WorldWideScience

Sample records for intellectual disability children

  1. Children with intellectual disability and hospice utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Colman, Mari Beth; Meadows, John T

    2017-02-01

    Over 42,000 children die each year in the United States, including those with intellectual disability (ID). Survival is often reduced when children with intellectual disability also suffer from significant motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities. Yet, little is known about hospice care for children with intellectual disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization. Additionally, we explored whether intellectual disability combined with motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities influenced pediatric hospice utilization. Using a retrospective cohort design and data from the 2009 to 2010 California Medicaid claims files, we conducted a multivariate analysis of hospice utilization. This study shows that intellectual disability was negatively related to hospice enrollment and length of stay. We also found that when children had both intellectual disability and comorbidities, there was a positive association with enrolling in hospice care. A number of clinical implications can be drawn from the study findings that hospice and palliative care nurses use to improve their clinical practice of caring for children with ID and their families at end of life.

  2. Intellectual Disability in Children; a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasteh Goli N.*BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.

  3. Disability impact and coping in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, M Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the disability impact on parenting and caregiving is important for intervention. The present study was designed to understand the differences in perceived disability impact and related coping in mothers having children with intellectual disabilities alone compared to those having children with intellectual disabilities and additional disabilities. Accordingly, 30 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and 30 mothers of children with intellectual and additional disabilities were assessed for disability impact and coping. Group differences for disability impact were present in specific domains but not overall. Despite variations in coping pattern, both positive and negative coping strategies were observed in both groups. The results may imply that the impact of intellectual disability is so pervasive that except in certain domains mothers may not perceive the further impact of additional disabilities. Positive coping does not rule out negative coping strategies. These findings have specific relevance to service delivery in a cultural context.

  4. Foundations of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden-Fontein, E.G. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. Aims This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children

  5. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD AND MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large number of children with intellectual disabilities encounters behavioral problems or show disharmonic behavior within the family, at school and in the community. Researches show that 30-50% of persons with intellectual disabilities have some behavioral problems. The behavior of children with intellectual disabilities depends on many factors: age of the child, level of intellectual disability, cognitive potentials, level of psycho-physical development, differentiation of emotions, communicative skills, social status and conditions of the environment (in the family and the wider community where the child lives. The influence of some of these factors has been analyzed by this research. There are many ins truments (questionnaires, scales that evaluate behavior of persons with intellectual disabilities, and reveal problems that these persons have in their psychosocial development and social life. This research used the AAMD Adaptive behavior Scale (part II and Scale for evaluating behavior of the child in school by authors Bojanin, Savanovikj.

  6. Short-Term Memory Coding in Children With Intellectual Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, L.; Conners, F.

    2008-01-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and word length effects). Neither the intellectual disabilities nor MA groups showed evidence for memory coding strategies. However, children in these gr...

  7. Epilepsy in Children with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Effects of Sex, Level and Etiology of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Sinanovic, Osman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of epilepsy in children with intellectual disability. An additional goal was to determine if there were statistical differences in the occurrence of epilepsy related to the sex, level and etiology of intellectual disability of children. The sample consisted of 167 children with intellectual…

  8. A survey on awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 真二; 今野, 和夫; SHIBUYA, Shinji; KONNO, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability is an important factor for their children to make friends without a disability. A questionnare survey was used to parents of upper secondary department of special schools for students with an intellectual disability. They thought that their children had fewer opportunities to get involved with children without a disability. Many of them wished that their children ...

  9. [Psychiatric disorders and neurological comorbidity in children with intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriedt, Elke; Wiberg, Anja; Sakar, Vehbi; Noterdaeme, Michele

    2010-05-01

    This article gives an overview of the consultant child and adolescent psychiatric services in the region of Upper Bavaria (Germany). The data of 257 children and adolescents with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders were evaluated. About 14% of the children with ID in special schools or day care centers, and 40% of the children with ID in residential care showed a definite psychiatric disorder. The most frequently diagnosed disorders were adjustment disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and conduct disorders, as well as emotional problems and pervasive developmental disorders. Children with severe intellectual disability had more additional somatic disorders and were more impaired in their psychosocial functions. The results show the need for psychiatric services for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. The development and implementation of integrative and interdisciplinary models is necessary to allow for adequate medical care for these patients.

  10. Family-Peer Linkages for Children with Intellectual Disability and Children with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J; Olsen, Darren L

    2017-09-01

    Family interactions are potential contexts for children with intellectual and learning disabilities to develop skillful social behaviors needed to relate effectively with peers. This study examined problem solving interactions within families of elementary school-age children (7-11 years) with intellectual disability (n = 37), specific learning disabilities (n =48), and without disabilities (n = 22). After accounting for group differences in children's behaviors and peer acceptance, across all groups, mothers' behaviors that encouraged egalitarian problem solving predicted more engaged and skillful problem solving by the children. However, mothers' controlling, directive behaviors predicted fewer of these behaviors by the children. Fathers' behaviors had mixed associations with the children's actions, possibly because they were reactive to children's unengaged and negative behaviors. For the children, greater involvement, more facilitative behaviors, and less negativity with their families were associated with greater acceptance from their peers, supporting family-peer linkages for children at risk for peer rejection.

  11. Pragmatic skills of children and youth with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brojčin Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatic competence means the use of language in social context. Persons with intellectual disability experience numerous problems in this aspect of communication, but they are relatively pragmatically skilled in well-known situations, in which they are not subjected to significant cognitive and social requirements. The aim of this paper is to determine the level of pragmatic abilities of children and youth with mild intellectual disability and to perceive its relation to chronological age, speech comprehension, speech production, the level of intellectual functioning, gender and bilingualism of the participants. The level of pragmatic competence was tested in the sample of 120 children with mild intellectual disability, aged between 8 and 16, by using the Test of pragmatic language competence. The Clinical scales of Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological battery for children were also used. The results obtained in this research suggest that general level of achievement of children with mild intellectual disability in this domain of development is far below the expectations based on their chronological age. Significant progress appears between 12 and 14 years of age, but there are also two critical periods in their development. Important relations of pragmatic skills with speech comprehension, speech production, chronological age and intellectual level were established.

  12. Ethnic Variation in Service Utilisation among Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Method: Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified.…

  13. Exclusion of children with intellectual disabilities from regular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study investigated why teachers exclude children with intellectual disability from the regular classrooms in Nigeria. Participants were, 169 regular teachers randomly selected from Oyo and Ogun states. Questionnaire was used to collect data result revealed that 57.4% regular teachers could not cope with children with ID ...

  14. Development of physical fitness in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Smith, J.; Westendorp, M.; Visscher, C.

    BackgroundFew studies examined the development of physical fitness in children and youth with intellectual disabilities (ID), but the developmental patterns of physical fitness are largely unknown. The first aim was to examine physical fitness of primary school children with ID, aged 8-12, and

  15. Knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasielska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the knowledge about the joy in children with mild intellectual disability. The premises relating to mental functioning of these children suggest that this knowledge is poorer and less complex than the knowledge of their peers in the intellectual norm. The study used the authoring tool to measure children’s knowledge of emotions including the joy. This tool takes into account the cognitive representation of the basic emotions available in three codes: image, verbal, semantic and interconnection between the codes - perception, symbolization and conceptualization which perform the functions of perception, expression and understanding. The study included children with the intellectual norm (N = 30 and children with mild intellectual disability (N = 30. The obtained results mainly indicate the differences in how the happiness is understood by particular groups, to the detriment of children with disability. The character of the results is largely determined by the level of organization of knowledge about the joy and accompanying mental operations. The results will be discussed, among others, in the context of the adjustment of the programs of lasting increase of happiness for people with intellectual disability.

  16. READING-WRITING AND LITERACY IN CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Bortolotti Boraschi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role and learning of reading and wrinting to human development as a social practice, considering the necessary condition to reading and writing as an exercise in citizenship. Aims to reflect on the occurrence of reading-writing processes and literacy in children with intellectual disabilities. The study was conducted by means of literature, and are based on a qualitative research. The reflections made throughout the investigation brought some considerations on intellectual disability, charactering it. Allowed some notes on the processes of reading-writing and literacy. As the survey results, some thoughts were about the possible occurrence of the processes of reading-writing and literacy in intellectually disabled children, discussing how these processes can take place through pedagogical practices in classrooms common regular education, contributing to the appropriation of the world literate and active participation by such child in society.

  17. Short-term memory coding in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy

    2008-05-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and word length effects). Neither the intellectual disabilities nor MA groups showed evidence for memory coding strategies. However, children in these groups with MAs above 6 years showed significant visual similarity and word length effects, broadly consistent with an intermediate stage of dual visual and verbal coding. These results suggest that developmental progressions in memory coding strategies are independent of intellectual disabilities status and consistent with MA.

  18. Motor Performance of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…

  19. Motor performance of children with mild intellectual disability and borderline intellectual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and

  20. Are we ignoring the problem of sleep disorder in children with intellectual disabilities?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCrosain, A M

    2009-12-01

    Sleep problems are more common amongst children with intellectual disability than other children. The implications for families, teachers and classmates, as well as the children themselves, are profound.

  1. Obesity in School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of obesity in school children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the most appropriate indicators of obesity measurement. Materials and Methods: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage as measured by…

  2. Short-Term Memory Coding in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and…

  3. Verbal Working Memory in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Jongmans, M. J.; Van der Molen, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research into working memory of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) has established clear deficits. The current study examined working memory in children with mild ID (IQ 55-85) within the framework of the Baddeley model, fractionating working memory into a central executive and two slave systems, the phonological…

  4. Parenting of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Raising children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) may cause parenting stress, especially when the child with BMID has psychosocial problems. To improve support, it is important to have a better understanding of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce problems in raising

  5. LEARNING PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskinova Angelka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available School failure is one of the more complex, more difficult and unfortunately frequent problem that modern school meets. Many factors can cause school failure, such as: child development characteristics, family and school-originated factors. The purpose of the research is analysis of the specific learning problems in students with a mild intellectual disability. For our research we used ACADIA test, which contains 13 subtests for assessing the overall individual functioning. The research involved 144 students. We divided the sample into two groups, children with intellectual disability (our target group and control group. We found that generally all students with the intellectual disability have special learning problems. According to individual subtests analysis we concluded that the ability for visual association is best developed among these students while on the subtest for auditory memory they achieved worse results. With the analysis of the control group we found that 13.75% of the students have special learning problems.

  6. Stability of cognitive performance in children with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Oskar G; Fintelmann, Sylvia; Caflisch, Jon; Latal, Beatrice; Rousson, Valentin; Chaouch, Aziz

    2015-05-01

    Longitudinal studies that have examined cognitive performance in children with intellectual disability more than twice over the course of their development are scarce. We assessed population and individual stability of cognitive performance in a clinical sample of children with borderline to mild non-syndromic intellectual disability. Thirty-six children (28 males, eight females; age range 3-19y) with borderline to mild intellectual disability (Full-scale IQ [FSIQ] 50-85) of unknown origin were examined in a retrospective clinical case series using linear mixed models including at least three assessments with standardized intelligence tests. Average cognitive performance remained remarkably stable over time (high population stability, drop of only 0.38 IQ points per year, standard error=0.39, p=0.325) whereas individual stability was at best moderate (intraclass correlation of 0.58), indicating that about 60% of the residual variation in FSIQ scores can be attributed to between-child variability. Neither sex nor socio-economic status had a statistically significant impact on FSIQ. Although intellectual disability during childhood is a relatively stable phenomenon, individual stability of IQ is only moderate, likely to be caused by test-to-test reliability (e.g. level of child's cooperation, motivation, and attention). Therefore, clinical decisions and predictions should not rely on single IQ assessments, but should also consider adaptive functioning and previous developmental history. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Self-Esteem of Greek Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyrakouli, Effi; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the self-esteem of 50 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities living in central Greece and 50 similar mothers of non-disabled children. Results indicated significantly lower self-esteem for mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. The best predictor of positive maternal self-esteem in the disabled group…

  8. Predictors of Visual-Motor Integration in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Sinanovic, Osman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sex, age, level and etiology of intellectual disability on visual-motor integration in children with intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 90 children with intellectual disability between 7 and 15 years of age. Visual-motor integration was measured using the Acadia test of…

  9. Parenting of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Kleefman, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Raising children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) may cause parenting stress, especially when the child with BMID has psychosocial problems. To improve support, it is important to have a better understanding of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce problems in raising such children and of the problems these parents are dealing with. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the effectiveness of the parenting support program Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP). F...

  10. Developing Reception Competence in Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Koritnik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research paradigms which study factors that allow influencing the language development of children with mild intellectual disabilities to the greatest extent possible. Special attention is dedicated to the development of the reception competence with the use of reception didactics methods based on a relatively frequent use of less demanding non-language semiotic functions. The core of the paper presents results of an experimental case study (on a sample of five children with a mild intellectual disability over a one school year period, through which the reception competence in these children was developed with a systematic use of an adapted communication model of literary education as an experimental factor. The results have confirmed the initially set hypothesis about reception progress.

  11. Prevalence and outcomes of heart transplantation in children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Aaron; Bartlett, Heather L; Zhao, Qianqian; Smith, Jodi M

    2017-03-01

    Heart transplantation in children with intellectual disability is a controversial issue. We sought to describe the prevalence and outcomes of heart transplantation in children with intellectual disability and hypothesized that recipients with intellectual disability have comparable short-term outcomes compared to recipients without intellectual disability. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of children receiving a first heart-alone transplant in the UNOS STAR database from 2008 to 2013. Recipients with intellectual disability were compared to those without using chi-square tests. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for patient and graft survival. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between intellectual disability and graft failure and patient survival. Over the study period, 107 children with intellectual disability underwent initial heart transplantation, accounting for 8.9% of first pediatric heart transplants (total=1204). There was no difference in the incidence of acute rejection between groups in the first year after transplant. Mean functional status scores at follow-up improved in both groups after transplantation, but tended to be lower among children with intellectual disability than children without. Log-rank tests did not suggest significant differences in graft survival between those with and without intellectual disability during the first 4 years following transplantation. Children with intellectual disability constitute a significant portion of total heart transplants with short-term outcomes comparable to children without intellectual disability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Twenty-Five Year Survival of Children with Intellectual Disability in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; Nembhard, Wendy N; Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate survival up to early adulthood for children with intellectual disability and compare their risk of mortality with that of children without intellectual disability. This was a retrospective cohort study of all live births in Western Australia between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 2010. Children with an intellectual disability (n = 10 593) were identified from the Western Australian Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers Database. Vital status was determined from linkage to the Western Australian Mortality database. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates and 95% CIs were computed by level of intellectual disability. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with those without intellectual disability, children with intellectual disability had a 6-fold increased risk of mortality at 1-5 years of age (adjusted HR [aHR] = 6.0, 95%CI: 4.8, 7.6), a 12-fold increased risk at 6-10 years of age (aHR = 12.6, 95% CI: 9.0, 17.7) and a 5-fold increased risk at 11-25 years of age (aHR = 4.9, 95% CI: 3.9, 6.1). Children with severe intellectual disability were at even greater risk. No difference in survival was observed for Aboriginal children with intellectual disability compared with non-Aboriginal children with intellectual disability. Although children with intellectual disability experience higher mortality at all ages compared with those without intellectual disability, the greatest burden is for those with severe intellectual disability. However, even children with mild to moderate intellectual disability have increased risk of death compared with unaffected children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Problem solving verbal strategies in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorović Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is a process conditioned by the development and application of efficient strategies. The aim of this research is to determine the level of verbal strategic approach to problem solving in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample consists of 93 children with MID, aged between 10 and 14. Intellectual abilities of the examinees are within the defined range for mild intellectual disability (AM=60.45; SD=7.26. The examinees with evident physical, neurological, and emotional disorders were not included in the sample. The closed 20 Questions Test (20Q was used to assess the development and use of verbal strategy, where the examinee is presented with a poster containing 42 different pictures, and instructed to guess the picture selected by the examiner by asking no more than 20 closed questions. Test χ2, and Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used in statistical analysis. Research results indicate that most children with MID, aged between 10 and 14, use non-efficient strategy in solving the 20 Questions Test. Although strategic approach to problem solving is present in most children (72%, more than half of the examinees (53.5% use an inadequate strategy. Most children with MID have the ability to categorize concepts, however, they do not use it as a strategy in problem solving.

  14. Reported Wandering Behavior among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Catherine E.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Avila, Rosa M.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schieve, Laura A.; Pringle, Beverly; Blumberg, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize wandering, or elopement, among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. Study design Questions on wandering in the previous year were asked of parents of children with ASD with and without intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability without ASD as part of the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services. The Pathways study sample was drawn from the much larger National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs conducted in 2009-2010. Results For children with special healthcare needs diagnosed with either ASD, intellectual disability, or both, wandering or becoming lost during the previous year was reported for more than 1 in 4 children. Wandering was highest among children with ASD with intellectual disability (37.7%) followed by children with ASD without intellectual disability (32.7%), and then children with intellectual disability without ASD (23.7%), though the differences between these groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions This study affirms that wandering among children with ASD, regardless of intellectual disability status, is relatively common. However, wandering or becoming lost in the past year was also reported for many children with intellectual disability, indicating the need to broaden our understanding of this safety issue to other developmental disabilities. PMID:27157446

  15. Executive Function in Children with Intellectual Disability--The Effects of Sex, Level and Aetiology of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, H.; Sinanovic, O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Executive function is very important in the children's overall development. The goal of this study was to assess the executive function in children with intellectual disability (ID) through the use of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) teacher version. An additional goal was to examine the differences in…

  16. How Do Children With Mild Intellectual Disabilities Perceive Loneliness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Papoutsaki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined 154 children with mild intellectual disability (MID attending special schools with regard to their reports of loneliness. Semi-structured interviews revealed that more than half of the students with MID reported feelings of loneliness. They tend to have as friends children from their neighborhood, friends of their siblings, children of their parents’ friends and from their school. Lonely children with MID tend to attribute their isolation to interpersonal deficits, lack of contact with peers and physical appearance, while one fourth cannot justify why they do not have any friends. Children with MID report that they withdraw from social interactions, engage in solitary activities and actively look for friends to cope with their feelings of loneliness and rejection, while very few resort to physical or verbal aggression. Moreover, boys and children living in smaller towns reported less feelings of loneliness than girls and children living in the capital.

  17. Sibling Relationship Quality and Social Functioning of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J.; Purcell, Susan E.; Richardson, Shana S.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2009-01-01

    We examined sibling relationships for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and assessed implications for their social functioning. Targets (total N = 212) had either intellectual disability, a chronic illness/physical disability, or no disability. Nontarget siblings reported on relationship quality, sibling interactions were…

  18. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsook; Park, HyunJu; Ha, Yeongmi; Hwang, Won Ju

    2012-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity in children with intellectual disabilities may be a major health threat. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Korean children with intellectual disabilities aged 7-18 years who did not have specific genetic syndromes or physical disabilities. Materials and methods:…

  19. Participation Patterns of Preschool Children With Intellectual Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yafit; Fuchs, Reut

    2018-04-01

    We aim to examine the pattern of participation of children with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD) or global developmental delay (GDD) in comparison with typically developing preschoolers. In addition, to identify environmental and personal factors associated with their participation, 20 children with mild to moderate GDD or IDD, and 24 age- and gender-matched controls, aged 3 to 6 years, were assessed using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation and the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire. Significant differences were found between the groups, both for general scales of participation and for each activity area. For the IDD/GDD group, participation was significantly negatively correlated with environmental restrictions at home. For the control group, participation was correlated with demographic variables. Typically developing children participate at a higher frequency and in a more diverse range of activities compared with children with IDD/GDD. Associations between participation and contextual factors varied depending on the child's health condition.

  20. Examining Rater Effects of the TGMD-2 on Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngdeok; Park, Ilhyeok; Kang, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate rater effects on the TGMD-2 when it applied to children with intellectual disability. A total of 22 children with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. Children's performances in each of 12 subtests of the TGMD-2 were recorded via video and scored by three adapted physical activity…

  1. Children With Intellectual Disability and Hospice Utilization: The Moderating Effect of Residential Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C

    2017-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability commonly lack access to pediatric hospice care services. Residential care may be a critical component in providing access to hospice care for children with intellectual disability. This research tested whether residential care intensifies the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization (ie, hospice enrollment, hospice length of stay), while controlling for demographic characteristics. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted using 2008 to 2010 California Medicaid claims data. The odds of children with intellectual disability in residential care enrolling in hospice care were 3 times higher than their counterparts in their last year of life, when controlling for demographics. Residential care promoted hospice enrollment among children with intellectual disability. The interaction between intellectual disability and residential care was not related to hospice length of stay. Residential care did not attenuate or intensify the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice length of stay. The findings highlight the important role of residential care in facilitating hospice enrollment for children with intellectual disability. More research is needed to understand the capability of residential care staff to identify children with intellectual disability earlier in their end-of-life trajectory and initiate longer hospice length of stays.

  2. Dietary Patterns and Feeding Problems of Turkish Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Kubra; Ilik, Senay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether dietary patterns and feeding problems differ among children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and typically developing children (TDC) in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 220 (112 children with ID and 108 TDC) 7-12 aged children in Konya, Turkey. We assessed usual dietary intakes by a…

  3. Communication problems in children with autism and intellectual disability : depicting the phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, Janne Pieternella Wilhelmina

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism and intellectual disability form a particularly vulnerable group, as both disorders have a significant impact on the way and level of information processing and communication. However, children with autism and co-occurring intellectual disability are often excluded from

  4. Young children's attitudes toward peers with intellectual disabilities: effect of the type of school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadi, Maria; Kalyva, Efrosini; Kourkoutas, Elias; Tsakiris, Vlastaris

    2012-11-01

    This study explored typically developing children's attitudes towards peers with intellectual disabilities, with special reference to the type of school they attended. Two hundred and fifty-six Greek children aged 9-10 (135 in inclusive settings) completed a questionnaire and an adjective list by Gash (European Journal of Special Needs Education 1993; 8, 106) and drew a child with intellectual disabilities, commenting also on their drawings. Typically developing children expressed overall neutral attitudes towards peers with intellectual disabilities. Type of school differentiated their attitudes, with children from inclusive settings being more positive towards peers with intellectual disabilities and choosing less negative adjectives to describe them than children from non-inclusive settings. Girls and students who expressed more positive social, emotional and overall attitudes towards students with intellectual disabilities chose more positive adjectives to describe a child with intellectual disabilities. It was also found that children from inclusive settings drew children with intellectual disabilities as more similar to a child with Down syndrome in comparison with children from non-inclusive settings. Effective inclusive practices should be promoted to foster social acceptance of students with intellectual disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Serum Uric Acid, Hyperuricemia and Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Chien, Wu-Chien; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the preset study were to describe the profile of serum uric acid, the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its risk factors among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 941 children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (aged 4-18 years) who participated in annual health…

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with and without Intellectual Disability: An Examination across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C. L.; Baker, B. L.; Blacher, J.; Crnic, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for mental disorders, and disruptive behaviour disorders appear to be the most prevalent. The current study is a longitudinal examination of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children with and without intellectual disability (ID) across…

  7. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Intervention to Improve Task Performance for Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongil; Kwon, Miyoung

    2018-01-01

    Background: Task performance is a critical factor for learning in individuals with intellectual disabilities. This study aimed to examine mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) to improve task performance for children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: Three elementary school children with ID participated in the study. A multiple baseline…

  8. Sources of Stress among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…

  9. Measuring quality in services for children with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koornneef, Erik

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the application of one particular quality measurement tool, the SERVQUAL instrument, as a potential mechanism to measure quality in services for children with disabilities Staff and family of children with an intellectual disability in two organisations providing specialist therapy and day completed an adapted SERVQUAL questionnaire. A total of 81 SERVQUAL questionnaires were distributed and 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 73 per cent). The SERVQUAL instrument can be considered as a useful diagnostic tool to identify particular strengths and areas for improvement in services for people with disabilities as the instrument lends itself for the monitoring of the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives over time. The findings also showed relatively high customer expectations and the organisations involved in this research are currently not meeting all of these high expectations as significant quality gaps were found in the areas of reliability and responsiveness. The sample size was relatively small and the measurement of quality using the SERVQUAL instrument remains a challenge, due to the conceptual and empirical difficulties. The SERVQUAL instrument is probably most be attractive to service managers and funding organisations because of its ability to identify gaps in the quality of the service. The tool had been used to measure quality in services for people with disabilities and the research has shown that this tool might be an important additional quality measurement tool for services.

  10. Monitoring the prevalence of severe intellectual disability in children across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marit; Einarsson, Ingolfur; Arnaud, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to study the feasibility of creating a framework for monitoring and undertaking collaborative research on intellectual disability at the European level, based on existing databases of children with such disability.......Our aim was to study the feasibility of creating a framework for monitoring and undertaking collaborative research on intellectual disability at the European level, based on existing databases of children with such disability....

  11. Minor Neurological Dysfunctions (MNDs in Autistic Children without Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Tripi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD require neurological evaluation to detect sensory-motor impairment. This will improve understanding of brain function in children with ASD, in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs. Methods: We compared 32 ASD children without intellectual disability (IQ ≥ 70 with 32 healthy controls. A standardized and age-specific neurological examination according to Touwen was used to detect the presence of MNDs. Particular attention was paid to severity and type of MNDs. Results: Children with ASD had significantly higher rates of MNDs compared to controls (96.9% versus 15.6%: 81.3% had simple MNDs (p < 0.0001 and 15.6% had complex MNDs (p = 0.053. The prevalence of MNDs in the ASD group was significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than controls. With respect to specific types of MNDs, children with ASD showed a wide range of fine manipulative disability, sensory deficits and choreiform dyskinesia. We also found an excess of associated movements and anomalies in coordination and balance. Conclusions: Results replicate previous findings which found delays in sensory-motor behavior in ASD pointing towards a role for prenatal, natal and neonatal risk factors in the neurodevelopmental theory of autism.

  12. Experiences of parents of children with intellectual disabilities in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Badu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parents of children with intellectual disabilities could experience difficulties associated with their care. Yet, insight into individual experiences is inadequate to guide effective responses to the needs of parents and their sons and daughters with intellectual disability. This study sought to explore the experiences of parents of children with intellectual disability with the aim of making these experiences visible to guide the design and provision of support services for the parents and their children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents of children with intellectual disability between the ages of 4 and 15 years residing in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis to explore themes that describe the experiences of the parents. The study found that parents of intellectually disabled children encounter challenges looking after their children due to the negative perceptions associated with having such children. Financial costs and managing behavioral challenges of intellectually disabled children were also major sources of stressors for parents. Although informal support and assurances from professionals alleviated parental stress and gave them some hope about the future of their children, these support services seem inadequate. A more structured support programme that includes financial empowerment of the parents and recognizes the importance of early detection and intervention practices is needed.  Keywords: Intellectual disability, parents, caregivers, support services, health professionals

  13. Intellectual disability in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Alka; Martin, Joanna; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Anita

    2013-09-01

    To determine whether children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mild intellectual disability (ID) are a clinically distinct ADHD subgroup. This was a cross-sectional study comparing clinical characteristics (ADHD subtypes, total number of symptoms, and rates of common comorbidities) between children with ADHD and mild ID and those with ADHD and IQ test scores >70, and also between children with ADHD and ID and a general population sample of children with ID alone. The sample comprised a clinical sample of children with ADHD with ID (n = 97) and without ID (n = 874) and a general population sample of children with ID and without ADHD (n = 58). After correcting for multiple statistical tests, no differences were found between the 2 ADHD groups on any measure except the presence of conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses. Children with ADHD and ID had higher rates of both (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.71-3.32 and OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.69-4.28, respectively). Furthermore, children with ADHD and ID had significantly higher rates of oppositional defiant disorder (OR, 5.54; 95% CI, 2.86-10.75) and CD (OR, 13.66; 95% CI, 3.25-57.42) symptoms and a higher incidence of oppositional defiant disorder diagnoses (OR, 30.99; 95% CI, 6.38-150.39) compared with children with ID without ADHD. Children with ADHD and mild ID appear to be clinically typical of children with ADHD except for more conduct problems. This finding has implications for clinicians treating these children in terms of acknowledging the presence and impact of ADHD symptoms above and beyond ID and dealing with a comorbid CD. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Concept Acquisition in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Factors Affecting the Abstraction of Prototypical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K.; Conway, Robert N.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated effects of variations in the number of instances comprising a category on concept acquisition by 31 children (ages 9-14) with mild intellectual disability and 19 controls. Intellectual disability had little effect on ability to abstract a category prototype but did reduce use of exemplar-specific information for recognition.…

  15. A Comparison of Two Methods for Recruiting Children with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dawn; Handley, Louise; Heald, Mary; Simkiss, Doug; Jones, Alison; Walls, Emily; Oliver, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recruitment is a widely cited barrier of representative intellectual disability research, yet it is rarely studied. This study aims to document the rates of recruiting children with intellectual disabilities using two methods and discuss the impact of such methods on sample characteristics. Methods: Questionnaire completion rates are…

  16. The pros and cons of inclusive education for children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, Sanne; de Boer, Anke; van der Putten, Annette; Minnaert, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Although children with disabilities have the right to be included into the school system, children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD) are often not included. The aim of this study is to gather knowledge about inclusive education for children with PIMD by identifying

  17. The Effectiveness of Colourful Semantics on Narrative Skills in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Shyamani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children diagnosed with intellectual difficulties experience difficulties with narrative skills, due to limited syntactic knowledge. The Colourful Semantics approach with thematic roles and a colour coding system may encourage syntactic development in children experiencing intellectual disabilities. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness…

  18. Children with intellectual disability in rural South Africa: prevalence and associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, A L; Zwane, M E; Manga, P; Rosen, E; Venter, A; Downs, D; Kromberg, J G R

    2002-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and its associated disabilities in rural South African children aged 2-9 years. It was undertaken in eight villages in the district of Bushbuckridge, Northern Province, South Africa. A two-phase design was utilized. The first phase involved screening children on a house-to-house basis by interviewing mothers or caregivers using an internationally validated questionnaire for detecting childhood disability in developing countries. The second phase consisted of a paediatric/neurodevelopmental assessment of the children who screened positive. A total of 6692 children were screened; 722 (10.8%) had a paediatric evaluation and 238 children were diagnosed with ID, giving a minimum observed prevalence of 35.6 per 1000 children in this population. The prevalence of severe and mild ID was 0.64 per 1000 and 29.1 per 1000 children, respectively. The male:female ratio of children with ID was 3:2. In the affected children, a congenital aetiology for the ID was determined in 49 subjects (20.6%), an acquired aetiology in 15 (6.3%) and the aetiology was undetermined in 174 children (73.1%). Epilepsy (15.5%) and cerebral palsy (8.4%) were the commonest associated disabilities. The present study represents the first data on the prevalence of ID and associated disabilities in rural South African children. The prevalence of ID was comparable with results from a study performed in one other African country (Zambia) as well as those from other developing countries. The data provide an initial factual insight into ID and its associated disabilities for healthcare, social service and educational policy planners. This study provides a basis for the initiation and development of appropriate and integrated services for the best possible care of individuals affected with these disabilities, and for their possible prevention.

  19. Management challenges in children with both epilepsy and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Janice M; Shore, Cheryl P

    2010-01-01

    People who have both epilepsy and intellectual disability have significant problems requiring skilled health care management. Clinical nurse specialists have the unique opportunity to work with these people and their families to help them develop self-management and family management skills. In this article, we describe some factors associated with intellectual disability and epilepsy. In addition, we address the management challenges associated with this dual diagnoses in 3 areas: (1) problems associated with the management of seizure and prescription management, (2) problems associated with the seizure management other than prescriptions, and (3) life management issues. Finally, we suggest ways that clinical nurse specialists can foster development of management skills.

  20. Is Celiac Disease an Etiological Factor in Children with Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Taner; Balcı, Oya; Özçay, Figen; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Alehan, Füsun

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in children and adolescents with nonsyndromic intellectual disability, we investigated serum levels of tissue transglutaminase antibody and total IgA from 232 children with nonsyndromic intellectual disability and in a healthy control group of 239 children. Study participants who were positive for tissue transglutaminase antibody underwent a duodenal biopsy. A total of 3 patients in the nonsyndromic intellectual disability group (5.45%) and 1 in the control group (0.41%) had positive serum tissue transglutaminase antibody (P > .05). Duodenal biopsy confirmed celiac disease in only 1 patient who had nonsyndromic intellectual disability. In this present study, children with nonsyndromic intellectual disability did not exhibit a higher celiac disease prevalence rate compared with healthy controls. Therefore, we suggest that screening test for celiac disease should not be necessary as a part of the management of mild and moderate nonsyndromic intellectual disability. However, cases of severe nonsyndromic intellectual disability could be examined for celiac disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language,

  2. Measuring body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using

  3. Memory Profiles in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, Mariet J.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Jongmans, Marian J.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2009-01-01

    Strengths and weaknesses in short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) were identified in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) by comparing their performance to typically developing children matched on chronological age (CA children) and to younger typically developing children with similar mental capacities (MA children).…

  4. Extracurricular activities and the development of social skills in children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B A; Floyd, F; Robins, D L; Chan, W Y

    2015-07-01

    Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill acquisition. Participation in social activities is positively related to children's social adjustment, but little is known about the benefits of activity participation for children with intellectual and specific learning disabilities. This study investigated the association between frequency and type of social activity participation and the social competence of 8-11-year-old children with intellectual disability (n = 40) and specific learning disabilities (n = 53), in comparison with typically developing peers (n = 24). More time involved in unstructured activities, but not structured activities, was associated with higher levels of social competence for all children. This association was strongest for children with intellectual disability, suggesting that participation in unstructured social activities was most beneficial for these children. Future research on the quality of involvement is necessary to further understand specific aspects of unstructured activities that might facilitate social development. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. ADHD Symptoms in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Wood, Nicky; Gringras, Paul; Chadwick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability. Method: From a general population sample of 2,726 12- to 15-year-olds, a stratified subsample was selected to enrich for…

  6. Psychological and School Functioning of Latino Siblings of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Seifer, Ronald; Grullon, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Siblings of children with disabilities are at risk for internalizing psychological disorders; however, little is known about how culture influences this effect. This study examined the psychological and school functioning of Latino siblings of children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: Participants were 100 Latino (L) and…

  7. Extracurricular Activities and the Development of Social Skills in Children with Intellectual and Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B. A.; Floyd, F.; Robins, D. L.; Chan, W. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill…

  8. Self-Concept of Children with Intellectual Disability in Mainstream Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Sally; Kemp, Coral; Carter, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: Positive self-concept is an important educational outcome for individuals with disability. Method: Perceived competence and acceptance of 17 children with intellectual disability, included in mainstream classes, were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA) and…

  9. Non-suicidal self-injury among children with hearing loss and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Bushra; Tariq, Amina; Rafi, Zeeshan

    2017-10-01

    To find the prevalence and to identify the predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among school-going children.. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gujrat, Gujrat Pakistan, from September 2015 to October 2016, and comprised children with intellectual disability and hearing loss. Participants were recruited from schools for special children located in Gujranwala, Jhelum and Gujrat. Multistage stratified sampling technique was used. Of the 325 children, 178(50.4%) had intellectual disability and 175(49.6%) had hearing loss. Findings indicated that the prevalence of self-injurious behaviour was higher in children with intellectual disability 48(27%) compared to their counterparts with hearing loss 3(2%). Neural network, when administered on whole data set, indicated type of disability 0.474(100%), education/training 0.99(20.9%) and access of counselling 0.114(24%) as important predictors of non-suicidal self-injury in both groups. On the other hand, the degree of disability (hearing loss 0.42[100%]; intellectual disability 0.32[100%]), education/ training (hearing loss 0.18[43%]; intellectual disability 0.27[84.5%]) and access of counselling (hearing loss 0.175[41.8%]; intellectual disability 0.256[78.7%]) were important predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among the participants, when neural network was run on the split files on the basis of disability. The prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among children with intellectual disability was higher as compared to those with hearing loss.

  10. Mind the Gap: The Human Rights of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrial, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic human rights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the Human Rights of children with…

  11. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with Visual Impairment, Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimovic, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with multiple impairments have more complex developmental problems than children with a single impairment. Method: We compared children, aged 4 to 11 years, with intellectual disability (ID) and visual impairment to children with single ID, single visual impairment and typical development on "Child Behavior Check…

  12. Educators' evaluations of children's ideas on the social exclusion of classmates with intellectual and learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Brown, Jason D; Dare, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    Reasons underlying the social exclusion of children with intellectual or learning disabilities are not entirely understood. Although it is important to heed the voices of children on this issue, it is also important to consider the degree to which these ideas are informed. The present authors invited educators to evaluate the content of children's ideas on the causes of social exclusion. Educators thematically sorted and rated children's ideas on why classmates with intellectual or learning disabilities are socially excluded. Sorted data were analysed with multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. Six thematic clusters were identified differing in content to those provided by children in an earlier study. Educators generally rated children's ideas as showing somewhat uninformed ideas about why social exclusion occurs. Educators indicated that children need to be better informed about intellectual and learning disabilities. Limitations and implications are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Physical Punishment, Mental Health and Sense of Coherence Among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disability in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Although sense of coherence (SOC) moderates parental stress, the relationship between SOC, parental mental health and physical punishment of children with intellectual disabilities remains uncertain. The present authors describe parental physical punishment towards children with intellectual disabilities and investigate its related demographic characteristics, SOC and parental mental health. With the cooperation of Tokyo's 10 special needs schools, the present authors obtained 648 questionnaire responses from parents of children with intellectual disabilities. Of the parents, 69.7% reported having physically punished their children with intellectual disabilities. This was positively associated with parents' younger age, poorer mental health, lower SOC, children's younger age, birth order (firstborns) and disability type (autism/pervasive developmental disorder). This is the first study supporting the relationship between SOC, mental health and physical punishment use among parents of children with intellectual disabilities. It may assist the development of strategies to prevent physical abuse of children with disabilities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Methodological Adaptations for the Discourse Analysis of Children with Intellectual Disability: Narrating Without a Language

    OpenAIRE

    Manghi Haquin, Dominique; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Otálora Cornejo, Fabiola; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Arancibia M., Marianela; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso

    2017-01-01

    Given the need to understand the forms of communication of people with intellectual disability, as to favor their social participation, this study deals with narration as a self-managed instance of discourse beyond language. The purpose is to standardize a methodology which allows us to explore their narrative discourse using a multi-modal perspective. The description corresponds to narrations of fifteen Chilean children of school age with intellectual disability and low development of oral l...

  15. Working memory functions in children with different degrees of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, K; Gebhardt, M; Mäehler, C

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased research interest in the functioning of working memory in people with intellectual disabilities. Although studies have repeatedly found these individuals to have weak working memory skills, few investigations have distinguished between different degrees of intellectual disability. This study aims to help close this research gap and, in so doing, to examine whether the deficits observed reflect a developmental lag or a qualitative deviation from normal development. In a 5-group design, the working memory performance of a group of 15-year-olds with mild intellectual disability (IQ 50-69) was compared with that of two groups of children (aged 10 and 15 years) with borderline intellectual disability (IQ 70-84) and with that of two groups of children with average intellectual abilities (IQ 90-115) matched for mental and chronological age (aged 7 and 15 years). All children were administered a comprehensive battery of tests assessing the central executive, the visual-spatial sketchpad, and the phonological loop. The results showed deficits in all three components of working memory, and revealed that these deficits increased with the degree of intellectual disability. The findings indicate that, relative to their mental age peers, children with learning difficulties show structural abnormalities in the phonological store of the phonological loop, but developmental lags in the other two subsystems. Similar patterns of results emerged for both subgroups of children with intellectual disability, indicating that problems with phonological information processing seem to be one of the causes of cognitive impairment in individuals with intellectual disability.

  16. A Framework for Healthcare Provision to Children with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish TS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Kudumbashree mission, an initiative of the Government of Kerala state in India, has collaborated with Local Self Governments to set up ‘Buds’, a special school system for individuals with intellectual disability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the structure and functioning of ‘Buds’ schools, to identify the healthcare needs of the students, and to conceptualise a framework for healthcare provision. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 202 children at 11 registered ‘Buds’ schools in Kerala. A multidisciplinary team consisting of a psychiatrist, public health personnel and a social worker from the Medical Colleges of Kerala, visited the institutions. Data collection consisted of abstraction from medical records, interviews with parents, and clinical assessment and prescription of intervention by the specialists concerned. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used for every child. Using both quantitative and qualitative techniques, the public health personnel in the team evaluated the structure and functioning of the schools. Results: The most commonly associated condition was epilepsy, seen in 11.9% of the children, while 28.2% had behavioural problems. The medicines needed were mainly anti-epileptics and drugs for behavioural problems. Interventions for self help and social skill training were also among the important requirements. The infrastructure and other facilities were poor in many schools, with the average student to teacher ratio at 14:1. While these institutions were well utilised, functioning was good only in 27.2% of the schools. Healthcare services and visits by healthcare personnel were far from adequate.  This study proposes a framework in which the Medical Colleges and Health Services can function together to deliver healthcare services to children at these schools, with linkages from the District Mental Health Programme (DMHP. Conclusion and Recommendation

  17. Obesity in British children with and without intellectual disability: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah; Hatton, Chris

    2016-07-27

    Reducing the prevalence of and inequities in the distribution of child obesity will require developing interventions that are sensitive to the situation of 'high risk' groups of children. Children with intellectual disability appear to be one such group. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of obesity in children with and without intellectual disability in a longitudinal representative sample of British children and identify risk factors associated with obesity at age 11. Information was collected on a nationally representative sample of over 18,000 at ages 9 months, 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. We used UK 1990 gender-specific growth reference charts and the LMS Growth programme to identify age and gender-specific overweight and obesity BMI thresholds for each child at ages 5, 7 and 11 years. Children with intellectual disabilities were significantly more likely than other children to be obese at ages five (OR = 1.32[1.03-1.68]), seven (OR = 1.39[1.05-1.83]) and eleven (OR = 1.68[1.39-2.03]). At ages five and seven increased risk of obesity among children with intellectual disabilities was only apparent among boys. Among children with intellectual disability risk of obesity at age eleven was associated with persistent maternal obesity, maternal education, child ethnicity and being bullied at age five. Children with intellectual disability are a high-risk group for the development of obesity, accounting for 5-6 % of all obese children. Interventions to reduce the prevalence and inequities in the distribution of child obesity will need to take account of the specific situation of this group of children.

  18. Poverty and Children with Intellectual Disabilities in the World's Richer Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The experience of poverty has a pervasive impact on the health (including mental health) of children and their parent(s), on family functioning and on the life course of children. The aim of this paper is to consider the relevance of poverty to our understanding of the health (and mental health) of children with intellectual disabilities in the…

  19. Behavioral flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Sigafoos, J.; Green, V.A.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have particular difficulty with behavioral flexibility, but the knowledge base on behavioral flexibility in children with a diagnosis of ASD plus intellectual disability (ID) compared to children with ID only is still scarce. The aim of the present study

  20. Mental health problems in children with intellectual disability : use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, S.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Vogels, A. G. C.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    Background The assessment of mental health problems in children with intellectual disability (ID) mostly occurs by filling out long questionnaires that are not always validated for children without ID. The aim of this study is to assess the differences in mental health problems between children with

  1. Mental health problems in children with intellectual disability: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, S.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The assessment of mental health problems in children with intellectual disability (ID) mostly occurs by filling out long questionnaires that are not always validated for children without ID. The aim of this study is to assess the differences in mental health problems between children

  2. Diagnoses, Labels and Stereotypes: Supporting Children with Intellectual Disabilities in the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Megan; Breau, Lynn; MacLeod, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and their parents continue to experience stigma within health-care systems. Whilst some research studies have examined the stigma associated with children who have IDs, there continues to be a gap in understanding how the experiences of these children, their parents and nurses have been constructed…

  3. Learning Disabilities and Intellectual Functioning in School-Aged Children With Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Connie E.; Culbertson, Jan L.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2006-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition (Wechsler,1991) shortform, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler,1993) Screener by e...

  4. Barriers in health care access faced by children with intellectual disabilities living in rural Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.

  5. Modeling contextual influences on parents with intellectual disability and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Catherine; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Matthews, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Many parents with intellectual disability experience living conditions associated with risk for children and parents. This study used structural equation modeling to test a theoretical model of the relationships among parent, child, family, and contextual variables in 120 Australian families where a parent had an intellectual disability. Findings revealed that parenting practices had a direct effect on children's well being, that social support was associated with children's well being through the mediator of parenting practices, and that access to social support had a direct influence on parenting practices. Implications of the findings for research, intervention, and policy are explored, with the goal of promoting optimal well being for children who are raised by parents with intellectual disability.

  6. Stigma and restriction on the social life of families of children with intellectual disabilities in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hong; Shin, Jin Y; Nhan, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Lawrence H

    2012-07-01

    Intellectual disabilities are as prevalent in East Asian countries as in the West (0.06%-1.3%). Widespread discrimination against intellectual disabilities in Asia may initiate stigma that places unfair restrictions on the social life of these individuals and their caregivers. We utilised established stigma frameworks to assess the extent to which a child's intellectual disability contributes to the social exclusion of caregivers in Vietnam. A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was employed to examine the experience of social life restriction among parents of children with intellectual disabilities. The child's disability level and restrictions on caregivers' social experiences were assessed among 70 mothers and fathers recruited from schools in Hue City, Vietnam. Qualitative responses describing social exclusion were also recorded. Caregivers reported elevated levels of social exclusion. As hypothesised, parents of children with greater intellectual disability experienced more restrictions on their social life (Beta = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.27-1.30, standard error = 0.26, p stigma, which in turn restricts key social interactions among caregivers. Psycho-educational interventions may address the social domains in which caregivers are impacted and encourage sustained help-seeking among caregivers for their children.

  7. Searching Nearest Potential of Children with Intellectual Disability--Dynamic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Ewa Maria

    2015-01-01

    The article discussed the issue of the diagnosis with the use of task-support-task procedure. A theoretical model of diagnosis based on the concepts by L. S. Vygotski, R. Case, and A. Bandura was described and developed. The model was tested on a group of non-disabled preschool children, and children with mild and moderate intellectual disability…

  8. Occupational Therapy Home Program for Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Ho, Guang-Sheng; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a proposed occupational therapy home program (OTHP) for children with intellectual disabilities (ID). Children with ID were randomly and equally assigned to OTHP or to no OTHP groups. The primary outcome measures were Canadian Occupational Performance, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor…

  9. On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to

  10. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  11. The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Play Therapy on Self Esteem of Children With Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaqayeq Bana

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: It seems that play therapy is an effective method to increase self esteem in children with intellectual disability. Therefore, educators and teachers are advised to use this method as an adjunctive therapy for such children in rehabilitation centers and schools.

  12. Mastery Motivation in Children with Intellectual Disability: Is There Evidence for a Down Syndrome Behavioural Phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Browning, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study was to provide empirical evidence to support or refute assumptions of phenotypic deficits in motivation for children with Down syndrome (DS). Children with moderate intellectual disability (MID) associated with etiologies other than DS were recruited in an extension of a previous study that involved children…

  13. Immune Responses to "Helicobacter pylori" Infection in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included…

  14. Working memory in children with mild intellectual disabilities: abilities and training potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The two main objectives of this thesis are a) to unravel working memory (WM) strengths and weaknesses in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID), and b) to investigate if WM can be trained effectively in these children. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the thesis and encompasses

  15. On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    Background It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to

  16. Body experience in children with intellectual disabilities with and without externalising disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emck, C.; Plouvier, M; van Lee, M.

    2012-01-01

    Psychomotor therapy for children with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) often is aimed at improving body experiences. If children are able to recognise their bodily signals, they will be able to regulate emotions better and act more adequately. Because little is known about body experience in

  17. Social skills in children with intellectual disabilities with and without autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, A; Serra, M; Luteijn, E; Kraijer, D; Sytema, S; Minderaa, R

    Background Social skills were studied in 363 children with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) and 147 with moderate ID with and without autism (age 4 through 18). The objective was to investigate the value of the Children's Social Behaviour Questionnaire (CSBQ), as a measure of subtle social

  18. Intervention for Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Walsh, Caitlin E.; Mulder, Emile; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Hajcak, Greg; Carr, Edward G.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    There is little research on the functional assessment and treatment of anxiety and related problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly those with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). In a recent study, we evaluated a multimethod strategy for assessing anxiety in children with ASD and IDD ("Am J…

  19. Sleep problems and daytime problem behaviours in children with intellectual disablity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Aperloo, B. van; Overloon, C. van; Vries, M. de

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are common among children with intellectual disability (ID). METHOD: The present study assessed the prevalence of severe sleep problems in a sample of children (n=286) with mild to profound ID who lived at home with their parents(s) in the Netherlands. It also

  20. Reduction of Errors during Practice Facilitates Fundamental Movement Skill Learning in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, C. M.; Poolton, J. M.; Sit, C. H. P.; Eguia, K. F.; Masters, R. S. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been found to have inferior motor proficiencies in fundamental movement skills (FMS). This study examined the effects of training the FMS of overhand throwing by manipulating the amount of practice errors. Methods: Participants included 39 children with ID aged 4-11 years who were…

  1. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined

  2. Are Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation Related in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…

  3. The Longitudinal Course of Depression in Adoptive and Birth Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Laraine M.; Jobe, Brian M.

    2006-01-01

    This report extends by an additional 6 years the longitudinal research of Glidden and Schoolcraft, who found that adoptive mothers of children with intellectual disabilities displayed low depression at the initial time of adoption and thereafter, whereas birth mothers reported significantly higher levels when their children were first diagnosed,…

  4. Developmental and Communication Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability: The Place Early Intervention for Effective Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…

  5. The Impact of Behavioural Executive Functioning and Intelligence on Math Abilities in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, M. C.; Ziermans, T. B.; Swaab, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of behavioural executive functioning (EF) skills and level of intelligence (IQ) on math abilities in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Method: Teachers of 63 children attending a school for special education (age: 10 to 13 years; IQ: 50 to 85) filled out a Behaviour Rating…

  6. Strengths and Weaknesses in Executive Functioning in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Henrik; Henry, Lucy; Messer, David; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2012-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in…

  7. Attention deficits in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: evaluating the potential of computerised cognitive training

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Attention skills are strongly associated with academic attainment, social inclusion, peer relationships and mental health. Attention difficulties are commonly reported in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), consequently increasing the already heightened risk of cognitive difficulties, behavioural problems and learning impairments. Despite acknowledgement of the core deficits in attention that characterise children with IDD, limited research has attempted to stre...

  8. The Application of CSCL Scripts to Support Teaching and Learning for Children with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Bryan; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the application of collaboration scripts to guide social interaction behaviours of children with intellectual disabilities. The use of such scripts demonstrate potential as a means of creating CSCL environments that can be used to provide children with communication and social interaction impairments with a platform for learning and practicing such skills in a meaningful social context.

  9. Mediating Haptic Exploratory Strategies in Children Who Have Visual Impairment and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of literature pertaining to the development of haptic exploratory strategies in children who have visual impairment and intellectual disabilities. The information received through such strategies assumes particular significance for these children, given the restricted information available through their visual…

  10. Cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden-Fontein, E.G. van; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) are able to acquire basic word reading skills. However, not much is known about their achievements in more advanced reading comprehension skills. In the present study, a group of 49 children with ID and a control group of 21

  11. Relationship between working memory and intellectual functioning in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the relationship between working memory and intelligence in children with mild intellectual disability (MID, ages 10 to 14. The sample encompassed 53 children with MID, 47.2% of girls and 52.8% of boys. Their IQ ranges from 50 to 70 (AS=63.17; SD=6.56. The tasks that assess the Central Executive aspect of the working memory system, namely in verbal and non-verbal modality, have been selected. The obtained results indicate that working memory ('central executor' and intelligence are the constructs that significantly correlate in the range of 0.29 to 0.41, depending upon the working memory modality. It was determined that IQ category explains about 19% of the variability of the verbal and non-verbal working memory results, grouped in the unified model (p<0.05. However, the statistically significant relation was determined by means of the individual variables analysis only between IQ and non-verbal working memory (p<0.01. The statistically significant differences have also been determined in the non-verbal working memory development in the participants belonging to lower and higher IQ categories (p<0.05.

  12. Intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... below average Development way below that of peers Intelligence quotient (IQ) score below 70 on a standardized ... Social. Nutrition programs can reduce disability associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty ...

  13. Physical Punishment, Mental Health and Sense of Coherence among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disability in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although sense of coherence (SOC) moderates parental stress, the relationship between SOC, parental mental health and physical punishment of children with intellectual disabilities remains uncertain. The present authors describe parental physical punishment towards children with intellectual disabilities and investigate its related…

  14. Searching Nearest Potential of Children with Intellectual Disability – Dynamic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesza Ewa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the issue of the diagnosis with the use of task-support-task procedure. A theoretical model of diagnosis based on the concepts by L. S. Vygotski, R. Case, and A. Bandura was described and developed. The model was tested on a group of non-disabled preschool children, and children with mild and moderate intellectual disability who were paired up accordingly to their mental age. Each pair was given a set of developmentally adapted tasks. The tool (44 tasks was reliable and valid. The task-support-task procedure significantly affected the level of the task performance in all the children and allowed to define the scope of potential abilities, especially in the children with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. Most of the task they did fell into the zone of proximal development.

  15. Effects of phonological awareness and naming speed on mathematics skills in children with mild intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Matthew E; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D

    2015-01-01

    Both phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed have been identified as two skills related to the development of mathematics skills for children with and without learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between PA and colour naming speed for 265 elementary school students with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Participants were assessed using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes and the KeyMath Revised Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Mathematics. Hierarchical regression analyses accounting for the effects of age indicated that children with MID rely on both PA and naming speed when solving mathematics problems, although PA was the more robust indicator of the two. As a whole, these results suggest that children with intellectual disabilities evidence the same types of reading and math relationships as shown for other populations of children.

  16. Adolescents with intellectual disability and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack

    2005-09-08

    It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption and in fact the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  17. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Suicidal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  18. Strengths and weaknesses in executive functioning in children with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, H.; Henry, L.; Messer, D. J.; Ronnberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in each group. Children with ID performed on par with the MA group on switching, verbal executive-loaded working memory and most fluency tasks, but belo...

  19. Children's thoughts on the social exclusion of peers with intellectual or learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, E A; Brown, J; Stepien, M

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has shown that children with intellectual or learning disabilities are at risk for social exclusion by their peers but little is known of children's views on this topic. In this study, we used concept mapping to investigate elementary school children's thoughts on why they believe their peers with intellectual or learning disabilities are sometimes socially excluded at school. Participants were 49 grade five and six children who attended inclusive classrooms. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. We extracted 49 unique statements from the transcribed data, and then invited participants to sort the statements into meaningful categories. Sorted data were entered into matrices, which were summed and analysed with multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis. A four-cluster solution provided the best conceptual fit for the data. Clusters reflected themes on (1) the thoughts and actions of other children; (2) differences in learning ability and resource allocation; (3) affect, physical characteristics and schooling; and (4) negative thoughts and behaviours. The overarching reason for social exclusion focused on differences between children with and without disabilities. This study also provided evidence that children are effective, reliable and competent participants in concept mapping. Educational and research implications are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  20. Parenting children with intellectual disabilities in Malawi: the impact that reaches beyond coping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masulani-Mwale, C; Mathanga, D; Silungwe, D; Kauye, F; Gladstone, M

    2016-11-01

    Rates of disability are high in resource poor settings with 85% of children with disabilities living in these settings. Long-term caregiving for disabled children is associated with fatigue, financial difficulties, parenting distress and other psychological issues. While such parents of children have repeatedly highlighted their feelings of discrimination, stigma and exclusion, leading to mental health issues, there is little research from the developing world addressing these issues. This study aims to explore psychological experiences of parents caring for children with intellectual disabilities; understand their mechanisms of coping and their psychosocial needs in Malawi. This study used a qualitative phenomenological design. We purposively sampled parents who had children diagnosed with intellectual disability from two clinics in two cities in Malawi. Between January 2015 and March 2015, we conducted 10 focus group discussions and four in-depth interviews. All ethical study procedures were carefully followed. All interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and translated from vernacular to English. Thematic approach of data analysis was adopted to understand the data. Caring for intellectually disabled children comes with a number of challenges. Parents have limited access to services for their children let alone for their own psychological issues; they experience stigma and discrimination, have mental health issues resulting from the caring role, have suicidal ideas and in some cases have even been coerced by neighbours to kill their disabled child. To manage these issues, most parents cope through their spirituality. Apart from suicide and filicide, the findings of this study are similar to those performed in other countries. It is recommended that parents' psychological issues be managed concurrently when providing services for their children. There is also a need to develop psychosocial training interventions to address the needs of the parents of these

  1. Comorbidity of Intellectual Disability and Mental Disorder in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Ellis, Louise A.; Emerson, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mental disorder and intellectual disability each accounts for substantial burden of disease. However, the extent of this co-occurrence varies substantially between reports. We sought to determine whether studies in children and/or adolescents with acceptably rigorous methods can be distinguished from existing reports, and whether key…

  2. Working memory development in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Henry, L. A.; Van Luit, J. E H

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to examine the developmental progression in working memory (WM) between the ages of 9 and 16 years in a large sample of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Baddeley's influential WM model was used as a

  3. Computerised Attention Training for Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Hannah E.; Gray, Kylie M.; Ellis, Kirsten; Taffe, John; Cornish, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience heightened attention difficulties which have been linked to poorer cognitive, academic and social outcomes. Although, increasing research has focused on the potential of computerised cognitive training in reducing attention problems, limited studies have…

  4. Comparing Offenders against Women and Offenders against Children on Treatment Outcome in Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Steptoe, Lesley; Moore, Fhionna; Haut, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effects of sex offender treatment for men with intellectual disabilities who have perpetrated sex offences or inappropriate sexual behaviour. The present study investigates the process of treatment change and compares two groups of offenders against adults and offenders against children. Method:…

  5. Education Creates Comfort and Challenges Stigma towards Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breau, Lynn M.; Aston, Megan; MacLeod, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are frequent users of the healthcare system, yet nurses report they receive little education regarding specialized medical, social and relational needs of this population. Therefore, parents take on a greater burden of care while their child is in hospital than do parents of typically developing…

  6. Maternal Stress Predicted by Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a period of two years. The level of maternal…

  7. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  8. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  9. Patterns of Obesity among Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Yen, Chia-Feng; Li, Chi-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2005-01-01

    Background: Obesity and the health problems associated with it have substantial economic consequences for health care systems. Little information is available concerning obesity-related problems among people with intellectual disabilities. The aims of this study were to analyse patterns of obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual…

  10. Caregiving Perceptions of Chinese Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W. S.; Ho, Gladys S. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In this study, we tested the effects of three different coping strategies (i.e. problem-focused, emotion-focused and relationship-focused coping) on both positive and negative caregiving perceptions. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twelve Chinese mothers of children with intellectual disability from a major non-governmental…

  11. Mindful Parenting and Care Involvement of Fathers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Elaine E.; Hastings, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    There are few data addressing psychological variables that may explain some variation in parenting by fathers of children with intellectual disabilities. In the present study, we hypothesized that fathers who were more mindful in their parenting role (specifically, fathers who reported more present-centered attention in their relationship with…

  12. Resilience and the Course of Daily Parenting Stress in Families of Young Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, E. D.; Crnic, K. A.; Blacher, J.; Baker, B. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parenting stresses have consistently been found to be higher in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID); yet, some families are able to be resilient and thrive in the face of these challenges. Despite the considerable research on stress in families of ID, there is still little known about the stability and compensatory…

  13. Working memory structure in 10- and 15-year old children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore,

  14. Functional Deficits in Phonological Working Memory in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Maehler, Claudia; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that children with intellectual disabilities have functional limitations primarily in the phonological loop of working memory (Baddeley, 1986). These findings are indicative of a specific structural deficit. Building on this research, the present study examines whether it is possible to identify specific phonological…

  15. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Anemia in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chien, Wu-Chien; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Anemia is known to be a significant public health problem in many countries. Most of the available information is incomplete or limited to special groups such as people with intellectual disability. The present study aims to provide the information of anemia prevalence and associated risk factors of children and adolescents with intellectual…

  16. Parental Locus of Control and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Tracey; Hastings, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychological mechanisms may help to explain the variance observed in parental psychological adjustment in parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). In this study, parental locus of control and its role in relation to maternal psychological well-being was explored. Method: Questionnaires were sent to 91 mothers of children…

  17. Working Memory Structure in 10- and 15-Year Old Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual, Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Mariet J.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the model's validity in this…

  18. Working Memory Development in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Henry, L. A.; Van Luit, J. E. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to examine the developmental progression in working memory (WM) between the ages of 9 and 16 years in a large sample of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Baddeley's influential WM model was used as a theoretical framework. Furthermore, the…

  19. Maternal stress predicted by characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine maternal stress and child variables predicting maternal stress, 104 mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) completed the Dutch version of the Parental Stress Index (PSI; De Brock, Vermulst, Gerris, & Abidin, 1992) every six months over a

  20. Using the Teaching Interactions Procedure to Teach Social Skills to Children with Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Aubrey Hui Shyuan; Schulze, Kim; Rudrud, Eric; Leaf, Justin B.

    2016-01-01

    This study implemented a modified teaching interaction procedure to teach social skills to 4 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with an intellectual disability. A multiple baseline design across social skills and replicated across participants was utilized to evaluate the effects of the modified teaching interaction procedure. The…

  1. Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disability: Speech or Manual Signs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the degree to which children with intellectual disability (ID) depend on manual signs during their expressive vocabulary acquisition, in relation to child and social-environmental characteristics. Method: Expressive vocabulary acquisition in speech and manual signs was monitored over a 2-year period…

  2. Predicting Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. Method: This study…

  3. Friendship at Any Cost: Parent Perspectives on Cyberbullying Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Meaghan C.; Howard, Donna E.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying affects approximately 40% of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Cyberbullying, a type of bullying facilitated by electronic devices, may be particularly worrisome for parents of children with IDD as constant monitoring is difficult. In this study, ten parents of Special Olympics Maryland athletes completed…

  4. Parent Adaptation to and Parenting Satisfaction with Children with Intellectual Disability in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukmak, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: This research investigated the impact that children with intellectual disability in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) may have on their families. Method: Sixty-three parents completed three scales related to parent stress, ways of coping, and parenting satisfaction. Results: There were significant relationships between emotional-focused…

  5. Universal Hepatitis B Vaccination Coverage in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    There is little information of hepatitis B vaccination coverage for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to examine the completed hepatitis B vaccination coverage rate and its determinants of children and adolescents with ID in Taiwan. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, with the entire response participants was…

  6. Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

  7. Analysis of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Uptake among Children and Adolescents with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the seasonal influenza vaccination rate and to examine its determinants for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the data on seasonal influenza vaccination rate among 1055 ID individuals between the ages…

  8. Child Maltreatment among Children with Intellectual Disability in the Canadian Incidence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Paquette, Geneviève; Tremblay, Karine-N.; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Chabot, Martin

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to compare, among a representative sample of substantiated child maltreatment cases, the characteristics of those with intellectual disability (ID) from those without ID. Using the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, 5,797 cases of substantiated maltreatment that involved children aged between 0 and…

  9. Early language intervention for children with intellectual disabilities: A neurocognitive perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, M. van der; Segers, P.C.J.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    For children with intellectual disabilities (ID), stimulation of their language and communication is often not a priority. Advancements in brain research provide guidelines for early interventions aimed at the stimulation of language and communication skills. In the present study, the effectiveness

  10. A Factor-Analytic Study of Adaptive Behavior and Intellectual Functioning in Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargan, Dollye R.

    The factorial structure of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior was examined in 160 learning disabled students (6 to 16 years old). Ss were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Coping Inventory (CI). Factor analysis of WISC-R scores revealed three factors: verbal comprehenson, perceptual…

  11. Compliance of Children with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability to Treadmill Walking: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashdi, E.; Hutzler, Y.; Roth, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Intellectual Disability (ID) exhibit reduced levels of compliance to exercise, including treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of several training conditions on compliance to participation in treadmill walking of children with moderate to severe ID. Method: Criteria for compliance were…

  12. Variability of Self-Regulatory Strategies in Children with Intellectual Disability and Typically Developing Children in Pretend Play Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader-Grosbois, N.; Vieillevoye, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study has examined whether or not self-regulatory strategies vary depending on pretend play situations in 40 children with intellectual disability and 40 typically developing children. Method: Their cognitive, linguistic and individual symbolic play levels were assessed in order to match the children of the two groups. During two…

  13. Rare diseases and intellectual disability: assessment of quality of life of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica GONZÁLEZ MARTÍN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Antecedents. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in children and young people with rare diseases and intellectual disability, as well as to determine the incidence of certain predictors (i. e., gender, age, level of intellectual disability, type of school, type of illness and autonomous community in the criterion variable. Method. The KidsLife Scale was applied, a questionnaire based on the eight domain model of quality of life by Schalock and Verdugo. The sample comprised 103 participants with rare diseases and intellectual disability, aged between 3 and 21, who received supports in any organization providing educational, social, or health services. Results. The best scores were found in physical wellbeing, while the lowest were in social inclusion. The level of intellectual disability and support needs resulted in significant differences for the total score of the scale. Analyses by domains showed differences by gender, intellectual disability level, and type of schooling. Conclusions. The results argue for designing practices aimed to improve quality of life-related personal outcomes with regard to self-determination, inclusion, and interpersonal relationships.

  14. Are different soil metals near the homes of pregnant women associated with mild and severe intellectual disability in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCDERMOTT, SUZANNE; BAO, WEICHAO; TONG, XIN; CAI, BO; LAWSON, ANDREW; AELION, CMARJORIE

    2014-01-01

    AIM We explored the association of relatively low concentrations of metals in the soil proximal to maternal residence during pregnancy, with intellectual disability. We hypothesized different metals would be associated with mild versus severe intellectual disability. METHOD We used a mixed methods design, starting with a retrospective cohort from 1996–2002, of 10 051 pregnant mothers, soil sampling in the areas where these mothers resided during pregnancy, and follow-up of their children to determine if there was an intellectual disability outcome. We tested the soil and then predicted the soil concentration at the maternal homes, and modeled the association with the severity of the child’s intellectual disability. RESULTS We found a significant positive association between mild intellectual disability and soil mercury (p=0.007). For severe intellectual disability, there was a significant positive association with the soil arsenic and lead (p=0.025). INTERPRETATION This is the first report of the differential impact of metals in soil and severity of intellectual disability in children. Soil mercury concentration in the area the mother lived during pregnancy is associated with significantly increased odds of mild intellectual disability; a combination of arsenic and lead is associated with significantly increased odds of severe intellectual disability. These associations are present when controlling for maternal, child, and neighborhood characteristics. PMID:24750016

  15. Mothers with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  16. Timing of First Dental Checkup for Newly Medicaid-Enrolled Children with an Intellectual or Developmental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Jones, Michael P.; Kuthy, Raymond; Damiano, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    We compared the extent to which having an intellectual or developmental disability was associated with rates at which Iowa Medicaid-enrolled children ages 3 to 8 had first dental checkups after an initial dental examination. We hypothesized that these children would have later first dental checkups than would children without an intellectual or…

  17. Consideration of children with intellectual disability as candidates for solid organ transplantation-A practice in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Aaron; Diekema, Douglas; Goldberg, Aviva

    2018-02-01

    Children with intellectual disability were historically excluded from consideration as recipients of solid organ transplants. In light of an evolution in provider practices, this commentary will define intellectual disability and review the relevant provider attitudes and guidelines and known outcomes of solid organ transplant in this population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Identifying Children with Intellectual Disabilities in the Tribal Population of Barwani District in State of Madhya Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Mawson, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low-and middle-income countries (LAMI) lack an integrated and systematic approach to identify people with intellectual disabilities. Screening surveys are considered resource-intensive; therefore, alternative approaches are needed. This study attempted to identify children up to age 18 years with intellectual disabilities through a…

  19. DSM-IV disorders in children with borderline to moderate intellectual disability. I: Prevalence and impact. [IF 3.6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.C.; Koot, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence, comorbidity, and impact of DSM-IV disorders in 7- to 20-year-olds with intellectual disability. Method: A total of 474 children (response 86.8%) were randomly selected from a sample of students from Dutch schools for the intellectually disabled. Parents completed

  20. The assessment of static balance in children with hearing, visual and intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Klavina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance is a fundamental part of many movement tasks a child performs. Maintaining upright posture is a complex process involving multiple body parts and functional systems. Objective: This study aimed to explore the mean amplitude and velocity of the center of pressure (COP displacements during static balance tests in children with and without disabilities. Methods: Participants were 34 children (age 8.5 to 10.8 years including 6 typically developed children, 8 children with hearing, 8 children with visual and 12 children with intellectual disabilities. Static balance data were obtained in 15 s bipedal stance with eyes open and eyes closed, and also in 10 s unipedal stance. A force plate was used to collect data of COP amplitude in anterior-posterior (COPA-P, medio-lateral (COPM-L directions and COP velocity (COPV. Results: Study outcomes revealed that all subgroups presented larger COP displacement and velocity with eyes closed (p < .001. During bipedal stance with eyes open for results of COPM-L and COPV no significant differences were found between children with and without disabilities (p > .05. Children with intellectual and visual impairments presented significantly larger displacement in COPA-P and COPM-L in comparison with children with hearing impairment and without disability (p < .05. Conclusions: This study provided evidence of comparative outcomes on static stability assessment in elementary school children with and without disability. While in many test items children with disability did not demonstrate a significantly decreased level of postural control outcomes comparing to their peers without disability, the balance assessment should be used for early detection of dysfunction in children, so as to guide the application of appropriate intervention.

  1. Attributions of Stability, Control and Responsibility: How Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities View their Child's Problematic Behaviour and Its Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Hunter, Simon C

    2016-01-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities have high rates of behaviour problems. This study explored parents' causal beliefs and attributions for general problematic child behaviour in children with different aetiologies of intellectual disabilities. Ten parents of children with intellectual disabilities participated in interviews about their child's problematic behaviour. Thematic analysis using NVivo revealed that parents viewed their child's problematic behaviour not only as caused by the child's intellectual disabilities but also by other causes unrelated to the intellectual disabilities, as well as by aspects of the social environmental context. Some causes were viewed as stable and uncontrollable and others as unstable and controllable. In addition, parents showed a strong sense of responsibility for child behaviour. Parents of children with intellectual disabilities do not solely interpret their child's problematic behaviour through the intellectual disabilities but incorporate the environment and causes and attributions that are not related to the intellectual disabilities, which may help to promote more effective parenting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A; McCurdy, Mark D; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Pritchard, Alison E; Zabel, T Andrew; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    We examined the implications of using the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6-16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, second edition (ABAS-II). GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making may be of limited value. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Investigating of Memory - Colours of Intellectually Disabled Children and Virtual Game Addict Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sik Lányi, Cecília

    We describe an investigation of memory colours. For this investigation Flash test software was developed. 75 observers used this test software in 4 groups: average elementary school children (aged: 8-9 years), intellectually disabled children (age: 9-15), virtual game addict university students (average age: 20) and university students who play with VR games rarely or never (average age: 20). In this pilot test we investigated the difference of memory colours of these 4 groups.

  4. A review of cognitive impairments in children with intellectual disabilities: Implications for cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hronis, Anastasia; Roberts, Lynette; Kneebone, Ian I

    2017-06-01

    Nearly half of children with intellectual disability (ID) have comorbid affective disorders. These problems are chronic if left untreated and can significantly impact upon future vocational, educational, and social opportunities. Despite this, there is a paucity of research into effective treatments for this population. Notably, one of the most supported of psychological therapies, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), remains largely uninvestigated in children with ID. The current review considers the neuropsychological profile of children and adolescents with mild to moderate ID, with a view to informing how CBT might best be adapted for children and adolescents with ID. Narrative review of literature considering the neuropsychological profiles of children and adolescents with ID, with specific focus upon attention, memory, learning, executive functioning, and communication. Studies were identified through SCOPUS, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases, using combinations of the key words 'intellectual disability', 'learning disability', 'neuropsychology', 'attention', 'learning', 'memory', 'executive function', 'language', and 'reading'. Children with ID have significant deficits in attention, learning, memory, executive functions, and language. These deficits are likely to have a negative impact upon engagement in CBT. Suggestions for adapting therapy to accommodate these wide ranging deficits are proposed. There are multiple cognitive factors which need to be considered when modifying CBT for children who have ID. Furthermore, research is required to test whether CBT so modified is effective in this population. Clinical implications Effective ways of providing cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to children with intellectual disability (ID) is unclear. This study provides a framework of potential adaptations for clinical practice As rates of mental illness for children with intellectual disability are high, and rates of treatment provision low, it is hoped that the

  5. Instructional Package of Development of Skill in Using Fine Motor of Children for Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsawang, T.

    2018-02-01

    This research has the following purposes: 1) to find the efficiency of the self-learning activity set on development of skill in using fine motor of children with intellectual disabilities., 2) to compare the abilities to use the small muscles after the study more than before the study of children with intellectual disabilities, who made study with the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use., 3) to study the satisfaction of the children with intellectual disabilities using the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use. The sample groups on the research are the children with intellectual disabilities of the special education Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Provincial Nakhon Nayok Center in the school year 2016, for 7 children. The tools used on the research consist of the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use for the children with intellectual disabilities of the special, the observation form of abilities of small muscles before and after using the activity set and the observation form of satisfaction of the children with intellectual disabilities of the special towards the self-learning activity set on development of small muscles for the children with intellectual disabilities of the special. The statistics used on the research include the percentage, mean value, standard deviation and the t-test for dependent sample. From the research, it was found that the self-learning activity set on development of small muscles use for children with intellectual disabilities of the special is efficient based on the criteria in average equal to 77.78/76.51, the educational coefficient of the student after the study higher than before the study with average points before the study equal to 55.14 and S.D. value equal to 3.72. The average points after the study equal to 68.86, S.D. value equal to 2.73, t-test value before and after the study equal to 7.94, which are different significantly on statistics at the level 0.05 and the

  6. Emotional and behavioural adjustment in siblings of children with intellectual disability with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, Michael A; Hastings, Richard P; Nash, Susie; Lloyd, Tracey; Dowey, Alan

    2009-09-01

    Siblings of children with autism may be at greater risk for psychological problems than siblings of children with another disability or of typically developing (TD) children. However, it is difficult to establish whether autism or the presence of intellectual disability (ID) explains the findings in previous research. Mothers rated the emotional and behavioural adjustment of siblings of children with ID with (N = 25) or without (N = 24) autism. Data were also available 18 months later for siblings of children with autism and ID (N = 15). Siblings of children with autism and ID had more emotional problems compared with siblings of children with ID only and with normative data. Three variables were pertinent: increasing age of the child with autism, having a brother with autism, and being younger than the child with autism. Behavioural and emotional difficulties of siblings of children with autism and ID were relatively stable over 18 months.

  7. Impact of Oral Health Behaviors on Dental Caries in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental care is consistently reported as one of the primary medical needs of children with disabilities (IDC. The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of oral health behaviors on the caries experience in children with intellectual disabilities in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 intellectually disabled children, 12 to 17 years old, who were randomly selected from special educational schools in Guangzhou. A self-administered parental questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and oral health behavior variables, and 450 valid questionnaires were returned. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with dental caries. The average age of those in the sample was 14.6 years (SD = 1.3, 68.4% of whom were male, and the caries prevalence rate was 53.5% (DMFT = 1.5 ± 2.0. The factors significantly affecting the development of dental caries in IDC included gender, the presence or absence of cerebral palsy, and the frequency of dental visits and toothbrushing. In conclusion, the presence of cerebral palsy contributed to an increase risk of caries experience in intellectually disabled children, while toothbrushing more than twice a day and routine dental visits were caries-protective factors. Oral health promotion action may lead to a reduction in dental caries levels in IDC.

  8. Internalizing forms of problem behavior in school-age children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brojčin Branislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are very frequent affective symptoms often found in children with disabilities. Even the nonclinical depression or depressive mood in children are characterized by social withdrawal and decline in self-confidence, anger or auto-destructive behavior, as well as decrease in academic achievement. The objective of this research is to determine the prevalence of elevated expression of internalizing behavior in children with mild intellectual disability and to perceive elevated expression association of this form of problem behavior with chronological age, gender, IQ, speech comprehension and speech production of the participants. Subscale used to assess level of internalizing types of problem behavior, which is part of the teacher's Problem Behavior Rating Scale, of the Social Skills Rating System was applied on 120 participants with mild intellectual disability, aged from 8 to 16. Increased level of internalizing problem behavior is found in 25% of the participants, whereas statistically significant correlation is detected only between this variable and IQ. The results obtained in this study indicate the necessity for children and youth with intellectual disability who have elevated level of problem internalization to be identified, for the purpose of undertaking proper measures to eliminate or alleviate those problems. Development of preventive programs directed to reinforce the skills, necessary for resolving emotional and social problems is advised as well.

  9. The Role of the External Personal Assistants for Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities Working in the Children's Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities need support to function in an optimal way. However, there is a limited knowledge about the role of external personal assistants working in the children's home. Materials and Methods: A mixed method study was performed including qualitative data from interviews with 11…

  10. Attributions of Stability, Control and Responsibility: How Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities View Their Child's Problematic Behaviour and Its Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Hunter, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities have high rates of behaviour problems. This study explored parents' causal beliefs and attributions for general problematic child behaviour in children with different aetiologies of intellectual disabilities. Materials and Methods: Ten parents of children with intellectual disabilities…

  11. The Effect of an Attachment-Based Behaviour Therapy for Children with Visual and Severe Intellectual Disabilities. [Article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, P S; Janssen, C G C; Schuengel, C

    2008-01-01

    Background: A combination of an attachment-based therapy and behaviour modification was investigated for children with persistent challenging behaviour., Method: Six clients with visual and severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behaviour and with a background of pathogenic care were

  12. Working Memory Training in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability, Through Designed Computerized Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Delavarian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research is designing a computerized program, in game format, for working memory training in mild intellectual disabled children. Methods: 24 students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerized Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub- tests, and secondary tests, which contained three parts: dual visual-spatial test, auditory test, and a one-syllable word recalling test. Results: The results showed significant differnces between working memory capacity in the intellectually disabled children and normal ones (P-value<0.00001. After using the computerized working memory training, Visual-spatial WM, auditory WM, and speaking were improved in the trained group. The mentioned four tests showed significant differences between pre-test and post-test. The trained group showed more improvements in forward tasks. The trained participant’s processing speed increased with training. Discussion: According to the results, comprehensive human-computer interfaces and the aplication of computer in children training, especially in traing of intellectual disabled children with impairements in visual and auditory perceptions, could be more effective and vaulable.

  13. The co-occurrence of mental disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Kerim M

    2016-03-01

    The study summarizes supportive epidemiological data regarding the true co-occurrence (comorbidity) and course of mental disorders in children with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorders (ID/IDD) across the lifespan. Published studies involving representative populations of children and adolescents with ID/IDD have demonstrated a three to four-fold increase in prevalence of co-occurring mental disorders. The effect of age, sex, and severity (mild, moderate, severe, and profound) and socioeconomic status on prevalence is currently not clearly understood. To date there are no prevalence estimates of co-occurring mental disorders in youth identified using the new DSM-5 (and proposed ICD-11) definition of ID/IDD using measures of intellectual functions and deficits in adaptive functioning with various severity levels defined on the basis of adaptive functioning, and not intellectual quotient scores. The true relationship between two forms of morbidity remains complex and causal relationships that may be true for one disorder may not apply to another. The new conceptualization of ID/IDD offers a developmentally better informed psychobiological approach that can help distinguish co-occurrence of mental disorders within the neurodevelopmental section with onset during the developmental period as well as the later onset of other mental disorders.

  14. Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind and social adjustment in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiasse, Catherine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind (ToM) and social adjustment were investigated in 45 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) compared with 45 typically developing (TD) preschoolers, matched for developmental age assessed by means of the Differential Scales of Intellectual Efficiency-Revised edition (EDEI-R, Perron-Borelli, 1996). Children's understanding of beliefs and emotions was assessed by means of ToM belief tasks (Nader-Grosbois & Thirion-Marissiaux, 2011) and ToM emotion tasks (Nader-Grosbois & Thirion-Marissiaux, 2011). Seven items from the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for children (PSPCSA, Harter & Pike, 1980) assessed children's perceived social acceptance. Their teachers completed the Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hughes, Soares-Boucaud, Hochmann, & Frith, 1997). For both groups together, the results showed that perceived social acceptance mediates the relation between ToM skills and social adjustment. The presence or absence of intellectual disabilities does not moderate the relations either between ToM skills and perceived social acceptance, or between perceived social acceptance and social adjustment. The study did not confirm the difference hypothesis of structural and relational patterns between these three processes in children with ID, but instead supported the hypothesis of a similar structure that develops in a delayed manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Executive functions as predictors of visual-motor integration in children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Sinanovic, Osman

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between visual-motor integration and executive functions, and in particular, the extent to which executive functions can predict visual-motor integration skills in children with intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 90 children (54 boys, 36 girls; M age = 11.3 yr., SD = 2.7, range 7-15) with intellectual disabilities of various etiologies. The measure of executive functions were 8 subscales of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) consisting of Inhibition, Shifting, Emotional Control, Initiating, Working memory, Planning, Organization of material, and Monitoring. Visual-motor integration was measured with the Acadia test of visual-motor integration (VMI). Regression analysis revealed that BRIEF subscales explained 38% of the variance in VMI scores. Of all the BRIEF subscales, only two were statistically significant predictors of visual-motor integration: Working memory and Monitoring. Possible implications of this finding are further elaborated.

  16. Socio-emotional regulation in children with intellectual disability and typically developing children, and teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Céline; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Dionne, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which socio-emotional regulation displayed in three dyadic interactive play contexts (neutral, competitive or cooperative) by 45 children with intellectual disability compared with 45 typically developing children (matched on developmental age, ranging from 3 to 6 years) is linked with the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. A Coding Grid of Socio-Emotional Regulation by Sequences (Baurain & Nader-Grosbois, 2011b, 2011c) focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behavior and Behavior toward Social Rules in children was applied. The Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hugues, Soares-Boucaud, Hochman, & Frith, 1997) and the Assessment, Evaluation and Intervention Program System (AEPS, Bricker, 2002) were completed by teachers. Regression analyses emphasized, in children with intellectual disability only, a positive significant link between their Behavior toward Social Rules in interactive contexts and the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. Children with intellectual disabilities who listen to and follow instructions, who are patient in waiting for their turn, and who moderate their externalized behavior are perceived by their teachers as socially adapted in their daily social relationships. The between-groups dissimilarity in the relational patterns between abilities in socio-emotional regulation and social adjustment supports the "structural difference hypothesis" with regard to the group with intellectual disability, compared with the typically developing group. Hierarchical cluster cases analyses identified distinct subgroups showing variable structural patterns between the three specific categories of abilities in socio-emotional regulation and their levels of social adjustment perceived by teachers. In both groups, several abilities in socio-emotional regulation and teachers' perceptions of social adjustment vary depending on children's developmental age. Chronological age in children with

  17. Human rights of children with intellectual disabilities: comparing self-ratings and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huus, K; Granlund, M; Bornman, J; Lygnegård, F

    2015-11-01

    A child rights-based approach to research articulates well with Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and highlights the importance and value of including children's own views about aspects that concern them. The aim of this study is to compare children with intellectual disability's own ratings (as self-raters) to those of their primary caregivers (as proxy raters) regarding human rights of children. The study also aims to establish whether there is an inter-rater agreement between the self-raters and proxy raters concerning Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This study is nested in a larger study examining the human rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa. In total, 162 children with intellectual disability from 11 schools across three provinces and their primary caregivers participated by answering parts of a Children's Rights Questionnaire (CRQ) developed by the researchers based on the United Nation's CRC. We compared the answers for six questions in the questionnaire that were addressed to self-raters (children) and proxy raters (primary caregivers) in the same way. Questions regarding basic needs, such as access to clean water or whether the child had food to eat at home, were answered similarly by self-raters and proxy raters. Larger differences were found when self-raters and proxy raters were asked about whether the child had things or friends to play with at home. Socio-economic variables seemed to affect whether self-raters and proxy raters answered similarly. The results underscore the importance of promoting children's rights to express themselves by considering the opinions of both the children as self-raters and their primary caregivers as proxy raters - not only the latter. The results indicate that it is especially important to include children's own voices when more complex needs are surveyed. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings could be affected by socio-economic circumstances.

  18. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... learning and becoming an independent person. What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...

  19. EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Karovska Ristovska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational policy for children with intellectual disability in Republic of Macedonia is not always consistent with the practical implications. The subject of this research was to gain an insight into the current condition of the persons with intellectual disabilities in Macedonia, before all an insight into the barriers that they are facing in their attempts to access educational information and services. This was done through conducting a qualitative (desk-top analyses of the national legislations; semi-structured interviews with parents of persons with intellectual disabilities and focus groups with relevant stakeholders and a quantitative research (quality of life research for the disabled persons. In the research a total number of 213 examinees were included. As in many other cases, and in many other countries, policy and practice are not always coherent. Legislation in the area of education in our country has to be modified and accommodated to the needs of the persons with disabilities and their parents or care-givers. The final conclusion from our research is that the persons with ID are still on the margins of society, and they lead everyday battles to prove that their needs must be taken into consideration in context of their human rights. Although awareness for the importance of the rightful treatment of this problem is not on a satisfactory level, still we can notice a shift in perception and liberation of prejudice.

  20. Anesthesia for intellectually disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetizing an intellectually disabled patient is a challenge due to lack of cognition and communication which makes perioperative evaluation difficult. The presence of associated medical problems and lack of cooperation further complicates the anesthetic technique. An online literature search was performed using keywords anesthesia, intellectually disabled, and mentally retarded and relevant articles were included for review. There is scarcity of literature dealing with intellectually disabled patients. The present review highlights the anesthetic challenges, their relevant evidence-based management, and the role of caretakers in the perioperative period. Proper understanding of the associated problems along with a considerate and unhurried approach are the essentials of anesthetic management of these patients.

  1. THE PROGRAM SUPPORT SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a description of the author’s program to support the social and psychological safety of children with intellectual disabilities enrolled in boarding school of VIII kind. The object of the study were children with intellectual disabilities. The subject of research – features of formation to children with intellectual disabilities the social and psychological safety. The methodological base are the special psychology (L.S. Vygotsky, S.L. Rubinstein, A. Speck. The results. Complex psychological and pedagogical support of social and psychological safety of children with intellectual disabilities reflects the content of psychological and pedagogical tasks (target function and technologies of their solution (instrumental function aimed at reducing internal and external risk factors. The target functions are: social and psychological adaptation, personal and developmental, the function of social support and psychological and pedagogical assistance, preventive and correctional function. Psycho-pedagogical objectives are the formation of skills of safe behavior and confront the dangers through the development of appropriate social skills, mental, physical and cognitive abilities, establishing a real and more comfortable with social contact (including municipal and educational environment, thereby ensuring individual protection and psychosocial well-being, support emotional balance, development of harmonious personality, to facilitate adaptation to the social environment, correction of risk factors of dysontogenesis. The program includes informative, technological and diagnostic modules. The basis for the construction of educational information in the field of security us based on the principle of integratively – interdisciplinary cooperation of academic subjects; a mix of mandatory core classes and extra-curricular and remedial work. Technological support included the following teaching methods: interactive (psychotechnical

  2. A Family Study of Consanguinity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Barwani, India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhan, Ram; Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Yerramilli, Srinivasa S. R. R.; Nahar, Vinayak K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) can be inherited in families through consanguineous marriage. The ID in an individual can be associated with the ID, epilepsy, and mental illness in their parents. Such connections can be seen more closely among consanguineous marriages in tribal and nontribal population in India. Objective: This study shows a few common patterns of the consanguineous relationship in the parents of children with ID in India. Materials and Methods: This is a case series...

  3. Computerized training of non-verbal reasoning and working memory in children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina eSöderqvist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in both reasoning ability and working memory (WM that impact everyday functioning and academic achievement. In this study we investigated the feasibility of cognitive training for improving WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR ability in children with intellectual disability. Participants were randomized to a 5-week adaptive training program (intervention group or non-adaptive version of the program (active control group. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and directly after training, and one year later to examine effects of the training. Improvements during training varied largely and amount of progress during training predicted transfer to WM and comprehension of instructions, with higher training progress being associated with greater transfer effects. The strongest predictors for training progress were found to be gender, co-morbidity and baseline capacity on verbal WM. In particular, females without an additional diagnosis and with higher baseline performance showed greater progress. No significant effects of training were observed at the one-year follow-up, suggesting that training should be more intense or repeated in order for effects to persist in children with intellectual disabilities. A major finding of this study is that cognitive training is feasible in children with intellectual disabilities and can help improve their cognitive capacities. However, a minimum cognitive capacity or training ability seems necessary for the training to be beneficial, with some individuals showing little improvement in performance. Future studies of cognitive training should take into consideration how inter-individual differences in training progress influence transfer effects and further investigate how baseline capacities predict training outcome.

  4. An external focus of attention enhances motor learning in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, S; Wulf, G; Avila, L T G

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined whether the learning benefits of an external focus of attention (i.e., on the movement effect) relative to an internal focus (i.e. on the movement), found previously in non-disabled children and adults would also be found in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Participants (n = 24; average age: 12.2 years) with mild intellectual deficiency (IQ = 51-69) practiced throwing beanbags at a target. In the external focus group, participants were instructed to direct their attention to the movement of the beanbag, while in the internal focus group, participants were asked to direct their attention to the movement of their hand. The practice phase consisted of 40 trials, and attentional focus reminders were given after every third trial. Learning was assessed 1 day later by retention and transfer (greater target distance) tests, each consisting of 10 trials. No focus reminders were given on that day. The external focus group demonstrated more effective learning than the internal focus group, as evidenced by more accurate tosses on the transfer test. The present findings show that instructions that induce an external focus of attention can enhance motor learning in children with IDs. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  5. Effects of inclusion on the academic achievement and adaptive behaviour of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessemontet, R Sermier; Bless, G; Morin, D

    2012-06-01

    While an extensive body of research has examined the outcomes of inclusion for pupils with special needs, in particular learning disabilities, its effects on the development of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been less explored. As inclusive practices tend to be more common for this group of children, it is important to acquire more knowledge on this issue. A comparative study with an experimental group of 34 children with ID fully included in general education classrooms with support, and a control group of 34 comparable children in special schools has been conducted. The progress accomplished by these two groups in their academic achievement and adaptive behaviour has been compared over two school years. Included children made slightly more progress in literacy skills than children attending special schools. No differences were found between the progress of the two groups in mathematics and adaptive behaviour. Inclusive education is an appropriate educational option for primary pupils with ID who require extensive support in school. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Beyond misconceptions: Assessing pain in children with mild to moderate intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eZabalia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess and manage pain in children and adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability, healthcare providers need access to updated tools and current knowledge. Recent studies show that these children can verbally express pain and use self-assessment tools accurately. Moreover, they know pain coping strategies. Finally, they show mental imaging skills and are able to recall autobiographical memories. These new data suggest that such children and adolescents could be candidates to for hypno-analgesia protocols and behavioral relaxation

  7. Cerebral Palsy and Intellectual Disability in the Children of Women With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Fumika; Makino, Yasuo; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Nagata, Satoru; Matsui, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, especially cerebral palsy and intellectual disability, in pregnant women with and without chronic kidney disease and their children. In total, 156 pregnancies involving 139 women with chronic kidney disease who were treated at our center between 2001 and 2010 were identified. We also selected 3067 women without chronic kidney disease who delivered their infants without suffering any medical complications during the same period as control groups. Long-term neonatal prognosis was assessed based on the frequencies of cerebral palsy and/or intellectual disability. The pregnant women had the following types of chronic kidney disease: immunoglobulin A nephropathy (n = 54), glomerulonephritis (n = 17), chronic renal failure (n = 16), nephrotic syndrome (n = 12), nephritis (n = 11), diabetic nephropathy (n = 10), congenital malformations and deformations (n = 10), purpura nephritis (n = 7), and others (n = 19). Of the children who were born to mothers with chronic kidney disease, one developed cerebral palsy, and another developed cerebral palsy with intellectual disability. Seven of the children who were born to mothers without chronic kidney disease developed cerebral palsy. The posterior probability of these conditions was 0.01900 and 0.002610 in the children born to mothers with and without chronic kidney disease, respectively. A primiparous mother (odds ratio [OR]: 4.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]): 2.78 to 5.95), preeclampsia (OR: 6.44, 95% CI: 3.92 to 10.59), grade 1 to 4 intraventricular hemorrhaging (OR: 7.71, 95% CI: 2.05 to 28.92), and an Apgar score of less than 7 at five minutes (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.96) were found to influence the risk of cerebral palsy and/or intellectual disability in children born to women with chronic kidney disease. We found that the incidence of cerebral palsy and/or intellectual disability is 7.2-fold higher in children born to women

  8. Intellectual Disability and Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.

  9. Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in a Resource-Poor Setting in India--Part 1: Association with Age, Sex, Severity of Intellectual Disabilities and IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Kishore, M. Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems are most common in people with intellectual disabilities. Nature of behaviour problems can vary depending upon the age, sex and intellectual level (IQ). Objectives: This study examined the distribution of behaviour problems across intellectual disability categories and their association with IQ age and sex in…

  10. Test of gross motor development-2 for Filipino children with intellectual disability: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M; Eguia, Kathlynne F; Simons, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine aspects of validity and reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in Filipino children with intellectual disability. Content and construct validity were verified, as well as inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Two paediatric physiotherapists tested 81 children with intellectual disability (mean age = 9.29 ± 2.71 years) on locomotor and object control skills. Analysis of covariance, confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of variance were used to test validity, while Cronbach's alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine reliability. Age was a significant predictor of locomotor and object control scores (P = 0.004). The data fit the hypothesised two-factor model with fit indices as follows: χ(2) = 33.525, DF = 34, P = 0.491, χ(2)/DF = 0.986. As hypothesised, gender was a significant predictor for object control skills (P = 0.038). Participants' mean scores were significantly below mastery (locomotor, P intellectual disability.

  11. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with a psychiatric disorder and mild intellectual disability to borderline intellectual functioning: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Lidwien; van der Waa, Anne; Klip, Helen; Staal, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability frequently have difficulties in adapting to their environment. The extent of the experienced problems does not only depend on cognitive functioning but is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a psychiatric disorder or other brain disorders, or adverse environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies show that children with intellectual disabilities are at an increased risk to develop psychiatric disorders. This is also true for youth with a mild intellectual disability and even those with borderline intellectual functioning (mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID)). Psychiatric disorders are often overlooked because behavioral problems are rather attributed to the intellectual disability. Consequently, effective psychiatric interventions, which are needed to improve the level of functioning, are not applied. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the currently available, qualitatively sound research concerning the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, specifically directed at psychiatric disorders in children with MBID. Assessed for eligibility were 1409 unique reports, and the review ultimately included only 12 reports. Review of the results and meta-analyses showed that the majority of studies suffer from multiple limitations and that methodological variations between studies are extensive. This possibly reflects the high variance of factors that may be involved in MBID. It will be important in future research to address multi-causality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Parents of children with and without intellectual disability: couple relationship and individual well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlin, D; Broberg, M

    2013-06-01

    Research on parents of children with intellectual disability (ID) has identified a range of risk and protective factors for parental well-being. In family research, the association between marital quality and depression is a vital field of investigation. Still little research has addressed how aspects of the couple relationship affect the adaptation of parents of children with ID. The present study examined predictive links between couple relationship factors (marital quality and coparenting quality) and individual well-being. Data were obtained through self-report questionnaires completed by parents of children with ID (mothers, n = 58; and fathers, n = 46) and control children (mothers, n = 178; and fathers, n = 141). To test the hypothesis that couple relationship factors predicted individual well-being, multiple regression analyses were performed controlling for the following risk factors identified by previous research: child self-injury/stereotypic behaviour, parenting stress, and economic risk. Marital quality predicted concurrent well-being, and coparenting quality predicted prospective well-being. Mothers of children with ID reported lower well-being than other parents. There is a continued need for investigation of the details of the links between couple relationship and individual well-being in parents of children with ID. Couple relationship factors should be given consideration in clinical interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  13. Unsupportive parenting and internalising behaviour problems in children with or without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, N V; Zeedyk, S M; Baker, B L

    2016-12-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at heightened risk for developing other psychological disorders, including internalising disorders. Anxiety and depression have been shown to be familial, and parenting is a contributing factor to the development of these disorders. To extend this research, we examined the extent to which mother and father depression and negative, unsupportive parenting related to child internalising behaviour problems, in children with ID or with typical development (TD). Participants were 156 mother and father dyads and their children, assessed at ages 4 and 5 years. We examined parent (mother and father) and child delay status (ID and TD) in relation to measures of both observed and self-reported unsupportive, negative parenting. Utilising moderation models, we examined the relationship between parental depression, unsupportive/negative parenting and child internalising behaviour problems. Unsupportive, negative parenting differed based on parent gender and child delay status. In addition, father depression was a significant moderator of the relationship between unsupportive parenting and child internalising behaviour problems. Children with ID were found to be at higher risk of experiencing unsupportive, negative parenting than children with TD. Children of depressed fathers were especially vulnerable to developing internalising behaviour problems in an unsupportive parenting context. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Learning disabilities and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E; Culbertson, Jan L; Accornero, Veronica H; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C; Bandstra, Emmalee S

    2006-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (Wechsler, 1991) short form, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler, 1993) Screener by examiners blind to exposure status. LDs were categorized based on ability-achievement discrepancy scores, using the regression-based predicted achievement method described in the WIAT manual. The sample in this report included 409 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 197 non-cocaine-exposed) from the birth cohort with available data. Cumulative incidence proportions and relative risk values were estimated using STATA software (Statacorp, 2003). No differences were found in the estimate of relative risk for impaired intellectual functioning (IQ below 70) between children with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (estimated relative risk = .95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 1.39; p = .79). The cocaine-exposed children had 2.8 times greater risk of developing a LD by age 7 than non-cocaine-exposed children (95% CI = 1.05, 7.67; p = .038; IQ >/= 70 cutoff). Results remained stable with adjustment for multiple child and caregiver covariates, suggesting that children with prenatal cocaine exposure are at increased risk for developing a learning disability by age 7 when compared to their non-cocaine-exposed peers.

  15. Oral health in children with physical (Cerebral Palsy) and intellectual (Down Syndrome) disabilities: Systematic review I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez-Pérez, Montserrat; de Nova-García, Manuel-Joaquín; Mourelle-Martínez, M Rosa; Bartolomé-Villar, Begona

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally, patients with physical and/or intellectual disabilities presented greater oral pathology, owing to their condition and to other external factors. Improved social and health conditions make it necessary to update knowledge on their oral and dental health. For this purpose, a bibliographic review was done regarding the state of oral health of children with these two types of disability, in comparison with a control group. Some of the guidelines of the PRISMA statement were taken into account. The ranking of the articles found is based on the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The final number of articles evaluated was 14. Parameters such as dental caries, oral hygiene, gingival health, dental traumas, malocclusion and habits were considered. There is no consensus among authors regarding dental caries, oral hygiene and gingival health. The different results obtained are due in part to the fact that the methodologies used were not the same. However, it has been noted that, when studying other parameters and regardless of the methodology employed, the results obtained are similar. Children with physical and intellectual disabilities constitute a group that needs early and regular dental care in order to prevent and limit the severity of the pathologies observed. Oral health, dental caries, malocclusion, oral habits, dental trauma, oral hygiene, disabled child, cerebral palsy and Down syndrome.

  16. Visual-Motor Integration in Children With Mild Intellectual Disability: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memisevic, Haris; Djordjevic, Mirjana

    2018-01-01

    Visual-motor integration (VMI) skills, defined as the coordination of fine motor and visual perceptual abilities, are a very good indicator of a child's overall level of functioning. Research has clearly established that children with intellectual disability (ID) have deficits in VMI skills. This article presents a meta-analytic review of 10 research studies involving 652 children with mild ID for which a VMI skills assessment was also available. We measured the standardized mean difference (Hedges' g) between scores on VMI tests of these children with mild ID and either typically developing children's VMI test scores in these studies or normative mean values on VMI tests used by the studies. While mild ID is defined in part by intelligence scores that are two to three standard deviations below those of typically developing children, the standardized mean difference of VMI differences between typically developing children and children with mild ID in this meta-analysis was 1.75 (95% CI [1.11, 2.38]). Thus, the intellectual and adaptive skill deficits of children with mild ID may be greater (perhaps especially due to their abstract and conceptual reasoning deficits) than their relative VMI deficits. We discuss the possible meaning of this relative VMI strength among children with mild ID and suggest that their stronger VMI skills may be a target for intensive academic interventions as a means of attenuating problems in adaptive functioning.

  17. Prevalence of Overweight and Mothers' Perception of Weight Status of Their Children with Intellectual Disabilities in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeongmi; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Choi, Eunsook

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and examine relationships between weight status of children with intellectual disabilities (IDs), mothers' perceived weight status of children, and socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional study of 206 mothers of children with IDs in six special schools in Seoul, South…

  18. Looking beyond Maternal Sensitivity: Mother-Child Correlates of Attachment Security among Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Halliburton, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined correlates of attachment security among children with intellectual disabilities in urban India. Survey and observational data were gathered from 47 children, mothers, and teachers on children's attachment security, adaptive functioning, and mother-child emotional availability. The data were analyzed to examine whether child…

  19. Inhibitory control as a factor of adaptive functioning of children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorović Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the adaptive behaviour is one of the defining parameters of intellectual disability, determining of the influence of inhibitory control on adaptive functioning in children with mild intellectual disability was defined as a basic aim of this research. The sample covered 95 children with mild intellectual disability (MID, of both genders, from 10 to 14 years of age. By analysis of the data of schools' pedagogical-psychological departments, data on age and intellectual abilities of participants were collected. Inhibitory control was estimated by Go no Go task, consisted of Conflict Response and Response Delay sets. Adaptive skills data were gained on the basis of a standardized interview with special education teachers, by applying of AAMR Scale of adaptive functioning. On the basis of factor analysis, Scale scores were grouped in five factors: Personal independence, Social Independence, Personal and Social Responsibility, Social Adaptability and Personal Adaptability. Significance of relations among the observed variables was established by Pearson's correlation coefficient, by partial correlation coefficient and multifactorial variance analysis. Based on the analysis of results a statistically significant relationship between errors in the execution of tasks that belong to the set of conflict motor responses and adaptive functioning (p≤0.000 was established. The relationship between errors that belong to the set of the response delay, and adaptive functioning is not statistically significant (p=0.324. Inhibition of the interference response is a significant factor of practical (partial η2=0.227, conceptual (partial η2=0.341 and social (partial η2=0.131 adaptive skills, while the response delay is significantly associated with the conceptual skills (p=0.029 only. Inhibitory control did not prove itself a significant factor in behaviour problems of externalizing and internalized type.

  20. An algorithm for the diagnosis of X-linked intellectual disability in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Voinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked intellectual disability (XLID is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary diseases caused by mutations on the X chromosome, which lead to impaired intellectual development. The paper determines for the first time the proportion of X-linked diseases (6.54% in the pattern of intellectual disability in children. A system has been developed to quantify the clinical severity of fragile X mental retardation syndrome and Rett syndrome. A system has been scientifically justified to predict the clinical severity, which is based on an analysis of the impact of genetic and epigenetic factors (mutation type and location, X chromosome inactivation. The authors have determined the contribution of nonrandom X inactivation to the clinical polymorphism of various forms of XLID and established its role as an important diagnostic marker for pathology. It is shown that the study of X chromosome inactivation can identify asymptomatic female carriers of X-linked mutations to provide medical genetic counseling to families. An algorithm has been elaborated to diagnose XLID among the undifferentiated forms of mental developmental abnormalities in children

  1. Education creates comfort and challenges stigma towards children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breau, Lynn M; Aston, Megan; MacLeod, Emily

    2018-03-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are frequent users of the healthcare system, yet nurses report they receive little education regarding specialized medical, social and relational needs of this population. Therefore, parents take on a greater burden of care while their child is in hospital than do parents of typically developing children. This article reports findings from a qualitative study that used feminist poststructuralism to examine the hospital experiences of eight children with IDs, 17 mothers and 12 nurses. Nurses and mothers reported a lack of knowledge and education regarding the healthcare of children with ID and identified a need for more education. Participants noted that physical care of children with ID was prioritized as more important than communication and relationships. This unintentional prioritization was socially and institutionally constructed through stigma and stereotypes about people with IDs. Nurses and parents offered suggestions to access and increase ID education for healthcare professionals.

  2. Parents' emotion expression as a predictor of child's social competence: children with or without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S; Baker, B

    2011-03-01

    Parents' expression of positive emotion towards children who are typically developing (TD) is generally associated with better social development. However, the association between parents' negative emotion expression and social development can be positive or negative depending upon a number of factors, including the child's emotion regulation abilities. Given the lower emotion regulation capabilities of children with intellectual disability (ID), we hypothesised that parents' negative emotion expression would be associated with lower social development in children with ID compared to those with TD. Participants were 180 families of children with or without ID enrolled in a longitudinal study. Parents' positive and negative affect were coded live from naturalistic home interactions at child ages 5-8 years, and child's social skills were measured by using mother report at child ages 6-9 years. We examined mothers' and fathers' emotion expression as a time-varying predictor of social skills across ages 5-9 years. Mothers, but not fathers, expressed less positive affect and more negative affect with ID group children. Parents' positive affect expression was related to social skills only for TD children, with mothers' positive affect predicting higher social skills. Contrary to expectations, fathers' positive affect predicted lower social skills. Parents' negative affect predicted significantly lower social skills for children with ID than for children with TD. Findings support the theory that low to moderate levels of negative expression may be less beneficial or detrimental for children with ID compared to children with TD. Implications for further research and intervention are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The role of maternal responsivity in the development of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Steven F; Brady, Nancy C

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cumulative exposure to highly responsive parenting styles throughout the early childhood period may provide a variety of important child benefits in terms of language, cognitive, social, and emotional development. We view maternal responsivity as a dynamic construct of central importance to the development of children with intellectual disabilities just as it is for typically developing children. In this study, we selectively review the theoretical and conceptual evidence for the effects of responsivity on development, discuss factors known to influence responsivity including the nature of a child's disability, and review intervention approaches intended to enhance maternal responsivity. We conclude with a set of recommendations for future research. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Parent-child problem solving in families of children with or without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, N; Green, S; Ellingsen, R; Baker, B L

    2014-01-01

    To examine differences in child social competence and parent-child interactions involving children with intellectual disability (ID) or typical development (TD) during a Parent-Child Problem-Solving Task. Mothers and their 9-year-old children (n = 122) participated in a problem-solving task in which they discussed and tried to resolve an issue they disagreed about. The interactions were coded on child and mother problem solving and affect behaviours, as well as the dyad's problem resolution. Children with ID (n = 35) were rated lower on expression/negotiation skills and higher on resistance to the task than children with TD (n = 87). Mothers in the ID group (vs. TD group) were more likely to direct the conversation. However, there were no group differences on maternal feeling acknowledgement, engagement, warmth or antagonism. The ID dyads were less likely to come to a resolution and to compromise in doing so than the TD dyads. These group differences were not attributable to differences in children's behaviour problems. Children with ID and their mothers had more difficulty resolving problems, and this increased difficulty was not explained by greater behaviour problems. Additionally, with the exception of directiveness, mothers of children with ID displayed similar behaviours and affect towards their children during problem solving as mothers of children with TD. Results suggest that the Parent-Child Problem-Solving Task is a useful way to assess social skills and associated parental behaviours in middle childhood beyond self-report. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  5. Receptive Language Skills in Slovak-Speaking Children With Intellectual Disability: Understanding Words, Sentences, and Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polišenská, Kamila; Kapalková, Svetlana; Novotková, Monika

    2018-06-05

    The study aims to describe receptive language skills in children with intellectual disability (ID) and to contribute to the debate on deviant versus delayed language development. This is the 1st study of receptive skills in children with ID who speak a Slavic language, providing insight into how language development is affected by disability and also language typology. Twenty-eight Slovak-speaking children participated in the study (14 children with ID and 14 typically developing [TD] children matched on nonverbal reasoning abilities). The children were assessed by receptive language tasks targeting words, sentences, and stories, and the groups were compared quantitatively and qualitatively. The groups showed similar language profiles, with a better understanding of words, followed by sentences, with the poorest comprehension for stories. Nouns were comprehended better than verbs; sentence constructions also showed a qualitatively similar picture, although some dissimilarities emerged. Verb comprehension was strongly related to sentence comprehension in both groups and related to story comprehension in the TD group only. The findings appear to support the view that receptive language skills follow the same developmental route in children with ID as seen in younger TD children, suggesting that language development is a robust process and does not seem to be differentially affected by ID even when delayed.

  6. The Development of Object Permanence in Children with Intellectual Disability, Physical Disability, Autism, and Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan; Muhammad, Zayyad

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature on object permanence with an emphasis on research on children with severe disabilities. Object permanence is the realisation that objects continue to exist in time and place even when they are no longer visible. This understanding is achieved across Stages IV-VI of Piaget's Sensorimotor Period.…

  7. Verbal fluency in children with intellectual disability: Influence of basic executive components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonemic and semantic fluency tasks are frequently used to differentiate executive control roles and the integrity of lexical-semantic representation. The main goal of this study is to determine the influence of basic executive components on phonemic and semantic productivity in children with mild intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 95 children with unspecified mild intellectual disability (MID, ages 10-13.11. Phonemic fluency was assessed by the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT, while semantic fluency was assessed by the Category Naming Test (CNT. Cognitive flexibility was assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and Trail Making Test (TMT. Number Manipulation Task (NMT was used for the verbal working memory assessment, while Day/Night Stroop Task was used for the assessment of inhibitory control. The results analysis showed that all of the assessed EF components significantly affect phonemic productivity. Semantic productivity significantly depends on WCST and TMT performance. Verbal working memory and inhibitory control do not significantly contribute to semantic productivity. The results of our study indicate that the discrepancy between phonemic and semantic productivity in children with MID could be directly associated with the basic executive functions components.

  8. Reduction of errors during practice facilitates fundamental movement skill learning in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, C M; Poolton, J M; Sit, C H P; Eguia, K F; Masters, R S W

    2013-04-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been found to have inferior motor proficiencies in fundamental movement skills (FMS). This study examined the effects of training the FMS of overhand throwing by manipulating the amount of practice errors. Participants included 39 children with ID aged 4-11 years who were allocated into either an error-reduced (ER) training programme or a more typical programme in which errors were frequent (error-strewn, ES). Throwing movement form, throwing accuracy, and throwing frequency during free play were evaluated. The ER programme improved movement form, and increased throwing activity during free play to a greater extent than the ES programme. Furthermore, ER learners were found to be capable of engaging in a secondary cognitive task while manifesting robust throwing accuracy performance. The findings support the use of movement skills training programmes that constrain practice errors in children with ID, suggesting that such approach results in improved performance and heightened movement engagement in free play. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES: A COMMUNITY-BASED REHABILITATION APPROACH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram LAKHAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inclusion of children with intellectual disabilities (ID and multiple disabilities (MD in regular schools in India is extremely poor. One of the key objectives of community-based rehabilitation (CBR is to include ID & MD children in regular schools. This study attempted to find out association with age, ID severity, poverty, gender, parent education, population, and multiple disabilities comprising one or more disorders cerebral palsy, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders with inclusion among 259 children in Barwani Block of Barwani District in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.Aim: Inclusion of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities in regular schools through CBR approach in India.Method: Chi square test was conducted to investigate association between inclusion and predictor variables ID categories, age, gender, poverty level, parent education, population type and multiple disabilities. Result: Inclusion was possible for borderline 2(66.4%, mild 54(68.3%, moderate 18(18.2%, and age range from 5 to 12 years 63 (43%. Children living in poor families 63 (30.6%, not poor 11(18.9%, parental edu­ca­ti­on none 52 (26%, primary level 11 (65%, midd­le school 10 (48% high school 0 (0% and bachelor degree 1(7%, female 34 (27.9%, male 40 (29.2%, tribal 40 (28.7%, non-tribal 34(28.3% and multiple disabled with cerebral palsy 1(1.2%, epilepsy 3 (4.8% and psychiatry disorders 12 (22.6% were able to receive inclusive education. Sig­ni­ficant difference in inclusion among ID ca­te­gories (c2=99.8, p < 0.001, poverty (c2=3.37, p 0.044, parental education (c2=23.7, p < 0.001, MD CP (c2=43.9, p < 0.001 and epilepsy (c2=22.4, p < 0.001 were seen.Conclusion: Inclusion through CBR is feasible and acceptable in poor rural settings in India. CBR can facilitate inclusion of children with borderline, mild and moderate categories by involving their parents, teachers and community members.

  10. Effects of hippotherapy on the thickness of deep abdominal muscles and activity of daily living in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JiHyun; Yun, Chang-Kyo

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hippotherapy exercise on the thickness of deep abdominal muscles and daily activities of children with intellectual disabilities. [Subjects and Methods] Seven children with intellectual disabilities were treated with hippotherapy for 30 minutes twice a week for 6 weeks. The thickness of deep abdominal muscles and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) of the subjects were measured by ultrasonography before and after the experiment. [Results] There was no significant change in the thickness of the External Oblique and Internal Oblique muscles, but there was a statistically significant change in Transverse Adbominis thickness and FIM score after treatment compared to before treatment. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy exercise has a positive effect on the improvement of Transverse Abdominis (TrA) and activity of daily livings of children with intellectual disabilities.

  11. Behavioral management in children with intellectual disabilities in a resource-poor setting in Barwani, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of behavioral problems in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is a great concern in resource-poor areas in India. This study attempted to analyze the efficacy of behavioral intervention provided in resource-poor settings. Objective: This study was aimed to examine the outcome of behavioral management provided to children with ID in a poor rural region in India. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from 104 children between 3 and 18 years old who received interventions for behavioral problems in a clinical or a community setting. The behavioral assessment scale for Indian children with mental retardation (BASIC-MR) was used to quantify the study subjects’ behavioral problems before and after we applied behavioral management techniques (baseline and post-intervention, respectively). The baseline and post-intervention scores were analyzed using the following statistical techniques: Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the efficacy of intervention; χ2 for group differences. Results: The study demonstrated behavioral improvements across all behavior domains (P < 0.05). Levels of improvement varied for children with different severities of ID (P = 0.001), between children who did and did not have multiple disabilities (P = 0.011). Conclusion: The outcome of this behavioral management study suggests that behavioral intervention can be effectively provided to children with ID in poor areas. PMID:24574557

  12. Development of an intervention for children with a mild intellectual disability of parents with a mental illness (COPMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma, I.; Santvoort, F. van; Vermaes, I.P.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To date no intervention is available for children with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) of parents with a mental illness or substance use disorder, despite the strong relation between parental psychopathology and ID in children. Moreover, research has shown that mild ID combined with

  13. Effectiveness of an Intervention for Children with Externalizing Behavior and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, Hilde; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Standing Strong Together (SST), a combined group based parent and child intervention for externalizing behavior in 9–16 year-old children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Children with externalizing behavior and MBID (IQ from 55 to

  14. Do Social Information-Processing Models Explain Aggressive Behaviour by Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Residential Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. O.; van der Valk, I.; Wijnroks, L.; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine whether the social information-processing model (SIP model) applies to aggressive behaviour by children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The response-decision element of SIP was expected to be unnecessary to explain aggressive behaviour in these children, and SIP was expected to mediate the…

  15. Comparison of Peer and Self-Video Modeling in Teaching First Aid Skills to Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Serife Yucesoy

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) compare peer and self-video modeling in terms of effectiveness and efficiency in teaching first aid skills to children with intellectual disability and (2) analyze the error patterns made in probe sessions to determine whether the children who took the role of sufferers during the first aid skill sessions…

  16. Medicaid Personal Care Services for Children with Intellectual Disabilities: What Assistance Is Provided? When Is Assistance Provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Timothy R.; Patnaik, Ashweeta; Naiser, Emily; Fournier, Constance J.; McMaughan, Darcy K.; Dyer, James A.; Phillips, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the nature and timing of services provided to children with an intellectual disability (ID) identified by a new comprehensive assessment and care planning tool used to evaluate children's needs for Medicaid Personal Care Services (PCS) in Texas. The new assessment procedure resulted from a legal settlement with the advocacy community.…

  17. The Effects of Psychopathology on the Pain Expression of Children and Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breau, Lynn M.; Camfield, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral pain assessment is possible for children and youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). However, pain behavior is often misinterpreted as reflecting psychopathology. We examined whether psychopathology alters pain behavior. Caregivers of 123 children (56 girls ages 40 to 258 months) completed the Non-Communicating…

  18. Quality of Life in Caregivers of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: Use of WHOQOL-BREF Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Hu, Jung; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chen, Mei-Hua; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2009-01-01

    The present study based on World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) scale to examine quality of life of the caregivers caring for their children/adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan, and the factors contributing to their quality of life. Structured interviews were conducted with 597 caregivers of children/adolescents…

  19. Impulse Control and Aggressive Response Generation as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Borderline Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Orobio de Castro, B.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However, recently a discrepancy was found between…

  20. Impulse control and aggressive response generation as predictors of aggressive behaviour in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; de Castro, B. Orobio; van Aken, M. A. G.; Matthys, W.

    A growing interest exists in mechanisms involved in behaviour problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intelligence (MID/BI). Social problem solving difficulties have been found to be an explanatory mechanism for aggressive behaviour in these children. However,

  1. Motor Deficits of Girls with Down Syndrome in Comparing with Girls with Intellectual Disability in the School Ages Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Daftari-Anbardan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Motor function in children with Down syndrome is similar to mentally retarded children. But the movements are slower and have lower quality. The purpose of this study was to identify weaknesses in motor function in children with Down syndrome, by using Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, thirty six children with intellectual disability, 18 girls with Down syndrome and 18 girls without Down syndrome, with chronological aged 8-13 years were investigated. The subjects of Down syndrome were selected by available sampling. The subjects of intellectual disability were selected by simple random sampling. Two groups of participants were matched for chronological age and IQ level. The measurement was BOTMP. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U rank sum test and t-test. Results: The children with Down syndrome scored significantly lower than the mentally retarded children in the areas of gross motor skill composite (P<0.014 balance (P<0.029, response time (P<0.034 and visual motor control (P<0.048, but the fine motor and overlay motor skill composite, and subtests of bilateral coordination, strength, upper limb coordination scores were no significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: Motor rehabilitation is appropriate for children with intellectual disability, especially for children with Down syndrome, in throughout their adolescence. Key words: Motor skill/ Intellectual Disability/ Down syndrome/ BOTMP

  2. The Lived Experience of Spirituality by the Elderly Parents of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Hamedanchi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Over the next 30 years there will be a considerable increase in the number of elderly parents of children with intellectual disability. The present article is a part of a phenomenological study on the lived experience of elderly parents of children with intellectual disability which focuses on the issue of spirituality. There is insufficient scientific evidences related to this important phenomenon. Methods & Materials: Based on a purposeful sampling, ten elderly parents of children with intellectual disability (5 mothers and 5 fathers took part in the un-structured deep interviews. The data were analyzed using a Colaizzi phenomenological approach. Results: “Spirituality” was one of the four identified emergent themes. The other emergent themes were “Bitterness” ,”Emotional attachment”, ”Support satisfaction”. Despite of having difficulties in caregiving to the child with disability, the parents appreciate God and consider the child as his will. They also trust in God when facing problems. Conclusion: In the current study, spirituality was emerged as an important theme. The participants do believe that having a child with disability is God's will and even his bless. In this way of thinking, suffering and sorrows become tolerable, less painful and even valuable. Spirituality could be considered as a part of care plans for the elderly parents of children with intellectual disability. Since this phenomenon is a process it would be better to investigate that by Grounded Theory approach.

  3. Prevalence of depression in mothers of intellectually disabled children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourav Chandravanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intellectual disability (ID is a permanent and highly disabling condition. The birth of a disabled child induces complex feelings in mother and other family members. This study was planned to investigate phenomenology of ID and the prevalence of depression in their mothers. Objective: To find prevalence, influence of various sociodemographic variables, and its clinical correlation with depression in mothers of ID children. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed as ID were included in the study. Objective data were collected in a special Pro forma, and mothers of these patients were evaluated with the Beck's Anxiety Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory. Results: The mean age of patients with ID was 11.52 years, had received an average of 3.01 years of schooling, mean age at diagnosis was 6.01 years, mean intelligence quotient was 45.17, and 79% had significant comorbidities. The prevalence of depression in mothers was 79%; it was more in mothers of female ID child, ID child with significant comorbidities, severer forms of retardation, and with higher levels of anxiety in the mother. Conclusions: The prevalence of depression in mothers of ID children in the present study seems to be much greater than those reported from the previous studies. The determination of predictors of depression among mothers of ID children may help health professionals in identifying mothers at risk. Regular screening of mothers of ID children should be included in the protocol for management.

  4. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for loving and fulfilling relationships with others. Individual rights to sexuality, which is essential to human health and well-being, have been denied. This loss has negatively affected people with intellectual disabilities in gender identity, friendships, self-esteem, body image ...

  5. Intervention for Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J; Walsh, Caitlin E; Mulder, Emile; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Hajcak, Greg; Carr, Edward G; Zarcone, Jennifer R

    2017-12-01

    There is little research on the functional assessment and treatment of anxiety and related problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly those with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). In a recent study, we evaluated a multimethod strategy for assessing anxiety in children with ASD and IDD (Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 118:419-434, 2013). In the present study, we developed treatments for the anxiety and associated problem behavior in these same children. A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention package, incorporating individualized strategies from Positive Behavior Support and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. During intervention, all three participants showed substantial decreases in anxiety and problem behavior and significant increases in respiratory sinus arrhythmia in the situations that had previously been identified as anxiety-provoking.

  6. Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 ≤ IQ ≥ 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in both groups. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and a self-report measure were used to assess children's gross motor skills and sports participation, respectively. The children with ID scored significantly lower on almost all specific motor skill items than the typically developing children. Children with mild ID scored lower on the locomotor skills than children with borderline ID. Furthermore, we found in all groups that children with higher object-control scores participated more in organized sports than children with lower object-control scores. Our results support the importance of attention for well-developed gross motor skills in children with borderline and mild ID, especially to object-control skills, which might contribute positively to their sports participation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Usefulness of the DBC-ASA as a Screening Instrument for Autism in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Shoumitro; Dhaliwal, Akal-Joat; Roy, Meera

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To explore the validity of Developmental Behaviour Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm (DBC-ASA) as a screening instrument for autism among children with intellectual disabilities. Method: Data were collected from the case notes of 109 children with intellectual disabilities attending a specialist clinic in the UK. Results: The mean score…

  8. 228 THE INTELLECTUAL DISABLED (MENTALLY IMPAIRED) IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    The Intellectual disabled child is characterized by significantly sub average general intellectual ... by abnormal development, learning difficulties, and problem in social ... softened and classifications redefined some what to mild (IQ of 55 –70) moderate .... parents do not like the isolation of their children from normal children.

  9. [Nutritional status in children with intellectual disabilities based on anthropometric profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Vidal-Espinoza, Rubén; Lagos-Luciano, Juan; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropometric variables such as weight, height and body length in children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities should be studied in connection with nutritional status, physical growth and biological maturation. a) to analyze the anthropometric profile based on nutritional status, b) to determine the prevalence of overweight and short stature c) to propose equations for predicting height from anthropometric variables. A total of 49 children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, and from a special education school were studied (30 boys and 19 girls). Weight, height, trunk-cephalic height, forearm and foot length were evaluated. The calculation of nutritional status resulted in the establishment of nutritional categories: underweight, normal and overweight. The anthropometric profile of males varies significantly when classified according to nutritional categories (P.05). Also, high values of overweight prevalence were observed in both genders (43% of boys and 26% of girls). Variables such as age, weight, length of the forearm in females, and foot length in males are good predictors of height (R(2) = 91-94% males and R(2) = 87% females). A high percentage of overweight cases were observed; therefore, rigorous control and monitoring of nutritional status are suggested. The proposed regression equations could be an option in schools to easily and simply predict height. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Lagging skills contribute to challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B; Cleary, Patrick; Kuschner, Emily S; Miller, Judith S; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Guy, Lisa; Kenworthy, Lauren; Schultz, Robert T; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2017-08-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder display challenging behaviors. These behaviors are not limited to those with cognitive and/or language impairments. The Collaborative and Proactive Solutions framework proposes that challenging behaviors result from an incompatibility between environmental demands and a child's "lagging skills." The primary Collaborative and Proactive Solutions lagging skills-executive function, emotion regulation, language, and social skills-are often areas of weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether these lagging skills are associated with challenging behaviors in youth with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Parents of 182 youth with autism spectrum disorder (6-15 years) completed measures of their children's challenging behaviors, executive function, language, emotion regulation, and social skills. We tested whether the Collaborative and Proactive Solutions lagging skills predicted challenging behaviors using multiple linear regression. The Collaborative and Proactive Solutions lagging skills explained significant variance in participants' challenging behaviors. The Depression (emotion regulation), Inhibit (executive function), and Sameness (executive function) scales emerged as significant predictors. Impairments in emotion regulation and executive function may contribute substantially to aggressive and oppositional behaviors in school-age youth with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Treatment for challenging behaviors in this group may consider targeting the incompatibility between environmental demands and a child's lagging skills.

  11. Benefits of extending and adjusting the level of difficulty on computerized cognitive training for children with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon eOttersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Training on working memory (WM improves attention and working memory in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and memory impairments. However, for children with intellectual disabilities (ID, the results have been less encouraging. In this preliminary study it was hypothesized that children with ID would benefit from an extended amount of training and that the level of difficulty during training would affect the outcome. We included 21 children with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities aged 8–13 years. They went through between 37 and 50 training sessions with an adaptive computerized program on WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR. The children were divided into two subgroups with different difficulty levels during training. The transfer to untrained cognitive tests was compared to the results of 22 children with intellectual disabilities training only 25 sessions, and to a control group. We found that the training group with the extended training program improved significantly on a block design task measuring NVR and on a WM task compared to the control group. There was also a significantly larger improvement on block design relative to the training group with the shorter training time. The children that received easier training tasks also improved significantly more on a verbal WM task compared to children with more demanding tasks.In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that children with ID might benefit from cognitive training with longer training periods and less demanding tasks, compared to children without disabilities.

  12. Time use of parents raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijkx, J; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2017-07-01

    Raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is expected to put extreme pressure on parental time use patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the total time use of mothers and fathers raising children with PIMD and compare it with the time use of parents of typically developing children. Twenty-seven fathers and 30 mothers raising children with PIMD completed a time use diary on a mobile phone or tablet app, as did 66 fathers and 109 mothers of typically developing children. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare mean time use. There are no differences in the time use of parents of children with PIMD on contracted time (paid work and educational activities) and necessary time (personal care, eating and drinking and sleeping) when compared with parents of typically developing children. There are significant differences between the parents of children with PIMD and the parents of typically developing children in terms of committed time (time for domestic work and the care and supervision of their children) and free time. The mothers of children with PIMD spend significantly less time on domestic work and more time on care and supervision than mothers of typically developing children. This study shows that the parents of children with PIMD have to spend a significant amount of time on care tasks and have on average 1.5 h less free time per day than parents of typically developing children. This is a striking difference, because leisure time can substantially contribute to well-being. Therefore, it is important not only to consider a child with PIMD's support needs but also to identify what parents need to continue their children's daily care and supervision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fathers of children with Down's syndrome versus other types of intellectual disability: perceptions, stress and involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, L A; Hodapp, R M

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined fathers' perceptions of, stress relating to and involvement with children with Down's syndrome (DS) (n = 30) versus those with other types of intellectual disability (ID) (n = 20). Fathers and mothers completed questionnaires about their children's personalities and maladaptive behaviours, their own parenting stress, and the fathers' level of involvement. Both fathers and mothers rated their children with DS as having more positive personality traits and fewer maladaptive behaviours. Possibly because of these positive perceptions, fathers of children with DS also reported less child-related stress, particularly in the areas of acceptability, adaptability and demandingness. The two groups of fathers were very similarly involved in child rearing. The personality, age and maladaptive behaviours of the children related to stress levels in the fathers of children with DS, while maladaptive behaviours, gender and the fathers' education levels related to stress levels in the fathers of children with other types of ID. These results highlight the importance of examining parental stress and involvement with children with different types of ID.

  14. Frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with intellectual disability in Lahore, Pakistan & Caregivers Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Sattar, Ahsan; Bhatti, Mohammad Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Association between Intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric disorders in children & adolescents is well established but there is a paucity of published studies from Pakistan on this topic. The main aim of the study was to assess the frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in the hospital outpatient sample of children with ID in Lahore, Pakistan as well as to find out which challenging behaviors, caregivers find difficult to manage in this setup. Socio-demographic information was collected, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised & ICD-10 diagnostic criteria was used to assess children (age range 6 - 16 years) with suspected ID along with identification of behaviors found to be difficult to manage by caregivers. 150 children were assessed with mean age of 10.7 years (males 70 %). Majority (72%) had mild ID while 18.7% and 9.3% had moderate and severe ID respectively. Thirty percent of children met the criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis, the most common being Oppositional Defiant Disorder (14%) and Hyperkinetic Disorders (10%). Verbal and physical aggression, school difficulties, socialization problems, inappropriate behaviors (e.g. disinhibition), sleep & feeding difficulties were the significant areas identified by the caregivers as a cause of major concern. Significantly high prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with ID was found in Lahore, Pakistan. Support services for these children should be responsive not only to the needs of the child, but also to the needs of the family.

  15. Cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Evelien; Segers, Eliane; van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-11-01

    A considerable number of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) are able to acquire basic word reading skills. However, not much is known about their achievements in more advanced reading comprehension skills. In the present study, a group of 49 children with ID and a control group of 21 typically developing children with word decoding skills in the normal ranges of first grade were compared in lower level (explicit meaning) and higher level (implicit meaning) reading comprehension abilities. Moreover, in the group of children with ID it was examined to what extent their levels of lower level and higher level reading comprehension could be predicted from their linguistic skills (word decoding, vocabulary, language comprehension) and cognitive skill (nonverbal reasoning). It was found that children with ID were weaker than typically developing children in higher level reading comprehension but not in lower level reading comprehension. Children with ID also performed below the control group on nonverbal reasoning and language comprehension. After controlling for nonverbal reasoning, linguistic skills predicted lower level reading comprehension but not higher level reading comprehension. It can be concluded that children with ID who have basic decoding skill do reasonably well on lower level reading comprehension but continue to have problems with higher level reading comprehension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for psychopathology in children with intellectual disability: a prospective longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, J L; Dekker, M C; Koot, H M

    2006-04-01

    This study examined risk factors for the development of psychopathology in children with intellectual disability (ID) in the developmental, biological, family and social-ecological domains. A population sample of 968 children, aged 6-18, enrolled in special schools in The Netherlands for educable and trainable ID were assessed at Time 1. A random 58% were re-contacted about 1 year later, resulting in a sample of 474 at Time 2. Psychopathology was highly consistent over 1 year. Risk factors jointly accounted for significant, but small, portions of the variance in development of psychopathology. Child physical symptoms, family dysfunction and previous parental mental health treatment reported at Time 1 were uniquely associated with new psychopathology at Time 2. Prevention and early intervention research to find ways to reduce the incidence of psychopathology, possibly targeting family functioning, appear important.

  17. Understanding Intellectual Disability through Rasopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent...

  18. The validity and reliability of the Functional Strength Measurement (FSM) in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, W F M; Steenbergen, B; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2018-06-07

    There is lack of valid and reliable field-based tests for assessing functional strength in young children with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Functional Strength Measurement in children with ID (FSM-ID). Fifty-two children with mild ID (40 boys and 12 girls, mean age 8.48 years, SD = 1.48) were tested with the FSM. Test-retest reliability (n = 32) was examined by a two-way interclass correlation coefficient for agreement (ICC 2.1A). Standard error of measurement and smallest detectable change were calculated. Construct validity was determined by calculating correlations between the FSM-ID and handheld dynamometry (HHD) (convergent validity), FSM-ID, FSM-ID and subtest strength of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency - second edition (BOT-2) (convergent validity) and the FSM-ID and balance subtest of the BOT-2 (discriminant validity). Test-retest reliability ICC ranged 0.89-0.98. Correlation between the items of the FSM-ID and HHD ranged 0.39-0.79 and between FSM-ID and BOT-2 (strength items) 0.41-0.80. Correlation between items of the FSM-ID and BOT-2 (balance items) ranged 0.41-0.70. The FSM-ID showed good test-retest reliability and good convergent validity with the HHD and BOT-2 subtest strength. The correlations assessing discriminant validity were higher than expected. Poor levels of postural control and core stability in children with mild IDs may be the underlying factor of those higher correlations. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Body mass index of children and youth with an intellectual disability by country economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; Foley, John T; Temple, Viviene A

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities are at higher risk for health disparities including overweight and obesity; however, little is known at the population level about the BMI status of children and youth with intellectual disabilities. This study is a secondary analysis of BMI status (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) in children and youth (8-Olympics by country economic status. A total of 14,032 participants (n=8,856 male) measured height and weight records were available from the Special Olympics International Health Promotion database. The 141 countries in the database were re-coded according to the World Bank's classification of country economic status. BMI prevalence rates were calculated for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity for children and youth using IOTF cutoffs by economic status. Chi-squared analyses and Fisher's exact test were used to examine differences in weight status by economy and sex. Overall, 27.87% of Special Olympics participants from low-income economies, 31.04% from lower middle-income, 25.29% from upper middle-income, and 42.36% from high-income economies had BMI levels outside of the normal range. The low-income countries had higher rates of underweight and the high-income countries had higher rates of obesity. The high levels of both underweight and overweight/obesity found in this population of children and youth participating in Special Olympics represents a double burden of health risk. More research is needed to understand why this population experiences such disparities in BMI status and to develop health promotion initiatives targeted at this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of physical activity in improving physical fitness in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kyla; Staples, Kerri

    2017-10-01

    One in three children in North America are considered overweight or obese. Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at an increased risk for obesity than their typically developing peers. Decreased physical activity (PA) and low physical fitness may be contributing factors to this rise in obesity. Because children with IDD are at an increased risk of diseases related to inactivity, it is important to improve health-related physical fitness to complete activities of daily living and improve health. The focus of this research is on improving the performance of physical fitness components through physical activity programming among a group of children with IDD, ages 7-12 years. The Brockport Physical Fitness Test was used assess levels of physical fitness of 35 children with IDD (25 boys, 10 girls) before and after participation in a 10-week program. The results of paired sampled t-tests showed participation in 15-h PA program can significantly increase aerobic capacity and muscular strength and endurance in children with IDD. This study is aimed at understanding the role of PA in helping children with IDD to develop the fitness capacities essential to participation in a wide variety of activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Symptoms and development of anxiety in children with or without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shulamite A; Berkovits, Lauren D; Baker, Bruce L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group differences in presentation and trajectory of anxiety symptoms and disorders in children with moderate to borderline intellectual disability (ID) and children with typical cognitive development (TD). Examined anxiety disorders and symptoms in children with ID (n=74) or TD (n=116) annually from ages 5 through 9 using a parent structured interview and questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine odds of meeting anxiety criteria and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine anxiety trajectory. Children with ID had significantly higher rates of clinical levels of anxiety on the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 8 and 9 and higher rates of separation anxiety disorder at age 5 compared to those with TD. Children with ID were also more likely to have externalizing problems co-occurring with anxiety. The rate of increase of anxiety symptoms over time was positive and similar in the two groups, and neither group showed sex differences in anxiety rates. Results suggest that children with ID have both higher rates of anxiety across time and are delayed in showing typical decreases in separation anxiety in early childhood. Implications for intervention are discussed in terms of the importance of screening for and treating anxiety in children with ID.

  2. Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities and Externalizing Behavior: Individual Characteristics, Family functioning and Treatment Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those

  3. Parenting and the parent-child relationship in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior

  4. Reliability of assessing the sensory perception of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, C.; Cuppen-Fonteine, H.

    Background This study describes preliminary stages of developing a checklist to enable practitioners to determine the behavioural responses of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities to sensory stimuli. Reliability of currently used checklists is low, with a focus on the

  5. Assessing Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Children with Intellectual Disability: Revisiting the Factor Structure of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Marielle C.; Nunn, Russell J.; Einfeld, Stewart E.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Koot, Hans M.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of parent and teacher Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC) ratings on a combined sample of 1,536 Dutch and Australian children (ages 3-22) with mild to profound intellectual disabilities produced five subscales: Disruptive/Antisocial, Self-Absorbed, Communication Disturbance, Anxiety, and Social Relating. Internal consistency of the…

  6. Analogical Matrices in Young Children and Students with Intellectual Disability: Reasoning by Analogy or Reasoning by Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaes, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Background: Analogical reasoning (AR) is renowned for being a complex activity. Young children tend to reason by association, rather by analogy, and people with intellectual disability present problems of memorization. Both these populations usually show low performances in AR. The present author investigated whether familiar material and external…

  7. Stress among Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Urban India: Role of Gender and Maternal Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha

    2012-01-01

    Background: The study assessed stress among mothers of young children with intellectual disabilities in urban India and examined the extent to which child functioning and maternal coping predict maternal stress. Through qualitative analyses, the study identified negative and positive dimensions of Indian mothers' caregiving experiences. Materials…

  8. A Multimethod Assessment of Anxiety and Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Lauren J.; Mulder, Emile; Walsh, Caitlin E.; McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Carr, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased risk for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is a lack of research on the assessment and treatment of anxiety in this population, particularly for those with an intellectual disability (ID). The present study evaluated a multimethod strategy for the assessment of anxiety and problem…

  9. The Effect of an Attachment-Based Behaviour Therapy for Children with Visual and Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkenburg, P. S.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Schuengel, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A combination of an attachment-based therapy and behaviour modification was investigated for children with persistent challenging behaviour. Method: Six clients with visual and severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behaviour and with a background of pathogenic care were treated. Challenging behaviour was recorded…

  10. The Impact of Inclusive Education (IE) on the Rights of Children with Intellectual Disabilities (IDs) in Chegutu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapuranga, Barbra; Dumba, Oswald; Musodza, Blessing

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of Inclusive Education (IE) on the rights of children with Intellectual Disabilities in schools around Chegutu. The qualitative case study method was used for the research. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from schools around Chegutu. Random sampling was used to choose the sample group from…

  11. Association between Parent Reports of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Behaviours and Child Impulsivity in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, K.; Daley, D. M.; Hastings, R. P.; Jones, R. S. P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although children with intellectual disability (ID) seemed to be at increased risk for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/hyperactivity problems when assessed with parent report questionnaires and clinical interviews, there has been little attention to the associations between parent reports and observed child behaviours.…

  12. Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) Levels in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Fang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Lan-Ping; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The elevated serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) rate among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is unknown and have not been sufficiently studies. The present paper aims to provide the profile of GOT and GPT, and their associated relationship with other biochemical levels of children or…

  13. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  14. Understanding the Importance of Relationships: Perspective of Children with Intellectual Disabilities, Their Parents, and Nurses in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Megan; Breau, Lynn; MacLeod, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Effective and therapeutic relationships between health care providers and clients are important elements for positive health outcomes. Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and their parents face unique challenges in establishing relationships with health care providers due to social and institutional stigma and stereotypes associated with…

  15. Low intensity behavioral treatment supplementing preschool services for young children with autism spectrum disorders and severe to mild intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (on average 6.5 h per week) supplementing preschool services in 3-6-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder and severe to mild intellectual disability. Treatment was implemented in preschools (i.e., daycare centers)

  16. The Effectiveness of the Quality of Life Therapy on Parental Stress and its Dimensions among Mothers with Intellectually Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    صدیقه آقائی

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the effectiveness of quality of life therapy on reducing parental stress and its dimensions among mothers who have children with intellectual disability. The research was designed as semi-experimental pretest-posttest with a control group. The statistical population was all mothers who had school children with intellectual disability in Semirom town. The statistical sample contained 30 mothers with intellectually disabled children who were voluntary selected. They were randomly assigned in experimental (15 mothers and control (15 mothers groups. While the control group was in waiting list, the experimental group received eight 90-minutes sessions of quality of life therapy. The measurement was the short form of Parental Stress Questionnaire (Abedin, 1983. Both groups were evaluated in pre-test and post-test. Collected data were analyzed by descriptive (means and standard deviations and inferential statistic (multivariate covariate analysis methods. The results showed that the scores of control group in posttest parental stress was higher in comparison to experimental group. As regard to the results it can be said that the quality of life therapy training is significantly effective on improving parental stress and its dimensions among mothers with Intellectually Disabled Children.

  17. Measurement of perceived competence in Dutch children with mild intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, C; Vermeer, A; 't Hart, H

    2005-04-01

    Little research has been conducted on the perceived competence of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). One of the reasons for the marked absence of research appears to be the lack of reliable and clearly valid measurement instruments for this particular group of children. In the present study, it was examined whether a pictorial scale originally designed to measure perceived competence in typically developing children could successfully be used with children with MID. The pictorial scale was administered to a group of 106 children with MID. The construct validity, reliability and stability of the scale were investigated. The results of the exploratory factor analyses and the confirmatory factor analyses supported the conceptual framework proposed. The construct validity was also supported by the pattern of intercorrelations between the subscales. The scale had adequate internal consistency and the stability analyses showed sufficient stability across a 4-month period. The findings show the psychometric properties of the pictorial scale to justify its use with children with MID.

  18. An Assistive Computerized System with Tangible User Interfaces for Children with Moderate Intellectual and Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad Mohamad Aljaam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an assistive learning system for children with moderate intellectual and learning disabilities that supports collaboration, data exploration, communication and creativity. The system offers a wide range of tutorials on basic concepts of elementary sciences with some edutainment games and puzzles based on different tangible user interfaces TUIs. The system can enhance the communications, memorization, reasoning and learning capabilities of the children with special needs. The tutorials contain multimedia elements that help the children understand effectively the topics and allow them to interact and be more proactive. An assessment component is developed to evaluate the children understanding. Parents are actively involved in the learning process by being able to add or customize contents specific to their children. The children can use the TUIs alone and get prompted on all the steps to perform some daily activities like the school day activity, the tooth brushing activity, etc. This will increase their self-reliance and self-dependence.

  19. Preventable visual impairment in children 
with nonprofound intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Lokman; Aslankurt, Murat; Aksoy, Adnan; Altun, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    To assess the preventable visual impairment in children with nonprofound intellectual disability (ID). 
 A total of 215 children with IDs (90 Down syndrome [DS], 125 nonprofound ID) and 116 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants underwent ophthalmologic examinations including cycloplegic refraction measurements, ocular movement evaluation, screening for strabismus (Hirschberg, Krimsky, or prism cover test), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, funduscopy, and intraocular pressure measurements. All data were recorded for statistical analysis.
 Ocular findings in decreasing prevalence were as follows: refractive errors 55 (61.1%), strabismus 30 (33.2%), cataract 7 (7.8%), and nystagmus 7 (7.8%) in children with DS; refractive errors 57 (45.6%), strabismus 19 (15.2%), cataract 7 (6.4%), nystagmus 5 (4%), and glaucoma 1 (0.8%) in children with other ID; and refractive errors 13 (11.2%) and strabismus 4 (3.5%) in controls. Cataracts, glaucoma, and nystagmus were not observed in the control group. The most common ophthalmic findings in children with DS compared with other ID and controls were with hyperopia (pvisual impairments, refractive errors, strabismus, and cataracts. The prevalence of strabismus and refractive errors was more frequent in children with DS. The importance of further health screenings including ophthalmic examinations should be utilized to implement appropriate care management and improve quality of life.

  20. The effect of color on the recognition and use of line drawings by children with severe intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jennifer

    2007-03-01

    Line drawings are commonly used as communication symbols for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. This study investigated the effect of color on the recognition and use of line drawings by young children with severe intellectual disabilities and poor verbal comprehension who were beginning picture users. Drawings where the color of the picture matched the object and where the color of the drawing did not match the object were used, as well as black and white line drawings. Tentative findings suggest that some students with intellectual disabilities may find it more difficult to recognize and line drawings where the color does not match the object compared to line drawings where the color of the drawing does match the color of the object.

  1. Physical education teachers' attitudes towards children with intellectual disability: the impact of time in service, gender, and previous acquaintance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, D; Nalbant, S; Aǧlamıș, E; Baran, F; Kaya Samut, P; Aktop, A; Hutzler, Y

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated attitudes towards teaching students with intellectual disability (ID) within a representative sample of secondary school physical education (PE) teachers, and to determine the effects of age, gender, teaching experience, and having acquaintance with ID and students with ID on their attitudes. Participants were 729 secondary school PE teachers who worked in 81 major cities of Turkey. The Teachers Attitudes towards Children with Intellectual Disability Scale was administered. The statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant effect on factors and total attitudes scores of gender and having students with ID. Significant effects on factors and total attitudes score were found in teaching experiences and having acquaintance with ID. It is encouraged to maintain and further develop in-service education programmes of adapted physical activity for PE teachers. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  2. Problem and pro-social behavior among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: the implication for developing policy for school based mental health programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44 children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7% of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63. Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate

  3. Problem and pro-social behavior among Nigerian children with intellectual disability: the implication for developing policy for school based mental health programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background School based mental health programs are absent in most educational institutions for intellectually disabled children and adolescents in Nigeria and co-morbid behavioral problems often complicate intellectual disability in children and adolescents receiving special education instructions. Little is known about prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems existing co-morbidly among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of behavioral problems among Nigerian children with intellectual disability and also the associated factors. Method Teachers' rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to screen for behavioral problems among children with intellectual disability in a special education facility in south eastern Nigeria. Socio-demographic questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic information of the children. Results A total of forty four (44) children with intellectual disability were involved in the study. Twenty one (47.7%) of the children were classified as having behavioral problems in the borderline and abnormal categories on total difficulties clinical scale of SDQ using the cut-off point recommended by Goodman. Mild mental retardation as compared to moderate, severe and profound retardation was associated with highest total difficulties mean score. Males were more likely to exhibit conduct and hyperactivity behavioral problems compared to the females. The inter-clinical scales correlations of teachers' rated SDQ in the studied population also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha = 0.63). Conclusion Significant behavioral problems occur co-morbidly among Nigerian children with intellectual disability receiving special education instructions and this could impact negatively on educational learning and other areas of functioning. There is an urgent need for establishing school-based mental health program and appropriate screening measure in this

  4. The Maintenance Effect of Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment Groups for the Chinese Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Melbourne, Australia: A 6-Month Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D. F. K.; Poon, A.; Kwok, Y. C. Lai

    2011-01-01

    Background: Caring for a child with intellectual disability can be stressful. No data on the longer-term effects of cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) on parents from a Chinese-speaking background who have children with intellectual disabilities are available in the literature. This study attempted to fill this research gap by examining the…

  5. DSM-IV disorders in children with borderline to moderate intellectual disability. II: Child and family predictors. [IF 3.6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.C.; Koot, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify child and family factors that predict DSM-IV disorders in children with intellectual disability. Method: In 1997, a total of 968 6- to 18-year-olds were randomly selected from Dutch schools for intellectual disability (response 69.3%). Parents completed the Child Behavior

  6. Overweight and obesity among children at risk of intellectual disability in 20 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A; Emerson, E

    2016-11-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) in high income countries are at significantly greater risk of obesity than their non-disabled peers. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 3 to 4-year-old children who are/are not at risk of ID in low and middle income countries. Secondary analysis of Round 4 and 5 UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) from 20 low and middle income countries that included a total of 83 597 3 to 4-year-old children. Few differences in risk of overweight or obesity were apparent between 3 and 4-year-old children identified as being at risk/not at risk of ID in 20 low and middle income countries. In the two countries where statistically significant differences were observed, prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower among children at risk of ID. These results stand in stark contrast to evidence from high income countries which suggest that children with ID are at significantly increased risk of obesity when compared to their non-intellectually disabled peers. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic drug use in institutionalized children and adolescents with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifes, Arlette; de Jong, Daniël; Stolker, Joost Jan; Nijman, Henk L I; Egberts, Toine C G; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2013-10-01

    Psychotropic drugs are a cornerstone in the treatment of psychopathology and/or behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability (ID), despite concerns about efficacy and safety. Studies on the prevalence of psychotropic drug use have mainly been focused on adults with ID or children without ID. Therefore the aim of this cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic drug use in children with mild ID who were institutionalized in specialized inpatient treatment facilities in The Netherlands. Demographic data, psychiatric diagnoses, the nature of the behavioral problems, level of intellectual functioning, and medication data were extracted from medical records using a standardized data collection form. Adjusted relative risks (ARR) for the association between patient characteristics and psychotropic drug use were estimated with Cox regression analysis. Of the 472 included children, 29.4% (n=139) used any psychotropic drug, of which 15.3% (n=72) used antipsychotics (mainly risperidone), and 14.8% (n=70) used psychostimulants (mainly methylphenidate). Age, sex, and behavioral problems were associated with psychotropic drug use. Boys had a 1.7 (95%CI 1.1-2.4) higher probability of using psychotropic drugs, compared to girls adjusted for age and behavioral problems. Having any behavioral problem was associated with psychotropic drug use with an ARR of 2.1 (95%CI 1.3-3.3), adjusted for sex and age. The high prevalence of psychotropic drug use in children with ID is worrisome because of the lack of evidence of effectiveness (especially for behavioral problems) at this young age, and the potential of adverse drug reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attitudes of children and adolescents toward persons who are deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S. de; Freriksen, E.; Vervloed, M.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students’ attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and

  9. Attitudes of Children and Adolescents toward Persons Who Are Deaf, Blind, Paralyzed or Intellectually Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Stijn; Freriksen, Ellen; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students' attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and 144 university students were determined with two…

  10. The awareness of primary caregivers in South Africa of the human rights of their children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huus, K; Dada, S; Bornman, J; Lygnegård, F

    2016-11-01

    Besides the right to freedom, human rights can be seen as a basic requirement also for the maintenance of human dignity and the opportunity to thrive - particularly in the case of children with disabilities. It is imperative to explore primary caregivers' awareness of the human rights of their children with intellectual disabilities in view of the role they may play in either facilitating or restricting these rights. This paper explores the awareness of 219 primary caregivers of the human rights of their children with intellectual disabilities. A descriptive survey design was used with a custom-designed questionnaire that employed a deductive content analysis based on the articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child. Comparisons were drawn between the awareness of primary caregivers from urban and those from rural areas. The majority (85.5%) of participants agreed that their child with intellectual disability had rights. Three broad kinds of right were mentioned (in descending order): provision rights, protection rights and participation rights. Participants from both urban and rural areas mentioned education (a provision right) most frequently. However, participants from urban areas were more aware of the different rights that existed than were their counterparts from rural areas. Primary caregivers in both rural and urban areas are aware of the rights of their children with disabilities, although there are significant differences between them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Difficulties of care-work reconciliation: employed and nonemployed mothers of children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Fu, Li-Yeh; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Chang, Heng-Hao

    2012-09-01

    Whether employed and nonemployed mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID) have different experiences with reconciliation between care and work has rarely been explored. A survey was conducted in a county in Taiwan and 487 mothers aged younger than 65 and having a child with ID were interviewed face to face at their homes to explore whether there are different factors related to the reconciliation between care and work among employed and nonemployed mothers. Except for the common ground of mothers' health and care demands, logistic regression revealed work flexibility and care support were important for employed mothers. In contrast, the success of reconciliation for nonemployed mothers was determined by their individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, family income). Reconciliation policies for mothers with different employment statuses need to use different strategies.

  12. Phonological short-term memory impairment and the word length effect in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloczek, Sebastian; Büttner, Gerhard; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) of nonspecific aetiology perform poorer on phonological short-term memory tasks than children matched for mental age indicating a structural deficit in a process contributing to short-term recall of verbal material. One explanation is that children with ID of nonspecific aetiology do not activate subvocal rehearsal to refresh degrading memory traces. However, existing research concerning this explanation is inconclusive since studies focussing on the word length effect (WLE) as indicator of rehearsal have revealed inconsistent results for samples with ID and because in several existing studies, it is unclear whether the WLE was caused by rehearsal or merely appeared during output of the responses. We assumed that in children with ID only output delays produce a small WLE while in typically developing 6- to 8-year-olds rehearsal and output contribute to the WLE. From this assumption we derived several predictions that were tested in an experiment including 34 children with mild or borderline ID and 34 typically developing children matched for mental age (MA). As predicted, results revealed a small but significant WLE for children with ID that was significantly smaller than the WLE in the control group. Additionally, for children with ID, a WLE was not found for the first word of each trial but the effect emerged only in later serial positions. The findings corroborate the notion that in children with ID subvocal rehearsal does not develop in line with their mental age and provide a potential explanation for the inconsistent results on the WLE in children with ID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intellectual disability and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, C; Picard, S

    2011-04-01

    The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a team dedicated to homeless persons. (1) To describe the characteristics, history and current situation of these persons; and (2) to report within-group differences as a function of gender and current residential status. The data were collected from files using an anonymous chart summary. Descriptive statistics on the whole sample (n = 68) and inferential statistics on cross-tabulations by gender and residential status were performed. Persons with ID exhibited several related problems. Some of these persons, primarily women, experienced relatively short periods of homelessness and their situations stabilised once they were identified and followed up. Other persons with ID experienced chronic homelessness that appeared to parallel the number and severity of their other problems. When compared with a previous epidemiological study of the homeless in Montreal, the population of homeless persons with ID differed from the overall homeless population in a number of respects. The results suggest prevention and intervention targets. The need for epidemiological research appears particularly clear in light of the fact that below-average intellectual functioning has been identified as a risk factor for homelessness and a predisposing factor for vulnerability among street people. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Social Service Utilisation Patterns among Children with Mild Intellectual Disability--Differences between Children Integrated into Mainstream Classes and Children in Self-Contained Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lena M.; Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth; Granlund, Mats; Huus, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with a mild intellectual disability (ID) and their families often require social services; however, because of the characteristics of the formal service system, these families may be at risk of not receiving necessary services. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge regarding the types and number of services that…

  15. The Effectiveness of Backward Chaining Methods to Improve Skills in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arip Apriyadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A child with intellectual disability has problems in adaptive behavior such as eating skill. The research objective was to describe: 1 the ability of the child with intellectual disability before being given intervention using backward chaining method, 2 the ability of the child with intellectual disability after being given intervention using backward chaining method, and 3 the effectiveness of backward chaining method to increase the eating skills for child with intellectual disability. The method of this study was an experimental method by using the Single Subject Research (SSR with the A-B-A design model. The results showed that the percentage of overlap between the baseline condition-1 and the intervention condition was 0%. The calculation declared that there was increase eating skill for child with intellectual disability with backward chaining. Anak disabilitas intelektual memiliki masalah dalam perilaku adaptif seperti pada keterampilan makan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan: 1 kemampuan anak disabilitas intelektual sebelum diberikan intervensi menggunakan backward chaining, 2 kemampuan anak disabilitas intelektual setelah diberikan intervensi menggunakan backward chaining, dan 3 keefektifan backward chaining untuk meningkatkan keterampilan makan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen dengan menggunakan Single Subject Reseach (SSR dengan desain A-B-A. Hasil penelitian menunjukan perolehan presentase overlap antara kondisi baseline-1 ke kondisi intervensi sebesar 0%. Perhitungan tersebut menyatakan adanya pengaruh keefektifan backward chaining sebagai intervensi terhadap peningkatan keterampilan makan sebagai target behavior.

  16. Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities and Externalizing Behavior: Individual Characteristics, Family functioning and Treatment Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Schuiringa, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID; IQ between 55 and 85 with problems in adaptive functioning) have been found to show higher rates of emotional and externalizing behavior problems and their externalizing behavior problems tend to persist over time, more so than those in peers with average intelligence (defined here as an IQ above 85). The processes underlying these externalizing behavior problems in children with MBID nevertheless largely remained unclear and e...

  17. Effectiveness of an Intervention for Children with Externalizing Behavior and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schuiringa, Hilde; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Lochman, John E.; Matthys, Walter

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Standing Strong Together (SST), a combined group based parent and child intervention for externalizing behavior in 9?16?year-old children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). Children with externalizing behavior and MBID (IQ from 55 to 85) (N?=?169) were cluster randomly assigned to SST combined with care as usual or to care as usual only. SST led to a significant benefit on teacher reported but not on parent reported externalizin...

  18. Does Quality of Life Differ for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability Compared to Peers without Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Víctor B.; Gómez, Laura E.; Morán, Ma. Lucía; Alcedo, Ma. Ángeles; Monsalve, Asunción; Fontanil, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    The main goal was to test if children with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show lower quality of life (QOL) in comparison to those with only ID. The KidsLife Scale was applied to 1060 children with ID, 25% of whom also had ASD, aged 4-21 years old. Those with ASD showed lower scores in several QOL domains but, when…

  19. Parent–child problem solving in families of children with or without intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, N.; Green, S.; Ellingsen, R.; Baker, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine differences in child social competence and parent–child interactions involving children with intellectual disability (ID) or typical development (TD) during a Parent–Child Problem-Solving Task. Design Mothers and their 9-year-old children (n = 122) participated in a problem-solving task in which they discussed and tried to resolve an issue they disagreed about. The interactions were coded on child and mother problem solving and affect behaviours, as well as the dyad’s problem resolution. Results Children with ID (n = 35) were rated lower on expression/negotiation skills and higher on resistance to the task than children with TD (n = 87). Mothers in the ID group (vs. TD group) were more likely to direct the conversation. However, there were no group differences on maternal feeling acknowledgement, engagement, warmth or antagonism. The ID dyads were less likely to come to a resolution and to compromise in doing so than the TD dyads. These group differences were not attributable to differences in children’s behaviour problems. Conclusions Children with ID and their mothers had more difficulty resolving problems, and this increased difficulty was not explained by greater behaviour problems. Additionally, with the exception of directiveness, mothers of children with ID displayed similar behaviours and affect towards their children during problem solving as mothers of children with TD. Results suggest that the Parent–Child Problem-Solving Task is a useful way to assess social skills and associated parental behaviours in middle childhood beyond self-report. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:23336566

  20. PARENT’S SATISFACTION WITH SOME FEATURES OF EARLY CARE PROVISIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana PINTARIC MLINAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Probably from the very beginning of the human curiosity in disability features for family’s values, structures, parenting styles, circles of support, strengths and others, have been just as appealing as the child or adult with disabilities themselves. As many studies confirmed, professionals' approach to parents, getting adequate information and type of treatment present a challenge to families of children with established developmental disabilities and those at risk for disability. The main purpose of this study was to analyze parents' satisfaction with these three main features of support in early treatment of their child with intellectual disability. The sample consisted of 81 families with intellectually disabled child, recruited from seven types of care provided in three towns in Croatia. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA comparing variety of parents satisfaction in four groups formed according to the level of intellectual disability. The method revealed a significant difference among groups in the variable referring to the parents satisfaction with treatment accessibility and its frequency provided.

  1. Perspectives of intellectual disability in Mexico: epidemiology, policy, and services for children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gregorio; Márquez-Caraveo, Maria E; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2010-09-01

    Intellectual disability is a public health issue, which has largely been overlooked in Mexico. The magnitude of this problem is unknown; few programs exist for adults and mental health professionals focus mainly on identifying treatable comorbidities. In Mexico, there is an example of a best practice in social integration. This program has benefited hundreds of adults with intellectual disability by teaching four basic abilities: practical academic skills; vocational skills; independent living skills; and skills for community integration. In a sociocultural and economic context such as Mexico's, social integration programs are feasible and necessary in order to provide an organized social response to the health, social, and vocational needs of people with intellectual disability and should become part of public policy.

  2. THE DIAGNOSIS OF PREPARATION FOR SCHOOLING TO CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lismay Pérez-Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of preparation for schooling to children with intellectual disability face challenges in the present educative practice. This article has two main airms: to identify the main problematic situations while diagnosing the preparation for schooling to the subjects of the research and to evaluate the impact of the didactic and methodological recommendations suggest du the educative process of the kindergarten in the Special Day Care Center “Alegre Despertar”. The methods used during the research were: document analyse, interview and observations. The methods administered revealed that the subjects of the research do not reach the required levels in the areas that evaluate their preparation for schooling and the methods and thechniques used to characterizateer used reflect more the needs than the potencial each kid has. Another important need lies on the fact that the direction of the educative process is not one hundred percent in correspondence with the subjects under research characteristics and it, consequently, doesn ́t contribute to the children ́ preparation for life. The methodological and didactic recommendations had positive impact since they contributed, in the educative process, to favor the children behavior in the areas that guarantee their preparation for schooling.

  3. Predicting expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-12-01

    This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. This study included 36 children with ID, age 3;00 (years;months) to 6;05, with an average initial expressive vocabulary of 67 words. Expressive vocabulary acquisition was longitudinally followed over a 2-year period based on 4-monthly administrations of the Dutch version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory/Words and Gestures (I. Zink & M. Lejaegere, 2002). Specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment as well as cognitive skills and vocabulary comprehension were measured at baseline. Individual growth modeling indicated that vocabulary comprehension was the only unique predictor of initial expressive vocabulary. Subsequent vocabulary growth was uniquely predicted by proportion of bimodal gesture + vocalization comments, chronological age, and cognitive skills. The results of this study underscore the great heterogeneity in expressive vocabulary skills in children with ID. The importance of prelinguistic communication, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension for explaining differences in expressive vocabulary skills is discussed.

  4. A Family Study of Consanguinity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Barwani, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Yerramilli, Srinivasa S R R; Nahar, Vinayak K

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) can be inherited in families through consanguineous marriage. The ID in an individual can be associated with the ID, epilepsy, and mental illness in their parents. Such connections can be seen more closely among consanguineous marriages in tribal and nontribal population in India. This study shows a few common patterns of the consanguineous relationship in the parents of children with ID in India. This is a case series research design. Extreme or deviant case sampling was applied. Data were collected in homes, camps, and clinical settings in the Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The patterns of consanguineous marriages and the relationship between children with ID and their relatives with ID, epilepsy, and mental illness were analyzed and reported with pedigree charts. Multiple patterns of consanguineous marriages in tribal and nontribal populations were observed. ID was found to be associated in children with their relatives of the first, second, and third generations. ID may inherit in individuals from their relatives of the first, second, and third generations who have ID, epilepsy, or mental illness and married in the relationship. Appropriate knowledge, guidance, and counseling may be provided to potential couples before planning a consanguineous marriage.

  5. A family study of consanguinity in children with intellectual disabilities in Barwani, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Lakhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intellectual disability (ID can be inherited in families through consanguineous marriage. The ID in an individual can be associated with the ID, epilepsy, and mental illness in their parents. Such connections can be seen more closely among consanguineous marriages in tribal and nontribal population in India. Objective: This study shows a few common patterns of the consanguineous relationship in the parents of children with ID in India. Materials and Methods: This is a case series research design. Extreme or deviant case sampling was applied. Data were collected in homes, camps, and clinical settings in the Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The patterns of consanguineous marriages and the relationship between children with ID and their relatives with ID, epilepsy, and mental illness were analyzed and reported with pedigree charts. Results: Multiple patterns of consanguineous marriages in tribal and nontribal populations were observed. ID was found to be associated in children with their relatives of the first, second, and third generations. Conclusion: ID may inherit in individuals from their relatives of the first, second, and third generations who have ID, epilepsy, or mental illness and married in the relationship. Appropriate knowledge, guidance, and counseling may be provided to potential couples before planning a consanguineous marriage.

  6. Influence of inhibitory control on planning abilities in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorović Milica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the fact that the tendency toward unsophisticated strategies is often related to difficulties with basic components of executive functions, the aim of this research was to determine the relation between planning abilities and inhibitory control in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample included 56 children with idiopathic MID (IQ 50-69, M=61.13, SD=7.14, of both genders (26/46.3% of girls, between 9.11 and 14.03 years of age (M=11.61; SD=1.29. Go no Go Task and Day/Night Stroop Task were used for the assessment of inhibitory control (delayed response to the agreed signal, conflict provoking motor responses, and inhibition of arrogant verbal responses, while Tower of London Test (ToL was used for the assessment of planning abilities. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA, paired samples t-test, Pearson's correlation, and partial correlation coefficients were used in statistical analysis of the results. The results showed that the mistakes in Response delay set of Go-no-Go task were the only significant factor of primary Total move score variable (ToL. The influence of the ability to delay motor activity, assessed by Response delay set, on all ToL variables was statistically significant (p=0.003. The results lead to a conclusion that, during the processes of planning and executing activities, children with MID primarily rely on simple inhibitory mechanisms.

  7. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  8. Implementation of inclusive education for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities in African countries: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, Christiana; Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Lysaght, Rosemary; Sulaiman, Surajo Kamilu

    2018-04-25

    To advance understanding of practices that support inclusion of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities in inclusive education classrooms in Africa by conducting a review of the extant literature. Five academic databases were searched supplemented by a hand search of key journals and references of included studies. Two authors independently screened studies via a reference manager (Covidence) which allowed for blinding. A third author was consulted in cases of conflict. Thirty articles that provided empirical evidence of inclusive education implementation were included. Eight articles highlighted practices that support inclusion of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Using Bronfenbrenner's bioecological framework, findings revealed that inclusive education implementation is influenced by factors on the bio level, micro level, meso level, and macro level. Recommendations for promoting inclusive education implementation are provided. Inclusion goes beyond teachers and requires strong commitment of other stakeholders such as families and governments. To guarantee the smooth inclusion of children with special education needs and particularly with intellectual and developmental disabilities, a set of practices validated through rigorous research as supportive and unique and that can be universal to Africa is wise. Implications for rehabilitation A number of strategies were identified that can improve the classroom inclusion of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Development of policies that support such strategies could improve implementation. Inclusion goes beyond teachers. Rehabilitation professionals (i.e. occupational therapists) and educational professionals should partner to identify practical solutions to the challenges of creating inclusive environments for children with special education needs. Committing more resources and time towards the development and implementation of special education

  9. Theory of Mind, Socio-Emotional Problem-Solving, Socio-Emotional Regulation in Children with Intellectual Disability and in Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Celine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    This study has examined the link between social information processing (SIP) and socio-emotional regulation (SER) in 45 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 45 typically developing (TD) children, matched on their developmental age. A Coding Grid of SER, focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behaviour and Behaviours towards Social…

  10. Do Children Do What They Say? Responses to Hypothetical and Real-Life Social Problems in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Bijman, E. R.; Lamberix, I. C. W.; Wijnroks, L.; de Castro, B. Orobio; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Background Most research on children's social problem-solving skills is based on responses to hypothetical vignettes. Just how these responses relate to actual behaviour in real-life social situations is, however, unclear, particularly for children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Method: In the present study, the spontaneous…

  11. Do children do what they say? Responses to hypothetical and real-life social problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Bijman, ER; Lamberix, ICW; Wijnroks, L; de Castro, BO; Vermeer, A; Matthys, W

    Background Most research on children's social problem-solving skills is based on responses to hypothetical vignettes. Just how these responses relate to actual behaviour in real-life social situations is, however, unclear, particularly for children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Method

  12. Psychometrics and utility of Psycho-Educational Profile-Revised as a developmental quotient measure among children with the dual disability of intellectual disability and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwinesh, Merlin Thanka Jemi; Joseph, Rachel Beulah Jansirani; Daniel, Anna; Abel, Julie Sandra; Shankar, Satya Raj; Mammen, Priya; Russell, Sushila; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2012-09-01

    There is no agreement about the measure to quantify the intellectual/developmental level in children with the dual disability of intellectual disability and autism. Therefore, we studied the psychometric properties and utility of Psycho-Educational Profile-Revised (PEP-R) as a developmental test in this population. We identified 116 children with dual disability from the day care and inpatient database of a specialised Autism Clinic. Scale and domain level scores of PEP-R were collected and analyzed. We examined the internal consistency, domain-total correlation of PEP-R and concurrent validity of PEP-R against Gesell's Developmental Schedule, inter-rater and test-retest reliability and utility of PEP-R among children with dual disability in different ages, functional level and severity of autism. Besides the adequate face and content validity, PEP-R demonstrates a good internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from 0.91 to 0.93) and domain-total correlation (ranging from 0.75 to 0.90). The inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.96) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87) for PEP-R is good. There is moderate-to-high concurrent validity with GDS (r ranging from 0.61 to 0.82; all Ps = 0.001). The utility of PEP-R as a developmental measure was good with infants, toddlers, pre-school and primary school children. The ability of PEP-R to measure the developmental age was good, irrespective of the severity of autism but was better with high-functioning children. The PEP-R as an intellectual/developmental test has strong psychometric properties in children with dual disability. It could be used in children with different age groups and severity of autism. PEP-R should be used with caution as a developmental test in children with dual disability who are low functioning.

  13. THE EFFECT OF EGGSHELL MOSAIC TRAINING TOWARD FINE MOTOR SKILLS OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY (IDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diadra Finalistiani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of eggshell mosaic toward fine motor skills of children with intellectual and develompental disability. The data was collected with observation, and the analysis technique used analysis in condition and analysis between conditions. The conclusion of this research was eggshell mosaic gives effect toward the fine motor skills of the children, it was shown from fine motor skills of the children before eggshell mosaic treatment, during the treatment and after controlling, and the fine motor skills of the children was improved.

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, C; Hue, O; Morin, A J S; Moullec, G

    2016-07-01

    Although there have been numerous studies examining the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, they have not yet been integrated and synthesized through a systematic quantitative review process. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine: (i) the prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities; (ii) the sources of heterogeneity in studies reporting the prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population; and (iii) the risk of overweight/obesity in this population compared with their typically developing peers. A systematic literature search was performed and 16 studies, published between 1985 and 2015, met the inclusion criteria. The resulting pooled prevalence estimates for overweight, overweight-obesity and obesity were respectively: (i) 15%, 30%, and 13%, in children; and (ii) 18%, 33%, and 15% in adolescents. Subgroup analyses showed significant variations in the pooled prevalence estimates as a function of geographical region, recruitment setting, additional diagnoses, and norms used to define overweight or obesity. The findings also showed adolescents with intellectual disabilities to be respectively 1.54 and 1.80 times more at risk of overweight-obesity and obesity than typically developing adolescents. Unfortunately, no such comparison is available for children. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.

  15. Resilience and Impact of Children's Intellectual Disability on Indian Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Anugraha Merin; John, Romate

    2017-01-01

    Resilience of parents in the context of raising a child with intellectual disability is gaining attention as a mechanism that addresses their inherent strengths to withstand the potential associated strain. Understanding its underlying factors has applications in fostering their resilience. The present study explored the resilience of parents and…

  16. Computer-Based Working Memory Training in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavarian, Mona; Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    We designed a working memory (WM) training programme in game framework for mild intellectually disabled students. Twenty-four students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerised Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub-tests and secondary tests, which…

  17. Self-Determination of Young Children with Intellectual Disability: Understanding Parents' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Araceli; Peralta, Feli

    2013-01-01

    Self-determination is considered to be a basic human right which, to develop, demands contextual opportunities as well as individual competencies. For people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, the family is the natural support environment in the task of increasing control over their own lives. There is little, however, that has been…

  18. Predictors of Access to Sex Education for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Chesnut, Steven; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (SRI International, 2002) were analyzed to identify variables that predicted whether individuals with intellectual disability (ID) received sex education in public schools across the United States. Results suggested that individuals receiving special education services without ID were only…

  19. Shufflegolf: Teaching Golf Strategies and Etiquette to Young Children and Learners with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share a unique curricular idea with physical educators interested about adding golf concepts to their curriculum. The focus is on a modified golf game that helps teach tactics, strategies, rules, and etiquette to young learners and those with intellectual disabilities. The specific content for this unit focuses on…

  20. Pain Management in Intellectually Disabled Children: Assessment, Treatment, and Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Abraham J.; van Dijk, Monique; de Klein, Annelies; van den Anker, Johannes N.; Tibboel, Dick

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus of pain research in intellectually disabled individuals is still on pain assessment. Several observational pain assessment scales are available, each with its own characteristics, its own target group and its own validated use. Observational studies report differences in the treatment of intra- and postoperative pain of…

  1. Environmental risk factors associated with the persistence of conduct difficulties in children with intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Blacher, Jan; Einfeld, Stewart; Hatton, Chris; Robertson, Janet; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the association between exposure to environmental risks in early childhood and the prevalence and persistence of conduct difficulties (CD) in children with intellectual disability (ID) who did not have autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children. Results indicated that: (1) exposure to risk was associated with elevated prevalence of CD at age three and, for TD children and children with ID, increased risk of CD persisting to ages five and seven; (2) at all levels of risk, children with ASD were more likely to show persistent CD than other children; (3) children with ID were no more likely to show persistent CD than TD children at low levels of exposure to environmental risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in Out-of-Home Care: Increased Risk for Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tharner, Anne; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in out-of-home care for non-disabled children and children…

  3. Understanding intellectual disability through RASopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Alvaro; Pagani, Mario Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors associated with caries experience in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, N S; Alaki, S M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine caries experience and associated risk factors in children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). A total of 86 participants aged 3-13 years (33 with ID and 53 healthy) were included in the study. Participants received an oral examination and their caregivers completed a questionnaire. Caregivers were required to determine the "level of function" of their children with regards to performing self care daily activities (brushing teeth, feeding and self dressing, walking and performing toilet activities). Four levels of function were determined; (A) being completely independent, (D) completely dependent, (B) and (C) partially dependent on caregivers. In healthy participants the mean dft score was 8.83 +/- 4.99 whereas in those with ID the mean dft score was 6.81 +/- 6.11. The mean DFT score in healthy participants was 2.32 +/- 2.98 while the mean DFT in those with ID was 0.92 +/- 1.57. Both dft and DFT scores were significantly different between participants with ID and healthy ones (p = 0. 042, p = 0.044 respectively). Caries status was not associated with gender, age or caregivers' education in the study sample. Significant associations were found between caries experience in participants with ID and their type of school (p = 0.01), nature of diet (p = 0.001) and "level of function" (p = 0.007). The type of school, nature of diet and "level of function" may be considered as influential risk factors associated with caries experience in children and adolescents with ID.

  5. Oral health status of intellectually disabled school children and adolescents, in a Chilean population, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcés

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the oral health status of intellectually disabled (ID children and adolescents from state schools, Valdivia, Chile, 2012. Design: Descriptive study. A sample of students from state schools was assessed for caries history (Decayed, Missing, Filled permanent Teeth (DMFT/decayed, extracted, filled temporal teeth (deft, quality of oral hygiene (Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, OHI-S and gingival health (Gingival Index, GI. In addition, questions were asked about dental care habits, degree of ID, presence of systemic disease and medicine use. Results: 195 students with slight to moderate ID and aged from 6 to 21 years were assessed. The average DMFT/deft was 2.19/1.33 for female students and 1.59/1.93 for male students. The OHI-S in 75.9% of participants was moderate, with poorer oral hygiene found in participants with moderate ID. Only 2.6% showed code 0 for GI, reflecting poor oral hygiene. Most participants possessed their own toothbrush (88.2% and could clean their teeth unaided (96.4%.Conclusion: The state of oral health in the assessed population is deficient. The quality of oral hygiene is normal or poor, which leads to poor gingival health.

  6. A longitudinal study of the grief of mothers and fathers of children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, E J; Schultz, C L; Smyrnios, K X

    1996-03-01

    As a follow-up to a single-point-in-time study which suggested support for the proposition that grieving is an ongoing feature of parenting children with intellectual disability, the present investigation reports findings based on annual interviews conducted over a three-year period. Longitudinal outcomes on measures used to define grief largely confirmed the original findings. Of particular interest were (a) indications of the presence of grief over time (b) the finding that the 49 mothers and 49 fathers report similar intensity of continued wishing for what might have been, and (c) the conclusion that the responses of the mothers on the Impact of Event Scale and to current levels of distress when thinking about time of diagnoses are significantly more intense than those of the fathers. Attention is drawn to patterns emerging from gender-related differences. Resulted are discussed within the framework of four mandates for research and practice, with particular reference to psycho-educational support through groupwork.

  7. Assessment of salivary and plaque pH and oral health status among children with and without intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, G; Swathi, V; Jha, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the association of disabilities and oral health. The aim of the study was to assess the salivary and plaque pH and oral health status of children with and without disabilities. A total of 100 schoolchildren (50 with disabilities and 50 without disabilities) were examined from 9 to 15 years age group. Saliva and plaque pH analysis were done to both the groups. Clinical data were collected on periodontal status, dental caries using WHO criteria. pH values of different groups, difference between the means were calculated using independent t-test, and frequency distribution was analyzed using Chi-square test. Statistical significance, P value was set at 0.05. Mean plaque and salivary pH scores were lesser (5.73 and 5.67) in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) (Psalivary pH among children with and without ID with lower plaque and salivary pH among children with ID. In addition to this, the oral health was also more compromised in children with ID, which confirms a need for preventive treatment for these children.

  8. Early Mortality and Primary Causes of Death in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability or Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. Methods The study population comprised all mothers of live-born children in Western Australia from 1983–2005. We accessed state-wide databases which enabled us to link socio-demographic details, birth dates, diagnoses of intellectual disability or ASD in the children and dates and causes of death for all mothers who had died prior to 2011. Using Cox Regression with death by any cause and death by each of the three primary causes as the event of interest, we calculated hazard ratios for death for mothers of children intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. Results and Discussion During the study period, mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD had more than twice the risk of death. Mothers of children with intellectual disability were 40% more likely to die of cancer; 150% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease and nearly 200% more likely to die from misadventure than other mothers. Due to small numbers, only hazard ratios for cancer were calculated for mothers of children with ASD. These mothers were about 50% more likely to die from cancer than other mothers. Possible causes and implications of our results are discussed. Conclusion Similar studies, pooling data from registries elsewhere, would improve our understanding of factors increasing the mortality of mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD. This would allow the implementation of informed services and interventions to improve these mothers' longevity. PMID:25535971

  9. Early mortality and primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Fairthorne

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. METHODS: The study population comprised all mothers of live-born children in Western Australia from 1983-2005. We accessed state-wide databases which enabled us to link socio-demographic details, birth dates, diagnoses of intellectual disability or ASD in the children and dates and causes of death for all mothers who had died prior to 2011. Using Cox Regression with death by any cause and death by each of the three primary causes as the event of interest, we calculated hazard ratios for death for mothers of children intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the study period, mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD had more than twice the risk of death. Mothers of children with intellectual disability were 40% more likely to die of cancer; 150% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease and nearly 200% more likely to die from misadventure than other mothers. Due to small numbers, only hazard ratios for cancer were calculated for mothers of children with ASD. These mothers were about 50% more likely to die from cancer than other mothers. Possible causes and implications of our results are discussed. CONCLUSION: Similar studies, pooling data from registries elsewhere, would improve our understanding of factors increasing the mortality of mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD. This would allow the implementation of informed services and interventions to improve these mothers' longevity.

  10. A comparison of the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Sharon; Guerin, Suzanne; Fitzsimons, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to compare the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. A convenience sample was recruited through two large ID services. The sample comprised 45 children across two groups: Group 1 (n=20; inclusive school) and Group 2 (n=25; segregated school). Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Adaptive Behaviour Scale-School: 2nd edition. A series of 2 x 2 ANOVAs were carried out on social competence scores using educational placement type (inclusive vs segregated school) and proxy rater (parent vs teacher) as the independent variables. Key findings indicated that children in inclusive schools did not differ significantly from children in segregated schools on the majority of proxy ratings of social competence. This supports the belief that children with intellectual disabilities can function well in different educational settings. Present findings highlight the importance of utilising the functional model of ID when selecting and designing school placements for children with moderate ID.

  11. A comparison of the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Sharon

    2009-03-01

    This is the first study to compare the social competence of children with moderate intellectual disability in inclusive versus segregated school settings in the Republic of Ireland. A convenience sample was recruited through two large ID services. The sample comprised 45 children across two groups: Group 1 (n=20; inclusive school) and Group 2 (n=25; segregated school). Parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Adaptive Behaviour Scale-School: 2nd edition. A series of 2 x 2 ANOVAs were carried out on social competence scores using educational placement type (inclusive vs segregated school) and proxy rater (parent vs teacher) as the independent variables. Key findings indicated that children in inclusive schools did not differ significantly from children in segregated schools on the majority of proxy ratings of social competence. This supports the belief that children with intellectual disabilities can function well in different educational settings. Present findings highlight the importance of utilising the functional model of ID when selecting and designing school placements for children with moderate ID.

  12. Parenting and the Behavior Problems of Young Children with an Intellectual Disability: Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships in a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard Patrick; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Emerson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We examined parenting behaviors, and their association with concurrent and later child behavior problems. Children with an intellectual disability (ID) were identified from a UK birth cohort (N = 516 at age 5). Compared to parents of children without an ID, parents of children with an ID used discipline less frequently, but reported a more…

  13. Health promotion in families who have children with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Švraka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability is the state of stopped or incomplete mental development which is featured by the impairment of abilities occurring at the development age and contributes to general level of intelligence, such as speech, cognitive, motor and social abilities. Disability can occur together or separately from other mental or physical disorders. 290 million people worldwide are estimated to have disabilities. Health is a core element in quality of life, but poverty, marginalization, limited access to primary health care, and lack of health promotion knowledge compromise health. Based on a research results in all nine areas of the family life quality (health, nancial status, family relations, support of other, support of services, influence of values, career, leisure and recreation, and community interaction community could influence with the permanent preventive measures on 6 concepts of family life quality: importance, possibility, initiative, achievement, stability and satisfaction. The research could be of great help for the development of comprehensive strategies for improvement of quality of life for families that have one or more members with intellectual disability. From inclusion we expect approach to individual and his/her family by the society, to take into account all their diversities, preservation and improvement of their personal physical and mental health, for optimal possible functioning, at all personal and social levels.

  14. The ethnography of help - Supporting families with children with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explored parents’ of children with learning disabilities perceptions of family support workers’ helping strategies. A qualitative approach drawing on the principles of ethnography was used to explore the experiences of six families of the helping strategies adopted by family workers and posed three research questions:\\ud (1) What are the perceptions of parents, of children with learning disabilities, of the helping strategies of family support workers?\\ud (2) How do parents unders...

  15. Best Practices in Intellectual Disability Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Catherine A.; Jenkins, Tiffany K.

    2018-01-01

    This article is an overview of identification of intellectual disabilities (ID), with a focus on meeting legal and ethical requirements when assessing children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and those living in poverty. Specific procedures and recommended instruments will be reviewed.

  16. Psychopathology in Young People With Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Hofer, Scott M.; Taffe, John; Gray, Kylie M.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hoffman, Lesa R.; Parmenter, Trevor; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood. Objective To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Design, Setting, and Participants The participants of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, an epidemiological cohort of 578 children and adolescents recruited in 1991 from health, education, and family agencies that provided services to children with intellectual disability aged 5 to 19.5 years in 6 rural and urban census regions in Australia, were followed up for 14 years with 4 time waves of data collection. Data were obtained from 507 participants, with 84% of wave 1 (1991-1992) participants being followed up at wave 4 (2002-2003). Main Outcome Measures The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), a validated measure of psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability, completed by parents or other caregivers. Changes over time in the Total Behaviour Problem Score and 5 subscale scores of the DBC scores were modeled using growth curve analysis. Results High initial levels of behavioral and emotional disturbance decreased only slowly over time, remaining high into young adulthood, declining by 1.05 per year on the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. Overall severity of psychopathology was similar across mild to severe ranges of intellectual disability (with mean Total Behaviour Problem Scores of approximately 44). Psychopathology decreased more in boys than girls over time (boys starting with scores 2.61 points higher at baseline and ending with scores 2.57 points lower at wave 4), and more so in participants with mild intellectual disability compared with those with severe or profound intellectual disability who diverged from

  17. Undernutrition in children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD): its prevalence and influence on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holenweg-Gross, C; Newman, C J; Faouzi, M; Poirot-Hodgkinson, I; Bérard, C; Roulet-Perez, E

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and to explore its influence on quality of life. Seventy-two children with PIMD (47 male; 25 female; age range 2 to 15 years 4 months; mean age 8.6, SD 3.6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, including body weight, triceps skinfold thickness, segmental measures and recumbent length. Undernutrition was determined using tricipital skinfold percentile and z-scores of weight-for-height and height-for-age. The quality of life of each child was evaluated using the QUALIN questionnaire adapted for profoundly disabled children. Twenty-five children (34.7%) were undernourished and seven (9.7%) were obese. Among undernourished children only eight (32 %) were receiving food supplements and two (8%) had a gastrostomy, of which one was still on a refeeding programme. On multivariate analysis, undernutrition was one of the independent predictors of lower quality of life. Undernutrition remains a matter of concern in children with PIMD. There is a need to better train professionals in systematically assessing the nutritional status of profoundly disabled children in order to start nutritional management when necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Benefits of extending and adjusting the level of difficulty on computerized cognitive training for children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottersen, Jon; Grill, Katja M

    2015-01-01

    Training on working memory (WM) improves attention and WM in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and memory impairments. However, for children with intellectual disabilities (ID), the results have been less encouraging. In this preliminary study it was hypothesized that children with ID would benefit from an extended amount of training and that the level of difficulty during training would affect the outcome. We included 21 children with mild or moderate ID aged 8-13 years. They went through between 37 and 50 training sessions with an adaptive computerized program on WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR). The children were divided into two subgroups with different difficulty levels during training. The transfer to untrained cognitive tests was compared to the results of 22 children with ID training only 25 sessions, and to a control group. We found that the training group with the extended training program improved significantly on a block design task measuring NVR and on a WM task compared to the control group. There was also a significantly larger improvement on block design relative to the training group with the shorter training time. The children that received easier training tasks also improved significantly more on a verbal WM task compared to children with more demanding tasks. In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that children with ID might benefit from cognitive training with longer training periods and less demanding tasks, compared to children without disabilities.

  19. KEMANDIRIAN ANAK INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY TERKAIT DENGAN TINGKAT KEMATANGAN SOSIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Muh Khoironi Fadli; Dewi Retno Pamungkas; Retno Sumiyarini

    2014-01-01

    Background:Intellectual disability is disorder of intellectual function that is significantly below averagewith various deficits in adaptive function, such as taking care of oneself or occupational activities thatemerge before the age of 18 years old. One characteristic of intellectuallydisabled children in adaptivefunction is social maturity disorder. Children with intellectual disability haveproblem in social maturityandlimitation in fulfilling needs in daily activities.Objective:To identif...

  20. The assessment of static balance in children with hearing, visual and intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Aija Klavina; Anna Zusa-Rodke; Zinta Galeja

    2017-01-01

    Background: Balance is a fundamental part of many movement tasks a child performs. Maintaining upright posture is a complex process involving multiple body parts and functional systems. Objective: This study aimed to explore the mean amplitude and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) displacements during static balance tests in children with and without disabilities. Methods: Participants were 34 children (age 8.5 to 10.8 years) including 6 typically developed children, 8 children with he...

  1. The health-related quality of life of children with refractory epilepsy: a comparison of those with and without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaz, M; Cairns, D R; Lawson, J A; Bleasel, A F; Bye, A M

    2001-05-01

    To determine whether refractory epilepsy affects the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with or without intellectual disability (ID), and if the presence of ID independently compromises HRQOL in children with refractory epilepsy. Subjects were parents of children with refractory epilepsy, whose syndrome had been defined using ILAE (International League Against Epilepsy) criteria and video-EEG monitoring. Children had the presence or absence of ID determined by formal neuropsychological or educational assessment. The relative effect of epilepsy on the two intellectual ability groups was determined using relevant clinical variables. Parents completed a valid epilepsy-specific HRQOL questionnaire for children, the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE), and, depending on intellectual ability level, the Child Behaviour Checklist or Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Both intellectually normal children with epilepsy and children with epilepsy and ID were more likely to have psychosocial problems compared with their respective intellectual ability reference populations. The results also revealed that children with ID had reduced HRQOL compared with intellectually normal children; a result independent of epilepsy. Analysis of the relationship between epilepsy variables and HRQOL revealed that the QOLCE was the most sensitive in detecting variation in age at onset, seizure frequency, and medications taken. The HRQOL of children with refractory epilepsy is greatly affected, regardless of intellectual ability level. The presence of ID in children with epilepsy independently depresses HRQOL outcomes. Compared with two generic HRQOL measures, the QOLCE was the most sensitive measure to variation in epilepsy variables.

  2. Exploring the specific needs of an understudied group : Children with intellectual disability in residential child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainero, Ana; del Valle, Jorge F.; Lopez, Monica; Bravo, Amaia

    Children and adolescents who live in out of home care in the child protection system are considered to be vulnerable to manifesting mental health disorders as well as other types of difficulties. This risk is greater in the case of children who display any type of disability. The aim of this study

  3. A controlled clinical evaluation of the Parents Plus Children's Programme for parents of children aged 6-12 with mild intellectual disability in a school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Ailish; Raghallaigh, Ciara Ní; Cuppage, Jennifer; Coyle, Sadhbh; Sharry, John

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the parent training, Parents Plus Children's Programme (PPCP) as an intervention for parents of children with mild intellectual disabilities. Participants were parents of children, aged six to 12, attending a special school for children with mild general learning disability (n = 29). Minor programme adaptations were made. Pre and post-assessment included the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Parenting Stress Index, the Kansas Parent Satisfaction Scale and parent identified personal and child-related goals. A significant reduction in clinical range scores for treatment group participants (n = 16) was observed. Conversely, clinical range scores for control group participants (n = 13) increased, or remained elevated. These preliminary results suggest that PPCP may be successfully delivered as a routine community-based intervention and aid to prevent and reduce behavioural problems, reduce parent stress and increase parent confidence and satisfaction. Further investigation of programme effectiveness for parents of children with developmental disability is warranted.

  4. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been use...

  5. Context influences the motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behaviour in children diagnosed with intellectual disability with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2012-05-01

    Children are motivated to engage in stereotypic and repetitive behaviours for a number of reasons. Their motivation seems to change according to context, but little empirical evidence supports that observation. Interventions designed to reduce the behaviours may be improved by an increased understanding of the interaction between motivation and context. Using Rasch analysis, we analysed data describing stereotypic behaviours from 279 Revised Motivation Assessment Scales (MAS:R). Data were gathered from two groups of children: Group 1 with intellectual disability (n = 37) and Group 2 with both intellectual disability and autism (n = 37). We examined behaviours in three contexts: free time, transition and while engaged in tasks. MAS:R distinguishes two intrinsic motivators: enhanced sensation and decreased anxiety and three extrinsic motivators: seeking attention or objects or escape. Significant differences in motivators were observed during free time and transition. No one motivator predominated while children were engaged in tasks. For both groups, sensory enhancement was a more likely motivator in free time and anxiety reduction was a more likely motivator during transition. Transition was the context most likely to influence extrinsic motivators, but there were significant differences between the groups. Context influences the motivation for stereotyped and repetitive behaviours. Transition has a particularly powerful effect. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Feasibility and Reliability of Tests Measuring Health-Related Physical Fitness in Children with Moderate to Severe Levels of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Marieke; van der Zanden, Anna M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical fitness is an important marker for health. In this study we investigated the feasibility and reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in children with moderate to severe levels of intellectual disability. Thirty-nine children (2-18 yrs) performed tests for muscular strength and endurance, the modified 6-minute walk test (6mwt)…

  7. The Association between Social Skills and Mental Health in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Belinda; Wong, Michelle; Dossetor, David; Hayes, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with social skills deficits and co-occurring mental health difficulties. ASD frequently co-occurs with Intellectual Disability (ID). There is scant literature exploring the association between social skills and mental health in children with ASD, with or without ID. Participants were 292 children aged…

  8. The Connection between Some Dimensions of Perceived Personal Competence and Permanent Low Intensity Stress in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgosi-Masnjak, Rea; And Others

    This study compared the perceived personal competence of two groups of parents of primary grade children in Croatia with (N=86) and without (N=186) mild intellectual disability. The comparison was based on the parents' perceived competence in the areas of parental role, self-respect, locus of control, and social anxiousness. Children in the two…

  9. Well-Being, Involvement in Paid Work and Division of Child-Care in Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, M. B.; Hwang, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare mothers' and fathers' involvement in paid work and child-care in families of children with intellectual disability (ID) and control families and to test if differences in well-being between mothers and fathers of children with ID can be explained by differences in involvement in paid work and…

  10. [Assessment of social networks between developmental physicians and welfare facilities/specialists for children with intellectual disabilities in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Masumi; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Kaga, Makiko

    2004-05-01

    The social networks between Japanese child neurologists and welfare facilities/specialists for children with mental retardation (MR) were assessed. A total of 113 physicians answered our mail-in questionnaire. Most of the doctors had various connections with nursery homes for children with MR or severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) and with public health centers, and often collaborated with teachers of schools and kindergartens. On the other hand, most physicians had little relation with residential and vocational facilities for adults with MR, and with specialists in residential or community care. There was a statistical correlation between the number of facilities or collaborated specialists and the number of persons seen by each physician; however, the physicians' experience and affiliations had no relation. In view of 'social participation', physicians who usually see children with developmental disorders can play an important role in decision making of their life-style with their families.

  11. Family quality of life of Chinese families of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Wang, M; Fei, X

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of quality of life and family quality of life (FQOL) are increasingly being studied in the field of intellectual disabilities (ID) in China as important frameworks for: (1) assessing families' need for supports and services; (2) guiding organisational and service delivery system changes; and (3) evaluating quality family outcomes. The present study focused on exploring the perceptions of Chinese families who have a child with an ID regarding FQOL as well as examining the factor structure of FQOL concept from Chinese families. The Chinese version of the Family Quality of Life Scale was used to survey Chinese families living in the urban and suburban areas of Beijing who have a child with ID. A total of 442 families participated in this study. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the factor structure of FQOL. Multivariate analysis was also used to examine group differences among families in terms of family demographic variables. A five-factor structure of the FQOL construct was found in the Chinese sample, suggesting a similar factor structure found from US families in the literature. Different living conditions (e.g. housing and transportation) tended to affect significantly families' satisfaction ratings of their FQOL. It is also found that family income and severity of disability of the child are predictors of families' satisfaction ratings of FQOL. The preliminary findings of this study suggest a cross-cultural factor structure comparability of FQOL between samples in the USA and China. Results call for further examination of the family-centred service and support as a mediator on the interactive relationship between family characteristics, family needs and FQOL outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Assessment of the quality of life in families with children who have intellectual and developmental disabilities in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagran, B; Schmidt, M; Brown, I

    2011-12-01

    Research was conducted, within the framework of the International Family Quality of Life Project, on the quality of life of families with a member who has a disability. We concentrated on the nine specific domains that the family life measure used, and recorded data from five of its six measurement dimensions: Importance, Opportunities, Initiative, Attainment and Satisfaction. The sample consisted of 20 families from Slovenia with children who have intellectual or developmental disabilities. The data were collected using the Family Quality of Life Survey-2006. Except for Community Interaction, the other domains (Health, Financial Well-Being, Family Relations, Support from Others, Support Services, Influence of Values, Careers, Leisure and Recreation) show statistically significant differences among the five dimensions measured. Importance was rated highest, and Attainment and Opportunities were rated lowest, while Initiative and Satisfaction were evaluated lower than Importance but higher than Attainment and Opportunities. Among the domains of family life, Family Relations was evaluated the highest from the perspective of all five dimensions. The family members rated Importance high for all of the quality of family life domains, but it appears from the lower Opportunities scores that their opportunities are limited; this may result in fewer possibilities for attaining a better quality of life. The results of our research are useful to Slovene researchers who work in the areas of special pedagogy and rehabilitation, politicians, non-governmental organisations and social services. The quality of life of families with children with disabilities, their empowerment and their inclusion into community life should be significantly enhanced when consideration is given to all the family members' support and service needs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Mood disorders in intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Anne D

    2006-09-01

    This article examines reviews and research on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in people with intellectual disability published from September 2004 to December 2005. Patients with intellectual disability have limitations in verbal ability, and with increasing levels of disability may have an atypical clinical presentation. Thus, methods to diagnose mood disorders were a major research focus. Informant-rating scales and two self-report instruments provided data on thought patterns, aberrant behavior, appetite, and suicidality. Behavioral symptoms such as aggression were frequently associated with mood disorders. Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy were found to be effective treatments. Mood disorders were frequently identified in people with intellectual disability, although suicide was still quite rare. Patients with milder levels of disability can use self-report measures and can be diagnosed using standard criteria with little modification. For those with more severe disability, diagnosis is challenging and often requires the use of residual categories. Atypical clinical presentation, including maladaptive behaviors, lent support for 'behavioral equivalent' substitutes of standard criteria. Typical pharmacological agents were effective for depression and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.

  14. Playing and building: experiences of participation of children with intellectual disability of second basic cycle in two municipal schools in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo SOTO; Mauricio LÓPEZ

    2018-01-01

    Participation of children with intellectual disabilities [ID] is promoted from a rights-based approach and inclusive education. However, in Chile these children tend to be segregated by existing educational programs. The objective of this study is to understand the experiences of participation of children with ID in the regular school context. In order to respond to this objective, individual interviews were conducted with 15 children with mild ID who attended the second basic cycle in two sc...

  15. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jodi; Downes, Alison; Blum, Nathan; Augustyn, Marilyn

    Amad is a wonderful 16-year-old young man from Syria who has recently relocated to the United States from his war-torn native country. In his last few years in Syria, he was primarily at home with his mother, and they sought refuge with a maternal aunt in the United States seeking asylum and treatment of Amad's disability.At 8 years of age, he had intelligence testing in the United Arab Emirates, which showed a verbal intelligence score on the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC) of 68 and a performance of 64. His working memory was 67 and his processing speed was 65. On arrival in the United States, his achievement was roughly at a third-grade level in Arabic. In the year and a half that he has been in the United States, he quickly improved his English skills, which he learned as a toddler. His father remains in Syria unable to safely immigrate and his mother is raising him alone in the United States with the help of her sister.They come to you for an urgent care visit because Amad recently was accused of sexual harassment by two girls at his high school. He is in a substantially separate program but is included for lunch and technology. While in the computer laboratory, he repeatedly approached the girls and asks them to "date" him, and on 1 occasion sat behind 1 girl and repeatedly reached out to stroke her long blonde hair.His mother is distraught because she recently found out that Amad also has a Facebook page and had been attempting to contact the same two girls on social media. The girls' parents recently threatened to file criminal harassment charges and Amad's mother comes to you asking for help with making Amad stop this activity. What would you do next?

  16. Parent training support for intellectually disabled parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina

    2010-06-16

    Intellectual disability may impact on an individual's capacity to parent a child effectively. Research suggests that the number of intellectually disabled people with children is increasing. Children of parents with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of neglectful care which could lead to health, developmental and behavioural problems, or increased risk of intellectual disability.However, there is some indication that some parents with intellectual disabilities are able to provide adequate child care if they are given appropriate training and support to do so. To assess the effectiveness of parent training interventions to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, and ZETOC. Randomised controlled trials comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disabilities with usual care or with a control group. Outcomes of interest were: the attainment of parenting skills specific to the intervention, safe home practices and the understanding of child health. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. Three trials met the inclusion criteria for this review but no meta-analysis was possible. One study reported improved maternal-child interaction following group parent training compared with the control group. The second study reported some improvements in parents knowledge of life threatening emergencies, ability to recognise dangers and identify precautions and smaller improvements in their ability to implement precautions, use medicines safely and recognise child illness and symptoms. The third study reported improvement in child care and safety skills following the intervention. There is some risk of bias in the

  17. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compared them to those in children without IDD. In addition, we investigated whether these relationships differ between children with different levels of cognitive delay. Seventy-seven children with IDD (calendar age between 1;0 and 9;10 years; mean developmental age: 1;8 years) and 130 typically developing children (calendar age between 0;3 and 3;6 years; mean developmental age: 1;10 years) were tested with the Dutch Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, which assesses development across three domains using five subscales: fine motor development, gross motor development (motor), cognition (cognitive), receptive communication, and expressive communication (language). Results showed that correlations between the motor, cognitive, and language domains were strong, namely .61 to .94 in children with IDD and weak to strong, namely .24 to .56 in children without IDD. Furthermore, the correlations showed a tendency to increase with the severity of IDD. It can be concluded that both fine and gross motor development are more strongly associated with cognition, and consequently language, in children with IDD than in children without IDD. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of early interventions that boost both motor and cognitive development, and suggest that such interventions will also enhance language development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Siblings' mediated learning strategies in families with and without children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Hanuka-Levy, Dikla

    2014-11-01

    Dyads of siblings in which the younger sibling had an intellectual disability (ID, n  =  25) were videotaped interacting. The ID group was compared with typically developing sibling dyads matched on mental age (n  =  25) and chronological age (n  =  25). We observed the mediation strategies, activation, and antimediation behaviors of older siblings and younger siblings' responsiveness to mediation. Mediation strategies were analyzed by the Observation of Mediation Interaction scale. The ID group scored highest on mediation strategies and lowest on activation and antimediation behaviors. Younger siblings' responsiveness to mediation was highest among the ID group. Mediation for Intentionality and Reciprocity and Meaning were positively associated with the verbal responsiveness of the younger siblings. Activation and antimediation behaviors were negatively associated with the verbal responsiveness.

  19. Afrikaans-speaking parents' perceptions of the rights of their children with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities: A descriptive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Alta; Bornman, Juan; Dada, Shakila

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the perceptions of Afrikaans-speaking parents regarding the human rights, as defined by the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), of their children, aged between 8.0 and 14.11 (years/months), with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. The underlying premise is that the CRC defines the rights of children, whereas the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) can provide the framework for documenting a deprivation of rights and the conditions under which those rights can be realized. Forty-seven Afrikaans-speaking parents completed a custom-designed survey. The results of the closed-ended questions indicated that most parents felt that their children had rights and that these rights were met. A theme analysis performed on the open-ended questions revealed that parents were mostly concerned about their children's rights pertaining to school education and safety. These rights were discussed in terms of the CRC articles and linked to environmental codes of the ICF-CY. Finally, the limitations and implications of the study are discussed and recommendations are made. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Ethical issues and dentists' practices with children with intellectual disability: A qualitative inquiry into a local French health network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camoin, Ariane; Dany, Lionel; Tardieu, Corinne; Ruquet, Michel; Le Coz, Pierre

    2018-01-29

    The provision of dental care for children with intellectual disability raises many ethical questions. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore approaches to dental treatment in an anxious child with intellectual disability and the ethical dilemmas that ensue. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and May 2012. A clinical scenario was used to establish a starting point for a discussion of the clinical approach and lead to an ethical reflection. Four topics were discussed: first contact with the patient, information, attitude towards the patient and outcome from the practitioner's viewpoint. The coding procedure used thematic content analysis. Most practitioners fetched the patient from the waiting room personally, greeted them, gave them special attention, and either began the consultation at once, or used distraction to relax the patient. Verbal language and tell-show-do were most often used to provide information. Anxiety and pain were evaluated using parental assessment and standardized scales. A reassuring attitude was adopted. An ethical dilemma arose if the patient refused care or had to be restrained. Practitioners reported sacrificing ethical values (patient autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence) when making a clinical decision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Caregiving of children with intellectual disabilities in China--an examination of affiliate stigma and the cultural thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, M Y L; Yang, X; Wong, F H T; Li, J H; Li, J

    2013-12-01

    While caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities are burdened in every part of the world, it is suspected that particular contexts may make the situation worse. There is little literature on caregivers in China, where familial and clan responsibility rather than individual effort is emphasised, and where communal support, while treasured, is often lacking. A total of 211 caregivers in two cities, one with and the other without randomised design, participated in a survey study that assessed affiliated stigma, loss of face, anxiety, mental health and empowerment. A proportion of 60.6% of participants were found to be conspicuous cases with mental disturbance of a level which required further professional attention. Participants with better resource appeared to have coped better, enjoying lower psychological distress, lower anxiety and a higher level of personal empowerment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that mental health is related to the affective dimension of affiliated stigma, loss of face and anxiety level. This was found to account for more than half the variance (55%). The subjective burden of care occurs not in isolation but in a cultural field. Chinese caregiving is characterised by a lack of formal support, and such cultural concerns as loss of face and strong affiliated stigma. This socio-political context makes caregiving all the more challenging. The situation has to be addressed by both practitioners and policy makers if family caregiving is to be valued and made sustainable. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  2. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eBaglio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. Aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in borderline intellectual functioning children.Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale and a Magnetic Resonance (MR examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel based morphometry (VBM analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional gray matter volume in bilateral sensori-motor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased gray matter volume in right parahippocampal gyrus. Gray matter volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices.Our is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to general population, contributes to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention.

  3. Mental health needs and availability of mental health care for children and adolescents with intellectual disability in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltau, B; Biedermann, J; Hennicke, K; Fydrich, T

    2015-11-01

    The increased risk of mental health problems in children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) has been reported in several studies. However, almost no research has been conducted on parents' experiences with the general mental health system. We have investigated the prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in children with ID as well as the availability and quality of mental health care from the parents' point of view. Teachers of specialised schools for ID in Berlin were asked to complete the Teacher's Report Form (TRF) of the Child Behavior Checklist. Information was collected for 1226 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years with mild to profound ID (response 70.5%). The availability and quality of mental health care was assessed by a questionnaire given to parents who had already been seeking help for their children. A total of 330 parents completed the questionnaires (response 62.0%). In addition to univariate analysis, we conducted multiple logistic regressions regarding the psychopathology reported by teachers (TRF-syndrome scales) and difficulties concerning mental health care reported by parents for a paired sample of 308 children. Overall, 52.4% of the children and adolescents with ID had a total problem score on the TRF in the deviant range (47.1% when eliminating four items reflecting cognitive deficits). Compared with the general population normative sample of children, this is a three-time higher prevalence. The most striking problems were thought problems (schizoid and obsessive-compulsive), aggressive behaviour, attention problems and social problems. Parents whose children had more severe behavioural or emotional dysfunction reported more difficulties with the mental health system. From the parents' point of view, mental health professionals frequently did not feel responsible or were not sufficiently skilled for the treatment of children with ID. As a consequence, 96% of all parents were longing for specialised in- and

  4. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Daniëlle EMC; Stewart, Roy E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with children with BMID and psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SSTP compared to Care as Usual (CAU) in reducing psychosocial problems in children with BMID...

  5. Testing Math or Testing Language? The Construct Validity of the KeyMath-Revised for Children with Intellectual Disability and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine T.; Branum-Martin, Lee; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is often assumed that mathematics ability alone predicts mathematics test performance, linguistic demands may also predict achievement. This study examined the role of language in mathematics assessment performance for children with intellectual disability (ID) at less severe levels, on the KeyMath-Revised Inventory (KM-R) with a…

  6. Parent-Related Stress of Male and Female Carers of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities and Carers of Children within the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Kiri A.; Ware, Robert; McPherson, Lyn; Emerson, Eric; Lennox, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Carers of children with intellectual disability show high rates of parent-related stress and are at an increased risk for deleterious physical and mental health. Materials and Methods: This study investigated the relationship between demographic and social characteristics and parenting stress, within two different cross-sectional…

  7. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with

  8. Quantifying Morbidity Burdens and Medical Utilization of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A Nationwide Study Using the ACG Case-Mix Adjustment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wui-Chiang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify morbidity burdens of children with intellectual disability (ID) and to examine its association with total medical utilization and expenditure on a national basis in Taiwan. People under 18 years of age that had been continuously enrolled in the National Health Insurance (NHI) between year 2008 and 2010…

  9. Three-Dimensions vs. Two-Dimensions Intervention Programs: The Effect on the Mediation Level and Behavioural Aspects of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, S.; Bezer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the effect of an intervention program employing 3D immersive virtual reality (IVR), which focused on the perception of sequential time, on the mediation level and behavioural aspects of children with intellectual disability (ID). The intervention is based on the mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which refers the…

  10. Exploring quality of life of children with cerebral palsy and intellectual disability: What are the important domains of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E; Reddihough, D; Murphy, N; Epstein, A; Reid, S M; Whitehouse, A; Williams, K; Leonard, H; Downs, J

    2017-11-01

    Although it is estimated that half of all children with cerebral palsy also have comorbid intellectual disability, the domains of quality of life (QOL) important for these children are not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify important domains of QOL for these children and adolescents. Due to the children's communication impairments, qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 parents. The children (9 males) had a median age of 12 (range 7 to 17) years at interview and nearly two thirds were classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System IV or V. A grounded theory approach was used to identify domains of QOL. The 11 domains identified as important to QOL were physical health, body comfort, behaviour and emotion, communication, predictability and routine, movement and physical activity, nature and outdoors, variety of activity, independence and autonomy, social connectedness, and access to services. The domains of QOL that emerged from this study will be useful for professionals who support children with cerebral palsy and their families. They will also be important for developing a QOL instrument essential for informing the development of interventions and their monitoring and evaluation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Parental social support, coping strategies, resilience factors, stress, anxiety and depression levels in parents of children with MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome) or children with intellectual disabilities (ID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Wraith, James Edmond; Jones, Simon; Mahon, Louise; Lomax, Michelle; Bigger, Brian; Hare, Dougal

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder, caused by a deficiency in one of four enzymes involved in the catabolism of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate. It is a degenerative disorder, with a progressive decline in children's intellectual and physical functioning. There is currently no cure for the disorder. To date there is a paucity of research on how this disorder impacts parents psychological functioning. Specifically, research in the area has failed to employ adequate control groups to assess if the impact of this disorder on parents psychological functioning differs from parenting a child with intellectual disability (ID). The current study examined child behaviour and parental psychological functioning in 23 parents of children with MPS III and 23 parents of children with ID. Parents completed postal questionnaires about their child's behaviour and abilities and their own psychological functioning. Parents of children with MPS III reported fewer behavioural difficulties as their child aged, more severe level of intellectual disability, and similar levels of perceived social support, coping techniques, stress, anxiety and depression levels as parents of children with ID. Both groups of parents scored above the clinical cut off for anxiety and depression. Parents of children with MPS III rated themselves as significantly less future-orientated and goal directed than parents of children with ID. Services should develop support packages for parents of children with MPS III that incorporate an understanding of the unique stressors and current-difficulty approach of this population. Future research should examine gender differences between parental psychological functioning, using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches, and utilise matched developmental level and typically developing control groups.

  12. Wildcard: A wearable virtual reality storytelling tool for children with intellectual developmental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsomini, Mirko; Garzotto, Franca; Montesano, Daniele; Occhiuto, Daniele

    2016-08-01

    Our research aims at supporting existing therapies for children with intellectual and developmental disorders (IDD). The personal and social autonomy is the desired end state to be achieved to enable a smooth integration in the real world. We developed and tested a framework for storytelling and learning activities that exploits an immersive virtual reality viewer to interact with target users. We co-designed our system with experts from the medical sector, identifying features that allow patients to stay focused on exercises to perform. Our approach triggers a learning process for a seamless assimilation of common behavioral skills useful in every day's life. This paper highlights the technologic challenges in healthcare and discusses cutting-edge interaction paradigms.

  13. Intellectual disability is associated with increased risk for obesity in a nationally representative sample of U.S. children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Mary; Eliasziw, Misha; Phillips, Sarah; Bandini, Linda; Curtin, Carol; Kral, Tanja V E; Sherwood, Nancy E; Sikich, Lin; Stanish, Heidi; Must, Aviva

    2016-07-01

    Data on obesity prevalence in children with intellectual disability (ID) are scarce. We estimated rates of obesity among children aged 10-17 years with and without ID in a nationally representative dataset that included measures of child weight and ID status, as well as family meal frequency, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Chi-square tests compared prevalence of obesity, demographic and behavioral characteristics between children with and without ID as reported in the 2011 National Survey of Children's Health. Tests for interaction in logistic regression models determined whether associations between obesity and behavioral characteristics were different between children with/without ID. Obesity prevalence for children with ID was 28.9% and 15.5% for children without ID. After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity and poverty level, the odds ratio was significantly 1.89 times greater among children with ID than among those without ID (95% CI: 1.14 to 3.12). Among children with ID, 49.8% ate at least one meal with family members every day compared to 35.0% without ID (p obesity was higher among all children who ate family meals every day compared to fewer days per week, and the effect was significantly more pronounced among those with ID (p = 0.05). Prevalence of obesity among youth with ID was almost double that of the general population. Prospective studies are needed in this population to examine the impact of consistent family mealtimes and infrequent physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fruit flies and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.

  15. Inclusive Education for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki Balakrishnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces briefly the evolution of Inclusive Education for students with special education needs (SEN and discusses some significant challenges in its implementation. While the aim of Inclusive Education is to include all children with SEN in mainstream schools, there are many challenges that have to be overcome for their education to be meaningful. This paper focuses primarily on the inclusion of students with intellectual disability, since they are likely to be the largest number with special education needs in ‘inclusive’ schools. It offers the outline of a curriculum that may be derived from the mainstream one in use, and suggests a model that emphasises the replacement of age / grade placement, as is the present practice, with experience and maturity underpinning learning in persons with intellectual disability. The proposed model needs, of course, to be field-tested.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.111

  16. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Maryellen Brunson; Hasty Mills, Amber M; Murphy, Laura E

    2017-11-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Intellectual Disability (ID) are common co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders; however, limited research exists regarding the presentation and severity of overlapping symptomology, particularly inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, when a child is diagnosed with one of more of these neurodevelopmental disorders. As difficulties with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are symptoms frequently associated with these disorders, the current study aims to determine the differences in the severity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in children diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, ID, and co-occurring diagnosis of ADHD/ID, ASD/ADHD, and ASD/ID. Participants in the current study included 113 children between the ages of 6 and 11 who were diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, ID, ADHD/ID, ASD/ADHD, or ASD/ID. Two MANOVA analyses were used to compare these groups witih respsect to symptom (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity) severity. Results indicated that the majority of diagnostic groups experienced elevated levels of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. However, results yielded differences in inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity severity. In addition, differences in measure sensitivity across behavioral instruments was found. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders often exhibit inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, particularly those with ADHD, ASD, ASD/ADHD, and ADHD/ID; therefore, differential diagnosis may be complicated due to similarities in ADHD symptom severity. However, intellectual abilities may be an important consideration for practitioners in the differential diagnosis process as children with ID and ASD/ID exhibited significantly less inattention and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors. Additionally, the use of multiple behavior rating measures in conjunction with other assessment procedures may help practitioners determine the most

  17. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Screen Time with the Risk of Hypertension in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Wyszyńska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID have significantly lower levels of physical activity compared to their peers without ID. Association between the level of physical activity and screen time with hypertension (HPT in children and adolescents with ID has not been reported yet. Aim. To assess the relationship between the level of physical activity and screen time with the prevalence of HPT in students with ID. Material and Methods. The study group consisted of 568 children with ID aged 7 to 18. The control group matched for age and gender consisted of 568 students without ID. Blood pressure (BP, body mass and height, level of physical activity, and screen time were assessed. Results. The level of physical activity in the study group was significantly lower than in the control group (score 1.99 versus 3.02, resp., in Physical Activity Questionnaire. The risk of HPT in the students with ID with low levels of physical activity was more than 4 times higher (OR = 4.40 and more than 2 times higher when screen time was ≥2 h/day. Conclusion. Low level of physical activity and long screen time were associated with significantly higher HPT risk among children and adolescents with ID.

  18. An inexorable rise in intellectual disability?

    OpenAIRE

    Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the number of people with intellectual disabilities applying for care. The results are contained in this report. Our inventory reveals that demand for intellectual disability care has risen by an average of 9% pe...

  19. Paediatric palliative care and intellectual disability-A unique context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Jacqueline K; Herbert, Anthony Robert; Heussler, Helen S

    2017-11-01

    Paediatric palliative care is a nuanced area of practice with additional complexities in the context of intellectual disability. There is currently minimal research to guide clinicians working in this challenging area of care. This study describes the complex care of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual disability by means of a literature synthesis and commentary with "best-practice" guide. As few articles concerning children with intellectual disability and palliative care needs were identified by formal systematic review, our expert consensus group has drawn from the paediatric palliative, oncology and adult intellectual disability literature to highlight common clinical challenges encountered in the day-to-day care of children with intellectual disability and life-limiting conditions. A longitudinal child- and family-centred approach is key to ensuring best-practice care for families of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual disability. As highlighted by the great absence of literature addressing this important patient population, further research in this area is urgently required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The effectiveness of Stepping stones Triple P: the design of a randomised controlled trial on a parenting programme regarding children with mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems versus care as usual

    OpenAIRE

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Daniëlle EMC; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Children with an intellectual disability are at increased risk of psychosocial problems. This leads to serious restrictions in the daily functioning of the children and to parental stress. Stepping Stones Triple P aims to prevent severe behavioural, emotional and developmental problems in children with a (intellectual) disability by enhancing parenting knowledge and skills, and the self-confidence of parents. This paper aims to describe the design of a study of the effecti...

  1. Intellectual disability in children and teenagers: Influence on family and family health. Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Baena-Ariza, María Teresa; Domínguez-Sánchez, Isabel; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    To examine the influence of a child or adolescent with intellectual disabilities on the family unit. A systematic review of the literature, following the recommendations of the PRISMA statement, was carried out on the PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Psicodoc databases. Original articles were found, published in the last 5 years, in Spanish, English, Portuguese, Italian or French, with summary and full text and satisfactory or good methodological quality. Two independent researchers agreed on their decisions. In general, care is provided in the family, mothers assume the greater responsibility, and their wellbeing is lower than that of fathers. Having the support of the husband improves their quality of life. The fraternal subsystem can be affected, with regard to the warmth and the status/power of the relationship, and behavioural problems. Family health may be affected in all its dimensions: family functioning and atmosphere due to increased demands and changes in the organisation and distribution of roles; family resilience and family coping, due to rising costs and dwindling resources; family integrity could be strengthened by strengthened family ties. Quality of family life is enhanced by emotional support. These families may need individualised attention due to the increased demand for care, diminishing resources or other family health problems. Nurses using a family-centred care approach can identify these families and help them to normalise their situation by promoting their family health and the well-being of its members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Social Pedagogy as a Model to Provide Support for Siblings of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Report of the Views of the Children and Young People Using a Sibling Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sid; Cook, James; Sutton-Boulton, Gary; Ward, Vicki; Clarke, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The experiences of non-disabled children growing up with a sibling with an intellectual disability vary considerably, with reported impact ranging from increased mental health problems through evaluations of life enhancement. However, there is evidence that the net impact is neutral to positive, which was supported by the findings of this report…

  3. Parenting and the parent-child relationship in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=113) reported more positive discipline and physical punishment but less involvement, less positive parenting, less monitoring, a lower sense of parenting competence, less acceptance of the child, and less closeness to the child than the families of a child with MBID and no accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=71). The parent-child relationship was most strongly associated with externalizing child behavior, over and above parenting behaviors. In addition, the parent-child relationship was found to be associated with parenting behavior, over and above the child's externalizing behavior. Our results highlight the importance of both the parent-child relationship and parenting behavior in connection with the occurrence of externalizing behavior problems on the part of children with MBID. Parenting behavior and the parent-child relationship may thus be promising targets for interventions with this group of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cleft Lip and Palate MalaCards: x-linked intellectual disability, siderius type March of Dimes: Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Merck Manual Consumer Version: Intellectual Disability Orphanet: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Patient ...

  5. Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of intellectual disability in children: analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are limited, especially those on geographic differences. On the basis of the Disabled Welfare Law, Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980. All the cases are registered, and the registry provides a rare opportunity for studying ID at the national level. Using the data from 2004 to 2010, we calculated the prevalence of ID in children by age, gender, and geographic area and assessed the changes over time. We limited analyses to children at least 3 years of age, because certification before 3 years old is discouraged by the government. We found that from 2004 to 2010, the registered cases between 3 and 17 years old ranged from 20,531 to 23,547, and the prevalence of ID increased constantly from 4.40/1000 to 5.79/1000 (p<0.01), which generally increased every year in all age groups (p<0.01). In each year there were more boy cases than girl cases, and the boy-to-girl ratio generally decreased with age (p<0.01 for chi-square test for trend in all years). The prevalence rate ratio ranged from 1.33 to 1.37 (p<0.01 in all years), and the changes in the rate ratio were small over the years. We observed a higher prevalence in the rural areas over the years, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 1.34 to 1.43 (p<0.01 in all years), with an increasing trend over time (p<0.01). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Engagement in family activities: a quantitative, comparative study of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and children with typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, A K; Granlund, M; Wilder, J

    2013-07-01

    Participation is known to be of great importance for children's development and emotional well-being as well as for their families. In the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth version participation is defined as a person's 'involvement in a life situation'. Engagement is closely related to involvement and can be seen as expressions of involvement or degree of involvement within a situation. This study focuses on children's engagement in family activities; one group of families with a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) and one group of families with children with typical development (TD) were compared. A descriptive study using questionnaires. Analyses were mainly performed by using Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's rank correlation test. Engagement in family activities differed in the two groups of children. The children with PIMD had a lower level of engagement in most family activities even though the activities that engaged the children to a higher or lesser extent were the same in both groups. Child engagement was found to correlate with family characteristics mostly in the children with TD and in the children with PIMD only negative correlations occurred. In the children with PIMD child engagement correlated with cognition in a high number of listed family activities and the children had a low engagement in routines in spite of these being frequently occurring activities. Level of engagement in family activities in the group of children with PIMD was lower compared with that in the group of children with TD. Families with a child with PIMD spend much time and effort to adapt family living patterns to the child's functioning. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of Usual Source of Care Approaches to Improve End-of-Life Outcomes for Children With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Cozad, Melanie J

    2017-09-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at risk for adverse end-of-life outcomes including high emergency room utilization and hospital readmissions, along with low hospice enrollment. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of usual source of care approaches to improve end-of-life outcomes for children with ID. We used longitudinal California Medicaid claims data. Children were included who were 21 years with fee-for-service Medicaid claims, died between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, and had a moderate-to-profound ID diagnosis. End-of-life outcomes (i.e., hospice enrollment, emergency room utilization, hospital readmissions) were measured via claims data. Our treatments were usual source of care (USC) only vs. usual source of care plus targeted case management (USC plus TCM). Using instrumental variable analysis, we compared the effectiveness of treatments on end-of-life outcomes. Ten percent of children with ID enrolled in hospice, 73% used the emergency room, and 20% had three or more hospital admissions in their last year of life. USC plus TCM relative to USC only had no effect on hospice enrollment; however, it significantly reduced the probability of emergency room utilization (B = -1.29, P life outcomes for children with ID. Further study of the extent of UCS and TCM involvement in reducing emergency room utilization and hospital readmissions at end of life is needed. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expanding Opportunities for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangreco, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Research and experience tell us a great deal about how to successfully educate students with intellectual disability, but unfortunately this knowledge remains underutilized and inconsistently applied, writes researcher Michael F. Giangreco. Students with intellectual disability who have virtually identical profiles but live in different locales…

  9. Bayesian importance parameter modeling of misaligned predictors: soil metal measures related to residential history and intellectual disability in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onicescu, Georgiana; Lawson, Andrew B; McDermott, Suzanne; Aelion, C Marjorie; Cai, Bo

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel spatial importance parameter hierarchical logistic regression modeling approach that includes measurement error from misalignment. We apply this model to study the relationship between the estimated concentration of soil metals at the residence of mothers and the development of intellectual disability (ID) in their children. The data consist of monthly computerized claims data about the prenatal experience of pregnant women living in nine areas within South Carolina and insured by Medicaid during January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2001 and the outcome of ID in their children during early childhood. We excluded mother-child pairs if the mother moved to an unknown location during pregnancy. We identified an association of the ID outcome with arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) concentration in soil during pregnancy, controlling for infant sex, maternal race, mother's age, and gestational weeks at delivery. There is some indication that Hg has a slightly higher importance in the third and fourth months of pregnancy, while As has a more uniform effect over all the months with a suggestion of a slight increase in risk in later months.

  10. The Wide-Scale Implementation of a Support Program for Parents of Children with an Intellectual Disability and Difficult Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alan; Cameron, Christine; Matthews, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there have been several evaluations of programs to help parents manage difficult behaviour of their child with an intellectual disability, little research has focused on the evaluation of such programs when delivered to large populations. Method: The benchmarks recommended by Wiese, Stancliffe, and Hemsley (2005) were used to…

  11. SENZITIVE COMUNICATION WITH CHILDREN WITH MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY TROUGH THE EMOTIONAL-EXPRESIVE PRINCIPLES OF THE ICDP PROGRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis RAMO AKGJUN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available While working with pupils with special educational needs, the necessity of compassion while communicating with them is more obvious. The exchange of emotions between the child and the special educator, as well as the way the special educator responds to them, is fundamental for the further development of their feelings. For this reason, the goal of our research was to confirm the necessity of more sensitive communication while working with pupils with moderate intellectual disability following the emotional-expressive principles of the ICDP program. According to the defined goal, the subject of this research was to gather information regarding the level of sensitive communication in our special educational system, trough special educators' self-evaluation procedure and evaluation of pupils with moderate intellectual disability and their parents. The representative sample was consisted of three groups: special educators, pupils with moderate intellectual disability and their parents. Every group was consisted of twenty examinees or in total the research included 60 participants. The statistical data processing was achieved via tables, graphics and with determination of the R X C Exact Contingency Table. The research results showed strong statistically significant difference in the answers provided by the three groups of examinees. Based on the results, the main conclusion is that during the educational activities in the special educational system, the pupils with moderate intellectual disability have needs for greater sensitivity in the communication and interaction with their special educators.

  12. Staff attributions of the causes of challenging behaviour in children and adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppes, P.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; ten Brug, A.; Vlaskamp, C.

    A study has shown that staff do not generally perceive challenging behaviour in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) as being of serious consequence. In this study we aimed to gain a better understanding of the causal explanations that direct care and support staff give

  13. KEMANDIRIAN ANAK INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY TERKAIT DENGAN TINGKAT KEMATANGAN SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Khoironi Fadli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Intellectual disability is disorder of intellectual function that is significantly below averagewith various deficits in adaptive function, such as taking care of oneself or occupational activities thatemerge before the age of 18 years old. One characteristic of intellectuallydisabled children in adaptivefunction is social maturity disorder. Children with intellectual disability haveproblem in social maturityandlimitation in fulfilling needs in daily activities.Objective:To identify correlation between social maturity and self-reliance of children with intellectualdisability.Methods:The study was non experimental. It used cross sectional design and quantitative approach.Samples were taken throughproportionate stratified random samplingtechnique. Research instrumentused to assess social maturity was Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and self-reliance wasFunctional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM. Subject of the study were children withintellectual disability in SLB Bakti Siwithat met inclusion and exclusion criteria as many as 61children.The study usednon parametricSpearman’s Rank Correlationtestat significancep<0.05.Result:Social maturity was high in 9 children (14.8%, medium in 23 children (37.7%, and low in 29children (47.9%. Self-reliance of children with intellectual disability showed average score (mean105.36with deviation standard15.43and range56-126.Score of correlation between social maturity andself-reliance of children with intellectual disability inSLB Bakti Siwishowedpvalue 0.000 (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was significant correlation between social maturity and sel-reliance of children withintellectual disability in SLB Bakti Siwi with score of correlation in strong category.

  14. Perceptions of Emotion Expression and Sibling–Parent Emotion Communication in Latino and Non-Latino White Siblings of Children With Intellectual Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Kristin A.; Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Grullón, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Houck, Christopher; Seifer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Objective Examine general emotion expression and sibling–parent emotion communication among Latino and non-Latino white (NLW) siblings of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and matched comparisons. Methods 200 siblings (ages 8–15 years) completed the newly developed Sibling–Parent Emotion Communication Scale and existing measures of general emotion expression and psychosocial functioning. Preliminary analyses evaluated scale psychometrics across ethnicity. Results Structure and inte...

  15. « Cognitus & Moi » : a computer-based cognitive remediation program for children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDemily

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Attentional, visuospatial and social cognition deficits have a negative impact on children’s adaptative and social competences and, as a result, on their ability to achieve a normal functioning and behavior. Until now and despite the frequency of those deficits, there is a lack of children’s specific cognitive remediation tools specifically dedicated to attentional and visuospatial areas.The « Cognitus & Moi » program involves a variety of exercises in a paper and/or pencil (n=30 or a computerized format (n=29 and a strategy coaching approach. Each module of « Cognitus & Moi » targets a single impaired cognitive area, within the limits of cognitive domains' overlapping. The little cartoon character named Cognitus, who illustrates the program, is supposed to be very friendly and kind towards children. Cognitus will accompany them throughout the program for an effective and positive reinforcement. The main goal of « Cognitus & Moi » is to adjust to children’s difficulties in daily life. Moreover, since the cognitive remediation benefit is complex to apply in daily life, the program is based on a metacognitive strategy. After a complete neuropsychological assessment and a psychoeducational session (with the child and the parents, 16 one hour-sessions of cognitive remediation with the therapist are proposed. Each session is composed of three parts: (1 computerized tasks focusing on specific attentional or visuo-spatial components (20 minutes. The attentional module targets hearing, visual and divided attention. A double attention task is also proposed. The visuo-spatial module targets eye tracking and gaze direction, spatial orientation, visuo-spatial memory and construction, and mental imagery.(2 pen and paper tasks focusing on the same processes (20 minutes and a facial emotion recognition task.(3 a proposal of a home-based task (during 20 minutes. Weekly, specific attentional and visuo-spatial home tasks are proposed to the child and

  16. The impact of including children with intellectual disability in general education classrooms on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gérard

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from classrooms with an included child with mild or moderate ID, and a control group of 202 pupils from classrooms with no included children with special educational needs (matched pairs sample). The progress of these 2 groups in their academic achievement was compared over a period of 1 school year. No significant difference was found in the progress of the low-, average-, or high-achieving pupils from classrooms with or without inclusion. The results suggest that including children with ID in primary general education classrooms with support does not have a negative impact on the progress of pupils without disability.

  17. Influence of Age, Gender, and Living Circumstances on Patterns of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Use in Children and Adolescents With or Without Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunsanmi, Sunkanmi; Turk, Jeremy

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether there are differences in psychopharmacological practice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents dependent on the presence or absence of associated intellectual disability; and if there are, whether the differences are influenced by factors such as age, gender, and living circumstances. A case-control cross-sectional design was used. Each arm of the study had a total of 107 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years. Case participants had diagnoses of having intellectual disability and ADHD; comparison participants had diagnoses of having ADHD, but no intellectual disability. Outcome measurements were (1) concurrent use of medications-single medication event as against concurrent multiple medication events-and (2) type of medication used-stimulants versus nonstimulants. Demographic factors considered were gender, age, and living circumstances. Male-to-female ratio in each group was 90:17. Mean age in the case group was 10.93 years (standard deviation [SD]: 3.39 years) and in the comparison group, 12.34 years (SD: 3.22 years). Seventy percent of the case group lived with their biological families, while 84% of the comparison group did so. In the case group, 7.5% were in residential school placements compared with only 0.9% of the comparison group. There were no statistically significant differences in broad measurements of outcomes between the case and comparison groups. Age appeared to be an important moderating factor for type of medication prescribed. Younger children with intellectual disabilities and ADHD were more likely to be established on nonstimulant medications than those with ADHD and no intellectual disabilities (p = 0.024, odds ratio: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.7). Being between the ages of 5 and 12 years and having intellectual disability and ADHD are associated with raised likelihood of being prescribed nonstimulant medications for ADHD. This difference is maintained

  18. Effectiveness of the teaching of perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement on motor development in children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Ghorban Zadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fundamental motor skills are the foundation of special skills. The purpose of this study was to study the effectiveness of the teaching of perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement on motor development in children with intellectual disability. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-excremental study, 30 children aged 7 to 10 years old were selected through random cluster sampling method from elementary schools in Tabriz city. They were homogenized in two experimental groups (perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement and one control group based on their age and IQ. Programs were held in 9 weeks, two sessions per week, and each session was 45 minutes. Before beginning the training and at the end of the last session, pre-test and post-test were conducted. In order to assess motor development TGMD-2 test was used, and to analyze data covariance and bonferroni postdoc test were used. Results: The results showed that both perceptual-motor practices and rhythmic movement groups performed better in locomotors and object control skills than the control group (P&le 0.05 and there was no significant difference between these two groups  (P&ge0.05Perceptual-motor skills training group had a greater impact on the development of control object skills than rhythmic movement group. Program rhythmic movement group had a greater impact on the development of object control skills than the control group. Conclusion: According to the results, educational programs which are used can be as an appropriate experiencing motion for children. These programs can be used at schools to to provide suitable program and the opportunity for training and developing motor skills.

  19. The role of marital quality and spousal support in behaviour problems of children with and without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Natalie; Baker, B L

    2010-07-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be at an increased risk for developing behavioural problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the marital domain, including marital quality and spousal support, and behaviour problems in children with and without ID. The relationship between the marital domain and child behaviour problems was examined in 132 families of 6-year-olds with and without ID. Using hierarchical regression, these relationships were also studied over time from child ages 6-8 years. Child behaviour problems were assessed with mother-reported Child Behavior Checklist. The marital domain was measured using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7 and the Spousal Support and Agreement Scale. Mother-reported parenting stress and observed parenting practices were tested as potential mediators of the relationship between the marital domain and child behaviour problems. Mean levels of the marital domain were not significantly different between typically developing (TD) and ID groups, but there were significantly greater levels of variance in reported marital quality in the ID group at ages 6, 7 and 8. The marital domain score at child age 6 years predicted child behaviour problems at age 8 for the TD group only. This predictive relationship appeared to be a unidirectional effect, as child behaviour problems at age 6 were not found to predict levels of the marital domain at age 8. Parenting stress partially mediated this relationship for the TD group. The marital domain may have a greater impact on behavioural outcomes for TD children. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  20. Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome as emerging clinical diagnosis in intellectually disabled children with autistic traits and ocular involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolini, Giulia; Agolini, Emanuele; Majore, Silvia; Novelli, Antonio; Grammatico, Paola; Digilio, Maria Cristina

    2018-05-01

    A recent syndromic condition with craniofacial dysmorphisms, comprising congenital ocular defect and neurodevelopmental delay named Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome (HVDAS) (OMIM#615873), has been described and molecularly defined, identifying pathogenic mutations in the ADNP gene (OMIM#611386) as biological cause. We report on two children, displaying intellectual disability (ID) and peculiar congenital eyes anomalies, both carrying a de novo nonsense mutation in the ADNP gene. The review of present and literature reports, suggests that the diagnosis of HVDAS should be suspected in patients with ID accompanied by behavioral features in the Autism Spectrum Disorder and distinctive craniofacial phenotype. Among dysmorphisms due to malformation of the periorbital region, ptosis appears to be particularly recurrent in HVDAS. Furthermore, the present patients could support the inclusion of the HVDAS associated with specific mutations clustering within a small ADNP genomic region among clinical conditions reminiscent of the blepharophimosis/mental retardation syndromes (BMRS). Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intellectual Disability Modifies Gender Effects on Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Gray, Kylie M.; Ellis, Louise A.; Taffe, John; Emerson, Eric; Tonge, Bruce J.; Horstead, Sian K.

    2010-01-01

    In typically developing children, boys are more commonly diagnosed than girls with disruptive behavior disorders, namely, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. For children with intellectual disability (ID), the evidence for this gender effect is less clear. In this report we examine gender…

  2. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastgate, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.

  3. Effects of a trampoline exercise intervention on motor performance and balance ability of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Patsiaouras, Asterios; Karra, Chrisanthi; Neofotistou, Konstantina

    2013-09-01

    Balance and motor impairments are most evident among inactive individuals with ID that might be particularly susceptible to a loss of basic functioning and further limit the person's autonomy in activities of daily living. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a 12-week trampoline exercise intervention program on motor and balance ability of school aged children with intellectual disability (ID). Eighteen healthy schools aged children (mean age=10.3 ± 1.6 years) with moderate ID were assigned either to an experimental group (n=9) or a control group (n=9). The experiment group attended a 12 weeks trampoline training intervention program consisting of daily individualized 20-min sessions, while the control group followed the regular school schedule. Balance was assessed using three tasks of increased difficulty (double-leg stance with eyes opened or closed, and one-leg stance with eyes opened) performed while standing on an electronic pressure platform (EPS). Motor performance of all participants was tested using sit and reach test and long and vertical jump tests all derived from the Eurofit Test Battery of physical fitness. Trampoline intervention resulted in significant improvements of participants' performance in all motor and balance tests. In conclusion, trampoline training can be an effective intervention for improving functional outcomes and can be recommended as an alternative mode of physical activity programming for improving balance and motor performance. Furthermore, it also supports the idea that individuals with ID require enjoyable and interesting intervention programs such as the trampoline program used in this study so as to remain active and consequently to facilitate their overall development and promote a more active and healthier way of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Siblings from Families with Two or More Children with Learning or Intellectual Disabilities and Need for Full-Time Special Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannerkoski, M.; Heiskala, H.; Aaberg, L. (Child Neurology, HUCH Dept. of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Helsinki (Finland)); Raininko, R. (Dept. of Radiology, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)); Sarna, S. (Dept. of Public Health, Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)); Wirtavuori, K. (HUCH Dept. of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Helsinki (Finland)); Autti, T. (HUCH Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-05-15

    Background: Several factors are involved in determining a child's need for special education (Sweden). Thus, the value of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for subjects with learning and intellectual disabilities is uncertain. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of MRI in the diagnostic process of siblings with learning and intellectual disabilities and need for full-time SE. Material and Methods: Altogether, 119 siblings (mean age 11.9 years) from families in which two or more children attended/had previously attended full-time SE underwent prospective brain MRI. SE grouping included three levels, from specific learning disabilities (level 1) to global intellectual disabilities (level 3). Forty-three controls (level 0, mean age 12.0 years) attended mainstream education groups. Signal intensity and structural abnormalities were analyzed, and areas of the cerebrum, posterior fossa, corpus callosum, vermis and brain stem, and diameters of the corpus callosum were measured. In analyses, all area measurements were calculated in proportion to the total inner skull area. Results: Abnormal finding in MRI was more common for siblings (n=62; 52%) in SE (58% for level 3; 49% for level 2; 35% for level 1) than for controls (n=13; 16%). The siblings showed enlarged supra- (P<0.001) and infratentorial (P=0.015) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces and mild corpus callosum abnormalities (P=0.003) compared to controls. Siblings in SE had smaller inner skull area than controls (P<0.001). Further, the relative area of the mesencephalon (P=0.027) and the diameter of the body of the corpus callosum (P=0.015) were significantly smaller than in controls. In binary logistic regression analysis, enlarged supratentorial CSF spaces increased the probability of SE (odds ratio 4.2; P=0.023). Conclusion: Subjects with learning and intellectual disabilities commonly have more MRI findings than controls. Enlarged supratentorial CSF spaces were a frequent finding in siblings in full

  5. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Siblings from Families with Two or More Children with Learning or Intellectual Disabilities and Need for Full-Time Special Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannerkoski, M.; Heiskala, H.; Aaberg, L.; Raininko, R.; Sarna, S.; Wirtavuori, K.; Autti, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Several factors are involved in determining a child's need for special education (SE). Thus, the value of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for subjects with learning and intellectual disabilities is uncertain. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of MRI in the diagnostic process of siblings with learning and intellectual disabilities and need for full-time SE. Material and Methods: Altogether, 119 siblings (mean age 11.9 years) from families in which two or more children attended/had previously attended full-time SE underwent prospective brain MRI. SE grouping included three levels, from specific learning disabilities (level 1) to global intellectual disabilities (level 3). Forty-three controls (level 0, mean age 12.0 years) attended mainstream education groups. Signal intensity and structural abnormalities were analyzed, and areas of the cerebrum, posterior fossa, corpus callosum, vermis and brain stem, and diameters of the corpus callosum were measured. In analyses, all area measurements were calculated in proportion to the total inner skull area. Results: Abnormal finding in MRI was more common for siblings (n=62; 52%) in SE (58% for level 3; 49% for level 2; 35% for level 1) than for controls (n=13; 16%). The siblings showed enlarged supra- (P<0.001) and infratentorial (P=0.015) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces and mild corpus callosum abnormalities (P=0.003) compared to controls. Siblings in SE had smaller inner skull area than controls (P<0.001). Further, the relative area of the mesencephalon (P=0.027) and the diameter of the body of the corpus callosum (P=0.015) were significantly smaller than in controls. In binary logistic regression analysis, enlarged supratentorial CSF spaces increased the probability of SE (odds ratio 4.2; P=0.023). Conclusion: Subjects with learning and intellectual disabilities commonly have more MRI findings than controls. Enlarged supratentorial CSF spaces were a frequent finding in siblings in full-time SE

  6. Recognition and use of line drawings by children with severe intellectual disabilities: the effects of color and outline shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    Communication symbols for students with severe intellectual disabilities often take the form of computer-generated line drawings. This study investigated the effects of the match between color and shape of line drawings and the objects they represented on drawing recognition and use. The match or non-match between color and shape of the objects and drawings did not have an effect on participants' ability to match drawings to objects, or to use drawings to make choices.

  7. Effects of Exercise on Physical Fitness in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Spela; Maksimovic, Jasna; Golubovic, Boris; Glumbic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study which examined the effects of carefully designed physical exercise programs on the development of physical fitness in children with ID. The study sample consisted of 42 children with ID and 45 typically developing children. All the participants were assessed using Eurofit Test Battery. The results were…

  8. [Evaluation of N2O inhalation and oral midazolam conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry of children with intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-hua; Yang, Yan-zhong; Li, Xiao-feng

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of N2O inhalation and oral midazolam sedation on uncooperative patients with intellectual disability in pediatric dentistry. N2O inhalation (35%-50%) and oral midazolam conscious sedation (dosages range: 0.50-0.75 mg/kg) were applied to 67 uncooperative pediatric patients with intellectual disability in outpatient department. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group A (N2O inhalation conscious sedation) and group B(oral midazolam conscious sedation).Treatment results and safety were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test with SPSSl3.0 software package. The mean success rate was 70%. The success rate in group B (75%) was higher than group A (67%). The overall incidence of adverse reactions was 13%(9/67). The adverse reaction rate in group B (25%) was significantly higher than group A (5%, P<0.05). N2O inhalation and oral midazolam conscious sedation are effective and safe in pediatric dental uncooperative patients with intellectual disability.

  9. Mortality in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.

  10. Sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Li, Eria Ping

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the first generation of sibling advocates in Hong Kong. A qualitative approach was adopted and six sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities from one non-government organization were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method and content analysis. Findings revealed that the six participants were reactive in the process of taking up the caregiver responsibility and they performed three functions: to advocate for more service provision, to improve service quality, and to facilitate communication between individual service units and family members of people with intellectual disabilities. All of the participants expressed that they needed support from service providers when they tried to function as the sibling advocates. Strategies to promote the involvement of siblings of people with intellectual disabilities as advocates are discussed and it is expected that more siblings of people with intellectual disabilities will be supported to have a higher level of involvement in advocacy.

  11. Effectiveness of Mobile Skill Teaching Software for Parents of Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Serkan; Kuzu, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Mobile skill teaching software has been developed for the parents of the children with intellectual disability to be used in teaching daily life skills. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of the mobile skill teaching software developed for the use of the parents of the children with intellectual disability. In…

  12. SEMANTIC VERBAL FLUENCY OF THE BILINGUAL CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad GLUMBIKJ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Semantic verbal fluency test is reliable instrument for detection of various kinds of neuropsychological deficits. Participants’ attainments in this test are influenced by array of socio-cultural factors. The occurrence of “twofold semilingualism” belongs to these cultural factors.The objective of this research is to determine differences between monolingual and bilingual children with mild mental retardation in semantic verbal fluency test.The sample consisted of 90 participants with mild mental retardation, of both sexes, aged from 12 to 15. The whole sample was divided into three subsets: 30 monolingual children (M1, who speak only Serbian, 30 monolingual Roma children who do not speak Romany (M2 and 30 bilingual Roma children who speak both, Romany and Serbian language (B.It was found that both groups of monolingual children have better performances in semantic fluency tasks than bilingual children.

  13. Evaluation of Hepatitis B Infection Prevalence in Institutionalized Intellectually Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Davoodbeglou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection causes chronic infection in human population, with high mortality. One of the high risk communities is mentally retarded children, who are institutionalized. Special conditions in these centers predispose children for HBV infection and transmission to healthy people. In this study our objective was to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among institutionalized mentally retarded children and study its associated risk factors.Materials and Methods: In this study, 250 mentally retarded children (younger than 14 years old were included. They were living in 5 nursing institutions, located in different parts of Tehran. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was measured in the sera of these patients by ELISA method.Results: Among 250 children, 20 children (8% were HBsAg positive. HBV infection in girls was more than boys (11% to 5.6%. Among the types of mental retardation, children with cerebral palsy had the highest positive result for HBsAg. The most HBV infection (28.5% was seen in children with longest duration of being institutionalized (10 to 11 years. Vaccinated children were more HBsAg positive (8.7% than non-vaccinated children (5.3%. However, no significant relationship was observed between any of these factors and HBsAg positivity.Conclusion: Despite improvement of people’s health condition and implementation of HBV vaccination, the prevalence of HBV infection is increased in institutionalized mentally retarded children, which highlights the need for active measures to reduce this infection among this high risk population

  14. Effectiveness of Play Therapy on Problem Behaviors of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Single Subject Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karrie L.

    2011-01-01

    A growing disparity between the mental health needs of children and their lack of treatment served as the basis of this study. To address this existent gap, I proposed that child-centered play therapy (CCPT), a holistic treatment that fosters children's emotional, developmental, and social growth would serve as a viable treatment. The purpose of…

  15. Mental health and positive change among Japanese mothers of children with intellectual disabilities: Roles of sense of coherence and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    We investigated predictors of mental health and positive change among mothers of children with intellectual disabilities in Japan based on the concept of the Double ABCX model. We used variables of having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and dissatisfaction with systems as stressors, availability of social support and social capital (SC) as existing resources, sense of coherence (SOC) as appraisal of the stressor, and mental health and positive change as adaptation. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 10 intellectual disability-oriented special needs schools in Tokyo, and obtained 613 responses from mothers of children under age 20 attending these schools. The results showed that our Double ABCX model explained 46.0% of the variance in mothers' mental health and 38.9% of the variance in positive change. The most powerful predictor of this model was SOC, and SC may be directly and indirectly related to maternal mental health and positive change through mothers' SOC. Increasing opportunity for interaction between neighbors and family of children with disabilities may be one effective way to enhance SOC through SC. Since maternal SOC, SC, mental health, and positive change were significantly correlated with each other, synergy among these elements could be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social pedagogy as a model to provide support for siblings of children with intellectual disabilities: A report of the views of the children and young people using a sibling support group.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Sid; Cook, J.; Sutton-Boulton, G.; Ward, V.; Clarke, S.

    2015-01-01

    The experiences of non-disabled children growing up with a sibling with an intellectual disability vary considerably, with reported impact ranging from increased mental health problems through evaluations of life enhancement. However, there is evidence that the net impact is neutral to positive, which was supported by the findings of this report of a service evaluation survey. The value of providing support to those young siblings is however clear. An established method of support is within a...

  17. Setting Global Research Priorities for Developmental Disabilities, Including Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, M.; Yasamy, M. T.; Emerson, E.; Officer, A.; Richler, D.; Saxena, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of intellectual disabilities (ID) has been estimated at 10.4/1000 worldwide with higher rates among children and adolescents in lower income countries. The objective of this paper is to address research priorities for development disabilities, notably ID and autism, at the global level and to propose the more rational…

  18. Social pedagogy as a model to provide support for siblings of children with intellectual disabilities: A report of the views of the children and young people using a sibling support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sid; Cook, James; Sutton-Boulton, Gary; Ward, Vicki; Clarke, Steve

    2016-03-01

    The experiences of non-disabled children growing up with a sibling with an intellectual disability vary considerably, with reported impact ranging from increased mental health problems through evaluations of life enhancement. However, there is evidence that the net impact is neutral to positive, which was supported by the findings of this report of a service evaluation survey. The value of providing support to those young siblings is however clear. An established method of support is within a group of peers who also have a sibling with an intellectual disability, though no specific method for running this type of group has yet been fully explored. This article reports the views of 39 children taking part in such a group, analysing their perspective through a proposed model for the operation of sibling groups: social pedagogy. It was found that the closer the group's activities were to social pedagogy, the more supported the children and young people felt. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Epigenetic Etiology of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Shigeki; Bérubé, Nathalie G; Zhou, Zhaolan; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Battaglioli, Elena; Scandaglia, Marilyn; Barco, Angel

    2017-11-08

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition associated with impaired cognitive and adaptive behaviors. Many chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators have been genetically associated with ID disorders (IDDs). Here we review how alterations in the function of histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers, and methyl-DNA binding proteins contribute to neurodevelopmental defects and altered brain plasticity. We also discuss how progress in human genetics has led to the generation of mouse models that unveil the molecular etiology of ID, and outline the direction in which this field is moving to identify therapeutic strategies for IDDs. Importantly, because the chromatin regulators linked to IDDs often target common downstream genes and cellular processes, the impact of research in individual syndromes goes well beyond each syndrome and can also contribute to the understanding and therapy of other IDDs. Furthermore, the investigation of these disorders helps us to understand the role of chromatin regulators in brain development, plasticity, and gene expression, thereby answering fundamental questions in neurobiology. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710773-10$15.00/0.

  20. How could Theory of Mind contribute to the differentiation of social adjustment profiles of children with externalizing behavior disorders and children with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Houssa, Marine; Mazzone, Stéphanie

    2013-09-01

    This study compared Theory of Mind (ToM) emotion and belief abilities in 43 children with externalized behavior (EB) disorders presenting low intelligence, 40 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and 33 typically developing (TD) preschoolers (as a control group), matched for developmental age. The links between their ToM abilities, their level in seven self-regulation strategies as displayed in social problem-solving tasks and their social adjustment profiles (assessed by the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation, completed by their teachers) were examined. Children with EB presented lower comprehension of causes of emotions and lower self-regulation of joint attention and of attention than children with ID and TD children. In comparison with TD children, lower social adjustment was observed in nearly all dimensions of profiles in both atypical groups. Specifically, children with EB were significantly angrier than children with ID. Although variable patterns of positive correlations were obtained in atypical groups between self-regulation strategies and ToM abilities, the most numerous positive links were obtained in the group with EB. Regression analyses showed that developmental age predicted ToM abilities and certain dimensions of social adjustment profiles in atypical groups. In the ID group, ToM emotions predicted general adaptation, affective adaptation, interactions with peers and with adults and low internalizing problems. In the EB group, general adaptation was predicted by ToM emotions and self-regulation, interactions with peers by ToM beliefs, and a low level of externalizing problems by ToM emotions. Some implications for intervention and perspectives for research are suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Episodic Buffer in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    Performance on three verbal measures (story recall, paired associated learning, category fluency) designed to assess the integration of long-term semantic and linguistic knowledge, phonological working memory and executive resources within the proposed "episodic buffer" of working memory (Baddeley, 2007) was assessed in children with intellectual…

  2. Parents' Emotion Expression as a Predictor of Child's Social Competence: Children with or without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S.; Baker, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Parents' expression of positive emotion towards children who are typically developing (TD) is generally associated with better social development. However, the association between parents' negative emotion expression and social development can be positive or negative depending upon a number of factors, including the child's emotion…

  3. Social Skill Development and Academic Competence in Children with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Social skills and academic competence are key factors influencing children's development and functioning across early childhood and through adolescence. There is a great need to understand the longitudinal patterns of growth in social and academic skills in order to further inform intervention, particularly for at-risk groups such as individuals…

  4. (Social) Cognitive skills and social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline

  5. Impact of an implicit social skills training group in children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability: A before-and-after study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokthan Guivarch

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs have problems with social skills. Social skills training groups are among the proposed therapeutic strategies, but their efficacy still needs to be evaluated.To evaluate the efficacy of an implicit social skills training group in children with ASDs without intellectual disability.A before-and-after study of children with ASD without intellectual disability was conducted in a child psychiatry day hospital, where they participated in an implicit group with cooperative games. Their social skills were assessed using the Social-Emotional Profile (SEP, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS, and the empathy quotient (EQ before and after 22 weeks.Six patients aged 9 to 10 years old were evaluated. A significant increase in overall adaptation and social skills (median 8 and 7.7 points in the SEP was demonstrated in addition to a significant reduction in the CARS score (median: 4 points, including in the field of social relationships. The EQ increased two-fold.This implicit group improved the children's social skills. It would be interesting to evaluate the maintenance of these skills over time, examine more widespread results, and compare implicit and explicit groups.

  6. Impact of an implicit social skills training group in children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability: A before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivarch, Jokthan; Murdymootoo, Veena; Elissalde, Sara-Nora; Salle-Collemiche, Xavier; Tardieu, Sophie; Jouve, Elisabeth; Poinso, François

    2017-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have problems with social skills. Social skills training groups are among the proposed therapeutic strategies, but their efficacy still needs to be evaluated. To evaluate the efficacy of an implicit social skills training group in children with ASDs without intellectual disability. A before-and-after study of children with ASD without intellectual disability was conducted in a child psychiatry day hospital, where they participated in an implicit group with cooperative games. Their social skills were assessed using the Social-Emotional Profile (SEP), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and the empathy quotient (EQ) before and after 22 weeks. Six patients aged 9 to 10 years old were evaluated. A significant increase in overall adaptation and social skills (median 8 and 7.7 points) in the SEP was demonstrated in addition to a significant reduction in the CARS score (median: 4 points), including in the field of social relationships. The EQ increased two-fold. This implicit group improved the children's social skills. It would be interesting to evaluate the maintenance of these skills over time, examine more widespread results, and compare implicit and explicit groups.

  7. Paediatric Palliative Care and Intellectual Disability--A Unique Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Jacqueline K.; Herbert, Anthony Robert; Heussler, Helen S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Paediatric palliative care is a nuanced area of practice with additional complexities in the context of intellectual disability. There is currently minimal research to guide clinicians working in this challenging area of care. Method: This study describes the complex care of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual…

  8. Transition for Teenagers with Intellectual Disability: Carers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Sabyasachi; Watson, Joanna; Barrett, Mary; Raju, Bala; Burton, Tracey; Forte, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Teenagers with intellectual disabilities (ID) have significantly more health problems than the rest of the population and many encounter difficulties accessing the services they need during the transition from children's to adult services. A multidisciplinary, interagency study was carried out in one area of the UK with the intent to estimate the…

  9. The validation of an educational database for children with profound intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien Spangenberg

    2016-09-01

    Discussion and conclusions: A list of items to be included was identified. Apart from an individual profile, it can be useful for service planning and monitoring, if incorporated into the central information system used to monitor the performance of all children. Without such inclusion, this most vulnerable population, despite court ruling, will not have their right to education adequately addressed.

  10. Genomic diagnosis for children with intellectual disability and/or developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Kevin M; Thompson, Michelle L; Amaral, Michelle D; Finnila, Candice R; Hiatt, Susan M; Engel, Krysta L; Cochran, J Nicholas; Brothers, Kyle B; East, Kelly M; Gray, David E; Kelley, Whitley V; Lamb, Neil E; Lose, Edward J; Rich, Carla A; Simmons, Shirley; Whittle, Jana S; Weaver, Benjamin T; Nesmith, Amy S; Myers, Richard M; Barsh, Gregory S; Bebin, E Martina; Cooper, Gregory M

    2017-05-30

    Developmental disabilities have diverse genetic causes that must be identified to facilitate precise diagnoses. We describe genomic data from 371 affected individuals, 309 of which were sequenced as proband-parent trios. Whole-exome sequences (WES) were generated for 365 individuals (127 affected) and whole-genome sequences (WGS) were generated for 612 individuals (244 affected). Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were found in 100 individuals (27%), with variants of uncertain significance in an additional 42 (11.3%). We found that a family history of neurological disease, especially the presence of an affected first-degree relative, reduces the pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant identification rate, reflecting both the disease relevance and ease of interpretation of de novo variants. We also found that improvements to genetic knowledge facilitated interpretation changes in many cases. Through systematic reanalyses, we have thus far reclassified 15 variants, with 11.3% of families who initially were found to harbor a VUS and 4.7% of families with a negative result eventually found to harbor a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. To further such progress, the data described here are being shared through ClinVar, GeneMatcher, and dbGaP. Our data strongly support the value of large-scale sequencing, especially WGS within proband-parent trios, as both an effective first-choice diagnostic tool and means to advance clinical and research progress related to pediatric neurological disease.

  11. The Effectiveness of the Instructional Programs Based on Self-Management Strategies in Acquisition of Social Skills by the Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcioglu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of self-management skills training program, based on self-control strategies, on students with intellectual disabilities. A multiple-probe design across subjects single-subject research methodology was used in this study. Nine students with intellectual disabilities, whose ages are between…

  12. Strategies that facilitate participation in family activities of children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: parents' and personal assistants' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin; Imms, Christine; Wilder, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Participation throughout one's life plays a significant role for development and emotional well-being. For this reason, there is a need to identify ways to facilitate participation in family activities for children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The study design was qualitative and explorative, based on semi structured interviews with 11 parents and 9 personal assistants of children with PIMD. The interviews revealed participation-facilitating strategies relating to the children's/adolescent's proximal environment, such as "Availability and acceptability of the activity", "Good knowledge about the child" and a "A positive attitude of people close to the child", as well as strategies related to the children/adolescents themselves: "Sense of belonging", "Possible for the child/adolescent to understand", "Opportunities to influence" and "Feeling of being needed". Children and adolescents with PIMD are dependent on support obtained through their environment. The identified strategies, individually adapted through awareness and knowledge by the parents and the personal assistants, provide important evidence to assist our understanding in gaining understanding about how to improve participation in family activities of children and adolescents with PIMD. Participation-facilitating strategies related to the child/adolescent and his or her proximal environments are identified to improve participation in children and adolescents with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). Examples of strategies for the child's/adolescents' proximal environment include "good knowledge about the child/adolescent", and, for the child/adolescent, include creating "sense of belonging" and "opportunities to influence". Identifying and making these strategies explicit may assist in enhancing the participation of children and adolescents with PIMD in family activities. People in the child's/adolescent's proximal environment need to set

  13. The influence of self-esteem and social support on the relationship between stigma and depressive symptomology in parents caring for children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, J; Muldoon, O; Gallagher, S

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the synergistic relationship between stigma, self-esteem and social support, as predictors of depressive symptomology in parents of children with disabilities (e.g. Autism and Down syndrome). One hundred and seventy-three parents (115 parents of children with disabilities and 58 control parents) completed measures of perceived stigma, self-esteem, social support and depressive symptoms. Parents of children with disabilities reported more depressive symptomology; additionally, stigma, self-esteem and social support were associated with depressive symptomology. Moreover, the association between stigma and depressive symptomology was mediated by self-esteem, i.e. parents who reported higher stigma were lower on self-esteem and more depressed. Further, this path varied as a function of emotional support. Results highlight the need for tailored interventions that offer parents effective strategies in dealing with stigma through social support and self-esteem. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effectiveness of Stepping stones Triple P : the design of a randomised controlled trial on a parenting programme regarding children with mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems versus care as usual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with an intellectual disability are at increased risk of psychosocial problems. This leads to serious restrictions in the daily functioning of the children and to parental stress. Stepping Stones Triple P aims to prevent severe behavioural, emotional and developmental problems

  15. The maintenance effect of cognitive-behavioural treatment groups for the Chinese parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Melbourne, Australia: a 6-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D F K; Poon, A; Kwok, Y C Lai

    2011-11-01

    Caring for a child with intellectual disability can be stressful. No data on the longer-term effects of cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) on parents from a Chinese-speaking background who have children with intellectual disabilities are available in the literature. This study attempted to fill this research gap by examining the maintenance effect of CBT among the Chinese parents of such children in Melbourne, Australia. Thirty-nine participants took part in our CBT groups and attended follow-up meetings. A questionnaire comprising four instruments, the Parenting Stress Index (PS) - Parent Domain, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Abbreviated Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q-18) and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), was administered to the participants at the pre- and post-test stage and at the 6-month follow-up. One-way repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed significant time and group effects in the PS (F(2,27) = 16.93, P times. The participants continued to maintain significant improvements in mental health and quality of life and declines in the severity of parenting stress and dysfunctional attitudes at the 6-month follow-up. Effect size analyses revealed mostly large differences in the foregoing measurements (Cohen's d = 0.76-2.18) between the pre-test and 6-month follow-up. Employing a cut-off score of 3/4 in the GHQ-12 to identify at-risk and not-at-risk cases, approximately 90.5% of the participants could be classified as not-at-risk at the follow-up. Lastly, regression analyses showed that changes in DAS scores significantly predicted changes in the GHQ-12 and Q-LES-Q-18 scores at the follow-up. This study provides preliminary evidence of the 6-month maintenance effect of CBT groups for the Melbourne-resident Chinese parents of children with intellectual disabilities. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-08-01

    Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  17. The Impact of Intellectual Disability, Caregiver Burden, Family Functioning, Marital Quality, and Sense of Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R.; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir

    2011-01-01

    The present article is the first to consider the impact of intellectual disability on Bedouin-Arab families' caregiver burden, family functioning, marital quality, and sense of coherence. A random sample of 300 Bedouin-Arab parents with one or more intellectually disabled children, and a control group (n = 100) completed the McMaster Family…

  18. "It's not everyday that parents get a chance to talk like this": Exploring parents' perceptions and expectations of speech-language pathology services for children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Clare

    2010-08-01

    Tailoring the delivery of disability services to the preferences and requirements of service users allows for more effective partnerships. The aim of this research was to explore parents' perceptions and the expectations of their child's speech-language pathology (SLP) within an intellectual disability service. Parents of school-aged children with intellectual disability who received a SLP service in Ireland participated in the research: 17 parents participated in focus groups and 103 parents answered questionnaires. The core themes from the focus groups, which subsequently informed the questionnaire design, were: experience of the SLP service, communication difficulties, expectations of the SLP service, and future developments. The key questionnaire results indicated that parents viewed their SLP as the "expert" and viewed school-based and clinic-based services differently. Parents were more likely to believe that their child would always need therapy if they received a school-based service. Whereas, parents were more likely to think that their child's speech was improving as they got older and were more likely to be aware of therapy activities if therapy was clinic-based. The findings have implications for the delivery of SLP services suggesting that clarification of parents' roles and expectations are required.

  19. Perceptions of emotion expression and sibling-parent emotion communication in Latino and non-Latino white siblings of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A; Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Grullón, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Houck, Christopher; Seifer, Ronald

    2013-06-01

    Examine general emotion expression and sibling-parent emotion communication among Latino and non-Latino white (NLW) siblings of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and matched comparisons. 200 siblings (ages 8-15 years) completed the newly developed Sibling-Parent Emotion Communication Scale and existing measures of general emotion expression and psychosocial functioning. Preliminary analyses evaluated scale psychometrics across ethnicity. Structure and internal consistency of the emotion expression and communication measures differed by respondent ethnicity. Latino siblings endorsed more general emotion expression problems and marginally lower sibling-parent emotion communication than NLW siblings. Siblings of children with ID reported marginally more general emotion expression problems than comparisons. Emotion expression problems and lower sibling-parent emotion communication predicted more internalizing and somatic symptoms and poorer personal adjustment, regardless of ID status. Siblings of children with ID endorsed poorer personal adjustment. Cultural differences in emotion expression and communication may increase Latino siblings' risk for emotional adjustment difficulties.

  20. Testing Math or Testing Language? The Construct Validity of the KeyMath-Revised for Children With Intellectual Disability and Language Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine T; Branum-Martin, Lee; Morris, Robin D; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A

    2015-11-01

    Although it is often assumed that mathematics ability alone predicts mathematics test performance, linguistic demands may also predict achievement. This study examined the role of language in mathematics assessment performance for children with intellectual disability (ID) at less severe levels, on the KeyMath-Revised Inventory (KM-R) with a sample of 264 children, in grades 2-5. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the hypothesis that the KM-R would demonstrate discriminant validity with measures of language abilities in a two-factor model was compared to two plausible alternative models. Results indicated that KM-R did not have discriminant validity with measures of children's language abilities and was a multidimensional test of both mathematics and language abilities for this population of test users. Implications are considered for test development, interpretation, and intervention.

  1. Learn and apply: using multi-sensory storytelling to gather knowledge about preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities--three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Annet Ten; Van der Putten, Annette A J; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about the preferences and abilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMDs) is crucial for providing appropriate activities. Multi-sensory storytelling (MSST) can be an ideal activity for gathering such knowledge about children with PIMDs. The aim of this study was to analyse whether using MSST did lead to changes in teachers' knowledge about preferences and abilities and whether this knowledge was then applied in practice. Three dyads of children with PIMDs and their teachers read an MSST book 20 times during a 10-week period. A questionnaire designed to identify the teachers' current knowledge was filled in before the 1st and again after the 10th and 20th reading sessions. Also, the teachers were asked for their opinion about their newly gathered knowledge. In all three cases, changes in the teachers' knowledge were observed. However, teachers are insufficiently aware of their new knowledge and do not apply it in practice.

  2. The Diagnostic Yield of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Is High Regardless of Severity of Intellectual Disability/Developmental Delay in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Stefano; Gavazzi, Francesco; Alfei, Enrico; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Montomoli, Cristina; Corso, Barbara; Buzzi, Erika; Sciacca, Francesca L; Bulgheroni, Sara; Riva, Daria; Pantaleoni, Chiara

    2016-05-01

    Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization is a method of molecular analysis that identifies chromosomal anomalies (or copy number variants) that correlate with clinical phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to apply a clinical score previously designated by de Vries to 329 patients with intellectual disability/developmental disorder (intellectual disability/developmental delay) referred to our tertiary center and to see whether the clinical factors are associated with a positive outcome of aCGH analyses. Another goal was to test the association between a positive microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization result and the severity of intellectual disability/developmental delay. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization identified structural chromosomal alterations responsible for the intellectual disability/developmental delay phenotype in 16% of our sample. Our study showed that causative copy number variants are frequently found even in cases of mild intellectual disability (30.77%). We want to emphasize the need to conduct microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization on all individuals with intellectual disability/developmental delay, regardless of the severity, because the degree of intellectual disability/developmental delay does not predict the diagnostic yield of microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with and without intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in

  4. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  5. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning in children with syndromic craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliepaard, Marianne; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Okkerse, Jolanda M E

    2014-06-01

    To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional outcomes were assessed by using standardized measures: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)/6-18, Disruptive Behavior Disorder rating scale (DBD), and the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. We included 82 children (39 boys) aged 6 to 13 years who have syndromic craniosynostosis. Mean Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) was in the normal range (M = 96.6; SD = 21.6). However, children who have syndromic craniosynostosis had a 1.9 times higher risk for developing intellectual disability (FSIQ intellectual disability, internalizing, social, and attention problems. Higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems were related to lower levels of intellectual functioning.

  6. Non-Specialist Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability or Lower-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasamy, M. Taghi; Barbui, Corrado; Saxena, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of effective treatments for use by non-specialists is listed among the top research priorities for improving the lives of people with mental illness worldwide. The purpose of this review is to appraise which interventions for children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders delivered by non-specialist care providers in community settings produce benefits when compared to either a no-treatment control group or treatment-as-usual comparator. Methods and Findings We systematically searched electronic databases through 24 June 2013 to locate prospective controlled studies of psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist providers to children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders. We screened 234 full papers, of which 34 articles describing 29 studies involving 1,305 participants were included. A majority of the studies included children exclusively with a diagnosis of lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders (15 of 29, 52%). Fifteen of twenty-nine studies (52%) were randomized controlled trials and just under half of all effect sizes (29 of 59, 49%) were greater than 0.50, of which 18 (62%) were statistically significant. For behavior analytic interventions, the best outcomes were shown for development and daily skills; cognitive rehabilitation, training, and support interventions were found to be most effective for improving developmental outcomes, and parent training interventions to be most effective for improving developmental, behavioral, and family outcomes. We also conducted additional subgroup analyses using harvest plots. Limitations include the studies' potential for performance bias and that few were conducted in lower- and middle-income countries. Conclusions The findings of this review support the delivery of psychosocial interventions by non-specialist providers to children who have intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism

  7. Non-specialist psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with intellectual disability or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Reichow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of effective treatments for use by non-specialists is listed among the top research priorities for improving the lives of people with mental illness worldwide. The purpose of this review is to appraise which interventions for children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders delivered by non-specialist care providers in community settings produce benefits when compared to either a no-treatment control group or treatment-as-usual comparator. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched electronic databases through 24 June 2013 to locate prospective controlled studies of psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist providers to children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders. We screened 234 full papers, of which 34 articles describing 29 studies involving 1,305 participants were included. A majority of the studies included children exclusively with a diagnosis of lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders (15 of 29, 52%. Fifteen of twenty-nine studies (52% were randomized controlled trials and just under half of all effect sizes (29 of 59, 49% were greater than 0.50, of which 18 (62% were statistically significant. For behavior analytic interventions, the best outcomes were shown for development and daily skills; cognitive rehabilitation, training, and support interventions were found to be most effective for improving developmental outcomes, and parent training interventions to be most effective for improving developmental, behavioral, and family outcomes. We also conducted additional subgroup analyses using harvest plots. Limitations include the studies' potential for performance bias and that few were conducted in lower- and middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review support the delivery of psychosocial interventions by non-specialist providers to children who have intellectual disabilities or lower

  8. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Roos; Benjamin, Anja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Jongeneel, Ruud

    2009-09-01

    Intellectual disability is a comorbid condition in epilepsy. People with epilepsy and intellectual disability are at high risk of developing behavioral problems. Among the many contributors to behavioral problems in people with epilepsy and intellectual disability are those of traumatic experiences. As such, behavioral problems can be seen as a reflection of these traumatic experiences. Among established trauma therapies, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an emerging treatment that is effective in adults and also seems to be effective in children. This article is a case report of EMDR in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability, in whom the EMDR children's protocol was used. The aim was to assess whether clinical trauma status significantly diminished to nonclinical status posttreatment. Change in trauma symptoms was evaluated with the Reliable Change Index (RCI). Results showed a significant decrease in trauma symptoms toward nonclinical status from pretreatment to posttreatment. EMDR consequences for epilepsy and intellectual disability are discussed.

  9. Intellectual disability sport and Paralympic classification

    OpenAIRE

    Anna van Dijk; Klára Daďová; Irena Martínková

    2017-01-01

    Sometimes it might seem that elite disability sport, especially as represented by the Paralympic Movement, is only for athletes with an amputation, or a spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsied or blind athletes, rather than for athletes with an intellectual disability (ID). However, after we set out the various opportunities open to ID athletes, that offer different kinds of sporting engagement, we find interesting and alarming issues with respect to the elite competitive event offer for athl...

  10. The Association Between Social Skills and Mental Health in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, With and Without Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Belinda; Wong, Michelle; Dossetor, David; Hayes, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with social skills deficits and co-occurring mental health difficulties. ASD frequently co-occurs with Intellectual Disability (ID). There is scant literature exploring the association between social skills and mental health in children with ASD, with or without ID. Participants were 292 children aged six to 13 with ASD (217 without ID; 76 with Mild ID). Parents and teachers rated social skills and mental health using standardised questionnaires. Greater mental health difficulties were associated with greater social responsiveness difficulties and poorer social skills across the sample. Effect sizes were large. Social skills explained a significant proportion of the variance in mental health scores across the sample. The study has important implications for treatment and future research.

  11. Suicide behavior in persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Lunsky, Yona; Kandel, Isack

    2005-09-08

    Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.

  12. Suicide Behavior in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.

  13. Life Satisfaction in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…

  14. Aging in Rare Intellectual Disability Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several methodological challenges involved in research on aging, health, and mortality in adults with rare intellectual disability syndromes. Few studies have been performed in this area, with research obstacles that include: the ascertainment of older adults with genetic versus clinical diagnoses; likelihood that adults…

  15. Perceptions of the Judiciary and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockram, Judith; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Seventeen Supreme Court Judges, District Court Judges, and Magistrates in Western Australia were surveyed to examine perceptions concerning overrepresentation of individuals with intellectual disability in the criminal justice system. The judiciary felt these individuals had several characteristics that would disadvantage them in contacts with the…

  16. An inexorable rise in intellectual disability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the

  17. Legal Rights & Intellectual Disability: A Short Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julia, Ed.; And Others

    The book examines actions that may be taken to redress wrongs illegally perpetrated against people with intellectual disabilities in New South Wales, Australia. Ten topic areas are addressed (sample subtopics in parentheses): protecting rights (complaints to government departments, use of the ombudsman); discrimination (legal aid); personal…

  18. [Occupational burdens in special educators working with intellectually disabled students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichta, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of psychosocial burdens in special educators (specialists in the field of oligophrenopedagogy) with intellectually disabled students. In theoretical part, specific context of occupational stress in special educators was introduced. Additionally, the need of broader research context regarding occupational stress and the risk of burnout in special educators working with intellectually disabled individuals were included. The results were obtained using Plichta and Pyzalski's Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT). The presented results are based on a research sample (N = 100) of special educators (female) teaching intellectually disabled students attending special schools in the city of Lódz. The obtained results were compared with the results coming from a large random sample of public school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children from the Lodi voivodeship (N = 429) and referred to the norms of QOBT. The results show significant percentage of respondents obtaining high level of occupational burdens (conflict situations - 45%, organizational burdens - 31%, lack of work sense - 40%, global score - 40%). Seniority is not related to the level of burdens. Some significant differences concerning the level of occupational burdens between both groups of teachers were found. The study showed e.g. the strong need for supporting special educators in the workplace context and the need of implementing preventive and remedial measures at both individual and organizational levels (especially in terms of improving personal relationships in a workplace). Generally, the results show similarity of the stressors' ranking in special educators and school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children.

  19. Occupational burdens in special educators working with intellectually disabled students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Plichta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article presents the results of psychosocial burdens in special educators (specialists in the field of oligophrenopedagogy with intellectually disabled students. In theoretical part, specific context of occupational stress in special educators was introduced. Additionally, the need of broader research context regarding occupational stress and the risk of burnout in special educators working with intellectually disabled individuals were included. Material and Methods: The results were obtained using Plichta and Pyżalski's Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT. The presented results are based on a research sample (N = 100 of special educators (female teaching intellectually disabled students attending special schools in the city of Łódź. The obtained results were compared with the results coming from a large random sample of public school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children from the Łodź voivodeship (N = 429 and referred to the norms of QOBT. Results: The results show significant percentage of respondents obtaining high level of occupational burdens (conflict situations - 45%, organizational burdens - 31%, lack of work sense - 40%, global score - 40%. Seniority is not related to the level of burdens. Some significant differences concerning the level of occupational burdens between both groups of teachers were found. Conclusions: The study showed e.g. the strong need for supporting special educators in the workplace context and the need of implementing preventive and remedial measures at both individual and organizational levels (especially in terms of improving personal relationships in a workplace. Generally, the results show similarity of the stressors' ranking in special educators and school teachers working with non-intellectually disabled children. Med Pr 2014;65(2:239–250

  20. The efficacy of VIPP-V parenting training for parents of young children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platje, Evelien; Sterkenburg, Paula; Overbeek, Mathile; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2018-01-23

    Video-feedback Intervention to promote positive parenting-visual (VIPP-V) or visual-and-intellectual disability is an attachment-based intervention aimed at enhancing sensitive parenting and promoting positive parent-child relationships. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of VIPP-V for parents of children aged 1-5 with visual or visual-and-intellectual disabilities. A total of 37 dyads received only care-as-usual (CAU) and 40 received VIPP-V besides CAU. The parents receiving VIPP-V did not show increased parental sensitivity or parent-child interaction quality, however, their parenting self-efficacy increased. Moreover, the increase in parental self-efficacy predicted the increase in parent-child interaction. In conclusion, VIPP-V does not appear to directly improve the quality of contact between parent and child, but does contribute to the self-efficacy of parents to support and to comfort their child. Moreover, as parents experience their parenting as more positive, this may eventually lead to higher sensitive responsiveness and more positive parent-child interactions.

  1. [Prosocial intervention in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability: benefits of videotaping therapy sessions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, S; Askenazy, F; Renaudo, N; Staccini, P; Hun, S; Legall, E; Serret, S

    2015-02-01

    The category of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) without intellectual disability (including Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism) has increased steadily among individuals since the 1980s. Although some symptoms may decrease with age, functional disability persists and is largely related to abnormalities in social interaction. Within the framework of PDD without intellectual disability, improving social skills appears to be a primary target for intervention programs. Despite a recent increase in the number of studies on this topic, few validated programs are yet available for clinical settings. We have developed an intervention targeting the improvement of social skills from the analysis of video sequences. The goal of this intervention is to promote communication within the group through sharing their interests and emotions, and to enhance the understanding of social situations. In order to assess the efficiency of this intervention, we have conducted a prospective, open, and uncontrolled study. First, it aimed at assessing the immediate effect of our intervention on a single social skill (communication) in an experimental situation (in the group) and in an ecological situations (family and school). Second, this study aimed at assessing the effects of this intervention on the subjects' social adjustment. This study included 16 individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome. Participants were evaluated before and after a 6-month video-based training using measures of socio-communicative and adaptive skills. Results revealed a statistically significant increase in the communication skills not only in the group (15.5%), but also at home (13.7%) and at school (8.7%). The evaluation of socio-adaptive behavior indicates a statistically significant increase in communication (12%), family (7%) and social autonomy (8%), and leisure activities (8%). The communication and social adjustment scores obtained upon inclusion were low, despite low

  2. Intellectual disability and the prison setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tort

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1 To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2 Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1 A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398 of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons33 to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2 We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3 Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. Results: The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. Conclusions: The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.

  3. Lumbar spine and total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability: a pilot study of artefacts and disrupting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergler, S.; Rieken, R.; Tibboel, D.; Evenhuis, H. M.; van Rijn, R. R.; Penning, C.

    2012-01-01

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability (ID) are susceptible for developing low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. BMD is generally measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To describe the occurrence of factors that may influence the feasibility

  4. The effectiveness of VIPP-V parenting training for parents of young children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability: study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.; Sterkenburg, P.S.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Visual or visual-and-intellectual disabilities of children make daily interactions more difficult for their parents and may impact the quality of the parent-child relationship. To support these parents, an existing intervention (Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting;

  5. From "Learning Disability to Intellectual Disability"--Perceptions of the Increasing Use of the Term "Intellectual Disability" in Learning Disability Policy, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluley, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Background: The term "intellectual disability" is increasingly used to refer to people with learning disabilities in British learning disability policy, practice and research. This change is undoubtedly a reflection of the changing international context. The inclusion of the term "intellectual disability" has been particularly…

  6. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Inte...

  7. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN INDIVIDULAS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag VUJOVIKJ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A successful treatment of any disorder, condition or disease requires timely detection and accurate diagnostics. This is precisely what is missing in individuals with a dual diagnosis of an intellectual disability and a mental disorder, both in Macedonia and worldwide. In order to overcome the deficiencies in the treatment, and to improve the quality of life for these individuals as well, they should be detected on time and then approached with diagnosing and preparation of a plan for treating them. Goal: The main goal of this research is obtaining a result of the presence of intellectual disability among institutionalized individuals with mental disorders on the basis of the type of mental disorder, the age and the gender of the person. Also, one of the main goals is presenting the mental deterioration in individuals with mental disorders, as well as its connection with the age of the individuals with mental disorder. Despite having the basic goals, this research, as well as research on this subject from all over the world, serves as an example for raising the awareness about the diversity and atypical presentations of the patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental disorder. Methodology: For achieving the goal and tasks of this research, 50 individuals with different diagnosis of mental disorder, different age and different gender were tested. The sample that took part in this research was a suitable sample, i.e. individuals that during the research were hospitalized in the below mentioned public health institution. The research took place in PHI Psychiatric Hospital „Skopje“ from Skopje. For collecting the data in this research, as well as for achieving the goals of the research, two methods, three research techniques and two instruments were used. The methods that were used during this research included the method of comparative analysis and the method of correlation analysis, while the techniques

  8. Playing and building: experiences of participation of children with intellectual disability of second basic cycle in two municipal schools in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo SOTO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Participation of children with intellectual disabilities [ID] is promoted from a rights-based approach and inclusive education. However, in Chile these children tend to be segregated by existing educational programs. The objective of this study is to understand the experiences of participation of children with ID in the regular school context. In order to respond to this objective, individual interviews were conducted with 15 children with mild ID who attended the second basic cycle in two schools in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. Production of information was based on narrative-visual techniques such as participatory photography and episodic interviews in combination with photo-elicitation. The analysis was based on the Grounded Theory. The results show that the experiences of participation take place mainly in two types of activities: 1 didactic activities that involve the construction of physical and/or symbolic material and 2 games of a group character. These results allow the identification, from the perspective of children with ID, of universal resources and supports existing in the school community environment to promote their participation, motivation, learning and quality of life.

  9. The effectiveness of VIPP-V parenting training for parents of young children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability: study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Mathilde M; Sterkenburg, Paula S; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-09-09

    Visual or visual-and-intellectual disabilities of children make daily interactions more difficult for their parents and may impact the quality of the parent-child relationship. To support these parents, an existing intervention (Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting; VIPP; Juffer F, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH, 2008. Promoting positive parenting; an attachment-based intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2008) was adapted for use with parents of children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability (VIPP-V). This attachment-based intervention was hypothesized to support parents' interpretation and understanding of the behavior of their child with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability and respond to their child's signals in a sensitive way to improve parent-child interaction quality. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the adapted intervention VIPP-V (Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting in parents of children with Visual or visual-and-intellectual disabilities). Parent-child dyads will be randomized into two groups: 50 dyads will receive VIPP-V in combination with care-as-usual and 50 dyads will receive care-as-usual. Families with a child (1-5 years of age) with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability will be recruited for participation in the study. Primary outcome measures are parental sensitivity and the quality of parent-child interaction. Secondary outcome measures are parental self-efficacy, and parenting stress. To assess feasibility of implementation of the intervention the experiences of early intervention workers with regard to using VIPP-V are assessed. Moderator variables are the child's developmental age, working alliance between parent and VIPP-V intervention worker and empathy of the VIPP-V intervention worker. Data will be collected approximately one week before the intervention starts (T1), one week (T2

  10. Oro-facial pain perception and barriers to assess oral health care among the children with intellectual disability: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Radha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases affecting children invariably across the world; a toothache is one of the common outcomes found to be associated with dental caries as pain perception is a subjective phenomenon reporting of pain may vary among different individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the difference in oral health status and pain perception related to oral health status among the children with intellectual disability (ID and their normal counterparts. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 school children of 9-14 years with or without ID in Bangalore City, ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained. The study involved 50 children with ID and 50 children with non-ID (NID, of age group 9-14 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess participant′s demographic profile, self-assessed medical and dental conditions. Clinical assessment was done for recording dental caries and gingival status. Dental pain was measured using the "Dental Discomfort Questionnaire +" given by Versloot et al. Results: It was found that children with ID had a higher score for D(T, and M(T compared to NID control. This difference was statistically significant. Children with ID showed higher discomfort due to pain. Except for chewing on one side all other questions showed a significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: It was found that children with ID had a higher caries experience compared to NID control and showed significantly higher pain experience than children with NID.

  11. Understanding suicide and disability through three major disabling conditions: Intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Margaret J; Bergmark, Brian; Kreshover, Samantha; Elias, Eileen; Plummer, Caitlin; O'Keefe, Eileen

    2010-04-01

    Disability is not a category of disease but rather relates to the physical, sensory, cognitive, and/or mental disorders that substantially limit one or more major life activities. These functional limitations have been found to be predictive of suicide, with psychiatric comorbidities increasing the risk for suicide. Enormous gaps exist in the understanding of the relationship between disability and suicide. We reviewed the current literature addressing the prevalence of and risk factors for suicide among persons with three major disabling conditions and identify priorities for future research. We performed a literature review investigating the relationship between three major disabilities (intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis) and suicide. To ensure thorough evaluation of the available literature, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar with terms including "suicide," "disability," "intellectual disability," "spinal cord injury," "multiple sclerosis," and permutations thereof. By this method we evaluated 110 articles and included 21 in the review. Suicide rates are significantly higher among persons with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury than in the general population. A more nuanced picture of suicide rates and risk factors exists for the intellectual disability population, in which it appears that rates of suicide risk factors are higher than among the general population while suicide rates may be lower. The highest rates of suicide are reported among study populations of persons with multiple sclerosis, followed by persons with spinal cord injury, and then individuals with intellectual disability. Suicide among persons with disabilities is a complex and pressing public health concern. Urgent research priorities include (1) valid estimates of suicide rates among persons with disabilities by age cohort; (2) assessment of the predictive importance of suicide risk factors; and (3) determination of best

  12. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  13. Bereavement process of people with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia MUÑIZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is focused on detecting the support needs of people with intellectual disabilities during the bereavement process in order to guide about professional interventions and practices aimed to provide more adequate individualized support to their real needs. The sample consists of 93 adults with ID, with ages ranging from 21 to 72 years old (M = 49.9; SD = 11.79, who have suffered the loss of a significant person. The professionals who worked with them and knew them well completed two questionnaires: Staff Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ and Bereavement Needs Assessment (BNAT. Beside descriptive analyses, results were analyzed according to several variables (i.e., gender, age, level of intellectual disability, and level of dependency. Level of intellectual disability and level of dependency were the ones that resulted significant. In order to provide the best answer to their needs, good practices are suggested such as facilitating the understanding of loss, helping them express feelings and emotions, dealing with each case individually, and encouraging to continue education about death.

  14. Parenting stress in mothers of children with an intellectual disability: the effects of parental cognitions in relation to child characteristics and family support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, R; Rose, J; McDonald, J

    2005-06-01

    Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child characteristics, family support and parenting stress. The aspects of cognitions studied were: parenting self-esteem (including efficacy and satisfaction) and parental locus of control. The group studied consisted of 46 mothers of children with ID. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Maladaptive Behavior Domain were administered by interview. Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form). Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, partial correlations and a regression analysis. The results indicated that most of the variance in parenting stress was explained by parental locus of control, parenting satisfaction and child behaviour difficulties. Whilst there was also a strong correlation between family support and parenting stress, this was mediated by parental locus of control. The results demonstrate the potential importance of parental cognitions in influencing parental stress levels. It is argued that these results have implications for clinical interventions for promoting parents' coping strategies in managing children with ID and behavioural difficulties.

  15. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ubochi, Vincent N; Okoroikpa, Ifeoma N; Aguocha, Chinyere M; Ebigbo, Peter O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intell...

  16. Psychodynamic Therapy and Intellectual Disabilities: Dealing with Challenging Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…

  17. Cell Phone Use by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Carey, Allison; Friedman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Although cell phone use has grown dramatically, there is a gap in cell phone access between people with disabilities and the general public. The importance of cell phone use among people with intellectual disabilities and studies about use of cell phones by adults with intellectual disabilities was described. Our goal was to determine the extent…

  18. Intellectual disability in cerebral palsy: a population-based retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan M; Meehan, Elaine M; Arnup, Sarah J; Reddihough, Dinah S

    2018-04-18

    A population-based observational study design was used to describe the epidemiology of intellectual disability in cerebral palsy (CP) in terms of clinical and neuroimaging associations, and to report the impact of intellectual disability on utilization of health services and length of survival. Population CP registry data were used to retrospectively assess the frequency of intellectual disability and strength of associations between intellectual disability and mobility, epilepsy, vision, hearing, communication, and neuroimaging patterns (n=1141). Data linkage was undertaken to assess usage of hospital inpatient and emergency department services. Survival analysis was performed in a 30-year birth cohort (n=3248). Intellectual disability, present in 45% of the cohort, was associated with non-ambulation (47% vs 8%), later walking (mean 2y 7mo vs 1y 9mo), hypotonic (8% vs 1%) or dyskinetic (9% vs 5%) CP, a quadriplegic pattern of motor impairment (42% vs 5%), epilepsy (52% vs 12%), more emergency and multi-day hospital admissions, and reduced 35-year survival (96% vs 71%). Grey matter injuries (13% vs 6%), malformations (18% vs 6%), and miscellaneous neuroimaging patterns (12% vs 4%) were more common in people with intellectual disability. Intellectual disability adds substantially to the overall medical complexity in CP and may increase health and mortality disparities. Cerebral maldevelopments and grey matter injuries are associated with higher intellectual disability rates. Health care is more 'crisis-driven' and 'reactive' in children with co-occurring intellectual disability. Length of survival is reduced in individuals with CP and co-occurring intellectual disability. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Everyday Memory and Working Memory in Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Molen, M. J.; Van Luit, J. E. H.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday memory and its relationship to working memory was investigated in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and compared to typically developing adolescents of the same age (CA) and younger children matched on mental age (MA). Results showed a delay on almost all memory measures for the adolescents with mild intellectual disability…

  20. The effectiveness of Stepping stones Triple P: the design of a randomised controlled trial on a parenting programme regarding children with mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems versus care as usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with an intellectual disability are at increased risk of psychosocial problems. This leads to serious restrictions in the daily functioning of the children and to parental stress. Stepping Stones Triple P aims to prevent severe behavioural, emotional and developmental problems in children with a (intellectual) disability by enhancing parenting knowledge and skills, and the self-confidence of parents. This paper aims to describe the design of a study of the effectiveness of parenting counselling using Stepping Stones Triple P compared to Care as Usual. Methods/Design The effects of Stepping Stones Triple P will be studied in a Randomised Controlled Trial. Parents of children aged 5-12 years with an IQ of 50-85 will be recruited from schools. Prior to randomisation, parents complete a screening questionnaire about their child's psychosocial problems and their parenting skills. Subsequently, parents of children with increased levels of psychosocial problems (score on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ≥ 14) will be invited to participate in the intervention study. After obtaining consent, parents will be randomised either to the experimental group (Stepping Stones Triple P) or to Care as Usual. The primary outcome is a change in the child's psychosocial problems according to parents and teachers. The secondary outcome is a change in parenting skills. Data will be collected before the start of the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and six months after. Discussion This paper presents an outline of the background and design of a randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P, which aims to decrease psychosocial problems in children with a mild intellectual disability. Stepping Stones Triple P seems promising, but evidence on its effectiveness for this population is still lacking. This study provides evidence about the effects of this intervention in a community-based population of

  1. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P: the design of a randomised controlled trial on a parenting programme regarding children with mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems versus care as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Daniëlle E M C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2011-08-30

    Children with an intellectual disability are at increased risk of psychosocial problems. This leads to serious restrictions in the daily functioning of the children and to parental stress. Stepping Stones Triple P aims to prevent severe behavioural, emotional and developmental problems in children with a (intellectual) disability by enhancing parenting knowledge and skills, and the self-confidence of parents. This paper aims to describe the design of a study of the effectiveness of parenting counselling using Stepping Stones Triple P compared to Care as Usual. The effects of Stepping Stones Triple P will be studied in a Randomised Controlled Trial. Parents of children aged 5-12 years with an IQ of 50-85 will be recruited from schools. Prior to randomisation, parents complete a screening questionnaire about their child's psychosocial problems and their parenting skills. Subsequently, parents of children with increased levels of psychosocial problems (score on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ≥ 14) will be invited to participate in the intervention study. After obtaining consent, parents will be randomised either to the experimental group (Stepping Stones Triple P) or to Care as Usual. The primary outcome is a change in the child's psychosocial problems according to parents and teachers. The secondary outcome is a change in parenting skills. Data will be collected before the start of the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and six months after. This paper presents an outline of the background and design of a randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P, which aims to decrease psychosocial problems in children with a mild intellectual disability. Stepping Stones Triple P seems promising, but evidence on its effectiveness for this population is still lacking. This study provides evidence about the effects of this intervention in a community-based population of children with a mild intellectual

  2. The effectiveness of Stepping stones Triple P: the design of a randomised controlled trial on a parenting programme regarding children with mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems versus care as usual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Daniëlle EMC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with an intellectual disability are at increased risk of psychosocial problems. This leads to serious restrictions in the daily functioning of the children and to parental stress. Stepping Stones Triple P aims to prevent severe behavioural, emotional and developmental problems in children with a (intellectual disability by enhancing parenting knowledge and skills, and the self-confidence of parents. This paper aims to describe the design of a study of the effectiveness of parenting counselling using Stepping Stones Triple P compared to Care as Usual. Methods/Design The effects of Stepping Stones Triple P will be studied in a Randomised Controlled Trial. Parents of children aged 5-12 years with an IQ of 50-85 will be recruited from schools. Prior to randomisation, parents complete a screening questionnaire about their child's psychosocial problems and their parenting skills. Subsequently, parents of children with increased levels of psychosocial problems (score on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ≥ 14 will be invited to participate in the intervention study. After obtaining consent, parents will be randomised either to the experimental group (Stepping Stones Triple P or to Care as Usual. The primary outcome is a change in the child's psychosocial problems according to parents and teachers. The secondary outcome is a change in parenting skills. Data will be collected before the start of the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and six months after. Discussion This paper presents an outline of the background and design of a randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P, which aims to decrease psychosocial problems in children with a mild intellectual disability. Stepping Stones Triple P seems promising, but evidence on its effectiveness for this population is still lacking. This study provides evidence about the effects of this intervention in a community

  3. Attitudes towards People with Disabilities--What Do People with Intellectual Disabilities Have to Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr McEvoy, Sandra; Keenan, Emer

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities have traditionally been very negative, resulting in people with intellectual disabilities being treated badly by other. This claim was explored by conducting focus groups with adults who have an intellectual disability to find out about their everyday experiences in different places and using…

  4. Perceptions of Emotion Expression and Sibling–Parent Emotion Communication in Latino and Non-Latino White Siblings of Children With Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Grullón, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Houck, Christopher; Seifer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Objective Examine general emotion expression and sibling–parent emotion communication among Latino and non-Latino white (NLW) siblings of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and matched comparisons. Methods 200 siblings (ages 8–15 years) completed the newly developed Sibling–Parent Emotion Communication Scale and existing measures of general emotion expression and psychosocial functioning. Preliminary analyses evaluated scale psychometrics across ethnicity. Results Structure and internal consistency of the emotion expression and communication measures differed by respondent ethnicity. Latino siblings endorsed more general emotion expression problems and marginally lower sibling–parent emotion communication than NLW siblings. Siblings of children with ID reported marginally more general emotion expression problems than comparisons. Emotion expression problems and lower sibling–parent emotion communication predicted more internalizing and somatic symptoms and poorer personal adjustment, regardless of ID status. Siblings of children with ID endorsed poorer personal adjustment. Conclusion Cultural differences in emotion expression and communication may increase Latino siblings’ risk for emotional adjustment difficulties. PMID:23459309

  5. The first year: the support needs of parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tracy; Redley, Bernice; Ottmann, Goetz

    2016-11-01

    To describe the support needs of parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability in the first year of life. Parents of children with intellectual disabilities face significant challenges during the first year of their child's life which is an important developmental period not previously addressed in the literature. The provision of support by health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives, during this crucial period can impact on parental well-being and on the health and developmental outcomes of their children. However, parents often feel unsupported. The study used a qualitative descriptive methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of eleven children with an intellectual disability in Victoria, Australia, during 2014. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic data analysis. Three key areas of support need were identified to assist parents to provide effective care for their child with an intellectual disability in the first year of life: (1) emotional support as parents adjusted to their role of caring for a child with an intellectual disability; (2) information support as they embarked on a quest for knowledge; and (3) support to facilitate their connection to peer networks. The findings highlighted inconsistent provision of support for parents. This study informs health professionals about how to provide holistic, timely support to parents of children with intellectual disabilities in the first year of life. There is an urgent need to review how nurses and midwives can provide relevant support that is responsive to parents' needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Consensus statement of the International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia on valuing the perspectives of persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchman, Karen; Janicki, Matthew P; Udell, Leslie; Hogan, Mary; Quinn, Sam; Beránková, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia covered a range of issues related to dementia and intellectual disability, including the dearth of personal reflections of persons with intellectual disability affected by dementia. This article reflects on this deficiency and explores some of the personal perspectives gleaned from the literature, from the Summit attendees and from the experiences of persons with intellectual disability recorded or scribed in advance of the two-day Summit meeting. Systemic recommendations included reinforcing the value of the involvement of persons with intellectual disability in (a) research alongside removing barriers to inclusion posed by institutional/ethics review boards, (b) planning groups that establish supports for dementia and (c) peer support. Practice recommendations included (a) valuing personal perspectives in decision-making, (b) enabling peer-to-peer support models, (c) supporting choice in community-dwelling arrangements and (d) broadening availability of materials for persons with intellectual disability that would promote understanding of dementia.

  7. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguocha Chinyere M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition (ICD - 10 criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. Results A total of forty-four (44 children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001. First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children

  8. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ubochi, Vincent N; Okoroikpa, Ifeoma N; Aguocha, Chinyere M; Ebigbo, Peter O

    2009-09-15

    There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition(ICD - 10) criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. A total of forty-four (44) children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001). First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children showed higher correlation score between clinicians

  9. Sleep and Cognitive Functioning in Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality have been associated with impaired cognitive functioning in typically developing children and in children with a wide array of disabilities and medical conditions. Among children with disabilities, those with intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism…

  10. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Printable PDF Open ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome is an inherited ...

  11. Genetic Testing in Intellectual Disability Psychiatry: Opinions and Practices of UK Child and Intellectual Disability Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kate; Stueber, Kerstin; McQuillin, Andrew; Jichi, Fatima; Patch, Christine; Flinter, Frances; Strydom, André; Bass, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of genetic causes of intellectual disabilities (ID) are identifiable by clinical genetic testing, offering the prospect of bespoke patient management. However, little is known about the practices of psychiatrists and their views on genetic testing. Method: We undertook an online survey of 215 psychiatrists, who…

  12. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in

  13. Vision, spatial cognition and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Fabienne; Schenk, Françoise

    2015-02-01

    Vision is the most synthetic sensory channel and it provides specific information about the relative position of distant landmarks during visual exploration. In this paper we propose that visual exploration, as assessed by the recording of eye movements, offers an original method to analyze spatial cognition and to reveal alternative adaptation strategies in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Our general assumption is that eye movement exploration may simultaneously reveal whether, why, and how, compensatory strategies point to specific difficulties related to neurological symptoms. An understanding of these strategies will also help in the development of optimal rehabilitation procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aerobic capacity of adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    1. A large sample of the study population (30% female, 46,3% male showed very low levels of aerobic capacity. 2. Our investigations did not demonstrate a relationship between physical fitness and age or the degree of intellectual disability. Gender turned out to be a differentiating factor but only for the absolute PWC170 and VO2max. 3. The level of physical fitness was significantly related to somatic parameters including body mass, waist and hips circumference, percentage of body fat, BMI and WHR.

  15. Caring, Employment, and Quality of Life: Comparison of Employed and Nonemployed Mothers of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Pu, Cheng-Yun; Kroger, Teppo; Fu, Li-yeh

    2010-01-01

    The effects of caregiving on mothers of adults with intellectual disability was examined by determining whether there are differences in quality of life and related factors between mothers with different employment status. Study participants were 302 working-age mothers who had adult children with intellectual disability based on the 2008 census…

  16. Whose Job Is It? Everyday Routines and Quality of Life in Latino and Non-Latino Families of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Susan D.; Domínguez-Pareto, Irenka; Cohen, Shana R.; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that families construct daily routines that enable the household to function smoothly and promote family quality of life. However, we know little about how activities are distributed between parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability (ID), particularly in Latino families. To address this gap, we…

  17. Intellectual disability sport and Paralympic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna van Dijk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it might seem that elite disability sport, especially as represented by the Paralympic Movement, is only for athletes with an amputation, or a spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsied or blind athletes, rather than for athletes with an intellectual disability (ID. However, after we set out the various opportunities open to ID athletes, that offer different kinds of sporting engagement, we find interesting and alarming issues with respect to the elite competitive event offer for athletes with ID. In this paper, we discuss the following: the problem of inclusion, some concerns that arise in the classification of paralympic athletes such as self-declaration and eligibility, the open nature of ID sports competition, and the sport offer available for these athletes.

  18. Psychiatric Services for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Medication Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew T.; Hahn, Joan Earle; Hayward, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the medication management and treatment provided in a specialty outpatient psychiatry clinic for 198 community-residing children and adults with intellectual disability and other developmental disabilities (IDD) referred to the clinic and discharged between 1999 and 2008. Using a descriptive design, data…

  19. The effectiveness of VIPP-V parenting training for parents of young children with a visual or visual-and-intellectual disability: study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Overbeek, Mathilde M.; Sterkenburg, Paula S.; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Visual or visual-and-intellectual disabilities of children make daily interactions more difficult for their parents and may impact the quality of the parent-child relationship. To support these parents, an existing intervention (Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting; VIPP; Juffer F, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH, 2008. Promoting positive parenting; an attachment-based intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2008) was adapted for use ...

  20. Factors Affecting Placement of a Child with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of disabled children often face the question whether or not to keep the child at home or to place them. The choice between the two alternatives resides with the parents and various factors influence their decision. Several researchers have identified these factors, which include child-related parameters, family and parental attitudes, the influence of the social environment, and the external assistance provided to the family. In a pilot study, we attempted to isolate the main factors involved in the parental decision either to keep the child at home or place the child by examining a sample comprised of 50 parents of children suffering severe intellectual disability studying in a special education school and 48 parents of adults with intellectual disability working in sheltered workshops. Each parent filled out a questionnaire used in a study in the United States and results of the research indicated parental-related factors as the dominant factors that delayed the placement of their child in residential care; guilt feelings were the main factor.

  1. Teaching Reading for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature related to instructional strategies to improve reading skills for students with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Studies reviewed were within three categories; early reading approaches, comprehensive approaches, and one method approach. It was concluded that students with intellectual disabilities are…

  2. Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meera; Rose, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate attitudes held by a British student population towards individuals with an intellectual disability. Students participated in focus groups addressing their attitudes, behaviours and perceptions of individuals with an intellectual disability. Thematic analysis was the method used to identify emergent themes.…

  3. Intellectual Disability and Space: Critical Narratives of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Susan L.; Cohen, Carie J.; Kotel, Kathleen; Pearson, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The language of intellectual disability is rife with spatial terms. Students labeled with intellectual disability are "placed in" special education where they may be "self-contained," "segregated," "excluded," or "included." Conversations ensue about where to seat them, "next" to whom, and at what distance "from" the teacher and other students. In…

  4. Overweight and Obesity in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…

  5. Physical Fitness and Fatness in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated health-related fitness in adolescents with intellectual disabilities and analysed the various performances in physical fitness tests according to degrees of obesity. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven French intellectual disabilities adolescents (14.24 [plus or minus] 1.48 years) performed the EUROFIT physical…

  6. Measurement of Mood in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Geoffrey R.; Terry, Peter C.; Bramston, Paul; Dinsdale, Sarah L.

    2004-01-01

    To date, there has been limited research into mood responses among adolescents with intellectual disability. One reason for this is the absence of a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of mood among this population. The present study evaluated such a measure among a sample of 135 adolescents with mild intellectual disability. Results…

  7. Qualitative Study of Malnutrition in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Janine J. L.; Maaskant, Marian A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of underweight status is relatively high in persons with intellectual disabilities. However, it is not clear whether this is due to malnourishment. The authors sought to examine the awareness and knowledge of physicians, dieticians, and direct care staff regarding malnutrition in people with intellectual disabilities. They also…

  8. An Audit of the Irish National Intellectual Disability Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Philip; Craig, Sarah; Kelly, Fionnola; Guerin, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    This study describes a national data audit of the National Intellectual Disability Database (NIDD). The NIDD is a national information system for intellectual disability (ID) for Ireland. The purpose of this audit was to assess the overall accuracy of information contained on the NIDD, as well as collecting qualitative information to support the…

  9. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  10. Age at Death in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvio, Maria; Salokivi, Tommi; Bjelogrlic-Laakso, Nina

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to ascertain the average age at death (AD) in the intellectual disability population for each gender and compare them to those of the general population during 1970-2012. By analysing medical records, we calculated the ADs of all deceased clients (N = 1236) of two district organizations responsible for intellectual disability services. Statistics Finland's database generated data regarding ADs of all inhabitants who had died after having resided in same district. During the follow-up, average ADs for the intellectual disability population and general population increased, and simultaneously the AD difference between these populations decreased. In the 2000s, the AD difference between the intellectual disability population and the whole population was 22 years for men (95% CI: -24 to -20) and 30 years for women (95% CI: -33 to -27). In 2000s, the mean AD of those with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability (IQ 50-69) for women and men was 56 (SD17) and 54 (SD18), and those with severe to profound intellectual disability (IQ<50), 44 (SD23) and 43 (SD21). Intellectual disability is still a considerable risk factor for early death. Among the intellectual disability population, unlike in general population, the lifespans of women and men are equal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Constructivism or Behaviorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algahtani, Faris

    2017-01-01

    Many teaching strategies have been postulated over the past years by various scholars in an effort to enhance the education system among students with intellectual disabilities. There is much debate on the application of constructivist and behaviorist perspectives for teaching students with intellectual disabilities as addressed in this paper.…

  12. Effectiveness of Speech Therapy in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terband, Hayo; Coppens-Hofman, Marjolein C.; Reffeltrath, Maaike; Maassen, Ben A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the effect of speech therapy in a heterogeneous group of adults with intellectual disability. Method: Thirty-six adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (IQs 40-70; age 18-40 years) with reported poor speech intelligibility received tailored training in articulation and listening skills delivered…

  13. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  14. What Is Right? Ethics in Intellectual Disabilities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Kidney, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    There are important benefits to including adults with intellectual disabilities in research. Calls for their increased participation in research co-occur with notable discussion about how to conduct ethically strong research with adults with intellectual disabilities, a population widely considered vulnerable in the context of research. The…

  15. The Siblings Relationship of Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Gazi; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The sibling relationship of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities was examined. Participants were 70 sibling dyads--each dyad was comprised of one 12-year old adolescent with (N = 23) or without intellectual disabilities (N = 47). Sibling relationships, behavior problems, and social skills were assessed using mother reports.…

  16. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2017-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  17. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams

    2017-09-22

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  18. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T.; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E.; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M.; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M.; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A.; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T.; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  19. New innovations: therapeutic opportunities for intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, Jonathan D; Walsh, Christopher A

    2013-09-01

    Intellectual disability is common and is associated with significant morbidity. Until the latter half of the 20th century, there were no efficacious treatments. Following initial breakthroughs associated with newborn screening and metabolic corrections, little progress was made until recently. With improved understanding of genetic and cellular mechanisms, novel treatment options are beginning to appear for a number of specific conditions. Fragile X and tuberous sclerosis offer paradigms for the development of targeted therapeutics, but advances in understanding of other disorders such as Down syndrome and Rett syndrome, for example, are also resulting in promising treatment directions. In addition, better understanding of the underlying neurobiology is leading to novel developments in enzyme replacement for storage disorders and adjunctive therapies for metabolic disorders, as well as potentially more generalizable approaches that target dysfunctional cell regulation via RNA and chromatin. Physiologic therapies, including deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, offer yet another direction to enhance cognitive functioning. Current options and evolving opportunities for the intellectually disabled are reviewed and exemplified. Copyright © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  20. Stair-Walking Performance in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Yun Shieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD, participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID.