellectuals of Spain towards the end of the 19th century and first third of the 20th century, since his crisis in 1987 strived to warn of the limits to intellectualism. In his paper Intellectualism and Spirituality (March 1904, he reflected on the bodily, intellectual and spiritual dimensions of the human being, mindful of the First Letter of St. Paul to the Corinthians. He defined three types of people: the carnal (the downright uneducated, the intellectual (those who show logic and common sense and the spiritual (dreamers and poets. Without undermining intellectualism and facing the reductionism of any sign, as Pascal Unamuno highlighted the importance and significance of spirituality by being aware that it focuses on creating meaning and conquering the ideal, paving the way for a more fruitful life.
Brooks, B A; Floyd, F; Robins, D L; Chan, W Y
Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill acquisition. Participation in social activities is positively related to children's social adjustment, but little is known about the benefits of activity participation for children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities. This study investigated the association between frequency and type of social activity participation and the social competence of 8-11-year-old children with intellectual disability (n = 40) and specific learning disabilities (n = 53), in comparison with typically developing peers (n = 24). More time involved in unstructured activities, but not structured activities, was associated with higher levels of social competence for all children. This association was strongest for children with intellectual disability, suggesting that participation in unstructured social activities was most beneficial for these children. Future research on the quality of involvement is necessary to further understand specific aspects of unstructured activities that might facilitate social development. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj
Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the number of people with intellectual disabilities applying for care. The results are contained in this report. Our inventory reveals that demand for intellectual disability care has risen by an average of 9% pe...
Vinkler, Chana; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Michelson, Marina; Haas, Dorothea; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Lev, Dorit
Genetic syndromes with proportionate severe short stature are rare. We describe two sisters born to nonconsanguineous parents with severe linear growth retardation, poor weight gain, microcephaly, characteristic facial features, cutaneous syndactyly of the toes, high myopia, and severe intellectual disability. During infancy and early childhood, the girls had transient hepatosplenomegaly and low blood cholesterol levels that normalized later. A thorough evaluation including metabolic studies, radiological, and genetic investigations were all normal. Cholesterol metabolism and transport were studied and no definitive abnormality was found. No clinical deterioration was observed and no metabolic crises were reported. After due consideration of other known hereditary causes of post-natal severe linear growth retardation, microcephaly, and intellectual disability, we propose that this condition represents a newly recognized autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly-intellectual disability syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.
Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…
Giroux, Henry A.
Building upon the late Pierre Bourdieu's belief that intellectuals had a major responsibility in bridging intellectual work and the operation of politics, this paper argues that intellectuals, especially those in higher education, need to recognise that youth is an important moral referent and political starting point for addressing a number of…
Davies, Daniel K; Stock, Steven E; King, Larry R; Wehmeyer, Michael L
Significant barriers exist for individuals with intellectual disability to independently access print-based content. It is regrettable that, while the amount of content now available electronically increases, tools to access these materials have not been developed with individuals with intellectual disability in mind. This article reports the results of research evaluating the use of a palmtop PC-based application designed to enable individuals with intellectual disability to access electronic books and documents. Participants with intellectual disability were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, each group differing in the type of audio player used. Participants who used the specially designed reader made significantly fewer errors accessing electronic books and required significantly fewer prompts than did participants using either of 2 mainstream audiobook readers.
participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear...
... Cleft Lip and Palate MalaCards: x-linked intellectual disability, siderius type March of Dimes: Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Merck Manual Consumer Version: Intellectual Disability Orphanet: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Patient ...
Ogata, A.; Tashiro, K.; Terae, S.; Fujita, M.
We studied 12 patients with myotonic dystrophy using MRI and the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), to see it specific MRI findings were associated with intellectual impairment. We also compared them with the neuropathological findings in an autopsy case of MD with intellectual impairment. Mild intellectual impairment was found in 8 of the 12 patients. On T 2-weighted and proton density-weighted images, high-intensity areas were seen in cerebral white matter in 10 of the 12 patients. In seven of these, anterior temporal white-matter lesions (ATWML) were found; all seven had mild intellectual impairment (MMSE 22-26), whereas none of the four patients with normal mentation had ATWML. In only one of the eight patients with intellectual impairment were white-matter lesions not found. Pathological findings were severe loss and disordered arrangement of myelin sheaths and axons in addition to heterotopic neurons within anterior temporal white matter. Bilateral ATWML might be a factor for intellectual impairment in MD. The retrospective pathological study raised the possibility that the ATWML are compatible with focal dysplasia of white matter. (orig.)
de Lange, Iris M; Helbig, Katherine L; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Møller, Rikke S; Velinov, Milen; Dolzhanskaya, Natalia; Marsh, Eric; Helbig, Ingo; Devinsky, Orrin; Tang, Sha; Mefford, Heather C; Myers, Candace T; van Paesschen, Wim; Striano, Pasquale; van Gassen, Koen; van Kempen, Marjan; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Piard, Juliette; Minassian, Berge A; Nezarati, Marjan M; Pessoa, André; Jacquette, Aurelia; Maher, Bridget; Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Warde, Marie Therese Abi; De St Martin, Anne; Chelly, Jamel; van ‘t Slot, Ruben; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Brilstra, Eva H; Koeleman, Bobby P C
Background Mutations in the KIAA2022 gene have been reported in male patients with X-linked intellectual disability, and related female carriers were unaffected. Here, we report 14 female patients who carry a heterozygous de novo KIAA2022 mutation and share a phenotype characterised by intellectual disability and epilepsy. Methods Reported females were selected for genetic testing because of substantial developmental problems and/or epilepsy. X-inactivation and expression studies were performed when possible. Results All mutations were predicted to result in a frameshift or premature stop. 12 out of 14 patients had intractable epilepsy with myoclonic and/or absence seizures, and generalised in 11. Thirteen patients had mild to severe intellectual disability. This female phenotype partially overlaps with the reported male phenotype which consists of more severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, growth retardation, facial dysmorphisms and, less frequently, epilepsy. One female patient showed completely skewed X-inactivation, complete absence of RNA expression in blood and a phenotype similar to male patients. In the six other tested patients, X-inactivation was random, confirmed by a non-significant twofold to threefold decrease of RNA expression in blood, consistent with the expected mosaicism between cells expressing mutant or normal KIAA2022 alleles. Conclusions Heterozygous loss of KIAA2022 expression is a cause of intellectual disability in females. Compared with its hemizygous male counterpart, the heterozygous female disease has less severe intellectual disability, but is more often associated with a severe and intractable myoclonic epilepsy. PMID:27358180
Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte
of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...
Schuchardt, K; Gebhardt, M; Mäehler, C
In recent years, there has been increased research interest in the functioning of working memory in people with intellectual disabilities. Although studies have repeatedly found these individuals to have weak working memory skills, few investigations have distinguished between different degrees of intellectual disability. This study aims to help close this research gap and, in so doing, to examine whether the deficits observed reflect a developmental lag or a qualitative deviation from normal development. In a 5-group design, the working memory performance of a group of 15-year-olds with mild intellectual disability (IQ 50-69) was compared with that of two groups of children (aged 10 and 15 years) with borderline intellectual disability (IQ 70-84) and with that of two groups of children with average intellectual abilities (IQ 90-115) matched for mental and chronological age (aged 7 and 15 years). All children were administered a comprehensive battery of tests assessing the central executive, the visual-spatial sketchpad, and the phonological loop. The results showed deficits in all three components of working memory, and revealed that these deficits increased with the degree of intellectual disability. The findings indicate that, relative to their mental age peers, children with learning difficulties show structural abnormalities in the phonological store of the phonological loop, but developmental lags in the other two subsystems. Similar patterns of results emerged for both subgroups of children with intellectual disability, indicating that problems with phonological information processing seem to be one of the causes of cognitive impairment in individuals with intellectual disability.
Full Text Available This paper offers a definition of the intellectual covering both professional and moral dimensions: An intellectual is a specialist who creates and communicates symbolised knowledge as means of living, and hopefully intervenes in social and political affairs in the name of universal values, truth and justice. "Symbolised knowledge" is used in the definition to avoid the confusion with other forms of knowledge derived from direct personal experience in production and life. The purpose of using "specialist" as the subject term is to exclude those categories such politicians, soldiers and business people who exercise political, military, financial and other forms of power instead of intellectual power in their social function. This paper argues that there are many roles played by intellectuals, and the social location and function of intellectuals can be fundamentally different in different societies. When production and communication of knowledge are taken as the primary concern of intellectuals, ‘the death of the concerned intellectual’ becomes an unwarranted anxiety, because there is no reason to believe that knowledge and truth will no longer be pursued and valued by humankind. Political marginalisation of critical intellectuals, where it is a reality, seems to be caused not so much by the lack of power of intellectuals as by the lack of solidarity among intellectuals to fight for a common cause. The problem lies as much in the lack of enthusiasm among intellectuals to transcend the boundaries of their professional relevance and intervene in broad social and political issues, as in institutional structures consuming too much energy and time of the intellectuals and seducing them to give up their social responsibilities for personal career.
Intellectual and physical activities, but not social activities, are associated with better global cognition: a multi-site evaluation of the cognition and lifestyle activity study for seniors in Asia (CLASSA).
Lam, Linda C W; Ong, Paulus Anam; Dikot, Yustiani; Sofiatin, Yulia; Wang, Huali; Zhao, Mei; Li, Wenxiu; Dominguez, Jacqueline; Natividad, Boots; Yusoff, Suraya; Fu, Jong-Ling; Senanarong, Vorapun; Fung, Ada W T; Lai, Ken
population ageing will lead to a leap in the dementia population in Asia. However, information about potentials for low-cost and low-risk interventions is limited. to study the associations between lifestyle activities and global cognition from the Cognitive and Lifestyle Activity Study for Seniors in Asia (CLASSA). a cross-sectional study. we studied the association between global cognition and lifestyle activity participation in community living older adults (60 years or over) across nine sites in East Asia. A standardised lifestyle activity questionnaire exploring activities from four categories (intellectual, physical, social and recreational) was used to measure the pattern. Global cognition was categorised by locally validated versions of Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) (good cognition, GC-scored at the top 25% among participants with no significant cognitive deficit (SCD); normal cognition, NC-middle 50% among participants with no SCD; mild cognitive deficit, MCD-lowest 25% among participants with no SCD; SCD-below local cut-offs for dementia). two thousand four hundred and four (1,009 men; 1,395 women) participants were recruited. The mean age was 71.0 (7.2) years. A higher variety of intellectual and physical activities were associated with GC; more social activities were associated with higher risks of having impaired cognition (multinomial logistic regression). The same association was found in participants with no SCD and had regular activities for over 10 years (n = 574). intellectual activity and physical exercise were associated with better cognitive states in Asian older adults. Community-based intervention may take considerations into specific types of activities to optimise cognition. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Weise, Janelle; Fisher, Karen R; Trollor, Julian N
Generalist mental health professionals are inadequately equipped to meet the rights of people with intellectual disability. A better understanding of the attributes of effective professionals may assist in the development of workforce capacity in this area. Twenty-eight family/support persons of people with intellectual disability participated in four focus groups. Thematic analysis was undertaken applying the Intellectual Disability Mental Health Core Competencies Framework. Participants described attributes that aligned with current professional expectations such as working together and new attributes such as differentiating between behaviour and mental health. An unexpected finding was the need for professionals to be able to infer meaning by interpreting multiple sources of information. Participants also wanted professionals to acknowledge their professional limitations and seek professional support. Family/support persons identified a range of attributes of effective mental health professionals to support people with intellectual disability. Further research is necessary, particularly from the perspective of people with intellectual disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.
Sarri, Catherine; Douzgou, Sofia; Gyftodimou, Yolanda
We report on an intellectually disabled girl with a de novo satellited chromosome 10 (10qs) and performed a review of the literature of the non-acrocentric satellited chromosomes (NASC). Satellites and stalks normally occur on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes; however, the literature cit...
Roelofs, R. L.; Visser, E. M.; Berger, H. J. C.; Prins, J. B.; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, H. M. J.; Teunisse, J. P.
Background: Executive functioning (EF) is important for adequate behavioural functioning and crucial for explaining symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in individuals with normal intelligence, but is scarcely studied in individuals with ASD and intellectual disabilities (ID). We therefore study EF in an ID population by comparing…
Significant deviation from normal weight (obesity and underweight) and lack of physical exercise have been identified as three of the most significant global behavioural risks to health. Body mass index (BMI) and levels of physical activity were measured in a sample of 1542 adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) receiving supported…
Ingvaldsen, Anne Kristin; Balandin, Susan
Background: Concepts of inclusion and participation are at the core of both international and Norwegian policy for people with intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to identify senior centre users' views of the barriers and solutions to the inclusion of seniors with intellectual disability in community senior centres. Method: Thirty…
Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Baccouch, Rym; Laatar, Rabeb; Kachouri, Hiba; Rebai, Haithem
Background: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a hopping and jumping training programme (HJP) versus a sensorimotor rehabilitation programme (SRP) on postural performances in children with intellectual disability. Methods: Three groups of children with intellectual disability participated in the study: the HJP group, the SRP group…
Ducic, Bojan; Gligorovic, Milica; Kaljaca, Svetlana
Background: Social competence deficit is one of the main characteristics of intellectual disability. The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of working memory (WM) and self-regulation (SR) on social skills in persons with moderate intellectual disability (MID). Method: The sample included 41 participants with MID, aged 14-21.…
Knox, Marie; Bigby, Christine
This study explores meanings of family care held by seven families that include a middle-aged adult with intellectually disability. In-depth interviews were conducted with members of each family--the person with intellectual disability, parents, siblings, and sibling spouses. Participants described care as simply getting on with their lives, as…
Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett
The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…
Rimmerman, Arie; Chen, Ariel
This research examines the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting supportive behaviors by parents and adult siblings of immediate relatives with intellectual disability. Participants were 67 parents and 63 siblings whose immediate relatives with intellectual disability resided in two institutional care facilities. Three…
Full Text Available The subject of this research is the external and internal relations of the enterprise regarding the formation of its own intellectual capital. Methodological approaches to capital formation are revealed: principles of accounting for development trends of the modern world and national economies, macro and microeconomic conditions for the formation and use, methods of operational and strategic management of capital, economic and social instruments for accounting, regulation, and stimulation of its development. Some ways of formation and use of an intellectual capital of the enterprise in the modern business environment are proposed. The article reveals the essence and formulates the concept of the enterprise’s intellectual capital, its structure. The main approaches to the formation of a corporate organizational and economic mechanism for managing intellectual capital are proposed. The results of research on the conditions for the formation and use of intellectual capital at a number of enterprises in the Kherson region of Ukraine are presented. Based on the results of the study of issues of formation and development of the intellectual capital of enterprises, the following conclusions are made: intellectual capital of the enterprise is considered by the authors as a system of relations between different economic entities regarding rational sustainable reproduction, output of products, goods, services on the basis of progressive development of engineering, technology, production organization, increase in corporate incomes and living standards of employees on the basis of personified economic interests of participants in production. These are the materialized and non-materialized resources of the enterprise, formed on the realized knowledge, experience, skills, abilities of employees, relations with consumers, suppliers and other market partners, on the relations between employees and departments of the enterprise, which together determine its
Full Text Available The aims of this study are to analyze the effect of intellectual capital performance on intellectualcapital disclosure in annual report of manufacturing company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange(IDX period 2004-2006 and to analyze the level of intellectual capital disclosure in annualreport period 2004-2006. 50 companies was taken as samples in the research.This paper usescontent analysis to compile a measure of disclosure on each annual report of manufacturingcompany and statistical analysis to test whether intellectual capital performance has a positiveeffect to intellectual capital disclosure. Based on statistical analysis, it is concluded that theintellectual capital performance and firm size have a positive effect to intellectual capitaldisclosure. Leverage has no effect to intellectual capital disclosure. The result of content analysisshows that the intellectual capital disclosure in annual report of manufacturing company period2004-2006 are less than 50%.
The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…
Dr. Daan Andriessen
Today, Intellectual Capital plays a principal role in the delivery of corporate performance. This importance is reflected in the fact that companies, without the force of any regulations, start to produce intellectual capital statements to communicate their performance; accounting guidelines are
Giangreco, Michael F.
Research and experience tell us a great deal about how to successfully educate students with intellectual disability, but unfortunately this knowledge remains underutilized and inconsistently applied, writes researcher Michael F. Giangreco. Students with intellectual disability who have virtually identical profiles but live in different locales…
Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…
The present study examines the Intellectual Property policies at schools selected from Research Infosource’s Canada’s Top 50 research universities 2009 (http://www.researchinfosource.com/). This work is a continuation and extension of Dr. Bruce P. Clayman’s original idea and piece University intellectual property policies.
Cooper, Jessica L.
The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…
Connolly, Frank W.
Discusses the need for intellectual honesty in using technology. Topics include intellectual property laws; ethics; indirect results of copying software and images; the need for institutional policy; and the provision of facilities and resources that encourage respect for policy. A sidebar provides "A Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for…
Coles, Sarah; Scior, Katrina
National and international polices promote the acceptance, integration and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities into mainstream society. However, there is little systematic research into general population attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities, and even less research, which considers the impact of culture on attitudes. The aim of this study was to explore how young people from White British and South Asian backgrounds differ in their attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities and above all, how they arrive at their beliefs. A qualitative design utilizing focus groups and individual interviews with White British and South Asian adolescents aged 16-19 years (N = 61) was employed. Questionnaire data were collected to compare this sample to findings from a larger study run concurrently (Attitudes to people with intellectual disabilities: a cross cultural study. Thesis, University College London). Interview and focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis yielded five themes and pointed to widespread confusion about the concept of 'intellectual disability', not helped by the continuing invisibility of people with intellectual disabilities in the media. Participants expressed many positive beliefs, yet closer analysis revealed that underlying these may be more ambivalent or even hostile attitudes. Key differences between the two cultural groups are discussed. The findings highlight the need for raising public awareness and the importance of culturally sensitive support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio
The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to analyze self-concept, self-esteem, and psychopathological symptoms in individuals with and without intellectual disability; and (b) to explore whether there were gender differences in these same variables in both groups. The sample is made up of 170 participants aged 19 to 40, 128 without disability and 42 with intellectual disability. The methodology is descriptive. To measure the variables, three assessment instruments were applied: the "Listado de adjetivos para la evaluaci6n del autoconcepto en adolescentes y adultos" (LAEA; Garaigordobil, in press), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965), and the Revised Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, 1983). The ANOVA showed that participants with intellectual disability scored significantly lower in self-concept and self-esteem, and higher in all the psychopathological symptoms except for somatization. The ANOVA did not reveal significant gender differences in any variables in either of the two groups.
Bennett, Annemarie E
Adults with an intellectual disability have poorer diets than the general adult population. The Able 2 Cook 4 Health cookery course aims to improve the diets of adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability. This study aims to evaluate the course by obtaining the views of course participants and the views of managers hosting the course. Thirty course participants took part in focus groups. Five managers hosting the course participated in a semi-structured interview. Positive features of the course included the group cooking, social interaction and course instructors. Collaboration between centres hosting the course and participants\\' home environment is needed to help transfer the skills learned to all home settings. The Able 2 Cook 4 Health cookery course provided participants with an important social outlet to learn essential occupational skills. These findings could particularly influence the diets of adults with an intellectual disability moving into independent living.
Trollor, Julian N; Ruffell, Beth; Tracy, Jane; Torr, Jennifer J; Durvasula, Seeta; Iacono, Teresa; Eagleson, Claire; Lennox, Nicolas
There is a high burden of unmet health needs for people with intellectual disability. Despite experiencing significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared with the general population, this group faces greater barriers to accessing healthcare. While increasing workplace capacity is one way to reduce this inequitable access, previous research indicates a scarcity of undergraduate teaching in intellectual disability. The aim of the study was to determine the extent and nature of intellectual disability content currently offered within medical degree curricula. All Australian universities (n = 20) providing accredited medical training were invited to participate in a two-phase audit via an email invitation to the Dean of each medical school. The Dean's delegate from 14 medical schools completed Phase 1, which involved a questionnaire or telephone interview about the overall medical course structure. Unit coordinators and/or teaching staff from 12 medical schools completed Phase 2, which involved an online survey about intellectual disability content within the curriculum. In Australia, medical school curricula contain a median of 2.55 h of compulsory intellectual disability content. The majority of universities only offer a small amount of compulsory content. Of compulsory units, intellectual disability teaching is minimal in sexual health and emergency medicine (only one unit offered in one school for each). Topics of key relevance in intellectual disability health such as human rights issues, interdisciplinary team work and preventative health are poorly represented in intellectual disability teaching. Elective content varies markedly across universities (1 to 122 h), but emergency medicine, women's health, men's health and many other specialist medicine areas are not represented. Inclusive practice is inconsistent in degree and nature, but a majority of universities (nine) involve people with intellectual disability in the development or delivery
Full Text Available This research aims to know the effect of learning model of Auditory, Intellectually, and Repetition (AIR about cube concept comprehension to students' VIII grade at SMP Pustek Serpong. Kind of the research is experiment quasi research. The research instrument that used is analysis question pretest and postest. The data analyze by using normality test, homogenity test, and t-test. The result of the research show that there is the different ability of cube concept comprehension among students' who gave air learning model with convensional learning model. Keywords: Model Pembelajaran Auditory Intellectually and Repetition (AIR, concept comprehension
Full Text Available Donald Winch (1935-2017, a pioneer of intellectual history and one of the inceptors of the so-called “Sussex school”, gave this talk at the École Normale Supérieure de Cachan on 21 December 2006. It provides a history of his own engagement with the history of economic thought, and his gradual movement from tribe of historians of economics to that of intellectual historians. We present it here in the original form of the ms.; only some punctuation and quotation marks have been regularized, and an URL has been updated.
Akram, Bushra; Tariq, Amina; Rafi, Zeeshan
To find the prevalence and to identify the predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among school-going children.. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gujrat, Gujrat Pakistan, from September 2015 to October 2016, and comprised children with intellectual disability and hearing loss. Participants were recruited from schools for special children located in Gujranwala, Jhelum and Gujrat. Multistage stratified sampling technique was used. Of the 325 children, 178(50.4%) had intellectual disability and 175(49.6%) had hearing loss. Findings indicated that the prevalence of self-injurious behaviour was higher in children with intellectual disability 48(27%) compared to their counterparts with hearing loss 3(2%). Neural network, when administered on whole data set, indicated type of disability 0.474(100%), education/training 0.99(20.9%) and access of counselling 0.114(24%) as important predictors of non-suicidal self-injury in both groups. On the other hand, the degree of disability (hearing loss 0.42[100%]; intellectual disability 0.32[100%]), education/ training (hearing loss 0.18[43%]; intellectual disability 0.27[84.5%]) and access of counselling (hearing loss 0.175[41.8%]; intellectual disability 0.256[78.7%]) were important predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among the participants, when neural network was run on the split files on the basis of disability. The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among children with intellectual disability was higher as compared to those with hearing loss.
Owuor, John; Larkan, Fiona; Kayabu, Bonnix; Fitzgerald, Geraldine; Sheaf, Greg; Dinsmore, John; McConkey, Roy; Clarke, Mike; MacLachlan, Malcolm
The aim of this review is to answer the following question: Does assistive technology contribute to social inclusion for people with intellectual disability? Previous research on assistive technology has focused on socioeconomic impacts such as education, employment and access to healthcare by people with intellectual disability. There is a need to consolidate evidence on the interaction between intellectual disability, assistive technology, community living and social inclusion. The review will consider studies from all settings: geographical, socioeconomic and care (institutional and community care), published in English. Studies reported in other languages with abstracts in English will be included if they can be translated using Google Translate, otherwise such studies will be included in the appendix. The review will include both qualitative and quantitative studies. The intervention in this review refers to the use of assistive technology to promote community participation or interpersonal relationships (social inclusion) for people with intellectual disability. The outcomes will be behavioural and social benefits of using assistive technology by people with intellectual disability. Enhanced interpersonal relationships and community participation by people with intellectual disability. Data analysis will be in two phases. The first phase will involve analysis of individual study designs separately. The second phase will be narrative/thematic synthesis of all study groups. The review will not create any ethical or safety concerns. At least one peer-reviewed article in a leading journal such as the BMJ is planned. The findings will also be disseminated through a seminar session involving internal audience at Trinity College Dublin and within the Assistive Technologies for people with Intellectual Disability and Autism research programme. CRD42017065447; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article
Adeniyi, Yetunde C.; Omigbodun, Olayinka O.
Background Studies have demonstrated that social skill interventions and classroom supports are effective for pupils with intellectual disability. Such interventions have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of developing mental disorders, majority of which have their onset during the period of youth. Most young people with intellectual disability in low-resource settings do not have access to interventions that would enable or enhance their participation in society. The aim of this study was...
Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass...
Heyn, Patricia C; Baumgardner, Chad A; McLachlan, Leslie; Bodine, Cathy
The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mixed-reality (MR) exercise environment on engagement and enjoyment levels of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Six people participated in this cross-sectional, observational pilot study involving one MR exercise trial. The augmented reality environment was based on a first-person perspective video of a scenic biking/walking trail in Colorado. Males and females (mean age, 43.3 ± 13.7 years) were recruited from a research database for their participation in previous clinical studies. Of the 6 participants, 2 had SCI, 2 had IDD, and 2 were without disability. The primary outcome measurement of this pilot study was the self-reported engagement and enjoyment level of each participant after the exercise trial. All participants reported increased levels of engagement, enjoyment, and immersion involving the MR exercise environment as well as positive feedback recommending this type of exercise approach to peers with similar disabilities. All the participants reported higher than normal levels of enjoyment and 66.7% reported higher than normal levels of being on a real trail. Participants' feedback suggested that the MR environment could be entertaining, motivating, and engaging for users with disabilities, resulting in a foundation for further development of this technology for use in individuals with cognitive and physical disabilities.
Alcedo Rodríguez, M Ángeles; Cristóbal Fernández, Leticia; Gómez Sánchez, Laura E; Arias González, Víctor B
The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics associated with the grieving process among a population with intellectual disability and the influence of particular variables. The sample was composed of 380 participants with intellectual disability, on whose behalf 149 professionals completed a 20-item questionnaire with four Likert-type answer options, developed to evaluate the grieving process: Inventory of Grief and Coping Strategies in Intellectual Disability (IGCS-ID). The IGCS-ID shows adequate levels of reliability. It covers three dimensions: understanding of the concept of death, coping with the loss and post-bereavement reactions. The level of intellectual disability, the time elapsed since the loss and the residential setting gave rise to significant differences in the three dimensions based on the participants. An assessment of the grieving process would help to put in place effective resources to help people with intellectual disability overcome the loss and cope with the changes that it brings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore caregivers’ views about the risks of the Internet for people with intellectual disabilities and their preparation and ability to use prevention strategies to address them. The participants (20 family members and 24 staff members belonged to a non-profit association working with people with developmental and intellectual disabilities and were asked to respond to a questionnaire about Internet safety and risks. Findings show some concerns from caregivers with regard to the use of the Internet by people with intellectual disabilities and suggest that this group is more vulnerable to online risks. Participants use different kinds of strategies to prevent the risks but they have not received any formal training. They think that this training should come from the Administration and other organisations. Some differences were found between family and staff members’ responses. Training programmes for all the groups involved in this process (i.e. people with intellectual disabilities, staff and family members should be designed, implemented and assessed to promote the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities in the digital arena.
Full Text Available Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74. – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects. At present the issue of the accounting reflection of transactions that form intellectual rent remains to be not thoroughly disclosed and requires more depth study for improving the performance of the innovative enterprises as well as for increasing the informativeness of the accounting system. In connection with the above defined organizational and methodical aspects of accounting operations with intellectual rent in assessing the rents of its type, the definition of accounts for the accounting reflection of the order determining the amount of intellectual rent on accounting data. Proposed document that would facilitate the work of accountants for the calculation of the amount of intellectual rent and provide information about the effectiveness of the company. Application of the proposed method of accounting reflect the formation and distribution of intellectual rent allows management personnel to provide the necessary innovative activity of the enterprise information management rent, since it is a type of income of the enterprise.
Lindley, Lisa C; Colman, Mari Beth; Meadows, John T
Over 42,000 children die each year in the United States, including those with intellectual disability (ID). Survival is often reduced when children with intellectual disability also suffer from significant motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities. Yet, little is known about hospice care for children with intellectual disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization. Additionally, we explored whether intellectual disability combined with motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities influenced pediatric hospice utilization. Using a retrospective cohort design and data from the 2009 to 2010 California Medicaid claims files, we conducted a multivariate analysis of hospice utilization. This study shows that intellectual disability was negatively related to hospice enrollment and length of stay. We also found that when children had both intellectual disability and comorbidities, there was a positive association with enrolling in hospice care. A number of clinical implications can be drawn from the study findings that hospice and palliative care nurses use to improve their clinical practice of caring for children with ID and their families at end of life.
Zhang, Hui; He, Yunfeng; Tao, Ting; Shi, Jian-Nong
The term "intellectually gifted rural-to-urban migrant children" refers to intellectually gifted children who are in migration from rural to urban areas. We compared performances on seven attention tasks among intellectually gifted (n = 26) and average (n = 30) rural-to-urban migrant and intellectually gifted urban children (n = 31). Our…
Responsibilist approaches to virtue epistemology examine the epistemic significance of intellectual virtues like curiosity, attentiveness, intellectual humility, open-mindedness, intellectual courage, and intellectual tenacity. On one way of thinking about these traits, they are the deep personal qualities or character traits of a good thinker or…
Full Text Available IPR owners have a right about voluntary transfer but sometimes Intellectual property right transfer by force and thus, there are challenge that this article regard for its. IPR shall be devolved to their legitimate heirs after their death unless, owner indicate otherwise in their wills. The heirs have the exclusive right to exercise economic and moral rights, they decide upon publication of the work and in general do every exploitation. But, they shall exercise The decisive manner that IPR of holder intended before his death. On other hand, IPR may be liable to seizure or IPR have been used in mortgage loan. Thus they can be transfer to new person.Here, we regard to Involuntary transfer.This article highlight subject of involuntary transfer and analysis on aspects
Johanna Fernández Castro
Full Text Available Stuart Hall (3 February 1932 – 10 February 2014 is acknowledged as one of the founding figures of British Cultural Studies. His extensive academic work on topics such as race, ethnicity and identity reflects his own position as a diasporic intellectual. His contribution to the study of popular culture is determined by the importance of his political character in every social act, his non-deterministic view of Marxism, and is especially determined by his insistence on playing an active role beyond academia in order to contribute to the transformation of hegemonic structures. The following biography aims to give a focused view of his personal history and its direct influence on his key theoretical reflections.
The involvement of local communities in public space planning and design processes is widely promoted as an essential element of landscape architecture and urban design practice. Despite this, there has been little theorisation of this topic within these fields. Furthermore, the implementation of ideals and principles commonly found in theory are far from becoming mainstream practice, indicating a significant gap between the theory and practice of participation. This thesis aims to contri...
Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina
Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants' level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary), gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field.
Michelle Clare Wilson
Full Text Available Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants' level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary, gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field.
People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.
Corso, John A
Historically, approaches to measuring intellectual capital have included both conventional accounting-based measures, such as variants of the market-to-book ratio, and more progressive measures, such as the measurement of intangible assets found in approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard and Human Resource Accounting. As greater emphasis is placed on intellectual capital and its various aspects in the continually growing service and knowledge economy, the use of assessment instruments to inventory the alignment, balance, and variety of intellectual capacities and metrics that assess the effectiveness of succession planning may represent new directions in which organizations can head in the measurement of this important construct.
Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Seifer, Ronald; Grullon, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Canino, Glorisa
Background: Siblings of children with disabilities are at risk for internalizing psychological disorders; however, little is known about how culture influences this effect. This study examined the psychological and school functioning of Latino siblings of children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: Participants were 100 Latino (L) and…
Root, Jenny; Saunders, Alicia; Spooner, Fred; Brosh, Chelsi
The ability to solve mathematical problems related to purchasing and personal finance is important in promoting skill generalization and increasing independence for individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities (IDs). Using a multiple probe across participant design, this study investigated the effects of modified schema-based instruction…
Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff
We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…
Paterson, Lucy; McKenzie, Karen; Lindsay, Bill
Background: The paper examines the perception of stigma in 43 adults with an intellectual disability, the relationship this has with their psychological well-being and whether the process of social comparison has a moderating effect on this relationship. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, within-participant design was used. Participants…
Intellectual disability may appear to many as a barrier to participation in or the production of educational research. Indeed, a common perception of individuals seen as having cognitive impairments, and especially those with minimal or no verbal communication, is that they are incapable of the reasoning or lack the deliberative capacities…
Bollman, Jessica R.; Davis, Paula K.
This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training in teaching 2 adult women with mild intellectual disabilities to report inappropriate staff-to-resident interactions. The reporting skill included making a self-advocacy response, walking away, and reporting the interaction. Participants' performance was measured during baseline,…
Ramsten, Camilla; Marmstål Hammar, Lena; Martin, Lene; Göransson, Kerstin
Background: Young adults today have grown up in a society where information and communication technology (ICT) support empowerment and social participation. Young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are at risk for marginalization by the digital divide. The aim was to map and describe how municipal organizations in Sweden organize…
Lindau, Natalie; Amin, Tara; Zambon, Amy; Scior, Katrina
Background: Evidence on the effects of contact and education based interventions on attitudes is limited in the intellectual disability field. This study compared the effects of brief interventions with different education, indirect and imagined contact components on lay people's attitudes. Materials and Methods: 401 adult participants were…
Hutzler, Y.; Korsensky, O.
Background: The purpose of this study is to systematically retrieve, examine and discuss scientific studies focusing on motivational correlates that both contribute to, and can be assumed to be effects of, participation in sport, recreation, or health-related physical activities in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: A systematic…
Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Ford, Jeremy W.; Nobles, Kelly A.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching a three-step paraphrasing strategy on expository reading comprehension of young adults with intellectual disability. Ten learners from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disability participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to the control and…
Ng, Aubrey Hui Shyuan; Schulze, Kim; Rudrud, Eric; Leaf, Justin B.
This study implemented a modified teaching interaction procedure to teach social skills to 4 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with an intellectual disability. A multiple baseline design across social skills and replicated across participants was utilized to evaluate the effects of the modified teaching interaction procedure. The…
Gunderson, Jamie Linn; Higgins, Kyle; Morgan, Joseph John; Tandy, Richard; Brown, Monica R.
The purpose of this study was to improve access to general education curricula, through the use of an iPad, for students with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The participants were 72 students (kindergarten through eighth grade) identified as having an ID. During the 6-week study, the 41 students in the experimental iPad group received academic…
Delavarian, Mona; Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar
We designed a working memory (WM) training programme in game framework for mild intellectually disabled students. Twenty-four students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerised Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub-tests and secondary tests, which…
The purpose of this longitudinal, multi-institution study was to examine through multilevel analyses the influence of: (1) interracial interactions on student-faculty interactions; and (2) interracial interactions and student-faculty interactions on intellectual self-concept. Social participation and involvement theory, as they are constructed…
Meurs, D.; Rutten, M.; de Jongh, A.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether having background information about a patient with an intellectual disability (ID) would have a positive effect on the level of cooperation during a first dental visit. Study participants were 57 consecutive dental patients (mean age = 24.3
Hartley, Sigan L.; Esbensen, Anna J.; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B.; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige
There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a…
Capio, C. M.; Poolton, J. M.; Sit, C. H. P.; Eguia, K. F.; Masters, R. S. W.
Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been found to have inferior motor proficiencies in fundamental movement skills (FMS). This study examined the effects of training the FMS of overhand throwing by manipulating the amount of practice errors. Methods: Participants included 39 children with ID aged 4-11 years who were…
Griffen, Jeni; And Others
This paper describes a project researching the management of menstruation for women who have severe/profound intellectual disability. It outlines the importance of acceptance of menstruation, the possibility of partial participation in menstrual care, key factors to consider in developing skill development activities (such as attitudes of care…
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping
There is little information of hepatitis B vaccination coverage for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to examine the completed hepatitis B vaccination coverage rate and its determinants of children and adolescents with ID in Taiwan. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, with the entire response participants was…
McCarron, Mary; O'Dwyer, Marie; Burke, Eilish; McGlinchey, Eimear; McCallion, Philip
There are limited studies on the prevalence of epilepsy and co-morbid conditions in older adults with an ID. To begin to address this prevalence of epilepsy was estimated for participants in the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Associations with demographic variables and co morbid health conditions were…
Gilson, Carly B.; Carter, Erik W.; Bumble, Jennifer L.; McMillan, Elise D.
Families are essential partners in efforts to elevate the employment outcomes of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). We examined the employment-related expectations, preferences, and concerns of 673 parents and other family members of adults with IDD. Participants prioritized paid integrated employment over sheltered…
Spivey, Corrine E.; Mechling, Linda C.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of video modeling with a constant time delay procedure to teach social safety skills to three young women with intellectual disability. A multiple probe design across three social safety skills (responding to strangers who: requested personal information; requested money; and entered the participant's…
Morash-Macneil, Virginia; Johnson, Friggita; Ryan, Joseph B.
Research has shown that assistive technology (AT) can help support employment skills for individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The authors of this review examined the effectiveness of various types of AT support for individuals with ID in the workplace with a focus on the participant's independent ability to demonstrate a specific…
Lifshitz, Hefziba; Weiss, Itzhak; Tzuriel, David; Tzemach, Moran
The main goal of the study was to map the difficulties and cognitive processes among adolescents (aged 13-21, N = 30) and adults (aged 25-66, N = 30) with mild and moderate intellectual disability (ID) when solving analogical problems. The participants were administered the "Conceptual and Perceptual Analogical Modifiability" test. A…
Lo, Ya-yu; Burk, Bradley; Burk, Bradley; Anderson, Adrienne L.
The current study examined the effects of a modified video prompting procedure, namely progressive video prompting, to increase technique accuracy of shooting a basketball in the school gymnasium of three 11th-grade students with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention involved participants viewing video clips of an adult model who…
Kim, Jemma; Kimm, Christina H.
This study employs a meta-analysis of single-subject design research to investigate the efficacy of mobile device-based interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to further examine possible variables that may moderate the intervention outcomes. A total of 23 studies, 78 participants, and 140 observed cases that met the…
Vashdi, E.; Hutzler, Y.; Roth, D.
Background: Individuals with Intellectual Disability (ID) exhibit reduced levels of compliance to exercise, including treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of several training conditions on compliance to participation in treadmill walking of children with moderate to severe ID. Method: Criteria for compliance were…
This study used an alternating treatment design to examine the use of a listening reading comprehension intervention package. This package was implemented in English as well as bilingually (on alternating days). This package was applied to four participants who were English Language Learners, were diagnosed with a severe intellectual delay, and…
Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical issues of organizational support of intellectual property management at the enterprise. It is defined the nature, goals, objectives organization of intellectual property. It is selected the features, factors of influence on the choice of organizational structure and organizational form of intellectual property management on an enterprise. It is proposed systematization forms of organizational maintenance of intellectual property management at different classification criteria. Attention is paid to consider outsourcing forms of operations with intellectual property.
Martens, Marga A W; Janssen, Marleen J; Ruijssenaars, Wied A J J M; Huisman, Mark; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne
Recent studies have shown that it is possible to foster affective involvement between people with congenital deafblindness and their communication partners. Affective involvement is crucial for well-being, and it is important to know whether it can also be fostered with people who have congenital deafblindness and intellectual disabilities. This study used a multiple-baseline design to examine whether an intervention based on the Intervention Model for Affective Involvement would (i) increase affective involvement between four participants with congenital deafblindness and intellectual disabilities and their 13 communication partners and (ii) increase the participants' positive emotions and decrease their negative emotions. In all cases, dyadic affective involvement increased, the participants' very positive emotions also increased and the participants' negative emotions decreased. The results indicate that communication partners of persons with congenital deafblindness and intellectual disabilities can be successfully trained to foster affective involvement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M
Falling is an important health issue in adults with intellectual disabilities. Their cognitive and motor limitations may result in difficulties with dual tasking (walking and talking), which increases fall risk. Therefore, we assessed the dual task effect on gait in adults with intellectual disabilities, if this dual task effect is predictive for falls, and if this is more predictive than regular walking. Gait characteristics of 31 adults with intellectual disabilities without Down syndrome were assessed with the GAITRite at comfortable speed and during dual tasking (conversation). Falls were collected over a three-month follow-up period. During dual tasking, participants walked slower, with a lower cadence, increased stride time, and shorter stride lengths. They spend less time in swing and single support phase than at comfortable speed. Also swing and single support time became more variable. The dual task effect and walking at comfortable speed were not predictive for falls, although medium effect sizes were found. Dual tasking affects gait in adults with intellectual disabilities. This is an important finding for safe community participation, and must be considered while interacting with adults with intellectual disabilities during daily activities. Possible negative consequences of distractors should be kept in mind. More research is needed to better understand the predictive value of gait for falls. Implications for Rehabilitation Having a conversation while walking affects the gait pattern of adults with intellectual disabilities, possible negative consequences of distractors should be kept in mind. The dual task effect on the width of the gait pattern and stride time variability had the largest effect sizes with future falls, this potential relationship should be kept in mind in clinical practice. The dual task effect on gait is important to consider with regard to safe community participation. Future studies are needed to better understand the predictive
Fabian, Louise; Samson, Kristine
The article discuss the conflicts, potentials and possible alliances of do-it-yourself (DIY) urbanism when it takes the form of spontaneous place appropriations, when it is performed as participatory urban design and when it is integrated strategically in planning. DIY urbanism and experimentation...... with participation are currently strong influential factors in Danish planning. The article explores the use of participatory DIY urban design in two cases: the relocation of beer drinkers in Enghave Square and the Carlsberg City development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Carlsberg City is the most thorough Danish example...
Sitilci, T; Demirgan, S; Akcay, C; Kahraman, N; Koseoglu, B G; Erdem, M A; Cankaya, A B
We analyzed and retrospectively compared patients with and without intellectual disability (ID) who underwent oral surgery under general anesthesia at Istanbul University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of General Anesthesia, between October 2012 and June 2013 with regard to the following categories: Demographic features, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, Mallampati score, type of anesthetic drug used during the operation, type of intubation used, any difficulties with tracheal intubation, presence of systemic diseases, and recovery times after ending general anesthesia. A total of 348 patients were selected from the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and the Department of Pedodontics who underwent surgery with general anesthesia. Medical histories of all patients were taken, and their electrocardiography, chest X-rays, complete blood count, and blood clotting tests were checked during a preoperative assessment. Mallampati evaluations were also performed. Patients were grouped into ASA I, II, or III according to the ASA classification and were treated under general anesthesia. There was no significant difference between normal and intellectually disabled patients in terms of gender, Mallampati scores, intubation difficulties, mean anesthetic period, time to discharge, or postoperative nausea and vomiting. Epilepsy and genetic diseases in intellectually disabled patients were significantly more common than in non-ID (NID) patients. However, the frequency of diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in NID patients was significantly higher than in the intellectually disabled patients. Dental treatment of intellectually disabled patients under general anesthesia can be performed just as safely as that with NID patients.
Tassé, Marc J; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L
Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both the DSM-5 and AAIDD. The article also (a) provides an update of the understanding of adaptive behavior, (b) dispels two thinking errors regarding mistaken temporal or causal link between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, (c) explains that there is a strong correlational, but no causative, relation between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, and (d) asserts that once a question of determining intellectual disability is raised, both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior are assessed and considered jointly and weighed equally in the diagnosis of intellectual disability. We discuss the problems created by an inaccurate statement that appears in the DSM-5 regarding a causal link between deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior and propose an immediate revision to remove this erroneous and confounding statement.
Alexander C Phillips
Full Text Available To investigate, using accelerometers, the levels of physical activity being undertaken by individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome.One hundred and fifty two individuals with intellectual disabilities aged 12-70 years from East and South-East England. Physical activity levels in counts per minute (counts/min, steps per day (steps/day, and minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA measured with a uni-axial accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M for seven days.No individuals with intellectual disabilities met current physical activity recommendations. Males were more active than females. There was a trend for physical activity to decline and sedentary behaviour to increase with age, and for those with more severe levels of intellectual disability to be more sedentary and less physically active, however any relationship was not significant when adjusted for confounding variables. Participants with Down's syndrome engaged in significantly less physical activity than those with intellectual disabilities without Down's syndrome and levels of activity declined significantly with age.Individuals with intellectual disabilities, especially those with Down's syndrome may be at risk of developing diseases associated with physical inactivity. There is a need for well-designed, accessible, preventive health promotion strategies and interventions designed to raise the levels of physical activity for individuals with intellectual disabilities. We propose that there are physiological reasons why individuals with Down's syndrome have particularly low levels of physical activity that also decline markedly with age.
Van Straaten, Barbara; Rodenburg, Gerda; Van der Laan, Jorien; Boersma, Sandra N; Wolf, Judith R L M; Van de Mheen, Dike
Cognitive impairment is a prevalent problem among the homeless and seems related to more psychosocial problems. However, little is known about the care needs of the subgroup of homeless people with an intellectual disability compared to those without an intellectual disability and how their care needs develop over time. This study explores self-reported care needs within a broad range of life domains among Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability to gain insight into the transition of self-reported care needs from baseline to follow-up in both subgroups. This longitudinal study is part of a cohort study among homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan in four major Dutch cities. The initial cohort consisted of 513 participants who were interviewed in 2011. At 1.5-year follow-up, 336 participants (65.5%) were also interviewed and screened for intellectual disability. Of these participants, 31% (95% CI 26.2-36.1) had a suspected intellectual disability. For both groups, between baseline and follow-up, the number of 'unmet care needs' decreased significantly and the number of 'no care needs' increased significantly, while at follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability reported 'no care needs' on significantly fewer life domains than those without a suspected intellectual disability (mean numbers 16.4 vs. 17.5). Between baseline and follow-up, 'met care needs' decreased significantly on housing for both groups, and increased on finances and dental care for participants with a suspected intellectual disability. At follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability more often preferred housing support available by appointment than those without a suspected intellectual disability. These findings suggest that homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan with a suspected intellectual disability have care needs for a longer period of time than those
MacQueen, Hector; Laurie, Graeme; Brown, Abbe
Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy offers a unique perspective on intellectual property law, unrivalled amongst IP textbooks available today. Beyond providing an up-to-date account of intellectual property law, the text examines the complex policies that inform and guide modern IP law at the domestic (including Scottish), European and international levels, giving the reader a true insight into the discipline and the shape of things to come. The focus is on contemporary challenges to intellectual property law and policy and the reader is encouraged to engage critically both with the text and the subject matter. Carefully developed to ensure that the complexities of the subject are addressed in a clear and approachable manner, the extensive use of practical examples, exercises and visual aids throughout the text enliven the subject and stimulate the reader.
Harnessing Intellectual Property for Development: Some Thoughts on an Appropriate ... This will be achieved through the creation of an IP system that provides ... the good being protected and the manner in which the creative process unfolds.
Full Text Available Various scientists in the modern age of management have launched different models for evaluating intellectual capital, and some of these models are analysed critically in this study, too. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. In a spectral dynamic analysis, organisational intellectual capital is structured in: organisational knowledge, organisational intelligence, organisational values, and their value is built on certain mechanisms entitled integrators, whose chief constitutive elements are: individual knowledge, individual intelligence and individual cultural values. The organizations, as employers, must especially reconsider those employees’ work who value knowledge because they are free to choose how, and especially where they are inclined to invest their own energy, skills and time, and they can be treated as freelancers or as some little entrepreneurs .
Nielsen, Christian; Farooq, Omar
The purpose of this article is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policies of biotechnology firms listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. The firms’ intellectual capital disclosures were computed from the annual...... financial reports, while data on dividend policies was retrieved from Worldscope. This paper defines dividend policies by three variables: (1) Dividend payout ratio, (2) Decision to pay dividend, and (3) Increase in dividend payout. The results show that firms with higher intellectual capital disclosures...... not only have high payout ratios, but also have a greater likelihood of increasing and paying dividends. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis that lower information asymmetries of firms with high intellectual capital disclosure lead to more favourable dividend policies. In opposition...
Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt
This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.
Christo Johannes Cronje
Full Text Available In the past few decades, the economy has moved from an industrial to a knowledge economy. Consequently, basic factors of production now no longer comprise only natural resources, capital and labour, but also intellectual capital. Despite the shift from an industrial to a knowledge economy, the accounting framework and financial reporting have not changed sufficiently to include intellectual capital. The research problem attempts to explore whether the theory of accounting should be modified for a standardised and comparable approach when accounting and reporting on intellectual capital. To solve the research problem, a literature review and content analysis on corporate annual reports were used. The results of this study indicate that the theory of accounting should be modified to ensure a standardised and comparable approach when accounting and reporting on intellectual capital in corporate annual reports.
Preschool Filipino children from disadvantaged urban communities were assessed for giftedness. This article describes the identification procedures and tools used and presents a profile of the children in terms of socioeconomic, intellectual, and personality variables. (Author/JDD)
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The effect of cerebellar damage on intellectual function in 76 children treated surgically for malignant posterior fossa tumor was investigated at the Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, and the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.
Waelde, Charlotte; Kheria, Smita; Cornwell, Jane
Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy offers a unique perspective on intellectual property law. It goes beyond an up-to-date account of the law and examines the complex policies that inform and guide modern intellectual property law at the domestic (including Scottish), European and international levels, giving the reader a true insight into the discipline and the shape of things to come. The focus is on contemporary challenges to intellectual property law and policy and the reader is encouraged to engage critically both with the text and the subject matter. Carefully developed to ensure that the complexities of the subject are addressed in a clear and approachable manner, the extensive use of practical examples, exercises and visual aids throughout the text enliven the subject and stimulate the reader.
Wilson, Nathan J; Parmenter, Trevor R; Stancliffe, Roger J; Shuttleworth, Russell P
Men and boys with intellectual disability represent a unique group who have hitherto been overlooked by researchers and theorists exploring men and masculinities. Qualitative data from an Australian ethnographic study focused on the sexual health needs of men and adolescent boys with moderate to profound intellectual disability. Findings suggest that masculinity for this group of men is more a biopsychosocial phenomenon than a social construct organised around heteronormative ideals. The conditional masculinity of the men participating in the study was based instead on a number of intrinsic and external factors, which are described in detail.
Full Text Available A wide range of proposals to alleviate the negative effects of intellectual property regimes is currently under discussion. This article offers a critical evaluation of six of these proposals: the Health Impact Fund, the Access to Knowledge movement, prize systems, open innovation models, compulsory licenses and South-South collaborations. An assessment on how these proposals target the human rights affected by intellectual property will be provided. The conflicting human rights that will be individually discussed are the rights: to benefit from one’s own scientific work, to benefit from the advancement of science, to participate in scientific enterprises and to self-determination.
Part 4: Components of Knowledge Flow; International audience; Strategic Knowledge Management considers Intellectual Capital (IC) as roots of all organizations activities. The success of organizations strongly depends on the way they manage all facets of knowledge and skills. Artificial Intelligence brought some methods and techniques for handling intellectual assets of companies, expertise management, knowledge transfer and training. This paper presents an overview of experiences and research...
Sinaga, Valerie Selvie
This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such change...
Valerie Selvie Sinaga
This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such change...
Bégarie, Jérôme; Maïano, Christophe; Ninot, Grégory
To study the effects of age, sex, weight, and their interactions on global self-esteem (GSE) and physical self-concept in teenagers with intellectual disability (ID). A sample of 353 teenagers with ID, aged 12 to 18 years, participated in this study. The Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory—for adolescents with ID (PSI-VSF-ID) was used to assess GSE and physical self-perceptions (physical value perceived [PVP], sport skills [SS], physical condition, physical appearance, and strength). Multivariate covariance analyses show: (i) lower GSE and physical self levels (except for PVP) in females, compared with males; (ii) reduced GSE, PVP, SS, and perceived physical appearance (PPA) scores during adolescence; (iii) lower GSE, PVP, and PPA scores in obese adolescents, compared with overweight or normal weight peers; and (iv) lower PPA scores in obese females, compared with other teenagers. The sex and age results are almost identical to those for the general population, according to the literature. However, they are far from the main effect in the weight category.
Dezie L. Warganegara
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of multinational underwriters on intellectual capitaldisclosure in Indonesian IPO prospectuses. Intellectual capital disclosure practices were driven by the adviceof underwriters. Multinational underwriters had a greater capacity to produce more relevant information so itreduced the information gap for IPO market participants. The information included IC disclosure practices inIPO prospectuses. This study found that the nationality of underwriting firms positively affected the extent ofintellectual capital disclosure in Indonesian IPO prospectuses. Exposure to IPOs in other countries and theability to combine dispersed knowledge across their international branches seemed to have a positive effect onmulti-national underwriting firms in as much as it led to a higher standard of disclosure of intellectual capitalthan that of local underwriting firms.
Schäper, S; Graumann, S
In the coming years, a growing number of people with an intellectual disability will reach retirement age. In line with the change of paradigms, the leading ideas of participation, inclusion and self-determination have become the principles of the ideological and conceptual framework in social services for people with disabilities. However, in many places convincing concepts and arrangements of support for elderly people with intellectual disabilities are lacking, particularly beyond institutionalized concepts. The research project "Lebensqualität inklusiv(e)" (quality of life included) tries to bridge this gap. On the base of an estimation of the demographic development for this group of people, models of best practice have been documented and evaluated focusing on living conditions and the special requirements for elderly people with intellectual disabilities in order to gather ideas for the development of arrangements of support. The results show that an interdisciplinary cooperation is indispensable.
... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...
McDonald, Katherine E.; Schwartz, Nicole M.; Gibbons, Colleen M.; Olick, Robert S.
Perceptions, attitudes, and ethical concerns related to conducting research with adults with intellectual disability hinder scientific innovation to promote health. Yet we lack an understanding of community views on effective research policy and practice. To address this knowledge void, we qualitatively studied the views of adults with intellectual disability and those who provide them support regarding research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found substantial support for their inclusion, particularly given the possibility of benefits to adults with intellectual disability, researchers, and society. We also found concerns for potential harm and differing ideas on how to promote safety. Our findings emphasize the importance of their inclusion in research, and the need for policies and practices that promote respect and safety. PMID:25769310
McDonald, Katherine E; Schwartz, Nicole M; Gibbons, Colleen M; Olick, Robert S
Perceptions, attitudes, and ethical concerns related to conducting research with adults with intellectual disability hinder scientific innovation to promote health. Yet we lack an understanding of community views on effective research policy and practice. To address this knowledge void, we qualitatively studied the views of adults with intellectual disability and those who provide them support regarding research participation of adults with intellectual disability. We found substantial support for their inclusion, particularly given the possibility of benefits to adults with intellectual disability, researchers, and society. We also found concerns for potential harm and differing ideas on how to promote safety. Our findings emphasize the importance of their inclusion in research, and the need for policies and practices that promote respect and safety. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cooney, Patricia; Jackman, Catherine; Coyle, David; O'Reilly, Gary
Background Despite the evidence base for computer-assisted cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the general population, it has not yet been adapted for use with adults who have an intellectual disability. Aims To evaluate the utility of a CBT computer game for adults who have an intellectual disability. Method A 2 × 3 (group × time) randomised controlled trial design was used. Fifty-two adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability and anxiety or depression were randomly allocated to two groups: computerised CBT (cCBT) or psychiatric treatment as usual (TAU), and assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. Forty-nine participants were included in the final analysis. Results A significant group × time interaction was observed on the primary outcome measure of anxiety (Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability), favouring cCBT over TAU, but not on the primary outcome measure of depression (Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disability). A medium effect size for anxiety symptoms was observed at post-treatment and a large effect size was observed after follow-up. Reliability of Change Indices indicated that the intervention produced clinically significant change in the cCBT group in comparison with TAU. Conclusions As the first application of cCBT for adults with intellectual disability, this intervention appears to be a useful treatment option to reduce anxiety symptoms in this population. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Erica GONZÁLEZ MARTÍN
Full Text Available Antecedents. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in children and young people with rare diseases and intellectual disability, as well as to determine the incidence of certain predictors (i. e., gender, age, level of intellectual disability, type of school, type of illness and autonomous community in the criterion variable. Method. The KidsLife Scale was applied, a questionnaire based on the eight domain model of quality of life by Schalock and Verdugo. The sample comprised 103 participants with rare diseases and intellectual disability, aged between 3 and 21, who received supports in any organization providing educational, social, or health services. Results. The best scores were found in physical wellbeing, while the lowest were in social inclusion. The level of intellectual disability and support needs resulted in significant differences for the total score of the scale. Analyses by domains showed differences by gender, intellectual disability level, and type of schooling. Conclusions. The results argue for designing practices aimed to improve quality of life-related personal outcomes with regard to self-determination, inclusion, and interpersonal relationships.
Mok, W K; Ling, T K
The aim of this study was to predict the fruit and vegetable consumption intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong by the application of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. 50 students with mild intellectual disability (30 male and 20 female), ranging in age from 15 to 38 years, were participated in this study. By means of face-to-face interviews, demographic data, Food Preference and variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control were measured. 20%, 28% and 10% students with mild intellectual disability were rated to be overweight, obese and severely obese respectively. The rest of 10% were classified to be underweight. Regarding the daily intake of fruit and vegetable, 96% students with mild intellectual disability failed to consume sufficient amount. The variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 47.7% of fruit and vegetable consumption intention with significant factors of Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control. Food Preference was found to be a useful construct and further improve the prediction by about 7% after incorporating into the model. Results of this study indicated that Theory of Planned Behaviour is a useful model to predict dietary intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong. Food Preference was a significant predictor to model the intention of fruit and vegetable consumption among students other than Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control.
Iwase, Shigeki; Bérubé, Nathalie G; Zhou, Zhaolan; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Battaglioli, Elena; Scandaglia, Marilyn; Barco, Angel
Intellectual disability (ID) is a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition associated with impaired cognitive and adaptive behaviors. Many chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators have been genetically associated with ID disorders (IDDs). Here we review how alterations in the function of histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers, and methyl-DNA binding proteins contribute to neurodevelopmental defects and altered brain plasticity. We also discuss how progress in human genetics has led to the generation of mouse models that unveil the molecular etiology of ID, and outline the direction in which this field is moving to identify therapeutic strategies for IDDs. Importantly, because the chromatin regulators linked to IDDs often target common downstream genes and cellular processes, the impact of research in individual syndromes goes well beyond each syndrome and can also contribute to the understanding and therapy of other IDDs. Furthermore, the investigation of these disorders helps us to understand the role of chromatin regulators in brain development, plasticity, and gene expression, thereby answering fundamental questions in neurobiology. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710773-10$15.00/0.
Nouwens, P.J.G.; Lucas, R.; Smulders, N.B.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
Background Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of
Frawley, Patsie; Bigby, Christine
Civil and political participation lies at the core of citizenship. Increasingly, people with intellectual disability are members of disability advisory bodies. This study investigated the political orientations of advisory body members with intellectual disability, their participatory experiences, and the types of support they received. The 9 people with intellectual disability who in 2005 were members of disability advisory bodies at a state, national, and Victorian local government level were interviewed, together with 12 other members or secretariat staff of these bodies. Observations were also conducted of advisory body meetings. The political perspective of members with intellectual disability varied, but all had a background in self-advocacy. They found the work hard but rewarding and encountered both practical and intangible obstacles to participation. Members received varying types of practical support, but a supportive collegial milieu was characteristic among members who felt most confident about their participation. The milieu, structures, and processes of advisory bodies must all be adjusted to accommodate people with intellectual disability if they are to participate meaningfully.
Sabaz, M; Cairns, D R; Lawson, J A; Bleasel, A F; Bye, A M
To determine whether refractory epilepsy affects the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with or without intellectual disability (ID), and if the presence of ID independently compromises HRQOL in children with refractory epilepsy. Subjects were parents of children with refractory epilepsy, whose syndrome had been defined using ILAE (International League Against Epilepsy) criteria and video-EEG monitoring. Children had the presence or absence of ID determined by formal neuropsychological or educational assessment. The relative effect of epilepsy on the two intellectual ability groups was determined using relevant clinical variables. Parents completed a valid epilepsy-specific HRQOL questionnaire for children, the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE), and, depending on intellectual ability level, the Child Behaviour Checklist or Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Both intellectually normal children with epilepsy and children with epilepsy and ID were more likely to have psychosocial problems compared with their respective intellectual ability reference populations. The results also revealed that children with ID had reduced HRQOL compared with intellectually normal children; a result independent of epilepsy. Analysis of the relationship between epilepsy variables and HRQOL revealed that the QOLCE was the most sensitive in detecting variation in age at onset, seizure frequency, and medications taken. The HRQOL of children with refractory epilepsy is greatly affected, regardless of intellectual ability level. The presence of ID in children with epilepsy independently depresses HRQOL outcomes. Compared with two generic HRQOL measures, the QOLCE was the most sensitive measure to variation in epilepsy variables.
Maysa Said Bydoon
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the legal framework of human rights and intellectual property in terms of state obligations to afford a protection for both human rights and intellectual property. The relationship between intellectual property and human rights, under bilateral, regional and multilateral treaties, is a matter of concern. In focusing on the relationship between intellectual property and human rights, this article argues that there are many challenges on the wide use of Intellectual property rights that given possible conflict between intellectual property and human rights.
Nouwens, P J G; Smulders, N B M; Embregts, P J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, C
Among persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning, differences in their characteristics imply that a differentiated approach is required to meet their needs. This retrospective study examined whether the history of support/treatment programs and the type of healthcare providers involved matched the specific support needs of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning. Five (previously identified) profiles of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were used to investigate to what extent the support needs of this group had been met. For the 250 persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning who matched these five profiles, data were collected retrospectively from their case files. Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning received a very similar amount and type of support/treatment programs. Differences between the profiles were found for non-verbal therapy, residential treatment and contacts with social work. Regarding the type of healthcare providers involved, differences between the profiles emerged for specialised intellectual disability services, youth services and specialised addiction services. The support programs for a heterogeneous population of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning seem to be suboptimal, indicating that more differentiation is required in the services offered to these individuals. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pereira, Rodrigo Roncato; Pinto, Irene Plaza; Minasi, Lysa Bernardes; de Melo, Aldaires Vieira; da Cruz e Cunha, Damiana Mirian; Cruz, Alex Silva; Ribeiro, Cristiano Luiz; da Silva, Cláudio Carlos; de Melo e Silva, Daniela; da Cruz, Aparecido Divino
Intellectual disability is a complex, variable, and heterogeneous disorder, representing a disabling condition diagnosed worldwide, and the etiologies are multiple and highly heterogeneous. Microscopic chromosomal abnormalities and well-characterized genetic conditions are the most common causes of intellectual disability. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis analyses have made it possible to identify putatively pathogenic copy number variation that could explain the molecular etiology of intellectual disability. The aim of the current study was to identify possible submicroscopic genomic alterations using a high-density chromosomal microarray in a retrospective cohort of patients with otherwise undiagnosable intellectual disabilities referred by doctors from the public health system in Central Brazil. The CytoScan HD technology was used to detect changes in the genome copy number variation of patients who had intellectual disability and a normal karyotype. The analysis detected 18 CNVs in 60% of patients. Pathogenic CNVs represented about 22%, so it was possible to propose the etiology of intellectual disability for these patients. Likely pathogenic and unknown clinical significance CNVs represented 28% and 50%, respectively. Inherited and de novo CNVs were equally distributed. We report the nature of CNVs in patients from Central Brazil, representing a population not yet screened by microarray technologies. PMID:25061755
Purpose: Intellectual capital theory and practice predominantly focus on measuring and managing intangible assets. However, if we want to balance the intellectual capital books (Harvey and Lusch, 1999), we should recognize both intellectual assets and intellectual liabilities (Caddy, 2000).
Seo, Min Kyoung; Yoon, Jong Seo; So, Chul Hwan; Lee, Hae Sang; Hwang, Jin Soon
Delayed treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a common cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intellectual outcomes in preschool children with treated CH. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 43 children (age range: 13 to 60 days of life; 22 girls and 21 boys) diagnosed with CH. Children aged 5 to 7 years were examined using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. The patients started treatment between 13 and 60 days of age. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of patients tested at age 5 to 7 years was 103.14±11.68 (IQ range: 76-126). None had intellectual disability (defined as an IQ scale IQ (FSIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) scores between the 2 groups. FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ scores were not significantly correlated with initial dose of L-T4, initial fT4, age at treatment in multivariate analysis. IQ scores of subjects with early treated CH diagnosed through a neonatal screening test were within normal range, regardless of etiology, thyroid function, initial dose of levothyroxine, and age at start of treatment.
Full Text Available Purpose: The article is dedicated to the analysis of legal nature and peculiarities of optimal correlation between the notions of intellectual property and scientific activity. Nowadays intellectual property as institution goes through the period of establishment in Ukraine. As the Soviet system of civil law was based on recognition and regulation of authors’ rights for the authors of scientific works, discoveries, inventions and innovation proposals as the ones having mainly relative, i.e. legally mandatory, but not absolute character. Getting started to define the notion of intellectual property and intellectual property right in the system of interaction with scientific activity, it is important to say that such notion as “intellectual property” still needs enhancement. Its imperfection is due to the fact that this kind of property implies being formed by intellectual efforts of the author of scientific work, but legally it is processed with the help of documents that guarantee property right. Methods. General scientific method, philosophical method, specially-legal method of scientific research, system analysis method. Results: It is important to emphasize that not every result of scientific or creative work can become the object of intellectual property right, but the one that corresponds with law. Any scientific work falls within the purview of law if it corresponds with law demands. Scientific and technical results obtain legal protection only in case of appropriate qualification established by specific agency of State administration and issuement of law-enforcement document being limited by the territory of Ukraine. Protection of rights on the territory of other countries is realized only on the basis of correspondent international conventions and treaties. Discussion: Advanced modern countries realized the meaning and importance of usage and proper protection of creative and scientific work results known as “intellectual
Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar
As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...
de Lange, Iris M; Helbig, Katherine L; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Møller, Rikke S; Velinov, Milen; Dolzhanskaya, Natalia; Marsh, Eric; Helbig, Ingo; Devinsky, Orrin; Tang, Sha; Mefford, Heather C; Myers, Candace T; van Paesschen, Wim; Striano, Pasquale; van Gassen, Koen; van Kempen, Marjan; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Piard, Juliette; Minassian, Berge A; Nezarati, Marjan M; Pessoa, André; Jacquette, Aurelia; Maher, Bridget; Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Warde, Marie Therese Abi; De St Martin, Anne; Chelly, Jamel; van 't Slot, Ruben; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Brilstra, Eva H; Koeleman, Bobby P C
Mutations in the KIAA2022 gene have been reported in male patients with X-linked intellectual disability, and related female carriers were unaffected. Here, we report 14 female patients who carry a heterozygous de novo KIAA2022 mutation and share a phenotype characterised by intellectual disability and epilepsy. Reported females were selected for genetic testing because of substantial developmental problems and/or epilepsy. X-inactivation and expression studies were performed when possible. All mutations were predicted to result in a frameshift or premature stop. 12 out of 14 patients had intractable epilepsy with myoclonic and/or absence seizures, and generalised in 11. Thirteen patients had mild to severe intellectual disability. This female phenotype partially overlaps with the reported male phenotype which consists of more severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, growth retardation, facial dysmorphisms and, less frequently, epilepsy. One female patient showed completely skewed X-inactivation, complete absence of RNA expression in blood and a phenotype similar to male patients. In the six other tested patients, X-inactivation was random, confirmed by a non-significant twofold to threefold decrease of RNA expression in blood, consistent with the expected mosaicism between cells expressing mutant or normal KIAA2022 alleles. Heterozygous loss of KIAA2022 expression is a cause of intellectual disability in females. Compared with its hemizygous male counterpart, the heterozygous female disease has less severe intellectual disability, but is more often associated with a severe and intractable myoclonic epilepsy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Suda, Kazunori; Yonekawa, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji
It is studied in many research institute to enhance availability and safety of nuclear power plants operation and maintenance. On this account, development of autonomous plants has been carried out to replace the role of operators with artificial intelligence and autonomous robots. We have been developing an intellectual maintenance management system since 1994. As the first step, concept of an intellectual maintenance management system was constructed. The intellectual maintenance managerial system is in charge of maintenance function of an autonomous plant. The intellectual maintenance managerial system has three functions which is monitoring state and judging abnormal machine and deciding maintenance plan by autonomy. This system has an important role of indication and communication of the result to an autonomous operation system and autonomous robot. In this examination, we adopted the distributed and cooperative system technique by multi-agent of AI technology and examined a method to enforce problem solving by cooperation of sensor and actuator. In this report, we examined trouble detection and troubleshooting evaluation and maintenance plan decision function by the distributed and cooperative system technology, the distributed and cooperative system communication-function that these information releases functions was taken on. In conceptualization of the intellectual maintenance managerial system, we clarified of major functions to constitute this system and relation between autonomous operation system and autonomous robots. We clarified the information exchange scheme between this system and an outside system furthermore. In future, we will prototype each function and inspect the total system. (author)
McKenzie, Judith Anne; McConkey, Roy; Adnams, Colleen
Although intellectual disability (ID) is probably the largest impairment grouping on the African continent, few indigenous research and evaluation studies have been undertaken. This article is an initial attempt to relate service delivery issues to an African research agenda. We critically analysed the available literature, drawing on academic publications and those of non-governmental agencies. In this process we identified several key issues for further investigation, namely: understanding ID in African contexts, access to education and health care, the provision of appropriate assistance and support, and income generation. We relate our analysis to the recommendations made in the World Report on Disability but with a specific focus on ID in Africa. The need for mainstreaming and prioritising ID in non-disability related and across impairment programmes is highlighted. We note the importance of families and emphasise the need to draw on informal and traditional forms of care and participation. The need for reliable research evidence to support practice is highlighted. We conclude with a call to action by and on behalf of individuals with ID to be included in the development priorities of the continent. Implications for Rehabilitation Service provision for people with intellectual disabilities in Africa is not always well served by insights obtained from western research agendas. Appropriate and effective rehabilitation requires an understanding of the context and the environment in which the disabled person operates. Indigenous research into the provision of support to families and the inclusion of persons with intellectual disability into mainstream programmes as well as disability specific provision is recommended.
Nasr, Maya; Cranston-Gingras, Ann; Jang, Seung-Eun
This study examined the nature of friendships of 14 students with intellectual and developmental disabilities participating in a university-based transition program in the United States. The transition program is a bridge between high school and adulthood, designed to foster students' self-esteem and self-confidence by providing them with training…
LaMarca, Kristen; Gevirtz, Richard; Lincoln, Alan J; Pineda, Jaime A
Individuals with autism and intellectual impairments tend to be excluded from research due to their difficulties with methodological compliance. This study focuses on using Teaching with Acoustic Guidance-TAGteach-to behaviorally prepare children with autism and a IQ ≤ 80 to participate in a study on neurofeedback training (NFT). Seven children (ages 6-8) learned the prerequisite skills identified in a task analysis in an average of 5 h of TAGteach training, indicating that this is a feasible method of preparing intellectually-impaired children with autism to participate in NFT and task-dependent electroencephalography measures. TAGteach may thus have the potential to augment this population's ability to participate in less accessible treatments and behavioral neuroscientific studies.
Jamshid Salehi Sadaghiani
Full Text Available Intellectual capital (IC is normally used to create value for organizations and in today's business environment; the success of each organization depends on managing such assets. During the past few years, many organizations implement IC to increase their competitive advantages. Hospitals are among business units where IC plays an important role on the success of these units. People normally choose hospitals based not only based on their equipments but also based on the specialists and physicians they have. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of IC in accounting parts of hospitals. The results of our regression analysis indicates that when there is a unit increase in either of human, customer, structural or intellectual capital individually, we can expect of an increase of 1.278, 1.210, 1.415 and 1.620 units increase in the performance of the university, respectively.
Porter, Caitlin M; Parrigon, Scott E; Woo, Sang Eun; Saef, Rachel M; Tay, Louis
This study investigates the differential functioning of cultural and intellectual openness (the two aspects of Openness to Experience) in relation to social cognitive processes by examining how they influence people's perceptions and interpretations of social information when deciding to initiate working relationships. Using a policy-capturing design, 681 adult participants were asked to rate their similarity to and preference to work with potential work partners characterized by varying nationalities and levels of work-related competence. Multilevel moderated mediation was conducted to simultaneously evaluate whether the indirect effects of potential work partners' characteristics (i.e., nationalities and levels of work-related competence) on work partner preference through perceived similarity were moderated by cultural and intellectual openness. Perceived similarity mediated the relationships between work partner nationality and work-related competence and participants' work partner preferences. Furthermore, the negative indirect effect of work partner nationality on work partner preference via perceived similarity was attenuated by cultural openness, and the positive indirect effect of work partner work-related competence on work partner preference via perceived similarity was strengthened by intellectual openness. Cultural and intellectual openness may have distinct functions that influence how people perceive, evaluate, and appreciate social information when making social judgments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the relationship between working memory and intelligence in children with mild intellectual disability (MID, ages 10 to 14. The sample encompassed 53 children with MID, 47.2% of girls and 52.8% of boys. Their IQ ranges from 50 to 70 (AS=63.17; SD=6.56. The tasks that assess the Central Executive aspect of the working memory system, namely in verbal and non-verbal modality, have been selected. The obtained results indicate that working memory ('central executor' and intelligence are the constructs that significantly correlate in the range of 0.29 to 0.41, depending upon the working memory modality. It was determined that IQ category explains about 19% of the variability of the verbal and non-verbal working memory results, grouped in the unified model (p<0.05. However, the statistically significant relation was determined by means of the individual variables analysis only between IQ and non-verbal working memory (p<0.01. The statistically significant differences have also been determined in the non-verbal working memory development in the participants belonging to lower and higher IQ categories (p<0.05.
Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ophem, van J.A.C.
In a knowledge-based economy intangible assets are indispensable to achieve competitive advantages. Resources like intellectual capital are perceived as crucial factors especially for regional growth. Intellectual capital is comprehended as a multidimensional concept, defined and explained in many
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of intellectual capital and its components, represented by physical capital (capital employed, human capital, and structural capital,on financial performance of mining and manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia – BEI period of 2010 – 2012. Total population observed during this research shows 169 mining and manufacturing companies.The sample was determined by purposive sampling method and found a total of 70 samples as the research subjects. The analytical technique for the quantitaive data uses a statistical tool, i.e. multiple regression. Intellectual capital and its components were measured by Pulic Model, while financial performance uses Return on Equty (ROE ratio. The results show that intellectual capital and human capital have negative influence, yet insignificant, impacton companies financial performance. While physical capital (capital employed and structural capital do have positive influence but not significanton companies financial performance.
Valerie Selvie Sinaga
Full Text Available This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such changes in Indonesia. Tulisan ini melihat kembali perubahan-perubahan besar dalam bidang hak kekayaan intelektual di Indonesia setelah tahun 2001. Pada tahun tersebut, Indonesia, yang telah menjadi anggota Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS sejak 1994, siap untuk memenuhi komitmennya dalam TRIPS. Untuk memenuhi komitmen tersebut, Indonesia telah membuat perubahan-perubahan dalam bidang legislatif, administratif, tata cara pengadilan dan penegakan hukum. Tulisan ini juga membahas permasalahan di seputar pelaksanaan perubahan-perubahan tersebut.
Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Lunsky, Yona; Kandel, Isack
Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.
Full Text Available Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.
Giulio E. Lancioni
Full Text Available BackgroundPeople with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and sensory impairments often fail to take initiative in starting and carrying out daily activities, with negative consequences for their occupational condition and social status. Their failure seems due to their inability to determine the right time for the activities and to remember all the activity steps.AimThis study assessed a smartphone intervention, which was designed to help eight participants (four presenting with intellectual disability and blindness and four presenting with intellectual disability and hearing impairment to independently start and carry out daily activities at appropriate times.MethodThe intervention was introduced according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. During the intervention, each participant was provided with a smartphone, which was fitted with the time schedule of his or her activities and the verbal or pictorial instructions for the single steps of those activities. When the time for an activity was reached, the participant was automatically reminded to start that activity and, thereafter, he or she was presented with the instructions for it.ResultsThe use of the smartphone intervention promoted great improvement over the baseline for all participants. That is, the participants managed to (a independently start the activities at the scheduled times and (b carry out those activities with high levels of accuracy.ConclusionA smartphone intervention, such as that used in this study, may help people with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and sensory impairments to successfully engage in daily activities.
Rađenović, Tamara; Krstić, Bojan
Intellectual capital has an inevitable role in the value creation process and represents significant determinant of the firms' market success. In the contemporary circumstances, firms achieve and sustain their competitive advantages by mobilising and profitably exploiting intellectual resources. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to overview the evolutionary process of intellectual capital through theoretical examinations of different theories. The first notion of intellectual capital is con...
In the knowledge economy, professionals have to make decisions about non-tangible, non-monetary, and largely invisible resources. Information professionals need to understand the potential uses, contributions, value, structure, and creation of broadly intangible intellectual capital in libraries. In order to fully realize intellectual capital in libraries, new practices and skills are required for library management practitioners and researchers.Managing Intellectual Capital in Libraries provides research advances, guidelines, methods and techniques for managing intellectual capital in a libra
Full Text Available This paper studies the marginal contribution of intellectual capital (IC components to company value using a hedonic pricing framework. The ANOVA is used to identify group differences among different national markets and industries. Two models have been developed to reflect the time effect: one related to the immediate creation of value and another for the long term. As could be expected, the contribution of IC to companies’ value creation differs significantly between countries and industries. Both models, short- and long-term, are significant and with a normal explanatory power. We have found both positive and negative coefficients. Human capital plays a critical positive role in value creation in the short term. Structural and relational capital becomes more relevant in the long term. However, in the long term, the results obtained regarding the effect of human capital are unclear.
Full Text Available As protection of innovation is possible using a variety of intellectual property instruments, the current paper aims at emphasizing the vulnerabilities of these instruments in order to facilitate the right choice in terms of protection, exploitation and dissemination of innovation. Based on a review of the intellectual property instruments and their related risk factors, the study identifies and formulates specific proactive strategies which arise from the fact that an instrument alone does not allow for effective protection, exploitation and dissemination and oftentimes the owners of innovation should combine traditional and alternative instruments. Therefore, the results of this analysis represent a helpful tool for managers in the decisional process.
Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence
To explore the contribution of clinical nurse specialists in intellectual disability nursing in Ireland. While clinical nurse specialists exist since the 1940s, they have only been a reality in Ireland since 2001. While the role of clinical nurse specialist has developed over the years, it still however is often seen as a complex multifaceted role that causes confusion, frustration and controversy. A exploratory qualitative approach using focus groups with Irish intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists (n = 31). Five focus group interviews were conducted to gather qualitative data to gain insight into the attitudes, perceptions and opinions of the participants. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Burnard's (Vital Notes for Nurses: Research for Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare, 2011, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford) framework. Ethical approval was gained from the researcher's university and access granted by the national council for the professional development of nursing/midwifery in Ireland. The study highlights that intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists contribute to and support care delivery across a range of areas including client-focused and family-centred care, staff support, organisation support, community support and supporting other agencies. Overall, the study shows the importance of intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists and their contribution across a range of services, care environments and the support they offer to clients/families/staff/multidisciplinary team members and outside agencies. Ireland is in a unique position to develop knowledge regarding specialist care for people with intellectual disability that can be shared and adapted by other healthcare professionals in other countries that do not have specialised intellectual disability nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde; Li, Jun
The current study explored the intellectual factors in false memories of 139 patients with schizophrenia, using a recognition task and an IQ test. The full-scale IQ score of the participants ranged from 57 to 144 (M = 100, SD = 14). The full IQ score had a negative correlation with false recognition in patients with schizophrenia, and positive correlations with high-confidence true recognition and discrimination rates. Further analyses with the subtests' scores revealed that false recognition was negatively correlated with scores of performance IQ (and one of its subtests: picture arrangement), whereas true recognition was positively correlated with scores of verbal IQ (and two of its subtests: information and digit span). High-IQ patients had less false recognition (overall or high-confidence false recognition), more high-confidence true recognition, and higher discrimination abilities than those with low IQ. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive mechanism in false memory of patients with schizophrenia, and are of practical relevance to the evaluation of memory reliability in patients with different intellectual levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Glazemakers, I; Deboutte, D
Many parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) want and/or need professional guidance and support to learn skills and strategies to prevent and manage child behaviour problems. However, the available support is rarely suitable, and suitable support is rarely available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a popular mainstream parenting training programme, known as 'Group Triple P' (Positive Parenting Program), could be successfully modified for this parent group. A pilot study was undertaken to determine whether a modified version of Group Triple P would engage and retain parents with ID. A non-experimental, pre-test post-test study, involving a total of 30 parents with ID, was then undertaken to obtain preliminary efficacy data. Parent engagement and participation levels were high. No parent 'dropped out' of the programme. After completing the modified Group Triple P programme, parents reported a decrease in psychological distress, maladaptive parenting and child conduct problems. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the information and support they received. Research-informed adaptation of mainstream behavioural family interventions, such as Group Triple P, could make 'suitable support' more readily available, and more engaging for parents with ID. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Boudourides, Moses A.
This essay reviews a number of theoretical perspectives about uncertainty and participation in the present-day knowledge-based society. After discussing the on-going reconfigurations of science, technology and society, we examine how appropriate for policy studies are various theories of social complexity. Post-normal science is such an example of a complexity-motivated approach, which justifies civic participation as a policy response to an increasing uncertainty. But there are different categories and models of uncertainties implying a variety of configurations of policy processes. A particular role in all of them is played by expertise whose democratization is an often-claimed imperative nowadays. Moreover, we discuss how different participatory arrangements are shaped into instruments of policy-making and framing regulatory processes. As participation necessitates and triggers deliberation, we proceed to examine the role and the barriers of deliberativeness. Finally, we conclude by referring to some critical views about the ultimate assumptions of recent European policy frameworks and the conceptions of civic participation and politicization that they invoke
Brenca, Airita; Gravite, Aija
The article explores the role of intellectual capital in the development of higher education system. The description of economic and marketing values of intellectual capital demonstrates its importance for an institution's establishing in education market. Import and export of intellectual capital is a reality of globalisation processes, and it is…
Oltmann, Shannon M.
In this study, deans and directors of academic libraries were surveyed about intellectual freedom. The survey found that most respondents said they rarely think about intellectual freedom yet said it was "somewhat" or "very" important in their libraries. Most did not have formal intellectual freedom policies; they often relied…
Intellectual property rights restrict teachers' and students' ability to freely explore the intellectual realms of the classroom. Copyright laws protect the author and their work but disable other intellectuals from investigating probable learning environments. This paper will look at key issues where educational institutions are conflicting with…
Maria Chong Abdullah
Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine whether challenge seeking behaviour could be increased by stimulating persons with intellectual disability with music. The intention was also to evaluate whether the participants would attempt to seek challenges when they felt bored with a music experience. Method: Thirty adolescents and young adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability were randomly selected to take part in a repeated-measure experimental design, under three different conditions. In the first condition, the participants were provided adequate challenges through teaching fundamental musical skills. In the second condition, no optimal challenge was provided, and in the third condition, using special strategies, the participants were stimulated to look for novelty and challenge through involvement in creative musical tasks. Level of innovation, as an index of challenge seeking, was measured during the 8 minutes of free choice interval at the end of each condition. Results: Using Friedman’s ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the findings showed that the low and statistically similar levels of challenge seeking behaviour in conditions 1 and 2 significantly increased to a high level in condition 3. It confirmed that participants with intellectual disability are capable of demonstrating challenge seeking behaviour if they are stimulated to do so. The results also confirmed that the tendency to demonstrate challenge seeking behaviour during a boring musical situation was low.
Balandin, Susan; Molka-Danielsen, Judith
The aim of this research was to explore educators' perceptions of a virtual world Second Life TM as an environment for social interaction and social inclusion for the Norwegian adult students with intellectual disability that they supported. Five educators who supported a total of 10 adult students with intellectual disability in computer classes in community Adult Education Centres participated in individual in-depth interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content analysis. Participants were positive about Second Life although they did not perceive that it offered a successful context for social interaction or inclusion. They identified a number of benefits to using a virtual world and for students participating in virtual world research. Barriers identified included language, literacy, and technology issues along with the complexity of participating independently in a virtual world. Some people with intellectual disability can use virtual worlds but the skills required need additional research. Virtual worlds may provide a stimulating, safe, and exciting context for a range of activities but the level of support required by many people is high and consequently expensive.
Several studies from the 1990s show that information and communication technology (ICT) can be important for people with intellectual disabilities, although later results have queried what importance technology can have in increasing the influence and participation of this group. This article presents the results from a study of people with moderate and mild intellectual disabilities and their view of issues related to empowerment and ICT. Data were collected through a study of original sources, participation observation, a group interview and four in-depth interviews with people with mild intellectual disabilities. Results show that respondents feel that it is important to be able have an influence on issues concerning work, housing, leisure time and social relationships. The way one views one's own ability to influence and control situations depends on individual self-esteem, social networks, previous experience and knowledge; the participants' coping skills also depend on these factors to a great extent. The ten participants who were interviewed had experience with ICT and felt that it was useful and enjoyable in a variety of ways concerning their studies, work and, for some, even their leisure time. Computers were used to gather information, to communicate with the surrounding world, to shop, for creative activities and for games. The respondents used media, such as television, radio, music systems and daily papers, for recreation and to gain information and knowledge.
Nishio, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Ueki, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuura, Kenshin; Tamura, Osamu; Uehara, Ryosuke; Shioiri, Toshiki
While it has been reported that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in homeless people than in the national population, few studies have investigated the prevalence of intellectual and developmental disability among the homeless. In this study, we conducted a survey to comprehensively assess these mental problems among homeless people in Nagoya, Japan. The subjects were 18 homeless men. Mental illness was diagnosed with semi-structured interviews conducted by psychiatrists. We used the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III to diagnose intellectual disability. Discrepancies between Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III subtest scores were used as criteria for developmental disability. Eleven of the 18 participants were diagnosed with mental illness: six with mood disorder, two with psychotic disorder, and six with alcohol problems. The mean IQ of all subjects was 83.4 ± 27.4. The 95% confidence interval (CI) was 96.2-69.1. Seven participants were found to have intellectual disability. Three men showed discrepancies of more than 10 between subtest scores, and all of them were diagnosed with a mental illness. We divided the participants into four groups: those with mental illness only; those with intellectual disability only; those with both problems; and those without diagnosis. The men with intellectual disability only were significantly younger and had been homeless since a younger age than the other groups. Participants diagnosed with a mental illness had been homeless for longer than those without mental health problems. Although the sample size was limited, this study revealed the high prevalence of mental illness and intellectual disability, 61% (95%CI, 35-83%) and 39% (95%CI, 17-64%), respectively, in homeless people in Nagoya, Japan. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…
Marien van den Boom; Dr. Daan Andriessen
The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept
Fiorello, Catherine A.; Jenkins, Tiffany K.
This article is an overview of identification of intellectual disabilities (ID), with a focus on meeting legal and ethical requirements when assessing children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and those living in poverty. Specific procedures and recommended instruments will be reviewed.
The history of intellectual assessment with children and youth in Peru is presented from the foundation of scientific psychology in Peru until now. Current practices are affected by the multicultural ethnolinguistic diversity of the country, the quality of the different training programs, as well as by Peruvian regulations for becoming an academic…
Dykens, Elisabeth M.
This review highlights several methodological challenges involved in research on aging, health, and mortality in adults with rare intellectual disability syndromes. Few studies have been performed in this area, with research obstacles that include: the ascertainment of older adults with genetic versus clinical diagnoses; likelihood that adults…
Cockram, Judith; And Others
Seventeen Supreme Court Judges, District Court Judges, and Magistrates in Western Australia were surveyed to examine perceptions concerning overrepresentation of individuals with intellectual disability in the criminal justice system. The judiciary felt these individuals had several characteristics that would disadvantage them in contacts with the…
Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj
Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the
Hall, Julia, Ed.; And Others
The book examines actions that may be taken to redress wrongs illegally perpetrated against people with intellectual disabilities in New South Wales, Australia. Ten topic areas are addressed (sample subtopics in parentheses): protecting rights (complaints to government departments, use of the ombudsman); discrimination (legal aid); personal…
Lee, B. Brian; Quddus, Munir
The authors performed a content analysis of intellectual contribution portfolios of accounting faculty at various business schools that Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International recently accredited. The results showed a significant divergence in faculty research (e.g., areas, topics) and their teaching assignments. This…
Renfro, Mindy; Bainbridge, Donna B; Smith, Matthew Lee
Evidence-based fall prevention (EBFP) programs significantly decrease fall risk, falls, and fall-related injuries in community-dwelling older adults. To date, EBFP programs are only validated for use among people with normal cognition and, therefore, are not evidence-based for adults with intellectual and/or developmental disorders (IDD) such as Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, cerebral vascular accident, or traumatic brain injury. Adults with IDD experience not only a higher rate of falls than their community-dwelling, cognitively intact peers but also higher rates and earlier onset of chronic diseases, also known to increase fall risk. Adults with IDD experience many barriers to health care and health promotion programs. As the lifespan for people with IDD continues to increase, issues of aging (including falls with associated injury) are on the rise and require effective and efficient prevention. A modified group-based version of the Otago Exercise Program (OEP) was developed and implemented at a worksite employing adults with IDD in Montana. Participants were tested pre- and post-intervention using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Stopping Elderly Accidents Deaths and Injuries (STEADI) tool kit. Participants participated in progressive once weekly, 1-h group exercise classes and home programs over a 7-week period. Discharge planning with consumers and caregivers included home exercise, walking, and an optional home assessment. Despite the limited number of participants ( n = 15) and short length of participation, improvements were observed in the 30-s Chair Stand Test, 4-Stage Balance Test, and 2-Minute Walk Test. Additionally, three individuals experienced an improvement in ambulation independence. Participants reported no falls during the study period. Promising results of this preliminary project underline the need for further study of this modified OEP among adults with IDD. Future multicenter study should include more
Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina
Intellectual disability may impact on an individual's capacity to parent a child effectively. Research suggests that the number of intellectually disabled people with children is increasing. Children of parents with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of neglectful care which could lead to health, developmental and behavioural problems, or increased risk of intellectual disability.However, there is some indication that some parents with intellectual disabilities are able to provide adequate child care if they are given appropriate training and support to do so. To assess the effectiveness of parent training interventions to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, and ZETOC. Randomised controlled trials comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disabilities with usual care or with a control group. Outcomes of interest were: the attainment of parenting skills specific to the intervention, safe home practices and the understanding of child health. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. Three trials met the inclusion criteria for this review but no meta-analysis was possible. One study reported improved maternal-child interaction following group parent training compared with the control group. The second study reported some improvements in parents knowledge of life threatening emergencies, ability to recognise dangers and identify precautions and smaller improvements in their ability to implement precautions, use medicines safely and recognise child illness and symptoms. The third study reported improvement in child care and safety skills following the intervention. There is some risk of bias in the
Bhardwaj, Anjali K; Forrester-Jones, Rachel V E; Murphy, Glynis H
Little research exists comparing the social networks of people with intellectual disability (ID) from South Asian and White backgrounds. This UK study reports on the barriers that South Asian people with intellectual disability face in relation to social inclusion compared to their White counterparts. A mixed-methods research design was adopted to explore the social lives of 27 men (15 White; 12 South Asian) and 20 women (10 White; 10 South Asian with intellectual disability). Descriptive and parametric tests were used to analyse the quantitative data. The average network size of the whole group was 32 members. South Asian participants had more family members whilst White participants had more service users and staff in their networks; 96% network members from White intellectual disability group were also of White background, whilst the South Asian group had mixed ethnic network members. Social networks of individuals with intellectual disability in this study were found to be larger overall in comparison with previous studies, whilst network structure differed between the White and South Asian population. These differences have implications relating to future service planning and appropriateness of available facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ihyaul Ulum MD
Full Text Available The paper seeks to estimate and analyze the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM for measuring the value-based performance of the Indonesian banking sector for three years, 2004 to 2006. Annual reports, especially the profit/loss account and balance-sheet of the banks concerned for the relevant years, were used to obtain the data. A review is conducted of the international literature on intellectual capital with specific reference to literature that reviews measurement techniques and tools, and the VAICTM method is applied in order to analyze the data of Indonesian banks for the three years period. The study confirms the improvement in the overall performance over three years. In 2004 and 2006, the overall performance of Indonesian banking sector is “good performers” (the VAICTM score is 2.07. While in 2005, the performance is “common performers” (the VAICTM score is 1.95. Abstract in Bahasa Indoensia: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengestimasi dan menganalisis Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC dalam pengukuran kinerja yang berbasis pada nilai atas perusahaan perbankan di Indonesia selama tiga tahun, 2004-2006. Data yang digunakan adalah laporan tahunan, khususnya laporan laba/rugi dan neraca, diperoleh baik melalui website resmi masing-masing bank maupun dari website BEI. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa pada tahun 2004 dan 2006, secara umum kinerja perusahaan perbankan di Indonesia masuk dalam kategori good performers dengan skor VAIC 2.07. Sedangkan pada tahun 2005, kinerjanya turun menjadi common performers (dengan skor VAIC 1.95. Keterbatasan penelitian ini adalah data yang digunakan hanyalah perusahaan perbankan yang terdaftar di BEI (24 bank, sementara jumlah keseluruhan bank per Desember 2006 adalah 130. Dengan demikian hasil penelitian ini tidak dapat digunakan untuk mengeneralisir populasi. Kata kunci: intellectual capital, sektor perbankan, aset tidak berwujud, Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM
Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1 To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2 Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1 A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398 of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons33 to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2 We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3 Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. Results: The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. Conclusions: The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.
Pablo RODRÍGUEZ HERRERO
Full Text Available Despite being an essential human condition, death is an under-researched area in the effort to improve people with intellectual disabilities’ life quality. In this article we describe the concept of death among young people with intellectual disabilities. A mixed research methodology that includes quantitative and qualitative approaches was employed, including both a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Results indicate that participants have difficulty understanding of biological dimensions of death. Moreover, it has been found that participants present a wide range of opinions, attitudes and beliefs about death. Conclusions reflect on implications of these results for a possible pedagogy on death in young adults that would include accompaniment during bereavement.
Rillotta, Fiona; Arthur, Jillian; Hutchinson, Claire; Raghavendra, Parimala
Inclusive post-secondary education (PSE) delivers positive personal, social and academic outcomes. However, there is limited support for students with intellectual disability (ID) to participate in higher education, particularly in Australia. This study investigated the expectations and experiences of students with ID in an inclusive individual support PSE programme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with students ( n = 4) and peer mentors ( n = 6) at the beginning and end of one academic semester. Participants were asked about inclusive practices, goal attainment, mentoring experiences and skill development. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. Four major themes and several subthemes were identified: self-determination (e.g. self-confidence), social development (e.g. social networks), intellectual development (e.g. subject knowledge) and inclusive practices. The results emphasized the value of inclusive PSE for students with ID. Recommendations regarding future practices of inclusive PSE for people with ID are provided.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a new construct of the intellectual capital structure, based on the multifield theory of knowledge and the concept of nonlinear integrators and to identify the knowledge strategies to enhance the intellectual capital of universities. The paper presents a new approach, based on metaphorical thinking and thermodynamics logic in structuring the intellectual capital, based on the multifield theory of knowledge into its basic building blocks. Considering the two levels of intellectual capital, the paper presents the main knowledge strategies to enhance the university intellectual capital. The basic building blocks of the intellectual capital are: rational, emotional, and spiritual intellectual capital. Each building block is based on the corresponding field of knowledge. There are two significant levels of intellectual capital: potential and operational. Analyzing the university intellectual capital by using this new approach is much more realistic than in the previous approaches. The new approach is based on a thermodynamics paradigm, which means we need to develop new ways of thinking, evaluating, and enhancing the intellectual capital. The paper presents an original approach, based on metaphorical thinking, by considering basic ideas from the energy realm and thermodynamics theory. Also, the paper presents a matrix of possible knowledge strategies to increase the intellectual capital of universities.
Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Shi, Jiannong; Zhao, Daheng; Liu, Jizhong
Conflict control is an important cognitive ability in human behavioral regulation. The Eriksen flanker task was employed to explore the neural correlation between conflict control and intelligence with the aid of event-related potential (ERP) techniques. Two groups of early adolescents with different intellectual levels participated in the current study (an intellectually gifted group of 20 children vs. an intellectually average group of 21 children, with mean scores of 43 vs. 35.7 in Cattell's Culture Fair Test, respectively). Behavioral results indicate that the gifted children had better conflict control performances, with increased accuracy and faster response speeds than the intellectually average children. Electrophysiological results further show that the gifted children had more efficient N2 activations during conflict monitoring processing, faster P3 responses over frontal regions, and stronger P3 activations over central-parietal regions during attentional control processing. The difference waveform analysis showed that the gifted children had the weakest N2d activations when elicited by multiple conflicts. N2d amplitudes can be used to distinguish a stimulus conflict from a response conflict, and P3d amplitudes can be used to separate multiple conflicts from a single conflict. The results support the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence and shed light on the close relationship between conflict control ability and human intelligence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J
Investment traits--the tendency to seek out and engage in cognitive activity--might affect intellectual growth across the life span, specifically the development from fluid to crystallized intelligence. Here we explore how childhood IQ at age 11 years, IQ at age 79, and the investment trait Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) at age 81 affect the mean level and change in verbal fluency scores, used as an indicator of crystallized intelligence, across the ages 79, 83, and 87 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (maximum N = 569; Deary, Whiteman, Starr, Whalley, & Fox, 2004). A first latent growth model showed significant variance in the mean level of verbal fluency and significant decline in verbal fluency from age 79 to age 87. The rate of change was invariant across study participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. A second model found that IQ at age 11 significantly predicted IQ at age 79 (β = .66; p age 11 and 79 and TIE accounted for 25.5% of the variance in verbal fluency. A final model identified the TIE subfactor of intellectual curiosity as a significant mediator of the effect of IQ on verbal fluency; the TIE subfactors abstract thinking, reading, and problem solving showed no significant associations. In summary, TIE--in particular, intellectual curiosity--significantly mediated the effects of IQ on crystallized intelligence in old age. Because there was no significant between-subjects variance in verbal fluency trajectories in the current study, neither TIE nor IQ were associated with individual differences in cognitive decline.
McRitchie, Robyn; McKenzie, Karen; Quayle, Ethel; Harlin, Margaret; Neumann, Katja
This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of bereavement of 13 adults with an intellectual disability and found that their experiences could be situated within the concept of disenfranchised grief. The latter mediated participants' meaning making of the grieving process illustrated in the themes of intra- and interpersonal bereavement experiences, core beliefs about life and death, level of inclusion, and maintaining a continuing relationship with the deceased. The results suggest...
P. Benda; M. Ulman; M. Šmejkalová
The main focus of this article is to verify experimentally the possibility of using Augmented Reality as a platform for display educational materials in the field of horticulture in the real world for people with intellectual disabilities. Experimental verification was attended by eight people with varying levels of mental disability. The educational material was presented to the research participants in the form of a video, which was accessible ...
As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á
Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra
The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…
McMahon, Don; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of location-based augmented reality navigation compared to Google Maps and paper maps as navigation aids for students with disabilities. The participants in this single subject study were three college students with intellectual disability and one college student with autism spectrum disorder.…
Francis, Grace L.; Gordon, Sarah; Kliethermes, Andrew J.; Regester, April; Baldini, Deborah; Grant, Amber
Postsecondary education programs (PSEs) for young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities in colleges and universities expand opportunities for these young adults and result in positive outcomes, including employment and improved social networks. Although participating in postsecondary education results in numerous benefits for…
Heller, Tamar; Arnold, Catherine K.; van Heumen, Lieke; McBride, Elizabeth L.; Factor, Alan
The study examined the differential experiences and outcomes for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and their families receiving self-directed services based on the type of personal support worker hired (parents, siblings, other relatives, friends, and agency staff). The sample consisted of 372 participants in a self-directed…
Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Holloway, Shane; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
We examined the utility of a PDA-based software system with integrated GPS technology for providing location-aware visual and auditory prompts to enable people with intellectual disability to successfully navigate a downtown bus route. Participants using the system were significantly more successful at completing a bus route than were people in a…
Full Text Available Students with intellectual disabilities (ID have considerable difficulties in adjusting to the requirements of the academic environment. The major risk factors are: cognition deficiency, insufficiently developed adaptive skills, lower levels of self-regulation of behavior, and social and functional incompetence. The goal of this research was to establish the relationship among self-regulation skills, the level of intellectual disability, academic success, and sex in students with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. The sample included 131 students with mild and moderate ID, of both sexes, between 8 and 24 years of age. Self-Control Rating Scale (SCRS was used to assess the level of self-regulation skills. Academic success of students was expressed as the average grade at the end of the school year. A considerable interrelation was found between the level of adoption of self-regulation skills, the level of intellectual development and general academic success in students with ID. Significant influence of the participants' sex on the quality of self-regulation was found only in participants with moderate ID. Female participants had better achievements than male participants.
Jang, Yuh; Chang, Tzyh-Chyang; Lin, Keh-Chung
Physical capacity evaluations (PCEs) are important and frequently offered services in work practice. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the National Taiwan University Hospital Physical Capacity Evaluation (NTUH PCE) on a sample of 149 participants consisted of three groups: 45 intellectual disability (ID), 56 mental illness…
Gobbi, Erica; Greguol, Márcia; Carraro, Attilio
The purpose of this study was to explore possible benefits of a peer-tutored physical education programme (PTPE) in comparison with school physical education (SPE) in high school students with intellectual disability. Nineteen students with intellectual disabilities (15 boys, mean age 17.4 ± 1.7 years) were monitored during three PTPE and three SPE classes. A factorial RM-ANOVA was used to test differences on objective measured physical activity (PA), enjoyment and exertion during the two conditions, considering participants' weight condition as independent factor. During PTPE, participants reported higher light intensity PA, enjoyment and exertion than during SPE. Participants with overweight showed less inactive time and higher light intensity PA during PTPE than during SPE. The peer-tutored programme was beneficial for adolescents with intellectual disability, particularly for those in overweight condition. The higher enjoyment found during PTPE may encourage exercise participation of students with intellectual disability. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Phasha, T. N.; Nyokangi, D.
This paper reports part of the findings of the study which investigated sexual violence at two schools catering specifically for learners with mild intellectual disability in Gauteng Province. It looks particularly on participants' suggestions for addressing sexual violence in such school. A multiple case study within the qualitative research…
Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.
Background: A few recent studies have adopted a social cognitive perspective to explore how individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs), who present problems of aggression, view their social world. The focus has mainly been on participants' perceptions of others' behaviour within conflict situations. The present exploratory study aims to…
Bloeming-Wolbrink, K.A.; Janssen, M.J.; Ruijssenaars, A.J.J.M.; Menke, R.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.
This study examined the effects of the first 2 years of the ongoing Project CHANGE, aimed at improving interaction and communication in adults with congenital deafblindness (CDB) and an intellectual disability (ID). Six adults with no history of deafblind education participated in this study. These
Full Text Available Introduction: A successful treatment of any disorder, condition or disease requires timely detection and accurate diagnostics. This is precisely what is missing in individuals with a dual diagnosis of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder, both in Macedonia and worldwide. In order to overcome the deficiencies in the treatment, and to improve the quality of life for these individuals as well, they should be detected on time and then approached with diagnosing and preparation of a plan for treating them. Goal: The main goal of this research is obtaining a result of the presence of intellectual disability among institutionalized individuals with mental disorders on the basis of the type of mental disorder, the age and the gender of the person. Also, one of the main goals is presenting the mental deterioration in individuals with mental disorders, as well as its connection with the age of the individuals with mental disorder. Despite having the basic goals, this research, as well as research on this subject from all over the world, serves as an example for raising the awareness about the diversity and atypical presentations of the patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental disorder. Methodology: For achieving the goal and tasks of this research, 50 individuals with different diagnosis of mental disorder, different age and different gender were tested. The sample that took part in this research was a suitable sample, i.e. individuals that during the research were hospitalized in the below mentioned public health institution. The research took place in PHI Psychiatric Hospital „Skopje“ from Skopje. For collecting the data in this research, as well as for achieving the goals of the research, two methods, three research techniques and two instruments were used. The methods that were used during this research included the method of comparative analysis and the method of correlation analysis, while the techniques
Chiviacowsky, S; Wulf, G; Avila, L T G
The present study examined whether the learning benefits of an external focus of attention (i.e., on the movement effect) relative to an internal focus (i.e. on the movement), found previously in non-disabled children and adults would also be found in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Participants (n = 24; average age: 12.2 years) with mild intellectual deficiency (IQ = 51-69) practiced throwing beanbags at a target. In the external focus group, participants were instructed to direct their attention to the movement of the beanbag, while in the internal focus group, participants were asked to direct their attention to the movement of their hand. The practice phase consisted of 40 trials, and attentional focus reminders were given after every third trial. Learning was assessed 1 day later by retention and transfer (greater target distance) tests, each consisting of 10 trials. No focus reminders were given on that day. The external focus group demonstrated more effective learning than the internal focus group, as evidenced by more accurate tosses on the transfer test. The present findings show that instructions that induce an external focus of attention can enhance motor learning in children with IDs. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Full Text Available Mood disorders are very frequent affective symptoms often found in children with disabilities. Even the nonclinical depression or depressive mood in children are characterized by social withdrawal and decline in self-confidence, anger or auto-destructive behavior, as well as decrease in academic achievement. The objective of this research is to determine the prevalence of elevated expression of internalizing behavior in children with mild intellectual disability and to perceive elevated expression association of this form of problem behavior with chronological age, gender, IQ, speech comprehension and speech production of the participants. Subscale used to assess level of internalizing types of problem behavior, which is part of the teacher's Problem Behavior Rating Scale, of the Social Skills Rating System was applied on 120 participants with mild intellectual disability, aged from 8 to 16. Increased level of internalizing problem behavior is found in 25% of the participants, whereas statistically significant correlation is detected only between this variable and IQ. The results obtained in this study indicate the necessity for children and youth with intellectual disability who have elevated level of problem internalization to be identified, for the purpose of undertaking proper measures to eliminate or alleviate those problems. Development of preventive programs directed to reinforce the skills, necessary for resolving emotional and social problems is advised as well.
Nowicki, E A; Brown, J; Stepien, M
Previous research has shown that children with intellectual or learning disabilities are at risk for social exclusion by their peers but little is known of children's views on this topic. In this study, we used concept mapping to investigate elementary school children's thoughts on why they believe their peers with intellectual or learning disabilities are sometimes socially excluded at school. Participants were 49 grade five and six children who attended inclusive classrooms. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. We extracted 49 unique statements from the transcribed data, and then invited participants to sort the statements into meaningful categories. Sorted data were entered into matrices, which were summed and analysed with multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis. A four-cluster solution provided the best conceptual fit for the data. Clusters reflected themes on (1) the thoughts and actions of other children; (2) differences in learning ability and resource allocation; (3) affect, physical characteristics and schooling; and (4) negative thoughts and behaviours. The overarching reason for social exclusion focused on differences between children with and without disabilities. This study also provided evidence that children are effective, reliable and competent participants in concept mapping. Educational and research implications are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.
Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Feenstra, I.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Leeuw, N. de
Objective: Whole genome microarray techniques are the primary tool for the etiological assessment in intellectually disabled patients and have led to the discovery of several causative novel microdeletions. Participants and Methods: Extensive neuropsychological, neurological, psychiatric and genetic
Min Kyoung Seo
Full Text Available PurposeDelayed treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH is a common cause of mental retardation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intellectual outcomes in preschool children with treated CH.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 43 children (age range: 13 to 60 days of life; 22 girls and 21 boys diagnosed with CH. Children aged 5 to 7 years were examined using the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children or the Korean Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence.ResultsThe patients started treatment between 13 and 60 days of age. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ of patients tested at age 5 to 7 years was 103.14±11.68 (IQ range: 76–126. None had intellectual disability (defined as an IQ <70. Twenty-one subjects were treated with a low dose (6.0–9.9 µg/kg/day and 22 with a high dose of levothyroxine (10.0–16.0 µg/kg/day. There was no significant difference in the mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ, and performance IQ (PIQ scores between the 2 groups. FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ scores were not significantly correlated with initial dose of L-T4, initial fT4, age at treatment in multivariate analysis.ConclusionIQ scores of subjects with early treated CH diagnosed through a neonatal screening test were within normal range, regardless of etiology, thyroid function, initial dose of levothyroxine, and age at start of treatment.
The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies
Full Text Available PURPOSES: The first objective was to propose a new model representing the balance level of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD using Principal Components Analysis (PCA; and the second objective was to use the results from the PCA recorded by regression method to construct and validate summative scales of the standardized values of the index, which may be useful to facilitate a balance assessment in adults with IDD. METHODS: A total of 801 individuals with IDD (509 males mean 33.1 ± 8.5 years old, were recruited from Special Olympic Games in Spain 2009 to 2012. The participants performed the following tests: the timed-stand test, the single leg stance test with open and closed eyes, the Functional Reach Test, the Expanded Timed-Get-up-and-Go Test. Data was analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA with Oblimin rotation and Kaiser normalization. We examined the construct validity of our proposed two-factor model underlying balance for adults with IDD. The scores from PCA were recorded by regression method and were standardized. RESULTS: The Component Plot and Rotated Space indicated that a two-factor solution (Dynamic and Static Balance components was optimal. The PCA with direct Oblimin rotation revealed a satisfactory percentage of total variance explained by the two factors: 51.6 and 21.4%, respectively. The median score standardized for component dynamic and static of the balance index for adults with IDD is shown how references values. CONCLUSIONS: Our study may lead to improvements in the understanding and assessment of balance in adults with IDD. First, it confirms that a two-factor model may underlie the balance construct, and second, it provides an index that may be useful for identifying the balance level for adults with IDD.
Li, En-Hui; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Wei
Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by mutations of the Fragile X mental retardation 1(FMR1) gene, resulting in either the loss or abnormal expression of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Recent research showed that FMRP participates in non-coding RNA pathways and plays various important roles in physiology, thereby extending our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the Fragile X syndrome. Initial studies showed that the Drosophila FMRP participates in siRNA and miRNA pathways by interacting with Dicer, Ago1 and Ago2, involved in neural activity and the fate determination of the germline stem cells. Subsequent studies showed that the Drosophila FMRP participates in piRNA pathway by interacting with Aub, Ago1 and Piwi in the maintenance of normal chromatin structures and genomic stability. More recent studies showed that FMRP is associated with lncRNA pathway, suggesting a potential role for the involvement in the clinical manifestations. In this review, we summarize the novel findings and explore the relationship between FMRP and non-coding RNA pathways, particularly the piRNA pathway, thereby providing critical insights on the molecular pathogenesis of Fragile X syndrome, and potential translational applications in clinical management of the disease.
Tuffrey-Wijne, I; Wicki, M; Heslop, P; McCarron, M; Todd, S; Oliver, D; de Veer, A; Ahlström, G; Schäper, S; Hynes, G; O'Farrell, J; Adler, J; Riese, F; Curfs, L
Empirical knowledge around palliative care provision and needs of people with intellectual disabilities is extremely limited, as is the availability of research resources, including expertise and funding. This paper describes a consultation process that sought to develop an agenda for research priorities for palliative care of people with intellectual disabilities in Europe. A two-day workshop was convened, attended by 16 academics and clinicians in the field of palliative care and intellectual disability from six European countries. The first day consisted of round-table presentations and discussions about the current state of the art, research challenges and knowledge gaps. The second day was focused on developing consensus research priorities with 12 of the workshop participants using nominal group technique, a structured method which involved generating a list of research priorities and ranking them in order of importance. A total of 40 research priorities were proposed and collapsed into eleven research themes. The four most important research themes were: investigating issues around end of life decision making; mapping the scale and scope of the issue; investigating the quality of palliative care for people with intellectual disabilities, including the challenges in achieving best practice; and developing outcome measures and instruments for palliative care of people with intellectual disabilities. The proposal of four major priority areas and a range of minor themes for future research in intellectual disability, death, dying and palliative care will help researchers to focus limited resources and research expertise on areas where it is most needed and support the building of collaborations. The next steps are to cross-validate these research priorities with people with intellectual disabilities, carers, clinicians, researchers and other stakeholders across Europe; to validate them with local and national policy makers to determine how they could best be
Calle Vasquez, Rosangela
This article seeks to describe the state of the art in the international context of the traditional knowledge, its content, its recognition, and its valuation. The prosperous results of the biotechnical industry in the scientific and commercial field, has had a great impact in the valuation of the intellectual property, in the context of the globalization of the market. Traditionally the ancestral knowledge of the ethnic communities in the relative thing to the appropriation of the nature for their survival, it has not been considered neither valued in the same terms that the scientific knowledge and therefore, neither it has been analyzed as intellectual property, just as the western right it has structured this special form of property. The convention of the biodiversity, put in undoubtedly the traditional knowledge should be protected and valued, for this reason starting from 1992, the commercial agreements consecrate and they recognize this theme
Aristides Isidoro Ferreira
Full Text Available This study focuses on the influence intellectual capital has on employees’ perceptions as related to both company investments and productivity levels. The data was obtained from 440 employees at 13 Portuguese companies. Both ANOVA and Regression Analysis were conducted in order to understand the impact three Intellectual Capital Scale components have on perceptions of investment and organizational productivity. Results show that companies with higher scores of Structural Capital have a lower perception of investment in human resources and research, as well as a higher perception of investment in marketing and sales. Moreover, employees of companies with higher Structural Capital scores also have higher perceptions of productivity. On the other hand, organizations with higher investment in Customer Capital tend to be associated with a lower perception of organizational productivity.
Full Text Available Intellectual capital is a type of asset measuring ability of economic agency in order tomake wealth. These assets do not have physical and objective nature and are intangible assets being achieved through utilization of relative assets with human resources, organizational operation and foreign relations from economic agency. Measuring this issue is important from intra-organizational and extra-organizational views. In this paper, we present survey based on Fuzzy TOPSIS to find important factors influencing intellectual capital management. The proposed model of this paper considers different factors, which exist in the literature and prioritize them based on different criteria. The results of our survey identified seven items as the most influencing factors.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to indicate the relations between company’s value added (VA and intangible assets. Authors declare that Intellectual capital (IC is one of the most relevant intangibles for a company, and the concept with measurement, and the relation with value creation is necessary for modern markets. Since relationship between IC elements and VA are complicated, this paper is aimed to create a usable dynamic model for building company’s value added through intellectual capital. The model is incorporating that outputs from IC elements are not homogeneously received and made some contributions to dynamic nature of IC relation and VA. Variables that will help companies to evaluate contribution of each element of IC are added to the model. This paper emphasizes the importance of a company’s IC and the positive interaction between them in generating profits for company.
Full Text Available This paper traces briefly the evolution of Inclusive Education for students with special education needs (SEN and discusses some significant challenges in its implementation. While the aim of Inclusive Education is to include all children with SEN in mainstream schools, there are many challenges that have to be overcome for their education to be meaningful. This paper focuses primarily on the inclusion of students with intellectual disability, since they are likely to be the largest number with special education needs in ‘inclusive’ schools. It offers the outline of a curriculum that may be derived from the mainstream one in use, and suggests a model that emphasises the replacement of age / grade placement, as is the present practice, with experience and maturity underpinning learning in persons with intellectual disability. The proposed model needs, of course, to be field-tested.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.111
Ph. D. Candidate Anca Domnica Lupu
Full Text Available Reality revealed a very important resource that can act for or against a business, its administration having a crucial influence.It is the intellectual capital we are talking about, mainly based on knowledge. Under the current economic situation we have to find that ideal solution that is able to get the economy out of the crysis, to find the blue ocean. The main question here is that if a correct evaluation of intellectual capital will help economies get their goals. The main idea we can withdraw out of these theories is that values have changed the ierarchy, that is the psyhical resources ceased their place to intangible assets that tend to become more and more important for the companies.
Antonella Del Rosso
On 17 July, the Director-General of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Francis Gurry, will present his organisation to CERN people. You are invited to take part and discover the UN’s specialised agency for services, policy, information and cooperation relating to intellectual property. This is the third in the “International Geneva comes to CERN” series of seminars, which presents other Geneva-based international organisations to CERN’s internal audience. In his seminar, Gurry will discuss how WIPO finds the right balance between the interests of innovators and the wider public and how the IP system aims to foster an environment in which creativity and innovation can flourish. In 2010, CERN and WIPO signed a collaboration agreement designed to strengthen the partnership between the two organisations. The agreement focused on four main areas for cooperation, namely: capacity building, awareness raising and knowledge sharing; tra...
Full Text Available The concept of social capital has a long intellectual history in the fie ld of social sciences. In recent years, interest of scholars from sociology, po litical science, economics and public administration is rapidly increasing. The reason for this increasing interest is that it has been aware of the importance of social capital in communities’ administrative, social, economic and political development. In this sense, the concept of social ca pital is an issue to be discussed with solution of current problems of public administration, subjects of governance, civil society, and participation. Social capital has a lot of definitions which are completely different from each other. Common point of these different definitions is that social capital is a resource at both individual and community level. We will use Robert Putnam’s defi nition about social cap ital in this paper. Putnam (1993 defines social capital as “features of social organization, such as trust, norms, and networks that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated action”. In his book; Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of the American Community, Putnam describes declining social capital in America. He analyzes relationship between social capital and civic participation and assumes that there is a positive relationship between social capital and civic participation. The paper aims to reveal how there is a relationshi p between social capital and civic participation in Central Florida. We will use “The Central Florida Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey that is made by The Survey Research Labora tory in the Ins titute for Social and Behavior Sciences at the University of Central Florida among central Florida residents. We use notion of civic participation not only as voting but also as concern of politics, volunteering, attending a political meeting, participating in any demonstrations, protests or boycotts, cooperating to solve problems and
Oviedo, Guillermo R.; Travier, Noémie; Guerra-Balic, Myriam
Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05). No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST. PMID:28880236
Guillermo R. Oviedo
Full Text Available Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST and physical activity (PA levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID. We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI. Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05. No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST.
Nasrolahei, M; Poorhagibagher, M; Vahedi, M; Maleki, I
OBJECTIVE. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections and account for large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate and the etiologic agents of UTIs in inhabitants of rehabilitation centers of Mazandaran province in northern Iran and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the uropathogens isolated. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each of 314 participants (163 males, 151 females) residing in 12 rehabilitation centers of Ramsar, Nowshahr, Chalous, Amol, Sari and Behshahr. Urine specimens were cultured and bacterial isolates were identified by conventional methods. All urines fulfilling the criteria for the presence of significant bacteriuria (> or = 10(4) cfu/ml urine) were defined as positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The rate of urinary tract infection was 30.9% with the highest rate in pediatrics (p 50 years). Bacteria most frequently isolated from urine specimens was Escherichia coli (39.2%) with the highest rate of infection in females age group antibiotics tested against the isolated organisms for susceptibility test, ceftriaxone and gentamicin maintain good activity against the majority of gram negative bacteria that cause UTIs recovered from individuals with intellectual disability. Vancomycin was effective against Staphylococcus aureus. This survey shows that the prevalence of UTIs among inhabitants of institutions for mentally retarded persons in Mazandaran province of Iran is much higher than normal population.
Amplifying any property needs assessment to be marketable. This paper reads on the prospects of intangible property especially the Intellectual Property (IP) being evaluated in terms of financing by institutions to progressively grow more by widening their business and to make available advances based on IP. Arrangements engaging in the safety measures of intangible property encompassed and facilitated title-holders of IP privileges to comprise a loan of money as more undemanding and protecte...
BELENESI (BUMBA MARIOARA
Full Text Available In a highly competitive economy, driven by globalization, the abundance of digital information and communication facilities, the investor directs its capital to those companies that promise added value of the invested capital. Even so, companies seek to obtain favorable terms of financing by rendering sensitive the investors. To achieve their goal, they must provide information about their financial and non financial performance with sufficient regularity to meet the information needs of actual or potential capital bidders in decision making. Financial communication through standardized annual statements of financial reporting in the context of corporate governance is no longer sufficient. The organization has more resources than those included in its balance sheet, capable of attracting huge benefits, but which do not meet the criteria for recognition in the financial statements. It requires, therefore, a voluntary disclosure of information on intangible resources, which are key factors in creating future value for both the organization itself and the industry it is part of. The reports of intellectual capital can effectively complement the shortcomings of the traditional model of accounting and financial reporting. In our paper we wanted to analyze financial communication in the context of corporate governance, presented through financial statements, reaching the intellectual capital reporting practices, as a means to improve communication of the organization with the outside. In this sense we presented two examples of good practice of two service companies (consultancy and design that publish annually intellectual capital reports. To alleviate the negative consequences of non-recognition of intangible assets in the financial statements, we are for the voluntary disclosure of information on intangible assets in the intellectual capital reports, annual reports, those regarding corporate responsibility, or at least in the explanatory notes of
梁瀬, 和男; Kazuo, YANASE
In the deep depression of Japanese Economy, "advertising directly effective for selling" is now desired eagerly in many companies. Moreover, the drastic retrenchment in advertising budget strictly asks its efficiency and effective advertisng. As a result, the efficient accomplishment of advertising purpose may force intellectual property which comes into advertising works belong to advertisers. It is ideal for advertisers, ad agencies and prouction companies to make an agreement in document w...
Anna van Dijk; Klára Daďová; Irena Martínková
Sometimes it might seem that elite disability sport, especially as represented by the Paralympic Movement, is only for athletes with an amputation, or a spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsied or blind athletes, rather than for athletes with an intellectual disability (ID). However, after we set out the various opportunities open to ID athletes, that offer different kinds of sporting engagement, we find interesting and alarming issues with respect to the elite competitive event offer for athl...
M.Ing. With the introduction of "International Financial Reporting Standards" (IFRS) through out Europe in April 2001, there is a requirement to accurately report the value of all company assets. This will include by implication all intangible assets and Intellectual Property, such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and know-how. Items that have not been recorded before are much more visible under IFRS and will need to be carefully interpreted by investors and analysts. In order to meet t...
Boom, van den, Marien; Andriessen, Daan
The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept of knowledge and IC is used to identify common Western conceptualizations of knowledge in IC literature. A review of philosophical and religious literature was done to identify knowledge conceptuali...
McConkey, R; Dowling, S; Hassan, D; Menke, S
Although the promotion of social inclusion through sports has received increased attention with other disadvantaged groups, this is not the case for children and adults with intellectual disability who experience marked social isolation. The study evaluated the outcomes from one sports programme with particular reference to the processes that were perceived to enhance social inclusion. The Youth Unified Sports programme of Special Olympics combines players with intellectual disabilities (called athletes) and those without intellectual disabilities (called partners) of similar skill level in the same sports teams for training and competition. Alongside the development of sporting skills, the programme offers athletes a platform to socialise with peers and to take part in the life of their community. Unified football and basketball teams from five countries--Germany, Hungary, Poland, Serbia and Ukraine--participated. Individual and group interviews were held with athletes, partners, coaches, parents and community leaders: totalling around 40 informants per country. Qualitative data analysis identified four thematic processes that were perceived by informants across all countries and the two sports to facilitate social inclusion of athletes. These were: (1) the personal development of athletes and partners; (2) the creation of inclusive and equal bonds; (3) the promotion of positive perceptions of athletes; and (4) building alliances within local communities. Unified Sports does provide a vehicle for promoting the social inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities that is theoretically credible in terms of social capital scholarship and which contains lessons for advancing social inclusion in other contexts. Nonetheless, certain limitations are identified that require further consideration to enhance athletes' social inclusion in the wider community. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Li, Chao; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Yang, Wenfang; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong
Micronutrient supplementation is often prescribed during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on intellectual development in young school-aged children are less than clear. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid or multiple micronutrient (including iron and folic acid) supplementation vs. folic acid supplementation on the intellectual development of young school-aged children in rural China. Young school-aged children (aged 7-10 y, n = 1744) of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with various combinations of micronutrients and remained residents in 2 rural counties in China were followed. We measured their intellectual development by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV generated the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI). Multilevel analyses were used to assess the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on the intellectual development of children. The mean differences in FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI, respectively, were not significant between prenatal folic acid supplementation and either iron plus folic acid [-0.34 (P = 0.65), -0.06 (P = 0.95), -0.22 (P = 0.76), -0.01 (P = 0.99), and -1.26 (P = 0.11)] or multimicronutrient [-0.39 (P = 0.60), -0.64 (P = 0.48), 0.11 (P = 0.87), -0.43 (P = 0.59), and -0.34; (P = 0.65)] supplementation after adjusting for confounders. There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7-10 y. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08850194. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Cazzell, Samantha; Skinner, Christopher H.; Ciancio, Dennis; Aspiranti, Kathleen; Watson, Tiffany; Taylor, Kala; McCurdy, Merilee; Skinner, Amy
A concurrent multiple-baseline across-tasks design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer flash-card sight-word recognition intervention with elementary-school students with intellectual disability. This intervention allowed the participants to self-determine each response interval and resulted in both participants acquiring…
Ozer, D.; Baran, F.; Aktop, A.; Nalbant, S.; Aglamis, E.; Hutzler, Y.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sports (UNS) soccer program on psycho-social attributes of youth with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 76 male youth with (n = 38) and without (n = 38) ID. Participants with ID were randomly allocated into a SO athletes group (n…
Bazylevych, V.; Virchenko, V.
Article is devoted to theoretical analysis of nature and mechanism of intellectual property insurance. Types of intellectual property relations and its role in public reproduction are investigated. Peculiarities of intellectual property relations are considered. Classification of intellectual property objects depending on their most essential features is analyzed. Different approaches to classification of intellectual property subjects are considered. Nature and preconditions of origin of int...
Virginia MUÑIZ FERNÁNDEZ
Full Text Available The main goal of this work is focused on detecting the support needs of people with intellectual disabilities during the bereavement process in order to guide about professional interventions and practices aimed to provide more adequate individualized support to their real needs. The sample consists of 93 adults with ID, with ages ranging from 21 to 72 years old (M = 49.9; SD = 11.79, who have suffered the loss of a significant person. The professionals who worked with them and knew them well completed two questionnaires: Staff Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ and Bereavement Needs Assessment (BNAT. Beside descriptive analyses, results were analyzed according to several variables (i.e., gender, age, level of intellectual disability, and level of dependency. Level of intellectual disability and level of dependency were the ones that resulted significant. In order to provide the best answer to their needs, good practices are suggested such as facilitating the understanding of loss, helping them express feelings and emotions, dealing with each case individually, and encouraging to continue education about death.
Gacek, Michał; Smoleń, Tomasz; Pilecka, Władysława
Persons with intellectual disability are a group at risk of being exposed to overly demanding problem-solving situations, which may produce learned helplessness . The research was based on the informational model of learned helplessness. The consequences of exposure to an unsolvable task and the ability to recognize the symptoms of cognitive exhaustion were tested in 120 students with mild intellectual disability. After the exposure to the unsolvable task, persons in the experimental group obtained lower results than the control group in the escape/avoidance learning task, but a similar result was found in the divergent thinking fluency task. Also, participants in the experimental group had difficulties recognizing the symptoms of the cognitive exhaustion state. After a week's time, the difference in escape/avoidance learning performance was still observed. The results indicate that exposure to unsolvable tasks may negatively influence the cognitive performance in persons with intellectual disability, although those persons may not identify the cognitive state related to lowered performance.
Ozer, D; Nalbant, S; Aǧlamıș, E; Baran, F; Kaya Samut, P; Aktop, A; Hutzler, Y
This study investigated attitudes towards teaching students with intellectual disability (ID) within a representative sample of secondary school physical education (PE) teachers, and to determine the effects of age, gender, teaching experience, and having acquaintance with ID and students with ID on their attitudes. Participants were 729 secondary school PE teachers who worked in 81 major cities of Turkey. The Teachers Attitudes towards Children with Intellectual Disability Scale was administered. The statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant effect on factors and total attitudes scores of gender and having students with ID. Significant effects on factors and total attitudes score were found in teaching experiences and having acquaintance with ID. It is encouraged to maintain and further develop in-service education programmes of adapted physical activity for PE teachers. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Dymond, Simon; Bailey, Rebecca; Willner, Paul; Parry, Rhonwen
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities often have difficulties foregoing short-term loss for long-term gain. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been extensively adopted as a laboratory measure of this ability. In the present study, we undertook the first investigation with people with intellectual disabilities using a two-choice child version of the IGT, with measures of intellectual and executive functioning. Compared to a group of matched controls, people with intellectual disabilities performed advantageously and showed high levels of subjective awareness about the relative goodness and badness of the decks. A symbol labelling intervention, in which participants were taught to label the good and bad decks at regular intervals significantly improved advantageous decision-making to levels approximating that of controls. Factor analysis of executive functioning scores identified working memory and mental flexibility (response initiation and set shifting), with a near-significant inverse correlation between the extent to which the intervention was required and mental flexibility. These findings show, for the first time, that people with intellectual disabilities are capable of performing advantageously on the IGT and add to the growing clinical literature on decision-making. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brooker, Katie; van Dooren, Kate; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nick; Ware, Robert
Evidence suggests that most adults with intellectual disability do not participate in sufficient amounts of physical activity (PA). A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies that reported an intervention aiming to improve PA levels of adults with intellectual disability was conducted. Keywords related to intellectual disability and physical activity were used to search relevant databases. Studies were excluded if they did not measure PA as an outcome for adults with intellectual disability, were non-English, and were not peer-reviewed. All relevant studies were included in the review regardless of methodological quality and design. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. These included health education or health promotion programs with PA, nutrition, and weight loss components. The quality of studies included in this review was generally poor. Most studies used a prepost design, sample sizes were small, and measurement tools were used that are not valid and reliable for the population assessed. PA interventions have the potential to improve the health and wellbeing of people with intellectual disability, a vulnerable group who require attention from public health practitioners and researchers. Given the health inequities that exist, public health researchers should target efforts to improve PA levels among this group.
Full Text Available Intellectual capital has become the leading resource for creating economic value and there are an important number of publications focused on this area of research. In spite of the interest for this area of research, the existence of different terms regarding intellectual capital makes the process of definition and classification difficult. The purpose of this study is to analyze the concepts related to intellectual capital by establishing the connections and correlations between the terms in order to make the term of intellectual capital fully understandable and also to explain how the components of intellectual capital can be structured. The analysis of intellectual capital definitions is significant because it is a first step in intangible factors understanding, having implications on the company pattern of knowledge evaluation. Of all the terms analyzed, intangible assets allows a clear definition of its meaning, its components and thus provides insight into ways of assessing the knowledge of an entity.
Full Text Available Organizations and companies with a high level of competitiveness had developed intellectualproperty management systems that aim at assuring information and indicators for decision-making.Furthermore, the systematization and monitoring of information on intellectual property managementcontributes to the improvement, reliability, quality and efficiency of managerial efficiency, offering, in theend, to the company an image of its competitive advantages, generated by the intellectual property. The purpose of this work is to identify a system of indicators (benchmarks that can be used formonitoring through self-evaluation of the intellectual property management as part of a methodic approachon researching the intellectual property management system in companies. The main results achieved following the investigations were the development of a set of indicators(benchmarks for monitoring the management of intellectual property in companies. Also, being based onthis group of indicators, an integrated indicator for assessing the effectiveness of the management systemof intellectual property in companies had been developed.
Muh Khoironi Fadli; Dewi Retno Pamungkas; Retno Sumiyarini
Background:Intellectual disability is disorder of intellectual function that is significantly below averagewith various deficits in adaptive function, such as taking care of oneself or occupational activities thatemerge before the age of 18 years old. One characteristic of intellectuallydisabled children in adaptivefunction is social maturity disorder. Children with intellectual disability haveproblem in social maturityandlimitation in fulfilling needs in daily activities.Objective:To identif...
Umer Shehzad; Zeeshan Fareed; Bushra Zulfiqar; Farrukh Shahzad; Hafiz Shahid Latif
Intellectual capital is a concept that is achieving researcher’s attention day by day. The main purpose of this research study is to explore the role and relationship of intellectual capital and its three components on the performance and efficient working of universities in Pakistan. Education sector especially universities were selected because it plays a critical role for the development and growth of knowledge intensive sector. So in this research study 3 components of intellectual capita...
Schaafsma, D; Kok, G; Stoffelen, J M T; Curfs, L M G
Existing sex education programmes have failed in involving people with intellectual disabilities in the development of these programmes. Not involving the target population decreases the likelihood that the sex education programme will be effective. This study was conducted to assess the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on several sexuality-related topics. Semi-structured interviews were held with 20 people with intellectual disabilities covering topics such as: sex education, relationships, sex, social media, parenthood and support. The reported frequency of sex education the participants receive is low. Their knowledge regarding sex education is mainly limited to topics such as safe sex, contraception and STI's and tends to be superficial. Additionally, knowledge on safe sex does not always translate to safe sex behaviour. Finally, relationships are important for most participants; mainly because they don't want to be alone. Findings from both this study and literature shows that there seems to be a need for high quality sex education. Topics to consider to include are: online relationships, social media and parenthood. It would also be beneficial to focus on sexuality-related skills. Finally, to increase the effectiveness of a sex education programme, it is advisable that a theory-and evidence-based framework, such as Intervention Mapping, is used for its development.
Ikeda, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Souichi; Hayashi, Akiko; Kanno, Atsushi
Auditory sensory memory stage can be functionally divided into two subsystems; transient-detector system and permanent feature-detector system (Naatanen, 1992). We assessed these systems in persons with intellectual disability by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) N1 and mismatch negativity (MMN), which reflect the two auditory subsystems, respectively. Added to these, P3a (an ERP reflecting stage after sensory memory) was evaluated. Either synthesized vowels or simple tones were delivered during a passive oddball paradigm to adults with and without intellectual disability. ERPs were recorded from midline scalp sites (Fz, Cz, and Pz). Relative to control group, participants with the disability exhibited greater N1 latency and less MMN amplitude. The results for N1 amplitude and MMN latency were basically comparable between both groups. IQ scores in participants with the disability revealed no significant relation with N1 and MMN measures, whereas the IQ scores tended to increase significantly as P3a latency reduced. These outcomes suggest that persons with intellectual disability might own discrete malfunctions for the two detector systems in auditory sensory-memory stage. Moreover, the processes following sensory memory might be partly related to a determinant of mental development.
Schaper, Stefan; Manes Rossi, Francesca
Since its inception back in 2004, the EIASM Workshop on Intangibles and Intellectual Capital has established itself as a “must” on many researchers’ yearly conference agendas. This year’s edition took place September 21-22, hosted by the School of Economics “G. Fuà” of the Università Politecnica...... delle Marche and was organised by Professors Stefano Marasca, Maria Serena Chiucchi, and Marco Giuliani, and their team, in collaboration with the University of Ferrara. In line with the steadily increasing number of participants, the Workshop was attended by 145 participants from 21 countries...
McRitchie, Robyn; McKenzie, Karen; Quayle, Ethel; Harlin, Margaret; Neumann, Katja
This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of bereavement of 13 adults with an intellectual disability and found that their experiences could be situated within the concept of disenfranchised grief. The latter mediated participants' meaning making of the grieving process illustrated in the themes of intra- and interpersonal bereavement experiences, core beliefs about life and death, level of inclusion, and maintaining a continuing relationship with the deceased. The results suggest that participants experience bereavement and grief in a manner similar to that of the general population and suggest the need for open communication, facilitation of informed choice, and a culture of inclusion.
Numata, Yurika; Onuma, Akira; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Sato-Shirai, Ikuko; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kobayashi, Satoru; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Inui, Takehiko; Kure, Shigeo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro
To investigate the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns and motor function, epileptic episodes, and IQ or developmental quotient in patients born at term with spastic diplegia. Eighty-six patients born at term with cerebral palsy (CP) and spastic diplegia (54 males, 32 females; median age 20 y, range 7-42 y) among 829 patients with CP underwent brain MRI between 1990 and 2008. The MRI and clinical findings were analysed retrospectively. Intellectual disability was classified according to the Enjoji developmental test or the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd edition). The median ages at diagnosis of CP, assignment of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, cognitive assessment, and MRI were 2 years (range 5 mo-8 y), 6 years (2 y 8 mo-19 y), 6 years (1 y 4 mo-19 y), and 7 years (10 mo-30 y) respectively. MRI included normal findings (41.9%), periventricular leukomalacia, hypomyelination, and porencephaly/periventricular venous infarction. The frequency of patients in GMFCS levels III to V and intellectual disability did not differ between those with normal and abnormal MRI findings. Patients with normal MRI findings had significantly fewer epileptic episodes than those with abnormal ones (p=0.001). Varied MRI findings, as well as the presence of severe motor dysfunction and intellectual disability (despite normal MRI), suggest that patients born at term with spastic diplegia had heterogeneous and unidentified pathophysiology. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.
Josepha C. Shanti
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of intellectual capital and the fundamental measurements of company financial performance. This study also used several control variables, namely size and type of industry. Samples used in this study is the type of company that intensively used the intellectual capital, that is the service industry. The hypothesis are tested using multiple regression. Intellectual capital in the service industry showed the influence to the company's financial performance. External size of the companies used to measure the intellectual capital is market-to-book value. Market responds to the company's profitability and company’s productivity.
Full Text Available The whole history of humanity is evidence that it sought and continues to seek to optimize the efficiency of the phenomenon of business through rationalization of engagement and use of intellectual, psychological and physical potential of each individual or group of individuals to work to achieve the goals set by the determined community of people depending on prevailing in this community needs and motives, which are the driving force behind its development. The development of effective, adapted to modern conditions of management mechanisms of power companies by using an integrated and systematic management of intellectual resources. Key words: intellectual capital, power company, intellectual product, knowledge, business. JEL: M 20
Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin
Full Text Available This paper reviews the theoretical aspects of a company's intellectual capital. This capital consists of stock and movement of knowledge which is useful for organizing. There are three components of intellectual capital - human, social and organizational capital. The differences of intellectual and human capital are established. In particular, if human capital is characterized by mundane knowledge, the intellectual one - by the new, and if the products of human capital are the usual goods and services, the products of intellectual capital are the result of translating and implementing new knowledge. The coincidence of research subjects of the theory of intellectual capital and the theory of innovative enterprise development is shown. The concept of "intellectual potential of the enterprise" is introduced and the building structure is discussed. This potential consists of intellectual capital, patents and licenses unrealized by the enterprises, formalized ideas and hypotheses and undiscovered creative potential of the staff. Finally, a realization model of the intellectual potential of the company is proposed.
Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Udell, Leslie; Hogan, Mary; Quinn, Sam; Beránková, Anna
The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia covered a range of issues related to dementia and intellectual disability, including the dearth of personal reflections of persons with intellectual disability affected by dementia. This article reflects on this deficiency and explores some of the personal perspectives gleaned from the literature, from the Summit attendees and from the experiences of persons with intellectual disability recorded or scribed in advance of the two-day Summit meeting. Systemic recommendations included reinforcing the value of the involvement of persons with intellectual disability in (a) research alongside removing barriers to inclusion posed by institutional/ethics review boards, (b) planning groups that establish supports for dementia and (c) peer support. Practice recommendations included (a) valuing personal perspectives in decision-making, (b) enabling peer-to-peer support models, (c) supporting choice in community-dwelling arrangements and (d) broadening availability of materials for persons with intellectual disability that would promote understanding of dementia.
The objective of this study was to explore whether people with intellectual disability from ethnic minority groups have higher rates of mental health problems and access different care pathways than their White counterparts. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected for 806 consecutive new referrals to a specialist mental health service for people with intellectual disabilities in South London. Referrals were grouped according to their ethnic origin. The analyses showed that there was an over-representation of referrals from ethnic minority groups with diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In addition, Black participants were more likely to have an autistic spectrum disorder. Referrals of ethnic minority groups were considerably younger than White referrals, and less likely to be in supported residences. The results are discussed in the context of cultural and familial factors in particular ethnic groups that may play an important role in accessing and using mental health services.
Read, Sue; Nte, Sol; Corcoran, Patsy; Stephens, Richard
Loss is a universal experience and death is perceived as the ultimate loss. The overarching aim of this research is to produce a qualitative, flexible, interactive, computerised tool to support the facilitation of emotional expressions around loss for people with intellectual disabilities. This paper explores the process of using Participatory Action Research (PAR) to develop this tool. Participator Action Research provided the indicative framework for the process of developing a software tool that is likely to be used in practice. People with intellectual disability worked alongside researchers to produce an accessible, flexible piece of software that can facilitate storytelling around loss and bereavement and promote spontaneous expression that can be shared with others. This tool has the capacity to enable individuals to capture experiences in a storyboard format; that can be stored; is easily retrievable; can be printed out; and could feasibly be personalised by the insertion of photographs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sonik, Rajan A; Parish, Susan L; Rosenthal, Eliana S
In growing numbers, people with intellectual and developmental disabilities are outliving their parents, or at least their parents' ability to care for them. Consequently, adult siblings without intellectual and developmental disabilities are increasingly taking on primary caregiving responsibilities. However, adult siblings have received little study generally, and sibling caregivers have received even less. We used nationally representative data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to describe the social characteristics and material hardship levels of sibling caregivers, in comparison to the general working age adult population. This study finds moderate material hardship to be pervasive among sibling caregivers, though extreme levels of hardship are possibly being abated somewhat through public benefit programs. Implications for greater service needs are discussed.
Schmader, Toni; Forbes, Chad E; Zhang, Shen; Mendes, Wendy Berry
Three studies tested the hypothesis that negative metacognitive interpretations of anxious arousal under stereotype threat create cognitive deficits in intellectually threatening environments. Study 1 showed that among minority and White undergraduates, anxiety about an intelligence test predicted lower working memory when participants were primed with doubt as compared to confidence. Study 2 replicated this pattern with women and showed it to be unique to intellectually threatening environments. Study 3 used emotional reappraisal as an individual difference measure of the tendency to metacognitively reinterpret negative emotions and found that when sympathetic activation was high (indexed by salivary alpha-amylase), women who tended to reappraise negative feelings performed better in math and felt less self-doubt than those low in reappraisal. Overall, findings highlight how metacognitive interpretations of affect can undermine cognitive efficiency under stereotype threat and offer implications for the situational and individual difference variables that buffer people from these effects.
Fernanda Sequera Fernández
Full Text Available The present study has the purpose to develop and apply a new training program in order to promote the use of social skills in a group of adults with intellectual disabilities. It contains a quasi-experimental methodological design to prove the program effectiveness. The sample used consists of 21 adults with intellectual disabilities, users of an occupational therapy day entity (10 persons participated in the program and 11 did not. The social skills were evaluated using an adjusted version of the Social Skills Scale Model of Gismero (2010. The outcomes of this study show a significant improvement in the overall score of the group included in the program in comparison with the rest of the group. Likewise, the group under the program obtained an increase in the scores within 5 out of 6 subscales evaluated. The identified improvements are key elements for the individual development of this group. The implications of the results are discussed.
In the United States, approximately 125,000 people with disabilities are employed through Community Rehabilitation Programs in manufacturing, assembly, and service jobs. These jobs have significant hazards and, consequently, the workers are at risk of injury. Training that empowers workers to participate in prevention efforts can help reduce work-related injuries. In general this kind of health and safety training in the United States is limited. It is even more so for workers with intellectual disabilities, in part because there have not been programs for teaching individuals with cognitive challenges health and safety skills, adapted to their learning needs. This paper describes the development and promotion of the Staying Safe at Work curriculum of UC Berkeley's Labor Occupational Health Program, which is designed for use by support agencies and employers of workers with intellectual disabilities. The goal of this program is to teach these workers essential occupational safety and health skills in a manner they can understand.
Foster, Matthew E; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D
Both phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed have been identified as two skills related to the development of mathematics skills for children with and without learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between PA and colour naming speed for 265 elementary school students with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Participants were assessed using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes and the KeyMath Revised Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Mathematics. Hierarchical regression analyses accounting for the effects of age indicated that children with MID rely on both PA and naming speed when solving mathematics problems, although PA was the more robust indicator of the two. As a whole, these results suggest that children with intellectual disabilities evidence the same types of reading and math relationships as shown for other populations of children.
Griffith, P. C.; Cook, R. B.; Wilson, B. E.; Gentry, M. J.; Horta, L. M.; McGroddy, M.; Morrell, A. L.; Wilcox, L. E.
One goal of the NSF's vision for 21st Century Cyberinfrastructure is to create a virtual intellectual commons for the scientific community where advanced technologies perpetuate transformation of this community's productivity and capabilities. The metadata describing scientific observations, like the first paragraph of a news story, should answer the questions who? what? why? where? when? and how?, making them discoverable, comprehensible, contextualized, exchangeable, and machine-readable. Investigators who create good scientific metadata increase the scientific value of their observations within such a virtual intellectual commons. But the tragedy of this commons arises when investigators wish to receive without giving in return. The authors of this talk will describe how they have used combinations of blackmail, bribery, and guilt to motivate good behavior by investigators participating in two major scientific programs (NASA's component of the Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia; and the US Climate Change Science Program's North American Carbon Program).
... Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator AGENCY: National Cancer Institute (NCI), National... Evaluation Program (CTEP) INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OPTION. The proposed policy, if finalized, would establish... recommended Intellectual Property Option and Institution Notification if they wish to be considered for...
... Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Printable PDF Open ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome is an inherited ...
Kim, Mi-Seon; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho; Lim, Kyoung-Won
The present study examined the use of tablet assisted Social Stories™ intervention for three high school students with severe intellectual disabilities whose problem behavior interfered with their learning and caused classroom disruptions. A multiple probe design across participants was employed to test the impact of the tablet assisted SS on the participants' target behaviors. During intervention, the participants read the Social Stories that were created on Prezi and accessed via Quick Response (QR) codes using a Galaxy Tap smart tablet before participating in an academic period. Data indicated that the SS intervention decreased disruptive behavior and increased academic engagement in all three participants. All three demonstrated generalization of behaviors to a nontargeted academic period and maintenance of improved behaviors at the 2-week follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beake, Sarah; Clark, Louise L; Turner, Toni; Bick, Debra
Recent reports have highlighted the poor quality of health care received by people with intellectual disabilities (otherwise known as 'learning disabilities') in the United Kingdom (UK). UK Confidential Enquiries into maternal deaths have highlighted adverse pregnancy outcomes for women with intellectual disabilities and need for timely and appropriate clinical care. To develop and test a competency assessment tool to support midwifery care of women with intellectual disabilities. A mixed methods study. Large inner city maternity unit. Midwives and key experts in intellectual disabilities, maternity policy and midwifery education. Phase one comprised a systematic narrative review of the literature. Evidence identified informed phase two which included focus groups and interviews. Emergent themes informed the development of a competency assessment tool which was piloted in phase three. Phase one: Four primary research papers and two systematic reviews met the review inclusion criteria. Support to develop parenting skills of women with intellectual disabilities was highlighted as was the need to optimise organisation of maternity services. No studies specifically considered midwifery competencies to support women with intellectual disabilities. Phase two: 23 midwives attended three focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with national leaders in intellectual disability (n=6) and midwifery policy and education (n=7). Themes identified included need for individualised care provided by a known midwife, the importance of effective communication skills and need for clear knowledge and understanding of the legislative framework relevant to intellectual disability. Phase three: A convenience sample of 60 midwives was asked to participate in a pilot study to test the tool, 46 (77%) of whom responded. Thirty midwives (65%) felt competent in their ability to recognise intellectual disability and 37 (80%) competent or expert in understanding women have the right
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with intellectual disability often have poor health and healthcare. This is partly as a consequence of poor communication and recall difficulties, and the possible loss of specialised paediatric services. Methods/Design A cluster randomised trial was conducted with adolescents with intellectual disability to investigate a health intervention package to enhance interactions among adolescents with intellectual disability, their parents/carers, and general practitioners (GPs. The trial took place in Queensland, Australia, between February 2007 and September 2010. The intervention package was designed to improve communication with health professionals and families’ organisation of health information, and to increase clinical activities beneficial to improved health outcomes. It consisted of the Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP, a one-off health check, and the Ask Health Diary, designed for on-going use. Participants were drawn from Special Education Schools and Special Education Units. The education component of the intervention was delivered as part of the school curriculum. Educators were surveyed at baseline and followed-up four months later. Carers were surveyed at baseline and after 26 months. Evidence of health promotion, disease prevention and case-finding activities were extracted from GPs clinical records. Qualitative interviews of educators occurred after completion of the educational component of the intervention and with adolescents and carers after the CHAP. Discussion Adolescents with intellectual disability have difficulty obtaining many health services and often find it difficult to become empowered to improve and protect their health. The health intervention package proposed may aid them by augmenting communication, improving documentation of health encounters, and improving access to, and quality of, GP care. Recruitment strategies to consider for future studies in this population
Background Adolescents with intellectual disability often have poor health and healthcare. This is partly as a consequence of poor communication and recall difficulties, and the possible loss of specialised paediatric services. Methods/Design A cluster randomised trial was conducted with adolescents with intellectual disability to investigate a health intervention package to enhance interactions among adolescents with intellectual disability, their parents/carers, and general practitioners (GPs). The trial took place in Queensland, Australia, between February 2007 and September 2010. The intervention package was designed to improve communication with health professionals and families’ organisation of health information, and to increase clinical activities beneficial to improved health outcomes. It consisted of the Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP), a one-off health check, and the Ask Health Diary, designed for on-going use. Participants were drawn from Special Education Schools and Special Education Units. The education component of the intervention was delivered as part of the school curriculum. Educators were surveyed at baseline and followed-up four months later. Carers were surveyed at baseline and after 26 months. Evidence of health promotion, disease prevention and case-finding activities were extracted from GPs clinical records. Qualitative interviews of educators occurred after completion of the educational component of the intervention and with adolescents and carers after the CHAP. Discussion Adolescents with intellectual disability have difficulty obtaining many health services and often find it difficult to become empowered to improve and protect their health. The health intervention package proposed may aid them by augmenting communication, improving documentation of health encounters, and improving access to, and quality of, GP care. Recruitment strategies to consider for future studies in this population include ensuring potential
Park, Daeun; Tsukayama, Eli; Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Patrick, Sarah; Duckworth, Angela L
Other than cognitive ability, what competencies should schools promote in children? How are they organized, and to what extent do they predict consequential outcomes? Separate theoretical traditions have suggested interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual dimensions, reflecting how children relate to other people, manage their own goals and impulses, and engage with ideas, respectively. However, very little work has examined character empirically. In the current investigation, we partnered with middle schools that had previously identified character strengths relevant in their communities. Across three longitudinal, prospective studies, we examined the factor structure of character, associations with intelligence and Big Five personality traits, and predictive validity for consequential outcomes like peer relations, class participation, and report card grades. In Study 1, teachers rated their students on behaviors exemplifying character strengths as they played out in students' daily lives. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a three-factor structure consisting of interpersonal (interpersonal self-control, gratitude, social intelligence), intellectual (zest, curiosity), and intrapersonal (academic self-control, grit) factors of character. In Study 2, children rated their own behavior and completed a test of cognitive ability. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the same three-factor structure, and these factors were only weakly associated with cognitive ability. In Study 3, teachers provided character ratings; in parallel, students completed measures of character as well as Big Five personality factors. As expected, intellectual, interpersonal, and intrapersonal character factors related to Big Five openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, respectively. Across studies, positive peer relations were most consistently predicted by interpersonal character, class participation by intellectual character, and report card grades by
Lovaas, O. Ivar
Reports the results of behavior modification treatment for two groups of similarly constituted, young autistic children. Pretreatment measures revealed no significant differences between the intensively treated experimental group and the minimally treated control groups. At follow-up, experimental group subjects (N=19) did significantly better…
Full Text Available Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD, participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID.