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Sample records for intellectual disability level

  1. Epilepsy in Children with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Effects of Sex, Level and Etiology of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Sinanovic, Osman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of epilepsy in children with intellectual disability. An additional goal was to determine if there were statistical differences in the occurrence of epilepsy related to the sex, level and etiology of intellectual disability of children. The sample consisted of 167 children with intellectual…

  2. Intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... below average Development way below that of peers Intelligence quotient (IQ) score below 70 on a standardized ... Social. Nutrition programs can reduce disability associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty ...

  3. Executive Function in Children with Intellectual Disability--The Effects of Sex, Level and Aetiology of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, H.; Sinanovic, O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Executive function is very important in the children's overall development. The goal of this study was to assess the executive function in children with intellectual disability (ID) through the use of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) teacher version. An additional goal was to examine the differences in…

  4. Mothers with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  5. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  6. IQ is an independent predictor of glycated haemoglobin level in young and middle-aged adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T; Miki, T; Itoh, T; Ohnishi, H; Asari, M; Chihiro, S; Yamamoto, A; Aotsuka, K; Kawakami, N; Ichikawa, J; Hirota, Y; Miura, T

    2015-01-01

    Here we examined whether intellectual disability is independently associated with hyperglycaemia. We recruited 233 consecutive young and middle-aged adults with intellectual disability. After exclusion of subjects on medication for metabolic diseases or with severe intellectual disability (IQ IQ into a group with moderate intellectual disability (35 ≤ IQ ≤ 50), a mild intellectual disability group (51 ≤ IQ ≤ 70) and a borderline group (IQ > 70). HbA1c level was higher in subjects with moderate intellectual disability (42 ± 9 mmol/mol; 6.0 ± 0.8%) than those in the borderline group (36 ± 4 mmol/mol; 5.5 ± 0.3%) and mild intellectual disability group (37 ± 5 mmol/mol; 5.5 ± 0.5%) groups. HbA1c level was correlated with age, BMI, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and IQ in simple linear regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis indicated that IQ, age, BMI and diastolic blood pressure were independent explanatory factors of HbA1c level. An unfavourable effect of intellectual disability on lifestyle and untoward effect of hyperglycaemia on cognitive function may underlie the association of low IQ with hyperglycaemia. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  7. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... learning and becoming an independent person. What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...

  8. Assessment of objectively measured physical activity levels in individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Phillips

    Full Text Available To investigate, using accelerometers, the levels of physical activity being undertaken by individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome.One hundred and fifty two individuals with intellectual disabilities aged 12-70 years from East and South-East England. Physical activity levels in counts per minute (counts/min, steps per day (steps/day, and minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA measured with a uni-axial accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M for seven days.No individuals with intellectual disabilities met current physical activity recommendations. Males were more active than females. There was a trend for physical activity to decline and sedentary behaviour to increase with age, and for those with more severe levels of intellectual disability to be more sedentary and less physically active, however any relationship was not significant when adjusted for confounding variables. Participants with Down's syndrome engaged in significantly less physical activity than those with intellectual disabilities without Down's syndrome and levels of activity declined significantly with age.Individuals with intellectual disabilities, especially those with Down's syndrome may be at risk of developing diseases associated with physical inactivity. There is a need for well-designed, accessible, preventive health promotion strategies and interventions designed to raise the levels of physical activity for individuals with intellectual disabilities. We propose that there are physiological reasons why individuals with Down's syndrome have particularly low levels of physical activity that also decline markedly with age.

  9. Anesthesia for intellectually disabled

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    Kapil Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetizing an intellectually disabled patient is a challenge due to lack of cognition and communication which makes perioperative evaluation difficult. The presence of associated medical problems and lack of cooperation further complicates the anesthetic technique. An online literature search was performed using keywords anesthesia, intellectually disabled, and mentally retarded and relevant articles were included for review. There is scarcity of literature dealing with intellectually disabled patients. The present review highlights the anesthetic challenges, their relevant evidence-based management, and the role of caretakers in the perioperative period. Proper understanding of the associated problems along with a considerate and unhurried approach are the essentials of anesthetic management of these patients.

  10. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  11. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for loving and fulfilling relationships with others. Individual rights to sexuality, which is essential to human health and well-being, have been denied. This loss has negatively affected people with intellectual disabilities in gender identity, friendships, self-esteem, body image ...

  12. Mood disorders in intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Anne D

    2006-09-01

    This article examines reviews and research on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in people with intellectual disability published from September 2004 to December 2005. Patients with intellectual disability have limitations in verbal ability, and with increasing levels of disability may have an atypical clinical presentation. Thus, methods to diagnose mood disorders were a major research focus. Informant-rating scales and two self-report instruments provided data on thought patterns, aberrant behavior, appetite, and suicidality. Behavioral symptoms such as aggression were frequently associated with mood disorders. Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy were found to be effective treatments. Mood disorders were frequently identified in people with intellectual disability, although suicide was still quite rare. Patients with milder levels of disability can use self-report measures and can be diagnosed using standard criteria with little modification. For those with more severe disability, diagnosis is challenging and often requires the use of residual categories. Atypical clinical presentation, including maladaptive behaviors, lent support for 'behavioral equivalent' substitutes of standard criteria. Typical pharmacological agents were effective for depression and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.

  13. Understanding Intellectual Disability through Rasopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent...

  14. Understanding low levels of physical activity in people with intellectual disabilities : A systematic review to identify barriers and facilitators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) undertake extremely low levels of physical activity. Aims: To enhance understanding concerning low levels of physical activity in people with ID, this study has three aims: (1) to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in

  15. Intellectual disability and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, C; Picard, S

    2011-04-01

    The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a team dedicated to homeless persons. (1) To describe the characteristics, history and current situation of these persons; and (2) to report within-group differences as a function of gender and current residential status. The data were collected from files using an anonymous chart summary. Descriptive statistics on the whole sample (n = 68) and inferential statistics on cross-tabulations by gender and residential status were performed. Persons with ID exhibited several related problems. Some of these persons, primarily women, experienced relatively short periods of homelessness and their situations stabilised once they were identified and followed up. Other persons with ID experienced chronic homelessness that appeared to parallel the number and severity of their other problems. When compared with a previous epidemiological study of the homeless in Montreal, the population of homeless persons with ID differed from the overall homeless population in a number of respects. The results suggest prevention and intervention targets. The need for epidemiological research appears particularly clear in light of the fact that below-average intellectual functioning has been identified as a risk factor for homelessness and a predisposing factor for vulnerability among street people. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) Levels in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Fang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Lan-Ping; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The elevated serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) rate among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is unknown and have not been sufficiently studies. The present paper aims to provide the profile of GOT and GPT, and their associated relationship with other biochemical levels of children or…

  17. PARENT’S SATISFACTION WITH SOME FEATURES OF EARLY CARE PROVISIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana PINTARIC MLINAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Probably from the very beginning of the human curiosity in disability features for family’s values, structures, parenting styles, circles of support, strengths and others, have been just as appealing as the child or adult with disabilities themselves. As many studies confirmed, professionals' approach to parents, getting adequate information and type of treatment present a challenge to families of children with established developmental disabilities and those at risk for disability. The main purpose of this study was to analyze parents' satisfaction with these three main features of support in early treatment of their child with intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 81 families with intellectually disabled child, recruited from seven types of care provided in three towns in Croatia. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA comparing variety of parents satisfaction in four groups formed according to the level of intellectual disability. The method revealed a significant difference among groups in the variable referring to the parents satisfaction with treatment accessibility and its frequency provided.

  18. ICT and Intellectual Disability: A Survey of Organizational Support at the Municipal Level in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsten, Camilla; Marmstål Hammar, Lena; Martin, Lene; Göransson, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young adults today have grown up in a society where information and communication technology (ICT) support empowerment and social participation. Young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are at risk for marginalization by the digital divide. The aim was to map and describe how municipal organizations in Sweden organize…

  19. Educators' Perceptions of Teaching Grade-Level Content to Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Christina V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address a gap in the research literature by describing the perceptions of Special Education teachers of students with intellectual disabilities (ID), regarding the paradigm shift required in their teaching practices as they strove to implement current educational reform legislation. Knowledge of the lived…

  20. ICT and Intellectual Disability: A Survey of Organizational Support at the Municipal Level in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsten, Camilla; Marmstål Hammar, Lena; Martin, Lene; Göransson, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Young adults today have grown up in a society where information and communication technology (ICT) support empowerment and social participation. Young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are at risk for marginalization by the digital divide. The aim was to map and describe how municipal organizations in Sweden organize support in terms of policy and strategies to enable the use of ICT in social care for adults with a mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey including all municipalities in Sweden (n = 290) was conducted (response rate: 51%, n = 147). Descriptive statistics were used. Findings indicate a lack of organizational support for staff as well as for young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Municipalities request more knowledge about strategies for making ICT available. Despite the lack of comprehensive strategies for ICT, some Swedish municipalities have taken the initiative in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Intellectual Disability and Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.

  2. Low Levels of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

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    Kelly Hsieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID are more likely to lead sedentary lifestyles and have low levels of physical activity (LLPA. The present study investigated the prevalence of reported LLPA and time spent watching TV in adults with ID and identified the associated factors for these behaviors. The proxy informants of 1618 adults with ID completed the surveys regarding their health behaviors. Multiple logistic regressions were employed for LLPA and multiple linear regressions for time spent watching TV. About 60% of adults with ID had LLPA and average time spent watching TV was 3.4 h a day. Some characteristics and health and function variables were identified as associated factors. While engaging in community activities and involvement in Special Olympics were inversely associated with LLPA, they were not associated with time spent watching TV. Attending day/educational programs or being employed were associated with spending less time watching TV. Findings highlight differential factors associated with LLPA versus TV-watching behavior in adults with ID. Hence, a key strategy aimed at increasing physical activity includes promoting participation in social and community activities, while targeted activities for reducing sedentary behavior might focus on providing day programs or employment opportunities for adults with ID.

  3. Benefits of extending and adjusting the level of difficulty on computerized cognitive training for children with intellectual disabilities

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    Jon eOttersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Training on working memory (WM improves attention and working memory in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and memory impairments. However, for children with intellectual disabilities (ID, the results have been less encouraging. In this preliminary study it was hypothesized that children with ID would benefit from an extended amount of training and that the level of difficulty during training would affect the outcome. We included 21 children with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities aged 8–13 years. They went through between 37 and 50 training sessions with an adaptive computerized program on WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR. The children were divided into two subgroups with different difficulty levels during training. The transfer to untrained cognitive tests was compared to the results of 22 children with intellectual disabilities training only 25 sessions, and to a control group. We found that the training group with the extended training program improved significantly on a block design task measuring NVR and on a WM task compared to the control group. There was also a significantly larger improvement on block design relative to the training group with the shorter training time. The children that received easier training tasks also improved significantly more on a verbal WM task compared to children with more demanding tasks.In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that children with ID might benefit from cognitive training with longer training periods and less demanding tasks, compared to children without disabilities.

  4. Understanding intellectual disability through RASopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Alvaro; Pagani, Mario Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Li, Eria Ping

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the first generation of sibling advocates in Hong Kong. A qualitative approach was adopted and six sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities from one non-government organization were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method and content analysis. Findings revealed that the six participants were reactive in the process of taking up the caregiver responsibility and they performed three functions: to advocate for more service provision, to improve service quality, and to facilitate communication between individual service units and family members of people with intellectual disabilities. All of the participants expressed that they needed support from service providers when they tried to function as the sibling advocates. Strategies to promote the involvement of siblings of people with intellectual disabilities as advocates are discussed and it is expected that more siblings of people with intellectual disabilities will be supported to have a higher level of involvement in advocacy.

  6. Environmental and state-level regulatory factors affect the incidence of autism and intellectual disability.

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    Andrey Rzhetsky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many factors affect the risks for neurodevelopmental maladies such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD and intellectual disability (ID. To compare environmental, phenotypic, socioeconomic and state-policy factors in a unified geospatial framework, we analyzed the spatial incidence patterns of ASD and ID using an insurance claims dataset covering nearly one third of the US population. Following epidemiologic evidence, we used the rate of congenital malformations of the reproductive system as a surrogate for environmental exposure of parents to unmeasured developmental risk factors, including toxins. Adjusted for gender, ethnic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical factors, the ASD incidence rates were strongly linked to population-normalized rates of congenital malformations of the reproductive system in males (an increase in ASD incidence by 283% for every percent increase in incidence of malformations, 95% CI: [91%, 576%], p<6×10(-5. Such congenital malformations were barely significant for ID (94% increase, 95% CI: [1%, 250%], p = 0.0384. Other congenital malformations in males (excluding those affecting the reproductive system appeared to significantly affect both phenotypes: 31.8% ASD rate increase (CI: [12%, 52%], p<6×10(-5, and 43% ID rate increase (CI: [23%, 67%], p<6×10(-5. Furthermore, the state-mandated rigor of diagnosis of ASD by a pediatrician or clinician for consideration in the special education system was predictive of a considerable decrease in ASD and ID incidence rates (98.6%, CI: [28%, 99.99%], p = 0.02475 and 99% CI: [68%, 99.99%], p = 0.00637 respectively. Thus, the observed spatial variability of both ID and ASD rates is associated with environmental and state-level regulatory factors; the magnitude of influence of compound environmental predictors was approximately three times greater than that of state-level incentives. The estimated county-level random effects exhibited marked spatial clustering, strongly

  7. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been use...

  8. Psychopathology in Young People With Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Hofer, Scott M.; Taffe, John; Gray, Kylie M.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hoffman, Lesa R.; Parmenter, Trevor; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood. Objective To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Design, Setting, and Participants The participants of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, an epidemiological cohort of 578 children and adolescents recruited in 1991 from health, education, and family agencies that provided services to children with intellectual disability aged 5 to 19.5 years in 6 rural and urban census regions in Australia, were followed up for 14 years with 4 time waves of data collection. Data were obtained from 507 participants, with 84% of wave 1 (1991-1992) participants being followed up at wave 4 (2002-2003). Main Outcome Measures The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), a validated measure of psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability, completed by parents or other caregivers. Changes over time in the Total Behaviour Problem Score and 5 subscale scores of the DBC scores were modeled using growth curve analysis. Results High initial levels of behavioral and emotional disturbance decreased only slowly over time, remaining high into young adulthood, declining by 1.05 per year on the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. Overall severity of psychopathology was similar across mild to severe ranges of intellectual disability (with mean Total Behaviour Problem Scores of approximately 44). Psychopathology decreased more in boys than girls over time (boys starting with scores 2.61 points higher at baseline and ending with scores 2.57 points lower at wave 4), and more so in participants with mild intellectual disability compared with those with severe or profound intellectual disability who diverged from

  9. Adolescents with intellectual disability and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack

    2005-09-08

    It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption and in fact the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  10. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Suicidal Behavior

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    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  11. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability.

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    Wenger, Jodi; Downes, Alison; Blum, Nathan; Augustyn, Marilyn

    Amad is a wonderful 16-year-old young man from Syria who has recently relocated to the United States from his war-torn native country. In his last few years in Syria, he was primarily at home with his mother, and they sought refuge with a maternal aunt in the United States seeking asylum and treatment of Amad's disability.At 8 years of age, he had intelligence testing in the United Arab Emirates, which showed a verbal intelligence score on the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC) of 68 and a performance of 64. His working memory was 67 and his processing speed was 65. On arrival in the United States, his achievement was roughly at a third-grade level in Arabic. In the year and a half that he has been in the United States, he quickly improved his English skills, which he learned as a toddler. His father remains in Syria unable to safely immigrate and his mother is raising him alone in the United States with the help of her sister.They come to you for an urgent care visit because Amad recently was accused of sexual harassment by two girls at his high school. He is in a substantially separate program but is included for lunch and technology. While in the computer laboratory, he repeatedly approached the girls and asks them to "date" him, and on 1 occasion sat behind 1 girl and repeatedly reached out to stroke her long blonde hair.His mother is distraught because she recently found out that Amad also has a Facebook page and had been attempting to contact the same two girls on social media. The girls' parents recently threatened to file criminal harassment charges and Amad's mother comes to you asking for help with making Amad stop this activity. What would you do next?

  12. Fruit flies and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.

  13. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD AND MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

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    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large number of children with intellectual disabilities encounters behavioral problems or show disharmonic behavior within the family, at school and in the community. Researches show that 30-50% of persons with intellectual disabilities have some behavioral problems. The behavior of children with intellectual disabilities depends on many factors: age of the child, level of intellectual disability, cognitive potentials, level of psycho-physical development, differentiation of emotions, communicative skills, social status and conditions of the environment (in the family and the wider community where the child lives. The influence of some of these factors has been analyzed by this research. There are many ins truments (questionnaires, scales that evaluate behavior of persons with intellectual disabilities, and reveal problems that these persons have in their psychosocial development and social life. This research used the AAMD Adaptive behavior Scale (part II and Scale for evaluating behavior of the child in school by authors Bojanin, Savanovikj.

  14. Intellectual disability and the prison setting

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    V. Tort

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1 To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2 Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1 A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398 of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons33 to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2 We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3 Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. Results: The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. Conclusions: The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.

  15. Physical activity levels in adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review

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    Yetunde Marion Dairo

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen studies were included consisting of 3159 awID, aged 16–81 years, 54% male and 46% female. Only 9% of participants achieved minimum PA guidelines. PA levels were measured using objective and subjective methods. ID severity, living in care, gender, and age were independently significantly correlated with the number of participants achieving PA guidelines with the strongest predictor being ID severity (Beta 0.631, p < 0.001. Findings should be in the context that most of the participants were in the mild/moderate range of ID severity and none of the studies objectively measured PA in people with profound ID. To inform measurement and intervention design for improved PA, we recommend that there is an urgent need for future PA studies in awID population to include all disability severity levels. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015016675.

  16. An inexorable rise in intellectual disability?

    OpenAIRE

    Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the number of people with intellectual disabilities applying for care. The results are contained in this report. Our inventory reveals that demand for intellectual disability care has risen by an average of 9% pe...

  17. Feasibility and Reliability of Tests Measuring Health-Related Physical Fitness in Children with Moderate to Severe Levels of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Marieke; van der Zanden, Anna M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical fitness is an important marker for health. In this study we investigated the feasibility and reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in children with moderate to severe levels of intellectual disability. Thirty-nine children (2-18 yrs) performed tests for muscular strength and endurance, the modified 6-minute walk test (6mwt)…

  18. Three-Dimensions vs. Two-Dimensions Intervention Programs: The Effect on the Mediation Level and Behavioural Aspects of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, S.; Bezer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the effect of an intervention program employing 3D immersive virtual reality (IVR), which focused on the perception of sequential time, on the mediation level and behavioural aspects of children with intellectual disability (ID). The intervention is based on the mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which refers the…

  19. Benefits of extending and adjusting the level of difficulty on computerized cognitive training for children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottersen, Jon; Grill, Katja M

    2015-01-01

    Training on working memory (WM) improves attention and WM in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and memory impairments. However, for children with intellectual disabilities (ID), the results have been less encouraging. In this preliminary study it was hypothesized that children with ID would benefit from an extended amount of training and that the level of difficulty during training would affect the outcome. We included 21 children with mild or moderate ID aged 8-13 years. They went through between 37 and 50 training sessions with an adaptive computerized program on WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR). The children were divided into two subgroups with different difficulty levels during training. The transfer to untrained cognitive tests was compared to the results of 22 children with ID training only 25 sessions, and to a control group. We found that the training group with the extended training program improved significantly on a block design task measuring NVR and on a WM task compared to the control group. There was also a significantly larger improvement on block design relative to the training group with the shorter training time. The children that received easier training tasks also improved significantly more on a verbal WM task compared to children with more demanding tasks. In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that children with ID might benefit from cognitive training with longer training periods and less demanding tasks, compared to children without disabilities.

  20. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN INDIVIDULAS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag VUJOVIKJ

    2017-10-01

    included analysis of documentation, testing and survey. As the most suitable instruments for this research, I decided to use the test for measuring the IQ and level of mental deterioration of the respondents – WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for the Macedonian population and Demographic questionnaire which determined the basic demographic characteristics of the respondents. With the help of these two instruments, the most important data for achieving the research goals were obtained, which were further processed and gave the end results of this research. Results: The processing of the data from the study showed that a significant proportion of the individuals with mental disorders do not have intellectual disability as a second diagnosis (p=0,0001, however in the population with mental disorders there will be an appearance of intellectual disability in a significantly greater extend in comparison to the general population (p=0,00096. The type of mental disorder has an effect on the appearance of intellectual disability(p=0,015. The gender (p=0,683 and the age (p=0,669 of the individuals with mental disorders are not affecting the appearance and the level of intellectual disability. There is no statically significant connection between the appearance and the level of mental deterioration and intellectual disability in individuals with mental disorders (p=0,921 and its appearance does not depend on the gender (p=0,606 and age (p=0,649 of the individual with a mental disorder. Conclusion: Considering the fact that there are a great number of people in the institutions for individuals with mental disorders, who despite having a mental disorder also have an intellectual disability as a second diagnosis, a lot more research is needed which will be beneficial for the better understanding of the condition and needs of these individuals, thus improving the diagnostics and the treatment, as well as the quality of their life.

  1. Judicial Reliance on Parental IQ in Appellate-Level Child Welfare Cases Involving Parents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Ella; Tahir, Munazza; Feldman, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are over-represented in child welfare cases. Although IQ "per se" is an invalid indicator of parenting abilities, this study examined the prevalence of judicial consideration of parental IQ test evidence in US appellate cases. Methods: The present authors…

  2. Bereavement process of people with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia MUÑIZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is focused on detecting the support needs of people with intellectual disabilities during the bereavement process in order to guide about professional interventions and practices aimed to provide more adequate individualized support to their real needs. The sample consists of 93 adults with ID, with ages ranging from 21 to 72 years old (M = 49.9; SD = 11.79, who have suffered the loss of a significant person. The professionals who worked with them and knew them well completed two questionnaires: Staff Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ and Bereavement Needs Assessment (BNAT. Beside descriptive analyses, results were analyzed according to several variables (i.e., gender, age, level of intellectual disability, and level of dependency. Level of intellectual disability and level of dependency were the ones that resulted significant. In order to provide the best answer to their needs, good practices are suggested such as facilitating the understanding of loss, helping them express feelings and emotions, dealing with each case individually, and encouraging to continue education about death.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cleft Lip and Palate MalaCards: x-linked intellectual disability, siderius type March of Dimes: Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Merck Manual Consumer Version: Intellectual Disability Orphanet: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Patient ...

  4. Expanding Opportunities for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangreco, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Research and experience tell us a great deal about how to successfully educate students with intellectual disability, but unfortunately this knowledge remains underutilized and inconsistently applied, writes researcher Michael F. Giangreco. Students with intellectual disability who have virtually identical profiles but live in different locales…

  5. Predictors of Visual-Motor Integration in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Sinanovic, Osman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sex, age, level and etiology of intellectual disability on visual-motor integration in children with intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 90 children with intellectual disability between 7 and 15 years of age. Visual-motor integration was measured using the Acadia test of…

  6. Processing of Facial Expressions of Emotions by Adults with Down Syndrome and Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Fernando; Fernandez-Alcaraz, Camino; Rueda, Maria; Sarrion, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The processing of facial expressions of emotions by 23 adults with Down syndrome and moderate intellectual disability was compared with that of adults with intellectual disability of other etiologies (24 matched in cognitive level and 26 with mild intellectual disability). Each participant performed 4 tasks of the Florida Affect Battery and an…

  7. Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in a Resource-Poor Setting in India--Part 1: Association with Age, Sex, Severity of Intellectual Disabilities and IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Kishore, M. Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems are most common in people with intellectual disabilities. Nature of behaviour problems can vary depending upon the age, sex and intellectual level (IQ). Objectives: This study examined the distribution of behaviour problems across intellectual disability categories and their association with IQ age and sex in…

  8. Children with intellectual disability and hospice utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Colman, Mari Beth; Meadows, John T

    2017-02-01

    Over 42,000 children die each year in the United States, including those with intellectual disability (ID). Survival is often reduced when children with intellectual disability also suffer from significant motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities. Yet, little is known about hospice care for children with intellectual disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization. Additionally, we explored whether intellectual disability combined with motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities influenced pediatric hospice utilization. Using a retrospective cohort design and data from the 2009 to 2010 California Medicaid claims files, we conducted a multivariate analysis of hospice utilization. This study shows that intellectual disability was negatively related to hospice enrollment and length of stay. We also found that when children had both intellectual disability and comorbidities, there was a positive association with enrolling in hospice care. A number of clinical implications can be drawn from the study findings that hospice and palliative care nurses use to improve their clinical practice of caring for children with ID and their families at end of life.

  9. Aerobic capacity of adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    1. A large sample of the study population (30% female, 46,3% male showed very low levels of aerobic capacity. 2. Our investigations did not demonstrate a relationship between physical fitness and age or the degree of intellectual disability. Gender turned out to be a differentiating factor but only for the absolute PWC170 and VO2max. 3. The level of physical fitness was significantly related to somatic parameters including body mass, waist and hips circumference, percentage of body fat, BMI and WHR.

  10. Motor Performance of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…

  11. Motor performance of children with mild intellectual disability and borderline intellectual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and

  12. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastgate, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.

  13. Health promotion for people with intellectual disabilities - A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Anne E

    2018-03-01

    Whereas 'health promotion' is a well-known concept for healthcare professionals, the concept of 'health promotion for people with intellectual disabilities' and its unique associated challenges are not well understood. This article provides a systematic analysis of how health promotion is being conceptualised for people with intellectual disabilities and how health promotion can work best in the light of this group's specific needs and limitations. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SocINDEX were searched using the search terms 'health promotion', 'people with intellectual disabilities' and 'developmental disabilities'. This review includes studies published between 1992 and 2014. A total of 52 articles were included. Health promotion for people intellectual disabilities, as discussed in the literature, focuses on four aspects, namely supporting a healthy lifestyle, providing health education, involving supporters and being person-centred. Antecedents of the concept 'health promotion for people with intellectual disabilities' were healthcare access and sensitised healthcare providers. The outcomes were improved health, being empowered, enhanced quality of life and reduced health disparities. This analysis provides a solid foundation for healthcare stakeholders' planning, implementing and evaluating health-promotion activities for people with intellectual disabilities at the policy level and in the community. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. Effect of startup circuit exercise on derivatives reactive oxygen metabolites, biological antioxidant potential levels and physical fitness of adolescents boys with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Gyun; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of starup circuit exercise program on derivatives reactive oxygen metabolite (d-ROM) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels and physical fitness of adolescents with intellectual disabilities, and to sugesst exercise programs to promote the health and physical development of such adolescents. Twelve students with intellectual disabilities were divided into two groups; circuit exercise group (CE group: n=6; age, 14.83±0.98 years; height, 163.83±5.78 cm; body mass, 67.08±3.32 kg; %Fat, 25.68±2.42), control group (CON group: n=6; age: 15.00±0.63 years; height, 162.33±4.41 cm; body mass, 67.50±3.62 kg; %Fat, 26.96±2.06). The CE group performed the CE program 4 times a week over a 12-week period. The CON group maintained their activities of daily living. The following were measured before and after intervention: physical fitness by before and after the completion of the training programm, and were measured and blood samples were assessed. The results of the study indicate that the 12-week CE program increased significantly physical fitness ( P <0.05). Furthermore, This study proved that the CE program improved physical fitness, and reduced the d-ROM levels, and increased the BAP levels of the adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Therefore, it may enhance the health and physical development of adolescents boys with intellectual disabilities.

  15. Mortality in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.

  16. Relation between Working Memory and Self-Regulation Capacities and the Level of Social Skills Acquisition in People with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducic, Bojan; Gligorovic, Milica; Kaljaca, Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Background: Social competence deficit is one of the main characteristics of intellectual disability. The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of working memory (WM) and self-regulation (SR) on social skills in persons with moderate intellectual disability (MID). Method: The sample included 41 participants with MID, aged 14-21.…

  17. 228 THE INTELLECTUAL DISABLED (MENTALLY IMPAIRED) IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    The Intellectual disabled child is characterized by significantly sub average general intellectual ... by abnormal development, learning difficulties, and problem in social ... softened and classifications redefined some what to mild (IQ of 55 –70) moderate .... parents do not like the isolation of their children from normal children.

  18. Epigenetic Etiology of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Shigeki; Bérubé, Nathalie G; Zhou, Zhaolan; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Battaglioli, Elena; Scandaglia, Marilyn; Barco, Angel

    2017-11-08

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition associated with impaired cognitive and adaptive behaviors. Many chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators have been genetically associated with ID disorders (IDDs). Here we review how alterations in the function of histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers, and methyl-DNA binding proteins contribute to neurodevelopmental defects and altered brain plasticity. We also discuss how progress in human genetics has led to the generation of mouse models that unveil the molecular etiology of ID, and outline the direction in which this field is moving to identify therapeutic strategies for IDDs. Importantly, because the chromatin regulators linked to IDDs often target common downstream genes and cellular processes, the impact of research in individual syndromes goes well beyond each syndrome and can also contribute to the understanding and therapy of other IDDs. Furthermore, the investigation of these disorders helps us to understand the role of chromatin regulators in brain development, plasticity, and gene expression, thereby answering fundamental questions in neurobiology. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710773-10$15.00/0.

  19. Pragmatic skills of children and youth with mild intellectual disability

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    Brojčin Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatic competence means the use of language in social context. Persons with intellectual disability experience numerous problems in this aspect of communication, but they are relatively pragmatically skilled in well-known situations, in which they are not subjected to significant cognitive and social requirements. The aim of this paper is to determine the level of pragmatic abilities of children and youth with mild intellectual disability and to perceive its relation to chronological age, speech comprehension, speech production, the level of intellectual functioning, gender and bilingualism of the participants. The level of pragmatic competence was tested in the sample of 120 children with mild intellectual disability, aged between 8 and 16, by using the Test of pragmatic language competence. The Clinical scales of Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological battery for children were also used. The results obtained in this research suggest that general level of achievement of children with mild intellectual disability in this domain of development is far below the expectations based on their chronological age. Significant progress appears between 12 and 14 years of age, but there are also two critical periods in their development. Important relations of pragmatic skills with speech comprehension, speech production, chronological age and intellectual level were established.

  20. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  1. Disability impact and coping in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, M Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the disability impact on parenting and caregiving is important for intervention. The present study was designed to understand the differences in perceived disability impact and related coping in mothers having children with intellectual disabilities alone compared to those having children with intellectual disabilities and additional disabilities. Accordingly, 30 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and 30 mothers of children with intellectual and additional disabilities were assessed for disability impact and coping. Group differences for disability impact were present in specific domains but not overall. Despite variations in coping pattern, both positive and negative coping strategies were observed in both groups. The results may imply that the impact of intellectual disability is so pervasive that except in certain domains mothers may not perceive the further impact of additional disabilities. Positive coping does not rule out negative coping strategies. These findings have specific relevance to service delivery in a cultural context.

  2. [Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability: a new instrument for the neuropsychological assessment of adults with intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteba-Castillo, S; Pena-Casanova, J; Garcia-Alba, J; Castellanos, M A; Torrents-Rodas, D; Rodriguez, E; Deus-Yela, J; Caixas, A; Novell-Alsina, R

    2017-05-16

    Neuropsychological assessment in individuals with intellectual disability is of utmost importance in order to determine the cognitive deficits underlying brain dysfunction and limiting intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. However, no neuropsychological batteries in Spanish language have been created and validated for this population. To adapt the 'programa integrado de exploracion neuropsicologica-test Barcelona' and to validate the new version, the Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability (TB-DI). To create normative data for its clinical use. The original test was modified based on data from a pilot sample of 65 individuals with intellectual disability. In order to study the psychometric properties of the TB-DI, it was administered to a sample of 170 individuals with intellectual disability and to a group of 60 individuals without it. The relevant variables for stratification of normative data were determined by means of regression models. The TB-DI was finally composed by 67 subtests grouped in eight cognitive domains and it showed good psychometric properties. Normative data were created for five groups taking into account intellectual disability level, age and acquired curricular competence. These data were organized in percentiles in a way that allows the creation of cognitive profiles in the clinical and experimental fields. The TB-DI constitutes a tool of high applicability in the population with intellectual disability. It shows adequate validity and reliability, and it has good psychometric properties. The cognitive profiles obtained by the TB-DI will provide valuable information for the treatment of adult adults with mild and moderate intellectual disability.

  3. Twenty-Five Year Survival of Children with Intellectual Disability in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; Nembhard, Wendy N; Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate survival up to early adulthood for children with intellectual disability and compare their risk of mortality with that of children without intellectual disability. This was a retrospective cohort study of all live births in Western Australia between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 2010. Children with an intellectual disability (n = 10 593) were identified from the Western Australian Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers Database. Vital status was determined from linkage to the Western Australian Mortality database. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates and 95% CIs were computed by level of intellectual disability. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with those without intellectual disability, children with intellectual disability had a 6-fold increased risk of mortality at 1-5 years of age (adjusted HR [aHR] = 6.0, 95%CI: 4.8, 7.6), a 12-fold increased risk at 6-10 years of age (aHR = 12.6, 95% CI: 9.0, 17.7) and a 5-fold increased risk at 11-25 years of age (aHR = 4.9, 95% CI: 3.9, 6.1). Children with severe intellectual disability were at even greater risk. No difference in survival was observed for Aboriginal children with intellectual disability compared with non-Aboriginal children with intellectual disability. Although children with intellectual disability experience higher mortality at all ages compared with those without intellectual disability, the greatest burden is for those with severe intellectual disability. However, even children with mild to moderate intellectual disability have increased risk of death compared with unaffected children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alleviating Parenting Stress in Parents with Intellectual Disabilities : A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Video-feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodes, Marja W.; Meppelder, Marieke; de Moor, Marleen; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adapted parenting support may alleviate the high levels of parenting stress experienced by many parents with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning were randomized to experimental (n = 43) and control

  5. Developing a questionnaire on physical activity support of people with (profound) intellectual (and multiple) disabilities : Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) undertake extremely low levels of physical activity, which is even more true in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Physical activity approaches, particularly for people with PIMD, are more likely to be

  6. Intellectual Disability in Children; a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasteh Goli N.*BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.

  7. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  8. Interventions to promote physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviene A Temple

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe interventions designed to promote physical activity for adults with intellectual disabilities and the effects on overall physical activity levels and on health outcomes. Materials and methods. A systematic review of eight databases until January 31, 2015 identified 383 citations. The inclusion criteria were: a the study sample consisted of adults with intellectual disabilities, b the study implemented an intervention to initiate, increase, or maintain physical activity, and c quantitative or qualitative data were used to report the effectiveness of the intervention. Six articles from the 383 citations met this criterion. Results. Three studies resulted in significant increases in physical activity behaviour; however well-controlled trials designed to improve weight status by increasing physical activity did not produce significant effects. Conclusion. Overall, the results indicate that interventions to increase physical activity should simultaneously target the individual with intellectual disability as well as their proximal environment over a sustained period of time.

  9. Parental social support, coping strategies, resilience factors, stress, anxiety and depression levels in parents of children with MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome) or children with intellectual disabilities (ID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Wraith, James Edmond; Jones, Simon; Mahon, Louise; Lomax, Michelle; Bigger, Brian; Hare, Dougal

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder, caused by a deficiency in one of four enzymes involved in the catabolism of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate. It is a degenerative disorder, with a progressive decline in children's intellectual and physical functioning. There is currently no cure for the disorder. To date there is a paucity of research on how this disorder impacts parents psychological functioning. Specifically, research in the area has failed to employ adequate control groups to assess if the impact of this disorder on parents psychological functioning differs from parenting a child with intellectual disability (ID). The current study examined child behaviour and parental psychological functioning in 23 parents of children with MPS III and 23 parents of children with ID. Parents completed postal questionnaires about their child's behaviour and abilities and their own psychological functioning. Parents of children with MPS III reported fewer behavioural difficulties as their child aged, more severe level of intellectual disability, and similar levels of perceived social support, coping techniques, stress, anxiety and depression levels as parents of children with ID. Both groups of parents scored above the clinical cut off for anxiety and depression. Parents of children with MPS III rated themselves as significantly less future-orientated and goal directed than parents of children with ID. Services should develop support packages for parents of children with MPS III that incorporate an understanding of the unique stressors and current-difficulty approach of this population. Future research should examine gender differences between parental psychological functioning, using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches, and utilise matched developmental level and typically developing control groups.

  10. Setting Global Research Priorities for Developmental Disabilities, Including Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, M.; Yasamy, M. T.; Emerson, E.; Officer, A.; Richler, D.; Saxena, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of intellectual disabilities (ID) has been estimated at 10.4/1000 worldwide with higher rates among children and adolescents in lower income countries. The objective of this paper is to address research priorities for development disabilities, notably ID and autism, at the global level and to propose the more rational…

  11. Intellectual disability sport and Paralympic classification

    OpenAIRE

    Anna van Dijk; Klára Daďová; Irena Martínková

    2017-01-01

    Sometimes it might seem that elite disability sport, especially as represented by the Paralympic Movement, is only for athletes with an amputation, or a spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsied or blind athletes, rather than for athletes with an intellectual disability (ID). However, after we set out the various opportunities open to ID athletes, that offer different kinds of sporting engagement, we find interesting and alarming issues with respect to the elite competitive event offer for athl...

  12. Suicide behavior in persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Lunsky, Yona; Kandel, Isack

    2005-09-08

    Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.

  13. Suicide Behavior in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.

  14. Best Practices in Intellectual Disability Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Catherine A.; Jenkins, Tiffany K.

    2018-01-01

    This article is an overview of identification of intellectual disabilities (ID), with a focus on meeting legal and ethical requirements when assessing children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and those living in poverty. Specific procedures and recommended instruments will be reviewed.

  15. Life Satisfaction in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…

  16. Aging in Rare Intellectual Disability Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several methodological challenges involved in research on aging, health, and mortality in adults with rare intellectual disability syndromes. Few studies have been performed in this area, with research obstacles that include: the ascertainment of older adults with genetic versus clinical diagnoses; likelihood that adults…

  17. Perceptions of the Judiciary and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockram, Judith; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Seventeen Supreme Court Judges, District Court Judges, and Magistrates in Western Australia were surveyed to examine perceptions concerning overrepresentation of individuals with intellectual disability in the criminal justice system. The judiciary felt these individuals had several characteristics that would disadvantage them in contacts with the…

  18. An inexorable rise in intellectual disability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the

  19. Legal Rights & Intellectual Disability: A Short Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julia, Ed.; And Others

    The book examines actions that may be taken to redress wrongs illegally perpetrated against people with intellectual disabilities in New South Wales, Australia. Ten topic areas are addressed (sample subtopics in parentheses): protecting rights (complaints to government departments, use of the ombudsman); discrimination (legal aid); personal…

  20. Monitoring the prevalence of severe intellectual disability in children across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marit; Einarsson, Ingolfur; Arnaud, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to study the feasibility of creating a framework for monitoring and undertaking collaborative research on intellectual disability at the European level, based on existing databases of children with such disability.......Our aim was to study the feasibility of creating a framework for monitoring and undertaking collaborative research on intellectual disability at the European level, based on existing databases of children with such disability....

  1. Knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasielska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability. The premises relating to mental functioning of these children suggest that this knowledge is poorer and less complex than the knowledge of their peers in the intellectual norm. The study used the authoring tool to measure children’s knowledge of emotions including the joy. This tool takes into account the cognitive representation of the basic emotions available in three codes: image, verbal, semantic and interconnection between the codes - perception, symbolization and conceptualization which perform the functions of perception, expression and understanding. The study included children with the intellectual norm (N = 30 and children with mild intellectual disability (N = 30. The obtained results mainly indicate the differences in how the happiness is understood by particular groups, to the detriment of children with disability. The character of the results is largely determined by the level of organization of knowledge about the joy and accompanying mental operations. The results will be discussed, among others, in the context of the adjustment of the programs of lasting increase of happiness for people with intellectual disability.

  2. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina

    2010-06-16

    Intellectual disability may impact on an individual's capacity to parent a child effectively. Research suggests that the number of intellectually disabled people with children is increasing. Children of parents with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of neglectful care which could lead to health, developmental and behavioural problems, or increased risk of intellectual disability.However, there is some indication that some parents with intellectual disabilities are able to provide adequate child care if they are given appropriate training and support to do so. To assess the effectiveness of parent training interventions to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, and ZETOC. Randomised controlled trials comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disabilities with usual care or with a control group. Outcomes of interest were: the attainment of parenting skills specific to the intervention, safe home practices and the understanding of child health. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. Three trials met the inclusion criteria for this review but no meta-analysis was possible. One study reported improved maternal-child interaction following group parent training compared with the control group. The second study reported some improvements in parents knowledge of life threatening emergencies, ability to recognise dangers and identify precautions and smaller improvements in their ability to implement precautions, use medicines safely and recognise child illness and symptoms. The third study reported improvement in child care and safety skills following the intervention. There is some risk of bias in the

  3. The practical implication of comparing how adults with and without intellectual disability respond to music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooper, Jeff; Wigram, Tony; Carson, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Previous researchers who compared how people with, and without, an intellectual disability respond to music focused on musical aptitude, but not on arousal. This paper presents the background, methodology, and results of a study that selected fifteen different pieces of music, and compared...... the arousal response of adults with (n = 48), and without (n = 48), an intellectual disability. There was a very strong significant positive correlation (rho = 0.831, N = 15, P ... an intellectual disability, can be used appropriately in an intervention predicated for lowering the arousal levels of the intellectually disabled population....

  4. Psychometric evaluation of a Dutch version of the Mini PAS-ADD for assessing psychiatric disorders in adults with different levels of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, R; Maes, B

    2013-08-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have an increased vulnerability to develop psychiatric problems. Moreover, the early recognition and the accurate diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in the population of persons with ID are challenging. A Dutch version of the Mini PAS-ADD, which is a screening instrument for identification of mental health problems in people with ID, was evaluated in terms of internal consistency, interinformant reliability, item grouping and criterion validity based on a large-scale random sample (n = 377) and a clinical sample (n = 99) of adults with ID. The Dutch version of the Mini PAS-ADD showed moderate internal consistency, and moderate concordance among informants. Both aspects of the reliability were comparable for different levels of ID. A factor analysis largely confirmed the scale structure. Concurrent validity with the Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior was high for the Depression, Psychosis and Autism scale. The outcome of the criterion-validity analysis indicated high specificity. The sensitivity for specific psychiatric disorders by the corresponding scales was moderate, but the general sensitivity for the presence of psychopathology on the basis of any of the scales was satisfying. The present research reconfirmed the use of the Mini PAS-ADD as a primary screening device for the identification of mental health problems among people with ID. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  5. Same-Sex Relationships and Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jan; Davies, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited existing research looking at homosexuality and people with intellectual disabilities has identified a low level of knowledge, homophobic attitudes and negative experiences for gay men. Mainstream research has identified traditional gender role beliefs to be highly associated with negative attitudes towards homosexuality. This…

  6. From "Learning Disability to Intellectual Disability"--Perceptions of the Increasing Use of the Term "Intellectual Disability" in Learning Disability Policy, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluley, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Background: The term "intellectual disability" is increasingly used to refer to people with learning disabilities in British learning disability policy, practice and research. This change is undoubtedly a reflection of the changing international context. The inclusion of the term "intellectual disability" has been particularly…

  7. [Occupational burdens in special educators working with intellectually disabled students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichta, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of psychosocial burdens in special educators (specialists in the field of oligophrenopedagogy) with intellectually disabled students. In theoretical part, specific context of occupational stress in special educators was introduced. Additionally, the need of broader research context regarding occupational stress and the risk of burnout in special educators working with intellectually disabled individuals were included. The results were obtained using Plichta and Pyzalski's Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT). The presented results are based on a research sample (N = 100) of special educators (female) teaching intellectually disabled students attending special schools in the city of Lódz. The obtained results were compared with the results coming from a large random sample of public school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children from the Lodi voivodeship (N = 429) and referred to the norms of QOBT. The results show significant percentage of respondents obtaining high level of occupational burdens (conflict situations - 45%, organizational burdens - 31%, lack of work sense - 40%, global score - 40%). Seniority is not related to the level of burdens. Some significant differences concerning the level of occupational burdens between both groups of teachers were found. The study showed e.g. the strong need for supporting special educators in the workplace context and the need of implementing preventive and remedial measures at both individual and organizational levels (especially in terms of improving personal relationships in a workplace). Generally, the results show similarity of the stressors' ranking in special educators and school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children.

  8. Occupational burdens in special educators working with intellectually disabled students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Plichta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article presents the results of psychosocial burdens in special educators (specialists in the field of oligophrenopedagogy with intellectually disabled students. In theoretical part, specific context of occupational stress in special educators was introduced. Additionally, the need of broader research context regarding occupational stress and the risk of burnout in special educators working with intellectually disabled individuals were included. Material and Methods: The results were obtained using Plichta and Pyżalski's Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT. The presented results are based on a research sample (N = 100 of special educators (female teaching intellectually disabled students attending special schools in the city of Łódź. The obtained results were compared with the results coming from a large random sample of public school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children from the Łodź voivodeship (N = 429 and referred to the norms of QOBT. Results: The results show significant percentage of respondents obtaining high level of occupational burdens (conflict situations - 45%, organizational burdens - 31%, lack of work sense - 40%, global score - 40%. Seniority is not related to the level of burdens. Some significant differences concerning the level of occupational burdens between both groups of teachers were found. Conclusions: The study showed e.g. the strong need for supporting special educators in the workplace context and the need of implementing preventive and remedial measures at both individual and organizational levels (especially in terms of improving personal relationships in a workplace. Generally, the results show similarity of the stressors' ranking in special educators and school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children. Med Pr 2014;65(2:239–250

  9. A Comparison of Physical Activity, Physical Fitness Levels, BMI and Blood Pressure of Adults with Intellectual Disability, Who Do and Do Not Take Part in Special Olympics Ireland Programmes: Results from the SOPHIE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denise; Belton, Sarahjane; Meegan, Sarah; Bowers, Kirsty; Corby, Deidre; Staines, Anthony; McVeigh, Treasa; McKeon, Michael; Hoey, Edel; Trépel, Dominic; Griffin, Peter; Sweeney, Mary Rose

    2018-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability are less physically active, live more sedentary lives, have lower fitness levels and are more likely to be overweight or obese than the general population. No evidence exists on the impact of participation in Special Olympics Ireland (SOI) on physical activity and physical fitness levels. Adults with…

  10. Communication problems in children with autism and intellectual disability : depicting the phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, Janne Pieternella Wilhelmina

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism and intellectual disability form a particularly vulnerable group, as both disorders have a significant impact on the way and level of information processing and communication. However, children with autism and co-occurring intellectual disability are often excluded from

  11. A Systematic Review of Suicidality in People with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Philip; Doherty, Ailbhe; Guerin, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Suicidality in people with intellectual disability has not been extensively researched. To identify the nature of the research that has actually been conducted on this topic. A search of research databases was conducted according to predefined criteria. Key information was extracted and rated for methodological merit. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The aspects of suicidality investigated, which varied among studies, included suicidal attempts, behavior, ideation, and completed suicide. Thirteen studies highlighted risk factors for suicidality in this population. The most frequently noted risk factors were a concurrent mental health difficulty and the level of intellectual disability. Eight studies referred to people with intellectual disabilities' understanding of the concept of death or suicide. Various methodological issues were identified in the studies included. In what we believe to be first systematic review of suicidality in people with intellectual disabilities, it was apparent that well-designed, standardized research studies on the topic are scarce. There is consequently limited evidence to guide prevention and intervention strategies for suicidality in this population.

  12. Stability of cognitive performance in children with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Oskar G; Fintelmann, Sylvia; Caflisch, Jon; Latal, Beatrice; Rousson, Valentin; Chaouch, Aziz

    2015-05-01

    Longitudinal studies that have examined cognitive performance in children with intellectual disability more than twice over the course of their development are scarce. We assessed population and individual stability of cognitive performance in a clinical sample of children with borderline to mild non-syndromic intellectual disability. Thirty-six children (28 males, eight females; age range 3-19y) with borderline to mild intellectual disability (Full-scale IQ [FSIQ] 50-85) of unknown origin were examined in a retrospective clinical case series using linear mixed models including at least three assessments with standardized intelligence tests. Average cognitive performance remained remarkably stable over time (high population stability, drop of only 0.38 IQ points per year, standard error=0.39, p=0.325) whereas individual stability was at best moderate (intraclass correlation of 0.58), indicating that about 60% of the residual variation in FSIQ scores can be attributed to between-child variability. Neither sex nor socio-economic status had a statistically significant impact on FSIQ. Although intellectual disability during childhood is a relatively stable phenomenon, individual stability of IQ is only moderate, likely to be caused by test-to-test reliability (e.g. level of child's cooperation, motivation, and attention). Therefore, clinical decisions and predictions should not rely on single IQ assessments, but should also consider adaptive functioning and previous developmental history. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Inclusive Education for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki Balakrishnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces briefly the evolution of Inclusive Education for students with special education needs (SEN and discusses some significant challenges in its implementation. While the aim of Inclusive Education is to include all children with SEN in mainstream schools, there are many challenges that have to be overcome for their education to be meaningful. This paper focuses primarily on the inclusion of students with intellectual disability, since they are likely to be the largest number with special education needs in ‘inclusive’ schools. It offers the outline of a curriculum that may be derived from the mainstream one in use, and suggests a model that emphasises the replacement of age / grade placement, as is the present practice, with experience and maturity underpinning learning in persons with intellectual disability. The proposed model needs, of course, to be field-tested.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.111

  14. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  15. The Sexuality of Adults with Intellectual Disability in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijak, Remigiusz

    2013-06-01

    Sexuality is one of the most important aspects of human life that relates to sex, one's identification, sexual role, sexual preferences, eroticism, pleasure and intimacy. It fulfils such functions as procreative, hedonistic and relationship-building as well as constitutes an integral part of human's personality. The sexuality of people with intellectual disability is a special case - both from medical, pedagogical, psychological and ethical point of view. Little available research shows that it may become a significant factor that modifies their psychological and sexual functioning. The basic poll involved altogether 133 people with mild intellectual disability. The work was carried out in 11 schools and special institutions of three provinces in Poland: kujawsko - pomorskie, wielkopolskie and dolnośląskie (provinces of Kujavy and Pomerania, Great Poland and Lower Silesia) The respondents qualified to take part in the poll constituted a very uniform group - homogenous as regards their age of 18-25 as well as IQ level that was average for the people with higher degree of intellectual disability (HDID). Their age was of importance as in that life period one can observe the formation of first partner relationships with the clear aim of establishing a family. It is accompanied by a quick development of sexual desire and taking up various forms of sexual activity. People with intellectual disability don't form a homogenous group as regards their psychological and sexual development. In this group, one can observe both different forms of clinical mental handicap which definitely affects the whole process of sexual development. The sexual development is delayed by an average period of 3 years. The people with intellectual disability take up mostly autoerotic behaviour whereas partner relationships wthin that group are more seldom. The phenomenon of sexuality of people with higher degree of intellectual disability is an issue that needs further constant analysis. The

  16. Psychodynamic Therapy and Intellectual Disabilities: Dealing with Challenging Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…

  17. Cell Phone Use by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Carey, Allison; Friedman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Although cell phone use has grown dramatically, there is a gap in cell phone access between people with disabilities and the general public. The importance of cell phone use among people with intellectual disabilities and studies about use of cell phones by adults with intellectual disabilities was described. Our goal was to determine the extent…

  18. Reading skills among students with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Christoph; Lenhard, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) display an extremely wide variety of skills in the field of literacy, and the ability to read and write are central learning aims in the education of students with ID. It is vital to gain detailed knowledge on the literacy skills of students with ID in order to plan instruction, create learning environments, implement educational policies or funding models and specify future fields of research. However, there has been little research into the prevalence and variation of their reading skills. The present study assessed the reading stages of 1629 school-aged students with ID regardless of aetiology (age 6-21) in Bavaria, one of the largest regions in Germany within a randomly chosen and representative sample. Teachers described the reading and writing stages of their students in a questionnaire following the developmental model of Frith. Results indicate that 29.3% do not read at all, 6.8% read at a logographic stage, 31.9% at an alphabetic and 32% at an orthographic level. Writing achievements are lower on average. We analyze and discuss the determinants of literacy in this sample with regard to the sociocultural background of students with ID and draw conclusions for teaching and school policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Why are their physical activity levels so low?: An overview of the literature into the facilitators and barriers to physical activity in people with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Aim: It is generally acknowledged that being physically active is important for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) because of the positive effects on physical and mental health. However, physical activity seems to be a minor part of the support provided to people with ID, especially in those

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of a Dutch Version of the Mini PAS-ADD for Assessing Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Different Levels of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, R.; Maes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have an increased vulnerability to develop psychiatric problems. Moreover, the early recognition and the accurate diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in the population of persons with ID are challenging. Method: A Dutch version of the Mini PAS-ADD, which is a screening instrument for…

  1. Attitudes towards People with Disabilities--What Do People with Intellectual Disabilities Have to Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr McEvoy, Sandra; Keenan, Emer

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities have traditionally been very negative, resulting in people with intellectual disabilities being treated badly by other. This claim was explored by conducting focus groups with adults who have an intellectual disability to find out about their everyday experiences in different places and using…

  2. Consensus statement of the International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia on valuing the perspectives of persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Udell, Leslie; Hogan, Mary; Quinn, Sam; Beránková, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia covered a range of issues related to dementia and intellectual disability, including the dearth of personal reflections of persons with intellectual disability affected by dementia. This article reflects on this deficiency and explores some of the personal perspectives gleaned from the literature, from the Summit attendees and from the experiences of persons with intellectual disability recorded or scribed in advance of the two-day Summit meeting. Systemic recommendations included reinforcing the value of the involvement of persons with intellectual disability in (a) research alongside removing barriers to inclusion posed by institutional/ethics review boards, (b) planning groups that establish supports for dementia and (c) peer support. Practice recommendations included (a) valuing personal perspectives in decision-making, (b) enabling peer-to-peer support models, (c) supporting choice in community-dwelling arrangements and (d) broadening availability of materials for persons with intellectual disability that would promote understanding of dementia.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Printable PDF Open ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome is an inherited ...

  4. Genetic Testing in Intellectual Disability Psychiatry: Opinions and Practices of UK Child and Intellectual Disability Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kate; Stueber, Kerstin; McQuillin, Andrew; Jichi, Fatima; Patch, Christine; Flinter, Frances; Strydom, André; Bass, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of genetic causes of intellectual disabilities (ID) are identifiable by clinical genetic testing, offering the prospect of bespoke patient management. However, little is known about the practices of psychiatrists and their views on genetic testing. Method: We undertook an online survey of 215 psychiatrists, who…

  5. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in

  6. Vision, spatial cognition and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Fabienne; Schenk, Françoise

    2015-02-01

    Vision is the most synthetic sensory channel and it provides specific information about the relative position of distant landmarks during visual exploration. In this paper we propose that visual exploration, as assessed by the recording of eye movements, offers an original method to analyze spatial cognition and to reveal alternative adaptation strategies in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Our general assumption is that eye movement exploration may simultaneously reveal whether, why, and how, compensatory strategies point to specific difficulties related to neurological symptoms. An understanding of these strategies will also help in the development of optimal rehabilitation procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intellectual disability sport and Paralympic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna van Dijk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it might seem that elite disability sport, especially as represented by the Paralympic Movement, is only for athletes with an amputation, or a spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsied or blind athletes, rather than for athletes with an intellectual disability (ID. However, after we set out the various opportunities open to ID athletes, that offer different kinds of sporting engagement, we find interesting and alarming issues with respect to the elite competitive event offer for athletes with ID. In this paper, we discuss the following: the problem of inclusion, some concerns that arise in the classification of paralympic athletes such as self-declaration and eligibility, the open nature of ID sports competition, and the sport offer available for these athletes.

  8. Teaching Reading for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature related to instructional strategies to improve reading skills for students with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Studies reviewed were within three categories; early reading approaches, comprehensive approaches, and one method approach. It was concluded that students with intellectual disabilities are…

  9. Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meera; Rose, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate attitudes held by a British student population towards individuals with an intellectual disability. Students participated in focus groups addressing their attitudes, behaviours and perceptions of individuals with an intellectual disability. Thematic analysis was the method used to identify emergent themes.…

  10. Intellectual Disability and Space: Critical Narratives of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Susan L.; Cohen, Carie J.; Kotel, Kathleen; Pearson, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The language of intellectual disability is rife with spatial terms. Students labeled with intellectual disability are "placed in" special education where they may be "self-contained," "segregated," "excluded," or "included." Conversations ensue about where to seat them, "next" to whom, and at what distance "from" the teacher and other students. In…

  11. Overweight and Obesity in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…

  12. Physical Fitness and Fatness in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated health-related fitness in adolescents with intellectual disabilities and analysed the various performances in physical fitness tests according to degrees of obesity. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven French intellectual disabilities adolescents (14.24 [plus or minus] 1.48 years) performed the EUROFIT physical…

  13. Measurement of Mood in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Geoffrey R.; Terry, Peter C.; Bramston, Paul; Dinsdale, Sarah L.

    2004-01-01

    To date, there has been limited research into mood responses among adolescents with intellectual disability. One reason for this is the absence of a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of mood among this population. The present study evaluated such a measure among a sample of 135 adolescents with mild intellectual disability. Results…

  14. Qualitative Study of Malnutrition in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Janine J. L.; Maaskant, Marian A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of underweight status is relatively high in persons with intellectual disabilities. However, it is not clear whether this is due to malnourishment. The authors sought to examine the awareness and knowledge of physicians, dieticians, and direct care staff regarding malnutrition in people with intellectual disabilities. They also…

  15. An Audit of the Irish National Intellectual Disability Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Philip; Craig, Sarah; Kelly, Fionnola; Guerin, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    This study describes a national data audit of the National Intellectual Disability Database (NIDD). The NIDD is a national information system for intellectual disability (ID) for Ireland. The purpose of this audit was to assess the overall accuracy of information contained on the NIDD, as well as collecting qualitative information to support the…

  16. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  17. Age at Death in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvio, Maria; Salokivi, Tommi; Bjelogrlic-Laakso, Nina

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to ascertain the average age at death (AD) in the intellectual disability population for each gender and compare them to those of the general population during 1970-2012. By analysing medical records, we calculated the ADs of all deceased clients (N = 1236) of two district organizations responsible for intellectual disability services. Statistics Finland's database generated data regarding ADs of all inhabitants who had died after having resided in same district. During the follow-up, average ADs for the intellectual disability population and general population increased, and simultaneously the AD difference between these populations decreased. In the 2000s, the AD difference between the intellectual disability population and the whole population was 22 years for men (95% CI: -24 to -20) and 30 years for women (95% CI: -33 to -27). In 2000s, the mean AD of those with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability (IQ 50-69) for women and men was 56 (SD17) and 54 (SD18), and those with severe to profound intellectual disability (IQ<50), 44 (SD23) and 43 (SD21). Intellectual disability is still a considerable risk factor for early death. Among the intellectual disability population, unlike in general population, the lifespans of women and men are equal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Constructivism or Behaviorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algahtani, Faris

    2017-01-01

    Many teaching strategies have been postulated over the past years by various scholars in an effort to enhance the education system among students with intellectual disabilities. There is much debate on the application of constructivist and behaviorist perspectives for teaching students with intellectual disabilities as addressed in this paper.…

  19. Effectiveness of Speech Therapy in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terband, Hayo; Coppens-Hofman, Marjolein C.; Reffeltrath, Maaike; Maassen, Ben A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the effect of speech therapy in a heterogeneous group of adults with intellectual disability. Method: Thirty-six adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (IQs 40-70; age 18-40 years) with reported poor speech intelligibility received tailored training in articulation and listening skills delivered…

  20. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  1. What Is Right? Ethics in Intellectual Disabilities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Kidney, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    There are important benefits to including adults with intellectual disabilities in research. Calls for their increased participation in research co-occur with notable discussion about how to conduct ethically strong research with adults with intellectual disabilities, a population widely considered vulnerable in the context of research. The…

  2. The Siblings Relationship of Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Gazi; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The sibling relationship of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities was examined. Participants were 70 sibling dyads--each dyad was comprised of one 12-year old adolescent with (N = 23) or without intellectual disabilities (N = 47). Sibling relationships, behavior problems, and social skills were assessed using mother reports.…

  3. Intelligence and specific cognitive functions in intellectual disability: implications for assessment and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Marco O; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2018-03-01

    Current diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability categorize ability as measured by IQ tests. However, this does not suit the new conceptualization of intellectual disability, which refers to a range of neuropsychiatric syndromes that have in common early onset, cognitive impairments, and consequent deficits in learning and adaptive functioning. A literature review was undertaken on the concept of intelligence and whether it encompasses a range of specific cognitive functions to solve problems, which might be better reported as a profile, instead of an IQ, with implications for diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability. Data support a model of intelligence consisting of distinct but related processes. Persons with intellectual disability with the same IQ level have different cognitive profiles, based on varying factors involved in aetiopathogenesis. Limitations of functioning and many biopsychological factors associated with intellectual disability are more highly correlated with impairments of specific cognitive functions than with overall IQ. The current model of intelligence, based on IQ, is of limited utility for intellectual disability, given the wide range and variability of cognitive functions and adaptive capacities. Assessing level of individual impairment in executive and specific cognitive functions may be a more useful alternative. This has considerable implications for the revision of the International Classification of Diseases and for the cultural attitude towards intellectual disability in general.

  4. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2017-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  5. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams

    2017-09-22

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  6. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T.; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E.; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M.; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M.; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A.; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T.; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  7. New innovations: therapeutic opportunities for intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, Jonathan D; Walsh, Christopher A

    2013-09-01

    Intellectual disability is common and is associated with significant morbidity. Until the latter half of the 20th century, there were no efficacious treatments. Following initial breakthroughs associated with newborn screening and metabolic corrections, little progress was made until recently. With improved understanding of genetic and cellular mechanisms, novel treatment options are beginning to appear for a number of specific conditions. Fragile X and tuberous sclerosis offer paradigms for the development of targeted therapeutics, but advances in understanding of other disorders such as Down syndrome and Rett syndrome, for example, are also resulting in promising treatment directions. In addition, better understanding of the underlying neurobiology is leading to novel developments in enzyme replacement for storage disorders and adjunctive therapies for metabolic disorders, as well as potentially more generalizable approaches that target dysfunctional cell regulation via RNA and chromatin. Physiologic therapies, including deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, offer yet another direction to enhance cognitive functioning. Current options and evolving opportunities for the intellectually disabled are reviewed and exemplified. Copyright © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  8. Psychometric evaluation of a Dutch version of the Mini PAS-ADD for assessing psychiatric disorders in adults with different levels of intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Rianne; Maes, Bea

    2013-01-01

    Background People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have an increased vulnerability to develop psychiatric problems. Moreover, the early recognition and the accurate diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in the population of persons with ID are challenging. Method A Dutch version of the Mini PAS-ADD, which is a screening instrument for identification of mental health problems in people with ID, was evaluated in terms of internal consistency, interinformant reliability, item grouping and ...

  9. KEMANDIRIAN ANAK INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY TERKAIT DENGAN TINGKAT KEMATANGAN SOSIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Muh Khoironi Fadli; Dewi Retno Pamungkas; Retno Sumiyarini

    2014-01-01

    Background:Intellectual disability is disorder of intellectual function that is significantly below averagewith various deficits in adaptive function, such as taking care of oneself or occupational activities thatemerge before the age of 18 years old. One characteristic of intellectuallydisabled children in adaptivefunction is social maturity disorder. Children with intellectual disability haveproblem in social maturityandlimitation in fulfilling needs in daily activities.Objective:To identif...

  10. Parenting stress and child behaviour problems among parents with intellectual disabilities: the buffering role of resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelder, H.M.; Hodes, M.W.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at risk for high levels of parenting stress. The present study evaluated resources, including parental adaptive functioning, financial resources and access to a support network, as moderators of the association between child behaviour

  11. PHYSICAL AND SPORT ACTIVITIES OF INTELLECTUALLY DISABLED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Stanišić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The low level of physical fitness of intellectually disabled individuals is most often the result of a sedentary lifestyle and the lack of the possibility for these individuals to take part in various forms of physical activity, and as a consequence these individuals are often unable to take part in any form of planned physical activities, are unable to adequately perform everyday activities and have limited abilities for performing workrelated duties. Regular physical activity can have a preventive effect, can reduce health risks and prevent the onset of various illnesses, as well as to promote an active lifestyle and increase physical and work capacities among the members of this particular population. Sport can play an important role in the life of individuals with intellectual disability as it represents a good basis for the development of physical and cognitive abilities. Team sports, which include interaction among a large number of people, a decision-making processes in a variety of situations and the understanding of the game itself in its constituent parts can be used as an effective and practical treatment of individuals with intellectual disability.

  12. Autonomy Support in People with Mild-to-Borderline Intellectual Disability: Testing the Health Care Climate Questionnaire-Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frielink, Noud; Schuengel, Carlo; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Autonomy support in people with intellectual disability (ID) is an important yet understudied topic. Psychometrically sound instruments are lacking. This study tested the factor structure and reliability of an instrument for assessing the extent people with intellectual disability perceive their support staff as autonomy supportive.…

  13. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  14. Supporting primary healthcare professionals to care for people with intellectual disability: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Nicholas; Van Driel, Mieke L; van Dooren, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The vast health inequities experienced by people with intellectual disability remain indisputable. Persistent and contemporary challenges exist for primary healthcare providers and researchers working to contribute to improvements to the health and well-being of people with intellectual disability. Over two decades after the only review of supports for primary healthcare providers was published, this paper contributes to an evolving research agenda that aims to make meaningful gains in health-related outcomes for this group. The present authors updated the existing review by searching the international literature for developments and evaluations of multinational models of care. Based on our review, we present three strategies to support primary healthcare providers: (i) effectively using what we know, (ii) considering other strategies that offer support to primary healthcare professionals and (iii) researching primary health care at the system level. Strengthening primary care by supporting equitable provision of health-related care for people with intellectual disability is a much needed step towards improving health outcomes among people with intellectual disability. More descriptive quantitative and qualitative research, as well as intervention-based research underpinned by rigorous mixed-methods evaluating these strategies at the primary care level, which is sensitive to the needs of people with intellectual disability will assist primary care providers to provide better care and achieve better health outcomes. Many people with intellectual disability have poor health. The authors reviewed what has been written by other researchers about how to improve the health of people with intellectual disability. In the future, people who support adults with intellectual disability should continue doing what they do well, think of other ways to improve health, and do more research about health. At all times, the needs of people with intellectual disability should be the

  15. Is Celiac Disease an Etiological Factor in Children with Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Taner; Balcı, Oya; Özçay, Figen; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Alehan, Füsun

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in children and adolescents with nonsyndromic intellectual disability, we investigated serum levels of tissue transglutaminase antibody and total IgA from 232 children with nonsyndromic intellectual disability and in a healthy control group of 239 children. Study participants who were positive for tissue transglutaminase antibody underwent a duodenal biopsy. A total of 3 patients in the nonsyndromic intellectual disability group (5.45%) and 1 in the control group (0.41%) had positive serum tissue transglutaminase antibody (P > .05). Duodenal biopsy confirmed celiac disease in only 1 patient who had nonsyndromic intellectual disability. In this present study, children with nonsyndromic intellectual disability did not exhibit a higher celiac disease prevalence rate compared with healthy controls. Therefore, we suggest that screening test for celiac disease should not be necessary as a part of the management of mild and moderate nonsyndromic intellectual disability. However, cases of severe nonsyndromic intellectual disability could be examined for celiac disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Hearing in Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities: The Need for Improved Ear Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, W.; Lumm, J.; Laoide-Kemp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Special Olympics offer the opportunity for athletes with intellectual disabilities to participate in a range of sports at regional, national and international level. A parallel Healthy Athletes programme was introduced to ensure safety at the games but also to collect data on the health needs of those with intellectual disabilities…

  17. Is There Really a Difference? Distinguishing Mild Intellectual Disability from "Similar" Disability Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Satsangi, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Students with mild intellectual disability generally garner less individual attention in research, as they are often aggregated with students with moderate and severe intellectual disability or students with other high incidence disabilities. This study used the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to look at the personal…

  18. Self-efficacy perception in high school students with mild intellectual disability in practical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović-Dobrota Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine how students with mild intellectual disability perceive self-efficacy in practical training, with regard to the intellectual level, gender, work field and professional level for which they are being trained. The sample consists of 120 students with mild intellectual disability, of both genders, undergoing vocational training in five work fields for the second and third level professions. Adapted Self-Efficacy to Regulate Training Scale (Bandura, 2006 was used to assess the influence of negative internal and external factors on the students' efficacy at performing tasks in practical training. It was determined that there is a statistically significant difference among the examinees of the same disability category, but different level of intellectual functioning. Girls with lower and higher levels of intellectual functioning were found to perceive self-efficacy in practical training with lower level of confidence than boys with the same levels of intellectual functioning. The examinees undergoing the third level vocational training are more confident in their abilities to coordinate knowledge and skills in training regardless of different distracting factors. There we no statistically significant differences determined with regard to the work field. Assessing self-efficacy in training can direct the development of self-efficacy, help individuals gain a sense of control over their career development, and for professionals involved in finding jobs for persons with intellectual disability provide a predictive success/failure role at work.

  19. Identifying the key concerns of Irish persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; Wolfe, Marie; O'Doherty, Siobhain

    2014-11-01

    Internationally, people with intellectual disability are socially marginalized, and their rights under the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are often ignored. This paper aims to define the key concerns of adults with an intellectual disability in relation to their participation in society using an inclusive research strategy for both data gathering and data analysis. A national study involving 23 focus groups and 168 persons was conducted on the island of Ireland with people with intellectual disability as co-facilitators. A thematic content analysis was undertaken of the verbatim transcripts initially by university co-researchers, and 19 themes were identified. Co-researchers with intellectual disability joined in identifying the eight core themes. These were as follows: living options, employment, relationships, citizenship, leisure time, money management, self-advocacy, and communication. The concerns are discussed within the framework of the CRPD, and implications for transforming service policy are drawn. Why we did the research In many countries, people with intellectual disability have difficulties doing things other people without disabilities do, for example to study, to get a job or to live independently. They also find that their rights are not respected under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (the Convention). We did this study to Learn what are the main issues for adults with intellectual disability in Ireland. Do research with people with intellectual disability. How we did the research People with intellectual disability and their supporters worked with university researchers to plan and do the research. We met with people in groups and 168 people told us about things important to them. What we found out We found that there were very important things that people talked about in the groups. We chose the most important: living options, employment, relationships, rights, leisure, money

  20. Genetics of intellectual disability in consanguineous families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Kahrizi, Kimia; Musante, Luciana; Fattahi, Zohreh; Herwig, Ralf; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Oppitz, Cornelia; Abedini, Seyedeh Sedigheh; Suckow, Vanessa; Larti, Farzaneh; Beheshtian, Maryam; Lipkowitz, Bettina; Akhtarkhavari, Tara; Mehvari, Sepideh; Otto, Sabine; Mohseni, Marzieh; Arzhangi, Sanaz; Jamali, Payman; Mojahedi, Faezeh; Taghdiri, Maryam; Papari, Elaheh; Soltani Banavandi, Mohammad Javad; Akbari, Saeide; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hassan; Dehghani, Hossein; Ebrahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Bader, Ingrid; Davarnia, Behzad; Cohen, Monika; Khodaei, Hossein; Albrecht, Beate; Azimi, Sarah; Zirn, Birgit; Bastami, Milad; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Bahrami, Gholamreza; Keleman, Krystyna; Vahid, Leila Nouri; Tzschach, Andreas; Gärtner, Jutta; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Varaghchi, Jamileh Rezazadeh; Timmermann, Bernd; Pourfatemi, Fatemeh; Jankhah, Aria; Chen, Wei; Nikuei, Pooneh; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Oladnabi, Morteza; Wienker, Thomas F; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2018-01-04

    Autosomal recessive (AR) gene defects are the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID) in countries with frequent parental consanguinity, which account for about 1/7th of the world population. Yet, compared to autosomal dominant de novo mutations, which are the predominant cause of ID in Western countries, the identification of AR-ID genes has lagged behind. Here, we report on whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 404 consanguineous predominantly Iranian families with two or more affected offspring. In 219 of these, we found likely causative variants, involving 77 known and 77 novel AR-ID (candidate) genes, 21 X-linked genes, as well as 9 genes previously implicated in diseases other than ID. This study, the largest of its kind published to date, illustrates that high-throughput DNA sequencing in consanguineous families is a superior strategy for elucidating the thousands of hitherto unknown gene defects underlying AR-ID, and it sheds light on their prevalence.

  1. Predictors of future caregiving by adult siblings of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Urbano, Richard; Hodapp, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    With the growing life expectancy for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, siblings will increasingly assume responsibility for the care of their brother or sister with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Using a 163-item survey completed by 757 siblings, the authors identified factors related to future caregiving expectations. Siblings expected to assume greater caregiving responsibility for their brother or sister with disabilities if they were female, had closer relationships with and lived closer to their brother or sister with intellectual and developmental disabilities, and were the lone sibling without a disability. Siblings who expected to assume higher levels of caregiving had parents who were currently more able to care for their brother or sister with disabilities. With a better understanding of who intends to fulfill future caregiving roles, support can be provided to these siblings.

  2. ADHD and Challenging behaviour in People with Intellectual Disability: should we screen for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Bhathika; Courtenay, Ken

    2017-09-01

    People with Intellectual Disability (ID) have cognitive impairments that affect their level of functioning the causes of which are multiple and often unknown. Behavioural difficulties are common among people with ID. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is recognised more among people with Intellectual Disability and could be a cause of problem behaviours. Screening and assessing for ADHD in people with ID is difficult because of the paucity of robust assessment tools and diagnostic criteria.

  3. A critical appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability ...

  4. Problem solving verbal strategies in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorović Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is a process conditioned by the development and application of efficient strategies. The aim of this research is to determine the level of verbal strategic approach to problem solving in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample consists of 93 children with MID, aged between 10 and 14. Intellectual abilities of the examinees are within the defined range for mild intellectual disability (AM=60.45; SD=7.26. The examinees with evident physical, neurological, and emotional disorders were not included in the sample. The closed 20 Questions Test (20Q was used to assess the development and use of verbal strategy, where the examinee is presented with a poster containing 42 different pictures, and instructed to guess the picture selected by the examiner by asking no more than 20 closed questions. Test χ2, and Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used in statistical analysis. Research results indicate that most children with MID, aged between 10 and 14, use non-efficient strategy in solving the 20 Questions Test. Although strategic approach to problem solving is present in most children (72%, more than half of the examinees (53.5% use an inadequate strategy. Most children with MID have the ability to categorize concepts, however, they do not use it as a strategy in problem solving.

  5. Neonatal hypocalcemia, neonatal seizures, and intellectual disability in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Evelyn Ning Man; George, Susan R.; Andrade, Danielle M.; Chow, Eva W. C.; Silversides, Candice K.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hypocalcemia is a common endocrinological condition in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Neonatal hypocalcemia may affect neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that neonatal hypocalcemia would be associated with rare, more severe forms of intellectual disability in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Methods We used a logistic regression model to investigate potential predictors of intellectual disability severity, including neonatal hypocalcemia, neonatal seizures, and complex congenital heart disease, e.g., interrupted aortic arch, in 149 adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Ten subjects had moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. Results The model was highly significant (P < 0.0001), showing neonatal seizures (P = 0.0018) and neonatal hypocalcemia (P = 0.047) to be significant predictors of a more severe level of intellectual disability. Neonatal seizures were significantly associated with neonatal hypocalcemia in the entire sample (P < 0.0001), regardless of intellectual level. There was no evidence for the association of moderate- to-severe intellectual disability with other factors such as major structural brain malformations in this sample. Conclusion The results suggest that neonatal seizures may increase the risk for more severe intellectual deficits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, likely mediated by neonatal hypocalcemia. Neonatal hypocalcemia often remains unrecognized until the postseizure period, when damage to neurons may already have occurred. These findings support the importance of early recognition and treatment of neonatal hypocalcemia and potentially neonatal screening for 22q11.2 deletions. PMID:23765047

  6. Inclusion in political and public life: the experiences of people with intellectual disability on government disability advisory bodies in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Patsie; Bigby, Christine

    2011-03-01

    Civil and political participation lies at the core of citizenship. Increasingly, people with intellectual disability are members of disability advisory bodies. This study investigated the political orientations of advisory body members with intellectual disability, their participatory experiences, and the types of support they received. The 9 people with intellectual disability who in 2005 were members of disability advisory bodies at a state, national, and Victorian local government level were interviewed, together with 12 other members or secretariat staff of these bodies. Observations were also conducted of advisory body meetings. The political perspective of members with intellectual disability varied, but all had a background in self-advocacy. They found the work hard but rewarding and encountered both practical and intangible obstacles to participation. Members received varying types of practical support, but a supportive collegial milieu was characteristic among members who felt most confident about their participation. The milieu, structures, and processes of advisory bodies must all be adjusted to accommodate people with intellectual disability if they are to participate meaningfully.

  7. The Relation Between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L

    2016-12-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both the DSM-5 and AAIDD. The article also (a) provides an update of the understanding of adaptive behavior, (b) dispels two thinking errors regarding mistaken temporal or causal link between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, (c) explains that there is a strong correlational, but no causative, relation between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, and (d) asserts that once a question of determining intellectual disability is raised, both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior are assessed and considered jointly and weighed equally in the diagnosis of intellectual disability. We discuss the problems created by an inaccurate statement that appears in the DSM-5 regarding a causal link between deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior and propose an immediate revision to remove this erroneous and confounding statement.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intellectual disability develops epilepsy, and about half have autism spectrum disorder . Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? ...

  9. Foundations of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden-Fontein, E.G. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. Aims This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children

  10. Intellectual disability, oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identifying pathogenic copy number variations (CNV) involved in genomic disorders ... pathogenicity in the diagnosis of patients with intellectual disability, the ... tein has an essential role in the developing nervous system for the correct timing ...

  11. Genomic imbalance in subjects with idiopathic intellectual disability ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Human Genetics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai 600 116, India. [Mohan S., Venkatesan ... Intellectual disability (ID) is a complex disorder with hetero- geneous aetiology. .... The ratios are tabulated on the right. Table 2.

  12. Intellectually disabled students’ conceptions concerning the earth and heavenly bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Baysen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning scientific concepts are crucial for both normally achieving and intellectually disabled students attending inclusion classes. This research study aimed to reveal intellectually disabled students’ conceptions and thinkings utilizing data of interviews and drawings concerning the earth and heavenly bodies and comparing them with the findings belonging to those showing normal mental achievement. Thirty intellectually disabled students (19 boys and 11 girls participated to this research. They were questioned individually using clinical interview technique. Intellectually disabled students have main similarities to those of normally achieving concerning the phenomenon. All the students participating in the present research study do have misconceptions concerning the phenomenon. Their thinking approaches (tendencies and the way they are affected by certain context while constructing their conceptions is similar to those of normally achieving. They used their concepts consistently and showed theory-like mental constructions.

  13. Autonomy support in people with mild to borderline intellectual disability : Testing the Health Care Climate Questionnaire-Intellectual Disability (HCCQ-ID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Autonomy support in people with intellectual disability (ID) is an important yet understudied topic. Psychometrically sound instruments are lacking. This study tested the factor structure and reliability of an instrument for assessing the extent people with intellectual disability

  14. Interrogated with Intellectual Disabilities: The Risks of False Confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Samson J

    2018-02-01

    False confessions happen. At least 245 people have been exonerated from convictions in cases featuring confessions that were simply not true. Confessions offer a narrative that allows law enforcement, and society in general, to neatly resolve cases with apparent clarity and closure. And yet the pressures officers place on suspects to provide that closure weigh disproportionately on the vulnerable, including individuals with intellectual disabilities. These individuals are disadvantaged at every step of the custodial interrogation, and they face heightened risks of falsely confessing. Moreover, the principal judicial safeguards against false confessions--assessing a suspect's Miranda waiver and determining whether a confession was voluntarily given within the bounds of the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause--provide little protection for the innocent with intellectual disabilities. Few pieces of scholarship focus specifically on the heightened risks faced by individuals with intellectual disabilities throughout the process of police interrogation. This Note describes the various ways these individuals are disadvantaged. And it offers an additional data point illustrating the vulnerability of people with intellectual disabilities. This Note analyzes the 245 individuals (as of June 2, 2017) on the National Registry of Exonerations who have falsely confessed. Over one-quarter of them display indicia of intellectual disability. This percentage dwarfs the prevalence of people with intellectual disabilities in the general population and even exceeds most estimates of the proportion of the prison population suffering from intellectual disabilities. This Note concludes with several policy and doctrinal suggestions to better protect individuals with intellectual disabilities from the risks of false confession.

  15. Short-Term Memory Coding in Children With Intellectual Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, L.; Conners, F.

    2008-01-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and word length effects). Neither the intellectual disabilities nor MA groups showed evidence for memory coding strategies. However, children in these gr...

  16. A survey of clinical nursing skills in intellectual disability nursing

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study the question asked is: what clinical nursing skills are predominantly used in intellectual disability nursing? A survey of the nursing needs of people with moderate to severe intellectual disability in both residential and community units was undertaken with a questionnaire.The measure was a Likert design scale ranging across: skills used more than once a day, skills used daily, skills used weekly, skills used monthly, skills very rarely used, and skills never used.The results o...

  17. Therapy of depression in persons with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić, Katarina; Mihajlović, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high frequency of depression among people with intellectual disability, the question of an appropriate therapeutic approach seems to be very important. The propper choice of therapy depends of the right diagnosis, which could present a problem, because of the atipical presentation of simptoms. Still, the efforts made to overcome onesidedness in treating depression among people with intellectual disability, which was seen mostly through insisting on psychopharmacotherapy, have ...

  18. Occupational burdens in special educators working with intellectually disabled students

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Plichta

    2014-01-01

    Background: The article presents the results of psychosocial burdens in special educators (specialists in the field of oligophrenopedagogy) with intellectually disabled students. In theoretical part, specific context of occupational stress in special educators was introduced. Additionally, the need of broader research context regarding occupational stress and the risk of burnout in special educators working with intellectually disabled individuals were included. Material and Methods: The resu...

  19. Relation between working memory and self-regulation capacities and the level of social skills acquisition in people with moderate intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dučić, Bojan; Gligorović, Milica; Kaljača, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    Social competence deficit is one of the main characteristics of intellectual disability. The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of working memory (WM) and self-regulation (SR) on social skills in persons with moderate intellectual disability (MID). The sample included 41 participants with MID, aged 14-21. Memorizing animals and maze tasks were used for WM assessment. SR skills were assessed by the Behavioral Multitask Batteries. Social skills were rated by the Socialization subscale from the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II, which consists of two parts. Social skills part could mainly be predicted from SR scores (β = -.441), followed by WM (β = .390) and IQ score (β = .382). Only WM score (β = .494) had a predictive value for Leisure time part. As WM had a greater influence on social skills, incorporating WM training into programmes for improving social skills in persons with MID should be considered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Psychopathology of adolescents with an intellectual disability who present to general hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratos, Oreste; McPherson, Lyn; Franklin, Catherine; Tonge, Bruce; Einfeld, Stewart; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disability have increased rates of psychopathology compared with their typically developing peers and present to hospital more frequently for ambulant conditions. The aim of this study is to describe the psychopathology and related characteristics of a sample of adolescents with intellectual disability who presented to general hospital services. We investigated a cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability in South East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and June 2010. Demographic and clinical data were obtained via mailed questionnaires and from general practice notes. Psychopathology was measured with the Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Of 98 individuals presenting to hospital, 71 (72.5%) had significant levels of psychopathology. Unknown aetiology for the intellectual disability was associated with presence of problem behaviours. Adolescents with more severe intellectual disability were more likely to have major problem behaviours. Co-morbid physical health issues were not associated with psychopathology. Only 12 (12.1%) adolescents had undergone specialized mental health intervention. The general hospital environment may offer opportunities for liaison psychiatry services to screen and provide management expertise for adolescent individuals with intellectual disability presenting for physical health issues.

  1. Paediatric palliative care and intellectual disability-A unique context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Jacqueline K; Herbert, Anthony Robert; Heussler, Helen S

    2017-11-01

    Paediatric palliative care is a nuanced area of practice with additional complexities in the context of intellectual disability. There is currently minimal research to guide clinicians working in this challenging area of care. This study describes the complex care of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual disability by means of a literature synthesis and commentary with "best-practice" guide. As few articles concerning children with intellectual disability and palliative care needs were identified by formal systematic review, our expert consensus group has drawn from the paediatric palliative, oncology and adult intellectual disability literature to highlight common clinical challenges encountered in the day-to-day care of children with intellectual disability and life-limiting conditions. A longitudinal child- and family-centred approach is key to ensuring best-practice care for families of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual disability. As highlighted by the great absence of literature addressing this important patient population, further research in this area is urgently required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Asthma in intellectual disability: are we managing our patients appropriately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    People with intellectual disability are a vulnerable group of people with asthma that has, to date, largely been ignored in the medical literature. Although guidelines for medication management for people with intellectual disability suggest asthma is treated as for other populations, there are special considerations that should be taken into account when managing asthma in this group. Due to their cognitive impairment as well as comorbidities, they are likely to require support with asthma self-management, including inhaler use. Their varying degrees of autonomy mean that there is often a need to provide education and information to both the person and their caregivers. Educational aims To understand general principles of health of people with intellectual disability and how this affects the healthcare professional’s approach to asthma management. To understand how intellectual disability affects cognition, autonomy and communication, and therefore the ability of a person to self-manage asthma. To recognise ways of mitigating respiratory disease risk in people with intellectual disability. To describe ways for healthcare professionals to support people with intellectual disability and their caregivers in asthma management. PMID:28210318

  3. Meeting the support needs of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: still a long way to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, P J G; Smulders, N B M; Embregts, P J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, C

    2017-12-01

    Among persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning, differences in their characteristics imply that a differentiated approach is required to meet their needs. This retrospective study examined whether the history of support/treatment programs and the type of healthcare providers involved matched the specific support needs of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning. Five (previously identified) profiles of persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were used to investigate to what extent the support needs of this group had been met. For the 250 persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning who matched these five profiles, data were collected retrospectively from their case files. Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning received a very similar amount and type of support/treatment programs. Differences between the profiles were found for non-verbal therapy, residential treatment and contacts with social work. Regarding the type of healthcare providers involved, differences between the profiles emerged for specialised intellectual disability services, youth services and specialised addiction services. The support programs for a heterogeneous population of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning seem to be suboptimal, indicating that more differentiation is required in the services offered to these individuals. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning : A latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, P.J.G.; Lucas, R.; Smulders, N.B.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of

  5. Suicidality among adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsky, Yona; Raina, Poonam; Burge, Philip

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the current study is to arrive at a better understanding of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) who threaten or attempt suicide. From a sample of 751 adults with ID who experienced a crisis, demographic and clinical profiles of 39 adults who threatened to commit suicide were compared to 28 adults who attempted suicide. These individuals were then compared to 337 adults who behaved aggressively toward others. Individuals who attempted suicide appeared similar to those who voiced suicide with the exception that suicide attempters were younger and more likely to visit the emergency department. Females, higher functioning individuals, and persons with a history of self-harm had higher odds of attempting or threatening suicide Research findings based on informant reported data, so diagnoses and delivery of services in hospital cannot be validated. Suicidality does occur in adults with ID, and can result in emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Recognition of variables associated with suicidality among those with ID by clinicians may allow for enhanced assessment, treatment services and ultimately more positive mental health outcomes for this group. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extracurricular activities and the development of social skills in children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B A; Floyd, F; Robins, D L; Chan, W Y

    2015-07-01

    Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill acquisition. Participation in social activities is positively related to children's social adjustment, but little is known about the benefits of activity participation for children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities. This study investigated the association between frequency and type of social activity participation and the social competence of 8-11-year-old children with intellectual disability (n = 40) and specific learning disabilities (n = 53), in comparison with typically developing peers (n = 24). More time involved in unstructured activities, but not structured activities, was associated with higher levels of social competence for all children. This association was strongest for children with intellectual disability, suggesting that participation in unstructured social activities was most beneficial for these children. Future research on the quality of involvement is necessary to further understand specific aspects of unstructured activities that might facilitate social development. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Modifying the 'Positive Parenting Program' for parents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazemakers, I; Deboutte, D

    2013-07-01

    Many parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) want and/or need professional guidance and support to learn skills and strategies to prevent and manage child behaviour problems. However, the available support is rarely suitable, and suitable support is rarely available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a popular mainstream parenting training programme, known as 'Group Triple P' (Positive Parenting Program), could be successfully modified for this parent group. A pilot study was undertaken to determine whether a modified version of Group Triple P would engage and retain parents with ID. A non-experimental, pre-test post-test study, involving a total of 30 parents with ID, was then undertaken to obtain preliminary efficacy data. Parent engagement and participation levels were high. No parent 'dropped out' of the programme. After completing the modified Group Triple P programme, parents reported a decrease in psychological distress, maladaptive parenting and child conduct problems. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the information and support they received. Research-informed adaptation of mainstream behavioural family interventions, such as Group Triple P, could make 'suitable support' more readily available, and more engaging for parents with ID. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  8. Alleviating Parenting Stress in Parents with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Marja W.; Meppelder, Marieke; Moor, Marleen; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adapted parenting support may alleviate the high levels of parenting stress experienced by many parents with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning were randomized to experimental (n = 43) and control (n = 42) conditions. Parents in both groups received…

  9. "It's My Life": Autonomy and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristín; Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún V; Stefánsdóttir, Ástríður

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, we examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is,…

  10. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  11. Intellectual Disabilities and Child Psychiatry: Looking to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    We begin this article by examining the role of intellectual disabilities within child psychiatry, highlighting the relatively steady role of disabilities and the recent movement to examine behavior in specific genetic syndromes. We next propose five questions for future work. Questions relate to (1) specifying the nature of gene-brain-behavior…

  12. Stigma and restriction on the social life of families of children with intellectual disabilities in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hong; Shin, Jin Y; Nhan, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Lawrence H

    2012-07-01

    Intellectual disabilities are as prevalent in East Asian countries as in the West (0.06%-1.3%). Widespread discrimination against intellectual disabilities in Asia may initiate stigma that places unfair restrictions on the social life of these individuals and their caregivers. We utilised established stigma frameworks to assess the extent to which a child's intellectual disability contributes to the social exclusion of caregivers in Vietnam. A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was employed to examine the experience of social life restriction among parents of children with intellectual disabilities. The child's disability level and restrictions on caregivers' social experiences were assessed among 70 mothers and fathers recruited from schools in Hue City, Vietnam. Qualitative responses describing social exclusion were also recorded. Caregivers reported elevated levels of social exclusion. As hypothesised, parents of children with greater intellectual disability experienced more restrictions on their social life (Beta = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.27-1.30, standard error = 0.26, p stigma, which in turn restricts key social interactions among caregivers. Psycho-educational interventions may address the social domains in which caregivers are impacted and encourage sustained help-seeking among caregivers for their children.

  13. Model of Intellectual Disability and the Relationship of Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Persons with an Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchomiuk, Monika

    2013-06-01

    The following article discusses the relationship between the model of intellectual disability and the attitudes towards sexuality of people with disabilities. This correlation has been verified during the author's own research conducted on students of several medical faculties such as nursing, public health, emergency medical services and physiotherapy. Tools of the author's design have been used in the research. Likert-type scale "Perspective of intellectual disability" has been used to determine the model of disability seen from the medical (individual) or social perspective. To examine the attitudes towards sexuality two tools of the author's own design have been used: a Likert-type scale "The essence of sexuality in persons with an intellectual disability" which has been used to analyze the cognitive aspect of the attitudes, and a semantic differential with notions concerning physical and psychosocial aspects of sexuality including the affective-evaluative aspect. As expected, significant correlations have been found between the model and the attitudes both in the cognitive and the affective-evaluative aspect. Higher scores for the individual model correlated with: (a) lover scores for most aspects of sexuality of people with intellectual disability, (b) perceiving them as asexual, (c) biological determinism in the sexual sphere. The social model concurred with positive values given to sexuality of people with intellectual disability and its normalization in the sphere of its determinants and symptoms.

  14. Out of sight, out of mind? The inclusion and identification of people with intellectual disability in public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Katie; van Dooren, Kate; Tseng, Chih-Han; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nick; Ware, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Adults with intellectual disability experience substantial health inequities. Public health research aiming to improve the lives of this population group is needed. We sought to investigate the extent to which a sample of international public health research includes and identifies people with intellectual disability. In this systematic review, we examined a select number of public health journals to determine (1) how often people with intellectual disability are explicitly included in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies and (2) how the presence of intellectual disability is identified and reported. Among eligible articles in these selected public health journals, it was found that cohort studies passively exclude people with intellectual disability, while RCTs actively exclude this population. Most general population articles that explicitly identified people with intellectual disability did so through self-report or proxy report and databases. A more extensive and adequate evidence base relating to the health of this overlooked population group is needed. A useful first step would be for researchers specialising in intellectual disability to identify how we can best assist mainstream researchers to include and identify people with intellectual disability in their population-level studies. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  15. The Rorschach Egocentricity Index in subjects with intellectual disability: a study on the incidence of different psychological pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, G; Pellicciotta, A; Buono, S; Di Nuovo, S F

    1998-10-01

    The aims of the present research were to assess the level of self-concern in people with intellectual disability using the Rorschach Egocentricity Index, to correlate the Index with other Rorschach and IQ variables, and to study the effect of associated psychological pathology. The Rorschach Inkblot Test and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale were administered to a group of 75 subjects with intellectual disability, aged between 18 and 38 years, who were divided into subgroups according to their additional diagnosis (i.e. personality disorders, psychosis and depression). A fourth subgroup was composed of people with intellectual disability but without other pathologies. The Egocentricity Index was very low in the subjects with intellectual disability and differences were a result of the effects of additional psychological pathologies. The meaning of the measurement of egocentricity in people with intellectual disability is discussed.

  16. Academic self-regulation in students with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Zdravković Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the types of academic self-regulation in students with mild intellectual disability and their relation with the examinees' age. The sample consists of 120 examinees of both genders. The selection criteria were: IQ characteristic of mild intellectual disability (51 to 69, age between 12 and 15.11, 5th to 8th grade of primary school, and absence of neurological, psychiatric, expressed emotional and multiple disorders. Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire was used in this research. The results show the dominance of identified academic regulation in students from the sample. However, by weighting variables, the sample manifested a controlled type according to the unique motivation continuum. It was determined that intrinsic motivation of twelve-year-olds is higher than intrinsic motivation of students in other age groups. Also, we can conclude that statistically significant difference was determined in the level of self-regulation among the examinees of different ages. This means that the behavior of twelve-year-olds is more self-regulated than that of fifteen-year-old students.

  17. Social inclusion and people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigby, Christine

    2012-12-01

    Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been researched and operationalised in the empirical literature, and aimed to determine what evidence exists about the extent of social inclusion by people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. A thematic analysis of the 14 papers identified that social inclusion has been poorly defined and measured, and that the little research that has occurred in respect of people with challenging behaviour has demonstrated their potential to be socially included. Clearer conceptualisation of inclusion, and greater understanding of practices that support social inclusion and system level mechanisms, which ensure goals around inclusion gain prominence in funding and support plans, may address the neglect of this critical quality-of-life domain for people with challenging behaviour.

  18. Crime and victimisation in people with intellectual disability: a case linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogden, Billy C; Thomas, Stuart D M; Daffern, Michael; Ogloff, James R P

    2016-05-28

    Studies have suggested that people with intellectual disability are disproportionately involved in crime both as perpetrators and victims. A case linkage design used three Australian contact-level databases, from disability services, public mental health services and police records. Rates of contact, and official records of victimisation and criminal charges were compared to those in a community sample without intellectual disability. Although people with intellectual disability were significantly less likely to have an official record of victimisation and offending overall, their rates of violent and sexual victimisation and offending were significantly higher. The presence of comorbid mental illness considerably increased the likelihood of victimisation and offending; several sex differences were also noted. People with intellectual disability are at increased risk for both violent and sexual victimisation and offending. The presence of comorbid mental illness aggravates the risk of offending and victimisation. Future research should focus on a more nuanced exploration of the risks associated with intellectual disability and specific mental disorders and related indices of complexity.

  19. Rare diseases and intellectual disability: assessment of quality of life of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica GONZÁLEZ MARTÍN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Antecedents. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in children and young people with rare diseases and intellectual disability, as well as to determine the incidence of certain predictors (i. e., gender, age, level of intellectual disability, type of school, type of illness and autonomous community in the criterion variable. Method. The KidsLife Scale was applied, a questionnaire based on the eight domain model of quality of life by Schalock and Verdugo. The sample comprised 103 participants with rare diseases and intellectual disability, aged between 3 and 21, who received supports in any organization providing educational, social, or health services. Results. The best scores were found in physical wellbeing, while the lowest were in social inclusion. The level of intellectual disability and support needs resulted in significant differences for the total score of the scale. Analyses by domains showed differences by gender, intellectual disability level, and type of schooling. Conclusions. The results argue for designing practices aimed to improve quality of life-related personal outcomes with regard to self-determination, inclusion, and interpersonal relationships.

  20. Stair-Walking Performance in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Yun Shieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD, participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID.

  1. Evaluating the characteristics of the grieving process in people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcedo Rodríguez, M Ángeles; Cristóbal Fernández, Leticia; Gómez Sánchez, Laura E; Arias González, Víctor B

    2018-04-23

    The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics associated with the grieving process among a population with intellectual disability and the influence of particular variables. The sample was composed of 380 participants with intellectual disability, on whose behalf 149 professionals completed a 20-item questionnaire with four Likert-type answer options, developed to evaluate the grieving process: Inventory of Grief and Coping Strategies in Intellectual Disability (IGCS-ID). The IGCS-ID shows adequate levels of reliability. It covers three dimensions: understanding of the concept of death, coping with the loss and post-bereavement reactions. The level of intellectual disability, the time elapsed since the loss and the residential setting gave rise to significant differences in the three dimensions based on the participants. An assessment of the grieving process would help to put in place effective resources to help people with intellectual disability overcome the loss and cope with the changes that it brings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The prevalence and nature of intellectual disability in Norwegian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndenaa, E; Rasmussen, K; Palmstierna, T; Nøttestad, J

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI) was validated with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). The prevalence of inmates with ID, IQ intellectual handicap, are mostly absent in the Norwegian criminal justice system.

  3. READING-WRITING AND LITERACY IN CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Bortolotti Boraschi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role and learning of reading and wrinting to human development as a social practice, considering the necessary condition to reading and writing as an exercise in citizenship. Aims to reflect on the occurrence of reading-writing processes and literacy in children with intellectual disabilities. The study was conducted by means of literature, and are based on a qualitative research. The reflections made throughout the investigation brought some considerations on intellectual disability, charactering it. Allowed some notes on the processes of reading-writing and literacy. As the survey results, some thoughts were about the possible occurrence of the processes of reading-writing and literacy in intellectually disabled children, discussing how these processes can take place through pedagogical practices in classrooms common regular education, contributing to the appropriation of the world literate and active participation by such child in society.

  4. Short-term memory coding in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy

    2008-05-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and word length effects). Neither the intellectual disabilities nor MA groups showed evidence for memory coding strategies. However, children in these groups with MAs above 6 years showed significant visual similarity and word length effects, broadly consistent with an intermediate stage of dual visual and verbal coding. These results suggest that developmental progressions in memory coding strategies are independent of intellectual disabilities status and consistent with MA.

  5. LEARNING PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskinova Angelka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available School failure is one of the more complex, more difficult and unfortunately frequent problem that modern school meets. Many factors can cause school failure, such as: child development characteristics, family and school-originated factors. The purpose of the research is analysis of the specific learning problems in students with a mild intellectual disability. For our research we used ACADIA test, which contains 13 subtests for assessing the overall individual functioning. The research involved 144 students. We divided the sample into two groups, children with intellectual disability (our target group and control group. We found that generally all students with the intellectual disability have special learning problems. According to individual subtests analysis we concluded that the ability for visual association is best developed among these students while on the subtest for auditory memory they achieved worse results. With the analysis of the control group we found that 13.75% of the students have special learning problems.

  6. [Psychiatric disorders and neurological comorbidity in children with intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriedt, Elke; Wiberg, Anja; Sakar, Vehbi; Noterdaeme, Michele

    2010-05-01

    This article gives an overview of the consultant child and adolescent psychiatric services in the region of Upper Bavaria (Germany). The data of 257 children and adolescents with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders were evaluated. About 14% of the children with ID in special schools or day care centers, and 40% of the children with ID in residential care showed a definite psychiatric disorder. The most frequently diagnosed disorders were adjustment disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and conduct disorders, as well as emotional problems and pervasive developmental disorders. Children with severe intellectual disability had more additional somatic disorders and were more impaired in their psychosocial functions. The results show the need for psychiatric services for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. The development and implementation of integrative and interdisciplinary models is necessary to allow for adequate medical care for these patients.

  7. Health promotion and intellectual disability: listening to men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Taking responsibility for your own health has been a central tenet of public health policy internationally for a number of decades. Governments in the UK and internationally continue to promote a plethora of health promotion strategies, encouraging individuals and communities to adopt healthy lifestyle choices. Although it is widely recognised that men are not as proactive in seeking out medical help or taking on health promotion advice as women, limited gender-sensitive research exists in the field of intellectual disability. Despite many health promotion policy and practice strategies targeted at this population, little research exists exploring whether men with intellectual disability acknowledge health promotion advice. The study aimed to explore how men with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability understood and perceived their health and what health promotion messages they acted upon. The study was based on a participatory approach which enabled 11 men with intellectual disability to contribute as steering group members and as participants through one-to-one interviews. Data were collected between September 2011 and July 2012. Thematic analysis was undertaken. The participants demonstrated a capacity to understand their own health. This was inclusive of a concern about associating being obese with being unhealthy. The participants reported good relationships with their general practitioners (GPs) and felt valued, in particular when the GP was prepared to offer specific intellectual disability and health promotion advice. More gendered research inclusive of the views of this male population is required and the study reiterates the importance of promoting the health of men and women with intellectual disability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Vermeulen, A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.B.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the types, prevalence and associated variables of cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability attending special education settings. Methods: Students (n = 114) with intellectual and developmental disability who were between 12–19 years of age

  9. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, R.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Korzilius, H.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Vermeulen, A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the types, prevalence and associated variables of cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability attending special education settings. METHODS: Students (n = 114) with intellectual and developmental disability who were between 12-19 years of age

  10. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, R.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Vermeulen, A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the types, prevalence and associated variables of cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability attending special education settings. METHODS: Students (n = 114) with intellectual and developmental disability who were between 12-19 years of age

  11. Management challenges in children with both epilepsy and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Janice M; Shore, Cheryl P

    2010-01-01

    People who have both epilepsy and intellectual disability have significant problems requiring skilled health care management. Clinical nurse specialists have the unique opportunity to work with these people and their families to help them develop self-management and family management skills. In this article, we describe some factors associated with intellectual disability and epilepsy. In addition, we address the management challenges associated with this dual diagnoses in 3 areas: (1) problems associated with the management of seizure and prescription management, (2) problems associated with the seizure management other than prescriptions, and (3) life management issues. Finally, we suggest ways that clinical nurse specialists can foster development of management skills.

  12. The main signs of ageing in people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Stuart; Hussain, Rafat; Edwards, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Investigations around ageing with an intellectual disability have increased substantially in the past three decades. A research gap continued to exist regarding the detection of ageing issues in this cohort of people, particularly in rural areas where access to specialist support continued to be limited. The purpose of this study was to identify the main signs of ageing in rural people with intellectual disabilities. A multi-round Delphi design was used to examine what signs of ageing were observed by disability support staff, who assisted people with intellectual disability. The project was conducted across nine of the ten rural regions (as defined by the government funding body) in New South Wales (NSW). There were 31 participants representing 14 non-government organisations. The group was composed of 26 women and 5 men, with a mean age of 47 years, who averaged 10-year experience with people with intellectual disabilities. The objective was to gain the direct input of rurally based disability workers to identify the main signs of ageing in people with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-two specific signs of ageing, including emerging mental health issues, grief, loss of identity and aggression, were identified. A thematic analysis indicated two main categories: mental/emotional functioning and physical functioning. When carers have the information and skills needed to identify the main signs of ageing, they can more accurately recognise and address potential problems in a timely manner. Such understandings have the potential to reduce premature admissions to residential aged-care. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Social support and intellectual disabilities: a comparison between social networks of adults with intellectual disability and those with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, T; Burns, J

    2009-05-01

    Social support has been identified as a major protective factor in preventing mental health problems and also as a major contributor to quality of life. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been identified as having limited social support structures. Interventions have been focused on promoting their social presence and integration. However, previous studies have shown that this does not always lead to the formation of social relationships. To date few studies have looked at how having an ID leads to impoverished social networks. This study aimed to do this by contrasting the social relationships of people with physical disabilities (PD) and people with ID. Two groups of participants were recruited; 30 people with mild ID and 17 people with PD. Social and functional support networks were assessed, in addition to life experiences. Between and within group differences were then explored statistically. Adults with ID had more restricted social networks than PD, despite being involved in more activities. Social support for adults with ID was mainly provided by family and carers and few relationships with non-disabled people were identified. In contrast adults with PD had larger social networks than had been reported in the mainstream literature and had a balance of relationships with disabled and non-disabled people. The results suggest that there are additional processes attached to having an ID, which lead to continued impoverished lifestyles. The findings also endorse other work that suggests being physically integrated and engaged in a wide range of activities does not guarantee good social and emotional support.

  14. Special education for intellectual disability: current trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M; Hung, Li-Yu

    2009-09-01

    To inform readers of current issues in special education for individuals with intellectual disabilities and summarize recent research and opinion. Two issues dominate special education for students with intellectual disabilities in the early 21st century. First, what should be taught to such students and who should teach them? Second, where should such students be taught - in 'inclusive' settings alongside normal peers or in special settings dedicated to their special needs? Research on teaching reading, arithmetic, and functional daily living skills to students with disabilities suggests the superiority of direct, systematic instruction. Universal design is often seen as supportive of inclusion. Inclusion has been seen as the central issue in special education but is gradually giving way to concern for what students learn. Direct, systematic instruction in reading, arithmetic, and daily living skills is the most effective approach to teaching students with intellectual disabilities. Basic concepts and logic suggest that special and general education cannot be equivalent. We conclude that what students are taught should be put ahead of where they are taught. Our fundamental concern is that students with intellectual disabilities be respected and be taught all they can learn.

  15. Facilitators and barriers to physical activity as perceived by older adults with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-Speet, M. van; Evenhuis, H.M.; Wijck, R. van; Empelen, P. van; Echteld, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID

  16. Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity as Perceived by Older Adults With Intellectual Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A.

    Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID

  17. The Role of Learning Disability Nurses in Promoting Cervical Screening Uptake in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer L.; Coulson, Neil S.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women…

  18. A newly recognized syndrome of severe growth deficiency, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Chana; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Michelson, Marina; Haas, Dorothea; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Lev, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    Genetic syndromes with proportionate severe short stature are rare. We describe two sisters born to nonconsanguineous parents with severe linear growth retardation, poor weight gain, microcephaly, characteristic facial features, cutaneous syndactyly of the toes, high myopia, and severe intellectual disability. During infancy and early childhood, the girls had transient hepatosplenomegaly and low blood cholesterol levels that normalized later. A thorough evaluation including metabolic studies, radiological, and genetic investigations were all normal. Cholesterol metabolism and transport were studied and no definitive abnormality was found. No clinical deterioration was observed and no metabolic crises were reported. After due consideration of other known hereditary causes of post-natal severe linear growth retardation, microcephaly, and intellectual disability, we propose that this condition represents a newly recognized autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly-intellectual disability syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychological status and coping styles of caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Anuja S; Ramesh, Sonali

    2018-06-27

    The psychological status of caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability and psychiatric illness (PI) is important for effective management. The aim of this study was to examine the psychological status and its relationship with coping styles among these caregivers. Caregivers (N = 80) of individuals with intellectual disability (n = 40) and PI (n = 40) were administered a socio-demographic questionnaire, depression, anxiety and stress scale and COPE Inventory. Caregivers experienced depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. These symptoms were found to be significantly higher among caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability than those with PI. The most common coping style used was religious coping. Use of positive reinterpretation and growth was associated with lower levels of depression and stress symptoms. Caregivers' mental health plays an important role in the quality of care delivery and outcome. Use of appropriate coping styles can reduce the impact of these symptoms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mothering with an Intellectual Disability: A Phenomenological Exploration of Making Infant-Feeding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Amanda; Aunos, Marjorie; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mothers with intellectual disability are less likely than mothers without intellectual disability to breastfeed their infants, but there is little literature that addresses infant-feeding decisions among this population. This study explores experiences of mothers with intellectual disability in making and carrying out infant-feeding…

  1. Is It Worth It? Benefits in Research with Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Including adults with intellectual disability in research promotes direct benefits to participants and larger societal benefits. Stakeholders may have different views of what count as benefits and their importance. We compared views on benefits in research with adults with intellectual disability among adults with intellectual disability, family…

  2. Transition and Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: Findings From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Joshi, Gauri S.

    2016-01-01

    Students with intellectual disability historically struggle with post-school outcomes. However, much of the research on students with intellectual disability relative to post-school outcomes and transition services is aggregated for students with mild, moderate, and severe intellectual disability. This secondary analysis of the National…

  3. Genetics Home Reference: PPP2R5D-related intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions PPP2R5D-related intellectual disability PPP2R5D-related intellectual disability Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description PPP2R5D -related intellectual disability is a neurological disorder characterized by moderate to ...

  4. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Benjamin, A.; Meijer, A.M.; Jongeneel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Intellectual disability is a comorbid condition in epilepsy. People with epilepsy and intellectual disability are at high risk of developing behavioral problems. Among the many contributors to behavioral problems in people with epilepsy and intellectual disability are those of traumatic experiences.

  5. An Initial Evaluation of the Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale--Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Robert A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 59 Australian people with an intellectual disability and 69 university students evaluated a new scale to measure the life quality of people with an intellectual disability. The Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale--Intellectual Disability was found to be a useful instrument to measure comparative life quality. (Author/CR)

  6. "I Never Thought about It": Teaching People with Intellectual Disability to Vote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, Martin; MacLean, William; Andren, Katherine Anne Kitchen

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing commitment in promoting the full inclusion of people with intellectual disability in their communities, it appears that few adults with intellectual disability participate in elections as registered voters. We surveyed a variety of stakeholders about voting by people with intellectual disability using quantitative and…

  7. "You Have to Care." Perceptions of Promoting Autonomy in Support Settings for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petner-Arrey, Jami; Copeland, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    This study from the south-western United States investigated the perceptions of persons with intellectual disability receiving support and of persons providing support regarding the autonomy of people with intellectual disability. The participants included 10 people with intellectual disability and 10 support workers. Through interviews, this…

  8. Contextual Predictors of Self-Determined Actions in Students with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumbardó-Adam, Cristina; Shogren, Karrie A.; Guàrdia-olmos, Joan; Giné, Climent

    2017-01-01

    Research in the field of intellectual disability suggests that promotion of self-determination triggers positive transition outcomes for youth with intellectual disability. This article examines the contributions of personal and environmental variables in predicting self-determined action in students with and without intellectual disability. The…

  9. Gender Differences in Psychiatric Diagnoses among Inpatients with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsky, Yona; Bradley, Elspeth A.; Gracey, Carolyn D.; Durbin, Janet; Koegl, Chris

    2009-01-01

    There are few published studies on the relationship between gender and psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Adults (N = 1,971) with and without intellectual disabilities who received inpatient services for psychiatric diagnosis and clinical issues were examined. Among individuals with intellectual disabilities,…

  10. Self-Reported Participation in Sport/Exercise Among Adolescents and Young Adults With and Without Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Janet Margaret; Emerson, Eric Broughton; Baines, Susannah May Johnston; Hatton, Christopher Rowan

    2018-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for mortality. Adults with intellectual disability are extremely inactive, but less is known about physical activity levels in children and youth with intellectual disability. This paper examines the participation by adolescents and young adults with and without mild to moderate intellectual disability in sport/exercise. Methods: Secondary analysis was undertaken of Next Steps, an annual panel study that followed a cohort from early adolescence int...

  11. KEMANDIRIAN ANAK INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY TERKAIT DENGAN TINGKAT KEMATANGAN SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Khoironi Fadli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Intellectual disability is disorder of intellectual function that is significantly below averagewith various deficits in adaptive function, such as taking care of oneself or occupational activities thatemerge before the age of 18 years old. One characteristic of intellectuallydisabled children in adaptivefunction is social maturity disorder. Children with intellectual disability haveproblem in social maturityandlimitation in fulfilling needs in daily activities.Objective:To identify correlation between social maturity and self-reliance of children with intellectualdisability.Methods:The study was non experimental. It used cross sectional design and quantitative approach.Samples were taken throughproportionate stratified random samplingtechnique. Research instrumentused to assess social maturity was Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and self-reliance wasFunctional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM. Subject of the study were children withintellectual disability in SLB Bakti Siwithat met inclusion and exclusion criteria as many as 61children.The study usednon parametricSpearman’s Rank Correlationtestat significancep<0.05.Result:Social maturity was high in 9 children (14.8%, medium in 23 children (37.7%, and low in 29children (47.9%. Self-reliance of children with intellectual disability showed average score (mean105.36with deviation standard15.43and range56-126.Score of correlation between social maturity andself-reliance of children with intellectual disability inSLB Bakti Siwishowedpvalue 0.000 (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was significant correlation between social maturity and sel-reliance of children withintellectual disability in SLB Bakti Siwi with score of correlation in strong category.

  12. Injury among adolescents with intellectual disability: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S

    2018-04-12

    Injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents worldwide, and injury rates have been shown to be higher among youth with intellectual disability. Despite this, injury among adolescents with intellectual disability remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with injury among adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. A cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability living in southern Queensland, Australia was investigated prospectively between January 2006 and June 2010. Personal characteristics were collected via postal questionnaire. Injury information, including mechanism and location of injury, was extracted from general practitioner records. The association between demographic, social and clinical characteristics of participants and episodes of injury was investigated using negative binomial regression. A total of 289 injuries were recorded from 432 participants over 1627.3 years of study-time. The overall annual injury incidence was 17.5 (95%CI 14.7, 20.9) per 100 person years. Presence of ADHD and less severe disability was associated with increased risk of injury. Down syndrome and reduced verbal communication capacity were associated with decreased risk of injury. Falls accounted for the highest single mechanism of injury (19.0%) with the majority (73.2%) of injuries involving either upper or lower limbs. ADHD is a co-morbidity that increases risk of injury among adolescents with intellectual disability. A critical component of injury prevention is avoidance of the great variety of environmental risk factors for injury relevant to this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic testing of aetiology of intellectual disability in a dedicated physical healthcare outpatient clinic for adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R A

    2016-02-01

    No guidelines exist for assessment of aetiology of intellectual disability in adults with intellectual disability by adult physicians, although robust guidelines exist for paediatric populations. It was speculated that the paediatric guidelines would also be suitable for adults. In rural/regional setting with limited clinical genetics, to perform a quality assurance evaluation on genetics assessment of aetiology of developmental disability in adults attending a dedicated healthcare clinic for adults with intellectual disability, compared results with paediatric standards, speculates if these seem appropriate for adults and speculates on a role for clinical genetics services. Retrospective chart audit of eligible patients looking at genetic clinical assessment, tests selected (molecular karyotype, G banding, metabolics), and yields of positive results. The results were compared with the recommended paediatric guidelines. Of 117 eligible adult patients, ideal genetic history was incomplete for 40% of patients without Down syndrome because of physician cause and lack of information. The number of abnormal genetic results increased from 46% to 66%, mainly from the molecular karyotype, though not all may have been clinically relevant. The improved yield from this test was similar to that in paediatric studies. Use of G banding and metabolic testing could be refined. Improvement can be made in clinical genetic assessment, but results generally support use of molecular karyotyping as first tier testing of cause of unknown intellectual disability in adults, as in the case for paediatric populations. The study highlights a necessary complementary role for clinical geneticists to interpret abnormal results. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Ethnic Variation in Service Utilisation among Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Method: Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified.…

  15. The effects of rehabilitation on intellectually-disabled people - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rehabilitation has emerged as a comprehensive approach to addressing intellectually-disabled peoples' skill deficits, improving competencies and facilitating optimal functioning in order to provide the greatest possible measure of social and economic participation, self-reliance and independence. Objective: ...

  16. A Descriptive Investigation of Dysphagia in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Jolliffe, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia has rarely been investigated in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) despite being a serious condition affecting health and quality of life. Method: This study collected information about 101 adults with ID, living in community settings, referred for an assessment of their eating and drinking. Ninety-nine people were…

  17. Study healthy ageing and intellectual disabilities : Recruitment and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hermans, Heidi; Penning, Corine; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Problems encountered in epidemiologic health research in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are how to recruit a large-scale sample of participants and how to measure a range of health variables in such a group. This cross-sectional study into healthy ageing started with founding a

  18. ADAT3-related intellectual disability: Further delineation of the phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Saleh, Mohammed A; Hashem, Amal; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Asmari, Ali Al; Rabei, Hala; Abdelraouf, Hanem; Hashem, Mais; Alazami, Anas M; Patel, Nisha; Shaheen, Ranad; Faqeih, Eissa A; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2016-05-01

    ADAT3-related intellectual disability has been recently described in 24 individuals from eight Saudi families who had cognitive impairment and strabismus. Other common features included growth failure, microcephaly, tone abnormalities, epilepsy, and nonspecific brain abnormalities. A single homozygous founder mutation (c.382G>A:p.(V128M)) in the ADAT3 gene, which encodes a protein that functions in tRNA editing, was identified in all affected individuals. In this report, we present additional 15 individuals from 11 families (10 Saudis and 1 Emirati) who are homozygous for the same founder mutation. In addition to the universal findings of intellectual disability and strabismus, the majority exhibited microcephaly and growth failure. Additional features not reported in the original cohort include dysmorphic facial features (prominent forehead, up-slanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, and depressed nasal bridge), behavioral problems (hyperactivity and aggressiveness), recurrent otitis media, and growth hormone deficiency. ADAT3-related intellectual disability is an important recognizable cause of intellectual disability in Arabia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Exclusion of children with intellectual disabilities from regular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study investigated why teachers exclude children with intellectual disability from the regular classrooms in Nigeria. Participants were, 169 regular teachers randomly selected from Oyo and Ogun states. Questionnaire was used to collect data result revealed that 57.4% regular teachers could not cope with children with ID ...

  20. Educational Outcomes for Secondary Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    Attention to the educational programming of secondary students with mild intellectual disability has declined in recent decades, although the need for the attention has not, particularly when considering the postschool outcomes of this population. This paper discusses the current state postschool outcomes and secondary education services for…

  1. Paediatric Palliative Care and Intellectual Disability--A Unique Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Jacqueline K.; Herbert, Anthony Robert; Heussler, Helen S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Paediatric palliative care is a nuanced area of practice with additional complexities in the context of intellectual disability. There is currently minimal research to guide clinicians working in this challenging area of care. Method: This study describes the complex care of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual…

  2. Understanding Quality of Working Life of Workers with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Noelia; Jenaro, Cristina; Orgaz, M. Begona; Martin, M. Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper examines the perceived quality of working life of workers with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, this paper looks at participants' perceptions in relation to perceived job demands and resources and their impact on experienced job satisfaction. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 507 workers with intellectual…

  3. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  4. Life Online: Resources for Students with an Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kerri

    2001-01-01

    Two Australian agencies planned, developed, piloted, and evaluated an online resource for teaching independent living skills to adult students with a mild intellectual disability using technology and the Internet. The resource, called Life Online, is a package of support resource materials tested in regional classrooms in Victoria, Australia.…

  5. ADHD Symptoms in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Wood, Nicky; Gringras, Paul; Chadwick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability. Method: From a general population sample of 2,726 12- to 15-year-olds, a stratified subsample was selected to enrich for…

  6. Conceptions of Work in Italian Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    People's ideas about work can greatly affect the ways in which they characterize their own work experience and their lives. The first aim of the present study was to analyze the concept of work in individuals with mild or moderate intellectual disability working in competitive or sheltered work settings and, second, to compare the notions of work…

  7. System Dynamics Modeling for Intellectual Disability Services: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryan, Meri; Nikolik, Dragan; van Merode, Godefridus; Curfs, Leopold

    2012-01-01

    Organizations providing services to persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) are complex because of many interacting stakeholders with often different and competing interests. The combination of increased consumer demand and diminished resources makes organizational planning a challenge for the managers of such organizations. Such challenges…

  8. Short-Term Memory Coding in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and…

  9. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. de Winter (Channa)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia

  10. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in…

  11. Development of physical fitness in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Smith, J.; Westendorp, M.; Visscher, C.

    BackgroundFew studies examined the development of physical fitness in children and youth with intellectual disabilities (ID), but the developmental patterns of physical fitness are largely unknown. The first aim was to examine physical fitness of primary school children with ID, aged 8-12, and

  12. The prevalence of constipation in institutionalized people with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhmer, C. J.; Taminiau, J. A.; Klinkenberg-Knol, E. C.; Meuwissen, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem in people with intellectual disability (ID). Laxatives are frequently prescribed with disappointing results. The prevalence of constipation was investigated in a random population of 215 people with ID (IQ < 50) and constipation was correlated with clinical symptoms.

  13. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them

  14. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  15. Verbal Working Memory in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Jongmans, M. J.; Van der Molen, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research into working memory of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has established clear deficits. The current study examined working memory in children with mild ID (IQ 55-85) within the framework of the Baddeley model, fractionating working memory into a central executive and two slave systems, the phonological…

  16. College Students' Conceptualizations of Deficits Involved in Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Mandi W.; Barker, Alyse A.; Proto, Daniel A.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2012-01-01

    Precedential rulings in recent capital murder trials may, in some cases, leave it up to a jury to determine whether or not an individual meets criteria for an intellectual disability (ID) and should be spared from the death penalty. Despite the potential for misconceptions about ID to bias decisions, few empirical studies have examined the…

  17. Risk of Fall for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yoichi; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Yoshida, Futoshi; Keino, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Mariko; Ikari, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Shikako; Hosokawa, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for falling and establish a method to assess risk for falls in adults with intellectual disabilities. In a cross-sectional survey of 144 Japanese adults, we found that age, presence of epilepsy, and presence of paretic conditions were independent risk factors. The Tinetti balance and gait instrument was…

  18. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  19. Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Symptoms and Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric evaluation of adults with intellectual disability (ID) remains complex because of limitations in verbal abilities, atypical clinical presentation and challenging behaviour. This study examines the clinical presentation of adults with depression compared with bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and non-psychiatric control…

  20. Intellectual Disability Modifies Gender Effects on Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Gray, Kylie M.; Ellis, Louise A.; Taffe, John; Emerson, Eric; Tonge, Bruce J.; Horstead, Sian K.

    2010-01-01

    In typically developing children, boys are more commonly diagnosed than girls with disruptive behavior disorders, namely, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. For children with intellectual disability (ID), the evidence for this gender effect is less clear. In this report we examine gender…

  1. Caregiving and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Affected by Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Ken; Jokinen, Nancy S.; Strydom, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Authors conducted a systematic review of the available Dutch, English, and German language literature for the period 1997-2008 on the current knowledge on social-psychological and pharmacological caregiving with respect to older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) affected by dementia. Authors note that caregiving occurs on a personal level…

  2. Cancer Screening in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: An Irish perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary; Denieffe, Suzanne; Foran, Sinéad

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Ireland, more than 8000 women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), aged 20 years and over, are registered for service provision. Their health needs challenge preventative health services including breast and cervical cancer screening programmes. This review explores the literature about cancer screening participation rates and…

  3. Positive Group Psychotherapy Modified for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasulo, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disorders are considerably more prevalent among people with intellectual disabilities than in the general population, yet research on psychotherapy for people with dual diagnosis is scarce. However, there is mounting evidence to show that adults with a dual diagnosis can find help through group therapy and have more productive and…

  4. Recruitment to Intellectual Disability Research: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, L.; Colyer, M.; Cooper, S. -A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Difficulties in the recruitment of adults with intellectual disability (ID) to research studies are well described but little studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the difficulties in recruiting to a specific research project, in order to inform future recruitment to ID research. Methods: Individual semi-structured…

  5. Healthy Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in an Inclusive Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) have twice as many health problems than the general public. The author discusses evidence-based research on prevalence and best treatment of primary and secondary health problems in persons with ID. Citing the pan-European Pomona project, European data were collected on training for health professionals…

  6. The Impact of Simulated Interviews for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Zachary; Vasquez, Eleazar; Wienke, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the efficacy of role-playing and coaching in mixed-reality environments for the acquisition and generalization of social skills leading to successful job interview performance. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, five young adults with intellectual disability practiced…

  7. Comparison of patients with and without intellectual disability under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Purpose: We analyzed and retrospectively compared patients with and without intellectual disability (ID) who underwent oral surgery under general anesthesia at Istanbul University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of General Anesthesia, between October 2012 and June 2013 with regard to the following ...

  8. Dementia in intellectual disability: a review of diagnostic challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability (ID), which will guide subsequent intervention, care and management depends on the systematic review of a number of factors: (1) the individual historical context, obtained from multiple sources, (2) evaluation of the pre-existing cognitive, behavioural, ...

  9. Review of Parent Training Interventions for Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Catherine; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Matthews, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: This paper reviews recent research to provide an updated perspective on the effectiveness of parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability. The degree to which these studies meet previous recommendations for future research is explored, particularly with regard to the influence of context on intervention…

  10. Parenting of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Raising children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) may cause parenting stress, especially when the child with BMID has psychosocial problems. To improve support, it is important to have a better understanding of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce problems in raising

  11. Sexual Risk Assessment for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, P.; van den Bogaard, K.; Hendriks, L.; Heestermans, M.; Schuitemaker, M.; van Wouwe, H.

    2010-01-01

    Given that sexually offensive behavior on the part of people with intellectual disabilities has been identified as a significant problem, we developed a risk assessment questionnaire, that takes not only various static and dynamic factors into account but also environmental risk variables. Psychologists and staff members completed this Risk…

  12. Enabling Integration in Sports for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandisson, Marie; Tetreault, Sylvie; Freeman, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Promoting the health and social participation of adolescents with intellectual disability is important as they are particularly vulnerable to encountering difficulties in those areas. Integration of these individuals in integrated sports is one strategy to address this issue. Methods: The main objective of this study was to gain a…

  13. Caregiver Attitudes to Gynaecological Health of Women with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chu, Cordia M.; Chen, Li-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little information available related to the reproductive health of people with intellectual disability (ID). The aims of the present study are to describe caregiver attitudes and to examine determinants of gynaecological health for women with ID. Method: We recruited 1152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87%) and analysed their…

  14. Spinal and Limb Abnormalities in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lai, Chia-Im; Leu, Yii-Rong; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chu, Chi-Ming; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    There are not many studies pertaining to the spinal or limb abnormalities in people with intellectual disabilities, without a clear profile of these deformities of them, efforts to understand its characters and improve their quality of life will be impossible. Therefore, this paper aims to describe the prevalence and related factors of spinal and…

  15. Including People with Intellectual Disabilities in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    The voice of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills. It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…

  16. Dementia in intellectual disability: a review of diagnostic challenges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important in the context of rising life expectancies in this ... The evaluation of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability (ID), which will guide subsequent intervention, ... approach to the diagnosis of dementia in ID. .... reduced capacity for new learning. ..... mild memory decline, slightly shorter attention span, slower.

  17. Centres for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Attendees' Perceptions of Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, Urszula; Trigg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Day and community learning centres aim to provide intellectually disabled (ID) people with social support, life skills and greater control over their lives. However, there is little research exploring the benefits of attendance from the perspective of attendees and whether these goals are met. Materials and methods: Unstructured…

  18. Incidence of Dementia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, Andre; Chan, Trevor; King, Michael; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Dementia may be more common in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population. The increased risk for Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome (DS) is well established, but much less is known about dementia in adults with ID who do not have DS. We estimated incidence rates from a longitudinal study of…

  19. Seizure detection using dynamic warping for patients with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Long, X.; Wu, Y.; Cluitmans, P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is paramount for both retrospective analysis and real-time monitoring of epileptic seizures. Studies have shown that EEG-based seizure detection is very difficult for a specific epileptic population with intellectual disability due to the cerebral development disorders.

  20. Transition for Teenagers with Intellectual Disability: Carers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Sabyasachi; Watson, Joanna; Barrett, Mary; Raju, Bala; Burton, Tracey; Forte, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Teenagers with intellectual disabilities (ID) have significantly more health problems than the rest of the population and many encounter difficulties accessing the services they need during the transition from children's to adult services. A multidisciplinary, interagency study was carried out in one area of the UK with the intent to estimate the…

  1. Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, and Hyperlipemia among Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to assess the hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia prevalence of adolescents with intellectual disabilities, and to recognize the health disparities between the study participants and the general population. This study conducted a cross-sectional medical chart analysis of 856 students who participated in school…

  2. Learning capacity in adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiekstra, Marlous; Hessels, Marco G P; Minnaert, Alexander E M G

    2009-01-01

    Scores on a learning potential test (the Hessels Analogical Reasoning Test) were examined to assess how to provide a better estimate of the learning capacity of students with mild intellectual disabilities compared to IQ scores. As a criterion, a dynamic test of chemistry learning was used. 46

  3. Age at Death in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvio, Maria; Salokivi, Tommi; Bjelogrlic-Laakso, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to ascertain the average age at death (AD) in the intellectual disability population for each gender and compare them to those of the general population during 1970-2012. Methods: By analysing medical records, we calculated the ADs of all deceased clients (N = 1236) of two district organizations responsible for intellectual…

  4. Motivational Aspects of Gaming for Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridaki, Maria; Mourlas, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    The attention to learners with special needs, in particular those with intellectual disabilities, is an area of continuous development. It is considered important to develop adaptive educational solutions for the integration of people with educational difficulties according to their needs. Digital games provide an attractive and direct platform in…

  5. Pre-Partum Distress in Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, David; Mayes, Rachel; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigates depression, anxiety and stress in pregnant women with intellectual disabilities and/or self-reported learning difficulties, and examines the association between these negative emotional states and perceived support and conflict in the women's interpersonal relationships. Method: Eight-hundred-and-seventy-eight…

  6. Augmented Reality As a Working Aid for Intellectually Disabled Persons For Work in Horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    P. Benda; M. Ulman; M. Šmejkalová

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of this article is to verify experimentally the possibility of using Augmented Reality as a platform for display educational materials in the field of horticulture in the real world for people with intellectual disabilities. Experimental verification was attended by eight people with varying levels of mental disability. The educational material was presented to the research participants in the form of a video, which was accessible ...

  7. Central nervous system medication use in older adults with intellectual disability: Results from the successful ageing in intellectual disability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitty, Kate M; Evans, Elizabeth; Torr, Jennifer J; Iacono, Teresa; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder; Trollor, Julian N

    2016-04-01

    Information on the rates and predictors of polypharmacy of central nervous system medication in older people with intellectual disability is limited, despite the increased life expectancy of this group. This study examined central nervous system medication use in an older sample of people with intellectual disability. Data regarding demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and current medications were collected as part of a larger survey completed by carers of people with intellectual disability over the age of 40 years. Recruitment occurred predominantly via disability services across different urban and rural locations in New South Wales and Victoria. Medications were coded according to the Monthly Index of Medical Specialties central nervous system medication categories, including sedatives/hypnotics, anti-anxiety agents, antipsychotics, antidepressants, central nervous system stimulants, movement disorder medications and anticonvulsants. The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults was used to assess behaviour. Data were available for 114 people with intellectual disability. In all, 62.3% of the sample was prescribed a central nervous system medication, with 47.4% taking more than one. Of those who were medicated, 46.5% had a neurological diagnosis (a seizure disorder or Parkinson's disease) and 45.1% had a psychiatric diagnosis (an affective or psychotic disorder). Linear regression revealed that polypharmacy was predicted by the presence of neurological and psychiatric diagnosis, higher Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults scores and male gender. This study is the first to focus on central nervous system medication in an older sample with intellectual disability. The findings are in line with the wider literature in younger people, showing a high degree of prescription and polypharmacy. Within the sample, there seems to be adequate rationale for central nervous system medication prescription. Although these data do not indicate non-adherence to

  8. Obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability: Prevalence and associated characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sharon; Ware, Robert; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; O'Callaghan, Michael

    Studies from a number of countries have indicated an increased risk of obesity in adolescents with intellectual disability. Whether risk factors for adults with intellectual disability apply to adolescents however is uncertain. This study examines obesity in a community sample of adolescents with intellectual disability in Australia, and investigates risk factors associated with obesity and overweight. A cross-sectional survey and medical record review on 261 adolescents with intellectual disability attending special education facilities in South-East Queensland, Australia between January 2006 and September 2010 was conducted. Information on age, gender, weight, height, syndrome specific diagnoses, problematic behaviours, mobility, taking psychotropic or epileptic medication, and perceived household financial difficulties was collected. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and participants categorised as normal/underweight, overweight or obese according to the International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Overall 22.5% (95% CI: 17.8-28.0%) of adolescents were obese, and 23.8% (95% CI: 19.0-29.4%) were overweight, a marked increase compared to Australian norms. Adolescents with Down syndrome were more likely to be obese than other participants (odds ratio=3.21; 95% CI: 1.41-7.30). No association was found with other risk factors examined. Prevalence of obesity and overweight were increased compared to general Australian adolescents. The only significant risk factor was the presence of Down syndrome. These findings reinforce the need for a health policy and practice response to obesity that is inclusive of individuals with intellectual disability. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-Reported Participation in Sport/Exercise Among Adolescents and Young Adults With and Without Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janet; Emerson, Eric; Baines, Susannah; Hatton, Chris

    2018-04-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for mortality. Adults with intellectual disability are extremely inactive, but less is known about physical activity levels in children and youth with intellectual disability. This paper examines the participation by adolescents and young adults with and without mild to moderate intellectual disability in sport/exercise. Secondary analysis was undertaken of Next Steps, an annual panel study that followed a cohort from early adolescence into adulthood. Participants with mild to moderate intellectual disability were identified through data linkage with educational records. Sport/exercise participation rates were consistently lower for adolescents and young people with mild to moderate intellectual disability than for their peers without intellectual disability. Matching participants on between-group differences in exposure to extraneous risk factors did not impact on these between-group differences in participation in sport/exercise. The results support limited existing evidence regarding the low level of participation of children and young people with intellectual disability in sport/exercise compared with their peers. Future work on promoting sport/exercise and physical activity in children and young people with intellectual disability may play a role in helping to reduce the health inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disability.

  10. General Nutrition Knowledge among Carers at Group Homes for People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaid, N. H.; Flood, V. M.; Prvan, T.; O'Connor, H. T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Good nutrition knowledge among carers of people with intellectual disability (ID) living in group homes is essential as they have a primary role in food provision for residents. Research on the nutrition knowledge of carers is limited. Method: This cross-sectional study assessed the level of general nutrition knowledge in a convenience…

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder, Intellectual Disability, and Emotional Functioning: Relatedness and Particular Impact on Challenging Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sappok, Tanja; Sterkenburg, Paula; Bohm, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Persons with an intellectual disability (ID) show high rates of challenging behaviour (CB), especially in cases of co-occurring autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the relatedness and impact of ASD, the severity of ID, and the level of emotional

  12. Maternal Stress Predicted by Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a period of two years. The level of maternal…

  13. Learning to Apply Algebra in the Community for Adults with Intellectual Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are routinely excluded from algebra and other high-level mathematics courses. High school students with IDD take courses in arithmetic and life skills rather than having an opportunity to learn algebra. Yet algebra skills can support the learning of money and budgeting skills. This…

  14. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  15. Predictors of Risky Behavior and Offending for Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Melissa N.; Bouck, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) engage in risky behavior and offending. However, little is known on the impact school-related predictors have on engagement in risky behaviors for adolescents with ID. This study analyzed secondary data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to determine levels of engagement in risky…

  16. The Sexuality of People with Mild Intellectual Disability: Perceptions of Clients and Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szollos, Agnes A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1995-01-01

    The sexuality of 25 individuals with mild intellectual disability was assessed based on interviews that addressed their knowledge, experience, feelings, and needs. Compared to 39 college students and 10 care staff, subjects demonstrated a lower level of sex knowledge, less interactive sexual experience, equal frequencies of same-sex experiences,…

  17. Narrative Language and Reading Comprehension in Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn

    2017-01-01

    Past research shows positive correlations between oral narrative skill and reading comprehension in typically developing students. This study examined the relationship between reading comprehension and narrative language ability of 102 elementary students with mild levels of intellectual disability. Results describe the students' narrative…

  18. Determining alertness in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : the reliability of an observation list

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munde, V.S.; Vlaskamp, C.; Ruijssenaars, A.J.J.M.; Nakken, H.

    In the support of individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), assessing the level of alertness is a recurring issue for parents and other direct support persons. Although observations show clear advantages above and beyond other assessment methods, there are problems

  19. Rethinking Social Network Assessment for Students with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, Laura T.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth; Culnane, Mary; Freedman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Social networks of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been characterized as smaller and less diverse than those of typical peers. Advocates have focused on strengthening those social networks by expanding circles of social support, protection, and friendship. As young adults with ID experience increasing levels of community…

  20. Does information about patients who are intellectually disabled translate into better cooperation during dental visits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, D.; Rutten, M.; de Jongh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether having background information about a patient with an intellectual disability (ID) would have a positive effect on the level of cooperation during a first dental visit. Study participants were 57 consecutive dental patients (mean age = 24.3

  1. The Longitudinal Course of Depression in Adoptive and Birth Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Laraine M.; Jobe, Brian M.

    2006-01-01

    This report extends by an additional 6 years the longitudinal research of Glidden and Schoolcraft, who found that adoptive mothers of children with intellectual disabilities displayed low depression at the initial time of adoption and thereafter, whereas birth mothers reported significantly higher levels when their children were first diagnosed,…

  2. HEART RATE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN PERSONS WITH PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  3. The Impact of Behavioural Executive Functioning and Intelligence on Math Abilities in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, M. C.; Ziermans, T. B.; Swaab, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of behavioural executive functioning (EF) skills and level of intelligence (IQ) on math abilities in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Method: Teachers of 63 children attending a school for special education (age: 10 to 13 years; IQ: 50 to 85) filled out a Behaviour Rating…

  4. Underweight, Obesity and Exercise among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Accommodation in Northern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E.

    2005-01-01

    Significant deviation from normal weight (obesity and underweight) and lack of physical exercise have been identified as three of the most significant global behavioural risks to health. Body mass index (BMI) and levels of physical activity were measured in a sample of 1542 adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) receiving supported…

  5. Compliance of Children with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability to Treadmill Walking: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashdi, E.; Hutzler, Y.; Roth, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Intellectual Disability (ID) exhibit reduced levels of compliance to exercise, including treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of several training conditions on compliance to participation in treadmill walking of children with moderate to severe ID. Method: Criteria for compliance were…

  6. Stigma, Self-Perception and Social Comparisons in Young People with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla

    2017-01-01

    Whether individuals who have a diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID) perceive and experience stigma has been a matter of some debate. In this paper, we consider the role of the level of ID and gender on perception of stigma in individuals with ID who attend a segregated special secondary school and whether reports of stigma impact…

  7. Validation of intellectual disability coding through hospital morbidity records using an intellectual disability population-based database in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen

    2018-01-23

    To investigate how well intellectual disability (ID) can be ascertained using hospital morbidity data compared with a population-based data source. All children born in 1983-2010 with a hospital admission in the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data System (HMDS) were linked with the Western Australian Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers (IDEA) database. The International Classification of Diseases hospital codes consistent with ID were also identified. The characteristics of those children identified with ID through either or both sources were investigated. Of the 488 905 individuals in the study, 10 218 (2.1%) were identified with ID in either IDEA or HMDS with 1435 (14.0%) individuals identified in both databases, 8305 (81.3%) unique to the IDEA database and 478 (4.7%) unique to the HMDS dataset only. Of those unique to the HMDS dataset, about a quarter (n=124) had died before 1 year of age and most of these (75%) before 1 month. Children with ID who were also coded as such in the HMDS data were more likely to be aged under 1 year, female, non-Aboriginal and have a severe level of ID, compared with those not coded in the HMDS data. The sensitivity of using HMDS to identify ID was 14.7%, whereas the specificity was much higher at 99.9%. Hospital morbidity data are not a reliable source for identifying ID within a population, and epidemiological researchers need to take these findings into account in their study design. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of the adults with intellectual disability differed across settings, most notably adaptive behavior and the number of residential transitions, while characteristics such as age, type of disability, and behavior problems were less predictive of residential placements. The number of moves over the course of the study varied widely, with critical links to earlier family dynamics, social relationships, and health and adaptive behavior. PMID:25354121

  9. Intellectual disability, consumerism and identity: to have and have not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimens, Alex; Hyde, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Here we consider the consumer society as it currently exists in the UK and examine its relationship and relevance to the population of individuals with intellectual disability. We do this through a reading of the associated literature on theories of shopping and consumption which we then contrast with research evidence as it applies to the lives of people with intellectual disability. By brining together these two perspectives we hope to shine some light on ideas around identity and choice. We then transfer these arguments to the health and social care sector. Here we ask whether an economic model which has been exposed as divisive and exclusionary should be used in the administration of social secutity benefits of the kind accesed by people with a range of disabilities. We conclude that the unchallenged advance of marketisation within health and social care may benefit those who are financially able but for those who are economically disadvantaged the choices offered are illusory at best.

  10. Does visual impairment lead to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoukes, L.; Koot, H. M.; Kooijman, A. C.; Evenhuis, H.

    This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with observant-based

  11. Does visual impairment lead to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenhuis, H.M.; Sjoukes, L.; Koot, H.M.; Kooijman, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with

  12. Aged and Dependency Ratios among Autism, Intellectual Disability and Other Disabilities: 10-Year Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Dependency ratios are useful as general indicators of future economic and social health. The present paper focuses on the description of dependency ratios and over time change in different kind of disability which include autism, intellectual disability, vision, hearing, and limb impairments. We analyzed data mainly from the public web-access…

  13. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with a psychiatric disorder and mild intellectual disability to borderline intellectual functioning: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Lidwien; van der Waa, Anne; Klip, Helen; Staal, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability frequently have difficulties in adapting to their environment. The extent of the experienced problems does not only depend on cognitive functioning but is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a psychiatric disorder or other brain disorders, or adverse environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies show that children with intellectual disabilities are at an increased risk to develop psychiatric disorders. This is also true for youth with a mild intellectual disability and even those with borderline intellectual functioning (mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID)). Psychiatric disorders are often overlooked because behavioral problems are rather attributed to the intellectual disability. Consequently, effective psychiatric interventions, which are needed to improve the level of functioning, are not applied. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the currently available, qualitatively sound research concerning the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, specifically directed at psychiatric disorders in children with MBID. Assessed for eligibility were 1409 unique reports, and the review ultimately included only 12 reports. Review of the results and meta-analyses showed that the majority of studies suffer from multiple limitations and that methodological variations between studies are extensive. This possibly reflects the high variance of factors that may be involved in MBID. It will be important in future research to address multi-causality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Prevalence and outcomes of heart transplantation in children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Aaron; Bartlett, Heather L; Zhao, Qianqian; Smith, Jodi M

    2017-03-01

    Heart transplantation in children with intellectual disability is a controversial issue. We sought to describe the prevalence and outcomes of heart transplantation in children with intellectual disability and hypothesized that recipients with intellectual disability have comparable short-term outcomes compared to recipients without intellectual disability. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of children receiving a first heart-alone transplant in the UNOS STAR database from 2008 to 2013. Recipients with intellectual disability were compared to those without using chi-square tests. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for patient and graft survival. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between intellectual disability and graft failure and patient survival. Over the study period, 107 children with intellectual disability underwent initial heart transplantation, accounting for 8.9% of first pediatric heart transplants (total=1204). There was no difference in the incidence of acute rejection between groups in the first year after transplant. Mean functional status scores at follow-up improved in both groups after transplantation, but tended to be lower among children with intellectual disability than children without. Log-rank tests did not suggest significant differences in graft survival between those with and without intellectual disability during the first 4 years following transplantation. Children with intellectual disability constitute a significant portion of total heart transplants with short-term outcomes comparable to children without intellectual disability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sibling Relationship Quality and Social Functioning of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J.; Purcell, Susan E.; Richardson, Shana S.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2009-01-01

    We examined sibling relationships for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and assessed implications for their social functioning. Targets (total N = 212) had either intellectual disability, a chronic illness/physical disability, or no disability. Nontarget siblings reported on relationship quality, sibling interactions were…

  16. Self-Esteem of Greek Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyrakouli, Effi; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the self-esteem of 50 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities living in central Greece and 50 similar mothers of non-disabled children. Results indicated significantly lower self-esteem for mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. The best predictor of positive maternal self-esteem in the disabled group…

  17. Sedentary and Physical Activity Patterns in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Guillermo R.; Travier, Noémie; Guerra-Balic, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05). No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST. PMID:28880236

  18. Sedentary and Physical Activity Patterns in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo R. Oviedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST and physical activity (PA levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID. We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI. Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05. No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST.

  19. Organising healthcare services for persons with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Robert; McMorris, Carly A; Lunsky, Yona; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Bourne, Laurie; Colantonio, Angela; Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C

    2016-04-11

    When compared to the general population, persons with an intellectual disability have lower life expectancy, higher morbidity, and more difficulty finding and obtaining healthcare. Organisational interventions are used to reconfigure the structure or delivery of healthcare services. This is the first update of the original review. To assess the effects of organisational interventions of healthcare services for the mental and physical health problems of persons with an intellectual disability. For this update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and other databases, from April 2006 to 4 September 2015. We checked reference lists of included studies and consulted experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials of organisational interventions of healthcare services aimed at improving care of mental and physical health problems of adult persons with an intellectual disability. We employed standard methodological procedures as outlined in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions, in addition to specific guidance from the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group. We identified one new trial from the updated searches.Seven trials (347 participants) met the selection criteria. The interventions varied but had common components: interventions that increased the intensity and frequency of service delivery (4 trials, 200 participants), community-based specialist behaviour therapy (1 trial, 63 participants), and outreach treatment (1 trial, 50 participants). Another trial compared two active arms (traditional counselling and integrated intervention for bereavement, 34 participants).The included studies investigated interventions dealing with the mental health problems of persons with an intellectual disability; none focused on physical health problems. Four studies assessed the effect of organisational interventions on behavioural problems for persons with an intellectual disability, three assessed care giver burden, and

  20. Intellectual disability in Africa: implications for research and service development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Judith Anne; McConkey, Roy; Adnams, Colleen

    2013-09-01

    Although intellectual disability (ID) is probably the largest impairment grouping on the African continent, few indigenous research and evaluation studies have been undertaken. This article is an initial attempt to relate service delivery issues to an African research agenda. We critically analysed the available literature, drawing on academic publications and those of non-governmental agencies. In this process we identified several key issues for further investigation, namely: understanding ID in African contexts, access to education and health care, the provision of appropriate assistance and support, and income generation. We relate our analysis to the recommendations made in the World Report on Disability but with a specific focus on ID in Africa. The need for mainstreaming and prioritising ID in non-disability related and across impairment programmes is highlighted. We note the importance of families and emphasise the need to draw on informal and traditional forms of care and participation. The need for reliable research evidence to support practice is highlighted. We conclude with a call to action by and on behalf of individuals with ID to be included in the development priorities of the continent. Implications for Rehabilitation Service provision for people with intellectual disabilities in Africa is not always well served by insights obtained from western research agendas. Appropriate and effective rehabilitation requires an understanding of the context and the environment in which the disabled person operates. Indigenous research into the provision of support to families and the inclusion of persons with intellectual disability into mainstream programmes as well as disability specific provision is recommended.

  1. Exploring the self-concepts of persons with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Eria Ping-Ying; Tam, Alan Sing-Fai; Man, David Wai-Kwong

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the self-concepts of Hong Kong Chinese with intellectual disabilities. Face-to-face and individual interviews were conducted in Cantonese, using the Chinese version of the Adult Source of Self-Esteem Inventory (ASSEI) together with three open-ended questions to explore the participants' self-conceptions in different life domains. An opportunity sample of 135 young adults with intellectual disabilities was interviewed. The findings showed that the family self, the social self and achievement in school and work were the self-concept attributes most important to the participants. The participants of this study had a higher total self-concept than that of a comparison group of people without disabilities when the participants used the in-group social comparison to maintain positive self-perception. The importance of partnership with family, self-concept enhancement strategies and quality employment service are discussed in order to facilitate people with intellectual disabilities to develop more positive self-concepts and thus achieve better community integration.

  2. Narrative ethics in nursing for persons with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meininger, Herman P

    2005-04-01

    Both in The Netherlands and in Britain, practices of 'life story work' have emerged in nursing for persons with intellectual disabilities. The narrative approach to care and support may at the same time be considered as an attempt to compensate for the 'disabled authorship' of many persons with intellectual disabilities and as a sign of controversy with standard practices of diagnosis and treatment that tend to neglect the personal identities of both clients and care givers, their particular historical and relational contexts and their spiritual needs. This paper argues that narrative ethics not only offers an appropriate moral framework for practices of life story work, but that these practices are a narrative ethics in action. Starting with an account of the concept of 'life story work' as it has been introduced in nursing practices in the field of intellectual disability, the paper explains its relationship with key characteristics of narrative ethics. The teleological dimension in narrative ethics and in practices of life story work sparks off a dialectic process of understanding of the client and self-understanding of the care giver. It also invites a respect for life in its openness toward the future and presupposes an openness toward other possible versions of the life narrative. The phenomenological and hermeneutic-interpretative methodologies in narrative ethics aim at a 'sudden moment of intimacy' in relationships of nurses and clients. The 'epiphany' of this essential moment of recognition, insight and engagement cannot, however, be brought about by methodology.

  3. A review of suicidality in persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Lunsky, Yona; Kandel, Isack

    2006-01-01

    It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of persons with intellectual disability (ID), developmental disability or mental retardation. The few studies conducted contest this assumption and in fact findings show that the characteristics of suicidality in that population were very similar to that in persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describes the symptomatology in this population, risk factors, screening and intervention. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior, since in one study it was found that many caregivers were unaware of suicidality in their clients. Only two studies had systematically examined differences between suicidal and non-suicidal individuals with ID with regard to risk factors. Risk factors found were history of prior psychiatric hospitalization, comorbid physical disabilities, loneliness, sadness, depression or anxiety. There is limited research on intervention for suicidal behavior in the ID population, but professionals should consider risk factors for suicide in this population and intervene when suicidal risk/behavior is found.

  4. A survey on awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 真二; 今野, 和夫; SHIBUYA, Shinji; KONNO, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability is an important factor for their children to make friends without a disability. A questionnare survey was used to parents of upper secondary department of special schools for students with an intellectual disability. They thought that their children had fewer opportunities to get involved with children without a disability. Many of them wished that their children ...

  5. Job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities: the role of basic psychological need fulfillment and workplace participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge on what contributes to job satisfaction of people with intellectual disabilities is limited. Using self-determination theory, we investigated whether fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, relatedness, competence) affected job satisfaction, and explored associations between workplace participation, need fulfillment and job satisfaction. A total of 117 persons with intellectual disabilities, recruited from a Dutch care organization, were interviewed on need fulfillment at work and job satisfaction. Data on workplace participation was obtained from staff. Questionnaires were based on well-established instruments. Basic psychological need fulfillment predicted higher levels of job satisfaction. Level of workplace participation was not associated with need fulfillment or job satisfaction. Allowing workers with intellectual disabilities to act with a sense of volition, feel effective, able to meet challenges, and connected to others is essential and contributes to job satisfaction. It is needed to pay attention to this, both in selection and design of workplaces and in support style. Implications for rehabilitation Knowledge on factors that contribute to job satisfaction is necessary to improve employment situations and employment success of people with intellectual disabilities. In order to achieve job satisfaction, it is essential that workplaces allow for fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence of people with intellectual disabilities. People with intellectual disabilities are able to report on their needs and satisfaction, and it is important that their own perspective is taken into account in decisions regarding their employment situation.

  6. The World Report on Disability and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Officer, Alana; Shakespeare, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The "World Report on Disability" was requested by the World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO). Because disability is broader than health, WHO partnered with the World Bank. The "World Report" was published in 2011 and provides a comprehensive scientific analysis on the global situation…

  7. "It Is Only Natural….": Attitudes of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities toward Sexuality in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karellou, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    Although there is an increasing awareness of the rights of people with intellectual disabilities, limited progress has been made in supporting people with intellectual disabilities to create and sustain intimate personal relationships in Greece. This article looks at the attitudes of 66 adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities…

  8. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  9. WDR73 missense mutation causes infantile onset intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia in a consanguineous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chen; Gai, Nan; Zou, Yongyi; Zheng, Yu; Ma, Ruiyu; Wei, Xianda; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2017-01-01

    Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GMS) is a very rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, and various central nervous system abnormalities, mostly cerebral hypoplasia or cerebellar atrophy, intellectual disability and neural-migration defects. WDR73 is the only gene known to cause GMS, and has never been implicated in other disease. Here we present a Chinese consanguineous family with infantile onset intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia but no microcephaly. Whole exome sequencing identified a WDR73 p.W371G missense mutation. The mutation is confirmed to be segregated in this family by Sanger sequencing according to a recessive inheritance pattern. It is predicted to be deleterious by multiple algorithms and affect highly conserved site. Structural modeling revealed conformational differences between the wild type protein and the p.W371G protein. Real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed altered mRNA and protein levels in mutated samples. Our study indicates the novel WDR73 p.W371G missense mutation causes infantile onset intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia in recessive mode of inheritance. Our findings imply that microcephaly is a variable phenotype in WDR73-related disease, suggest WDR73 to be a candidate gene of severe intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia, and expand the molecular spectrum of WDR73-related disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic review of restraint interventions for challenging behaviour among persons with intellectual disabilities: focus on experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. Heyvaert et al. focused on the effectiveness of restraint interventions (RIs) for reducing challenging behaviour among persons with intellectual disabilities) in the first article. In this second article, Heyvaert et al. focus on experiences with RIs for challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities. A mixed methods research synthesis involving statistical meta-analysis and qualitative meta-synthesis techniques was applied to synthesize 76 retrieved articles. This second article reports on the qualitative meta-synthesis of 17 articles on experiences with RIs for challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities. The 17 included articles report on important variables relating to the persons receiving RIs, to the persons giving RIs and to their interactions and relationship, as well as variables situated at the meso- and macro-level. The developed model can assist in reflecting on and improving of current RI practices among people with intellectual disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability : Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID

  12. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID in three Dutch care services, the feasibility of 8…

  13. The Provision of Psychological Therapy to People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Investigation into Some of the Relevant Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Five factors are proposed as important in influencing the provision of psychological therapy to people with intellectual disabilities (IDs): the perceived effectiveness of psychological therapy, individual clinician competence, service resources (number of trained clinicians), the level of the clients disability and the diagnostic…

  14. Developing Reception Competence in Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Koritnik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research paradigms which study factors that allow influencing the language development of children with mild intellectual disabilities to the greatest extent possible. Special attention is dedicated to the development of the reception competence with the use of reception didactics methods based on a relatively frequent use of less demanding non-language semiotic functions. The core of the paper presents results of an experimental case study (on a sample of five children with a mild intellectual disability over a one school year period, through which the reception competence in these children was developed with a systematic use of an adapted communication model of literary education as an experimental factor. The results have confirmed the initially set hypothesis about reception progress.

  15. Implicit Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Relationship with Explicit Attitudes, Social Distance, Emotions and Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants' level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary), gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field.

  16. Implicit Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Relationship with Explicit Attitudes, Social Distance, Emotions and Contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Clare Wilson

    Full Text Available Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants' level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary, gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field.

  17. A study on mobility improvement for intellectually disabled student commuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Nakamura

    2017-07-01

    Overall, our findings suggested that to actually implement mobility support in school commuting environments in a way that will improve the mobility of intellectually disabled people requires not only the cooperation of schools, but also contributions from transport operators, road administrators, and traffic administrators. Because the contributions of these entities are essential, awareness-raising activities and a system for promoting common understanding among them are vital.

  18. Gait Transitions of Persons with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Yun, Joonkoo; Pavol, Michael J.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the walk-to-run transition speed (W-RTS) and the run-to-walk transition speed (R-WTS) were different or more variable between participants with and without intellectual disability (ID). Nine adults with ID and 10 adults without ID completed in a series of walk-to-run and run-to-walk trials on a treadmill. W-RTS and…

  19. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery profiles in individuals with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Borji , Rihab; Zghal , Firas; Zarrouk , Nidhal; Martin , Vincent; Sahli , Sonia; Rebai , Haithem

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Purpose: This study aimed to explore neuromuscular fatigue and recovery profiles in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) after exhausting submaximal contraction.Methods: Ten men with ID were compared to 10 men without ID. The evaluation of neuromuscular function consisted in brief (3 s) isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC) of the knee extension superimposed with electrical nerve stimulation before, immediately after, and during 33 min after an exhaus...

  20. Forensic aspects of intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Overview This thesis reviewed forensic aspects of Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Chapter two was a case study where an individual with ID and ASD who exhibited forensic/Challenging Behaviour (CB) was assessed and intervention offered. Chapter three then focussed on the assessment of people with ID and ASD by critiquing the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), version 3 and 4 (WAIS-III & WAIS-IV) (Wechsler, 1997; Wechsler, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c) and ...

  1. Parenting of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Kleefman, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Raising children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) may cause parenting stress, especially when the child with BMID has psychosocial problems. To improve support, it is important to have a better understanding of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce problems in raising such children and of the problems these parents are dealing with. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the effectiveness of the parenting support program Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP). F...

  2. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Inte...

  3. Role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and intellectual disability disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Lopez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly important to understand how epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression during neurodevelopment. Two epigenetic mechanisms that have received considerable attention are DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have linked several neurobiological disorders to genes whose products actively regulate DNA methylation and histone acetylation. More recently, a third major epigenetic mechanism, nucleosome remodeling, has been implicated in human developmental and intellectual disability disorders. Nucleosome remodeling is driven primarily through nucleosome remodeling complexes with specialized ATP-dependent enzymes. These enzymes directly interact with DNA or chromatin structure, as well as histone subunits, to restructure the shape and organization of nucleosome positioning to ultimately regulate gene expression. Of particular interest is the neuron-specific Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor (nBAF complex. Mutations in nBAF subunit genes have so far been linked to Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, schizophrenia, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Together, these human developmental and intellectual disability disorders are powerful examples of the impact of epigenetic modulation on gene expression. This review focuses on the new and emerging role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and intellectual disability disorders and whether nucleosome remodeling affects gene expression required for cognition independently of its role in regulating gene expression required for development.

  4. NDST1 missense mutations in autosomal recessive intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Miriam S; Musante, Luciana; Hu, Hao; Diederich, Stefan; Sticht, Heinrich; Ekici, Arif B; Uebe, Steffen; Wienker, Thomas F; Bartsch, Oliver; Zechner, Ulrich; Oppitz, Cornelia; Keleman, Krystyna; Jamra, Rami Abou; Najmabadi, Hossein; Schweiger, Susann; Reis, André; Kahrizi, Kimia

    2014-11-01

    NDST1 was recently proposed as a candidate gene for autosomal recessive intellectual disability in two families. It encodes a bifunctional GlcNAc N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase with important functions in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. In mice, Ndst1 is crucial for embryonic development and homozygous null mutations are perinatally lethal. We now report on two additional unrelated families with homozygous missense NDST1 mutations. All mutations described to date predict the substitution of conserved amino acids in the sulfotransferase domain, and mutation modeling predicts drastic alterations in the local protein conformation. Comparing the four families, we noticed significant overlap in the clinical features, including both demonstrated and apparent intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, epilepsy, and postnatal growth deficiency. Furthermore, in Drosophila, knockdown of sulfateless, the NDST ortholog, impairs long-term memory, highlighting its function in cognition. Our data confirm NDST1 mutations as a cause of autosomal recessive intellectual disability with a distinctive phenotype, and support an important function of NDST1 in human development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Searching Nearest Potential of Children with Intellectual Disability – Dynamic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesza Ewa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the issue of the diagnosis with the use of task-support-task procedure. A theoretical model of diagnosis based on the concepts by L. S. Vygotski, R. Case, and A. Bandura was described and developed. The model was tested on a group of non-disabled preschool children, and children with mild and moderate intellectual disability who were paired up accordingly to their mental age. Each pair was given a set of developmentally adapted tasks. The tool (44 tasks was reliable and valid. The task-support-task procedure significantly affected the level of the task performance in all the children and allowed to define the scope of potential abilities, especially in the children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. Most of the task they did fell into the zone of proximal development.

  6. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Persons with Intellectual Disability in a Vegetarian Residential Care Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  7. The Influence of Anger-Arousal Level on Attribution of Hostile Intent and Problem Solving Capability in an Individual with a Mild Intellectual Disability and a History of Difficulties with Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Kenneth M. A.; Jahoda, Andrew; Espie, Colin A.; Broomfield, Niall M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that cognitive biases may play an important mediating role in aggressive outbursts from people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Essentially, some individuals may frequently perceive other people as acting towards them in a hostile fashion. This biased perception may develop through repeated…

  8. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  9. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  10. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  11. Understanding suicide and disability through three major disabling conditions: Intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Margaret J; Bergmark, Brian; Kreshover, Samantha; Elias, Eileen; Plummer, Caitlin; O'Keefe, Eileen

    2010-04-01

    Disability is not a category of disease but rather relates to the physical, sensory, cognitive, and/or mental disorders that substantially limit one or more major life activities. These functional limitations have been found to be predictive of suicide, with psychiatric comorbidities increasing the risk for suicide. Enormous gaps exist in the understanding of the relationship between disability and suicide. We reviewed the current literature addressing the prevalence of and risk factors for suicide among persons with three major disabling conditions and identify priorities for future research. We performed a literature review investigating the relationship between three major disabilities (intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis) and suicide. To ensure thorough evaluation of the available literature, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar with terms including "suicide," "disability," "intellectual disability," "spinal cord injury," "multiple sclerosis," and permutations thereof. By this method we evaluated 110 articles and included 21 in the review. Suicide rates are significantly higher among persons with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury than in the general population. A more nuanced picture of suicide rates and risk factors exists for the intellectual disability population, in which it appears that rates of suicide risk factors are higher than among the general population while suicide rates may be lower. The highest rates of suicide are reported among study populations of persons with multiple sclerosis, followed by persons with spinal cord injury, and then individuals with intellectual disability. Suicide among persons with disabilities is a complex and pressing public health concern. Urgent research priorities include (1) valid estimates of suicide rates among persons with disabilities by age cohort; (2) assessment of the predictive importance of suicide risk factors; and (3) determination of best

  12. National Disability Insurance Scheme, health, hospitals and adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A

    2018-03-01

    Preventable poor health outcomes for adults with intellectual disability in health settings have been known about for years. Subsequent analysis and the sorts of reasonable adjustments required in health and disability support settings to address these health gaps are well described, but have not really been embedded in practice in any significant way in either setting. As far as health is concerned, implementation of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS, the Scheme) affords an opportunity to recognise individual needs of people with intellectual disability to provide reasonable and necessary functional support for access to mainstream health services, to build capacity of mainstream health providers to supply services and to increase individual capacity to access services. Together these strands have potential to transform health outcomes. Success of the Scheme, however, rests on as yet incompletely defined operational interaction between NDIS and mainstream health services and inherently involves the disability sector. This interaction is especially relevant for adults with intellectual disability, known high users of hospitals and for whom hospital outcomes are particularly poor and preventable. Keys to better hospital outcomes are first, the receiving of quality person-centred healthcare from physicians and hospitals taking into account significance of intellectual disability and second, formulation of organised quality functional supports during hospitalisation. Achieving these require sophisticated engagement between consumers, the National Disability Insurance Agency, Commonwealth, State and Territory government leaders, senior hospital and disability administrators, NDIS service providers and clinicians and involves cross fertilisation of values, sharing of operational policies and procedures, determination of boundaries of fiscal responsibility for functional supports in hospital. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsook; Park, HyunJu; Ha, Yeongmi; Hwang, Won Ju

    2012-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity in children with intellectual disabilities may be a major health threat. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Korean children with intellectual disabilities aged 7-18 years who did not have specific genetic syndromes or physical disabilities. Materials and methods:…

  14. Social Inclusion and People with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigby, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social inclusion is central to disability policies internationally. The high risk of social exclusion for people with intellectual disability is compounded for those with challenging behaviour. Method: A systematic literature review examined how social inclusion of people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour has been…

  15. Promoting social inclusion through Unified Sports for youth with intellectual disabilities: a five-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, R; Dowling, S; Hassan, D; Menke, S

    2013-10-01

    Although the promotion of social inclusion through sports has received increased attention with other disadvantaged groups, this is not the case for children and adults with intellectual disability who experience marked social isolation. The study evaluated the outcomes from one sports programme with particular reference to the processes that were perceived to enhance social inclusion. The Youth Unified Sports programme of Special Olympics combines players with intellectual disabilities (called athletes) and those without intellectual disabilities (called partners) of similar skill level in the same sports teams for training and competition. Alongside the development of sporting skills, the programme offers athletes a platform to socialise with peers and to take part in the life of their community. Unified football and basketball teams from five countries--Germany, Hungary, Poland, Serbia and Ukraine--participated. Individual and group interviews were held with athletes, partners, coaches, parents and community leaders: totalling around 40 informants per country. Qualitative data analysis identified four thematic processes that were perceived by informants across all countries and the two sports to facilitate social inclusion of athletes. These were: (1) the personal development of athletes and partners; (2) the creation of inclusive and equal bonds; (3) the promotion of positive perceptions of athletes; and (4) building alliances within local communities. Unified Sports does provide a vehicle for promoting the social inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities that is theoretically credible in terms of social capital scholarship and which contains lessons for advancing social inclusion in other contexts. Nonetheless, certain limitations are identified that require further consideration to enhance athletes' social inclusion in the wider community. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  16. EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Karovska Ristovska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational policy for children with intellectual disability in Republic of Macedonia is not always consistent with the practical implications. The subject of this research was to gain an insight into the current condition of the persons with intellectual disabilities in Macedonia, before all an insight into the barriers that they are facing in their attempts to access educational information and services. This was done through conducting a qualitative (desk-top analyses of the national legislations; semi-structured interviews with parents of persons with intellectual disabilities and focus groups with relevant stakeholders and a quantitative research (quality of life research for the disabled persons. In the research a total number of 213 examinees were included. As in many other cases, and in many other countries, policy and practice are not always coherent. Legislation in the area of education in our country has to be modified and accommodated to the needs of the persons with disabilities and their parents or care-givers. The final conclusion from our research is that the persons with ID are still on the margins of society, and they lead everyday battles to prove that their needs must be taken into consideration in context of their human rights. Although awareness for the importance of the rightful treatment of this problem is not on a satisfactory level, still we can notice a shift in perception and liberation of prejudice.

  17. Physical fitness profile of elite athletes with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vliet, P; Rintala, P; Fröjd, K; Verellen, J; van Houtte, S; Daly, D J; Vanlandewijck, Y C

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile of high-performance athletes with intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with able-bodied individuals. Participants were 231 male and 82 female athletes. All evaluations were done using the EUROFIT physical fitness test. In comparison with population data, both male and female athletes with ID score better for flexibility and upper body muscle endurance, but have similar or lower values for running speed, speed of limb movement, and strength measures. Compared with age-matched physical education students, male athletes with ID score better for running speed and flexibility, and worse for strength. Female athletes with ID score not different from able-bodied individuals for flexibility, running speed, and upper body muscle endurance, but worse for strength measures. Athletes with ID also have poorer cardio respiratory endurance capacity compared with sportive peers without ID. Furthermore, male athletes have a more differentiated profile depending upon their sports discipline, compared with female athletes. It can be concluded that high-performance athletes with ID reach physical fitness levels that are equal to or lower than those of able-bodied sportive counterparts. Further research should investigate the importance of reduced muscle strength to be the limiting factor.

  18. Reported Wandering Behavior among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Catherine E.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Avila, Rosa M.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schieve, Laura A.; Pringle, Beverly; Blumberg, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize wandering, or elopement, among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. Study design Questions on wandering in the previous year were asked of parents of children with ASD with and without intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability without ASD as part of the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services. The Pathways study sample was drawn from the much larger National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs conducted in 2009-2010. Results For children with special healthcare needs diagnosed with either ASD, intellectual disability, or both, wandering or becoming lost during the previous year was reported for more than 1 in 4 children. Wandering was highest among children with ASD with intellectual disability (37.7%) followed by children with ASD without intellectual disability (32.7%), and then children with intellectual disability without ASD (23.7%), though the differences between these groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions This study affirms that wandering among children with ASD, regardless of intellectual disability status, is relatively common. However, wandering or becoming lost in the past year was also reported for many children with intellectual disability, indicating the need to broaden our understanding of this safety issue to other developmental disabilities. PMID:27157446

  19. Internalizing forms of problem behavior in school-age children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brojčin Branislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are very frequent affective symptoms often found in children with disabilities. Even the nonclinical depression or depressive mood in children are characterized by social withdrawal and decline in self-confidence, anger or auto-destructive behavior, as well as decrease in academic achievement. The objective of this research is to determine the prevalence of elevated expression of internalizing behavior in children with mild intellectual disability and to perceive elevated expression association of this form of problem behavior with chronological age, gender, IQ, speech comprehension and speech production of the participants. Subscale used to assess level of internalizing types of problem behavior, which is part of the teacher's Problem Behavior Rating Scale, of the Social Skills Rating System was applied on 120 participants with mild intellectual disability, aged from 8 to 16. Increased level of internalizing problem behavior is found in 25% of the participants, whereas statistically significant correlation is detected only between this variable and IQ. The results obtained in this study indicate the necessity for children and youth with intellectual disability who have elevated level of problem internalization to be identified, for the purpose of undertaking proper measures to eliminate or alleviate those problems. Development of preventive programs directed to reinforce the skills, necessary for resolving emotional and social problems is advised as well.

  20. Family-Peer Linkages for Children with Intellectual Disability and Children with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J; Olsen, Darren L

    2017-09-01

    Family interactions are potential contexts for children with intellectual and learning disabilities to develop skillful social behaviors needed to relate effectively with peers. This study examined problem solving interactions within families of elementary school-age children (7-11 years) with intellectual disability (n = 37), specific learning disabilities (n =48), and without disabilities (n = 22). After accounting for group differences in children's behaviors and peer acceptance, across all groups, mothers' behaviors that encouraged egalitarian problem solving predicted more engaged and skillful problem solving by the children. However, mothers' controlling, directive behaviors predicted fewer of these behaviors by the children. Fathers' behaviors had mixed associations with the children's actions, possibly because they were reactive to children's unengaged and negative behaviors. For the children, greater involvement, more facilitative behaviors, and less negativity with their families were associated with greater acceptance from their peers, supporting family-peer linkages for children at risk for peer rejection.

  1. Teaching menstrual care skills to intellectually disabled female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundağ, Sebahat; Çalbayram, Nazan Çakırer

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to teach pad replacement skills to intellectually disabled adolescent female students during their menstruation periods by demonstrating on a dummy. It may be difficult to make intellectually disabled adolescents achieve self-care during menstruation. In addition, there are difficulties experienced in explaining menstruation, such as physical changes and the practice of cleaning during this period. The study used a 'One group pretest and post-test model'. The study was performed in a special educational institution. The population consisted of 77 female students in the high school section. Calculation of a sample size was not attempted, and 54 students with no attendance issues agreed to take part in the study and were included. In this work, we found that pad replacement training significantly changed the scores of mentally disabled adolescents before and after training. Our training yielded positive results, and the population improved their skills at all stages of skill building. Training adolescents with mental disabilities helped them gain hygiene habits. Performance of these trainings occurs at the beginning of menstrual hygiene education. To achieve improved success in life, it is important that adolescents assume the responsibility of self-care and manage sustained care activity on their own. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A study of behaviour problems and psychiatric disorders among people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Myrbakk, Even

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates behaviour problems and their relationship to psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability living in the northern part of Norway, as well as the concordances between four of the most commonly used assessment instruments for psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability. A total of one hundred and eighty-one individuals with intellectual disability living in the counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark participated in the studies. ...

  3. The co-occurrence of mental disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Kerim M

    2016-03-01

    The study summarizes supportive epidemiological data regarding the true co-occurrence (comorbidity) and course of mental disorders in children with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorders (ID/IDD) across the lifespan. Published studies involving representative populations of children and adolescents with ID/IDD have demonstrated a three to four-fold increase in prevalence of co-occurring mental disorders. The effect of age, sex, and severity (mild, moderate, severe, and profound) and socioeconomic status on prevalence is currently not clearly understood. To date there are no prevalence estimates of co-occurring mental disorders in youth identified using the new DSM-5 (and proposed ICD-11) definition of ID/IDD using measures of intellectual functions and deficits in adaptive functioning with various severity levels defined on the basis of adaptive functioning, and not intellectual quotient scores. The true relationship between two forms of morbidity remains complex and causal relationships that may be true for one disorder may not apply to another. The new conceptualization of ID/IDD offers a developmentally better informed psychobiological approach that can help distinguish co-occurrence of mental disorders within the neurodevelopmental section with onset during the developmental period as well as the later onset of other mental disorders.

  4. Children With Intellectual Disability and Hospice Utilization: The Moderating Effect of Residential Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C

    2017-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability commonly lack access to pediatric hospice care services. Residential care may be a critical component in providing access to hospice care for children with intellectual disability. This research tested whether residential care intensifies the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization (ie, hospice enrollment, hospice length of stay), while controlling for demographic characteristics. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted using 2008 to 2010 California Medicaid claims data. The odds of children with intellectual disability in residential care enrolling in hospice care were 3 times higher than their counterparts in their last year of life, when controlling for demographics. Residential care promoted hospice enrollment among children with intellectual disability. The interaction between intellectual disability and residential care was not related to hospice length of stay. Residential care did not attenuate or intensify the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice length of stay. The findings highlight the important role of residential care in facilitating hospice enrollment for children with intellectual disability. More research is needed to understand the capability of residential care staff to identify children with intellectual disability earlier in their end-of-life trajectory and initiate longer hospice length of stays.

  5. Do individuals with intellectual disability have a lower peak heart rate and maximal oxygen uptake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa Irena Maria; Baynard, Tracy

    2017-12-12

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have very low physical activity and low peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ), potentially explained by physiologically lower peak heart rates (HR peak ). The present authors performed a retrospective analysis of a large data set of individuals with intellectual disability (n = 100), with Down syndrome (DS) (n = 48) and without intellectual disability (n = 224) using multiple linear regression analyses, to determine if individuals with intellectual disability exhibit lower HR peak and VO 2peak than individuals without intellectual disability, controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Individuals with intellectual disability on average have significantly lower HR peak and VO 2peak than individuals without intellectual disability, even when controlling VO 2peak for the lower HR peak . This study suggests potential physiological differences in individuals with intellectual disability and warrants further investigation to determine their relevance to physical activity promotion and exercise testing in individuals with intellectual disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Intellectual disability and patient activation after release from prison: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J T; Cumming, C; van Dooren, K; Lennox, N G; Alati, R; Spittal, M J; Brophy, L; Preen, D B; Kinner, S A

    2017-10-01

    Intellectual disability and patient activation may be important drivers of inequities in health service access and health outcomes for people with intellectual disability transitioning from prison to the community. We assessed the association between intellectual disability and patient activation after prison release and examined whether this association varied, depending on whether intellectual disability was identified prior to prison release. Overall, 936 prisoners were screened for intellectual disability by using the Hayes Ability Screening Index and completed the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) within 6 weeks of prison release and again at 1, 3 and 6 months post-release. We estimated the association between intellectual disability status and PAM scores by using a multilevel linear model, adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioural, health and criminogenic factors. We used propensity score matching to estimate the impact of being identified with intellectual disability prior to release from prison on the change in mean PAM score after prison release. Compared with those who screened negative for intellectual disability, ex-prisoners who screened positive, both with and without prior identification of intellectual disability, had significantly decreased mean PAM scores [(B = -4.3; 95% CI: -6.3, -2.4) and (B = -4.5; 95% CI: -6.8, -2.3), respectively] over 6 months of follow-up. Among those who reported being identified with intellectual disability prior to release from prison, a significant increase in PAM score at the 6-month follow-up interview (B = 5.89; 95% CI: 2.35, 9.42; P = 0.001) was attributable to being identified with intellectual disability prior to release. Ex-prisoners screening positive for possible intellectual disability have decreased patient activation for at least 6 months after release from prison. However, individuals whose possible intellectual disability is unidentified appear to be particularly vulnerable. Incarceration is a

  7. 76 FR 68486 - President's Committee for People With Intellectual Disabilities: Committee Meeting via Conference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...) should notify Genevieve Swift, PCPID Executive Administrative Assistant, at Edith.Swift@acf.hhs.gov , or... Taylor Roach, Senior Advisor, President's Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities, The...

  8. Are we ignoring the problem of sleep disorder in children with intellectual disabilities?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCrosain, A M

    2009-12-01

    Sleep problems are more common amongst children with intellectual disability than other children. The implications for families, teachers and classmates, as well as the children themselves, are profound.

  9. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners with intellectual disabilities: analysis of prison survey data for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassiotis, Angela; Gazizova, Dina; Akinlonu, Leah; Bebbington, Paul; Meltzer, Howard; Strydom, Andre

    2011-08-01

    A substantial number of prisoners have intellectual disabilities. We analysed data on a sample drawn from all prisons in England and Wales. Intellectual disability was defined as Quick Test scores equivalent to an IQ of ≤65. We found a significantly higher prevalence of probable psychosis, attempted suicide and cannabis use in prisoners with intellectual disabilities. Presence of intellectual disability was twice as likely to be associated with probable psychosis but the relationship was fully mediated by self-rated health status. It is important to identify this group as early as possible in order to provide timely interventions to cope in adverse environments and manage substance misuse.

  10. Does visual impairment lead to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, H M; Sjoukes, L; Koot, H M; Kooijman, A C

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with observant-based questionnaires, prior to expert assessment of visual function. With linear regression analysis the percentage of variance, explained by levels of visual function, was calculated for the total population and per ID level. A total of 107/269 participants were visually impaired or blind (WHO criteria). On top of the decrease by ID visual impairment significantly decreased daily living skills, communication & language, recognition/communication. Visual impairment did not cause more self-absorbed and withdrawn behaviour or anxiety. Peculiar looking habits correlated with visual impairment and not with ID. In the groups with moderate and severe ID this effect seems stronger than in the group with profound ID. Although ID alone impairs daily functioning, visual impairment diminishes the daily functioning even more. Timely detection and treatment or rehabilitation of visual impairment may positively influence daily functioning, language development, initiative and persistence, social skills, communication skills and insecure movement.

  11. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-03-01

    This is the first of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The article reports and critically discusses the findings in the context of the policy and service delivery discourses of person-centredness, inclusion, choice and independence. Arguably, RNIDs are the profession who most frequently encounter people with an intellectual disability and communication impairment. The results suggest that the communication studied is both complicated and multifaceted. An overarching category of 'familiarity/knowing the person' encompasses discrete but related themes and subthemes that explain the process: the RNID knowing the service-user; the RNID/service-user relationship; and the value of experience. People with an intellectual disability, their families and disability services are facing a time of great change, and RNIDs will have a crucial role in supporting this transition.

  12. Sibling Caregivers of People With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Sociodemographic Characteristics and Material Hardship Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A; Parish, Susan L; Rosenthal, Eliana S

    2016-10-01

    In growing numbers, people with intellectual and developmental disabilities are outliving their parents, or at least their parents' ability to care for them. Consequently, adult siblings without intellectual and developmental disabilities are increasingly taking on primary caregiving responsibilities. However, adult siblings have received little study generally, and sibling caregivers have received even less. We used nationally representative data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to describe the social characteristics and material hardship levels of sibling caregivers, in comparison to the general working age adult population. This study finds moderate material hardship to be pervasive among sibling caregivers, though extreme levels of hardship are possibly being abated somewhat through public benefit programs. Implications for greater service needs are discussed.

  13. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  14. Individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning in a forensic addiction treatment centre: Prevalence and clinical characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luteijn, I.; Didden, H.C.M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding substance-related problems and offending behavior in individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning (MBID; IQ 50-85) has increased over the last years, but is still limited. The present study examined differences in prevalence and clinical

  15. Meeting the support needs of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning : Still a long way to go

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, P J G; Smulders, N B M; Embregts, P J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, C

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among persons with a mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning, differences in their characteristics imply that a differentiated approach is required to meet their needs. This retrospective study examined whether the history of support/treatment programs and the

  16. Measuring physical activity with accelerometers for individuals with intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Willie; Siebert, Erin A; Yun, Joonkoo

    2017-08-01

    Multiple studies have reported differing physical activity levels for individuals with intellectual disabilities when using accelerometers. One of the potential reasons for these differences may be due to how researchers measure physical activity. Currently there is a lack of understanding on measurement protocol of accelerometers. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the current practice of using accelerometers to measure physical activity levels among individuals with intellectual disabilities. A systematic search was conducted using multiple databases including Medline (1998-2015), Sport Discus (1992-2015), Web of Science (1965-2015), and Academic Research Premier (2004-2015). Seventeen articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. There is a lack of consistent research protocols for measuring physical activity levels with accelerometers. Issues with the amount of time participants wore the accelerometer was a challenge for multiple studies. Studies that employed external strategies to maximize wear time had higher compliance rates. There is a need to establish and standardize specific accelerometer protocols for measuring physical activity levels of individuals with intellectual disabilities for higher quality and more comparable data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Affecting Placement of a Child with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of disabled children often face the question whether or not to keep the child at home or to place them. The choice between the two alternatives resides with the parents and various factors influence their decision. Several researchers have identified these factors, which include child-related parameters, family and parental attitudes, the influence of the social environment, and the external assistance provided to the family. In a pilot study, we attempted to isolate the main factors involved in the parental decision either to keep the child at home or place the child by examining a sample comprised of 50 parents of children suffering severe intellectual disability studying in a special education school and 48 parents of adults with intellectual disability working in sheltered workshops. Each parent filled out a questionnaire used in a study in the United States and results of the research indicated parental-related factors as the dominant factors that delayed the placement of their child in residential care; guilt feelings were the main factor.

  18. A study about siblings in the face of intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lizasoain

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that siblings of a person with intellectual disabilities can present problems of identification and socialization, the need for compensation, early adoption of large responsibilities, feelings of abandonment, guilt, shame or sadness. Nevertheless, if the needs of these brothers and sisters are facing, disability can become a source of personal and family enrichment. This article presents the initial conclusions drawn after a series of personal interviews conducted with siblings of students in a special education school. Awareness of the issue leads us to approach this study with the aim of providing guidelines of intervention to help siblings to minimize the potential negative impact of having a brother or sister with intellectual disabilities, and facilitate the development of attitudes and behaviours that enable them to face stressful situations in a constructive manner. Thanks to the direct experience of those who have been confronted with this situation, is issued to prevent psychosocial problems associated with having a brother or sister with these features.

  19. Impact of Oral Health Behaviors on Dental Caries in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC. The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3, 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0. The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC.

  20. How Adults With an Intellectual Disability Experience Bereavement and Grief: A Qualitative Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    McRitchie, Robyn; McKenzie, Karen; Quayle, Ethel; Harlin, Margaret; Neumann, Katja

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of bereavement of 13 adults with an intellectual disability and found that their experiences could be situated within the concept of disenfranchised grief. The latter mediated participants' meaning making of the grieving process illustrated in the themes of intra- and interpersonal bereavement experiences, core beliefs about life and death, level of inclusion, and maintaining a continuing relationship with the deceased. The results suggest...

  1. 77 FR 43335 - Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities; Agency Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities; Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Financial Status Reporting Form for State Councils on Developmental Disabilities AGENCY... hours per Total burden respondents respondent response hours Financial Status Reporting Form for State...

  2. Training on intellectual disability in health sciences: the European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Heyler, Carla; Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Veenstra, Marja Y.; García-Ibáñez, Jose; Carpenter, Sylvia; Bertelli, Marco; Munir, Kerim; Torr, Jennifer; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) has consequences at all stages of life, requires high service provision and leads to high health and societal costs. However, ID is largely disregarded as a health issue by national and international organisations, as are training in ID and in the health aspects of ID at every level of the education system. Specific aim This paper aims to (1) update the current information about availability of training and education in ID and related health issues in Europe with a particular focus in mental health; and (2) to identify opportunities arising from the initial process of educational harmonization in Europe to include ID contents in health sciences curricula and professional training. Method We carried out a systematic search of scientific databases and websites, as well as policy and research reports from the European Commission, European Council and WHO. Furthermore, we contacted key international organisations related to health education and/or ID in Europe, as well as other regional institutions. Results ID modules and contents are minimal in the revised health sciences curricula and publications on ID training in Europe are equally scarce. European countries report few undergraduate and graduate training modules in ID, even in key specialties such as paediatrics. Within the health sector, ID programmes focus mainly on psychiatry and psychology. Conclusion The poor availability of ID training in health sciences is a matter of concern. However, the current European policy on training provides an opportunity to promote ID in the curricula of programmes at all levels. This strategy should address all professionals working in ID and it should increase the focus on ID relative to other developmental disorders at all stages of life. PMID:25705375

  3. Analysis of Intellectual Disability Copy Number Variants for Association With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Elliott; Kendall, Kimberley; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Legge, Sophie E; Pocklington, Andrew; Escott-Price, Valentina; MacCabe, James H; Collier, David A; Holmans, Peter; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Walters, James T R; Kirov, George

    2016-09-01

    At least 11 rare copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to be major risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ). These CNVs also increase the risk for other neurodevelopmental disorders, such as intellectual disability. It is possible that additional intellectual disability-associated CNVs increase the risk for SZ but have not yet been implicated in SZ because of previous studies being underpowered. To examine whether additional CNVs implicated in intellectual disability represent novel SZ risk loci. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data to evaluate a set of 51 CNVs implicated in intellectual disability (excluding the known SZ loci) in a large data set of patients with SZ and healthy persons serving as controls recruited in a variety of settings. We analyzed a new sample of 6934 individuals with SZ and 8751 controls and combined those data with previously published large data sets for a total of 20 403 cases of SZ and 26 628 controls. Burden analysis of CNVs implicated in intellectual disability (excluding known SZ CNVs) for association with SZ. Association of individual intellectual disability CNV loci with SZ. Of data on the 20 403 cases (6151 [30.15%] female) and 26 628 controls (14 252 [53.52%] female), 51 intellectual disability CNVs were analyzed. Collectively, intellectual disability CNVs were significantly enriched for SZ (P = 1.0 × 10-6; odds ratio [OR], 1.9 [95% CI, 1.46-2.49]). Of the 51 CNVs tested, 19 (37%) were more common in SZ cases; only 4 (8%) were more common in controls (no observations were made for the remaining 28 [55%] loci). One novel locus, deletion at 16p12.1, was significantly associated with SZ after correction for multiple testing (rate in SZ, 33 [0.16%]; rate in controls, 12 [0.05%]; corrected P = .017; OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.61-7.05), and 2 loci reached nominal levels of significance (deletions at 2q11.2: 6 [0.03%] vs 1 [0.004%]; OR, 9.3; 95% CI, 1.03-447.76; corrected P > .99; and duplications

  4. A systematic review of interventions aiming to improve involvement in physical activity among adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Katie; van Dooren, Kate; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nick; Ware, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Evidence suggests that most adults with intellectual disability do not participate in sufficient amounts of physical activity (PA). A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies that reported an intervention aiming to improve PA levels of adults with intellectual disability was conducted. Keywords related to intellectual disability and physical activity were used to search relevant databases. Studies were excluded if they did not measure PA as an outcome for adults with intellectual disability, were non-English, and were not peer-reviewed. All relevant studies were included in the review regardless of methodological quality and design. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. These included health education or health promotion programs with PA, nutrition, and weight loss components. The quality of studies included in this review was generally poor. Most studies used a prepost design, sample sizes were small, and measurement tools were used that are not valid and reliable for the population assessed. PA interventions have the potential to improve the health and wellbeing of people with intellectual disability, a vulnerable group who require attention from public health practitioners and researchers. Given the health inequities that exist, public health researchers should target efforts to improve PA levels among this group.

  5. Ageing in individuals with intellectual disability: issues and concerns in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, M My; Kwan, R Yc; Lau, J L

    2018-02-01

    The increasing longevity of people with intellectual disability is testimony to the positive developments occurring in medical intervention. Nonetheless, early-onset age-related issues and concerns cause deterioration of their overall wellbeing. This paper aimed to explore the issues and concerns about individuals with intellectual disability as they age. Articles that discussed people older than 30 years with an intellectual disability and those that identified ageing health issues and concerns were included. Only studies reported in English from 1996 to 2016 were included. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct using the terms 'intellectual disability', 'ageing', 'cognitive impairment', 'health', and 'screening'. Apart from the early onset of age-related health problems, dementia is more likely to develop by the age of 40 years in individuals with intellectual disability. Geriatric services to people with intellectual disability, however, are only available for those aged 60 years and older. Cognitive instruments used for the general population are not suitable for people with intellectual disability because of floor effects. In Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities is the only validated instrument for people with intellectual disability. The use of appropriate measurement tools to monitor the progression of age-related conditions in individuals with intellectual disability is of great value. Longitudinal assessment of cognition and function in people with intellectual disability is vital to enable early detection of significant deterioration. This allows for therapeutic intervention before substantial damage to the brain occurs such as dementia that hastens cognitive and functional decline.

  6. Music as the Means to Stimulate Novelty and Challenge Seeking in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chong Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine whether challenge seeking behaviour could be increased by stimulating persons with intellectual disability with music. The intention was also to evaluate whether the participants would attempt to seek challenges when they felt bored with a music experience. Method: Thirty adolescents and young adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability were randomly selected to take part in a repeated-measure experimental design, under three different conditions. In the first condition, the participants were provided adequate challenges through teaching fundamental musical skills. In the second condition, no optimal challenge was provided, and in the third condition, using special strategies, the participants were stimulated to look for novelty and challenge through involvement in creative musical tasks. Level of innovation, as an index of challenge seeking, was measured during the 8 minutes of free choice interval at the end of each condition. Results: Using Friedman’s ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the findings showed that the low and statistically similar levels of challenge seeking behaviour in conditions 1 and 2 significantly increased to a high level in condition 3. It confirmed that participants with intellectual disability are capable of demonstrating challenge seeking behaviour if they are stimulated to do so. The results also confirmed that the tendency to demonstrate challenge seeking behaviour during a boring musical situation was low.

  7. A feasibility study of behavioural activation for depressive symptoms in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, A; Melville, C A; Pert, C; Cooper, S-A; Lynn, H; Williams, C; Davidson, C

    2015-11-01

    Important work has been carried out adapting cognitive behavioural therapy for people with intellectual disabilities. However, there is a lack of alternative psychological therapies available for people with intellectual disabilities and emotional difficulties. Behavioural activation for depression is less reliant on verbal communication and focuses on increasing purposeful activity and reducing avoidance. This feasibility study involved the development and piloting of an adapted manual of behavioural activation for people with intellectual disabilities. The intervention consisted of 10-12 sessions and a key adaptation was that the therapist worked with the clients alongside a significant other in their life, either a paid carer or family member. Baseline, post-intervention (3 months after entering the study) and 6-month quantitative follow-up data were obtained. Primary outcome data were gathered, concerning depressive symptoms, participants' levels of activity and general well-being. Twenty-three adults with intellectual disabilities with symptoms of depression were recruited from specialist health services. In terms of acceptability, the behavioural activation intervention was well received and only two individuals dropped out, with a further two lost to follow-up. The main measures of depression appeared to be sensitive to change. Pre- to post-intervention data showed a significant reduction in self-report of depressive symptoms with a strong effect size (r = 0.78), that was maintained at follow-up (r = 0.86). Positive change was also obtained for informant reports of depressive symptoms from pre- to post-intervention, with a strong effect size (r = 0.7). Once again, this positive change was maintained at follow-up (r = 0.72). The study suggested that behavioural activation may be a feasible and worthwhile approach to tackling depression in people with intellectual disabilities. However, a randomised controlled trial would be required to establish its

  8. Psychological correlates of formal carers of people with intellectual disability: a Portuguese sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Daily work with people with mental disabilities is extremely demanding, both physically and psychologically. This study aims to characterize different workers of institutions that deliver care to people with intellectual disabilities regarding their stress vulnerability, personality type, coping strategies and psychopathological symptoms and explore associations between these variables and some sociodemographic and professionals variables. Methods: 68 professionals from institutions that work with people with mental disabilities, aged between 19 to 62 years (M = 36.3, SD = 11.65, answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the 23-Stress Vulnerability Questionnaire (23-QVS, the Eysenck Personality Inventory-12 (EPI-12, the Brief Cope, and the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI. Results: In this sample of workers, higher levels of stress vulnerability were associated with higher levels of neuroticism and of psychopathological symptoms. Women presented higher levels of somatization, younger professionals and with less education were more vulnerable to stress. Work overload was associated to stress vulnerability and to psychopathological symptoms. Conclusions: This study confirms that workers of institutions that receive people with intellectual disabilities present higher levels of stress vulnerability and higher risk of developing psychopathological symptoms. It is urgent to implement intervention measures (preventive and/or therapeutic to relieve these professionals stress, improving their mental health. It seems that workers with higher levels of neuroticism might benefit more from these interventions.

  9. The Intersection of Intellectual Disability and Dementia: Report of The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P

    2017-11-02

    An International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia, held in Glasgow, Scotland (October 13-14, 2016), drew individuals and representatives of numerous international and national organizations and universities with a stake in issues affecting adults with intellectual disability (ID) affected by dementia. A discussion-based consensus process was used to examine and produce a series of topical reports examining three main conceptual areas: (a) human rights and personal resources (applications of the Convention for Rights of People with Disabilities and human rights to societal inclusion, and perspectives of persons with ID), (b) individualized services and clinical supports (advancing and advanced dementia, post-diagnostic supports, community supports and services, dementia-capable care practice, and end-of-life care practices), and (c) advocacy, public impact, family caregiver issues (nomenclature/terminology, inclusion of persons with ID in national plans, and family caregiver issues). Outcomes included recommendations incorporated into a series of publications and topical summary bulletins designed to be international resources, practice guidelines, and the impetus for planning and advocacy with, and on behalf of, people with ID affected by dementia, as well as their families. The general themes of the conceptual areas are discussed and the main recommendations are associated with three primary concerns. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Modification of motivational interviewing for use with people with mild intellectual disability and challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frielink, Noud; Embregts, Petri

    2013-12-01

    Motivational interviewing is a promising method to increase treatment motivation for people with mild intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. The purpose of the present study was to identify how professionals could adapt motivational interviewing techniques for use with clients. We conducted semistructured qualitative interviews and focus groups with 26 clients, parents, and professionals. A general inductive approach led to the identification of multiple core themes. The authors recommend several modifications to accommodate motivational interviewing for use with clients: adapt to language level, adjust to cognitive abilities, and control for social desirability of responding. In addition, certain characteristics of professionals were also found to be critical for effective motivational interviewing: trustworthiness, engagement, acceptance, empathy, and honesty. Concrete recommendations for the adaptation of the motivational interviewing techniques for use with people with mild intellectual disability and challenging behaviour are identified. Certain characteristics of professionals are also critical for maximising the treatment motivation of clients.

  11. Use of pesticides and intellectual disabilities in local school students. Provincia of Talca, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Muñoz Q

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the relationship between municipal schools located very close to farms where pesticides are used and the presence of intellectual disabilities in their students. Methodology: this is an exploratory ecological study. Secondary data obtained from school integration programs in the province of Talca were used, and the proximity between schools and farms were also determined. Besides that, rural/urban and socioeconomic level variables were considered. Results: a higher proportion of students with intellectual disabilities from rural schools of low socioeconomic status located very close to farms where pesticides are used was identified with a p < 0.05. Discussion: an investigation related to the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive difficulties among students by means of biomarkers used to determine the effect of pesticides on learning is suggested, thus developing an effective prevention and control of pesticide use.

  12. Perspectives of Employees with Intellectual Disabilities on Themes Relevant to Their Job Satisfaction. An Explorative Study using Photovoice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.; Janssen, C.G.C.; Kef, S.; Meininger, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study explored the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on themes relevant to their job satisfaction in integrated and sheltered employment. Method: The photovoice method was used. Nine participants with moderate to mild intellectual disabilities, working in

  13. The Development of Research Skills in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability in Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michelle F.; Moni, Karen B.; Cuskelly, Monica

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information about specific research constructs developed by adults with intellectual disability in undertaking research despite increasing involvement in research "with" rather than "on" these individuals. Participatory research was used with three young adults with intellectual disability to collaboratively…

  14. Enabling Access and Enhancing Comprehension of Video Content for Postsecondary Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evmenova, Anya S.; Behrmann, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a great need for new innovative tools to integrate individuals with intellectual disability into educational experiences. This multiple baseline study examined the effects of various adaptations for improving factual and inferential comprehension of non-fiction videos by six postsecondary students with intellectual disability. Video…

  15. Thematic Analysis of the Effectiveness of an Inpatient Mindfulness Group for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiran, Hatice; Holt, Rachel R.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the effectiveness of group mindfulness for people with intellectual disabilities in an assessment and treatment unit. Six participants with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The interviews focused on identifying the benefits and difficulties of using mindfulness. The…

  16. Examining Rater Effects of the TGMD-2 on Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngdeok; Park, Ilhyeok; Kang, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate rater effects on the TGMD-2 when it applied to children with intellectual disability. A total of 22 children with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. Children's performances in each of 12 subtests of the TGMD-2 were recorded via video and scored by three adapted physical activity…

  17. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  18. Self Stigma in People with Intellectual Disabilities and Courtesy Stigma in Family Carers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Afia; Hassiotis, Angela; Strydom, Andre; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    People with intellectual disability are one of the most stigmatised groups in society. Despite this, research in this area has been limited. This paper provides a review of studies examining self stigma in people with intellectual disability, and courtesy and affiliate stigma in family carers. An electronic search of studies published between 1990…

  19. Understanding Sources of Knowledge for Coaches of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Dany J.; Beck, Katie; Erickson, Karl; Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent research has investigated development of coaching knowledge; however, less research has investigated the development of coaches who coach athletes with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this study was to understand how coaches of athletes with intellectual disabilities gain their knowledge. Method: Forty-five Special…

  20. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  1. End-of-life decisions for people with intellectual disabilities, an interview study with patient representatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, A.M.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M. van; Proot, I.M.; Metsemakers, J.; Tuffrey-Wijne, I.; Curfs, L.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities. Aim: To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of patient representatives. Design: A qualitative study

  2. Exogenous Melatonin for Sleep Problems in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Wiebe; Smits, Marcel G.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses on melatonin has raised doubts as to whether melatonin is effective in treating sleep problems in people without intellectual disabilities. This is in contrast to results of several trials on melatonin in treating sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disabilities. To investigate the efficacy of melatonin in treating…

  3. Needs and Supports of People with Intellectual Disability and Their Families in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaseca, Rosa; Gràcia, Marta; Beltran, Francesc S.; Dalmau, Mariona; Alomar, Elisabeth; Adam-Alcocer, Ana Luisa; Simó-Pinatella, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study assesses the support needs of individuals with intellectual disability and their families in Catalonia. The present authors examine family quality of life (FQoL), identify the individual services required and assess families' perceptions of the extent to which their family member with intellectual disability and they…

  4. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability : Reactivity and Number of Days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to

  5. Early Detection of Dementia in People with an Intellectual Disability--A German Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuske, Bettina; Wolff, Christian; Gövert, Uwe; Müller, Sandra Verena

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the application of a newly developed neuropsychological assessment, the Wolfenbütteler Dementia Test for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (WDTIM) in combination with the Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (DSQIID). Methods: The instruments were evaluated in…

  6. Barriers and Enablers to Accessing Mental Health Services for People with Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Erin Louise; Fisher, Karen R.; Reppermund, Simone; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Trollor, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Background: It is well established that people with an intellectual disability have high rates of mental health problems, yet rates of uptake of services do not match need. Aim: To identify the current literature pertaining to the barriers and facilitators to access to mental health services for people with an intellectual disability. Method: A…

  7. Augmented Reality for Teaching Science Vocabulary to Postsecondary Education Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Don D.; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel E.; Bell, Sherry Mee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of an emerging technology called augmented reality to teach science vocabulary words to college students with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. One student with autism and three students with an intellectual disability participated in a multiple probe across behaviors (i.e.,…

  8. Physical Activity Benefits and Needs in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlo, Pamela; Klein, Penelope J.

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity is vital for adult individuals with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to assess critically the evidence on effectiveness of physical activity interventions for adults with intellectual disability. An electronic database search was conducted. Research was then assessed for methodological rigor, and…

  9. Concept Acquisition in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Factors Affecting the Abstraction of Prototypical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K.; Conway, Robert N.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated effects of variations in the number of instances comprising a category on concept acquisition by 31 children (ages 9-14) with mild intellectual disability and 19 controls. Intellectual disability had little effect on ability to abstract a category prototype but did reduce use of exemplar-specific information for recognition.…

  10. Attributional and Emotional Determinants of Aggression in People with Mild Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Warren; Bramston, Paul

    1997-01-01

    People (n=103) with mild intellectual disabilities responded to several scales of anger, hostility, aggression, and personality. Results were consistent with earlier studies of relationships among anger, hostility, and aggression conducted with the general population. Findings suggest that people with intellectual disabilities may benefit from…

  11. Child Welfare-Involved Youth with Intellectual Disabilities: Pathways into and Placements in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…

  12. Changes in Domain Specific Self-Perception amongst Young People with Intellectual Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the changes that occur in multidimensional self-concept of adolescents with a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, across gender and category of intellectual disability (borderline, mild, moderate) groups. A sample of 54 young people completed the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Using a three-wave longitudinal study…

  13. Staff Stress and Burnout in Intellectual Disability Services: Work Stress Theory and Its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Jason; Hastings, Richard; Noone, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Background: Staff in intellectual disability services can be at risk of stress and burnout at work. Given that staff well-being has implications for the quality of life of the staff themselves and people with intellectual disabilities themselves, this is an important research and practical topic. In this paper, we review work stress theories that…

  14. Agreement in Quality of Life Assessment between Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Spela; Skrbic, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects different aspects of functioning and quality of life, as well as the ability to independently assess the quality of life itself. The paper examines the agreement in the quality of life assessments made by adolescents with intellectual disability and their parents compared with assessments made by adolescents without…

  15. Practitioners Who Work with Parents with Intellectual Disability: Stress, Coping and Training Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Olivia; Chester, Andrea; Mildon, Robyn; Matthews, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Challenges for practitioners who work with parents with intellectual disability arise from several sources. The purpose of the current study was to identify the stressors experienced by practitioners who work with parents with intellectual disability in Australia, investigate coping strategies and explore training needs so as to inform…

  16. Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

  17. Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

  18. Mainstream Students' Attitudes to Possible Inclusion in Unified Sports with Students Who Have an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michael; Hassall, John

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools in New Zealand do not normally include students with intellectual disability in their sports programmes. This study examined regular students' attitudes towards the possible inclusion of students with an intellectual disability in an integrated sports programme within their school. Materials and Methods: A total of 170 school…

  19. Parental Explanatory Models of Child's Intellectual Disability: A Q Methodology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Montgomery, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This study with families caring for an individual with an intellectual disability in a mid-sized Indian city explored the diverse explanatory models that parents constructed of causes, preferred treatment approaches and perceived social effects of their child's intellectual disability. Seventeen mothers and three fathers rank ordered 48 disability…

  20. Barriers to Increasing the Physical Activity of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Luke; Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Walley, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity, inactivity and related morbidity and mortality is higher amongst people with intellectual disabilities than in the population in general, an issue of global concern. This research examined the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities and their carers, on exercise and activity. Materials and…

  1. Social Interaction with Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Having Fun and Hanging Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…

  2. How Do People with Intellectual Disability Describe the Experience of Falling in Love?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Jenni; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of falling in love among people with intellectual disability has not received much attention in research. In this study, seven Finnish young adults (5 women and 2 men) with mild intellectual disability (ID) were asked about their experiences of falling in love. They were interviewed with a qualitative themed interview method. The…

  3. Mortality of People with Intellectual Disabilities in England: A Comparison of Data from Existing Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Pauline; Glover, Gyles

    2015-01-01

    Background: At present, there is limited statistical information about mortality of people with intellectual disabilities in England. This study explores the data that are currently available. Materials and Methods: Four recent sources of data about mortality of people with intellectual disabilities in England are reviewed: the Confidential…

  4. Making Work Fit Care: Reconciliation Strategies Used by Working Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-yeh; Chang, Heng-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explored the experiences of working mothers with an adult child with intellectual disabilities to understand how they reconcile paid work and care responsibilities. Methods: Fifteen working mothers in Taiwan with an adult child with intellectual disabilities were interviewed, and an interpretative phenomenological approach…

  5. Older and Younger Family Caregivers of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Factors Associated with Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lee, Yue-Chune; Lin, Li-Chan; Kroger, Teppo; Chang, Ai-Ning

    2009-01-01

    A structured interview survey was conducted in a major city in Taiwan to explore and compare older and younger family primary caregivers' well being and their future caregiving plans for these adults with intellectual disability. The sample size was 315 caregivers who were 55 years or older and who cared for adults with intellectual disability and…

  6. Perceptions of the Risks and Benefits of Internet Access and Use by People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Quinn, Sally; Fullwood, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Information and communication technologies, with the Internet at the forefront, have the potential to enhance the knowledge, service, employment, development and social interactional opportunities available to people with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, people with intellectual disabilities are not accessing the Internet to…

  7. Characteristics of People with Intellectual Disabilities in a Secure U.S. Forensic Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Jill Diane; Robbins, Sharon Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Prior research examining persons with intellectual disabilities who have committed criminal offenses has focused primarily on correctional populations, or those who reside in secure forensic settings in the United Kingdom and Australia. This study describes 235 persons with intellectual, developmental, and cognitive disabilities who reside in a…

  8. Evaluation of a Social Network Intervention for People with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at enhancing the social networks of people with intellectual disabilities. This study explores the results of such an intervention. How did the clients with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and their support workers evaluate the intervention? What did they learn…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jessica S.

    2017-01-01

    Depression is common in individuals with intellectual disabilities, but evidence regarding treatment for this population is lacking. Through a systematic literature review of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals with intellectual disabilities, a total of six studies were identified that used pretest-post-test nonequivalent control…

  10. Evaluation of a social network intervention for people with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A.E.; Embregts, P.J.C.M; Hendriks, A.H.C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at enhancing the social networks of people with intellectual disabilities. This study explores the results of such an intervention. How did the clients with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and their support

  11. Young children's attitudes toward peers with intellectual disabilities: effect of the type of school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadi, Maria; Kalyva, Efrosini; Kourkoutas, Elias; Tsakiris, Vlastaris

    2012-11-01

    This study explored typically developing children's attitudes towards peers with intellectual disabilities, with special reference to the type of school they attended. Two hundred and fifty-six Greek children aged 9-10 (135 in inclusive settings) completed a questionnaire and an adjective list by Gash (European Journal of Special Needs Education 1993; 8, 106) and drew a child with intellectual disabilities, commenting also on their drawings. Typically developing children expressed overall neutral attitudes towards peers with intellectual disabilities. Type of school differentiated their attitudes, with children from inclusive settings being more positive towards peers with intellectual disabilities and choosing less negative adjectives to describe them than children from non-inclusive settings. Girls and students who expressed more positive social, emotional and overall attitudes towards students with intellectual disabilities chose more positive adjectives to describe a child with intellectual disabilities. It was also found that children from inclusive settings drew children with intellectual disabilities as more similar to a child with Down syndrome in comparison with children from non-inclusive settings. Effective inclusive practices should be promoted to foster social acceptance of students with intellectual disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Mutations in HIVEP2 are associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and dysmorphic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinfeld, Hallie; Cho, Megan T.; Retterer, Kyle; Person, Rick; Schaefer, G. Bradley; Danylchuk, Noelle; Malik, Saleem; Wechsler, Stephanie Burns; Wheeler, Patricia G.; van Gassen, Koen L I; Terhal, P. A.; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon A.; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Henderson, Lindsay B.; Chung, Wendy K.

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein 2 (HIVEP2) has been previously associated with intellectual disability and developmental delay in three patients. Here, we describe six patients with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and dysmorphic features with de novo likely

  13. Medical Students' Attitudes towards Health Care for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Travis A.; Scior, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities experience serious health inequalities (e.g. they die younger than people without intellectual disabilities). Medical students' attitudes towards health care for this population warrant empirical attention because, as tomorrow's doctors, they will affect the health inequalities that people with…

  14. Effectiveness of Mobile Skill Teaching Software for Parents of Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Serkan; Kuzu, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Mobile skill teaching software has been developed for the parents of the children with intellectual disability to be used in teaching daily life skills. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of the mobile skill teaching software developed for the use of the parents of the children with intellectual disability. In…

  15. Research Ethics and the Use of Visual Images in Research with People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Kathy; Ralph, Sue

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to encourage debate about the use of creative visual approaches in intellectual disability research and discussion about Internet publication of photographs. Image-based research with people with intellectual disability is explored within the contexts of tighter ethical regulation of social research, increased interest in…

  16. Masculinity Theory in Applied Research with Men and Boys with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan John; Shuttleworth, Russell; Stancliffe, Roger; Parmenter, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in intellectual disability have had limited theoretical engagement with mainstream theories of masculinity. In this article, the authors consider what mainstream theories of masculinity may offer to applied research on, and hence to therapeutic interventions with, men and boys with intellectual disability. An example from one research…

  17. Serum Uric Acid, Hyperuricemia and Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Chien, Wu-Chien; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the preset study were to describe the profile of serum uric acid, the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its risk factors among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 941 children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (aged 4-18 years) who participated in annual health…

  18. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with and without Intellectual Disability: An Examination across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C. L.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.; Crnic, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for mental disorders, and disruptive behaviour disorders appear to be the most prevalent. The current study is a longitudinal examination of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children with and without intellectual disability (ID) across…

  19. Promoting Health of People with Intellectual Disabilities: Views of Professionals Working in Group Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Lina; Bergström, Helena; Marttila, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Deinstitutionalisation has influenced the life situation for people with intellectual disabilities, whilst the experiences of health promotion in group homes now are limited. This study aimed to explore aspects important to consider when promoting health amongst persons with intellectual disabilities in group homes, from the perspective of…

  20. Staffs' Knowledge and Perceptions of Working with Women with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, L.; McMillan, R.; Lawson, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: There is a growing evidence of the physical and mental health inequalities in people with intellectual disability (ID) although less has been written concerning the mental health of women with ID (International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities). This is compared with the substantive literature published within…

  1. Groups for Parents with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Analysis of Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Marie; Starke, Mikaela

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are often socially isolated and need support. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study is based on participant observations of a group for parents with with intellectual disabilities. Data were categorized and interpreted in the framework of social capital and symbolic interactionism.…

  2. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Intervention to Improve Task Performance for Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongil; Kwon, Miyoung

    2018-01-01

    Background: Task performance is a critical factor for learning in individuals with intellectual disabilities. This study aimed to examine mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) to improve task performance for children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: Three elementary school children with ID participated in the study. A multiple baseline…

  3. A Comparison of Two Methods for Recruiting Children with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dawn; Handley, Louise; Heald, Mary; Simkiss, Doug; Jones, Alison; Walls, Emily; Oliver, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recruitment is a widely cited barrier of representative intellectual disability research, yet it is rarely studied. This study aims to document the rates of recruiting children with intellectual disabilities using two methods and discuss the impact of such methods on sample characteristics. Methods: Questionnaire completion rates are…

  4. The Impact of Intellectual Disability, Caregiver Burden, Family Functioning, Marital Quality, and Sense of Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R.; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir

    2011-01-01

    The present article is the first to consider the impact of intellectual disability on Bedouin-Arab families' caregiver burden, family functioning, marital quality, and sense of coherence. A random sample of 300 Bedouin-Arab parents with one or more intellectually disabled children, and a control group (n = 100) completed the McMaster Family…

  5. Sources of Stress among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…

  6. Impact of Physical Activity on Obesity and Lipid Profile of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Krystyna; Zwierzchowska, Anna; Celebanska, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This study assessed overweight, obesity and lipid profiles in adults with intellectual disability and compared these metrics with their physical activity. Materials and Method: Basic somatic parameters, lipid profile and weekly physical activity were examined in 27 adults with moderate intellectual disability. Chi-square independence…

  7. Love and Resistance of Mothers with Intellectual Disability from Ethnocultural Communities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Laura; McConnell, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mothers with intellectual disability are thought to be passive, dependent and in need of protection. This study contributes to a nascent body of research that challenges this schema, revealing how women with intellectual disability who are mothers resist oppression. Methods: Narrative research methods underpinned by intersectionality…

  8. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  9. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Erik

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 800,000 persons have disabilities in Haiti, but there are no data that refer specifically to those with intellectual disabilities. Traditional fears and stigma about disability are widespread. While the constitution supports the idea that people with disabilities should have autonomy and education, there are no laws to mandate…

  10. Test Anxiety Research: Students with Vision Impairments and Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Poulomee

    2014-01-01

    There is an absence of research on test anxiety in students with disabilities although such testing is taken for granted among students without disabilities. This study investigated the test anxiety of the students in each of the two disability groups, those with vision impairments and those with intellectual disabilities who are placed in…

  11. Credibility assessment of testimonies provided by victims with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. MANZANERO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main obstacles in the way of access to justice for the victims with intellectual disability comes from the stereotypes referred to their ability to produce a statement at police legal procedures, with the consequence that some consider their statements less reliable than the rest of the victims, and others considerate their statements more reliable given their inability to create complex lies. This article reviews three of the most recent studies done by the UCM group of Psychology of Testimony, with the objective of analyzing the role of experience and intuition in the evaluation of credibility in people with intellectual disability (ID, and also it aims to prove whether the credibility analysis procedures such as Reality Monitoring (RM and Statement Validity Assessment (SVA would be valid procedures to discriminate between real and false statements within these collectives. From the results of these studies, it can be deducted that experience may not seem to be enough in order to discriminate between real and simulated victims, but analyzing the characteristics of the statements as the only indicator doesn’t seem to be enough either. As an alternative, the general procedure HELPT is proposed for the evaluation of credibility of people with ID.

  12. Human rights and intellectual disabilities in an era of 'choice'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyson, R; Cromby, J

    2013-12-01

    Efforts to uphold and promote the human rights of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are being affected by the increasing emphasis on 'choice' in the delivery of social care services. While rights presume subjects or selves to whom they apply, there is a disconnect between the subjects presumed within human rights frameworks and the variable capacities of a heterogeneous ID population. This disconnect is amplified by choice discourses which characterise current service provision based upon neoliberal ideologies. Conceptual assumptions and theoretical positions associated with human rights in relation to people with ID are critically examined. The analysis results in an argument that current conceptualisations of personhood in relation to human rights exclude people with ID. The adverse effects of this exclusion are exacerbated within services which emphasise the permissive rights associated with a neoliberal agenda of 'choice' over protective rights. In order to ensure that the human rights of people with ID are upheld, neoliberal emphases on choice need to be tempered and a more nuanced and inclusive notion of personhood in relation to universal human rights needs to be adopted. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  13. [Community trajectories of mentally ill and intellectually disabled young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reforms in the field of disability, this study documents the trajectories and mechanisms of support for young people with mental illness or intellectual disability or pervasive developmental disorders, during the teen-adult life transition period; andfactorsfostering or impeding this transition for their maintenance in an everyday environment, particularly in SESSAD (special education and home care service) and the SAMSAH/ SPAC (medico-social support for adults with disabilities/support services in social life). This study was conducted in the French department of Seine-et-Marne. It was supported by a mixed call for tenders, in which 77 respondents (professionals, families and users), and 26 organizations were consulted. The study shows that few young adults in SAMSAH/SPAC programmes are derived from SESSAD, and they encounter major difficulties living in an everyday environment, particularly during the transition period. Clinical or socio-economic factors related to the profiles of users or healthcare service organization facilitate or hinder the inclusion of young people in an everyday environment. Support for users was also often limited to followup over a suboptimal period, and was hampered by insufficient networking within the regional healthcare system. On the other hand, empowerment of users and their optimal inclusion in an everyday environment, as founding principles of the reform, constitute major action priorities for healthcare structures. Strengthening services for young people (16-25 years), including integration strategies, is recommended in order to establish an integrated network of services in the field of disability.

  14. Measuring quality in services for children with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koornneef, Erik

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the application of one particular quality measurement tool, the SERVQUAL instrument, as a potential mechanism to measure quality in services for children with disabilities Staff and family of children with an intellectual disability in two organisations providing specialist therapy and day completed an adapted SERVQUAL questionnaire. A total of 81 SERVQUAL questionnaires were distributed and 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 73 per cent). The SERVQUAL instrument can be considered as a useful diagnostic tool to identify particular strengths and areas for improvement in services for people with disabilities as the instrument lends itself for the monitoring of the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives over time. The findings also showed relatively high customer expectations and the organisations involved in this research are currently not meeting all of these high expectations as significant quality gaps were found in the areas of reliability and responsiveness. The sample size was relatively small and the measurement of quality using the SERVQUAL instrument remains a challenge, due to the conceptual and empirical difficulties. The SERVQUAL instrument is probably most be attractive to service managers and funding organisations because of its ability to identify gaps in the quality of the service. The tool had been used to measure quality in services for people with disabilities and the research has shown that this tool might be an important additional quality measurement tool for services.

  15. The relationship between physical ill-health and mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, A; Kinnear, D; Allan, L; Smiley, E; Cooper, S-A

    2018-05-01

    People with intellectual disabilities face a much greater burden and earlier onset of physical and mental ill-health than the general adult population. Physical-mental comorbidity has been shown to result in poorer outcomes in the general population, but little is known about this relationship in adults with intellectual disabilities. To identify whether physical ill-health is associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and whether the extent of physical multi-morbidity can predict the likelihood of mental ill-health. To identify any associations between types of physical ill-health and mental ill-health. A total of 1023 adults with intellectual disabilities underwent comprehensive health assessments. Binary logistic regressions were undertaken to establish any association between the independent variables: total number of physical health conditions, physical conditions by International Classification of Disease-10 chapter and specific physical health conditions; and the dependent variables: problem behaviours, mental disorders of any type. All regressions were adjusted for age, gender, level of intellectual disabilities, living arrangements, neighbourhood deprivation and Down syndrome. The extent of physical multi-morbidity was not associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities as only 0.8% of the sample had no physical conditions. Endocrine disease increased the risk of problem behaviours [odds ratio (OR): 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.47], respiratory disease reduced the risk of problem behaviours (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99) and mental ill-health of any type (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.92), and musculoskeletal disease reduced the risk of mental ill-health of any type (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.98). Ischaemic heart disease increased the risk of problem behaviours approximately threefold (OR: 3.29, 95% CI: 1.02-10.60). The extent of physical multi-morbidity in the population with intellectual

  16. Patterns of sport participation for youth with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stephanie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Weiss, Jonathan A

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about sport participation in youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current study examined sport characteristics (frequency, diversity, positive social experiences [PSE]) for youth with ASD and intellectual disability compared to youth with intellectual disability alone and explored the personal and contextual correlates of involvement. Parents (N = 409) completed an online survey, and multiple mediation analyses were used to examine the factors that explained the relationships between sport involvement in youth with ASD and intellectual disability. No significant main effects of ASD status were found for frequency or diversity, but youth with intellectual disability alone had higher scores for PSE compared to youth with ASD and intellectual disability. Sociocommunicative abilities, coach relationship and resources mediated the relationship between ASD status and PSE. A better understanding of the factors related to sport is essential for allowing families, service providers and policy makers to improve involvement for youth with ASD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Association between Education and Mortality for Adults with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Scott D

    2017-03-01

    Although the relationship between education and mortality is well documented in the general population, it has not been examined for adults with intellectual disability. Informed by fundamental cause theory, I explore the association between education and mortality in a sample of 4,241 adults with intellectual disability from the 1986-2009 National Health Interview Survey with Linked Mortality Files through 2011. Cox regression models were utilized to analyze the predictive effect of education on mortality risk while taking into account birth cohort differences. Increased education was associated with lower mortality risk for adults with intellectual disability, and this relationship strengthened in later birth cohorts who had greater access to the public education system. Comparison with a sample of 21,205 adults without intellectual disability demonstrates that the association between education and mortality risk was not as robust for adults with intellectual disability and highlights the ongoing socioeconomic challenges faced by this population.

  18. Intellectual disability, mental illness and offending behaviour: forensic cases from early twentieth-century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B D

    2010-09-01

    The history of institutional care for individuals with intellectual disability is under-researched, complex and troubling. To explore the experiences of women who may have had intellectual disability and/or mental illness and were admitted to forensic psychiatric care in early twentieth-century Ireland. All female case records at the Central Mental Hospital, Dublin from 1910 to 1948 (n = 42) were studied for evidence of possible intellectual disability and a series of five cases is presented in detail. These committals occurred in the context of adverse social conditions, over-crowding in asylums and a belief that rates of mental illness were rising. Particular challenges included diagnostic issues (especially in relation to intellectual disability), adjustment to asylum environments, mental illness and physical ill-health. The institutional experiences of individuals with intellectual disability represents an important area for further historical research, using larger and more varied forensic populations.

  19. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Roos; Benjamin, Anja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Jongeneel, Ruud

    2009-09-01

    Intellectual disability is a comorbid condition in epilepsy. People with epilepsy and intellectual disability are at high risk of developing behavioral problems. Among the many contributors to behavioral problems in people with epilepsy and intellectual disability are those of traumatic experiences. As such, behavioral problems can be seen as a reflection of these traumatic experiences. Among established trauma therapies, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an emerging treatment that is effective in adults and also seems to be effective in children. This article is a case report of EMDR in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability, in whom the EMDR children's protocol was used. The aim was to assess whether clinical trauma status significantly diminished to nonclinical status posttreatment. Change in trauma symptoms was evaluated with the Reliable Change Index (RCI). Results showed a significant decrease in trauma symptoms toward nonclinical status from pretreatment to posttreatment. EMDR consequences for epilepsy and intellectual disability are discussed.

  20. Use of an Acceptance and Mindfulnessbased Stress Management Workshop Intervention with support staff caring for individuals with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    McConachie, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Support staff working with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and challenging behaviour experience high levels of work-related stress. Preliminary theoretical and experimental research has highlighted the potential suitability of acceptance and mindfulness approaches for addressing support staff stress. This study examines the effectiveness of an acceptance and mindfulness-based stress management workshop on the levels of psychological distress and well...

  1. Using Smartphones to Help People with Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities Perform Daily Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio E. Lancioni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPeople with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and sensory impairments often fail to take initiative in starting and carrying out daily activities, with negative consequences for their occupational condition and social status. Their failure seems due to their inability to determine the right time for the activities and to remember all the activity steps.AimThis study assessed a smartphone intervention, which was designed to help eight participants (four presenting with intellectual disability and blindness and four presenting with intellectual disability and hearing impairment to independently start and carry out daily activities at appropriate times.MethodThe intervention was introduced according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. During the intervention, each participant was provided with a smartphone, which was fitted with the time schedule of his or her activities and the verbal or pictorial instructions for the single steps of those activities. When the time for an activity was reached, the participant was automatically reminded to start that activity and, thereafter, he or she was presented with the instructions for it.ResultsThe use of the smartphone intervention promoted great improvement over the baseline for all participants. That is, the participants managed to (a independently start the activities at the scheduled times and (b carry out those activities with high levels of accuracy.ConclusionA smartphone intervention, such as that used in this study, may help people with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and sensory impairments to successfully engage in daily activities.

  2. Teachers' perceptions of virtual worlds as a medium for social inclusion for adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, Susan; Molka-Danielsen, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore educators' perceptions of a virtual world Second Life TM as an environment for social interaction and social inclusion for the Norwegian adult students with intellectual disability that they supported. Five educators who supported a total of 10 adult students with intellectual disability in computer classes in community Adult Education Centres participated in individual in-depth interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content analysis. Participants were positive about Second Life although they did not perceive that it offered a successful context for social interaction or inclusion. They identified a number of benefits to using a virtual world and for students participating in virtual world research. Barriers identified included language, literacy, and technology issues along with the complexity of participating independently in a virtual world. Some people with intellectual disability can use virtual worlds but the skills required need additional research. Virtual worlds may provide a stimulating, safe, and exciting context for a range of activities but the level of support required by many people is high and consequently expensive.

  3. Contribution of Leisure Satisfaction, Acceptance Disability, and Social Relationship to Life Satisfaction among Korean Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Schilling, Mary Lou; Kim, May; Han, Areum

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature that explores the relationships among leisure satisfaction, acceptance of disability, social relationships, and life satisfaction among adults with intellectual disability from Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to examine how leisure satisfaction, disability acceptance, and social relationships are…

  4. Intellectual disability in cerebral palsy: a population-based retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan M; Meehan, Elaine M; Arnup, Sarah J; Reddihough, Dinah S

    2018-04-18

    A population-based observational study design was used to describe the epidemiology of intellectual disability in cerebral palsy (CP) in terms of clinical and neuroimaging associations, and to report the impact of intellectual disability on utilization of health services and length of survival. Population CP registry data were used to retrospectively assess the frequency of intellectual disability and strength of associations between intellectual disability and mobility, epilepsy, vision, hearing, communication, and neuroimaging patterns (n=1141). Data linkage was undertaken to assess usage of hospital inpatient and emergency department services. Survival analysis was performed in a 30-year birth cohort (n=3248). Intellectual disability, present in 45% of the cohort, was associated with non-ambulation (47% vs 8%), later walking (mean 2y 7mo vs 1y 9mo), hypotonic (8% vs 1%) or dyskinetic (9% vs 5%) CP, a quadriplegic pattern of motor impairment (42% vs 5%), epilepsy (52% vs 12%), more emergency and multi-day hospital admissions, and reduced 35-year survival (96% vs 71%). Grey matter injuries (13% vs 6%), malformations (18% vs 6%), and miscellaneous neuroimaging patterns (12% vs 4%) were more common in people with intellectual disability. Intellectual disability adds substantially to the overall medical complexity in CP and may increase health and mortality disparities. Cerebral maldevelopments and grey matter injuries are associated with higher intellectual disability rates. Health care is more 'crisis-driven' and 'reactive' in children with co-occurring intellectual disability. Length of survival is reduced in individuals with CP and co-occurring intellectual disability. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  5. 'It's our everyday life' - The perspectives of persons with intellectual disabilities in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsø, Aud Elisabeth; Hauger, Brit

    2018-01-01

    This study illuminates how adults with intellectual disabilities understand and describe their everyday life and its shortcomings when it comes to equal rights in the context of Norwegian community living. An inclusive research design, including nine persons with mild intellectual disability, two university researchers and two intellectual disability nurses from the municipality, was undertaken. An inductive thematic analysis of data identified three key themes: everyday life - context, rhythm and structure, social participation and staff - an ambiguous part of everyday life. Results show that service provision had institutional qualities; participants experienced lack of information and reduced possibilities for social inclusion and community participation like everyone else. More attention on the role of policy development, support staff and leadership, in relation to facilitating an everyday life with more user involvement, social inclusion and community participation of people needing support, is essential. Participatory, appreciative, action and reflection in workshops for persons with intellectual disabilities and support staff represent a promising approach to promote the voices and interests of persons with intellectual disabilities. Accessible abstract This article tells you about the everyday life of people with intellectual disabilities living in Norway. Nine people with intellectual disabilities worked together with two university researchers and two intellectual disability nurses in the community, in workshops. The people with intellectual disabilities liked to have their own apartment and going to work every day. They said that they wanted more social participation with friends and more participation in activities in the community, just like everyone else. They wanted to be treated with more respect by their staff. All participants in the project saw great value in working together and some of them are working together in a new project about

  6. Symbol labelling improves advantageous decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task in people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Bailey, Rebecca; Willner, Paul; Parry, Rhonwen

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities often have difficulties foregoing short-term loss for long-term gain. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been extensively adopted as a laboratory measure of this ability. In the present study, we undertook the first investigation with people with intellectual disabilities using a two-choice child version of the IGT, with measures of intellectual and executive functioning. Compared to a group of matched controls, people with intellectual disabilities performed advantageously and showed high levels of subjective awareness about the relative goodness and badness of the decks. A symbol labelling intervention, in which participants were taught to label the good and bad decks at regular intervals significantly improved advantageous decision-making to levels approximating that of controls. Factor analysis of executive functioning scores identified working memory and mental flexibility (response initiation and set shifting), with a near-significant inverse correlation between the extent to which the intervention was required and mental flexibility. These findings show, for the first time, that people with intellectual disabilities are capable of performing advantageously on the IGT and add to the growing clinical literature on decision-making. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical and spatial cognition of students with physical disabilities and mild intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Vidmar, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics has an important effect on an individual's successfulness and satisfaction in the field of education and life. Numerical and spatial cognition are of crucial importance to successfully master mathematics. If this kind of cognition is poorly developed, it represents one of the most important obstacles to achieving success in the field of mathematics. Students with mild intellectual disabilities are in a worse position already at the starting point of the educational process, as the...

  8. Systemic therapy and the social relational model of disability: enabling practices with people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Haydon-Laurelut, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Therapy has been critiqued for personalizing the political (Kitzinger, 1993). The social-relational model (Thomas, 1999) is one theoretical resource for understanding the practices of therapy through a political lens. The social model(s) have viewed therapy with suspicion. This paper highlights – using composite case examples and the authors primary therapeutic modality, systemic therapy – some systemic practices with adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) that enact a position that it is s...

  9. Health promotion in families who have children with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Švraka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability is the state of stopped or incomplete mental development which is featured by the impairment of abilities occurring at the development age and contributes to general level of intelligence, such as speech, cognitive, motor and social abilities. Disability can occur together or separately from other mental or physical disorders. 290 million people worldwide are estimated to have disabilities. Health is a core element in quality of life, but poverty, marginalization, limited access to primary health care, and lack of health promotion knowledge compromise health. Based on a research results in all nine areas of the family life quality (health, nancial status, family relations, support of other, support of services, influence of values, career, leisure and recreation, and community interaction community could influence with the permanent preventive measures on 6 concepts of family life quality: importance, possibility, initiative, achievement, stability and satisfaction. The research could be of great help for the development of comprehensive strategies for improvement of quality of life for families that have one or more members with intellectual disability. From inclusion we expect approach to individual and his/her family by the society, to take into account all their diversities, preservation and improvement of their personal physical and mental health, for optimal possible functioning, at all personal and social levels.

  10. Intellectual developmental disorders: towards a new name, definition and framework for "mental retardation/intellectual disability" in ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Reed, Geoffrey M; Vaez-Azizi, Leila M; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Martinez-Leal, Rafael; Bertelli, Marco; Adnams, Colleen; Cooray, Sherva; Deb, Shoumitro; Akoury-Dirani, Leyla; Girimaji, Satish Chandra; Katz, Gregorio; Kwok, Henry; Luckasson, Ruth; Simeonsson, Rune; Walsh, Carolyn; Munir, Kemir; Saxena, Shekhar

    2011-10-01

    Although "intellectual disability" has widely replaced the term "mental retardation", the debate as to whether this entity should be conceptualized as a health condition or as a disability has intensified as the revision of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s International Classification of Diseases (ICD) advances. Defining intellectual disability as a health condition is central to retaining it in ICD, with significant implications for health policy and access to health services. This paper presents the consensus reached to date by the WHO ICD Working Group on the Classification of Intellectual Disabilities. Literature reviews were conducted and a mixed qualitative approach was followed in a series of meetings to produce consensus-based recommendations combining prior expert knowledge and available evidence. The Working Group proposes replacing mental retardation with intellectual developmental disorders, defined as "a group of developmental conditions characterized by significant impairment of cognitive functions, which are associated with limitations of learning, adaptive behaviour and skills". The Working Group further advises that intellectual developmental disorders be incorporated in the larger grouping (parent category) of neurodevelopmental disorders, that current subcategories based on clinical severity (i.e., mild, moderate, severe, profound) be continued, and that problem behaviours be removed from the core classification structure of intellectual developmental disorders and instead described as associated features.

  11. People with an intellectual disability living in an intentional community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, M; Cumella, S

    2009-08-01

    Hospital closure programmes in England have generally sought to attain a fulfilling life for people with an intellectual disability by locating them in domestic-style housing in urban settings. Few have been placed in intentional or 'village' communities. Yet comparative studies of different housing types have found that intentional communities have better or similar outcomes for their residents than dispersed housing or residential clusters on former hospital sites. A possible explanation is the distinctive pattern of social relationships that exist in many intentional communities and the impact this has on the lives of their residents. This paper reports the results of research that explores the perceptions of people with an ID living in an intentional community and the meaning of their community to them. The research used an ethnographic approach to interview a sample of 15 residents in a large intentional community (Botton Village), which is part of the Camphill Movement. Interviews used Makaton, pictures and symbols where required. Respondents included 10 men and 5 women aged between 38 and 78 years. Length of residence in Botton Village ranged from 5 to 50 years. All lived with the families of co-workers and valued these relationships. All but one (who had retired) worked in a diverse range of employment in the village. Almost all were positive about their work. Respondents reported that they took part in both individual and communal leisure activities and all but two had a network of friends. Opportunities for friendship were enhanced by proximity to other people with an ID and a sense of personal security in the village. As in many villages and communities in society in general, these advantages were balanced by some loss of privacy. Results confirm those from earlier studies of intentional communities and suggest that positive outcomes derive from the absence of the overt subordination of residents to staff, the facilitation of friendship with other people

  12. Adapting Building Design to Access by Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Castell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 15 years, since introductionof the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA(Commonwealth Government of Australia,1992, there has been much discussionabout the extent and nature of buildingaccess for the disabled, particularly inresponse to proposed revisions to theBuilding Code of Australia (BCA and theintroduction of a Premises Standardcovering building access. Much of theargument which contributed to the twoyear delay in submitting a final version ofthese documents for government approvalrelated to the extent of access provisionsand the burden of cost. The final versionsubmitted to government by the AustralianBuilding Codes Board (ABCB (notreleased publicly appears to still containinconsistencies between the DDA and theBCA in several areas such as wayfindingand egress.In the debate preceding submission of thefinal version there appears to have beenlittle reference to access requirements forindividuals with intellectual disability (ID.This may be due to a general lack ofresearch on the topic. Consequently, thispaper uses a combination of theknowledge gained from a limited numberof previous wayfinding studies, literaturedescribing general problems faced bythose with ID and the author’s personalexperience observing others with ID tocreate a list of probable difficulties andsuggested solutions. The paperconcludes with a discussion about theassociated cost implications and benefitsin providing the required access.

  13. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION IN PERSONS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

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    Katarina Tomić1,

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers, from the theoretical point of view, the problem of diagnosing and treatment of depressive disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID, relying primarily on the results of previous researches, which stress the etiological, symptomatic, diagnostic and therapeutic specifics when it comes to depression and its correlates in this population. The interest in mental health and psychopathology of people with ID intensified during the seventh decade of the previous century, when it became clear that some cognitive and behavioral symptoms are not, as hitherto thought, only a part or a consequence of the syndrome of intellectual disability, but a sign of ongoing mental disorder. So, the idea of ''dual diagnosis'' was born, and now it provides guidelines for the growing number of studies which theoretically and empirically review different issues of mental health problems in people with ID. Likewise, the observation of syndrome groups of genetic disorders resulting in intellectual disability has led to the narrowing of the circle of genetic syndromes that carry increased risk for the onset of depression and its correlates, such as: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome. Potential diagnostic problem in people with ID, when it comes to depression, may arise from ''diagnostic overshadowing’’ of depression symptoms, which often remain hidden under abnormal behavior and adjustment disorders, especially in patients with severe forms of ID. As a possible way to overcome these problems some authors have proposed the concept of ''behavioral equivalents of depression'' or behavioral disorders that evidently can be associated with depression, such as social withdrawal, aggression, hostility, irritability, psychomotor agitation or retardation. Intensification of these forms of behavior may be a sign of developing depression, and in that sense, this view represents a useful starting point. When it comes to

  14. Postoperative adverse outcomes in intellectually disabled surgical patients: a nationwide population-based study.

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    Jui-An Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intellectually disabled patients have various comorbidities, but their risks of adverse surgical outcomes have not been examined. This study assesses pre-existing comorbidities, adjusted risks of postoperative major morbidities and mortality in intellectually disabled surgical patients. METHODS: A nationwide population-based study was conducted in patients who underwent inpatient major surgery in Taiwan between 2004 and 2007. Four controls for each patient were randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Preoperative major comorbidities, postoperative major complications and 30-day in-hospital mortality were compared between patients with and without intellectual disability. Use of medical services also was analyzed. Adjusted odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analyses with 95% confidence intervals were applied to verify intellectual disability's impact. RESULTS: Controls were compared with 3983 surgical patients with intellectual disability. Risks for postoperative major complications were increased in patients with intellectual disability, including acute renal failure (odds ratio 3.81, 95% confidence interval 2.28 to 6.37, pneumonia (odds ratio 2.01, 1.61 to 2.49, postoperative bleeding (odds ratio 1.35, 1.09 to 1.68 and septicemia (odds ratio 2.43, 1.85 to 3.21 without significant differences in overall mortality. Disability severity was positively correlated with postoperative septicemia risk. Medical service use was also significantly higher in surgical patients with intellectual disability. CONCLUSION: Intellectual disability significantly increases the risk of overall major complications after major surgery. Our findings show a need for integrated and revised protocols for postoperative management to improve care for intellectually disabled surgical patients.

  15. Co-researching with people who have intellectual disabilities: insights from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; García-Iriarte, Edurne

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive research with people with intellectual disabilities is growing internationally but with few studies examining its feasibility. In undertaking a national study exploring what life was like in Ireland for people with intellectual disabilities, a community of practice was developed involving a core group of co-researchers: five people with intellectual disabilities, four university researchers and three service support staff. An additional cadre of 15 co-researchers with intellectual disabilities was recruited to undertake data gathering and analysis with 23 focus groups involving 168 participants. The research experience was documented through oral feedback, progress reports, minutes and a project review. The key learning is documented arising from the setting up of an inclusive advisory group and implementation of each of six research steps. The study demonstrates feasibility and the added value of university co-researchers recruiting and developing skills together with co-researchers with intellectual disabilities. Topics for further research and development are identified. This paper tells you about how people with intellectual disabilities worked with a group of university researchers. Both groups were called co-researchers and together they ran 23 focus groups across Ireland. People with intellectual disabilities talked about their lives and what could make them better. They said they needed to have a good place to live; a job; enough money; relationships; and acceptance as respected citizens. The university co-researchers wrote about what it was like doing research together and how people with intellectual disabilities joined the advisory group; decided on the questions; ran focus groups; and presented findings. Together they grew into a community of researchers where the university co-researchers shared their research skills and people with intellectual disabilities shared what it was like living with a disability. They both saw great value in

  16. Solving the Raven Progressive Matrices by Adults with Intellectual Disability with/without Down Syndrome: Different Cognitive Patterns as Indicated by Eye-Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli; Lifshitz-Zehavi, Hefziba

    2012-01-01

    Raven matrices are used for assessing fluid intelligence and the intellectual level of groups with low intelligence. Our study addresses qualitative analysis of information processing in Raven matrices performance among individuals with intellectual disability with that of their typically developed (TD) counterparts. Twenty-three adults with…

  17. The assessment of static balance in children with hearing, visual and intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Klavina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance is a fundamental part of many movement tasks a child performs. Maintaining upright posture is a complex process involving multiple body parts and functional systems. Objective: This study aimed to explore the mean amplitude and velocity of the center of pressure (COP displacements during static balance tests in children with and without disabilities. Methods: Participants were 34 children (age 8.5 to 10.8 years including 6 typically developed children, 8 children with hearing, 8 children with visual and 12 children with intellectual disabilities. Static balance data were obtained in 15 s bipedal stance with eyes open and eyes closed, and also in 10 s unipedal stance. A force plate was used to collect data of COP amplitude in anterior-posterior (COPA-P, medio-lateral (COPM-L directions and COP velocity (COPV. Results: Study outcomes revealed that all subgroups presented larger COP displacement and velocity with eyes closed (p < .001. During bipedal stance with eyes open for results of COPM-L and COPV no significant differences were found between children with and without disabilities (p > .05. Children with intellectual and visual impairments presented significantly larger displacement in COPA-P and COPM-L in comparison with children with hearing impairment and without disability (p < .05. Conclusions: This study provided evidence of comparative outcomes on static stability assessment in elementary school children with and without disability. While in many test items children with disability did not demonstrate a significantly decreased level of postural control outcomes comparing to their peers without disability, the balance assessment should be used for early detection of dysfunction in children, so as to guide the application of appropriate intervention.

  18. Instructional Package of Development of Skill in Using Fine Motor of Children for Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsawang, T.

    2018-02-01

    This research has the following purposes: 1) to find the efficiency of the self-learning activity set on development of skill in using fine motor of children with intellectual disabilities., 2) to compare the abilities to use the small muscles after the study more than before the study of children with intellectual disabilities, who made study with the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use., 3) to study the satisfaction of the children with intellectual disabilities using the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use. The sample groups on the research are the children with intellectual disabilities of the special education Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Provincial Nakhon Nayok Center in the school year 2016, for 7 children. The tools used on the research consist of the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use for the children with intellectual disabilities of the special, the observation form of abilities of small muscles before and after using the activity set and the observation form of satisfaction of the children with intellectual disabilities of the special towards the self-learning activity set on development of small muscles for the children with intellectual disabilities of the special. The statistics used on the research include the percentage, mean value, standard deviation and the t-test for dependent sample. From the research, it was found that the self-learning activity set on development of small muscles use for children with intellectual disabilities of the special is efficient based on the criteria in average equal to 77.78/76.51, the educational coefficient of the student after the study higher than before the study with average points before the study equal to 55.14 and S.D. value equal to 3.72. The average points after the study equal to 68.86, S.D. value equal to 2.73, t-test value before and after the study equal to 7.94, which are different significantly on statistics at the level 0.05 and the

  19. Community members’ responses to the elective hysterectomy of an intellectually disabled girl

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    Carol Hamilton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (2007 guarantees all intellectually disabled women the right to full bodily integrity. However, non-therapeutic sterilisations continue to be proposed as a means of managing the support needs of some members of this group. The opinions of community members, and whether men and women's views differ in relation to this topic, are rarely canvassed. Yet these views are significant as what constitutes acceptable social practice is ultimately set and contested at community level. This article reviews comments posted by male and female contributors to a BBC Have Your Say website about a mother's request for a hysterectomy for her 'severely disabled' daughter. Comments suggest the majority of posters endorse the request, however a marked difference by gender in reasons for support is evident. Gender differences are also noted in remarks about the social implications of requests of this kind and in the gender of contributors who thought this topic to be unsuitable for discussion in public forum. The difficulty some posters had with comments made from a rights-based advocacy position is briefly discussed as are possible limitations involved in using rights when debating the issue of non-therapeutic sterilisation. Keywords: intellectual disability, sterilisation, gender, community, rights

  20. The Relationship between the Recognition of Facial Expressions and Self-Reported Anger in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Kate A.; Rose, John

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study aims to examine the relationship between how individuals with intellectual disabilities report their own levels of anger, and the ability of those individuals to recognize emotions. It was hypothesized that increased expression of anger would be linked to lower ability to recognize facial emotional expressions and increased…

  1. Health Gain through Screening--Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke: Developing Primary Health Care Services for People with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, M. B.; Turner, S.; Martin, D. M.; Roy, A.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 120 British adults with intellectual disability found they had higher risk factors of developing coronary heart disease and stroke than the general population. There was a greater incidence of obesity and considerably lower physical activity levels than the general population. Several also had abnormal cholesterol readings. (CR)

  2. An evidence-based Physical Activity and Fitness Programme for Ageing Adults with Intellectual Disabilities : Development, implementation and health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Schijndel-Speet (Marieke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this study, extremely low physical activity and fitness levels among older adults with intellectual disabilities were demonstrated. Although the importance of physical activity for health has been recognised in the field of people with ID, only few welldesigned studies with a

  3. Variability of Self-Regulatory Strategies in Children with Intellectual Disability and Typically Developing Children in Pretend Play Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader-Grosbois, N.; Vieillevoye, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study has examined whether or not self-regulatory strategies vary depending on pretend play situations in 40 children with intellectual disability and 40 typically developing children. Method: Their cognitive, linguistic and individual symbolic play levels were assessed in order to match the children of the two groups. During two…

  4. How Do Children With Mild Intellectual Disabilities Perceive Loneliness?

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    Kalliopi Papoutsaki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined 154 children with mild intellectual disability (MID attending special schools with regard to their reports of loneliness. Semi-structured interviews revealed that more than half of the students with MID reported feelings of loneliness. They tend to have as friends children from their neighborhood, friends of their siblings, children of their parents’ friends and from their school. Lonely children with MID tend to attribute their isolation to interpersonal deficits, lack of contact with peers and physical appearance, while one fourth cannot justify why they do not have any friends. Children with MID report that they withdraw from social interactions, engage in solitary activities and actively look for friends to cope with their feelings of loneliness and rejection, while very few resort to physical or verbal aggression. Moreover, boys and children living in smaller towns reported less feelings of loneliness than girls and children living in the capital.

  5. Prescribing psychotropic drugs to adults with an intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Salomon, Carmela; Franklin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Mental illness is common in people with intellectual disability. They may also have physical health problems which can affect their mental state. Difficulties in communication can contribute to mental health problems being overlooked. These may present with changes in behaviour. Psychological management is usually preferable to prescribing psychotropic drugs. Behavioural approaches are the most appropriate way to manage challenging behaviour. If a drug is considered, prescribers should complete a thorough diagnostic assessment, exclude physical and environmental contributions to symptoms, and consider medical comorbidities before prescribing. Where possible avoid psychotropics with the highest cardiometabolic burden. Prescribe the minimum effective dose and treatment length, and regularly monitor drug efficacy and adverse effects. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of psychotropics for challenging behaviour. They should be avoided unless the behaviour is severe and non-responsive to other treatments. PMID:27756975

  6. Intellectual disability and impact on oral health: a paired study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Prado Júnior, Raimundo Rosendo; de Sousa Lima, Kássio Rafael; de Oliveira Amaral, Heylane; Moita Neto, José Machado; Mendes, Regina Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the oral health status, the treatment needed, and the type of dental health services access of intellectually disabled (ID) subjects in Teresina, Brazil. The sample consisted of 103 ID subjects matriculated in centers for special needs people and 103 siblings. Results were analyzed using paired t-test, chi-square test, and odds ratio. ID subjects had fair (63.1%; p siblings had a good oral hygiene (n = 103 [55.3%]; p siblings. Thirty percent of ID subjects had never received dental treatment and had difficulty accessing public health services. Their treatment needs were, therefore, higher than non-ID subjects. The access to oral health services was unsatisfactory, thus it is important to implement educational and health promotion inclusion policies for people with ID. ©2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Participation Patterns of Preschool Children With Intellectual Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yafit; Fuchs, Reut

    2018-04-01

    We aim to examine the pattern of participation of children with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD) or global developmental delay (GDD) in comparison with typically developing preschoolers. In addition, to identify environmental and personal factors associated with their participation, 20 children with mild to moderate GDD or IDD, and 24 age- and gender-matched controls, aged 3 to 6 years, were assessed using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation and the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire. Significant differences were found between the groups, both for general scales of participation and for each activity area. For the IDD/GDD group, participation was significantly negatively correlated with environmental restrictions at home. For the control group, participation was correlated with demographic variables. Typically developing children participate at a higher frequency and in a more diverse range of activities compared with children with IDD/GDD. Associations between participation and contextual factors varied depending on the child's health condition.

  8. Experiences of parents of children with intellectual disabilities in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

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    Eric Badu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parents of children with intellectual disabilities could experience difficulties associated with their care. Yet, insight into individual experiences is inadequate to guide effective responses to the needs of parents and their sons and daughters with intellectual disability. This study sought to explore the experiences of parents of children with intellectual disability with the aim of making these experiences visible to guide the design and provision of support services for the parents and their children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents of children with intellectual disability between the ages of 4 and 15 years residing in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis to explore themes that describe the experiences of the parents. The study found that parents of intellectually disabled children encounter challenges looking after their children due to the negative perceptions associated with having such children. Financial costs and managing behavioral challenges of intellectually disabled children were also major sources of stressors for parents. Although informal support and assurances from professionals alleviated parental stress and gave them some hope about the future of their children, these support services seem inadequate. A more structured support programme that includes financial empowerment of the parents and recognizes the importance of early detection and intervention practices is needed.  Keywords: Intellectual disability, parents, caregivers, support services, health professionals

  9. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  10. Families' perceptions of the contribution of intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    To explore families' perceptions of the contribution of clinical nurse specialists in intellectual disability nursing in Ireland. Clinical nurse specialists roles have developed over the years and are seen as complex and multifaceted, causing confusion, frustration and controversy. 2001 saw the formal introduction of clinical nurse specialists roles in Ireland across nursing including intellectual disability. A exploratory qualitative approach using semistructured one-to-one interviews with 10 family members regarding their perceptions of the clinical nurse specialists in intellectual disability. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Burnard's framework. Ethical approval was gained and access granted by service providers. The study highlights that intellectual disability clinical nurse specialists contribute and support care deliver across a range of areas, including personal caring, supporting and empowering families, liaison, education and leadership. Clinical nurse specialists have an important role and contribution in supporting families and clients, and Ireland is in a unique position to develop knowledge regarding specialist care for people with intellectual disability that can be shared nationally and internationally. Ireland is in a unique position to develop knowledge regarding specialist care for people with intellectual disability that can be shared and adapted by other healthcare professionals in other countries that do not have a specialised intellectual disability nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effects of rehabilitation on intellectually-disabled people – a systematic review

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    Ernest J. Sechoaro

    2014-08-01

    Objective: To synthesise critically and summarise the best available evidence of the effects of rehabilitation on intellectually-disabled people. Method: Literature searches of different electronic databases and manual searches were conducted using selected keywords. Studies on the effects of rehabilitation on intellectually-disabled people were selected systematically, appraised critically for methodological quality and summarised. Results: Rehabilitation interventions indicated good outcomes with regard to intellectually-disabled people. Findings showed that people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities improved in terms of activities of daily living (ADL after rehabilitation. Improvement was noted in ADL, self-care skills, communication skills and cognitive achievements. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated positive rehabilitation effects on intellectually-disabled people. This study contributes to the comprehensive nursing care of intellectually-disabled people by endorsement of the effectiveness of rehabilitation in terms of ADL, self-care skills, communication skills and cognitive achievements. The collected evidence of this study may contribute to the education of more effective nurse practitioners involved in the daily care and rehabilitation of intellectually-disabled people.

  12. Sibling relationships in adults who have siblings with or without intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Mairéad A; Hastings, Richard P; O'Neill, Sarah; Grey, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    There is relatively little research on the relationships between adults with intellectual disability and their siblings, despite the potential importance of these relationships for either individual's psychological well-being and future care roles that might be adopted by adult siblings. In the present study, sibling relationships of adults with adult siblings with (N=63) and without (N=123) intellectual disability were explored. Contact, warmth, conflict, and rivalry were measured using questionnaires available as an on-line survey. Expressed emotion was measured using the Five Minute Speech Sample over the telephone to establish an independently coded measure of criticism from the participant towards their sibling. Overall, there were few group differences in contact and sibling relationship. There was less telephone contact in the intellectual disability group, and less reported warmth in the relationship with siblings with intellectual disability although this was mainly associated with severe/profound intellectual disability. Exploratory analyses were conducted of the correlates of sibling relationships in both the intellectual disability and control groups. These analyses revealed a small number of different associations especially for conflict, which was lower when either the participant or sibling was younger in the control group but associated with relative age in the intellectual disability group.

  13. Intellectual disability health content within nursing curriculum: An audit of what our future nurses are taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Eagleson, Claire; Turner, Beth; Salomon, Carmela; Cashin, Andrew; Iacono, Teresa; Goddard, Linda; Lennox, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability experience chronic and complex health issues, but face considerable barriers to healthcare. One such barrier is inadequate education of healthcare professionals. To establish the quantity and nature of intellectual disability content offered within Australian nursing degree curricula. A two-phase national audit of nursing curriculum content was conducted using an interview and online survey. Australian nursing schools offering pre-registration courses. Pre-registration course coordinators from 31 universities completed the Phase 1 interview on course structure. Unit coordinators and teaching staff from 15 universities in which intellectual disability content was identified completed the Phase 2 online survey. Quantity of compulsory and elective intellectual disability content offered (units and teaching time) and the nature of the content (broad categories, specific topics, and inclusive teaching) were audited using an online survey. Over half (52%) of the schools offered no intellectual disability content. For units of study that contained some auditable intellectual disability content, the area was taught on average for 3.6h per unit of study. Units were evenly distributed across the three years of study. Just three participating schools offered 50% of all units audited. Clinical assessment skills, and ethics and legal issues were most frequently taught, while human rights issues and preventative health were poorly represented. Only one nursing school involved a person with intellectual disability in content development or delivery. Despite significant unmet health needs of people with intellectual disability, there is considerable variability in the teaching of key intellectual disability content, with many gaps evident. Equipping nursing students with skills in this area is vital to building workforce capacity. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lived experiences of student nurses caring for intellectually disabled people in a public psychiatric institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Temane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caring for intellectually disabled people can be demanding for student nurses who are novices in the nursing profession. To ensure that quality nursing care is provided, student nurses should have an understanding of and a positive attitude towards intellectually disabled people. Nursing intellectually disabled people can be a challenge for the student nurses. Therefore, student nurses need to be able to deal with challenges of caring for intellectually disabled people. Objective: This article aims to explore and describe experiences of student nurses caring for intellectually disabled people in a public psychiatric institution. Design and method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Data were collected through individual in-depth phenomenological interviews, naïve sketches and field notes. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the collected data. Results were contextualised within the literature and measures to ensure trustworthiness were adhered to. Ethical principals were also applied throughout the research process. Results: Five themes emerged from the data. Student nurses experienced a profoundly unsettling impact on their whole being when caring for intellectually disabled people; they developed a sense of compassion and a new way of looking at life, and experienced a need for certain physical, mental and spiritual needs to be met. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that student nurses were challenged in caring for intellectually disabled people. However, they developed a sense of awareness that intellectually disabled people have a need to be cared for like any other person. Keywords: experiences, student nurses, caring, intellectually disabled people, public psychiatric institution

  15. What’s the Harm? Harms in Research with Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board members. We found considerable variance. For example, adults with intellectual disability see exclusion from research as more harmful, but most psychosocial harms as less significant than others. All stakeholders agree that having someone else make the participation decision is harmful. Findings provide insights into the concept of harm and ethical research with adults with intellectual disability. PMID:28095059

  16. Community Involvement of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Experiences and Perspectives on Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A

    2017-09-01

    Inclusion in the community is essential to enhancing a person's quality of life. Although people with intellectual disabilities have a desire to be more involved in activities, they experience barriers that limit their inclusion. The purpose of this study was to describe the community involvement of young adults with intellectual disability. I interviewed fourteen young adults with intellectual disability to explore their involvement in work, recreation and leisure activities. Four themes emerged from the data: vocational endeavours, leisure pursuits, social inclusion and supports. The contexts of their experiences either facilitated or hindered their community involvement. The community involvement of young adults with intellectual disability varies depending on the opportunities and supports available to them. Their inclusion in the community may be enhanced by additional transportation options, continuing education in vocational and social skills, personalized guidance from group members and environments that are welcoming to people with disabilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Is Safety in the Eye of the Beholder? Safeguards in Research With Adults With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Conroy, Nicole E; Kim, Carolyn I; LoBraico, Emily J; Prather, Ellis M; Olick, Robert S

    2016-12-01

    Human subjects research has a core commitment to participant well-being. This obligation is accentuated for once exploited populations such as adults with intellectual disability. Yet we know little about the public's views on appropriate safeguards for this population. We surveyed adults with intellectual disability, family members and friends, disability service providers, researchers, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members to compare views on safeguards. We found many points of convergence of views, particularly for decision-making and participation. One trend is that adults with intellectual disability perceive greater safety in being engaged directly in recruitment, and recruitment by specific individuals. Researchers and IRB members need to consider community views to facilitate the safe and respectful inclusion of adults with intellectual disability.

  18. Non-verbal communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; O'Connor-Fenelon, Maureen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2010-12-01

    This article critically synthesizes current literature regarding communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The unique context of communication between the intellectual disability nurse and people with intellectual disability and the review aims and strategies are outlined. Communication as a concept is explored in depth. Communication between the intellectual disability nurse and the person with an intellectual disability is then comprehensively examined in light of existing literature. Issues including knowledge of the person with intellectual disability, mismatch of communication ability, and knowledge of communication arose as predominant themes. A critical review of the importance of communication in nursing practice follows. The paucity of literature relating to intellectual disability nursing and non-verbal communication clearly indicates a need for research.

  19. Beyond Specialist Programmes: A Study of the Needs of Offenders with Intellectual Disability Requiring Psychiatric Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, W.; Florio, D.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the increased prevalence of psychiatric disorder amongst offenders with an intellectual disability (ID), there is very little known about the characteristics and needs of those with dual disability. A study of admissions to a new community forensic dual disability clinic during the first 10 months of its operation. Typically, the offenders…

  20. Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Academic Observers: Popular Methodologies and Research Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollomotz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, disability activists and scholars have developed research paradigms that aim to place (some of the) control over the research process in the hands of disabled people. This paper discusses the appropriateness of applying such paradigms to sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). It exposes to what…

  1. Dr. Tulp attends the soft machine: patient simulators, user involvement and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimens, Alex; Lewis, Robin; Brewster, Jacqui

    2012-09-01

    Simulation as a way to teach clinical skills attracts much critical attention. Its benefits, however, might be significantly reduced when the simulation model used relies exclusively on patient simulators. This is particularly true if the intended patient population for students taught is characterized by intellectual disability. Learning to care for people with intellectual disability might be better supplemented when the simulation model used incorporates input from 'real' people. If these people themselves have intellectual disabilities then the verisimilitude of the simulation will be higher and the outcomes for learners and potential patients will also be improved.

  2. AGING ADULTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES: PERSPECTIVES ON EMERGING SERVICE CONCERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. JANICKI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With improved general health status many adults with intellectual disabilities (ID are living to old age, much like other adults. The World Health Organization has recognized the needs of this older population and identified the challenges they pose for governmental ministries and non-governmental organizations charged with planning, advocacy, financing, and delivery of specialty lifecare services and rehabilitation programs. These challenges include a range of issues normally confronting older adults, such as pensioning and financial security, changes in lifestyles associated with retirement and adaptations to living arrangements and housing, modifications in daily activities and community inclusion, changing physical and sensory abilities, and greater demands for support for aging families and other carers. As older adults with ID may also be affected by latelife or age-related conditions and begin to experience secondary impairments, these challenges may be more pronounced when encountered by NGOs located in countries with developing market economies. In these instances, the onus on promoting healthy aging will fall upon national entities which are responsible for targeting people with disabilities from infancy and childhood, and providing lifelong supports for adolescents, adults, and families. Ideally, if such efforts are undertaken early, they will lead to actions that can be undertaken to promote better health as people with ID age and ensure that the latter part of their lives are experienced as ‘quality of life years.’

  3. Treatments for the challenging behaviours of adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Neal, Daniene; Kozlowski, Alison M

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview and critical assessment of common problems and best evidence practice in treatments for the challenging behaviours (CBs) of adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Commonly observed problems that present obstacles to successful treatment plans are discussed, followed by an analysis of available research on the efficacy of behavioural and pharmacological therapies. Behavioural and pharmacological interventions are most commonly used when addressing CBs in people with IDs. However, within each of these techniques, there are methods that have support in the literature for efficacy and those that do not. As clinicians, it is important to follow research so that we are engaging in best practices when developing treatment plans for CBs. One of the most consuming issues for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals who work with people who evince developmental disabilities, such as IDs, are CBs. These problems are very dangerous and are a major impediment to independent, less restrictive living. However, there is a major gap between what researchers show is effective and much of what occurs in real-world settings.

  4. Social inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities in the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shirli; Hochman, Yael

    2017-06-01

    Despite policies advocating the social inclusion of persons with disabilities in all settings that are a part of everyday life within society, individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are usually excluded from service in the military. This study examined the meaning of service in the military for individuals with ID from the perspective of various stakeholder groups. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 individuals with ID, 36 relatives, and 28 commanders. The recent model for social inclusion developed by Simplican et al. (2015) served as the basis for analyses. Findings suggest a successful social inclusion process for individuals with ID, which resulted in them feeling as an integral part and as contributing members of the military unit and of society at large. Social inclusion in the military was described with reference to two overlapping and interacting domains of interpersonal relationships and community participation. The interaction between interpersonal relationships within the military and community participation has led to positive outcomes for soldiers with ID. Recommendations are provided for the continued inclusion of individuals with ID in the military and in other everyday settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Minor Neurological Dysfunctions (MNDs in Autistic Children without Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Tripi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD require neurological evaluation to detect sensory-motor impairment. This will improve understanding of brain function in children with ASD, in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs. Methods: We compared 32 ASD children without intellectual disability (IQ ≥ 70 with 32 healthy controls. A standardized and age-specific neurological examination according to Touwen was used to detect the presence of MNDs. Particular attention was paid to severity and type of MNDs. Results: Children with ASD had significantly higher rates of MNDs compared to controls (96.9% versus 15.6%: 81.3% had simple MNDs (p < 0.0001 and 15.6% had complex MNDs (p = 0.053. The prevalence of MNDs in the ASD group was significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than controls. With respect to specific types of MNDs, children with ASD showed a wide range of fine manipulative disability, sensory deficits and choreiform dyskinesia. We also found an excess of associated movements and anomalies in coordination and balance. Conclusions: Results replicate previous findings which found delays in sensory-motor behavior in ASD pointing towards a role for prenatal, natal and neonatal risk factors in the neurodevelopmental theory of autism.

  6. Walk well: a randomised controlled trial of a walking intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Walking interventions have been shown to have a positive impact on physical activity (PA) levels, health and wellbeing for adult and older adult populations. There has been very little work carried out to explore the effectiveness of walking interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities. This paper will provide details of the Walk Well intervention, designed for adults with intellectual disabilities, and a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. Methods/design This study will adopt a RCT design, with participants allocated to the walking intervention group or a waiting list control group. The intervention consists of three PA consultations (baseline, six weeks and 12 weeks) and an individualised 12 week walking programme. A range of measures will be completed by participants at baseline, post intervention (three months from baseline) and at follow up (three months post intervention and six months from baseline). All outcome measures will be collected by a researcher who will be blinded to the study groups. The primary outcome will be steps walked per day, measured using accelerometers. Secondary outcome measures will include time spent in PA per day (across various intensity levels), time spent in sedentary behaviour per day, quality of life, self-efficacy and anthropometric measures to monitor weight change. Discussion Since there are currently no published RCTs of walking interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities, this RCT will examine if a walking intervention can successfully increase PA, health and wellbeing of adults with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN50494254 PMID:23816316

  7. Indigenous Australians, Intellectual Disability and Incarceration: A Confluence of Rights Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Brolan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reviews the health and wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians with intellectual disability in the Australian prison system through a human rights lens. There is an information gap on this group of Australian prisoners in the health and disability literature and the multi-disciplinary criminal law and human rights law literature. This article will consider the context of Indigenous imprisonment in Australia and examine the status of prisoner health in that country, as well as the status of the health and wellbeing of prisoners with intellectual disability. It will then specifically explore the health, wellbeing and impact of imprisonment on Indigenous Australians with intellectual disability, and highlight how intersectional rights deficits (including health and human rights deficits causally impact the ability of Indigenous Australians with intellectual disability to access due process, equal recognition and justice in the criminal justice and prison system. A central barrier to improving intersectional and discriminatory landscapes relating to health, human rights and justice for Indigenous Australian inmates with intellectual disability, and prisoners with intellectual disability more broadly in the Australian context, is the lack of sufficient governance and accountability mechanisms (including Indigenous-led mechanisms to enforce the operationalisation of consistent, transparent, culturally responsive, rights-based remedies.

  8. On self-identity: the process of inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities in the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shirli; Hochman, Yael

    2018-02-23

    Identity development among individuals with disabilities may depend on their being included in central institutions in society. The centrality of the military in Israeli society makes it a highly important setting for inclusion and identity development. We examined the self-identity of young adults with intellectual disabilities who serve in the "Equal in Uniform" project. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 31 individuals with intellectual disabilities. Findings showed that military service helped develop the identity of soldiers, which enhanced their self-efficacy. Participants described their participation in the military as an opportunity to take an active part in socially valued roles. Findings are discussed with reference to the effect of the project on the self-identity of individuals with intellectual disabilities. The meaning of successfully serving in socially valued roles for self-efficacy is discussed. Implications for rehabilitation Completing socially valued roles leads to greater self-efficacy, enhanced self-esteem and greater psychological well-being among individuals with intellectual disabilities. Inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities within a central community setting (specifically the military) allows them to deal with issues of identity development, as it does for other young people without intellectual disabilities. Receiving ongoing positive input from others for one's abilities and success is a conducive factor in positive identity formation.

  9. The relationship between self-regulation skills and academic success in students with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaljača Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Students with intellectual disabilities (ID have considerable difficulties in adjusting to the requirements of the academic environment. The major risk factors are: cognition deficiency, insufficiently developed adaptive skills, lower levels of self-regulation of behavior, and social and functional incompetence. The goal of this research was to establish the relationship among self-regulation skills, the level of intellectual disability, academic success, and sex in students with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. The sample included 131 students with mild and moderate ID, of both sexes, between 8 and 24 years of age. Self-Control Rating Scale (SCRS was used to assess the level of self-regulation skills. Academic success of students was expressed as the average grade at the end of the school year. A considerable interrelation was found between the level of adoption of self-regulation skills, the level of intellectual development and general academic success in students with ID. Significant influence of the participants' sex on the quality of self-regulation was found only in participants with moderate ID. Female participants had better achievements than male participants.

  10. How adults with an intellectual disability experience bereavement and grief: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRitchie, Robyn; McKenzie, Karen; Quayle, Ethel; Harlin, Margaret; Neumann, Katja

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of bereavement of 13 adults with an intellectual disability and found that their experiences could be situated within the concept of disenfranchised grief. The latter mediated participants' meaning making of the grieving process illustrated in the themes of intra- and interpersonal bereavement experiences, core beliefs about life and death, level of inclusion, and maintaining a continuing relationship with the deceased. The results suggest that participants experience bereavement and grief in a manner similar to that of the general population and suggest the need for open communication, facilitation of informed choice, and a culture of inclusion.

  11. Does visual impairment lead to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities? A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenhuis, H.M.; Sjoukes, L.; Koot, H.M.; Kooijman, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with

  12. The role of learning disability nurses in promoting cervical screening uptake in women with intellectual disabilities: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer L; Coulson, Neil S

    2014-06-01

    Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women with intellectual disabilities to access cervical screening in order to examine their role in promoting attendance and elucidate potential barriers and facilitators to uptake. Ten participants recruited from a specialist learning disability service completed a semi-structured interview and data were analysed using experiential thematic analysis. Identified individual barriers included limited health literacy, negative attitudes and beliefs and competing demands; barriers attributed to primary care professionals included time pressures, limited exposure to people with intellectual disabilities and lack of appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Attendance at cervical screening was facilitated by prolonged preparation work undertaken by learning disability nurses, helpful clinical behaviours in the primary care context and effective joint working. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The Perceptions of Professionals Toward Siblings of Individuals With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M; Lee, Chung Eun; Arnold, Catherine K; Owen, Aleksa

    2017-04-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) report struggling to navigate the adult disability service delivery system and collaborate with professionals. To date, though, it is unclear how professionals encourage sibling involvement and, accordingly, the facilitators and challenges in working with siblings. For this study, 290 professionals participated in a national web-based survey; participants answered three open-ended questions about ways to involve siblings, positive experiences with siblings, and challenges in working with siblings. Professionals reported person-level and systems-level supports to encourage sibling involvement. Also, professionals reported enjoying working with cohesive families of individuals with IDD and witnessing the benefits that siblings bring to their brothers and sisters with IDD. Challenges in working with siblings included: lack of sibling involvement, systemic barriers, and caregiving burden. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  14. Non-suicidal self-injury among children with hearing loss and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Bushra; Tariq, Amina; Rafi, Zeeshan

    2017-10-01

    To find the prevalence and to identify the predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among school-going children.. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gujrat, Gujrat Pakistan, from September 2015 to October 2016, and comprised children with intellectual disability and hearing loss. Participants were recruited from schools for special children located in Gujranwala, Jhelum and Gujrat. Multistage stratified sampling technique was used. Of the 325 children, 178(50.4%) had intellectual disability and 175(49.6%) had hearing loss. Findings indicated that the prevalence of self-injurious behaviour was higher in children with intellectual disability 48(27%) compared to their counterparts with hearing loss 3(2%). Neural network, when administered on whole data set, indicated type of disability 0.474(100%), education/training 0.99(20.9%) and access of counselling 0.114(24%) as important predictors of non-suicidal self-injury in both groups. On the other hand, the degree of disability (hearing loss 0.42[100%]; intellectual disability 0.32[100%]), education/ training (hearing loss 0.18[43%]; intellectual disability 0.27[84.5%]) and access of counselling (hearing loss 0.175[41.8%]; intellectual disability 0.256[78.7%]) were important predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among the participants, when neural network was run on the split files on the basis of disability. The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among children with intellectual disability was higher as compared to those with hearing loss.

  15. Feasibility of bioelectrical impedance analysis in persons with severe intellectual and visual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga-Top, Thamar; Waninge, Aly; van der Schans, Cees; Jager, Harriët

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body composition measurements provide importanti nformation about physical fitness and nutritional status. People with severe intellectual and visual disabilities (SIVD) have an increased risk for altered body composition. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been evidenced as a

  16. Feasibility of bioelectrical impedance analysis in persons with severe intellectual and visual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga-Top, A. M.; Waninge, A.; van der Schans, C. P.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body composition measurements provide important information about physical fitness and nutritional status. People with severe intellectual and visual disabilities (SIVD) have an increased risk for altered body composition. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has been evidenced as a

  17. Mainstream health professionals' stigmatising attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelleboer-gunnink, H.A.; Van Oorsouw, W.M.W.J.; Van Weeghel, J.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    Background Equal access to mainstream healthcare services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) still requires attention. Although recent studies suggest that health professionals hold positive attitudes towards people with ID, stigmatising attitudes may influence their efforts to serve

  18. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language,

  19. Mutations in SPATA5 Are Associated with Microcephaly, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and Hearing Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanaka, Akemi J.; Cho, Megan T.; Millan, Francisca; Juusola, Jane; Retterer, Kyle; Joshi, Charuta; Niyazov, Dmitriy; Garnica, Adolfo; Gratz, Edward; Deardorff, Matthew; Wilkins, Alisha; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Xilma; Mathews, Katherine; Panzer, Karin; Brilstra, Eva; Van Gassen, Koen L I; Volker-Touw, Catharina M L; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Sobreira, Nara; Hamosh, Ada; McKnight, Dianalee; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2015-01-01

    Using whole-exome sequencing, we have identified in ten families 14 individuals with microcephaly, developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, spasticity, seizures, sensorineural hearing loss, cortical visual impairment, and rare autosomal-recessive predicted pathogenic variants in

  20. 76 FR 29250 - President's Committee for People With Intellectual Disabilities; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Genevieve Swift, PCPID Executive Administrative Assistant, via e-mail at Edith.Swift@acf.hhs.gov , or via... contact Laverdia Taylor Roach, Director, President's Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities...