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Sample records for integrilin therapy esprit

  1. Effect of operator and institutional volume on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions performed in Canada and the United States: a brief report from the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Mina; Nikhil, Janarthan; Hellkamp, Anne S; Pieper, Karen S; Labinaz, Marino; Cohen, E A; Buller, Christopher E; Cantor, Warren J; Seidelin, Peter; Ducas, John; Carere, Ronald G; Natarajan, Madhu K; O'Shea, J Conor; Tcheng, James E

    2009-08-01

    The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial compared the use of eptifibatide with placebo in 2064 coronary intervention patients. It was previously reported that Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, myocardial infarction (MI) or target vessel revascularization (TVR) compared with patients in the United States (US). To examine whether operator or institutional volume differences explain the regional variation in clinical outcome. Each site received an operator and institutional volume survey. Fifty-seven sites (62%) returned complete data on 1338 patients. In this smaller cohort, Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, MI or TVR compared with US patients (6.3% versus 10.3% and 14.9% versus 20.1%, respectively; PESPRIT study, institutional volume was associated with a modest reduction in risk of death, MI or TVR over short- and long-term follow-up periods. The Canadian and US investigators and institutions selected in ESPRIT had similar annual procedural volumes. Therefore, volume variables did not explain the differential risk of clinical events observed for patients enrolled in the two countries.

  2. Clinical characteristics predict benefits from eptifibatide therapy during coronary stenting: insights from the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor With Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Joseph A; Banko, Lesan T; Pieper, Karen S; Sacchi, Terrence J; O'Shea, J Conor; Dery, Jean Pierre; Tcheng, James E

    2006-02-21

    In order to determine a differential benefit from treatment, we compared the long-term outcome of high-risk versus low-risk patients and evaluated survival free from death or myocardial infarction at one year. Newer anticoagulant strategies during percutaneous coronary intervention have necessitated a reanalysis of the role of intravenous GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy trial randomized 2,064 patients undergoing nonurgent coronary stent implantation to eptifibatide or placebo. High-risk characteristics were defined as age >75 years, diabetes, elevated cardiac markers, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction within 7 days, or unstable angina within 48 h of randomization. Age <5 years, absence of diabetes, and any other reason for admission were considered low risk characterstics. There were 1,018 patients in the high-risk group (50.8% eptifibatide, 49.2% placebo) and 1,045 patients in the low-risk group (50.0% eptifibatide, 50.0% placebo). Baseline demographics were similar in both groups except for more hypertension (63% vs. 55%, respectively), peripheral vascular disease (8.2% vs. 5.2%, respectively), prior stroke (5.5% vs. 3.2%, respectively), and female gender (33% vs. 22%, respectively) in the high-risk than the low-risk group. At one year, the composite end point of death or myocardial infarction occurred in 15.89% of placebo patients and 7.99% of eptifibatide patients in the high-risk group and 9.02% of the placebo and 8.11% of eptifibatide patients in the low-risk group. Although eptifibatide treatment improved outcomes for all patients, preprocedural clinical characteristics can define a subgroup of patients who may derive greatest benefit from its use during coronary stent placement.

  3. Comparison of one-year outcomes following coronary artery stenting in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients (from the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor With Integrilin Therapy [ESPRIT] Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinaz, Marino; Madan, Mina; O'Shea, J O'Conor; Kilaru, Rakhi; Chin, Wai; Pieper, Karen; McGuire, Darren K; Saucedo, Jorge F; Talley, J David; Lui, Henry; Kitt, Michael M; Califf, Robert M; Tcheng, James T

    2002-09-15

    For patients undergoing nonurgent coronary stent implantation, blockade of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor with eptifibatide reduces the incidence of ischemic complications. We evaluated the interaction of eptifibatide with diabetes in patients who underwent this procedure by analyzing the 1-year outcomes of those enrolled in the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial (466 diabetic and 1,595 nondiabetic patients). At 1 year, the composite end point of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or target vessel revascuarlization (TVR) was higher in diabetic patients (24.5% vs 18.4%; p = 0.008). At 1 year, eptifibatide had a similar effect on the composite end point of death, MI, or TVR in diabetic (hazards ratio [HR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49 to 1.04) and nondiabetic patients (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.99). A similar treatment effect was also seen on death or MI in both groups. The 1-year mortality rate for diabetic patients assigned to placebo was 3.5% versus 1.3% for patients receiving eptifibatide (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.41); the latter rate was similar to the mortality rate of 1.4% for nondiabetic patients in the eptifibatide group. However, eptifibatide did not have a significant effect on TVR in diabetic patients (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.41). Our data suggest that treatment with eptifibatide is associated with a similar relative reduction in adverse ischemic complications in diabetic and nondiabetic patients undergoing coronary stent implantation. There is no evidence of a statistical interaction in the treatment effect of eptifibatide between patients with and without diabetes.

  4. Equipoise in the enhanced supression of the platelet IIb/IIIa receptor with integrilin trial (ESPRIT): a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Howard; London, Alex John; Mann, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced Supression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Trial (ESPRIT) was a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial in which participants were randomized between eptifibatide and placebo. A "clinical hold" was initially placed on the trial by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which was concerned about the placebo-only control arm. The hold was lifted after additional information concerning the use of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in clinical practice, derived from a survey of interventional cardiologists, was provided. The trial's principal investigator and colleagues have described how these issues were resolved, and advance a claim of equipoise for the trial. In this critical appraisal we examine the information and arguments proffered in support of the trial design and conclude that they evidence a misunderstanding of equipoise. We believe that a placebo-only control arm was not justified by the information provided by the trialists.

  5. Temporal spectrum of ischemic complications with percutaneous coronary intervention: the ESPRIT experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Warren J; Tcheng, James E; Blankenship, James C; O'Shea, J Conor; Pieper, Karen S; Criger, Douglas A; Madan, Mina; Ducas, John; Sheldon, William S; Tannenbaum, Mark A; Smith, Jack E; Kitt, Michael M; Gilchrist, Ian C

    2004-09-01

    We determined the timing of ischemic complications within 30 days after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients enrolled in the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial. Complications (death, myocardial infarction [MI], target vessel revascularization) occurred in 178 of 2064 patients (8.6%) within 30 days. More than 85% of complications occurred within the 24 hours following randomization, with the greatest risk hazard at 12-18 hours. Unexpectedly, 31% of patients who ultimately met criteria for an endpoint MI within 24 hours of PCI had completely normal CK-MB concentrations at the first 6-hour measurement. There was no rebound increase in events after cessation of eptifibatide. Treatment benefit persisted to 30 days. Post-procedural MI is often not detected until greater than or equal to 12 hours after PCI. Treatment with a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor is the only modifiable parameter that reduces the risk for early ischemic complications.

  6. Relationship between heparin anticoagulation and clinical outcomes in coronary stent intervention: observations from the ESPRIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolleson, Thaddeus R; O'Shea, J Conor; Bittl, John A; Hillegass, William B; Williams, Kathryn A; Levine, Glenn; Harrington, Robert A; Tcheng, James E

    2003-02-05

    We evaluated the relationship between the degree of heparin anticoagulation and clinical efficacy and bleeding in patients undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation. Despite universal acceptance of heparin anticoagulation as a standard of care in PCI, considerable controversy still exists regarding the appropriate dosing of heparin. The study population (n = 2,064) comprised all patients enrolled in the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial. The index activated clotting time (ACT) was defined as the ACT measured after the last heparin dose and before first device activation and was correlated with outcome and bleeding events. No association was observed between decreasing ACT levels and the rate of ischemic events in the treatment or placebo arms. The incidence of the primary composite end point (death, myocardial infarction, urgent target vessel revascularization, and thrombotic bailout glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy at 48 h) was actually lowest in the lowest ACT tertile for both the placebo (10.0%) and treatment groups (6.1%). When analyzed by tertile, major bleeding rates did not increase in the lowest ACT tertile in patients given placebo (0.6%) versus those receiving eptifibatide (0.7%). Major bleeding rates increased as the ACT increased in the eptifibatide-treated patients. Ischemic end points in patients undergoing contemporary PCI with stent placement do not increase by decreasing ACT levels, at least to a level of 200 s. Bleeding events do increase with increasing ACT levels and are enhanced with eptifibatide treatment. An ACT of 200 to 250 s is reasonable in terms of efficacy and safety with the use of contemporary technology and pharmacotherapy.

  7. Antiplatelet therapy for recurrent stroke prevention: newer perspectives based on (MATCH), (CHARISMA), and (ESPRIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B

    2008-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy is an important component of our armamentarium for recurrent stroke prevention. Aspirin is a safe and effective antiplatelet drug for recurrent stroke prevention, however, it has been challenged recently by the thienopyridine derivative, clopidogrel, and the combination agent, aspirin plus extended release dipyridamole. In this review, we discuss recent studies of thienopyridine derivatives and aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole in stroke prevention and evidence-based guidelines for the administration of these agents in practice for recurrent stroke prevention.

  8. Mortality in well controlled HIV in the continuous antiretroviral therapy arms of the SMART and ESPRIT trials compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Alison J; Lodwick, Rebecca; Schechter, Mauro; Deeks, Steven; Amin, Janaki; Gilson, Richard; Paredes, Roger; Bakowska, Elzbieta; Engsig, Frederik N; Phillips, Andrew

    2013-03-27

    Due to the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is relevant to ask whether death rates in optimally treated HIV are higher than the general population. The objective was to compare mortality rates in well controlled HIV-infected adults in the SMART and ESPRIT clinical trials with the general population. Non-IDUs aged 20-70 years from the continuous ART control arms of ESPRIT and SMART were included if the person had both low HIV plasma viral loads (≤400 copies/ml SMART, ≤500 copies/ml ESPRIT) and high CD4(+) T-cell counts (≥350 cells/μl) at any time in the past 6 months. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by comparing death rates with the Human Mortality Database. Three thousand, two hundred and eighty individuals [665 (20%) women], median age 43 years, contributed 12,357 person-years of follow-up. Sixty-two deaths occurred during follow up. Commonest cause of death was cardiovascular disease (CVD) or sudden death (19, 31%), followed by non-AIDS malignancy (12, 19%). Only two deaths (3%) were AIDS-related. Mortality rate was increased compared with the general population with a CD4(+) cell count between 350 and 499 cells/μl [SMR 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.55]. No evidence for increased mortality was seen with CD4(+) cell counts greater than 500 cells/μl (SMR 1.00, 95% CI 0.69-1.40). In HIV-infected individuals on ART, with a recent undetectable viral load, who maintained or had recovery of CD4(+) cell counts to at least 500 cells/μl, we identified no evidence for a raised risk of death compared with the general population.

  9. Is glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonism as effective in women as in men following percutaneous coronary intervention?. Lessons from the ESPRIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Laura S; Tcheng, James E; O'Shea, J Conor; Weiner, Bonnie; Lorenz, Todd J; Pacchiana, Cindy; Berdan, Lisa G; Maresh, Kelly J; Joseph, Diane; Madan, Mina; Mann, Tift; Kilaru, Rakhi; Hochman, Judith S; Kleiman, Neal S

    2002-09-18

    The study was done to determine whether eptifibatide, a platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonist, prevents ischemic complications following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in women as well as in men. Eptifibatide reduces ischemic complications after nonurgent coronary stent interventions. We compared outcomes in women (n = 562) and men (n = 1,502) enrolled in the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet GP IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial of double-bolus eptifibatide during PCI. Women in the ESPRIT trial were older, and more frequently had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or acute coronary syndromes, but were less likely to have prior PCI or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The primary end point, a composite at 48 h of death, myocardial infarction (MI), urgent target vessel revascularization (TVR), and unplanned GP IIb/IIIa use, occurred in 10.5% of women and 7.9% of men (p = 0.082). The composite of death, MI, or TVR after one year occurred in 24.5% of women compared with 18% of men (p = 0.0008). At 48 h, eptifibatide reduced the composite of death, MI, and TVR from 14.5% to 6.0% in women versus 9.0% to 6.8% in men. At one year, these differences persisted: 28.9% versus 20.0% for women and 19.5% versus 16.6% for men. No statistical interaction existed between treatment and gender at either 48 h (p = 0.063) or one year (p = 0.2). Bleeding occurred more commonly in women (5.5% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.002), and was more common in eptifibatide-treated women. After adjustment for age, weight, and hypertension, no interaction between treatment and gender was present. Eptifibatide is effective to prevent ischemic complications of PCI in women and may eliminate gender-related differences in PCI outcomes.

  10. Effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition on angiographic complications during percutaneous coronary intervention in the ESPRIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, J C; Tasissa, G; O'Shea, J C; Iliadis, E A; Bachour, F A; Cohen, D J; Lui, H K; Mann, T; Cohen, E; Tcheng, J E

    2001-09-01

    We sought to determine whether eptifibatide decreases the incidence of in-laboratory angiographic complications and to determine the relationship of angiographically evident complications to elevations of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) enzyme levels during percutaneous coronary intervention. In the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial, eptifibatide during coronary intervention was associated with decreased ischemic complications at 48 h and 30 days. Patients (n = 2,064) were randomized to placebo versus eptifibatide (two 180 microg/kg boluses 10 min apart and as a continuous infusion of 2 microg/kg per min) during percutaneous coronary stenting. Angiographic complications including major dissection, distal embolization, residual thrombus, abrupt closure, residual stenosis >50% and side-branch occlusion were prospectively recorded by the operator. Creatine kinase-MB levels were measured after the procedure and every 6 h thereafter. The incidence of angiographic complications and CK-MB elevation was determined for eptifibatide versus placebo groups. Eptifibatide-treated patients demonstrated nonsignificant trends toward fewer angiographic complications (10 vs. 12% for placebo patients, p = 0.13) and, for patients with angiographic complications, fewer subsequent CK-MB elevations (43 vs. 50% for placebo patients, p = 0.31). In patients without any angiographic complications, the incidence of CK-MB elevation >3 times the normal was 7% with placebo and 4% with eptifibatide (p = 0.003). Eptifibatide during nonurgent coronary stent intervention only minimally (and insignificantly) reduces the incidence of angiographic complications and subsequent CK-MB elevations in patients developing an angiographic complication. The greater effect is to reduce myocardial infarction in patients undergoing otherwise uneventful coronary stent implantation as well as in the overall study population.

  11. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  12. Information Retrieval Research and ESPRIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Alan F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the European Strategic Programme of Research and Development in Information Technology (ESPRIT), and its five programs: advanced microelectronics, software technology, advanced information processing, office systems, and computer integrated manufacturing. The emphasis on logic programming and ESPRIT as the European response to the…

  13. Contre l’esprit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Andrieu

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Notre recherche consiste à retrouver, sous la partie visible des sciences cognitives, la partie invisible toujours active qui les fonde c'est-à-dire les nœuds liant à propos du cerveau-corps-esprit la médecine, la psychologie, la philosophie et la psychiatrie. Une certaine histoire philosophique de la psychologie voudrait imposer la thèse d'une indépendance de l'esprit par rapport au corps comme de la psychologie par rapport à la physiologie, la biologie, la neurologie ou encore la génétique. Pourtant l’étude des troubles neurologiques, des neuropathies du développement des cerveaux de l’enfant prématuré, des psychopathologies des affects et des lésions, dont le XIXe siècle avait constitué ces modèles, se poursuivent aujourd’hui pour maintenir l’interrogation sur la relation esprit-cerveau-corps.Our research consists in finding, beneath the visible part of cognitive sciences, the always active invisible part which founds them, that is to say the knots about the brain-body-mind linking medicine, psychology, philosophy and psychiatry together. Some philosophical history of psychology tries to impose the thesis of an independence of the mind from the body as well as of psychology from physiology, biology, neurology or genetics. Yet, the study of neurological troubles, of neuropathies of the development of the premature child's brain, of psychopathies of affects and lesions, from which the XIXth century had constituted models, is still going on today, to keep questioning about the relation mind-brain-body.

  14. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade with eptifibatide in coronary stent intervention: the ESPRIT trial: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, J C; Hafley, G E; Greenberg, S; Hasselblad, V; Lorenz, T J; Kitt, M M; Strony, J; Tcheng, J E

    2001-05-16

    The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial showed the efficacy of adjunctive, double-bolus eptifibatide therapy in reducing ischemic complications of nonurgent coronary stent implantation at 48 hours and at 30 days. To determine whether the beneficial effects of eptifibatide persist at 6 months after treatment. Follow-up study of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-permitted trial conducted from June 1999 through February 2000. Ninety-two tertiary care centers in the United States and Canada. A total of 2064 patients scheduled to undergo nonurgent percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or eptifibatide (two 180-microg/kg boluses 10 minutes apart and continuous infusion of 2.0 microg/kg per minute), started immediately before stent implantation and continued for 18 to 24 hours. Complete follow-up data were available for 988 (95.0%) of 1040 patients given eptifibatide and 977 (95.4%) of 1024 patients given placebo. Composite rates of death or myocardial infarction (MI); death, MI, or target vessel revascularization; and their individual components 6 months after enrollment, compared between the 2 groups. By 6 months, the composite end point of death or MI had occurred in 7.5% of eptifibatide-treated patients and in 11.5% of placebo-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-0.84; P =.002). The composite of death, MI, or target vessel revascularization was 14.2% in eptifibatide-treated patients vs 18.3% in placebo-treated patients (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.93; P =.008). Most of this benefit accrued early (<48 hours after initiation of therapy) and was maintained through 6 months. Six-month mortality in the eptifibatide group was 0.8% vs 1.4% in the placebo group (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.24-1.34; P =.19) and target vessel revascularization occurred in 8.6% of the eptifibatide group vs 9.4% of

  15. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  16. Rationale, design and methods of the ESPRIT study: Energy, Sexual desire and body PropoRtions wIth AndroGel, Testosterone 1% gel therapy, in hypogonadal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behre, Hermann M; Heinemann, Lothar; Morales, Alvaro; Pexman-Fieth, Claire

    2008-06-01

    Hypogonadism is associated with a range of disease states that have significant effects on morbidity and mortality, and also affect quality of life. The ESPRIT study (Energy, Sexual desire and body PropoRtions wIth AndroGel, Testosterone 1% gel therapy) is a 6-month, multinational, open label, observational study in hypogonadal men being treated with transdermal AndroGel in usual daily clinical practice; 1,700-2,400 patients will be enrolled in Canada, Germany, Central and Eastern Europe, Russia and the Middle East. The main objective will be to evaluate the effect of AndroGel on symptoms of hypogonadism and quality of life as assessed by the Aging Males' Symptoms scale. Further objectives include evaluating the effect and time to onset of improvement in erectile dysfunction and libido/sexual desire (International Index of Erectile Function), fatigue (Multi-dimensional Fatigue Index) and body composition (waist circumference, body mass index). Subgroup analyses will be performed: or = 50 years; absence versus presence of metabolic syndrome. The safety of AndroGel will also be assessed. The study population will consist of newly diagnosed hypogonadal men (age > or = 18 years), in whom testosterone deficiency has been confirmed by clinical features and biochemical tests according to international guidelines, who are currently being prescribed AndroGel (testosterone 1% gel, starting dose 50 mg testosterone per day).

  17. Optimal duration of eptifibatide infusion in percutaneous coronary intervention (an ESPRIT substudy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeiz, Abdallah G; Dery, Jean-Pierre; Tsiatis, Anastasios A; O'shea, J Conor; Johnson, Brent A; Hellkamp, Anne S; Pieper, Karen S; Gilchrist, Ian C; Slater, James; Muhlestein, J Brent; Joseph, Diane; Kitt, Michael M; Tcheng, James E

    2004-10-01

    Although randomized trials have clearly demonstrated the clinical efficacy with regimens of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists that result in >80% inhibition of baseline platelet aggregation in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), there are no data available concerning the optimal duration of infusion of these agents. In an era when the length of hospitalization has a major impact on health care costs, the determination of the optimal duration of the infusion of these drugs after PCI is of great relevance. The investigators therefore sought to determine the optimal length of the infusion of eptifibatide after PCI by analyzing the outcomes of patients enrolled in the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor With Integrilin Therapy trial who were randomized to treatment with eptifibatide.

  18. A Developed ESPRIT Algorithm for DOA Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Youssef; Wang, Caiyun; Cao, Qunsheng; Hafez, Alaa El-Din Sayed

    2015-05-01

    A novel algorithm for estimating direction of arrival (DOAE) for target, which aspires to contribute to increase the estimation process accuracy and decrease the calculation costs, has been carried out. It has introduced time and space multiresolution in Estimation of Signal Parameter via Rotation Invariance Techniques (ESPRIT) method (TS-ESPRIT) to realize subspace approach that decreases errors caused by the model's nonlinearity effect. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is verified by using Monte Carlo simulation, the DOAE accuracy has evaluated by closed-form Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) which reveals that the proposed algorithm's estimated results are better than those of the normal ESPRIT methods leading to the estimator performance enhancement.

  19. ESPRIT with multiple-angle subarray beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Huiquan

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a new approach of implementing signal direction-of-arrival estimation, in which subarray beamforming is applied prior to estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT). Different from the previous approaches, the beam-domain data from multiple adjacent pointing angles are combined in a way that the displacement invariance structure required by ESPRIT is maintained. It is intended to further obtain a sub-beamwidth resolution for a conventional multi-beam system already having small beamwidths. Computer simulations show that for typical multi-beam system applications the new approach provides improved estimation mean-square errors over the original ESPRIT, on top of reduced requirements for signal-to-noise ratio, number of snapshots, and computational time.

  20. Was Pierre Duhem an Esprit de finesse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Pierre Duhem is well known for his conventionalist outlook and, in particular, for his critique of crucial experiments outlined in his thesis on the empirical indeterminacy of theory, he also contributed to the scholarship on the psychological profiles of scientists by revising Pascal’s famous distinction between the subtle mind and the geometric mind (esprits fins and esprits géométriques. For Duhem, the ideal scientist is the one who combines the defining qualities of both types of intellect. As a physicist, Duhem made important theoretical contributions to the field of thermodynamics as well as to the then-nascent physical chemistry. Due to his rejection of atomism and his unrelenting critique of Maxwell’s electrodynamics, however, in his later years, Duhem’s work was surpassed and abandoned by the dominant tendencies of physics of the time. In this essay, I will discuss whether Duhem himself can be understood through the lens of his own account of the scientist’s psychological profile. More specifically, I examine whether the subtle mind – to which he seems to assign greater cognitive value – in fact plays a key role in Duhem’s critique of the English School (école anglaise, or if his preference for the axiomatic structure of theoretical physics shows a greater affinity with the geometric mind.

  1. ESPRIT: Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop ESPRIT: an Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, in support of NASA's effort in developing crew exercise technologies for...

  2. Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin (interleukin-2) in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT): geographical and gender differences in the baseline characteristics of participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pett, S. L.; Wand, H.; Law, M. G.; Arduino, R.; Lopez, J. C.; Knysz, B.; Pereira, L. C.; Pollack, S.; Reiss, P.; Tambussi, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells >

  3. Joint Pitch and DOA Estimation Using the ESPRIT method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yuntao; Amir, Leshem; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of joint multi-pitch and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for multi-channel harmonic sinusoidal signals is considered. A spatio-temporal matrix signal model for a uniform linear array is defined, and then the ESPRIT method based on subspace techniques that exploits...... the invariance property in the time domain is first used to estimate the multi pitch frequencies of multiple harmonic signals. Followed by the estimated pitch frequencies, the DOA estimations based on the ESPRIT method are also presented by using the shift invariance structure in the spatial domain. Compared...... to the existing stateof-the-art algorithms, the proposed method based on ESPRIT without 2-D searching is computationally more efficient but performs similarly. An asymptotic performance analysis of the DOA and pitch estimation of the proposed method are also presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed...

  4. Esprit HR mattress cover in pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoulowa, J

    Modern mattresses provide soft dense foam, which permits the redistribution of pressure on the patient over a wider area - away from bony prominences where pressure ulcers usually occur. The material used in producing multistretch covers for the new mattresses had a tendency to delaminate as a result of a combination of heat, moisture and inappropriate cleansing techniques causing the water barriers to fall. In partnership with York Health NHS Trust and the material manufacturer, STM Healthcare produced a mattress cover (Esprit HR) which was able to withstand higher pressure from heat and moisture and greatly extended the life expectancy of the Esprit HR mattress.

  5. The ESPRIT project CAFE : high security digital payment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boly, J.P.; Bosselaers, A.; Cramer, R.; Michelsen, R.; Mjølsnes, S.F.; Muller, F.; Pedersen, T.P.; Pfitzmann, B.; Rooij, de P.; Schoenmakers, B.; Schunter, M.; Vallée, L.; Waidner, M.; Gollmann, D.

    1994-01-01

    CAFE (“Conditional Access for Europe”) is an ongoing project in the European Community's ESPRIT program. The goal of CAFE is to develop innovative systems for conditional access, and in particular, digital payment systems. An important aspect of CAFE is high security of all parties concerned, with

  6. ESPRIT Project 6457: Interoperability of Standards for Robotics in CIME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haenisch, Jorchen; Kroszynski, Uri; Ludwig, Arnold

    The groving need for accurate information about manufacturing data (models of robots and other mechanisms)in diverse industrial applications has initiated ESPRIT Project 6457 InterRob.This InterRob "Specification of a STEP Based Reference Model for Exchange of Robotics Models" act as a basis...

  7. Performance Analysis of the Decentralized Eigendecomposition and ESPRIT Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Wassim; Pesavento, Marius; Zoubir, Abdelhak M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we consider performance analysis of the decentralized power method for the eigendecomposition of the sample covariance matrix based on the averaging consensus protocol. An analytical expression of the second order statistics of the eigenvectors obtained from the decentralized power method which is required for computing the mean square error (MSE) of subspace-based estimators is presented. We show that the decentralized power method is not an asymptotically consistent estimator of the eigenvectors of the true measurement covariance matrix unless the averaging consensus protocol is carried out over an infinitely large number of iterations. Moreover, we introduce the decentralized ESPRIT algorithm which yields fully decentralized direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimates. Based on the performance analysis of the decentralized power method, we derive an analytical expression of the MSE of DOA estimators using the decentralized ESPRIT algorithm. The validity of our asymptotic results is demonstrated by simulations.

  8. ESPRIT: is aspirin plus dipyridamole superior to aspirin alone in TIA or minor stroke patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhl, R P W; Lodder, J

    2008-11-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) or a (minor) ischemic stroke increases the risk of a recurrent stroke or death. Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin or clopidogrel is, in the absence of a potential cardiac embolic source, common practice to lower this risk. Until recently, adjuvant dipyridamole or low intensity oral anticoagulation were not generally prescribed in secondary prevention. In this article, we will summarize and discuss the published results of the European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischemia Trial (ESPRIT). In this trial, treatments with anticoagulants, aspirin alone and the combination of aspirin plus dipyridamole were compared, in a multicenter, three-armed, randomized, open-label study in patients with TIA or minor stroke.

  9. Early experience with the cochlear ESPrit ear-level speech processor in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, C; Cope, Y; McCormick, B

    2000-12-01

    The ESPrit ear-level speech processor has recently become available in the United Kingdom for use with the Nucleus CI24M multichannel cochlear implant. We report on the use of this ear-level processor with 6 children, ages 8 to 15 years. In this study, all patients were initially fitted with the SPrint body-worn processor, this being a prerequisite for programming the ESPrit. Five of the children were fitted successfully with the ESPrit and are using their devices consistently. The results show that patient experience with the ESPrit has been favorable, although there have been some device and programming difficulties. Aided threshold measures show that the ESPrit processor performs at least as well as the SPrint processor, with a trend toward improved aided thresholds for the ESPrit processor compared with the SPrint processor. Further study of the functional benefit of both of these devices may confirm these potential gains. The ESPrit device currently has a disadvantage for children in that it does not support FM radio hearing aid use. Finally, caution is advised in the fitting of the ESPrit in very young children or inexperienced listeners, because of difficulties in monitoring device function.

  10. Aspirin plus dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkes, P H A; van Gijn, J; Kappelle, L J; Koudstaal, P J; Algra, A

    2006-05-20

    Results of trials of aspirin and dipyridamole combined versus aspirin alone for the secondary prevention of vascular events after ischaemic stroke of presumed arterial origin are inconsistent. Our aim was to resolve this uncertainty. We did a randomised controlled trial in which we assigned patients to aspirin (30-325 mg daily) with (n=1363) or without (n=1376) dipyridamole (200 mg twice daily) within 6 months of a transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke of presumed arterial origin. Our primary outcome event was the composite of death from all vascular causes, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or major bleeding complication, whichever happened first. Treatment was open, but auditing of outcome events was blinded. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial (number ISRCTN73824458) and with (NCT00161070). Mean follow-up was 3.5 years (SD 2.0). Median aspirin dose was 75 mg in both treatment groups (range 30-325); extended-release dipyridamole was used by 83% (n=1131) of patients on the combination regimen. Primary outcome events arose in 173 (13%) patients on aspirin and dipyridamole and in 216 (16%) on aspirin alone (hazard ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.98; absolute risk reduction 1.0% per year, 95% CI 0.1-1.8). Addition of the ESPRIT data to the meta-analysis of previous trials resulted in an overall risk ratio for the composite of vascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction of 0.82 (95% CI 0.74-0.91). Patients on aspirin and dipyridamole discontinued trial medication more often than those on aspirin alone (470 vs 184), mainly because of headache. The ESPRIT results, combined with the results of previous trials, provide sufficient evidence to prefer the combination regimen of aspirin plus dipyridamole over aspirin alone as antithrombotic therapy after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin.

  11. Les nourritures substantielles du corps et de l’Esprit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyne Roth-Haillote

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine, dans un monastère de contemplatives1, de quelles façons s’alternent ou se superposent les nourritures du corps et de l’esprit, fournissant aux épouses du Seigneur une préservation physique et spirituelle pour mieux atteindre la finalité de leur vocation.Taking place in a monastery of contemplative nuns2, this article looks at the various ways of feeding the mind and the body, thus giving the Lord’s wives both a physical and spiritual strengh to reach the highlight of their vocation.

  12. The evaluation of subcutaneous proleukin (interleukin-2) in a randomized international trial: rationale, design, and methods of ESPRIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sean; Abrams, Donald I; Cooper, David A; Darbyshire, Janet H; Lane, H Clifford; Lundgren, Jens D; Neaton, James D

    2002-04-01

    The Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT) is a large ongoing randomized trial of subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy versus antiretroviral therapy alone in patients with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) disease and CD4 cell counts of at least 300 cells/mm(3). The primary objective is to determine whether the addition of IL-2 to combination antiretroviral therapy improves morbidity and mortality. The aim is to recruit 4000 participants and follow them for an average of 5 years. Eligible subjects will be recruited at 275 investigational sites in 23 countries around the world. Coupled with broad eligibility criteria this will ensure widely applicable results. A range of secondary objectives will also be addressed in this setting that will include the conduct of observational studies and nested substudies with a public health focus. This article describes the rationale supporting the trial in addition to reviewing the study design, coordination, and governance.

  13. An Esprit Project: A Local Integrated Optical Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J.-C.; Luvison, A.; Maaloe, J.; Toft, Fl.

    1986-10-01

    The paper describes a fibreoptical wideband local area network, (LION) which is being developed under the European ESPRIT (European Strategic Programme for Research and Development in Information Technology) programme. The consortium consists of Thomson-TITN, CSELT and NKT Elektronik. The network will carry both real-time voice and compressed video traffic, and it will also offer a Transport Service for packet-switched data transmission. The network is composed by a number of subnets operating on 140 Mbit/s and an interconnecting backbone network operating on 565 Mbit/s. In large organisations the total network may span more than 10 miles and it can handle more than 10,000 users. The network will have gateways to ISDN and other public services, and interfaces to host computers and other common resources.

  14. L'esprit de sel science, culture, politique

    CERN Document Server

    Lévy-Leblond, Jean-Marc

    1984-01-01

    L'esprit de sel. Activité de recherche, la science est-elle nécessairement productrice de connaissances ? Y a-t-il de nouvelles formes et normes du savoir ? Qu'est la science pour la science ? Activité intellectuelle. la science est-elle aussi une activité culturelle ? La science moderne est-elle dans la culture. est-elle une nouvelle culture - devrait-elle l'être ? Qu'est la science pour la culture ? Activité sociale. la science est liée de façon complexe aux structures économiques et à la conjoncture politique. Quel rôle joue-t-elle, quels conditionnements subit-elle ? Qu'est la science pour la politique ? Voici un ensemble de contributions pour aiguiser ces questions cruciales et décaper les idées reçues.

  15. [A multicentre comparative study of the ESPrit and the Nucleus 22].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K; Bagus, H; Michels, H; Roth, J; Voss, B; Klenzner, T

    2006-05-01

    Cochlear implant recipients often report additional difficulty in comprehension of speech in noisy conditions and of softly spoken speech. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate and compare the performance advantages offered by the ear level ESPrit 3G for experienced Nucleus Mini 22 cochlear implantees. Twenty-eight German-speaking implanted subjects, who had had experience with either the Spectra 22 or the ESPrit 22 for at least 6 months, were evaluated with their current processor and the ESPrit 3G (on microphone, M, and whisper, W, settings) following a 4-week trial. Freiburger monosyllabic words (FMW) were used at soft and conversational levels in quiet conditions and Oldenburger sentences (OLSA) were used in noisy conditions to compare performance. Subjective impressions of sound quality and user aspects were evaluated and combined with data from 31 English-speaking subjects from a parallel study. In comparison to the previously worn processor, statistically significantly superior performance (pESPrit 3G was preferred by 86% of subjects (51/59). The ESPrit 3G for Nucleus 22 users has the potential to further improve speech understanding in quiet conditions at soft intensity levels and also in noisy conditions at conversational levels relative to the currently worn speech processor, the Spectra 22 or the ESPrit 22, for the majority of subjects. Subjectively, together with the improvement in sound quality, the majority of subjects also reported improved ease of use and wearer comfort.

  16. Hiérarchie des esprits et esprit fort : le discours médical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Moreau

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available L’esprit fort a-t-il un sexe au début de l’époque moderne ? Selon Londa Schiebinger (The Mind has no sex?, 1989 le cartésianisme rompt avec la tradition médicale en rendant impossible la liaison entre sexe et tempérament. En témoigne notamment le cartésien Poullain de la Barre et son livre De l’égalité des deux sexes, publié en 1673. C’est à la lumière de cette thèse que je voudrais évaluer la position des libertins érudits, et ainsi aborder la question du genre masculin, dans sa relation supposée privilégiée à l’incrédulité et au rejet des superstitions. Pour La Mothe Le Vayer, Naudé ou encore Cyrano, en effet, il n’existe pas de raison universelle « asexuée ». Ces libertins rejettent le dualisme cartésien et disqualifient la notion même de sens commun, pour mieux promouvoir une faculté de bien juger ou « Ingenium », directement héritée de Charron. Pour comprendre la masculinité de l’esprit fort, il faut ainsi revenir aux origines médicales de la hiérarchie entre les esprits, construite à partir de l’ancienne théorie humorale et tempéramentale héritée de Hippocrate, Aristote et Galien, retravaillée par Huarte en 1575, reprise ensuite par Charron et par sa postérité libertine. En revenant sur les discours médicaux et philosophiques qui construisent la masculinité de l’esprit fort, je montrerai comment cet idéal se construit sur un modèle de masculinité monologique (certes capable de degrés et de variations, plutôt que par opposition au féminin.Did the mind have a gender during the Early Modern period? According to Londa Schiebinger (The Mind Has No Sex?, 1989, Cartesian philosophy caused an abrupt change within the medical tradition by rendering the link between gender and temperament obsolete. Poullain de la Barre’s On the Equality of the Sexes, published in 1673, is a good example of this shift. It is in the light of this thesis that I intend to assess the Libertine

  17. ESPRIT study design and outcomes--a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhäupl, Karl

    2007-02-01

    Evidence is needed to guide therapeutic decisions on patients who had ischaemic cerebral events. The recently published European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial (ESPRIT), an open-label randomised controlled study, compared long-term treatment of patients randomised to aspirin 30-325 mg daily with (n = 1363) or without (n = 1376) dipyridamole 200 mg twice daily. The study found the combination to be superior to aspirin alone (13% vs. 16% events in a composite endpoint of vascular death, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or major bleeding; hazard ratio 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.98). In the interpretation of the results, criticism has been raised related to the study design (open-label, change during the study), the study conduct (half of the aspirin patients underdosed, 33% drop-out rate in the combination group, missing information on potential confounders such as protective concomitant medication), and the outcomes (lack of differences in the efficacy outcomes between the intent-to-treat and the on-treatment populations, lack of differences in minor bleedings between treatment groups, borderline statistical significance of primary study endpoint). Further studies are needed to determine the place of aspirin/dipyridamole combinations in the secondary prevention of stroke.

  18. Sparse Array Angle Estimation Using Reduced-Dimension ESPRIT-MUSIC in MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozhu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sparse linear arrays provide better performance than the filled linear arrays in terms of angle estimation and resolution with reduced size and low cost. However, they are subject to manifold ambiguity. In this paper, both the transmit array and receive array are sparse linear arrays in the bistatic MIMO radar. Firstly, we present an ESPRIT-MUSIC method in which ESPRIT algorithm is used to obtain ambiguous angle estimates. The disambiguation algorithm uses MUSIC-based procedure to identify the true direction cosine estimate from a set of ambiguous candidate estimates. The paired transmit angle and receive angle can be estimated and the manifold ambiguity can be solved. However, the proposed algorithm has high computational complexity due to the requirement of two-dimension search. Further, the Reduced-Dimension ESPRIT-MUSIC (RD-ESPRIT-MUSIC is proposed to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. And the RD-ESPRIT-MUSIC only demands one-dimension search. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  19. Sparse array angle estimation using reduced-dimension ESPRIT-MUSIC in MIMO radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaozhu; Pang, Yucai

    2013-01-01

    Sparse linear arrays provide better performance than the filled linear arrays in terms of angle estimation and resolution with reduced size and low cost. However, they are subject to manifold ambiguity. In this paper, both the transmit array and receive array are sparse linear arrays in the bistatic MIMO radar. Firstly, we present an ESPRIT-MUSIC method in which ESPRIT algorithm is used to obtain ambiguous angle estimates. The disambiguation algorithm uses MUSIC-based procedure to identify the true direction cosine estimate from a set of ambiguous candidate estimates. The paired transmit angle and receive angle can be estimated and the manifold ambiguity can be solved. However, the proposed algorithm has high computational complexity due to the requirement of two-dimension search. Further, the Reduced-Dimension ESPRIT-MUSIC (RD-ESPRIT-MUSIC) is proposed to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. And the RD-ESPRIT-MUSIC only demands one-dimension search. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  20. A RD-ESPRIT algorithm for coherent DOA estimation in monostatic MIMO radar using a single pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiaofei

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the problem of coherent direction of arrival (DOA) estimation in a monostatic multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar using a single pulse, and proposes a reduced dimension (RD)-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm. We reconstruct the received data and then utilise it to construct a set of Toeplitz matrices. After that, we use RD-ESPRIT to obtain the DOAs of the sources. The proposed algorithm is effective for coherent angle estimation based on a single pulse, and it has much better angle estimation performance than the forward backward spatial smoothing (FBSS)-ESPRIT algorithm and the ESPRIT-like of Li, as well as very close angle estimation performance to the ESPRIT-like of Han. For complexity comparison, our algorithm has very close complexity to the FBSS-ESPRIT algorithm, and lower complexity than the ESPRIT-like of Han and the ESPRIT-like of Li. Simulation results present the effectiveness and improvement of our approach.

  1. Improved ESPRIT Method for Joint Direction-of-Arrival and Frequency Estimation Using Multiple-Delay Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xudong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic pairing joint direction-of-arrival (DOA and frequency estimation is presented to overcome the unsatisfactory performances of estimation of signal parameter via rotational invariance techniques- (ESPRIT- like algorithm of Wang (2010, which requires an additional pairing. By using multiple-delay output of a uniform linear antenna arrays (ULA, the proposed algorithm can estimate joint angles and frequencies with an improved ESPRIT. Compared with Wang’s ESPRIT algorithm, the angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is greatly improved. The frequency estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is same with that of Wang’s ESPRIT algorithm. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can obtain automatic pairing DOA and frequency parameters, and it has a comparative computational complexity in contrast to Wang’s ESPRIT algorithm. By the way, this proposed algorithm can also work well for nonuniform linear arrays. The useful behavior of this proposed algorithm is verified by simulations.

  2. Application of the Total Least Square ESPRIT Method to Estimation of Angular Coordinates of Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Rosloniec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The TLS ESPRIT method is investigated in application to estimation of angular coordinates (angles of arrival of two moving objects at the presence of an external, relatively strong uncorrelated signal. As a radar antenna system, the 32-element uniform linear array (ULA is used. Various computer simulations have been carried out in order to demonstrate good accuracy and high spatial resolution of the TLS ESPRIT method in the scenario outlined above. It is also shown that accuracy and angle resolution can be significantly increased by using the proposed preprocessing (beamforming. The most of simulation results, presented in a graphical form, have been compared to the corresponding equivalent results obtained by using the ESPRIT method and conventional amplitude monopulse method aided by the coherent Doppler filtration.

  3. Efficient spectral estimation by MUSIC and ESPRIT with application to sparse FFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePotts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In spectral estimation, one has to determine all parameters of an exponential sum for finitely many (noisysampled data of this exponential sum.Frequently used methods for spectral estimation are MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification and ESPRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters viaRotational Invariance Technique.For a trigonometric polynomial of large sparsity, we present a new sparse fast Fourier transform byshifted sampling and using MUSIC resp. ESPRIT, where the ESPRIT based method has lower computational cost.Later this technique is extended to a new reconstruction of a multivariate trigonometric polynomial of large sparsity for given (noisy values sampled on a reconstructing rank-1 lattice. Numerical experiments illustrate thehigh performance of these procedures.

  4. Building esprit de corps: learning to better navigate between "my" patient and "our" patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRenzo, Evan G; Schwartz, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Excellence in the care of hospital patients, particularly those in an intensive care unit, reflects esprit de corps among the care team. Esprit de corps depends on a delicate balance; each clinician must preserve a sense of personal responsibility for "my" patient and yet participate in the collaborative work essential to the care of "our" patient. A harmful imbalance occurs when a physician demands total control of the decision-making process, especially concerning end-of-life treatment options. Although emotional factors may push a physician to claim decision-making exclusivity, compounded by a legal framework that overemphasizes individual responsibility, esprit de corps can be preserved through timely communication among clinicians and a recognition that optimal care for "my" patient requires effective team practice.

  5. Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin (interleukin-2) in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT): geographical and gender differences in the baseline characteristics of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, S L; Wand, H; Law, M G; Arduino, R; Lopez, J C; Knysz, B; Pereira, L C; Pollack, S; Reiss, P; Tambussi, G

    2006-01-01

    ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells > or =300 cells/microL. To describe the baseline characteristics of participants randomized to ESPRIT overall and by geographic location. Baseline characteristics of randomized participants were summarized by region. 4,150 patients were enrolled in ESPRIT from 254 sites in 25 countries. 41%, 27%, 16%, 11%, and 5% were enrolled in Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Australia, respectively. The median age was 40 years, 81% were men, and 76%, 11%, and 9% were Caucasian, Asian, and African American or African, respectively. 44% of women enrolled (n = 769) were enrolled in Thailand and Argentina. Overall, 55% and 38% of the cohort acquired HIV through male homosexual and heterosexual contact, respectively. 25% had a prior history of AIDS-defining illness; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, M. tuberculosis, and esophageal candida were most commonly reported. Median nadir and baseline CD4+ T-cell counts were 199 and 458 cells/muL, respectively. 6% and 13% were hepatitis B or C virus coinfected, respectively. Median duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was 4.2 years; the longest median duration was in Australia (5.2 years) and the shortest was in Asia (2.3 years). 17%, 13%, and 69% of participants began ART before 1995, between 1996 and 1997, and from 1998 onward, respectively. 86% used ART from two or more ART classes, with 49% using a protease inhibitor-based regimen and 46% using a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. 78% had plasma HIV RNA below detection (ESPRIT has enrolled a diverse population of HIV-infected individuals including large populations of women and patients of African-American/African and Asian ethnicity often underrepresented in HIV

  6. Zopár úvah o dôvtipe a intuícii (Several Considerations on Esprit and Intuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Kišoňová

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article treats of an esprit and an intuition. What is the role of the esprit in the cognize? In common use means an esprit fast, automatic fixing in a given aspect. The problem of the esprit is related with the problem of the understanding of jokes, riddles, or poetical metaphors. It is also connected with the mathematical cognizance or "sight" in geometry. The speech analyzes several chosen thinkers which attended to enquiries of the esprit or the intuition, e.g. I. Kant, L. Wittgenstein and H. Bergson.

  7. Stent parameters predict major adverse clinical events and the response to platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade: findings of the ESPRIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, James E; Lim, Ing Haan; Srinivasan, Shankar; Jozic, Joseph; Gibson, C Michael; O'Shea, J Conor; Puma, Joseph A; Simon, Daniel I

    2009-02-01

    Only limited data describe relationships between stent parameters (length and diameter), adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention, and effects of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade by stent parameters. In this post hoc analysis of the 1983 patients receiving a stent in the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy randomized percutaneous coronary intervention trial of eptifibatide versus placebo, rates of the major adverse cardiac event (MACE) end point (death, myocardial infarction, urgent target-vessel revascularization, or thrombotic bailout) at 48 hours and 1 year were correlated with stent parameters and then analyzed by randomization to eptifibatide versus placebo. In the placebo group, MACE increased with number of stents implanted, total stent length (by quartiles of or=30 mm), and total stented vessel area (by quartiles of area or=292 mm(2)). By stent parameters, MACE at 48 hours was reduced in the eptifibatide group at stent lengths of 18 to or=30 mm (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.75; P=0.003), stent diameters of >2.5 to <3.5 mm (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.82; P=0.002), and with 2 stents implanted (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.69; P=0.001). In the placebo group, near-linear relationships were observed between both increasing stent length and increasing stented vessel area and MACE at 48 hours and 1 year (all, P<0.001); these gradients were flattened in the eptifibatide group (P=0.005 for stent length). Stent parameters predict MACE after percutaneous coronary intervention. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade mitigates much of the hazard of increasing procedural complexity.

  8. Joint Angle and Frequency Estimation Using Multiple-Delay Output Based on ESPRIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xudong, Wang

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a novel ESPRIT algorithm-based joint angle and frequency estimation using multiple-delay output (MDJAFE). The algorithm can estimate the joint angles and frequencies, since the use of multiple output makes the estimation accuracy greatly improved when compared with a conventional algorithm. The useful behavior of the proposed algorithm is verified by simulations.

  9. A ProCoS II Project Final Report: ESPRIT Basic Research project 707

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, J. P.; Hoare, C. A. R.; Langmaack, Hans

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the research and associated activities of the Europeancollaborative ESPRIT Basic Research ProCoS II project (no. 7071) on``Provably Correct Systems'' which ran from 1992 to 1995 is presented.This was a follow-on project to ProCoS (no. 3104) and ran inparallel with the ProCoS Working...

  10. Bailout use of platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibition during coronary stent implantation: observations from the ESPRIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Warren J; Madan, Mina; O'Shea, J Conor; Chisholm, Robert J; Lui, Henry K; Cohen, David J; Feldman, Robert L; Green, Robert; Hellkamp, Anne S; Kitt, Michael M; Tcheng, James E

    2005-07-01

    Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors are often used as a rescue or bailout therapy to manage complications arising during percutaneous coronary intervention, rather than as prophylactic treatment. We sought to identify the characteristics and outcomes of patients requiring bailout treatment. The ESPRIT trial randomized 2,064 patients to receive eptifibatide or placebo starting immediately before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Bailout therapy was used in 77 patients: 43 (4.2%) randomized to placebo and 34 (3.3%) to eptifibatide (p = 0.3). Bailout therapy for thrombosis was used more often in the placebo group (2.1% versus 1.0%; p = 0.03). Multivariable predictors of bailout included a greater than or equal to 90% stenosis, or visible thrombus on the baseline angiogram, and no aspirin pre-treatment before PCI. However, overall the model predicted bailout poorly (c-index = 0.64). The need for bailout cannot be reliably predicted using baseline characteristics. Patients experiencing complications have poor clinical outcomes despite bailout use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

  11. A formação do esprit de Sion - Formation of sion`s spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Xavier de Brito

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A exemplo dos estabelecimentos de elite, Sion exerce sobre suas alunas um efeito de ordenação e de consagração, que tem por objetivo formar um grupo à parte, que faz corpo com a instituição. A "cultura escolar católica de tradição francesa" que anima as instituições femininas de ensino secundário no Brasil, em particular o Colégio Notre Dame de Sion, desenvolve em suas alunas um espírito de corpo específico, resultado de uma socialização conduzida num cotidiano altamente ritualizado. O presente artigo trata justamente de analisar as maneiras pelas quais se forma tal espírito de corpo. O esprit de Sion, espírito de corpo específico a Sion, vai assim ser formado através de rituais de identidade, rituais morais e rituais ligados à religião.Esse esprit de Sion vai conferir às alunas umhabitus, cujas estruturas estruturantes vão acompanhá-las até o fim da vida, contribuindo a assentar seu capital social, fazendo com que sejam reconhecidas em sociedade como enfants de Sion e se reconheçam entre si. Palavras-chave: cultura escolar católica de tradição francesa;espírito de corpo; enfants de Sion; esprit de Sion; rituais.   FORMATION OF SION`S SPIRIT Abstract Like elite’s establishments, Sion exerts on his/her female student’s ordinance and consecration effect with the objective to shape a distinctive group which becomes part of the institution body.“ Traditional French Catholic school culture” which liven up female high school in Brazil, particularly Colégio Notre Dame de Sion, develops in their female students a specific body spirit, resulting from socialization, conducted in highly ritualized daily routines. This article deals with analyzing the ways by which such body spirit is shaped, the esprit of Sion, spirit of body, specifically of Sion. Thus, it will be shaped through identity rituals, moral rituals and rituals related to religion. This Sion’s esprit will confer to classes a habitus whose

  12. Stroke in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes: Incidence and Outcomes in the Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy (PURSUIT) Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W. Mahaffey (Kenneth); C.M. MacAulay; R.A. Harrington (Robert Alex); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); C.B. Granger (Christopher); R.M. Califf (Robert); C. Graffagnino (Carmen); M.J. Alberts; D.T. Laskowitz; E.J. Topol (Eric); J.M. Miller; M.A. Sloan (Michael); L.G. Berdan (Lisa); A.M. Lincoff (Michael); J.W. Deckers (Jaap)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The incidence of stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes has not been clearly defined because few trials in this patient population have been large enough to provide stable estimates of stroke rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the 10 948

  13. New developments in secondary stroke prevention: impact of the European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischemia Trial (ESPRIT) on clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsep, Helmi L

    2007-01-01

    Secondary stroke prevention is an important goal of poststroke patient treatment. Various pharmacologic approaches have been advocated, but the relative efficacy and safety of these regimens has remained the subject of much debate. Recently released data from the European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischemia Trial (ESPRIT) indicated that combination therapy with aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole was more effective than aspirin monotherapy, and probably more effective than anticoagulants, for the prevention of cerebrovascular events after a stroke or transient ischemic attack. When viewed in light of results of earlier trials, these findings confirmed that combination aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole therapy improved outcomes in these patients and is a recommended option for poststroke patient treatment.

  14. ESPRIT-like algorithm for computational-efficient angle estimation in bistatic multiple-input multiple-output radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Lou, Shuntian; Guo, Yiduo

    2016-04-01

    An estimation of signal parameters via a rotational invariance techniques-like (ESPRIT-like) algorithm is proposed to estimate the direction of arrival and direction of departure for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. The properties of a noncircular signal and Euler's formula are first exploited to establish a real-valued bistatic MIMO radar array data, which is composed of sine and cosine data. Then the receiving/transmitting selective matrices are constructed to obtain the receiving/transmitting rotational invariance factors. Since the rotational invariance factor is a cosine function, symmetrical mirror angle ambiguity may occur. Finally, a maximum likelihood function is used to avoid the estimation ambiguities. Compared with the existing ESPRIT, the proposed algorithm can save about 75% of computational load owing to the real-valued ESPRIT algorithm. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the ESPRIT-like algorithm.

  15. Intra- and intersubject comparison of cochlear implant systems using the Esprit and the Tempo+ behind-the-ear speech processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompis, Martin; Jenk, Martin; Vischer, Mattheus W; Seifert, Eberhard; Häusler, Rudolf

    2002-12-01

    A patient with bilateral profound deafness was implanted with a Nucleus CI24M cochlear implant (CI) and used an Esprit behind-the-ear (BTE) speech processor. Thirteen months later, the implant had to be removed because of a cholesteatoma. As the same electrode could not be reinserted, a Medel combi40s CI was implanted in the same ear, and the patient used a Tempo+ BTE processor. After 1 year of use of the Combi40s/Tempo+ system, speech recognition was better and was rated better subjectively than with the CI24M/Esprit system. Speech recognition and subjective ratings were also assessed for two matched groups of nine CI users each, using either an Esprit or a Tempo+ processor. On average, speech recognition scores were higher for the group of Tempo+ users, but the difference was not statistically significant. Users of the Esprit processors rated their device higher in terms of cosmetic appearance and comfort of wearing.

  16. Medium intensity oral anticoagulants versus aspirin after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT) : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, P H A; van Gijn, J; Kappelle, L J; Algra, A; Koudstaal, P J

    BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulants are better than aspirin for secondary prevention after myocardial infarction and after cerebral ischaemia in combination with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation. The European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial (ESPRIT) aimed to determine

  17. Medium intensity oral anticoagulants versus aspirin after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, P. H. A.; van Gijn, J.; Kappelle, L. J.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Algra, A.; Banga, J. D.; Boiten, J.; van der Bom, J. G.; Boon, A. E.; Dippel, D. W. J.; Donders, R. C. J. M.; Eefting, F. D.; Franke, C. L.; Frenken, C. W. G. M.; Frijns, C. J. M.; van Gemert, H. M. A.; de Jaegere, P. P. Th; Kamp, O.; Kwa, V. I. H.; de Leeuw, F.-E.; Linn, F. H. H.; van der Meer, W. K.; Mosterd, A.; Pop, G. A. M.; Raaymakers, T. W. M.; van Schooneveld, M. J.; Stam, J.; Verheugt, F. W. A.; van der Worp, H. B.; Zijlstra, F.; Boekweit, M. P.; van Buuren, M.; Greebe, P.; Mooibroek, G. E.; Slabbers, D. C. V.; Beijer, I. S.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Biessels, G. J.; de Schryver, E. L. L. M.; van Dijk, G. W.; Dorhout-Mees, S. M.; Ferrier, C. H.; Gorter, J. W.; Hofmeijer, J.; Hop, J. W.; Klijn, C. J. M.; Manschot, S. M.; Vermeulen, M.; Foncke, E.; Lucas, C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulants are better than aspirin for secondary prevention after myocardial infarction and after cerebral ischaemia in combination with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation. The European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial (ESPRIT) aimed to determine

  18. Implementation of ESPRIT Algorithm on GPS TEC for Percussive Signatures of Earthquakes in Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Uday; Koteswara Rao, S.; Ramesh, K. S.

    2017-01-01

    As Global Positioning System is very effective mechanism to find out the disturbances in Ionosphere during the solar events. Spectral estimation of the ionospheric total electron content perturbations leads to better interpretation of their source mechanisms. Seismo-ionospheric perturbations of an earthquake occurred at 12th December 2013 was considered in the present work. Estimation of signal parameters via rotational in variance technique (ESPRIT) is implemented on the vertical total electron content data. It was clearly observed that during disturbance the power spectral density of the dominant frequency had reduced to -2.487 dB from 7.841 dB. The application of ESPRIT algorithm on seismic perturbations in GPS TEC has found the dominant frequency in the spectrum and new frequency present at the time of perturbations

  19. Two-dimensional Fast ESPRIT Algorithm for Linear Array SAR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yi-chao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The linear array Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR system is a popular research tool, because it can realize three-dimensional imaging. However, owning to limitations of the aircraft platform and actual conditions, resolution improvement is difficult in cross-track and along-track directions. In this study, a twodimensional fast Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT algorithm for linear array SAR imaging is proposed to overcome these limitations. This approach combines the Gerschgorin disks method and the ESPRIT algorithm to estimate the positions of scatterers in cross and along-rack directions. Moreover, the reflectivity of scatterers is obtained by a modified pairing method based on “region growing”, replacing the least-squares method. The simulation results demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm with high resolution, quick calculation, and good real-time response.

  20. Predictors of bacterial pneumonia in Evaluation of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, S L; Carey, C; Lin, E; Wentworth, D; Lazovski, J; Miró, J M; Gordin, F; Angus, B; Rodriguez-Barradas, M; Rubio, R; Tambussi, G; Cooper, D A; Emery, S

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial pneumonia still contributes to morbidity/mortality in HIV infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evaluation of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT), a trial of intermittent recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) with cART vs. cART alone (control arm) in HIV-infected adults with CD4 counts ≥300cells/μL, offered the opportunity to explore associations between bacterial pneumonia and rIL-2, a cytokine that increases the risk of some bacterial infections. Baseline and time-updated factors associated with first-episode pneumonia on study were analysed using multivariate proportional hazards regression models. Information on smoking/pneumococcal vaccination history was not collected. IL-2 cycling was most intense in years 1-2. Over ≈7 years, 93 IL-2 [rate 0.67/100 person-years (PY)] and 86 control (rate 0.63/100 PY) patients experienced a pneumonia event [hazard ratio (HR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.42; P=0.68]. Median CD4 counts prior to pneumonia were 570cells/μL (IL-2 arm) and 463cells/μL (control arm). Baseline risks for bacterial pneumonia included older age, injecting drug use, detectable HIV viral load (VL) and previous recurrent pneumonia; Asian ethnicity was associated with decreased risk. Higher proximal VL (HR for 1 log(10) higher VL 1.28; 95% CI 1.11, 1.47; P<0.001) was associated with increased risk; higher CD4 count prior to the event (HR per 100 cells/μL higher 0.94; 95% CI 0.89, 1.0; P=0.04) decreased risk. Compared with controls, the hazard for a pneumonia event was higher if rIL-2 was received <180 days previously (HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.07, 2.60; P=0.02) vs.≥180 days previously (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.70, 1.37; P=0.9). Compared with the control group, pneumonia risk in the IL-2 arm decreased over time, with HRs of 1.41, 1.71, 1.16, 0.62 and 0.84 in years 1, 2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7, respectively. Bacterial pneumonia rates in cART-treated adults with moderate

  1. Regulatory approvals in a large multinational clinical trial: the ESPRIT experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Laura A; Tavel, Jorge A; Oseekey, Karen; McDermott, Cathy M; Mollerup, David; Bebchuk, Judith D

    2002-02-01

    While accepted as serving an important function to safeguard human subjects, the process of obtaining regulatory approvals to conduct clinical trials is generally regarded as cumbersome and time-consuming. For large multinational trials, U.S. federally sponsored human subject research abroad involves specific U.S. regulatory requirements, in addition to those of the host country, that act as further hurdles. These requirements may include obtaining an Assurance of Protection for Human Subjects from the Office of Human Research Protection of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, maintaining specific Ethics Committee/Institutional Review Board (EC/IRB) composition, and incorporating mandated elements in informed consents, all of which may differ from local policies and guidelines. Specific examples of issues that led to delays in regulatory approvals for sites participating in the multinational clinical trial entitled Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT) are presented here. While the goal of these requirements is to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects, they may create substantial delays and engender resentment over the notion of lack of respect for individual country sovereignty. Substudies within ESPRIT have been undertaken to obtain feedback from EC/IRB chairpersons, site personnel responsible for processing the required assurances, ESPRIT investigators, and study participants regarding aspects of current U.S. regulatory requirements related to human subject protection and ethical issues in multinational research. The purpose of these substudies is to compare the attitudes and experiences across countries regarding important ethical issues associated with conducting ESPRIT. One objective of the substudies is to gather additional insight to the impact of U.S. regulatory processes. Another is to help to inform the debate about how to best maximize the rights and welfare of clinical trial

  2. Cognition, attention et conscience : la synchronie dans l’esprit

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Professeur à British Columbia University (Vancouver, Canada), invité par l’Assemblée des professeurs à l’initiative des Prs Alain Berthoz et Stanislas Dehaene, a donné en mai 2010, quatre conférences intitulées « Cognition, attention et conscience : la synchronie dans l’esprit »

  3. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation with Coarray ESPRIT for Coprime Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengwei; Zhou, Jinfang

    2017-08-03

    A coprime array is capable of achieving more degrees-of-freedom for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation than a uniform linear array when utilizing the same number of sensors. However, existing algorithms exploiting coprime array usually adopt predefined spatial sampling grids for optimization problem design or include spectrum peak search process for DOA estimation, resulting in the contradiction between estimation performance and computational complexity. To address this problem, we introduce the Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (ESPRIT) to the coprime coarray domain, and propose a novel coarray ESPRIT-based DOA estimation algorithm to efficiently retrieve the off-grid DOAs. Specifically, the coprime coarray statistics are derived according to the received signals from a coprime array to ensure the degrees-of-freedom (DOF) superiority, where a pair of shift invariant uniform linear subarrays is extracted. The rotational invariance of the signal subspaces corresponding to the underlying subarrays is then investigated based on the coprime coarray covariance matrix, and the incorporation of ESPRIT in the coarray domain makes it feasible to formulate the closed-form solution for DOA estimation. Theoretical analyses and simulation results verify the efficiency and the effectiveness of the proposed DOA estimation algorithm.

  4. ESPRIT: estimating species richness using large collections of 16S rRNA pyrosequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yijun; Cai, Yunpeng; Liu, Li; Yu, Fahong; Farrell, Michael L; McKendree, William; Farmerie, William

    2009-06-01

    Recent metagenomics studies of environmental samples suggested that microbial communities are much more diverse than previously reported, and deep sequencing will significantly increase the estimate of total species diversity. Massively parallel pyrosequencing technology enables ultra-deep sequencing of complex microbial populations rapidly and inexpensively. However, computational methods for analyzing large collections of 16S ribosomal sequences are limited. We proposed a new algorithm, referred to as ESPRIT, which addresses several computational issues with prior methods. We developed two versions of ESPRIT, one for personal computers (PCs) and one for computer clusters (CCs). The PC version is used for small- and medium-scale data sets and can process several tens of thousands of sequences within a few minutes, while the CC version is for large-scale problems and is able to analyze several hundreds of thousands of reads within one day. Large-scale experiments are presented that clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the newly proposed algorithm. The source code and user guide are freely available at http://www.biotech.ufl.edu/people/sun/esprit.html.

  5. Alain Supiot, L’Esprit de Philadelphie. La justice sociale face au marché total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Metzger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Les transformations contemporaines qu’ont connues la plupart des pays depuis le début des années 1980 ont donné lieu à des analyses convergentes, pointant le rôle moteur de l’idéologie néolibérale et tout particulièrement de la financiarisation des économies. Complétant ce diagnostic, Alain Supiot propose, dans L’Esprit de Philadelphie, une perspective et des pistes originales pour une conception alternative de la mondialisation, centrée sur la justice sociale et le Droit social. C’est dans c...

  6. Corps et esprit : l’identité humaine selon Spinoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamine Hamlaoui

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrairement à Descartes, Spinoza refuse à l’esprit humain et par conséquent à l’homme le statut de substance : l’homme est défini comme l’union de deux modes, un corps et une âme. On ne peut donc plus comme chez Descartes distinguer une identité substantielle, conférée au corps par l’âme, et une identité modale, déterminée par le rapport du corps humain aux autres corps. Ces deux identités sont fondues dans une identité essentielle. L’objet de cet article est de mettre en évidence le statut problématique de cette identité dans l’Éthique. L’esprit humain y est en effet déduit et défini comme l’idée du corps humain, c’est-à-dire le concept que Dieu forme du corps humain. Mais tantôt Spinoza identifie cette idée du corps humain à l’essence de l’esprit humain, tantôt il établit une distinction entre les deux. De même, tantôt en vertu du parallélisme des attributs il identifie l’idée du corps humain à l’idée de l’esprit humain, tantôt il distingue les deux. D’où des tensions qui travaillent le système de l’intérieur.Contrary to Descartes, Spinoza refuses to human mind and therefore to man the status of substance : man is defined as the union of two modes, body and mind. We can’t distinguish, as in Descartes, a substantial identity, conferred to the body by the mind, and a modal identity, determined by the relation between human body and other bodies. Both identities form an essential identity. This paper explains the problematical character of this identity in Spinoza’s Ethic. Human mind is indeed deduced and defined as the idea of human body, namely the concept of human body formed by God. But sometimes Spinoza identifies the idea of human body with the essence of human body, sometimes he makes a distinction between both. In the same way, sometimes he identifies the idea of human body with the idea of human mind, in accordance with parallelism of attributes, sometimes he

  7. ESPRIT: A Method for Defining Soluble Expression Constructs in Poorly Understood Gene Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Philippe J; Hart, Darren J

    2017-01-01

    Production of soluble, purifiable domains or multi-domain fragments of proteins is a prerequisite for structural biology and other applications. When target sequences are poorly annotated, or when there are few similar sequences available for alignments, identification of domains can be problematic. A method called expression of soluble proteins by random incremental truncation (ESPRIT) addresses this problem by high-throughput automated screening of tens of thousands of enzymatically truncated gene fragments. Rare soluble constructs are identified by experimental screening, and the boundaries revealed by DNA sequencing.

  8. Le(s "corps politique(s" dans L ’Esprit des lois de Montesquieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis de Casabianca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article cherche à déterminer les usages de l’expression « corps politique » dans L’Esprit des lois, pour préciser le regard que Montesquieu porte sur la réalité politique, et comment il entend poser son questionnement par rapport à la tradition contractualiste et jusnaturaliste. Dans les rapports qui existent entre les différents « corps politiques », se joue l’unité du « corps politique ». La monarchie modérée ne saurait exister sans une bonne composition des puissances.

  9. Catholicisme et bourgeoisie. Retour sur les Origines de l'esprit bourgeois en France de Bernard Groethuysen

    OpenAIRE

    Maire, Catherine; Hours, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Dans le cadre du GDR 2342 « l'esprit moderne en religion (xvie-xxe siècle) », le Centre d'anthropologie religieuse européenne (CARE) avec Catherine Maire et l'Institut d'histoire du christianisme avec Bernard Hours, ont organisé à Lyon, dans les locaux de l'université Jean-Moulin, une table ronde autour du livre de Bernard Groethuysen, Origines de l'esprit bourgeois en France (1927), avec la participation de Philippe Boutry, Louis Châtellier, François Chaubet, Marcel Gauchet, Alain Guéry, Ber...

  10. ESPRIT-Forest: Parallel clustering of massive amplicon sequence data in subquadratic time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunpeng; Zheng, Wei; Yao, Jin; Yang, Yujie; Mai, Volker; Mao, Qi; Sun, Yijun

    2017-04-01

    The rapid development of sequencing technology has led to an explosive accumulation of genomic sequence data. Clustering is often the first step to perform in sequence analysis, and hierarchical clustering is one of the most commonly used approaches for this purpose. However, it is currently computationally expensive to perform hierarchical clustering of extremely large sequence datasets due to its quadratic time and space complexities. In this paper we developed a new algorithm called ESPRIT-Forest for parallel hierarchical clustering of sequences. The algorithm achieves subquadratic time and space complexity and maintains a high clustering accuracy comparable to the standard method. The basic idea is to organize sequences into a pseudo-metric based partitioning tree for sub-linear time searching of nearest neighbors, and then use a new multiple-pair merging criterion to construct clusters in parallel using multiple threads. The new algorithm was tested on the human microbiome project (HMP) dataset, currently one of the largest published microbial 16S rRNA sequence dataset. Our experiment demonstrated that with the power of parallel computing it is now compu- tationally feasible to perform hierarchical clustering analysis of tens of millions of sequences. The software is available at http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/∼yijunsun/lab/ESPRIT-Forest.html.

  11. A unitary ESPRIT scheme of joint angle estimation for MOTS MIMO radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chao; Shi, Guangming

    2014-08-07

    The transmit array of multi-overlapped-transmit-subarray configured bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MOTS MIMO) radar is partitioned into a number of overlapped subarrays, which is different from the traditional bistatic MIMO radar. In this paper, a new unitary ESPRIT scheme for joint estimation of the direction of departure (DOD) and the direction of arrival (DOA) for MOTS MIMO radar is proposed. In our method, each overlapped-transmit-subarray (OTS) with the identical effective aperture is regarded as a transmit element and the characteristics that the phase delays between the two OTSs is utilized. First, the measurements corresponding to all the OTSs are partitioned into two groups which have a rotational invariance relationship with each other. Then, the properties of centro-Hermitian matrices and real-valued rotational invariance factors are exploited to double the measurement samples and reduce computational complexity. Finally, the close-formed solution of automatically paired DOAs and DODs of targets is derived in a new manner. The proposed scheme provides increased estimation accuracy with the combination of inherent advantages of MOTS MIMO radar with unitary ESPRIT. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed scheme.

  12. DOA and Polarization Estimation Using an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Uniform Circular Array Based on the ESPRIT Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na; Qu, Zhiyu; Si, Weijian; Jiao, Shuhong

    2016-12-13

    In array signal processing systems, the direction of arrival (DOA) and polarization of signals based on uniform linear or rectangular sensor arrays are generally obtained by rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT). However, since the ESPRIT algorithm relies on the rotational invariant structure of the received data, it cannot be applied to electromagnetic vector sensor arrays (EVSAs) featuring uniform circular patterns. To overcome this limitation, a fourth-order cumulant-based ESPRIT algorithm is proposed in this paper, for joint estimation of DOA and polarization based on a uniform circular EVSA. The proposed algorithm utilizes the fourth-order cumulant to obtain a virtual extended array of a uniform circular EVSA, from which the pairs of rotation invariant sub-arrays are obtained. The ESPRIT algorithm and parameter pair matching are then utilized to estimate the DOA and polarization of the incident signals. The closed-form parameter estimation algorithm can effectively reduce the computational complexity of the joint estimation, which has been demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  13. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Part Nine; Morale and Esprit De Corps. Segments I & II, Volume IX-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The ninth volume of the introduction to psychology and leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484) concentrates on morale and esprit de corps and is presented in two documents. Like Volume One (EM 010 420), this document is a self-instructional syndactic text with…

  14. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Part Nine; Morale and Esprit De Corps. Content Outline, Terminal and Enabling Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The content is outlined and the terminal and enabling objectives are provided for a curriculum area on morale and esprit de corps (see EM 010 439, EM 010 440, and EM 010 461), part of an introduction to psychology and leadership course for the United States Naval Academy (see the final reports which summarize the course development project, EM 010…

  15. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Part Nine; Morale and Esprit De Corps. Segments I & II, Volume IX-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The ninth volume of the introduction to psychology and leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484) concentrates on morale and esprit de corps and is presented in two documents. This document uses an audiotape and panelbook format. EM 010 440 is the second document of the…

  16. Dependence of accuracy of ESPRIT estimates on signal eigenvalues: the case of a noisy sum of two real exponentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Theodore; Golyandina, Nina; Timofeyev, Alexey

    2009-02-26

    This paper is devoted to estimation of parameters for a noisy sum of two real exponential functions. Singular Spectrum Analysis is used to extract the signal subspace and then the ESPRIT method exploiting signal subspace features is applied to obtain estimates of the desired exponential rates. Dependence of estimation quality on signal eigenvalues is investigated. The special design to test this relation is elaborated.

  17. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Part Nine; Morale and Esprit De Corps. Progress Check. Test Item Pool. Segments I & II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    Test items for the introduction to psychology and leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the course development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484) which were compiled as part of the project documentation and which are coordinated with the text-workbook on morale and esprit de corps (EM 010 439, EM 010 440, and EM…

  18. Formal methods and tools for the development of distributed and real time systems : Esprit Project 3096 (SPEC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roever, de W.P.; Barringer, H.; Courcoubetis, C.; Gabbay, D.M.; Gerth, R.T.; Jonsson, B.; Pnueli, A.; Reed, M.; Sifakis, J.; Vytopil, J.; Wolper, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Basic Research Action No. 3096, Formal Methods snd Tools for the Development of Distributed and Real Time Systems, is funded in the Area of Computer Science, under the ESPRIT Programme of the European Community. The coordinating institution is the Department of Computing Science, Eindhoven

  19. A Low-Complexity ESPRIT-Based DOA Estimation Method for Co-Prime Linear Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fenggang; Gao, Bin; Chen, Lizhen; Lan, Peng

    2016-08-25

    The problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is investigated for co-prime array, where the co-prime array consists of two uniform sparse linear subarrays with extended inter-element spacing. For each sparse subarray, true DOAs are mapped into several equivalent angles impinging on the traditional uniform linear array with half-wavelength spacing. Then, by applying the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT), the equivalent DOAs are estimated, and the candidate DOAs are recovered according to the relationship among equivalent and true DOAs. Finally, the true DOAs are estimated by combining the results of the two subarrays. The proposed method achieves a better complexity-performance tradeoff as compared to other existing methods.

  20. ESPRIT: a study concept for a far-infrared interferometer in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, W.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Baryshev, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Gao, J. R.; Gunst, A.; Bos, A.; den Herder, J.-W.; Jackson, B.; Koshelets, V.; Langevelde, H.-J.; Maat, P.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Noordam, J.; Roelfsema, P.; Venema, L.; Wesselius, P.; Yagoubov, P.

    2008-07-01

    In the far-infrared (FIR) / THz regime the angular (and often spectral) resolution of observing facilities is still very restricted despite the fact that this frequency range has become of prime importance for modern astrophysics. ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) with its superb sensitivity and angular resolution will only cover frequencies up to about 1 THz, while the HIFI instrument for ESA'a Herschel Space Observatory will provide limited angular resolution (10 to 30 arcsec) up to 2 THz. Observations of regions with star and planet formation require extremely high angular resolution as well as frequency resolution in the full THz regime. In order to open these regions for high-resolution astrophysics we present a study concept for a heterodyne space interferometer, ESPRIT (Exploratory Submm Space Radio-Interferometric Telescope). This mission will cover the Terahertz regime inaccessible from the ground and outside the operating range of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  1. Esprit de corps: the possibility for the best care a hospital can provide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Norman

    2010-01-01

    What is best for the hospitalized patient? How do we increase the prospects that a patient will receive the best care a hospital can provide, and how is this accomplished? It has been argued that what is best for the patient is to be in the care of highly functioning collaborative teams, teams with certain unique qualities, teams that have esprit de corps. But how do we get there? In furtherance of this discussion, the author, in a Quintilian-like spirit, deliberates about "necessity" and "possibility" in what is best for the hospitalized patient and the challenges these teams must navigate: responsibility, accountability, team relationships, leadership, moral distress, dissent, and personal and professional risk.

  2. A Methodology for Virtual Enterprise Management – Results from IMS 95001/Esprit 26509 Globeman21 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan; Pedersen, Jens Dahl

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results of the recently concluded IMS Globeman21 (Global Manufacturing in the 21st Century, IMS 95001/ESPRIT 26509) project. The results is the Virtual Enterprise Concept, a Virtual Enterprise Framework based upon GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704) and a Methodology for Virtual Enterprise...... management and engineering which is related to the Virtual Enterprise Framework (VEF). Applying the VEF as a basis structure for the Methodology provides a systematic approach for preparation and engineering of virtual enterprises. The Virtual Enterprise Framework opens up the prospect of combining...... experiences in the area of virtual enterprise into an integrated whole enabling researchers or practitioners to focus on subsets of the challenge related to the realisation of the virtual enterprise potentials. In this paper the identification, concept and requirements phases of the methodology are briefly...

  3. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, D; Lévy, Y; Losso, M H

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT). In each, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had CD4+ cell counts of either...

  4. Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool (ESPRIT) - A Compact Stereo-based Motion Capture Solution For Exercise Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mun Wai

    2015-01-01

    Crew exercise is important during long-duration space flight not only for maintaining health and fitness but also for preventing adverse health problems, such as losses in muscle strength and bone density. Monitoring crew exercise via motion capture and kinematic analysis aids understanding of the effects of microgravity on exercise and helps ensure that exercise prescriptions are effective. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed ESPRIT to monitor exercise activities, detect body markers, extract image features, and recover three-dimensional (3D) kinematic body poses. The system relies on prior knowledge and modeling of the human body and on advanced statistical inference techniques to achieve robust and accurate motion capture. In Phase I, the company demonstrated motion capture of several exercises, including walking, curling, and dead lifting. Phase II efforts focused on enhancing algorithms and delivering an ESPRIT prototype for testing and demonstration.

  5. Predictors of bacterial pneumonia in the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, SL; Carey, C; Lin, E; Wentworth, D; Lazovski, J; Miró, JM; Gordin, F; Angus, B; Rodriguez-Barradas, M; Rubio, R; Tambussi, G; Cooper, DA; Emery, S

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Bacterial pneumonia still contributes to morbidity/mortality in HIV-infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). ESPRIT, a trial of intermittent recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) with cART vs.cART alone (control arm) in HIV-infected adults with CD4+≥300 offered the opportunity to explore associations between bacterial pneumonia and rIL-2, a cytokine which increases some bacterial infections. Methods Baseline and time-updated factors associated with first-episode pneumonia on study were analysed using multivariate proportional hazards regression models. Smoking/pneumococcal vaccination history was not collected. Results IL-2 cycling was most intense in years 1-2. Over ≈7 years, 93 IL-2 (rate 0.67/100PY) and 86 control (rate 0.63/100PY) patients experienced a pneumonia-event, (HR=1.06,95%CI=0.79,1.42,p=0.68). Median CD4+ prior to pneumonia was 570 (IL-2 arm) and 463cells/uL (control arm). Baseline risks for bacterial pneumonia included older age, IVDU, detectable HIV viral load (VL), previous recurrent pneumonia; Asian ethnicity was associated with decreased risk. Higher proximal VL (HR for 1 log10 higher VL=1.28,95%CI=1.11,1.47,p=<.001) was associated with increased risk; higher CD4+ prior to the event (HR per 100 cells higher=0.94,95%CI0.89,1.0,p=0.04) decreased risk. Compared to controls, the hazard for a pneumonia-event was higher if rIL-2 was received <180 days prior (HR=1.66,95%CI=1.07,2.60,p=0.02) vs.≥180 days (HR=0.98,95%CI=0.70,1.37,p=0.9). Compared to the control group, pneumonia-risk in the IL-2 arm decreased over time with HRs of 1.41, 1.71, 1.16, 0.62 and 0.84 in years 1, 2, 3-4,5-6 and 7, respectively. Conclusions Bacterial pneumonia rates in cART-treated adults with moderate immunodeficiency are high. The mechanism of the association between bacterial pneumonia and recent IL-2 receipt and/or detectable HIV-viraemia deserves further exploration. PMID:20812949

  6. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA profiles among chronic HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in ESPRIT; spontaneous HCV RNA clearance observed in nine individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, D; Tedaldi, E; Peters, L; Mocroft, A; Edlin, B; Gallien, S; Klinker, H; Boesecke, C; Kokordelis, P; Rockstroh, J K

    2017-07-01

    Studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels remain stable over time in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), while spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA during the persistent infection phase has been documented only rarely among those with the CC interleukin (IL)-28B genotype. This study describes HCV RNA profiles and factors associated with changes over time in HCV RNA levels in the ESPRIT study. HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals positive for HCV RNA were included in the study. Follow-up was counted from the first HCV RNA positive test and censored at the initiation of interferon-based treatment. HCV RNA and IL-28B measurements were performed in the same reference laboratory. Random effects mixed models were used to analyse changes over time in HCV RNA. A total of 312 ESPRIT patients were included in the study (151 in the arm receiving subcutaneous recombinant IL-2 and 161 in the control arm). Most of the patients were white (89%) and male (76%), and they had a median of 5 HCV RNA measurements per person [interquartile range (IQR) 3-6; range 1-9]. Median follow-up was 5 years (IQR: 2-6 years). At baseline, 96% of patients were taking cART and 93% had undetectable HIV RNA. Mean HCV RNA levels decreased by 13% per year over the study period [95% confidence interval (CI) 8-18%; P < 0.0001]. Baseline HCV RNA levels and the change over time in HCV RNA did not differ by randomization arm (P = 0.16 and P = 0.56, respectively). Nine individuals spontaneously cleared HCV RNA during follow-up [IL-28B genotypes: CC, five patients (56%); CT, four patients (44%)]. HCV RNA levels decreased over time in this population with well-controlled HIV infection. Spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA was documented in five individuals with IL-28B genotype CC and four with the CT genotype. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  7. ESPRIT: an automated, library-based method for mapping and soluble expression of protein domains from challenging targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumerefendi, Hayretin; Tarendeau, Franck; Mas, Philippe J; Hart, Darren J

    2010-10-01

    Expression of sufficient quantities of soluble protein for structural biology and other applications is often a very difficult task, especially when multimilligram quantities are required. In order to improve yield, solubility or crystallisability of a protein, it is common to subclone shorter genetic constructs corresponding to single- or multi-domain fragments. However, it is not always clear where domain boundaries are located, especially when working on novel targets with little or no sequence similarity to other proteins. Several methods have been described employing aspects of directed evolution to the recombinant expression of challenging proteins. These combine the construction of a random library of genetic constructs of a target with a screening or selection process to identify solubly expressing protein fragments. Here we review several datasets from the ESPRIT (Expression of Soluble Proteins by Random Incremental Truncation) technology to provide a view on its capabilities. Firstly, we demonstrate how it functions using the well-characterised NF-kappaB p50 transcription factor as a model system. Secondly, application of ESPRIT to the challenging PB2 subunit of influenza polymerase has led to several novel atomic resolution structures; here we present an overview of the screening phase of that project. Thirdly, analysis of the human kinase TBK1 is presented to show how the ESPRIT technology rapidly addresses the compatibility of challenging targets with the Escherichia coli expression system.

  8. R -Dimensional ESPRIT-Type Algorithms for Strictly Second-Order Non-Circular Sources and Their Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwandt, Jens; Roemer, Florian; Haardt, Martin; Galdo, Giovanni Del

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution parameter estimation algorithms designed to exploit the prior knowledge about incident signals from strictly second-order (SO) non-circular (NC) sources allow for a lower estimation error and can resolve twice as many sources. In this paper, we derive the R-D NC Standard ESPRIT and the R-D NC Unitary ESPRIT algorithms that provide a significantly better performance compared to their original versions for arbitrary source signals. They are applicable to shift-invariant R-D antenna arrays and do not require a centrosymmetric array structure. Moreover, we present a first-order asymptotic performance analysis of the proposed algorithms, which is based on the error in the signal subspace estimate arising from the noise perturbation. The derived expressions for the resulting parameter estimation error are explicit in the noise realizations and asymptotic in the effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), i.e., the results become exact for either high SNRs or a large sample size. We also provide mean squared error (MSE) expressions, where only the assumptions of a zero mean and finite SO moments of the noise are required, but no assumptions about its statistics are necessary. As a main result, we analytically prove that the asymptotic performance of both R-D NC ESPRIT-type algorithms is identical in the high effective SNR regime. Finally, a case study shows that no improvement from strictly non-circular sources can be achieved in the special case of a single source.

  9. Cochlear implants: 100 pediatric case conversions from the body worn to the nucleus esprit 22 ear level speech processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, M C; Nikolopoulos, T P; Totten, C; Cope, Y; O'Donoghue, G M

    2005-07-01

    To assess performance of Nucleus 22 mini system pediatric users converted from the Spectra 22 body-worn to the ESPrit 22 ear-level speech processor using aided thresholds and speech discrimination measures before and after the conversion. Spectra 22 body-worn speech processor users were chosen using preselection criteria (stable map, ability to report on the quality of the signal, no device problems). The subjects underwent tuning, map conversion, fitting of the ESPrit 22, and aided soundfield threshold and speech discrimination testing. The first 100 consecutive conversions are analyzed in this study. Fifty children (50%) were female, and 50 (50%) were male. The average age at implantation was 4.6 years (median 4.3 years, range 1.7 to 11 years). The average age of fitting the ear level speech processor was 11.1 years (median 11 years, range 6.2 to 18.2 years). Tertiary referral pediatric cochlear implant center in the United Kingdom. Of the 100 fittings attempted, all Spectra 22 maps could to be converted for use in the ESPrit 22. Of these 100 fittings, 44 were straightforward with no adjustment to map parameters being required, and 56 needed rate reductions and other map adjustments to achieve the conversion. The difference of the mean thresholds before and after the conversion did not exceed 2 dB across the frequencies studied (0.5-4 kHz). In 95% of the cases, the differences were less than 9 dB(A). With regard to speech discrimination testing, the mean threshold before the conversion was 53.4 dB and after the conversion 52.7 dB. Of the 100 conversions, only five children stopped using the ESPrit 22 despite fitting being achieved. Conversion from the Spectra 22 body worn to the ESPrit 22 ear level speech processor was found to be feasible in all the 100 cases studied. Only a minority (5%) of children chose not to use the ear level speech processor suggesting that children and parents were satisfied from the conversion.

  10. Neurological signs and late-life depressive symptoms in a community population: the ESPRIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soremekun, Mishael; Stewart, Robert; Portet, Florence; Artero, Sylvaine; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Ritchie, Karen

    2010-07-01

    Depression in the elderly is common and often resistant to treatment. It has been suggested that late-life depression may be related to underlying neurobiological changes. However, these observations are derived from diverse clinical samples and as yet have not been confirmed in a more representative population study. Our aim was to investigate associations between neurological signs as markers of underlying brain dysfunction and caseness for depression in an elderly community sample, controlling for physical health and comorbid/past neurological disorders. A cross-sectional analysis of 2102 older people without dementia from the ESPRIT project. Depressive symptomatology was ascertained using the CES-D and abnormal neurological signs/comorbidity from a full neurological examination according to ICD-10 criteria. Pyramidal, extrapyramidal, cranial nerve and sensory deficit signs were significantly associated with case-level depressive symptoms. However, all odds ratios were close to null values in participants who did not have previous neurological disorder. We confirmed previous findings of an association between neurological signs and case-level depressive symptoms in late life. However, this association may simply reflect the impact of more severe comorbid neurological disorder. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Complementary effects of thienopyridine pretreatment and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin blockade with eptifibatide in coronary stent intervention; results from the ESPRIT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, Jean-Pierre; Campbell, Mark E; Mathias, Jasmine; Pieper, Karen S; Harrington, Robert A; Madan, Mina; Gibson, C Michael; Tolleson, Thaddeus R; O'Shea, J Conor; Tcheng, James E

    2007-07-01

    This analysis sought to investigate the complementary effect of thienopyridine pretreatment and platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa integrin blockade in coronary stent intervention. Definitive evidence supporting combined antiplatelet therapy consisting of thienopyridine pretreatment and GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockade in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation is limited. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes by thienopyridine use in the 2,040 patients randomized to eptifibatide or placebo who underwent PCI in the ESPRIT trial. A total of 901 patients received a loading dose of thienopyridine before PCI (group 1), 123 received thienopyridine pretreatment without a loading dose (group 2), and 1,016 were not treated with thienopyridine before PCI (group 3). The composite incidence of death or myocardial infarction at 30 days was significantly lower in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 combined (OR, 0.71 [95%CI, 0.52-0.99]; P = 0.0417). A similar trend was seen for the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or urgent target vessel revascularization (unadjusted OR, 0.77 [0.57-1.05]; P = 0.1025). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, these differences were no longer significant. No interactions were identified with eptifibatide assignment for any of the group comparisons. Pretreatment with a loading dose of thienopyridine lowers the rate of ischemic complications regardless of treatment with a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor. Conversely, the efficacy of eptifibatide is maintained whether or not a loading dose of a thienopyridine is administered. Optimal outcomes are achieved in patients receiving thienopyridine pretreatment along with platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Identification of Combined Power Quality Disturbances Using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Total Least Squares-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (TLS-ESPRIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaishuo Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify various kinds of combined power quality disturbances, the singular value decomposition (SVD and the improved total least squares-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (TLS-ESPRIT are combined as the basis of disturbance identification in this paper. SVD is applied to identify the catastrophe points of disturbance intervals, based on which the disturbance intervals are segmented. Then the improved TLS-ESPRIT optimized by singular value norm method is used to analyze each data segment, and extract the amplitude, frequency, attenuation coefficient and initial phase of various kinds of disturbances. Multi-group combined disturbance test signals are constructed by MATLAB and the proposed method is also tested by the measured data of IEEE Power and Energy Society (PES Database. The test results show that the new method proposed has a relatively higher accuracy than conventional TLS-ESPRIT, which could be used in the identification of measured data.

  13. Mesospheric dust and its secondary effects as observed by the ESPRIT payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havnes, O.; Surdal, L. H.; Philbrick, C. R.

    2009-03-01

    The dust detector on the ESPRIT rocket detected two extended dust/aerosol layers during the launch on 1 July 2006. The lower layer at height ~81.5-83 km coincided with a strong NLC and PMSE layer. The maximum dust charge density was ~-3.5×109 e m-3 and the dust layer was characterized by a few strong dust layers where the dust charge density at the upper edges changed by factors 2-3 over a distance of ≲10 m, while the same change at their lower edges were much more gradual. The upper edge of this layer is also sharp, with a change in the probe current from zero to IDC=-10-11 A over ~10 m, while the same change at the low edge occurs over ~500 m. The second dust layer at ~85-92 km was in the height range of a comparatively weak PMSE layer and the maximum dust charge density was ~-108 e m-3. This demonstrates that PMSE can be formed even if the ratio of the dust charge density to the electron density P=NdZd /n_e≲0.01. In spite of the dust detector being constructed to reduce possible secondary charging effects from dust impacts, it was found that they were clearly present during the passage through both layers. The measured secondary charging effects confirm recent results that dust in the NLC and PMSE layers can be very effective in producing secondary charges with up to ~50 to 100 electron charges being rubbed off by one impacting large dust particle, if the impact angle is θi≳20-35°. This again lends support to the suggested model for NLC and PMSE dust particles (Havnes and Næsheim, 2007) as a loosely bound water-ice clump interspersed with a considerable number of sub-nanometer-sized meteoric smoke particles, possibly also contaminated with meteoric atomic species.

  14. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, D; Lévy, Y; Losso, M H; Babiker, A; Collins, G; Cooper, D A; Darbyshire, J; Emery, S; Fox, L; Gordin, F; Lane, H C; Lundgren, J D; Mitsuyasu, R; Neaton, J D; Phillips, A; Routy, J P; Tambussi, G; Wentworth, D

    2009-10-15

    Used in combination with antiretroviral therapy, subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 raises CD4+ cell counts more than does antiretroviral therapy alone. The clinical implication of these increases is not known. We conducted two trials: the Subcutaneous Recombinant, Human Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT). In each, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had CD4+ cell counts of either 50 to 299 per cubic millimeter (SILCAAT) or 300 or more per cubic millimeter (ESPRIT) were randomly assigned to receive interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy or antiretroviral therapy alone. The interleukin-2 regimen consisted of cycles of 5 consecutive days each, administered at 8-week intervals. The SILCAAT study involved six cycles and a dose of 4.5 million IU of interleukin-2 twice daily; ESPRIT involved three cycles and a dose of 7.5 million IU twice daily. Additional cycles were recommended to maintain the CD4+ cell count above predefined target levels. The primary end point of both studies was opportunistic disease or death from any cause. In the SILCAAT study, 1695 patients (849 receiving interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy and 846 receiving antiretroviral therapy alone) who had a median CD4+ cell count of 202 cells per cubic millimeter were enrolled; in ESPRIT, 4111 patients (2071 receiving interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy and 2040 receiving antiretroviral therapy alone) who had a median CD4+ cell count of 457 cells per cubic millimeter were enrolled. Over a median follow-up period of 7 to 8 years, the CD4+ cell count was higher in the interleukin-2 group than in the group receiving antiretroviral therapy alone--by 53 and 159 cells per cubic millimeter, on average, in the SILCAAT study and ESPRIT, respectively. Hazard ratios for opportunistic disease or death from

  15. An ESPRIT-Based Approach for 2-D Localization of Incoherently Distributed Sources in Massive MIMO Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anzhong; Lv, Tiejun; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Shaoshi

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, an approach of estimating signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) localization of incoherently distributed (ID) sources in large-scale/massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The traditional ESPRIT-based methods are valid only for one-dimensional (1-D) localization of the ID sources. By contrast, in the proposed approach the signal subspace is constructed for estimating the nominal azimuth and elevation direction-of-arrivals and the angular spreads. The proposed estimator enjoys closed-form expressions and hence it bypasses the searching over the entire feasible field. Therefore, it imposes significantly lower computational complexity than the conventional 2-D estimation approaches. Our analysis shows that the estimation performance of the proposed approach improves when the large-scale/massive MIMO systems are employed. The approximate Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound of the proposed estimator for the 2-D localization is also derived. Numerical results demonstrate that albeit the proposed estimation method is comparable with the traditional 2-D estimators in terms of performance, it benefits from a remarkably lower computational complexity.

  16. ESPRIT-Like Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar with Electromagnetic Vector Received Sensors under the Condition of Gain and Phase Uncertainties and Mutual Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Yongshun; Zheng, Guimei; Feng, Cunqian; Tang, Jun

    2017-10-26

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA) estimation for monostatic MIMO Radar with electromagnetic vector received sensors (MIMO-EMVSs) under the condition of gain and phase uncertainties (GPU) and mutual coupling (MC). GPU would spoil the invariance property of the EMVSs in MIMO-EMVSs, thus the effective ESPRIT algorithm unable to be used directly. Then we put forward a C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It estimates the 2D-DOA and polarization station angle (PSA) based on the instrumental sensors method (ISM). The C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm can obtain good angle estimation accuracy without knowing the GPU. Furthermore, it can be applied to arbitrary array configuration and has low complexity for avoiding the angle searching procedure. When MC and GPU exist together between the elements of EMVSs, in order to make our algorithm feasible, we derive a class of separated electromagnetic vector receiver and give the S-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It can solve the problem of GPU and MC efficiently. And the array configuration can be arbitrary. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithms is verified by the simulation result.

  17. ESPRIT-Like Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar with Electromagnetic Vector Received Sensors under the Condition of Gain and Phase Uncertainties and Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the problem of two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA estimation for monostatic MIMO Radar with electromagnetic vector received sensors (MIMO-EMVSs under the condition of gain and phase uncertainties (GPU and mutual coupling (MC. GPU would spoil the invariance property of the EMVSs in MIMO-EMVSs, thus the effective ESPRIT algorithm unable to be used directly. Then we put forward a C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It estimates the 2D-DOA and polarization station angle (PSA based on the instrumental sensors method (ISM. The C-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm can obtain good angle estimation accuracy without knowing the GPU. Furthermore, it can be applied to arbitrary array configuration and has low complexity for avoiding the angle searching procedure. When MC and GPU exist together between the elements of EMVSs, in order to make our algorithm feasible, we derive a class of separated electromagnetic vector receiver and give the S-SPD ESPRIT-like algorithm. It can solve the problem of GPU and MC efficiently. And the array configuration can be arbitrary. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithms is verified by the simulation result.

  18. Mesospheric dust and its secondary effects as observed by the ESPRIT payload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havnes, O. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Tromsoe, Tromsoe (Norway); Surdal, L.H. [Narvik University College, Norvik, and Andoeya Rocket Range, Andenes (Norway); Philbrick, C.R. [Pennsylvania State University, Electrical Engineering Department (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The dust detector on the ESPRIT rocket detected two extended dust/aerosol layers during the launch on 1 July 2006. The lower layer at height {proportional_to}81.5-83 km coincided with a strong NLC and PMSE layer. The maximum dust charge density was {proportional_to}-3.5 x 10{sup 9} e m{sup -3} and the dust layer was characterized by a few strong dust layers where the dust charge density at the upper edges changed by factors 2-3 over a distance of or similar 20-35 . This again lends support to the suggested model for NLC and PMSE dust particles (Havnes and Naesheim, 2007) as a loosely bound water-ice clump interspersed with a considerable number of sub-nanometer-sized meteoric smoke particles, possibly also contaminated with meteoric atomic species.

  19. Mesospheric dust and its secondary effects as observed by the ESPRIT payload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Havnes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The dust detector on the ESPRIT rocket detected two extended dust/aerosol layers during the launch on 1 July 2006. The lower layer at height ~81.5–83 km coincided with a strong NLC and PMSE layer. The maximum dust charge density was ~−3.5×109 e m−3 and the dust layer was characterized by a few strong dust layers where the dust charge density at the upper edges changed by factors 2–3 over a distance of ≲10 m, while the same change at their lower edges were much more gradual. The upper edge of this layer is also sharp, with a change in the probe current from zero to IDC=−10−11 A over ~10 m, while the same change at the low edge occurs over ~500 m. The second dust layer at ~85–92 km was in the height range of a comparatively weak PMSE layer and the maximum dust charge density was ~−108 e m−3. This demonstrates that PMSE can be formed even if the ratio of the dust charge density to the electron density P=NdZd /n_e≲0.01. In spite of the dust detector being constructed to reduce possible secondary charging effects from dust impacts, it was found that they were clearly present during the passage through both layers. The measured secondary charging effects confirm recent results that dust in the NLC and PMSE layers can be very effective in producing secondary charges with up to ~50 to 100 electron charges being rubbed off by one impacting large dust particle, if the impact angle is θi≳20–35°. This again lends support to the suggested model for NLC and PMSE dust particles (Havnes and Næsheim, 2007 as a loosely bound water-ice clump interspersed with a considerable number of sub-nanometer-sized meteoric smoke particles, possibly also contaminated with meteoric atomic species.

  20. Cost effectiveness of eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes; an economic analysis of Western European patients enrolled in the PURSUIT trial. The Platelet IIa/IIb in unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R E; Henderson, R A; Koster, D; Hutton, J; Simoons, M L

    2002-01-01

    To assess the direct medical costs and cost effectiveness of routine eptifibatide use amongst patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction without persistent ST-segment elevation in the Western European subgroup of the PURSUIT trial. Health care resources were collected for the Western European PURSUIT trial patients (n=3697). Unit costs for major resources were developed within six countries using a consistent bottom-up methodology. Resource consumption from the Western European population was used to calculate the average direct medical costs per patient in the eptifibatide and placebo arms of the trial. Eptifibatide was estimated to cost 524 Euros per treatment. Long-term survival estimated from the 6-month trial survival data and combined with the cost data was used to calculate cost-effectiveness ratios. Additionally, cost per death and non-fatal myocardial infarction at 30 days was calculated. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on the discount rate and resource consumption. Cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from 9603 Euros to 18 115 Euros per year of life saved with 3% discount. Using resource consumption based on countries with low coronary arteriography rates, the cost per year of life saved was between 3329 Euros and 10 079 Euros. Using resource consumption based on high coronary arteriography rate countries, the cost per year of life saved was between 17 089 Euros and 24 099 Euros. Assuming no difference in treatment costs except for the addition of eptifibatide, the incremental cost per year of life saved was 23 818 Euros. Routine eptifibatide use was associated with a reduction in the combined end-point of death and myocardial infarction at 30 days, which was sustained at 6 months. Long-term projections indicate a modest increase in survival in eptifibatide patients. These data translate into cost-effectiveness ratios that compare favourably with other new technologies that are currently in use. Copyright 2001 The European Society of Cardiology.

  1. Performance Analysis of Multi-Dimensional ESPRIT-Type Algorithms for Arbitrary and Strictly Non-Circular Sources With Spatial Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwandt, Jens; Roemer, Florian; Haardt, Martin; Galdo, Giovanni Del

    2017-05-01

    Spatial smoothing is a widely used preprocessing scheme to improve the performance of high-resolution parameter estimation algorithms in case of coherent signals or if only a small number of snapshots is available. In this paper, we present a first-order performance analysis of the spatially smoothed versions of R-D Standard ESPRIT and R-D Unitary ESPRIT for sources with arbitrary signal constellations as well as R-D NC Standard ESPRIT and R-D NC Unitary ESPRIT for strictly second-order (SO) non-circular (NC) sources. The derived expressions are asymptotic in the effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), i.e., the approximations become exact for either high SNRs or a large sample size. Moreover, no assumptions on the noise statistics are required apart from a zero-mean and finite SO moments. We show that both R-D NC ESPRIT-type algorithms with spatial smoothing perform asymptotically identical in the high effective SNR regime. Generally, the performance of spatial smoothing based algorithms depends on the number of subarrays, which is a design parameter and needs to be chosen beforehand. In order to gain more insights into the optimal choice of the number of subarrays, we simplify the derived analytical R-D mean square error (MSE) expressions for the special case of a single source. The obtained MSE expression explicitly depends on the number of subarrays in each dimension, which allows us to analytically find the optimal number of subarrays for spatial smoothing. Based on this result, we additionally derive the maximum asymptotic gain from spatial smoothing and explicitly compute the asymptotic efficiency for this special case. All the analytical results are verified by simulations.

  2. Medium intensity oral anticoagulants versus aspirin after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkes, P H A; van Gijn, J; Kappelle, L J; Koudstaal, P J; Algra, A

    2007-02-01

    Oral anticoagulants are better than aspirin for secondary prevention after myocardial infarction and after cerebral ischaemia in combination with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation. The European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial (ESPRIT) aimed to determine whether oral anticoagulation with medium intensity is more effective than aspirin in preventing future vascular events in patients with transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke of presumed arterial origin. In this international, multicentre trial, patients were randomly assigned within 6 months after a transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke of presumed arterial origin either anticoagulants (target INR range 2.0-3.0; n=536) or aspirin (30-325 mg daily; n=532). The primary outcome was the composite of death from all vascular causes, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or major bleeding complication, whichever occurred first. In a post hoc analysis anticoagulants were compared with the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole (200 mg twice daily). Treatment was open, but auditing of outcome events was blinded. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial (number ISRCTN73824458) and with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00161070). The anticoagulants versus aspirin comparison of ESPRIT was prematurely ended because ESPRIT reported previously that the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole was more effective than aspirin alone. Mean follow-up was 4.6 years (SD 2.2). The mean achieved INR was 2.57 (SD 0.86). A primary outcome event occurred in 99 (19%) patients on anticoagulants and in 98 (18%) patients on aspirin (hazard ratio [HR] 1.02, 95% CI 0.77-1.35). The HR for ischaemic events was 0.73 (0.52-1.01) and for major bleeding complications 2.56 (1.48-4.43). The HR for the primary outcome event comparing anticoagulants with the combination treatment of aspirin and dipyridamole was 1.31 (0.98-1.75). Oral

  3. A Wavelet-Modified ESPRIT Hybrid Method for Assessment of Spectral Components from 0 to 150 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Alfieri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waveform distortions are an important issue in distribution systems. In particular, the assessment of very wide spectra, that include also components in the 2–150 kHz range, has recently become an issue of great interest. This is due to the increasing presence of high-spectral emission devices like end-user devices and distributed generation systems. This study proposed a new sliding-window wavelet-modified estimation of signal parameters by rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT method, particularly suitable for the spectral analysis of waveforms that have very wide spectra. The method is very accurate and requires reduced computational effort. It can be applied successfully to detect spectral components in the range of 0–150 kHz introduced both by distributed power plants, such as wind and photovoltaic generation systems, and by end-user equipment connected to grids through static converters, such as fluorescent lamps.

  4. 2D Unitary ESPRIT Based Super-Resolution Channel Estimation for Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO with Hybrid Precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Anwen

    2017-11-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) with hybrid precoding is a promising technique for the future 5G wireless communications. Due to a large number of antennas but a much smaller number of radio frequency (RF) chains, estimating the high-dimensional mmWave massive MIMO channel will bring the large pilot overhead. To overcome this challenge, this paper proposes a super-resolution channel estimation scheme based on two-dimensional (2D) unitary ESPRIT algorithm. By exploiting the angular sparsity of mmWave channels, the continuously distributed angle of arrivals/departures (AoAs/AoDs) can be jointly estimated with high accuracy. Specifically, by designing the uplink training signals at both base station (BS) and mobile station (MS), we first use low pilot overhead to estimate a low-dimensional effective channel, which has the same shift-invariance of array response as the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel to be estimated. From the low-dimensional effective channel, the superresolution estimates of AoAs and AoDs can be jointly obtained by exploiting the 2D unitary ESPRIT channel estimation algorithm. Furthermore, the associated path gains can be acquired based on the least squares (LS) criterion. Finally, we can reconstruct the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel according to the obtained AoAs, AoDs, and path gains. Simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme is superior to conventional schemes with a much lower pilot overhead.

  5. 2D Unitary ESPRIT Based Super-Resolution Channel Estimation for Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO with Hybrid Precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Anwen; Gao, Zhen; Wu, Yongpeng; Wang, Hua; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) with hybrid precoding is a promising technique for the future 5G wireless communications. Due to a large number of antennas but a much smaller number of radio frequency (RF) chains, estimating the high-dimensional mmWave massive MIMO channel will bring the large pilot overhead. To overcome this challenge, this paper proposes a super-resolution channel estimation scheme based on two-dimensional (2D) unitary ESPRIT algorithm. By exploiting the angular sparsity of mmWave channels, the continuously distributed angle of arrivals/departures (AoAs/AoDs) can be jointly estimated with high accuracy. Specifically, by designing the uplink training signals at both base station (BS) and mobile station (MS), we first use low pilot overhead to estimate a low-dimensional effective channel, which has the same shift-invariance of array response as the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel to be estimated. From the low-dimensional effective channel, the superresolution estimates of AoAs and AoDs can be jointly obtained by exploiting the 2D unitary ESPRIT channel estimation algorithm. Furthermore, the associated path gains can be acquired based on the least squares (LS) criterion. Finally, we can reconstruct the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel according to the obtained AoAs, AoDs, and path gains. Simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme is superior to conventional schemes with a much lower pilot overhead.

  6. Bioresorbable Everolimus-Eluting Vascular Scaffold for Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (ESPRIT I): 2-Year Clinical and Imaging Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Johannes; Bosiers, Marc; Deloose, Koen; Schmidt, Andrej; Zeller, Thomas; Wolf, Florian; Lansink, Wouter; Sauguet, Antoine; Vermassen, Frank; Lauwers, Geert; Scheinert, Dierk; Popma, Jeffrey J; McGreevy, Robert; Rapoza, Richard; Schwartz, Lewis B; Jaff, Michael R

    2016-06-13

    This is the first-in-human study of a drug-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) for treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD) involving the external iliac artery (EIA) and superficial femoral artery (SFA). Drug-eluting BVS has shown promise in coronary arteries. The ESPRIT BVS system is a device-drug combination consisting of an everolimus-eluting poly-l-lactide scaffold. Safety and performance were evaluated in 35 subjects with symptomatic claudication. Lesions were located in the SFA (88.6%) and EIA (11.4%). Mean lesion length was 35.7 ± 16.0 mm. The study device was successfully deployed in 100% of cases, without recoil. Procedure-related minor complications were observed in 3 patients (groin hematoma, dissection). Within 2 years there was 1 unrelated death, but no patients in this cohort had an amputation. At 1 and 2 years, the binary restenosis rates were 12.1% and 16.1%, respectively, and target lesion revascularization was performed in 3 of 34 patients (8.8%) and 4 of 32 patients (11.8%), respectively. The ankle brachial index 0.75 ± 0.14 improved from pre-procedure to 0.96 ± 0.16 at 2 years' follow-up. At 2 years, 71.0% of the patients were Rutherford-Becker 0, and 93.5% achieved a maximum walking distance of 1,500 feet. The safety of the ESPRIT BVS was demonstrated with no procedure or device-related deaths or amputations within 2 years. The low occurrence of revascularizations was consistent with duplex-ultrasonography showing sustained patency at 2-years. (A Clinical Evaluation of the Abbott Vascular ESPRIT BVS [Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold] System [ESPRIT I]; NCT01468974). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of speech perception performance between Sprint/Esprit 3G and Freedom processors in children implanted with nucleus cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Rosamaria; Magnavita, Vincenzo; De Filippi, Roberta; Ventura, Laura; Genovese, Elisabetta; Arslan, Edoardo

    2009-04-01

    To compare speech perception performance in children fitted with previous generation Nucleus sound processor, Sprint or Esprit 3G, and the Freedom, the most recently released system from the Cochlear Corporation that features a larger input dynamic range. Prospective intrasubject comparative study. University Medical Center. Seventeen prelingually deafened children who had received the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant and used the Sprint or Esprit 3G sound processor. Cochlear implantation with Cochlear device. Speech perception was evaluated at baseline (Sprint, n = 11; Esprit 3G, n = 6) and after 1 month's experience with the Freedom sound processor. Identification and recognition of disyllabic words and identification of vowels were performed via recorded voice in quiet (70 dB [A]), in the presence of background noise at various levels of signal-to-noise ratio (+10, +5, 0, -5) and at a soft presentation level (60 dB [A]). Consonant identification and recognition of disyllabic words, trisyllabic words, and sentences were evaluated in live voice. Frequency discrimination was measured in a subset of subjects (n = 5) by using an adaptive, 3-interval, 3-alternative, forced-choice procedure. Identification of disyllabic words administered at a soft presentation level showed a significant increase when switching to the Freedom compared with the previously worn processor in children using the Sprint or Esprit 3G. Identification and recognition of disyllabic words in the presence of background noise as well as consonant identification and sentence recognition increased significantly for the Freedom compared with the previously worn device only in children fitted with the Sprint. Frequency discrimination was significantly better when switching to the Freedom compared with the previously worn processor. Serial comparisons revealed that that speech perception performance evaluated in children aged 5 to 15 years was superior with the Freedom than previous generations of Nucleus

  8. [The Republic of Letters and French physicians on the eve of the French Revolution: the case of Esprit Calvet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockliss, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    In the broad Republic of Letters of the second half of the eighteenth century, physicians played an important but singular role. The majority of them were forced to earn their daily bread, so only belonged to the Republic in their leisure hours. Inhabiting a double universe--the everyday world of their profession and the more refined world of their intellectual hobbies--they had to negotiate continually between the two. This liminal position of the citizen-physician is recaptured in this article through the example of a physician of the Midi, Esprit Calvet of Avignon (1728--1810). Calvet left a huge correspondence, thanks to which this duality between the practising physician and the citizen of the Republic of Letters can be studied in detail. On the one hand, this is a correspondence between the physician and his patients, augmented by letters between the physician and other physicians on medical topics. On the other hand, it is a correspondence between the physician and other men of science on non-medical subjects (archaeology, botany, bibliophily, poetry, etc.).

  9. 2-D unitary ESPRIT-like direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for coherent signals with a uniform rectangular array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shiwei; Ma, Xiaochuan; Yan, Shefeng; Hao, Chengpeng

    2013-03-28

    A unitary transformation-based algorithm is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of coherent signals. The problem is solved by reorganizing the covariance matrix into a block Hankel one for decorrelation first and then reconstructing a new matrix to facilitate the unitary transformation. By multiplying unitary matrices, eigenvalue decomposition and singular value decomposition are both transformed into real-valued, so that the computational complexity can be reduced significantly. In addition, a fast and computationally attractive realization of the 2-D unitary transformation is given by making a Kronecker product of the 1-D matrices. Compared with the existing 2-D algorithms, our scheme is more efficient in computation and less restrictive on the array geometry. The processing of the received data matrix before unitary transformation combines the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT)-Like method and the forward-backward averaging, which can decorrelate the impinging signalsmore thoroughly. Simulation results and computational order analysis are presented to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. ORF-selector ESPRIT: a second generation library screen for soluble protein expression employing precise open reading frame selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yingfeng; Yumerefendi, Hayretin; Mas, Philippe J; Chesneau, Alban; Hart, Darren J

    2011-08-01

    Here we present ORF-selector ESPRIT, a 9-fold enhanced version of our technology for screening incremental truncation libraries to identify soluble high yielding constructs of challenging proteins. Gene fragments are truncated at both termini to access internal domains and the resulting reading frame problem is addressed by an unbiased, intein-based open reading frame selection yielding only in-frame DNA inserts. This enriched library is then subcloned into a standard high-level expression plasmid where tens of thousands of constructs can be assayed in a two-step process using colony- and liquid-handling robots to isolate rare highly expressing clones useful for production of multi milligram quantities of purifiable proteins. The p85α protein was used to benchmark the system resulting in isolation of all known domains, either alone or in tandem. The human kinase IKK1 was then screened resulting in purification of a predicted internal domain. This strategy provides an integrated, facile route to produce soluble proteins from challenging and poorly understood target genes at quantities compatible with structural biology, screening applications and immunisation studies. The high genetic diversity that can be sampled opens the way to study more diverse systems including multisubunit complexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A randomized clinical trial of prophylaxis in children with hemophilia A (the ESPRIT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringeri, A; Lundin, B; von Mackensen, S; Mantovani, L; Mannucci, P M

    2011-04-01

    Prevention of arthropathy is a major goal of hemophilia treatment. While studies in adults have demonstrated an impact of prophylaxis on the incidence of joint bleeds and patients' well-being in terms of improved quality of life (QoL), it is unclear whether or not prophylaxis influences the outcome and perception of well- of children with hemophilia. This randomized controlled study compared the efficacy of prophylaxis with episodic therapy in preventing hemarthroses and image-proven joint damage in children with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) over a 10-year time period. Forty-five children with severe hemophilia A, aged 1-7 years (median 4), with negative clinical-radiologic joint score at entry and at least one bleed during the previous 6 months, were consecutively randomized to prophylaxis with recombinant factor VIII (25 IU kg(-1) 3 × week) or episodic therapy with ≥25 IU kg(-1) every 12-24 h until complete clinical bleeding resolution. Safety, feasibility, direct costs and QoL were also evaluated. Twenty-one children were assigned to prophylaxis, 19 to episodic treatment. Children on prophylaxis had fewer hemarthroses than children on episodic therapy: 0.20 vs. 0.52 events per patient per month (P < 0.02). Plain-film radiology showed signs of arthropathy in six patients on prophylaxis (29%) vs. 14 on episodic treatment (74%) (P < 0.05). Prophylaxis was more effective when started early (≤36 months), with patients having fewer joint bleeds (0.12 joint bleeds per patient per month) and no radiologic signs of arthropathy. This randomized trial confirms the efficacy of prophylaxis in preventing bleeds and arthropathy in children with hemophilia, particularly when it is initiated early in life. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of Adalimumab for Moderate to Severe Psoriasis: Results from 7-Year Interim Analysis of the ESPRIT Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, Alan; Thaçi, Diamant; Wu, Jashin J; Abramovits, William; Kerdel, Francisco; Arikan, Dilek; Guo, Dianlin; Ganguli, Arijit; Bereswill, Mareike; Camez, Anne; Valdecantos, Wendell C

    2017-09-01

    ESPRIT (NCT00799877) is an ongoing 10-year international prospective observational registry evaluating the long-term safety and effectiveness of originator adalimumab in routine clinical practice for adult patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Herein, we report the long-term safety, effectiveness, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following adalimumab treatment over the first 7 years of the ESPRIT registry. All treatment-emergent (All-TE) adverse events (AE) since the initial (first ever) dose of adalimumab were assessed. Physician Global Assessment (PGA) and PROs (PROs for US patients only) were evaluated during registry participation. As of 30 November 2015, 6051 patients in the ESPRIT registry were analyzed, representing 23,660.1 patient-years (PY) of overall adalimumab exposure. The incidence rates for All-TE serious AEs, serious infections, and malignancies were 4.4, 1.0, and 1.0 events per 100 PY (E/100PY), respectively. The standardized mortality ratio for TE deaths in the registry was 0.27 (95% CI 0.18-0.38). During the registry's first 7 years, PGA "clear" or "minimal" was achieved by >50% of patients at each annual visit, and among US patients, the mean improvement from baseline in different PROs was maintained. No new safety signals were identified during the first 7 years of the registry, and safety was consistent with the known safety profile of adalimumab. The number of TE deaths was below the expected rate. During the registry's first 7 years, most of the patients remained free of All-TE cardiovascular events, serious infections, and malignancy. As-observed effectiveness of adalimumab and improvements from baseline in PROs were maintained through 7 years of registry participation. Abbvie. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00799877.

  13. Five-year analysis from the ESPRIT 10-year postmarketing surveillance registry of adalimumab treatment for moderate to severe psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, Alan; Thaçi, Diamant; Papp, Kim A; Wu, Jashin J; Bereswill, Mareike; Teixeira, Henrique D; Rubant, Simone; Williams, David A

    2015-09-01

    ESPRIT is an ongoing, 10-year, observational registry, evaluating long-term safety and effectiveness of adalimumab treatment in routine clinical practice for patients with moderate to severe, chronic plaque psoriasis. Initial 5-year results are reported. Two populations were analyzed: the "all-treated" population received 1 or more adalimumab doses in registry, continuing adalimumab treatment from a current prescription or previous study participation, and included the "new-prescription" population initiating adalimumab 4 weeks or earlier preregistry entry. Data were collected from September 26, 2008, through November 30, 2013, for all-treated (n = 6059), which included new-prescription (n = 2580, 42.6%); median registry exposure was 765 and 677 days, respectively. In all-treated, rate (events per 100 patient-years of total adalimumab exposure [E/100PY]) of serious treatment-emergent adverse events (inside or outside of the registry) was 4.3 E/100PY, serious infection 1.0 E/100PY, malignancies 0.9 E/100PY (nonmelanoma skin cancers 0.6 E/100PY; melanomas <0.1 E/100PY). Standardized mortality ratio was 0.30 (95% confidence interval 0.19-0.44). Physician Global Assessment clear or minimal (effectiveness parameter) was achieved by 57.0% at 12 months and 64.7% at 60 months of treatment. Observational data are subject to outcome-reporting bias. No new safety signals were observed with adalimumab treatment during this initial 5-year registry review. Observed number of deaths was below expected. As-observed effectiveness remained stable through 60 months. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors for late-onset generalized anxiety disorder: results from a 12-year prospective cohort (the ESPRIT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Norton, J; Carrière, I; Ritchie, K; Chaudieu, I; Ancelin, M-L

    2015-03-31

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and highly prevalent disorder associated with increased disability and mortality in the elderly. Treatment is difficult with low rate of full remission, thus highlighting the need to identify early predictors for prevention in elderly people. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize incident GAD predictors in elderly people. A total of 1711 individuals aged 65 years and above and free of GAD at baseline were randomly recruited from electoral rolls between 1999 and 2001 (the prospective ESPRIT study). The participants were examined at baseline and five times over 12 years. GAD and psychiatric comorbidity were diagnosed with a standardized psychiatric examination, the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview on the basis of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition) criteria and validated by a clinical panel. During the follow-up, 8.4% (95% confidence interval=7.1-9.7%) of the participants experienced incident GAD, 80% being first episodes; the incident rate being 10 per 1000 person-years. The principal predictors of late-onset incident GAD over 12 years derived from a multivariate Cox model were being female, recent adverse life events, having chronic physical (respiratory disorders, arrhythmia and heart failure, dyslipidemia, cognitive impairment) and mental (depression, phobia and past GAD) health disorders. Poverty, parental loss or separation and low affective support during childhood, as well as history of mental problems in parents were also significantly and independently associated with incident GAD. GAD appears as a multifactorial stress-related affective disorder resulting from both proximal and distal risk factors, some of them being potentially modifiable by health care intervention.

  15. Esprit Grows in Brooklyn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progressive Architecture, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The Brooklyn Children's Museum, the world's oldest children's museum, has a new home underground. The museum's teaching collection of artifacts is particularly strong in the areas of ethnology, natural history, and technology. Objects relating to these fields are organized according to the historic physical divisions of fire, air, earth, and…

  16. A prospective study of hormonal treatment and anxiety disorders in community-dwelling elderly women (the Esprit Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Jacqueline; Ryan, Joanne; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2009-05-01

    The impact of hormone therapy use on late-life anxiety disorder in elderly women has not been evaluated. Anxiety disorders were evaluated in 838 community-dwelling postmenopausal women aged 65 years and over, randomly recruited from electoral rolls. Anxiety disorders were assessed using a standardized psychiatric examination based on DSM-IV criteria, at baseline and as part of the 2- and 4-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, measures of physical health and cognitive impairment, as well as current depressive symptomatology indicated no significant association between hormone therapy and anxiety disorders at baseline or after the 4-year follow-up period, regardless of type of treatment. Compared to women who have never taken hormonal therapy, no significant difference was observed for women taking continuously hormone therapy over the follow-up or those who stopped their treatment. The use of hormone therapy was not associated with improved anxiety symptomatology in elderly postmenopausal women.

  17. EsPRit: ethics committee proposals for Long Term Medical Data Registries in rapidly evolving research fields - a future-proof best practice approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbichler, S; Hackl, W O; Hörbst, A

    2017-10-18

    Long-term data collection is a challenging task in the domain of medical research. Many effects in medicine require long periods of time to become traceable e.g. the development of secondary malignancies based on a given radiotherapeutic treatment of the primary disease. Nevertheless, long-term studies often suffer from an initial lack of available information, thus disallowing a standardized approach for their approval by the ethics committee. This is due to several factors, such as the lack of existing case report forms or an explorative research approach in which data elements may change over time. In connection with current medical research and the ongoing digitalization in medicine, Long Term Medical Data Registries (MDR-LT) have become an important means of collecting and analyzing study data. As with any clinical study, ethical aspects must be taken into account when setting up such registries. This work addresses the problem of creating a valid, high-quality ethics committee proposal for medical registries by suggesting groups of tasks (building blocks), information sources and appropriate methods for collecting and analyzing the information, as well as a process model to compile an ethics committee proposal (EsPRit). To derive the building blocks and associated methods software and requirements engineering approaches were utilized. Furthermore, a process-oriented approach was chosen, as information required in the creating process of ethics committee proposals remain unknown in the beginning of planning an MDR-LT. Here, we derived the needed steps from medical product certification. This was done as the medical product certification itself also communicates a process-oriented approach rather than merely focusing on content. A proposal was created for validation and inspection of applicability by using the proposed building blocks. The proposed best practice was tested and refined within SEMPER (Secondary Malignoma - Prospective Evaluation of the

  18. Long-term safety of unopposed estrogen used by women surviving myocardial infarction: 14-year follow-up of the ESPRIT randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, N; McNamee, R; Heagerty, A; Kitchener, H; Hannaford, P

    2014-05-01

    To compare health outcomes during 14-year observational follow-up in women initially randomised to unopposed estrogen or placebo. At recruitment to the Estrogen for the Prevention of Re-Infarction Trial (ESPRIT) women were assigned to estradiol valerate: 2 mg or placebo treatment for 2 years. Women were recruited from 35 hospitals in the northwest of England and Wales in July 1996-February 2000. Women aged 50-69 surviving their first myocardial infarction. All women were followed by data linkage to UK mortality and cancer records; mean follow-up 14.1 and 12.6 years, respectively. In an intention-to-treat analysis, hazard ratios (HRs) were computed, overall and stratified by age at recruitment. Death (all-cause, cardiac disease, stroke or cancer) and cancer incidence (any, breast or endometrium). There were 418 deaths in 1017 women randomised. The all-cause mortality HR of 1.07 (95% CI 0.88-1.29) indicated no significant difference between treatment groups. Women aged 50-59 years at recruitment had lower HRs than women aged 60-69 years for all outcomes except ischaemic heart disease. Among 149 incident cancers there were seven cases of breast cancer in the intervention arm and 15 in the placebo; HR 0.47 (95% CI 0.19-1.15). There were no deaths from endometrial cancer but three incident cases, one in the active arm and two in placebo. These results suggest that unopposed estrogen may be used safely by women with an intact uterus surviving a first myocardial infarction. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Denis de Casabianca, Montesquieu. De l’étude des sciences à l’esprit des lois, Paris, Honoré Champion, 2008, 976 pages, 145 €

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capucine Lebreton

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Montesquieu, « Newton du monde humain », fondateur d’une physique sociale, qui aurait le premier appliqué la méthode scientifique aux phénomènes humains et mis en évidence leur rationalité : ce jugement a été largement utilisé pour revendiquer l’auteur de L’Esprit des lois comme fondateur des sciences sociales. Son intérêt constant pour les sciences, ses lectures, ses activités académiques et ses propres expérimentations n’auraient pu qu’inspirer un modèle scientifique à ses écrits philosophi...

  20. School Uniforms: Esprit de Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rosemary P.; Ryan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of school uniforms far outweigh their short-term costs. School uniforms not only keep students safe, but they increase their self-esteem, promote a more positive attitude toward school, lead to improved student behavior, and help blur social-class distinctions. Students are allowed to wear their own political or religious messages,…

  1. [No role for oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0) after transient ischaemic attack or cerebral infarction of arterial origin; the 'European/Australasian stroke prevention in reversible ischaemia trial' (ESPRIT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schryver, E L L M; Halkes, P H A

    2008-02-23

    The 'European/Australasian stroke prevention in reversible ischaemia trial' (ESPRIT) aimed to determine whether oral anticoagulation of moderate intensity (target international normalised ratio (INR): 2.0-3.0) is more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in preventing future vascular events in patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke of arterial origin. International, multicentre randomised clinical trial. Patients were randomised within 6 months of TIA or minor stroke of arterial origin to oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0; n = 536) or acetylsalicylic acid (30-325 mg daily; n = 532). The primary endpoint was a composite of vascular death, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction or major bleeding complications. In a post hoc analysis, the efficacy of anticoagulants was compared with that of the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole (200 mg twice daily), a third arm of ESPRIT. Treatment was unblinded, but auditing of endpoints was blinded. Data were analysed on an intent-to-treat basis. The comparison of anticoagulants and acetylsalicylic acid was stopped prematurely because the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole was found to be more effective than acetylsalicylic acid alone. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.6 years (SD: 2.2). The mean INR was 2.57 (SD: 0.86; nearly 70% of the time within target range). The primary endpoint occurred in 99 patients (19%) in the anticoagulation group and 98 patients (18%) in the acetylsalicylic acid group (hazard ratio: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.77-1.35). The hazard ratio was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.52-1.01) for ischaemic events and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.48-4.43) for major bleeding complications. The hazard ratio for the primary outcome event comparing anticoagulants with the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole was 1.31 (95% CI: 0.98-1.75). Oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0) were not more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of

  2. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA profiles among chronic HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in ESPRIT; spontaneous HCV RNA clearance observed in nine individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Tedaldi, Ellen; Peters, L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels remain stable over time in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), while spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA during the persistent infection phase has been documented only rarely among tho...

  3. Homosexualité et esprit fort dans la première moitié du xviie siècle : indices poétiques d’une « invisible affinité »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Rosellini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nombre d’auteurs du xviie siècle représentatifs du libertinage ont été accusés de sodomie, au premier chef Théophile de Viau qui a été condamné au bûcher à la fois pour ce motif associé à l’athéisme. Aussi certains historiens de l’homosexualité les considèrent comme des victimes emblématiques de l’homophobie. Mais l’examen de leurs œuvres ne permet pas de conclure qu’ils expriment l’homosexualité au sens où nous l’entendons aujourd’hui. Un certain type de poésie représente, pour en faire l’apologie, des actes sodomitiques pratiqués indifféremment avec des partenaires masculins ou féminins. Leur but est la provocation morale et religieuse. Bénéficiant sans doute de la position sociale de leurs auteurs et de dispositifs de publication restreinte, ils incarnent l’esprit fort dans sa dimension transgressive. Dans un tout autre registre et dans un cadre élargi de publication, la poésie et la fiction peuvent valoriser les relations entre hommes comme un idéal de beauté et d’amour, en recourant à l’alibi de la philosophie de Platon et de la mythologie d’Ovide pour atténuer les représentations clairement sexuelles. Leurs auteurs parviennent néanmoins, par des moyens proprement poétiques et fictionnels, à donner expression au désir homosexuel. Celui-ci renforce alors la masculinité de l’esprit fort en l’associant à une fécondité intellectuelle et artistique capable de composer avec les normes de l’espace public.Some seventeenth-century libertine writers were accused of sodomy, most famously Theophile de Viau, who was condemned to be burned at the stake, for both atheism and sodomy. Some scholars of queer theory would like to present them primarily as victims of homophobia. But if we observe their works, we hardly find that they express homosexuality in its contemporary meaning and form. To adress this question of sexuality, we can distinguish two kinds of texts. Some of them

  4. L’esprit du droit : modèle russe contre modèle français Sense of law : Russian model versus French model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Kourilsky-Augeven

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Un stéréotype récurrent dans la littérature russe distingue entre un « esprit » ou « sens du droit » qui serait propre à la culture française et un « sens de la justice » qui serait propre à la culture russe. Cette distinction s’appliquerait au premier chef à une religion catholique qualifiée de juridique en ce qu’elle serait comptable des péchés et une religion orthodoxe davantage fondée sur l’amour. Mais le modèle traditionnel russe pris en compte par la littérature, l’histoire et l’anthropologie ne saurait être statique. Deux enquêtes menées auprès de populations d’adolescents et d’adultes en 1993 et 2000 montrent comment le modèle russe fondé sur la justice et la morale se juridicise et en arrive à rejoindre le modèle français sur plusieurs points.A recurring stereotype in Russian literature opposes a « sense of law » inherent to French culture to a « sense of justice » inherent to Russian culture.This distinction is first and foremost applied to a catholic religion qualified as legalistic due to a strict accounting of sins and an orthodox religion essentially based on love. But the traditional Russian model described by literature, history and anthropology is anything but static. Two research projects carried out among an adolescent and adult population sample in 1993 and 2000 show how a Russian model based on justice and morals is being judiciarized and is increasingly moving towards the French model on several accounts.

  5. A highly bioavailable omega-3 free fatty acid formulation improves the cardiovascular risk profile in high-risk, statin-treated patients with residual hypertriglyceridemia (the ESPRIT trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Orloff, David G; Nicholls, Stephen J; Dunbar, Richard L; Roth, Eli M; Curcio, Danielle; Johnson, Judith; Kling, Douglas; Davidson, Michael H

    2013-09-01

    A novel omega-3 formulation in free fatty acid form (OM3-FFA) has as much as 4-fold greater bioavailability than ethyl ester forms and reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding OM3-FFA (2 or 4 g/d) to statin therapy for lowering non-HDL-C and TG levels in subjects with persistent hypertriglyceridemia and at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this double-blind, parallel-group study, 647 diet-stable patients with fasting TG levels ≥ 200 mg/dL and <500 mg/dL (treated with a maximally tolerated dose of statin or statin with ezetimibe) and at high risk for cardiovascular disease were randomized to 6 weeks of treatment with capsules of control (olive oil [OO]) 4 g/d, OM3-FFA 2 g/d (plus 2 g/d OO), or OM3-FFA 4 g/d. Assessments included fasting serum levels of lipids and apolipoproteins (apo); plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid; and laboratory safety values and adverse events. In the 627 subjects in the intention to treat sample, non-HDL-C levels were reduced with OM3-FFA 2 g/d and OM3-FFA 4 g/d (-3.9% and -6.9%, respectively) compared with OO (-0.9%) (both, P < 0.05), as were TG levels (-14.6% and -20.6%, respectively, vs -5.9%; both, P < 0.001). LDL-C levels increased with OM3-FFA 2 g/d (4.6%) compared with OO (1.1%) (P = 0.025) but not with OM3-FFA 4 g/d (1.3%). Total cholesterol and VLDL-C concentrations were reduced compared with OO with both OM3-FFA dosages, and the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and apo AI and apo B levels were significantly lowered with OM3-FFA 4 g/d only (all at least P < 0.05). Percent changes from baseline in HDL-C did not differ between OO and either OM3-FFA group. Plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid were significantly increased and arachidonic acid was significantly reduced in both OM3-FFA treatment

  6. ISEM: Europe's ESPRIT support for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.

    1991-01-01

    The CEC-supported ISEM project to develop Information technology Support for Emergency Management was started in 1989. Two specific applications to demonstrate the ISEM system were selected; a NPP accident and a chemical plant emergency. An Emergency Management System provides user-friendly facilities for communication between the numerous local, regional and national organizations

  7. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  8. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family therapy Overview Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, ...

  9. Feminist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Toni; Malmo, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Traces roots of feminist therapy and its independence from traditional and prevalent theories and therapy practices. Asserts that Freudian theory and humanistic assumptions are sexist and contribute to powerlessness of women. In contrast, feminist therapy is seen as dealing directly with client-counselor relationships, trust, advocacy, and…

  10. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  11. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  12. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alfred R

    2006-01-01

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  13. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  14. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  15. Manual Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakgüder, Aral; Kokino, Siranuş

    2002-01-01

    Manual therapy has been used in the treatment of pain and dysfunction of spinal and peripheral joints for more than a hundred years. Manual medicine includes manipulation, mobilization, and postisometric relaxation techniques. The aim of manual therapy is to enhance restricted movement caused by blockage of joints keeping postural balance, restore function and maintain optimal body mechanics. Anatomic, biomechanical, and neurophysiological evaluations of the leucomotor system is essential for...

  16. Adaptive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Silva, Ariosto S; Gillies, Robert J; Frieden, B Roy

    2009-06-01

    A number of successful systemic therapies are available for treatment of disseminated cancers. However, tumor response is often transient, and therapy frequently fails due to emergence of resistant populations. The latter reflects the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment as well as the evolutionary capacity of cancer phenotypes to adapt to therapeutic perturbations. Although cancers are highly dynamic systems, cancer therapy is typically administered according to a fixed, linear protocol. Here we examine an adaptive therapeutic approach that evolves in response to the temporal and spatial variability of tumor microenvironment and cellular phenotype as well as therapy-induced perturbations. Initial mathematical models find that when resistant phenotypes arise in the untreated tumor, they are typically present in small numbers because they are less fit than the sensitive population. This reflects the "cost" of phenotypic resistance such as additional substrate and energy used to up-regulate xenobiotic metabolism, and therefore not available for proliferation, or the growth inhibitory nature of environments (i.e., ischemia or hypoxia) that confer resistance on phenotypically sensitive cells. Thus, in the Darwinian environment of a cancer, the fitter chemosensitive cells will ordinarily proliferate at the expense of the less fit chemoresistant cells. The models show that, if resistant populations are present before administration of therapy, treatments designed to kill maximum numbers of cancer cells remove this inhibitory effect and actually promote more rapid growth of the resistant populations. We present an alternative approach in which treatment is continuously modulated to achieve a fixed tumor population. The goal of adaptive therapy is to enforce a stable tumor burden by permitting a significant population of chemosensitive cells to survive so that they, in turn, suppress proliferation of the less fit but chemoresistant

  17. Drug Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ri-Hui; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    This chapter first summarizes the therapy of addiction disorder, and elaborates on the progress of medication. First, the difference between dependency and addiction are introduced. The basic principles of the therapy of substance and non-substance addiction are then put forward. It is also pointed out in this chapter that with the progress of the study, the goal of addiction disorder therapy is expected to transfer from reducing the relapse and harm of the addiction to completely eliminating and recovering from it. This chapter also introduces the progress of psychological addiction elimination technology, especially the "Unconditioned Stimulus Retrieval Extinction Paradigm and Conditioned Stimulus Retrieval Extinction Paradigm" and PITDH technology. Finally it is pointed out that in addiction disorder therapy, comprehensive intervention has become a trend. With regard to the medication for addiction disorders, this chapter also includes the progress and deficiencies of substance and non-substance addiction. In terms of addiction disorder rehabilitation, the foundation of substance addiction is medication which is, however, limited for non-substance addiction. The key to the rehabilitation of addiction disorder is psycho-behavioral therapy, which is especially effective in eliminating craving.

  18. Neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesler, Rudi

    1995-01-01

    Standard radiotherapy uses Xrays or electrons which have low LET (linear energy transfer); in contrast, particles such as neutrons with high LET have different radiobiological responses. In the late 1960s, clinical trials by Mary Catterall at the Hammersmith Hospital in London indicated that fast neutron radiation had clinical advantages for certain malignant tumours. Following these early clinical trials, several cyclotron facilities were built in the 1980s for fast neutron therapy, for example at the University of Washington, Seattle, and at UCLA. Most of these newer machines use extracted cyclotron proton beams in the range 42 to 66 MeV with beam intensities of 15 to 60 microamps. The proton beams are transported to dedicated therapy rooms, where neutrons are produced from beryllium targets. Second-generation clinical trials showed that accurate neutron beam delivery to the tumour site is more critical than for photon therapy. In order to achieve precise beam geometries, the extracted proton beams have to be transported through a gantry which can rotate around the patient and deliver beams from any angle; also the neutron beam outline (''field shape'') must be adjusted to extremely irregular shapes using a flexible collimation system. A therapy procedure has to be appropriately organized, with physicians, radiotherapists, nurses, medical physicists and other staff in attendance; other specialized equipment, such as CT or MRI scanners and radiation simulators must be made available. Neutron therapy is usually performed only in radiation oncology departments of major medical centres

  19. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  20. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  1. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  2. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, R.E; Fisher, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The new insights and controversies concerning the radiobiological properties of malignant melanoma and how these relate to new clinical approaches are reviewed. The recent clinical experience with large individual fraction sizes is analyzed. The treatment of malignant melanoma in certain specialized sites is also described. An attempt is made to place in perspective the usefulness of radiation therapy in the treatment of this complex disease. Finally, certain new applications for radiation therapy both alone and in combustion with other treatment modalities are proposed that may ultimately prove appropriate for clinical trials

  3. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Keiichi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Jinguu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    Of the cases of lung cancer in which radiation therapy was given between 1961 and November 1981, 399 cases for which histological type was confirmed, and irradiated as follows were reviewed. The cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma irradiated with more than 5,000 rad or more, those of undifferentiated carcinoma irradiated with 3,000 rad or more, and those irradiated pre- and post-operatively with 3,000 rad or more. The actual 5 year survival rate for stages I, II, III and IV were 29.6, 9.3, 7.5 and 1.9% respectively, and the survival rate tended to be better for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma at stages I, II and III, but not different at stage IV. There was no difference between large cell, small cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Irradiation with 200 rad every other day or 150 rad daily was better than that with 200 rad, and daily irradiation with 150 rad was used since 1976. The therapy of stage III small cell carcinoma at the age of up to 80 years was improved with the combination of anticancer agents, maintenance therapy and immunotherapy, but these combined therapies were not significantly effective for the cancers with other histological types or at other stages. Although there was no significant difference in statistics for resectable cases, clinically, the results were experienced to be better after resection, and surgery was done in combination as much as possible. (Kaihara, S.)

  4. Dance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  5. Shock therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Erin

    2016-02-03

    Therapies administered by mental health nurses, aimed at "curing" gay people of their sexual preference were still in common use in the UK in the 1960s and early 1970s. Some nurses tried to avoid participating in these practices, but many believed that they were helping their patients, as a new book reveals.

  6. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ideal radiotherapy deposits a large amount of energy in the tumour volume, and none in the surrounding healthy tissues. Proton therapy comes closer to this goal because of a greater concentration of dose, well defined proton ranges and points of energy release which are precisely known - the Bragg peak1. In the past, the development of clinical proton therapy has been hampered by complexity, size, and cost. To be clinically effective, energies of several hundred MeV are required; these were previously unavailable for hospital installations, and pioneering institutions had to work with complex, inadequate equipment originally intended for nuclear physics research. Recently a number of specialist organizations and commercial companies have been working on dedicated systems for proton therapy. One, IBA of Belgium, has equipment for inhouse hospital operation which encompasses a complete therapy centre, delivered as a turnkey package and incorporating a compact, automated, higher energy cyclotron with isocentric gantries. Their system will be installed at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. The proton therapy system comprises: - a 235 MeV isochronous cyclotron to deliver beams of up to 1.5 microamps, but with a hardware limitation to restrict the maximum possible dose; - variable energy beam (235 to 70 MeV ) with energy spread and emittance verification; - a beam transport and switching system to connect the exit of the energy selection system to the entrances of a number of gantries and fixed beamlines. Along the beam transport system, the beam characteristics are monitored with non-interceptive multiwire ionization chambers for automatic tuning; - gantries fitted with nozzles and beamline elements for beam control; both beam scattering and beam wobbling techniques are available for shaping the beam;

  7. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individual, couples, family, and group therapy formats. Art therapy is an effective treatment for people experiencing developmental, medical, educational, and social or psychological impairment. Individuals who benefit from art therapy include ...

  8. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation ... Inc. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 5 Physical and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria ...

  9. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  10. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  11. Radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.F. Jr.; Deliso, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ( 131 I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  12. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  13. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive......Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...

  14. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  15. Radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jr, J F; Deliso, H B

    1993-12-31

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ({sup 131}I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  16. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) ...

  17. [Gestalt therapy.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  18. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, J.L.; Glatstein, E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation oncologist encounters the critically ill immunosuppressed patient in four settings. First, the newly diagnosed cancer patient presents for initial evaluation and treatment, with immunosuppression from the cancer itself, malnutrition, concomitant infectious disease, prior drug or alcohol abuse or other medical problems. Second, the previously treated cancer patient presents with metastatic or recurrent primary cancer causing local symptoms. Immune dysfunction in this setting may be due to prior chemotherapy and/or radiation as well as any of the original factors. Third, the patient previously treated with radiation presents with a life-threatening problem possibly due to complications of prior therapy. In this setting, the radiation oncologist is asked to evaluate the clinical problem and to suggest whether radiation might be causing part or all of the problem and what can be done to treat these sequelae of radiation. Fourth, the patient with a benign diagnosis (not cancer) is seen with a problem potentially emeliorated by radiation (e.g., kidney transplant rejection, preparation for transplant, or intractable rheumatoid arthritis). This chapter reviews these four issues and presents clinical and radiobiologic principles on which recommendations for therapy are based

  19. Dystonia: Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Physical Therapy Physical therapy may be an important component of treating ... everyday tasks, Since dystonia is a neurological disorder, physical therapy does not treat the dystonia directly but ...

  20. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  1. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  2. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  3. [Physical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  4. 'Esprit de corps': Towards collaborative integration of pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    framework[4] and implementation plan.[5]. The role of ... Netcare model also confirmed that quality improvement science skills are critical in ... of process and outcome measures for the management of community- acquired ... This article proposes possible ways of engagement between the pharmacist, nurse and doctor. The.

  5. Update on antiplatelet agents, including MATCH, CHARISMA, and ESPRIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliut, Maryna; Jamieson, Dara G

    2008-02-01

    Despite recent advances in the acute treatment of stroke, prevention and risk factor modification remain the mainstays of management for patients with ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. The majority of noncardioembolic ischemic strokes are atherothrombotic, presumed to be associated with the activation and aggregation of platelets. Antiplatelet medications have been shown to be effective in the secondary prevention of stroke of presumed arterial origin, both as monotherapy and in combination. Among combination of antiplatelet agents, aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole has demonstrated statistically significant additive benefit over monotherapy with each agent. Clopidogrel plus aspirin does not prevent recurrent ischemic stroke over each component individually, and the combination increases the risk of hemorrhagic side effects. This article reviews the most recent studies on antiplatelet medications, including the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel or extended-release dipyridamole, and discusses some of the controversies that still exist with the use of antiplatelet agents.

  6. ESPRIT: Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crew exercise is important for maintaining the health and fitness of astronauts, and to prevent adverse health problems, such as bone density losses. We developed...

  7. Les sociologues ont-ils perdu l’esprit ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Cordonier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte est un « droit de réponse » par les auteurs de l’article « Vers un naturalisme social. À la croisée des sciences sociales et des sciences cognitives », publié par SociologieS en octobre 2011, au débat qu’il a suscité. Après une brève mise au point sur la forme même du débat, ainsi que sur les dissensions ponctuelles qui opposent les différents protagonistes, l’article répond aux inquiétudes parfaitement légitimes et aux questions de fond que soulève le naturalisme social.Have Sociologists Lost their Mind? Seeking Basic Structures of Social LifeThis article is a « right to reply » from the authors to the debate generated by the previous publication of their paper « Towards social naturalism. At the crossroads of social sciences and cognitive sciences », in October 2011 by SociologieS. After a brief clarification on the form of the debate, as well as on the punctual disagreements that oppose the various protagonists, this article addresses the perfectly legitimate concerns and substantive questions raised by social naturalism.¿Los sociólogos han perdido la mente? En búsqueda de las estructuras elementales de la vida socialEste texto es la respuesta al artículo « Hacia un naturalismo social. En el cruce entre las ciencias sociales y las ciencias cognitivas » publicado por SociologieS en el pasado mes de octubre así como un elemento mas en el debate que dicho artículo ha suscitado. Después de una breve puntualización con respecto a los aspectos formales del debate así como sobre las disensiones pormenorizadas que oponen a los diferentes autores entre ellos, el artículo aborda las inquietudes totalmente legítimas y los problemas de fondo que plantea el naturalismo social.

  8. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: • Acupressure and acupuncture • Aromatherapy • Art therapy and music therapy • Chiropractic medicine and massage • Guided imagery • Meditation and ... should I avoid? • Is this complementary therapy (name therapy) safe? Is there research showing it is safe? • Are there side effects ...

  9. Radiotechnologies and gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jinsong

    2001-01-01

    Gene therapy is an exciting frontier in medicine today. Radiologist will make an uniquely contribution to these exciting new technologies at every level by choosing sites for targeting therapy, perfecting and establishing routes of delivery, developing imaging strategies to monitor therapy and assess gene expression, developing radiotherapeutic used of gene therapy

  10. [Physical therapy for scars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanovic, Marguerite Guillot

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy consists notably of hand or mechanical massages, pressure therapy using various fabrics or splints, cryotherapy, laser therapy, etc. It forms part of the range of therapies used to treat pathological scars, including medical and surgical treatment. While the results are often satisfactory for hypertrophic scars, they remain uncertain for major keloids.

  11. Music therapy in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šírová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  12. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  13. Adlerian Marriage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jon; Dinkmeyer, Don, Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the assumptions, processes, and techniques used in Alderian marriage therapy. Describes purpose of therapy as assessing current beliefs and behaviors while educating the couple in new procedures that can help the couple establish new goals. (Author/ABL)

  14. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  15. Complementary Pancreatitis Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medication, and improve quality of life.1,2 Massage Therapy Massage therapy involves touch and different techniques of stroking ... of the body or be a full-body massage. Massage can be performed through one’s clothing or ...

  16. [Play therapy in hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Katharina; Grothues, Dirk; Leitzmann, Michael; Gruber, Hans; Melter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The following article presents an overview of current research studies on play therapy in the hospital. It highlights individual diagnoses for which play therapy has shown reasonable success. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of the scientific debate on play therapy for sick children in order to allow conclusions regarding the indications for which play therapy is or might be useful.

  17. Tumor therapy and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joss, R.; Brunner, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    Many successfully treated tumour patients are children and juveniles. This raises questions as to the effects of tumour therapy on reproductiveness and offspring. The possible extent of damage to the male and female gonads caused by surgical, chemical, and radiological tumour therapy is investigated. Also, the problem of tumour therapy or women developing neoplasms during pregnancy. Pregnancies after successful tumour therapy are quite frequent today. Experience so far suggests that the rate of congenital deformities is not significantly increased. (orig.) [de

  18. Combined tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrba, H.

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive survey of current methods and achievements first takes a look at the two basic therapies, devoting a chapter each to the surgery and radiotherapy of tumors. The principal subjects of the book, however, are the systemic, adjuvant therapy, biological therapies, hyperthermia and various other therapies (as e.g. treatment with ozone, oxygen, or homeopathic means), and psychotherapy. (MG) With 54 figs., 86 tabs [de

  19. Play Therapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  20. Evaluation of Inter Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This article (revised conference lecture from the 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, Oxford July 2002)) emphasizes the evaluation of the training of Inter Therapy for music therapy students at the MA training at Aalborg University. The students take turns in being client and therapist within...

  1. Music Therapy for Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    SLUNEČKOVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of music therapy in the lives of seniors. The target of this thesis is to map the possibilities of using music therapy ways with seniors and to recommend a suitable music therapy resources on the basis of the research and evaluation of obtained dates. The theoretical part describes the term "the music therapy", e.g. concept, definition, types and forms, the development of music therapy, the history, methods and techniques. This age group is defined in t...

  2. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Music therapy and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is a predominantly non-verbal psychotherapy based on music improvisation, embedded in a therapeutic relationship. This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression. We reviewed the literature on recent research into music therapy and depression, reporting on the methods used and the results achieved, and we assessed the current position of music therapy for depression in the context of evidence-based scientific research. A wide variety of research methods was used to investigate the effects of using music therapy as a psychotherapy. Most studies focused usually on the added value that music therapy brings to the standard form of psychiatric treatment, when administered with or without psychopharmacological support. Music therapy produced particularly significant and favourable results when used to treat patients with depression. Current research into music therapy and depression points to a significant and persistent reduction in patients' symptoms and to improvements in their quality of life. However, further research is needed with regard to the best methods of illustrating the effects of music therapy.

  4. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  5. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  6. 75 FR 50880 - TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... 0720-AB36 TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech... referrals of beneficiaries to the Military Health System for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and... practitioners will be allowed to issue referrals to patients for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...

  7. [Therapy of intermediate uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doycheva, D; Deuter, C; Zierhut, M

    2014-12-01

    Intermediate uveitis is a form of intraocular inflammation in which the vitreous body is the major site of inflammation. Intermediate uveitis is primarily treated medicinally and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. When recurrence of uveitis or side effects occur during corticosteroid therapy an immunosuppressive treatment is required. Cyclosporine A is the only immunosuppressive agent that is approved for therapy of uveitis in Germany; however, other immunosuppressive drugs have also been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in patients with intermediate uveitis. In severe therapy-refractory cases when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed, biologics can be used. In patients with unilateral uveitis or when the systemic therapy is contraindicated because of side effects, an intravitreal steroid treatment can be carried out. In certain cases a vitrectomy may be used.

  8. Fertility and cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    With increased survival of increasing numbers of cancer patients as a result of therapy, the consequences, early and late, of the therapies must be realized. It is the treating physician's duty to preserve as much reproductive potential as possible for patients, consistent with adequate care. With radiotherapy this means shielding the gonads as much as possible, optimal but not excessive doses and fields, oophoropexy, or sperm collection and storage prior to irradiation. With chemotherapy it means the shortest exposure to drugs consistent with best treatment and prior to therapy the collection and storage of sperm where facilities are available. At present this is still an experimental procedure. Artificial insemination for a couple when the male has received cancer therapy is another alternative. Finally, it is the responsibility of physicians caring for patients with neoplasms to be knowledgeable about these and all other effects of therapy so that patients may be counseled appropriately and understand the implications of therapy for their life

  9. Genetically Guided Statin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    number of new statin prescriptions, and (4) patient reported quality of life, physical activity, perceptions regarding statin therapy , and pain as...outcomes known to be prevented by statin therapy , we examined hospitalizations for three diagnoses: acute myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and...cholesterol. However, the ultimate goal of statin therapy is to decrease incidence of CAD, acute myocardial infarction and perhaps stroke. However, there is a

  10. Nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eary, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    One in three of the 30 million Americans who are hospitalized are diagnosed or treated with nuclear medicine techniques. This text provides a succinct overview and detailed set of procedures and considerations for patient therapy with unsealed radioactivity sources.  Serving as a complete literature reference for therapy with radiopharmaceuticals currently utilized in practice, this source covers the role of the physician in radionuclide therapy, and essential procedures and protocols required by health care personnel.

  11. American Physical Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do APTA represents more than 100,000 members: physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and students of physical therapy. Other Popular Resources: - Member Directory - Annual Reports ...

  12. Is Bicarbonate Therapy Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kate

    2017-03-01

    Despite concerns about the negative effects of metabolic acidosis, there is minimal evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration is an effective treatment. In addition, sodium bicarbonate therapy is associated with many adverse effects, including paradoxic intracellular acidosis, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypernatremia, and hyperosmolality. Definitive recommendations regarding bicarbonate therapy are challenging as there is little high-quality evidence available. In most clinical scenarios of metabolic acidosis, treatment efforts should focus on resolution of the underlying cause, and sodium bicarbonate therapy should be used with caution, if at all. An exception to this is kidney disease, wherein sodium bicarbonate therapy may have a valuable role. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Nanomedicine and cancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Mathew; Ninan, Neethu

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the power to radically change the way cancer is diagnosed, imaged, and treated. The holistic approach to cancer involves noninvasive procedures that emphasize restoring the health of human energy fields. Presenting a wealth of information and research about the most potent cancer healing therapies, this forward-thinking book explores how nanomedicine, holistic medicine, and other cancer therapies play important roles in treatment of this disease. Topics include nanobiotechnology for antibacterial therapy and diagnosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and cancer, antioxidants and combinatorial therapies, and optical and mechanical investigations of nanostructures for biomolecular detection.

  14. Medical Art Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgul Aydin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical procedures such as surgery or chemotherapy and is considered as a form of complementary or integrative medicine. Several studies have shown that patients with physical illness benefit from medical art therapy in different aspects. Unlike other therapies, art therapy can take the patients away from their illness for a while by means of creative activities during sessions, can make them forget the illness or lost abilities. Art therapy leads to re-experiencing normality and personal power even with short creative activity sessions. In this article definition, influence and necessity of medical art therapy are briefly reviewed.

  15. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to treat patients at an early stage of disease to reduce disease progression; moreover it is necessary to identify causes of therapy inefficacy in preventing joint damage in the axial subset.

  16. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  17. Therapy with radionuclides. Radionuklid-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1992-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.).

  18. Gene therapy and radionuclides targeting therapy in mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    Breast carcinoma's gene therapy is a hotspot in study of the tumor's therapy in the recent years. Currently the major therapy methods that in the experimentative and primary clinical application phases include immunological gene therapy, multidrug resistance gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotide therapy and suicide gene therapy. The gene targeting brachytherapy, which is combined with gene therapy and radiotherapy has enhanced the killer effects of the suicide gene and nuclide in tumor cells. That has break a new path in tumor's gene therapy. The further study in this field will step up it's space to the clinical application

  19. History of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antiproton Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    An essential part in cancer radiotherapy, is to direct a sufficiently high dose towards the tumour, without damaging the surrounding tissue. Different techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy have been developed, in order to reduce the dose to the normal tissue...

  1. Play Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry; Bratton, Sue

    Play therapy is based on developmental principles and, thus, provides, through play, developmentally appropriate means of expression and communication for children. Therefore, skill in using play therapy is an essential tool for mental health professionals who work with children. Therapeutic play allows children the opportunity to express…

  2. Therapy of Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  3. Therapy in Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costonis, Maureen Needham, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of articles on the subject of movement therapy. It can be used as a set of supplementary readings for an academic course in dance therapy or a psychiatric residency program. It includes an exhaustive bibliography on this field for students and practioners in this field. Four principal themes have been selected as a…

  4. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  5. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanney, Bryan L.

    1986-01-01

    When the effectiveness and mortality-morbidity of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are compared with those of drug therapies, it appears that ECT is an effective and preferred treatment strategy. It remains underutilized as a modality of suicide prevention. Addresses controversies that presently limit the use of this treatment. (Author/ABB)

  6. Massage Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  7. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  8. Boganmeldelse - Music Therapy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    . Alligevel følger her en anbefaling af bogen: for musikterapeuter er det en bog, man ikke kommer uden om. Music Therapy Research, på dansk Musikterapiforskning, er en gennemrevideret, ja faktisk nyudgivelse, af bogen Music Therapy Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, som udkom i 1995. Også...

  9. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  10. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. Photodynamic therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90(12):889–905. [PubMed Abstract] Gudgin Dickson EF, Goyan RL, Pottier RH. New directions in photodynamic therapy. Cellular and Molecular Biology 2002; 48(8):939–954. [PubMed Abstract] Capella ...

  11. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  12. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  13. Experiential Learning and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Elaine

    This paper describes the experiential therapy program at the Bowling Green Adolescent Center (New Jersey). This model supports the view that the therapeutic process of addiction treatment is accelerated and enhanced by providing the patients with experiential interventions. Experiential therapy includes goal setting, hands-on participation,…

  14. Activity Therapy: An Alternative Therapy for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…

  15. Animal-Assisted Therapy and Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Gena; Stella, Tiffany; Wilkison, Megan; Szczech Moser, Christy; Hoelzel, Allison; Hendricks, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The use of animals for therapeutic purposes has been documented in the literature for centuries. This review will highlight evidence of the benefits of animal-assisted therapy as well as provide a plethora of resources for therapists interested in learning more about how animals can provide restorative benefits for their clients.

  16. Tumor targeted gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms governing malignant transformation brings new opportunities for therapeutic intervention against cancer using novel approaches. One of them is gene therapy based on the transfer of genetic material to an organism with the aim of correcting a disease. The application of gene therapy to the cancer treatment had led to the development of new experimental approaches such as suicidal gene therapy, inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. Suicidal gene therapy is based on the expression in tumor cells of a gene encoding an enzyme that converts a prodrug into a toxic product. Representative suicidal genes are Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and cytosine deaminase (CD). Especially, physicians and scientists of nuclear medicine field take an interest in suicidal gene therapy because they can monitor the location and magnitude, and duration of expression of HSV1-tk and CD by PET scanner

  17. Medical therapy in acromegaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and increased circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations. The disease is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality, but these effects can be reduced if GH levels are decreased to <2.5 μg\\/l and IGF-1 levels are normalized. Therapy for acromegaly is targeted at decreasing GH and IGF-1 levels, ameliorating patients\\' symptoms and decreasing any local compressive effects of the pituitary adenoma. The therapeutic options for acromegaly include surgery, radiotherapy and medical therapies, such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor ligands and the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant. Medical therapy is currently most widely used as secondary treatment for persistent or recurrent acromegaly following noncurative surgery, although it is increasingly used as primary therapy. This Review provides an overview of current and future pharmacological therapies for patients with acromegaly.

  18. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time, penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents.

  19. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  20. Accelerators for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-01-01

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy

  1. Music therapy in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review......, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement...... in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings...

  2. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  3. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Nagpal, Ritu; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bahuguna, Chirag; Kumar, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time), penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents. PMID:29018759

  4. [Therapy-resistant and therapy-refractory arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbach, M; Koziolek, M J

    2018-05-02

    Therapy-resistant and therapy-refractory arterial hypertension differ in prevalence, pathogenesis, prognosis and therapy. In both cases, a structured approach is required, with the exclusion of pseudoresistance and, subsequently, secondary hypertension. Resistant hypertension has been reported to be more responsive to intensified diuretic therapy, whereas refractory hypertension is presumed to require sympathoinhibitory therapy. Once the general measures and the drug-based step-up therapy have been exhausted, interventional procedures are available.

  5. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellmann, N; Deckert, P M; Bachran, D; Fuchs, H; Bachran, C

    2010-09-01

    The cure of cancer is still a formidable challenge in medical science. Long-known modalities including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are successful in a number of cases; however, invasive, metastasized and inaccessible tumors still pose an unresolved and ongoing problem. Targeted therapies designed to locate, detect and specifically kill tumor cells have been developed in the past three decades as an alternative to treat troublesome cancers. Most of these therapies are either based on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs or tumor site-specific activation of prodrugs. The latter is a two-step procedure. In the first step, a selected enzyme is accumulated in the tumor by guiding the enzyme or its gene to the neoplastic cells. In the second step, a harmless prodrug is applied and specifically converted by this enzyme into a cytotoxic drug only at the tumor site. A number of targeting systems, enzymes and prodrugs were investigated and improved since the concept was first envisioned in 1974. This review presents a concise overview on the history and latest developments in targeted therapies for cancer treatment. We cover the relevant technologies such as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) as well as related therapies such as clostridial- (CDEPT) and polymer-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PDEPT) with emphasis on prodrug-converting enzymes, prodrugs and drugs.

  6. Massage therapy research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical Therapy of Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Plöckinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the present status of medical therapy of acromegaly. Indications for permanent postoperative treatment, postirradiation treamtent to bridge the interval until remission as well as primary medical therapy are elaborated. Therapeutic efficacy of the different available drugs—somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs, dopamine agonists, and the GH antagonist Pegvisomant—is discussed, as are the indications for and efficacy of their respective combinations. Information on their mechanism of action, and some pharmakokinetic data are included. Special emphasis is given to the difficulties to define remission criteria of acromegaly due to technical assay problems. An algorithm for medical therapy in acromegaly is provided.

  8. Collaboration in experiential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdondini, Lucia; Elliott, Robert; Shearer, Joan

    2012-02-01

    We offer a view of the nature and role of client-therapist collaboration in experiential psychotherapy, focusing on Gestalt and emotion-focused therapy (EFT). We distinguish between the necessary condition of mutual trust (the emotional bond between client and therapist) and effective collaboration (regarding the goals and tasks of therapy). Using a case study of experiential therapy for social anxiety, we illustrate how the development of collaboration can be both complex and pivotal for therapeutic success, and how it can involve client and therapist encountering one another through taking risks by openly and nonjudgementally disclosing difficult experiences in order to enrich and advance the work. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Feminist music therapy pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahna, Nicole; Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed 188 music therapy educators regarding their views and use of feminist pedagogy and feminist music therapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to determine how many music therapy educators used feminist pedagogy and (b) to determine if there was a relationship between......) participatory learning, (b) validation of personal experience/development of confidence, (c) political/social activism, and (d) critical thinking/ open-mindedness. The results revealed that 46% (n = 32) of participants identified as feminist music therapists and 67% (n = 46) of participants identified as using...

  10. Complications of cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.S.; Parker, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review systematically the toxicity of contemporary chemotherapy and irradiation on normal tissues of growing children. Whenever possible, the separate toxicity of chemotherapy, irradiation, and combination therapy is addressed. However, it is not always possible to quantitate specifically such reactions in the face of multiple drug therapy, which may enhance radiation injury or reactivate prior radiation injury. Prior detailed reviews have provided important sources of information concerning radiation injury for this more general discussion. The information provided will assist both the clinician and the radiologist in the recognition of early and late complications of therapy in pediatric oncology

  11. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be considered carefully, balancing the advantages against the disadvantages as they relate to the individual man's age, ... therapy with photon or x-rays: Uses advanced technology to tailor the x-ray or photon radiation ...

  12. Music therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes Cf; Vink, Annemiek C; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-11-16

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. 1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies.2. To compare effects of different forms of music therapy for people of any age with a diagnosis of depression. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR; from inception to 6 May 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to 17 June 2016); Thomson Reuters/Web of Science (to 21 June 2016); Ebsco/PsycInfo, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, and PubMed (to 5 July 2016); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Guideline Clearing House, and OpenGrey (to 6 September 2016); and the Digital Access to Research Theses (DART)-Europe E-theses Portal, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (to 7 September 2016). We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant systematic reviews and contacted trialists and subject experts for additional information when needed. We updated this search in August 2017 and placed potentially relevant studies in the "Awaiting classification" section; we will incorporate these into the next version of this review as appropriate. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing music therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU), psychological therapies, pharmacological therapies, other therapies, or different forms of music therapy for reducing depression. Two review

  13. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  14. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  15. Interactional Gestalt Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warehime, Robert G.

    1981-01-01

    Group gestalt therapy in which the leader facilitates the development of helping capacity in group members is described. The general characteristics of this approach are discussed and ground rules concerning leader and member behaviors are suggested. (RC)

  16. Drug therapy smartens up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  17. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  18. Therapies for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... care. Clinician Awards Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: ...

  19. Therapy and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... system of rewards and reinforcement of positive behavior. Psychoanalysis. This type of treatment encourages you to think ... work, marriage and family therapy, rehabilitation counseling, and psychoanalysis. Your family doctor can help you choose the ...

  20. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a newly emerging modal- ... Porphyrins are a ubiquitous class of naturally occurring heterocyclic ..... mechanism leading to tumor necrosis. ... The vascular endothelium may be the main target of tumor.

  1. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Colorectal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain ...

  2. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

  3. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-20

    May 20, 2003 ... behaviour therapy approach, and a brief example of its use in depression. Cognitive .... dream, or recollection, leading to unpleasant emotion. DATE. SITUATION. EMOTION ... Write rational response to automatic thought(s). 2.

  4. Consumer Health: Alternative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as massage. These systems center on a philosophy, such as the power of nature or the ... medicine values therapies that have been demonstrated through research and testing to be safe and effective. While ...

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.

  6. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  7. Journal of Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each published articleFree access to published articles for all readers without any access barriers or subscriptionThe views and opinions expressed in articles are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Journal of Proton Therapy.Authors are encouraged to submit articles for publication in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Proton Therapy by online or email to editor@protonjournal.comOfficial Website of Journal of Proton Therapy: http://www.protonjournal.org/

  8. Humanistic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25278809

  9. Food therapy and medical diet therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Qunli Wu; Xiaochun Liang

    2018-01-01

    Food therapy of traditional Chinese medicine aims to maintain balanced nutrition through diet. Medical diet therapy, however, is to achieve the balance of Yin and Yang through the combination of nutrition and medicine. Either “food therapy” or “medical diet therapy” aims to keep health, prevent disease, remove illness and slow aging. In recent years, both food therapy and medical diet therapy have been increasingly applied in clinical nutrition therapy. In terms of traditional Chinese food th...

  10. Complementary therapies in social psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Dürr, Dorte Wiwe

    three residential homes (n= 51 / 91 respondents - response rate 56 %) shows that the most common used complementary therapy is music therapy 43%, and only 10% of residents do not use these therapies at all. Overall, 43% of residents strongly agree, that these therapies strengthens their recovery process...

  11. Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, Arlene

    2003-01-01

    The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.

  12. and in anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Toma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cancer and anticancer therapy are increasingly mentioned topics. Groups of researchers keep looking for a tool that will specifically and efficiently eliminate abnormal cells without any harm for the normal ones. Such method entails the reduction of therapy’s side effects, thus also improving patient’s recovery. Discovery of synthetic lethality has become a new hope to create effective, personalized therapy of cancer. Researchers noted that pairs of simultaneously mutated genes can lead to cell death, whereas each gene from that pair mutated individually does not result in cell lethality. Cancer cells accumulate numerous changes in their genetic material. By defining the pairs of genes interacting in cell pathways we are able to identify a potential anticancer therapy. It is believed that such a process has evolved to create cell resistance for a single gene mutation. Proper functioning of a pathway is not dependent on a single gene. Such a solution, however, also led to the evolution of multifactorial diseases such as cancer. Research techniques using iRNA, shRNA or small molecule libraries allow us to find genes that are connected in synthetic lethality interactions. Synthetic lethality may be applied not only as an anticancer therapy but also as a tool for identifying the functions of recently recognized genes. In addition, studying synthetic lethality broadens our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing cancer cells, which should be helpful in designing highly effective personalized cancer therapies.

  13. Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma requires a qualified clinical, radiological, and pathohistological diagnosis and, in particular, an optimal therapy by an experienced team of oncological specialists. Important prognostic factors are the presence of hematogenous metastases at diagnosis, the initial tumor volume, the response to chemotherapy, and adequate local therapy. Presently, cure rates of more than 60% can be achieved for localized Ewing's sarcoma by combination of local therapy and chemotherapy. The four-drug combination VACA (vincristin, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin) can be considered as cytostatic gold standard. More aggressive regimens (VAIA, EVAIA, autologous bone marrow transplant) may be beneficial in subgroups and are under investigation. Concerning local therapy adequate radiotherapy plays a major role and achieves the same survival rates as radical surgery, comparable patient selection provided. Several factors have impact on radiotherapeutic results, especially total dose (45 Gy large volume, 55 Gy to the primary tumor), target volume (safety margin at least 2 cm according to the pretreatment volume, at least 5 cm in proximal and distal extension of long bones), timing of radiotherapy (as early as possible) and quality of treatment. Radiotherapy as sole local treatment is indicated in inoperable lesions (spine, sacrum, skull) and in small, good-responding tumors. High-risk patients should receive combined radiotherapeutic-surgical treatment, preferably as pre-operative irradiation. The value of hyperfractionation is not yet proven despite theoretical advantages. (orig.) [de

  14. Therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildmeister, W.

    1982-01-01

    The etiology of hyperthyroidism is still largely unknown and therefore no causal therapy of this condition is possible. Antithyroid drug treatment is usually carried out with thiocarbamides. When an euthyroid state is achieved synthetic thyroid hormones are added. Pregnancy and iodine contamination (after exposure to contrast medium) require individual treatment. In this paper the advantages, indications and contraindications are discussed as well as supportive drug therapy necessary in specific cases. Radioiodine therapy is reserved for patients over 35 years of age; the individual dose is calculated according to the size of the thyroid gland and the iodine uptake. Disadvantageous is the late onset of therapeutic efficiency, the small effect on the size of goitre and the exposure to radiation. A patient should be operated upon in an euthyroid state, i.e. after preoperative drug therapy. Operations are normally performed on individuals with a coexistent goitre or where antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy are contraindicated. Paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and hypoparathyroidism are rare complications. 3 to 4 g of thyroid tissues should remain. Of great importance in all cases are precise diagnostics both before and after commencing treatment and adequate follow up. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Cell Therapy in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrof, Gabriela; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; McGrath, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the regenerative capacity of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from human skin has created new opportunities to develop cell-based therapies for patients. Cultured cells and bioengineered skin products are being used to treat patients with inherited and acquired skin disorders associated with defective skin, and further clinical trials of new products are in progress. The capacity of extracutaneous sources of cells such as bone marrow is also being investigated for its plasticity in regenerating skin, and new strategies, such as the derivation of inducible pluripotent stem cells, also hold great promise for future cell therapies in dermatology. This article reviews some of the preclinical and clinical studies and future directions relating to cell therapy in dermatology, particularly for inherited skin diseases associated with fragile skin and poor wound healing. PMID:24890834

  16. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  17. Therapy with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.) [de

  18. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  19. Antiphospholipid Syndrome Novel Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Bittar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is an autoimmune disease characterised by arterial and/or venous thrombosis, recurrent pregnancy loss, and persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs. It could be life-threatening as in the case of catastrophic APS where multi-organ failure is observed. APS morbidities are thought to be the result of a combination of thrombotic and inflammatory processes. Over the past decades, the mainstay of therapy of APS has been anticoagulation. As new mechanisms of pathogenesis are being unravelled with time, novel targeted immunomodulatory therapies are being proposed as promising agents in the treatment of APS. In this article, we present an overview of new pathogenetic mechanisms in APS as well as novel antithrombotic and immunomodulatory therapies.

  20. PUVA combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, W L

    1985-08-01

    Various adjunctive treatments are now frequently used in combination with PUVA therapy with the aims of limiting adverse effects, improving efficacy and decreasing the cost of treatment. In the management of psoriasis, PUVA plus retinoids, PUVA plus methotrexate and PUVA plus UVB phototherapy are the most frequently used combinations. PUVA plus topical corticosteroids and PUVA plus anthralin are also efficacious but adverse effects and poor acceptance by patients are limiting factors. Combinations of PUVA plus nitrogen mustard and ionizing radiation are used in mycosis fungoides to treat tumors and residual disease in secluded sites. In the management of photodermatoses with PUVA therapy, prednisone is often required to prevent exacerbation of disease. A combination of prednisone and PUVA therapy can also be useful in lichen planus and atopic eczema. The selection of a suitable combination treatment, will depend upon the preferences of the clinician, the disease being treated, and the characteristics of the patient.

  1. Music Therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Professional development and recognition is an 'old' issue in music therapy but still a relevant, complex and crucial one. Burning questions regarding professionalisation are at the forefront of most music therapy associations’ agendas across Europe and beyond, and feed back directly to the work...... of the EMTC. Considering the wider political, socio-economic, cultural and disciplinary aspects of professionalisation, different development pathways impact directly on music therapy practice, training, ethics, professional collaboration and employment conditions. Although a number of endeavours have been...... implemented regarding music therapy’s professional development and recognition in different countries, documentation and sharing of such endeavours on international level has been limited and scattered. Drawing from the EMTC’s work since the early ‘90s, as well as from colleagues’ experiences (and struggles...

  2. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  3. Anticholinerge Therapie der OAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampel C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenntnisse über Differentialdiagnostik und Pathophysiologie des Blasenüberaktivitäts-Syndroms sind essentiell für eine erfolgreiche Therapie. Obwohl Verhaltenstraining und Elektrostimulation ihre Wirksamkeit bei OAB bewiesen haben, ist die Therapie der ersten Wahl nach wie vor die anticholinerge Behandlung. Dessen ungeachtet ist die Einnahmetreue der Patienten unbefriedigend, was in der letzten Zeit zu verschiedenen Medikamentenneuentwicklungen mit verbesserter Verträglichkeit bei gleichbleibend hoher Effektivität geführt hat. Retard-Formulierungen, extraenterale Applikationswege und Rezeptor-Subselektivität sind hierbei die Prinzipien, welche die Behandlungsakzeptanz und Patientenzufriedenheit steigern sollen.

  4. Drug therapy in headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Mark W

    2015-06-01

    All physicians will encounter patients with headaches. Primary headache disorders are common, and often disabling. This paper reviews the principles of drug therapy in headache in adults, focusing on the three commonest disorders presenting in both primary and secondary care: tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache. The clinical evidence on the basis of which choices can be made between the currently available drug therapies for acute and preventive treatment of these disorders is presented, and information given on the options available for the emergency parenteral treatment of refractory migraine attacks and cluster headache. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  5. Isotope therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Junji; Kasagi, Kanji; Iida, Yasuhiro; Torizuka, Kanji; Mori, Toru.

    1979-01-01

    131 I was first used to treat Basedow's disease approximately thirty years ago. Today, 131 I therapy widely used because it is effective and easy to apply. No notable side effects have been observed until now. The only demerit is a high incidence of hypothyroidism which occurs many years after therapy. The onset of hypothyroidism can be delayed by reducing the dose but can not be prevented. Therefore, patients should understand fully the possibility of the onset of hypothyroidism in the future. To obtain favorable results, patients with Basedow's disease should be given an ordinary dose of 131 I and should be followed up. (Nisio, M.)

  6. Antiretroviral therapy: current drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Alice K; George, Jomy M

    2014-09-01

    The rapid advances in drug discovery and the development of antiretroviral therapy is unprecedented in the history of modern medicine. The administration of chronic combination antiretroviral therapy targeting different stages of the human immunodeficiency virus' replicative life cycle allows for durable and maximal suppression of plasma viremia. This suppression has resulted in dramatic improvement of patient survival. This article reviews the history of antiretroviral drug development and discusses the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and toxicities of the antiretroviral agents most commonly used in clinical practice to date. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Cerebrospinal tomo-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, I.; Coche-Dequeant, B.; Lacornerie, T.; Reynaert, N.; Lartigau, E.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the study of the feasibility of a cerebrospinal tomo-therapy, of the protection of organs at risk, and of tolerance. Nine patients have been treated, one with a bi-fractionated irradiation and the others with a conventional fractionation. Seven had chemotherapy before radiotherapy, and two had intensification with self-grafting of stem cells. The dose constraints and the planning target volume (PTV) differed with respect to the treated organ (kidney, lung, thyroid, parotid, hypophysis). The tolerance was good. It appears that cerebrospinal tomo-therapy results in a better comfort for the patient and an easier treatment plan with a good dose homogeneity. Short communication

  8. Spa therapy in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spa therapy constitutes the use of mineral springs and thermal mud to soothe and heal various ailments. Like the mineral springs, seas and oceans are also important centers for spa therapy of which the most important is Dead Sea (DS. DS has been famous for thousands of years for its miraculous curative and cosmetic properties. Intensive research is going on using DS minerals in a wide range of dermatological conditions especially psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and other eczemas and several papers have been published in various international and pharmacological journals.

  9. Neutron irradiation therapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Conventional neutron irradiation therapy machines, based on the use of cyclotrons for producing neutron beams, use a superconducting magnet for the cyclotron's magnetic field. This necessitates complex liquid He equipment and presents problems in general hospital use. If conventional magnets are used, the weight of the magnet poles considerably complicates the design of the rotating gantry. Such a therapy machine, gantry and target facilities are described in detail. The use of protons and deuterons to produce the neutron beams is compared and contrasted. (U.K.)

  10. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. The ethics of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sarah; Harris, John

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments have progressed in areas of science that pertain to gene therapy and its ethical implications. This review discusses the current state of therapeutic gene technologies, including stem cell therapies and genetic modification, and identifies ethical issues of concern in relation to the science of gene therapy and its application, including the ethics of embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning, the risks associated with gene therapy, and the ethics of clinical research in developing new therapeutic technologies. Additionally, ethical issues relating to genetic modification itself are considered: the significance of the human genome, the distinction between therapy and enhancement, and concerns regarding gene therapy as a eugenic practice.

  12. Room for iodo therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.L.A.; Derivi, A.; Bacelar, A.; Ramos, F.R.; Dias, T.M.; Baptista, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    A description of rules to assemble, to install and to maintain a room for iodo therapy is presented. The necessities of the patients and procedures to meet the norms of radiologic protection established by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) are highlighted

  13. Gene therapy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Indu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy "the use of genes as medicine" involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working copy of a gene into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. The technique may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. The objective of gene therapy is to introduce new genetic material into target cells while causing no damage to the surrounding healthy cells and tissues, hence the treatment related morbidity is decreased. The delivery system includes a vector that delivers a therapeutic gene into the patient′s target cell. Functional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal stage. The vectors used in gene therapy can be viral and non-viral. Gene therapy, an emerging field of biomedicine, is still at infancy and much research remains to be done before this approach to the treatment of condition will realize its full potential.

  14. Salk therapy begins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A clinical trial to test an immune therapy developed by polio pioneer Jonas Salk has begun enrollment of 3,000 participants, who will receive Remune shots every 12 weeks for 3 years to see if disease progression is slowed. The manufacturer is Immune Response, and the study is being conducted by the University of California at San Francisco.

  15. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S

    2010-09-01

    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  16. Drama Therapies in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Judith; Prosperi, Mario

    1976-01-01

    Explores the use of drama as a therapeutic tool at various hospitals and records specific therapy groups dialogues. Available from: The Drama Review, 51 West 4th Street, Room 300, New York, N.Y. 10012. Subscription Rates: $12.50 per year. (MH)

  17. Dimensions of Feminist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecek, Jeanne

    This paper reviews the current status of psychotherapy for women from a feminist perspective. It examines the sexist prejudices and biases of traditional psychotherapies and psychological approaches; notes the manners in which therapy has often tended to reinforce the traditional sex role stereotyping and the women's consequent negative self…

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  19. Music therapy for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E.; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes C.F.; Vink, Annemiek C.; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, C.R.; Maisey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Several factors influencing the choice of radiopharmaceutical used in the treatment of benign and malignant disease are discussed. A brief review is given of the routine clinical uses of radiopharmaceuticals including treatments for hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, polycythaemia rubra vera and intracavitary therapy. Finally clinical situations using radionuclides under evaluation including the treatment of bone disease, adrenal tumours and monoclonal antibodies are discussed. (UK)

  1. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

  2. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause pain. Radiation given to shrink a tumor near the esophagus , which can interfere with a patient’s ability to eat and drink. How is radiation therapy planned for an individual ... show the location of a patient’s tumor and the normal areas around it. These scans ...

  3. [The Bioptron light therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediulescu, Lucretia

    2004-01-01

    The Bioptron light therapy system acts naturally, upholding the capacity of regeneration of the body. Since the discovery of the therapeutical effects of the Bioptron light, over 20 years ago, its use as treatment has been developed for a large variety of diseases, among which also the eye-diseases (simplex and zoster herpes, conjunctivitis).

  4. Tumor therapy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, H.; Kaser-Hotz, B.; Parvis, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this program is to acquire data in order to evaluate the advantages of the proton spot scan technique compared to other forefront radiotherapy procedures, and to integrate the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of the life science department for human cancer therapy by testing it in veterinary radio-oncology. (author) 1 fig., 2 tab., 2 refs

  5. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  6. Physical therapy and manual physical therapy: Differences in patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M.; Pool, J.J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  7. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G. M.; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  8. Therapy in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Sadeghi, R.; Takavar, A.; Fard, A.; Saghari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Although there have been very significant development in the field of radionuclide therapy within the past 10 years, radionuclide therapy in the form of 131 I, 33 P,.... have been in use for over 46 years. Palliation of bone pain is a good example for radionuclide therapy. It has an especial role in advanced metastatic cancer. 32 P, 89 Sr-Cl, 186 Re-HEDP, 133 Sm-EDTMP, and 117 mSn-DTPA are used in these patients. They are usually effective and help to maintain a painless life for patients with advanced cancer. Although this kind of therapy is not as rapid as radiotherapy, its effect lasts longer. In addition re-treatment with these agents is safe and effective. Radioimmunotherapy is a new exciting technique in the radionuclide therapy. In this technique monoclonal antibodies or their fragments are labeled with a suitable radionuclide, these antibodies can irradiate tumor cells over a distance of some fraction of a millimeter. Bulky tumors are obviously unsuitable targets for Rit. Several antibodies specific for Cd 20 (B1 and 1 F 5) and CD 37 (Mb-1) labeled with 131 I have been used for hematologic malignancies with good response. Several antigens associated with carcinomas of various histologic types have been targeted for therapeutic purposes by antibodies labeled with different radionuclides. Other routes of administration like intraperitoneal, intrathecal, and intravesical have been used with different rates of success. Pre targeting techniques can be used to reduce unwanted radioactive concentration in normal tissues. The avidin-biotin system is an example, which exploits the high-affinity binding between avidin and biotin, and was first used with anti-Cea antibody. Radiation synovectomy is another aspect of radionuclide therapy 198 Au colloid, 90 Y resin colloid, and 165 Dy-FHMA are some of the radionuclides used in the field of hematology. There has been significant advances in the field of therapy in nuclear medicine in recent years, which are briefly

  9. Horticultural therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Bo, Li; Sampson, Stephanie; Roberts, Samantha; Zhang, Guoyou; Wu, Weiping

    2014-05-19

    Horticultural therapy is defined as the process of utilising fruits, vegetables, flowers and plants facilitated by a trained therapist or healthcare provider, to achieve specific treatment goals or to simply improve a person's well-being. It can be used for therapy or rehabilitation programs for cognitive, physical, social, emotional, and recreational benefits, thus improving the person's body, mind and spirit. Between 5% to 15% of people with schizophrenia continue to experience symptoms in spite of medication, and may also develop undesirable adverse effects, horticultural therapy may be of value for these people. To evaluate the effects of horticultural therapy for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses compared with standard care or other additional psychosocial interventions. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (Janurary 2013) and supplemented this by contacting relevant study authors, and manually searching reference lists. We included one randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing horticultural therapy plus standard care with standard care alone for people with schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we calculated a mean difference (MD) and for binary outcomes we calculated risk ratio (RR), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed risk of bias and created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. We included one single blind study (total n = 24). The overall risk of bias in the study was considered to be unclear although the randomisation was adequate. It compared a package of horticultural therapy which consisted of one hour per day of horticultural activity plus standard care with standard care alone over two weeks (10 consecutive days) with no long-term follow-up. Only two people were lost to follow-up in the study, both in the horticultural therapy group (1 RCT

  10. Current perspectives of radiation therapy. History of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Jun

    2011-01-01

    More than 100 years have passed since the discovery of X-Strahlen by Roentgen. The history of radiation therapy has evolved under mutual stimulating relationships of the external beam radiation therapy by X-ray tubes and accelerators, and the internal radiation therapy employing radium and other radionuclides. The currently employed technologies in radiation therapy have its origin already till nineteen sixties and the development of physics and engineering have realized the original concept. (author)

  11. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassbinder, E.; Schweiger, U.; Martius, D.; Brand-de Wilde, O.; Arntz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However,

  12. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored CE Programs Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  13. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  14. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  15. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  16. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  17. Parental Involvement In Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, E. Lamonte

    1976-01-01

    Play therapy acts as a medium of expression for children. The purpose of this article is to outline a methodological approach as well as to emphasize the necessity of including the parent in the play therapy situation. (Author)

  18. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  19. Cryogen therapy of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular cryogen therapy of skin cancer. They noted that cryogen therapy of skin cancer carried new possibilities and improved results of neoplasms treatment

  20. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…

  1. Massage Therapy for Health Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Changes in clinical parameters in patients with tension-type headache following massage therapy: a pilot study . Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy . 2008; 16(2):106–112. Moraska A, Pollini RA, ... adjustments to stress measures following massage therapy: a review of the ...

  2. Comments on chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of actinide chelation is to decrease the risk from radiation-induced cancer. While occupational exposures in the past have mainly involved low specific activity 239 Pu, future exposures will increasingly involve high specific activity plutonium, americium, and curium - all of which clear more rapidly from the lung. This will tend to shift the cancer risk from lung to bone and liver. Although therapy with Ca- or Zn-DTPA rapidly removes 241 Am from the canine, the sub-human primate, and the human liver, improved methods for removal from bone and lung are needed. DTPA can remove 241 Am more easily from the growing skeleton of a child than from the mature skeleton of an adult. Investigators at Karlsruhe are developing chelation agents for oral administration and are investigating the reduction in local dose to bone resulting from chelation therapy

  3. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko

    1993-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  4. Medical leech therapy (Hirudotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leeches have been used in medicine long time before BC. In recent years medical leech therapy has gained increasing interest in reconstructive surgery and pain management and other medical fields. The possible indications and success rates of this treatment are discussed. There is a special interest in salvage of flaps and grafts by the use of medical leeches. Retrospective analysis indicates a success rate of >80%. Randomized controlled trials have been performed in osteoarthritis. Case reports and smaller series are available for the treatment of chronic wounds, post-phlebitic syndrome and inflammatory skin diseases. The most common adverse effects are prolonged bleeding and infection by saprophytic intestinal bacteria of leeches. Medical leech therapy is a useful adjunct to other measures wound management.

  5. Drug therapy of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is a chronic granulomatous bacterial infection mainly affecting the skin and peripheral nervous system yet also involving other organs and systems as a result of a pathological process. The causative agent of leprosy - Mycobacterium leprae - is an obligate intracellular microorganism. Despite the removal of a threat of a leprosy epidemic, European countries still record outbreaks of the disease mainly among migrants coming from endemic areas. A golden standard of the treatment of leprosy is a WHO-recommended combined drug therapy comprising drugs such as dapsone, clofazimine and rifampicin. The article provides current data on the mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety of these drugs and their combined scheme of treatment obtained as a result of clinical trials. Moreover, it also reviews new regimens of the drug therapy of leprosy including those with the use of drugs from the group of fluoroquinols as well as immunotherapy of the disease.

  6. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... to monitor and evaluate the learning process. The course is embedded in a graduate programme of applied cognitive, developmental and neuropsychology, and includes 92 hours (17 days spanning one academic year) of lectures and workshops on cognitive behavioural therapy and coaching. Seven behaviour competence...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  7. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  8. Selective retina therapy (SRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Birngruber, R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Luebeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the choroid. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio-retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced. (orig.)

  9. Antiplatelet therapy in PCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaroff, Alexander; Rao, Sunil

    2018-01-01

    Platelets play a key role in mediating stent thrombosis, the major cause of ischemic events in the immediate period following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). For this reason, antiplatelet therapy, started at the time of PCI and continued for at least 30 days afterwards, is the cornerstone of antithrombotic therapy after PCI. However, the use of antiplatelet agents increase bleeding risk, with more potent antiplatelet agents further increasing bleeding risk. For this reason, balancing prevention of ischemic events with risk of bleeding is fundamental to the effective use of antiplatelet agents. In the past 5 years, potent and fast-acting P2Y12 inhibitors have been introduced, and have augmented the antiplatelet armamentarium available to interventional cardiologists. In this review, we review the preclinical and clinical data surrounding these new agents, and discuss the significant questions and controversies that still exist regarding the optimal antiplatelet strategy. PMID:28582206

  10. Tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is a specific clinical method based on the neurophysiological model of tinnitus described by Jastreboff (Jastreboff, P.J. (1990). Neurosci. Res., 8: 221-254). The method is aimed at habituation of reactions evoked by tinnitus, and subsequently habituation of the tinnitus perception. Several other methods have been suggested for habituation of tinnitus, but in TRT two components that strictly follow the principles of the neurophysiological model of tinnitus are implemented and necessary: (1) counseling, aimed at reclassification of tinnitus to a category of a neutral signals and (2) sound therapy, aimed at weakening tinnitus-related neuronal activity as suggested by Jastreboff and Hazell (Jastreboff, P.J. and Hazell, J.W.P. (2004). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). This chapter outlines the theoretical basis of TRT as well as comments on the clinical outcome of the use of TRT for different kinds of tinnitus.

  11. Gestalt Therapy and Cognitive Therapy - Contrasts or Complementarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesvang, Jan; Sommer, Ulla; Hammink, James

    2010-01-01

    The article investigates the relationship between crucial concepts and understandings in gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy aiming at discussing if and how they can be mutually enriching when considered as complementary parts in a more encompassing integrative therapeutic approach. It is argued...... that gestalt therapy, defined as a fieldtheoretical approach to the study of gestalt formation process, can complement the schema-based understanding and practice in cognitive therapy. The clinical benefits from a complementary view of the two approaches will be a wider scope of awareness toward individual...... between fundamental awareness work in gestalt therapy and the tendency within cognitive therapy toward incorporating mindfulness as a therapeutic tool. In the conclusion of the article, additional complementary points between the two approaches are outlined. Keywords: integrative therapy, gestalt...

  12. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  13. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Moghaddam, Nima G.; Dawson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a generic term, encompassing both: (1) approaches underpinned by an assumption that presenting emotional and behavioural difficulties are cognitively mediated or moderated; and (2) atheoretical bricolages of cognitive and behavioural techniques. This latter category may include effective therapeutic packages (perhaps acting through mechanisms articulated in the first category) but, when theory is tacit, it becomes harder to make analytical generalisation...

  14. Cognitive behavior therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Labanya Bhattacharya; Bhushan Chaudari; Daniel Saldanha; Preethi Menon

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most extensively researched psychotherapeutic modalities which is being used either in conjunction with psychotropic drugs or alone in various psychiatric disorders. CBT is a short-term psychotherapeutic approach that is designed to influence dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. Recent advances in CBT suggest that there is a fresh look on a "third wave" CBT that has a greater impact and ...

  15. Assessment in Cognitive Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gary P.; Clark, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together leading experts to explore the state of the art of cognitive clinical assessment and identify cutting-edge approaches of interest to clinicians and researchers. The book highlights fundamental problems concerning the validity of assessments that are widely used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Key directions for further research and development are identified. Updated cognitive assessment methods are described in detail, with particular attention to transdiag...

  16. Virtual reality exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  17. Intracavitary therapy of craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Fig, L. M.; Gross, M.D.; Ann Arbor Nuclear Medicine Service, Ann Arbor, MI

    1999-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are benign cystic para-hypophyseal tumors often associated with hypopituitarism and visual-field abnormalities. Their therapy by surgery and external beam radiotherapy is imperfect. The intracavitary instillation of beta-emitting colloid radiopharmaceuticals into the cysts permits the delivery of far higher radiation doses to the cyst lining than is possible by external beam radiotherapy. This technique permits destruction of the lining epithelium with resultant elimination of cyst fluid formation and cyst shrinkage in up to 80% of cases

  18. Proton beam therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs

  19. Neutron beams for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuplenikov, Eh.L.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Tsymbal, V.A.; Kandybej, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    It was given the analysis and generalization of the study results carried out during some decades in many world countries on application of thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons for neutron, gamma-neutron and neutron-capture therapy. The main attention is focused on the practical application possibility of the accumulated experience for the base creation for medical research and the cancer patients effective treatment.

  20. Psychological therapies for thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia

    2014-03-06

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions

  1. Proton beam therapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  3. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  4. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiotherapy : proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first phase of proton therapy at the National Accelerator Centre will be the development of a 200 MeV small-field horizontal beam radioneurosurgical facility in the south treatment vault. A progressive expansion of this facility is planned. The patient support and positioning system has been designed and developed by the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Surveying of the University of Cape Town to ensure the accurate positioning in the proton beam of the lesion to be treated. The basic components of the system are an adjustable chair, a series of video cameras and two computers. The specifications for the proton therapy interlock system require that the inputs to and the outputs from the system be similar to those of the neutron therapy system. Additional facilities such as a full diagnostic system which would assist the operators in the event of an error will also be provided. Dosimeters are required for beam monitoring, for monitor calibration and for determining dose distributions. Several designs of transmission ionization chambers for beam monitoring have been designed and tested, while several types of ionization chambers and diodes have been used for the dose distribution measurements. To facilitate the comparison of measured ranges and energy losses of proton beams in the various materials with tabled values, simple empirical approximations, which are sufficiently accurate for most applications, have been used. 10 refs., 10 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Radiation therapy for chordomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hajime; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakamura, Yuji; Niibe, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    Chordomas are slow-growing primary malignant bone tumors which originate from remnants of the fetal notochordal system. They are difficult to control by surgery alone. Four patients with chordomas treated with radiation therapy were studied, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was evaluated. These 4 (3.8%) patients were among 106 patients with primary malignant bone tumors referred to us from 1959 to 1987. Primary sites were the sacrococcygeal region in three patients and the clivus in one. The patients' ages ranged from 51 to 75 years. The male : female ratio was 1 : 1. Patients received 48 to 60 Gy of radiation to the primary sites. Because the radiosensitivity of the tumors was low, the responses were poor. The duration of survival was 6, 33, 68, and 125 months. The cause of death in each case was local recurrence of tumor. As a result, a dose greater than 60 Gy is thought to be necessary for curative radiotherapy. Proton beam therapy seems to be best choice for chordomas in the clivus, and mixed-beam (proton and megavolt age X-ray) therapy or multiportal irradiation, which gives an ideal spatial dose distribution, seems to be most suitable for sacrococcygeal chordomas. (author)

  7. [Family therapy of encopresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitczok von Brisinski, Ingo; Lüttger, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Encopresis is a taboo symptom, which is connected with great suffering from mental pressure not only for the children concerned, but also their relatives. Family related approaches are indispensable to understand encopresis, because as a result of high symptom persistence and psychological comorbidity in many cases a purely behavior-therapeutic, symptom focused approach is not sufficient, and further psychotherapeutic interventions are necessary. There is a strong temporal correlation between family interaction and frequency of soiling and changes of interaction influence changes in soiling more than the other way round. In a literature review different family relationship patterns and approaches of family therapy are represented regarding encopresis. Meaningful differences for family therapy are represented regarding primary/secondary encopresis, encopresis with/without comorbid psychiatric disorder as well as encopresis with/without dysfunctional family interaction. Distinctions are made between symptom focused, not-symptom focused and combined family therapeutic approaches, which are illustrated with case examples of outpatient and inpatient treatment. Symptom focused family therapy like e.g. externalizing of the soiling is helpful also if no dysfunctional family interaction patterns are present, because all family members can contribute to treatment success according to their own resources.

  8. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: dynamic MLC (DMLC) therapy, multisegment therapy and tomotherapy. An example of QA in DMLC therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.

    1998-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy will make a quantum leap in tumor control. It is the new radiation therapy for the new millennium. The major methods to achieve IMRT are: 1. Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) therapy, 2. multisegment therapy, and 3. tomotherapy. The principles of these 3 techniques are briefly reviewed. Each technique presents unique QA issues which are outlined. As an example this paper will present the results of a recent new study of an important QA concern in DMLC therapy. (orig.) [de

  9. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene & Cell Therapy Defined Gene therapy and cell therapy are overlapping fields of biomedical research that aim to repair the direct cause of genetic diseases. Read More Gene & Cell Therapy FAQ's Read the most common questions raised by ...

  10. Proton therapy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Proton therapy has been in use since 1954 and over 25,000 patients have been treated worldwide. Until recently most patients were treated at physics research facilities but with the development of more compact and reliable accelerators it is now possible to realistically plan for proton therapy in an Australian hospital. The Australian National Proton Project has been formed to look at the feasibility of a facility which would be primarily for patient treatment but would also be suitable for research and commercial applications. A detailed report will be produced by the end of the year. The initial clinical experience was mainly with small tumours and other lesions close to critical organs. Large numbers of eye tumours have also been treated. Protons have a well-defined role in these situations and are now being used in the treatment of more common cancers. With the development of hospital-based facilities, over 2,500 patients with prostate cancer have been treated using a simple technique which gives results at least as good as radical surgery, external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Importantly, the incidence of severe complications is very low. There are encouraging results in many disease sites including lung, liver, soft tissue sarcomas and oesophagus. As proton therapy becomes more widely available, randomised trials comparing it with conventional radiotherapy or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) will be possible. In most situations the use of protons will enable a higher dose to be given safely but in situations where local control rates are already satisfactory, protons are expected to produce less complications than conventional treatment. The initial costs of a proton facility are high but the recurrent costs are similar to other forms of high technology radiotherapy. . Simple treatment techniques with only a few fields are usually possible and proton therapy avoids the high integral doses associated with IMRT. This reduction in

  11. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines.

  12. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  13. Advances in inmune therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalheim, G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies either alone or combined with isotopes as radio immuno conjugates has proven to be very efficient treatment for cancers such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas or breast cancer. Cellular based immunotherapy treatment modalities are also currently in use. Allogeneic T lymphocytes infused during haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HTSC) mediate graft-versus-tumour effects, but also initiate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which remains the primary complications of allogeneic HTSC. The current clinical need for GVHD prophylaxis, which at a minimum involves single agents immune suppression generally limits the success of allogeneic HTSC immunotherapy to patients with indolent or chemotherapy sensitive malignancy. Therefore the use of allogeneic HTSC as a cancer therapy still needs to augment the anti-tumour effects and improve GVHD control. During the presentation several ongoing studies addressing these questions will be discussed. Since 1996 more than 500 patients have been recruited into >30 clinical trials with dendritic cell vaccines. Most clinical trials used different protocols with variations in D C generation, Dc maturation stage, D C-Ag loading, route of administration, vaccination intervals and vaccination frequency. The overall response rate is 20%(0- >50%) with occasional complete or partial regressions, prolonged stable disease, but no cure. Little or no toxicity has been observed which might suggest that the vaccines do not work as efficient as expected. As will be discussed the reason for these modest clinical effects observed can be many. Therefore, careful study design and use of standardized clinical and immunological criteria are needed. Recently, we have started a process for production of TILs, antigen specific T cells. During our DC vaccine programs tumour specific T-cell clones have been developed and such T-cells might also be useful as therapy in the vaccinated patients. The principal of such therapy and the

  14. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R G; Wiens, A N

    1975-10-01

    Recent research on the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on memory is critically reviewed. Despite some inconsistent findings, unilateral nondominant ECT appears to affect verbal memory less than bilateral ECT. Adequate research on multiple monitored ECT is lacking. With few exceptions, the research methodologies for assessing memory have been inadequate. Many studies have confounded learning with retention, and only very recently has long term memory been adequately studied. Standardized assessment procedures for short term and long term memory are needed, in addition to more sophisticated assessment of memory processes, the duration of memory loss, and qualitative aspects of memories.

  16. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  17. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  18. Proton therapy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1994-01-01

    The invention concerns a proton therapy device using a proton linear accelerator which produces a proton beam with high energies and intensities. The invention lies in actual fact that the proton beam which is produced by the linear accelerator is deflected from 270 deg in its plan by a deflecting magnetic device towards a patient support including a bed the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the proton beam leaving the linear accelerator. The patient support and the deflecting device turn together around the proton beam axis while the bed stays in an horizontal position. The invention applies to radiotherapy. 6 refs., 5 figs

  19. Metformin poisoning: which therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Casagranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious adverse effect in metformintreated- patients. The authors report a case of metformin-associated lactic acidosis and discuss the appropriated therapy. The patient was treated with bicarbonate iv and with two short dialysis session, also because of acute renal failure. Many authors do not agree with using bicarbonate, and about hemodialysis some authors suggest that the session should go on at least 12 hours. In this case the use of bicarbonate and short hemodialysis determinated a favourable outcame.

  20. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  1. Group therapy for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hribar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed some assertiveness skills: eye contact" and effective communication skills, persistence, refusing and requesting, giving and receiving critism, etc. The methods of work and techniques were based on principles of cognitive-behaviour therapy.

  2. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... effect. All cell lines investigated here did not reach an OER of 1, even for the smaller structures, which may indicate that the achievable dose average LET of carbon ions is too low, and heavier ions than carbon may be considered for functional LET-painting....

  3. Gene therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini

    2013-03-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  4. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research project, entitled ''Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,'' was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the "2"1"2"P"b"/"2"0"3Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of "2"1"2Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter "2"1"2Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  5. Aperture modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, S M; Wu, Xiaodong; Takita, C; Watzich, M; Xing Lei

    2003-01-01

    We show that it is possible to translate an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan and deliver it as a single arc. This technique is referred to in this paper as aperture modulation arc therapy (AMAT). During this arc, the MLC leaves do not conform to the projection of the target PTV and the machine output of the accelerator has a constant value. Dose was calculated using the CORVUS 4.0 IMRT system, which uses a pencil beam dose algorithm, and treatments were delivered using a Varian 2100C/D Clinac. Results are presented for a head and neck and a prostate case, showing the equivalence of the IMRT and the translated AMAT delivery. For a prostate AMAT delivery, coronal plane film dose for the IMRT and AMAT deliveries agreed within 7.19 ± 6.62%. For a meningioma the coronal plane dose distributions were similar to a value of 4.6 ± 6.62%. Dose to the isocentre was measured as being within 2% of the planned value in both cases

  6. Therapies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joseph; Poewe, Werner

    2012-08-01

    This review examines currently available therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease, emphasizing evidence-based data as well as a patient-centered approach to the treatment of motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although clinical trials of disease-modifying approaches have been thus far disappointing, steady advances are being made in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we focus on recent studies with monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (selegiline and rasagiline), coenzyme Q10, creatine, and exercise in early Parkinson's disease. We also discuss the relative merits and disadvantages of delaying the initiation of levodopa therapy, the role of dopamine agonists, particularly ropinirole and pramipexole, and management of motor and behavioral complications, such as fluctuations, dyskinesias and impulse-control disorders. Novel formulations and delivery approaches for conventional and new drugs are also discussed. Finally, we review recent studies of surgical treatments of Parkinson's disease, such as deep brain stimulation. Numerous clinical trials have provided evidence that health-related quality of life can be substantially improved with early diagnosis and institution of exercise and other physical measures, appropriate timing of dopaminergic therapy, and strategies to delay and treat levodopa-related motor complications and nonmotor Parkinson's disease-related symptoms.

  7. Experimental tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    This is a report on the work of the joint research group of the Institute of Radiation Biology (Strahlenbiologisches Institut) of the university of Munich and the Department of Radiation Biology of the Society for Radiation and Environmental Research (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- u. Umweltforschung - GSF -) at Neuherberg. The presented results are not in all cases definitely confirmed or have, in part, merely provisional character. It is the target of the joint research to investigate problems of cancer therapy of practical impact in model form and to develop recommendations in discussions with therapists. Thus, the aim is not so much to examine mechanisms of action of certain radiations in detail but to look for the general rules they are governed by and to analyze the quantitative aspects of cancer therapy. To achieve this, a great variety of test models must be at hand. Numerous cell cultivies and tumors of mice resp. rats are therefore used. The acute reactions to irradiation are examined on the skin, the small intestine crypts, the bone marrow and spleen colonies of mice and the chronic reactions are tested on the colon and heart of rats and on the vascular connective tissue and kidneys of mice. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  9. Photon-activation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable 127 I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors

  10. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy and...

  11. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  12. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Fajardo, Humberto; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Llorens-Arenas, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Bermudez, Jesús; Ruiz-Chow, Ángel; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela

    2015-10-01

    Purpose To analyze the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy for the management of depression and/or psychosis refractory to drug therapy in patients with Parkinson disease.Methods A retrospective study was carried out including patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy during the period between 2002 and 2013. A review of the literature was performed.Results A total of 27 patients were included. In regards to the neuropsychiatric diagnosis, 14 patients had major depression, 12 patients had both psychosis and depression, and only one patient had isolated psychosis. The mean number of electroconvulsive therapy sessions was 12 ± 2.8. After electroconvulsive therapy, all patients showed a statistically significant improvement in the Brief Psychiatric Rating scale (reduction of 52% points) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (reduction of 50% points) independent of the presence of psychosis, depression or both.Conclusion Electroconvulsive therapy is effective for the treatment of refractory neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

  14. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  15. Gene therapy of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Tan Jian

    2007-01-01

    Normally, differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC) is a disease of good prognosis, but about 30% of the tumors are dedifferentiate, which are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as 'operation, 131 I therapy and thyroid hormone'. Both internal and abroad experts are researching a new therapy of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma--gene therapy. Many of them utilize methods of it, but follow different strategies: (1) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodide transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by 131 I therapy; (2) strengthening of the anti-tumor immune response; (3) suicide gene therapy; (4) depression the generation of tumor cells; (5) gene therapy of anti- vascularization. (authors)

  16. Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. Objectives: What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? Methods: A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. Results: In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two, six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the

  17. Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0515 TITLE: Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism PRINCIPAL...August 2012 – 21 August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-0515...suggest a gut-microbiome-brain connection in autism, and identify a potential probiotic therapy for ASD. We have now developed assays for some of

  18. Different Approaches in Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf-Dieter eKortmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a cornerstone in the therapeutic management of craniopharyngioma. The close proximity to neighbouring eloquent structures pose a particular challenge to radiation therapy. Modern treatment technologies including fractionated 3-d conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and recently proton therapy are able to precisely cover the target while preserving surrounding tissue,Tumour controls between 80 and in access of 90 % can be achieved. Alternative treatments consisting of radiosurgery, intracavitary application of isotopes and brachytherapy also offer an acceptable tumour control and might be given in selected cases. More research is needed to establish the role of each treatment modality.

  19. Topiramate Therapy and Cognitive Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topiramate (TPA adjunctive therapy on cognition in 22 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy were studied at the Montreal Neurological Hospital, Quebec, Canada.

  20. Cell Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Madani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Recently, cell therapy has sparked a revolution in ischemic heart disease that will in the future help clinicians to cure patients. Earlier investigations in animal models and clinical trials have suggested that positive paracrine effects such as neoangiogenesis and anti-apoptotic can improve myocardial function. In this regard the Royan cell therapy center designed a few trials in collaboration with multi hospitals such as Baqiyatallah, Shahid Lavasani, Tehran Heart Center, Shahid rajaee, Masih daneshvari, Imam Reza, Razavi and Sasan from 2006. Their results were interesting. However, cardiac stem cell therapy still faces great challenges in optimizing the treatment of patients. Keyword: Cardiovascular disease, Cell therapy.  

  1. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  2. Antiviral therapy: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi Bonjar, Amir Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC) is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient's body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient's recovery to a large extent depends on their general health status. EVAC would be for single use and appropriately disposed of after each detoxification procedure. When sufficient

  3. Antiviral therapy: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar AH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Amir Hashem Shahidi Bonjar Clinician Scientist, Institute of Applied Research in Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient’s body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient

  4. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radder, D.L.M.; Sturkenboom, I.H.W.M.; Nimwegen, M. van; Keus, S.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Vries, N.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in

  5. Radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres-Barrenechea, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    A ten year study (1988-98) was done at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center on radioiodine (RAI) therapy for hyperthyroidism. A total of 162 patients received 131-I after careful selection hence was included in this study. A predominantly female population was seen (81%) compared to only (19%) males. The most frequent age group were in the third and fourth decades of life. Those included had clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis aside from the abnormal thyroid function tests and elevated RAI uptake. Almost all were given antithyroid drugs and beta-blockers prior to RAI ablation. Doses ranged from 7 to 12 mCi depending on gland size and degree of toxicity. Success rate of treatment was 92% which meant that the symptoms were abated and there was shrinkage of the thyroid gland after a single dose of iodine. The most common short term complications were sialitis and local neck tenderness while hypothyroidism was the commonest long term complication. (author)

  6. Onychomycosis: features external therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zaslavsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis - one of the most frequent diseases with defeat of a nail bed, matrics and nail plate of a fungal origin. Frequency of an onychomycosis in Russia reaches 5% (to 15 million people, and practically every tenth visit of the dermatologist is connected with this pathology. Treatment of an onychomycosis still remains very difficult task. Application of varnishes, ointments with antimycotics and local agents on an oil basis has an essential shortcoming - insufficient receipt of a preparation to the center of pathological changes. It is supposed that for optimum therapy it is necessary to influence: first, from frontal and distal part of a nail, secondly, to apply aqueous-alcoholic solutions of a preparation which can freely get into subnail spaces with the phenomena of an onycholysis. For example, it has been shown highly efficient application of naftifina a hydrochloride under control of solution of the diamond green, showing diffusion distribution active ingredient to subnail space and on channels.

  7. Cell-Based Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kitada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell transplantation is a strategy with great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and many types of stem cells, including neural stem cells and embryonic stem cells, are considered candidates for transplantation therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells are a great therapeutic cell source because they are easy accessible and can be expanded from patients or donor mesenchymal tissues without posing serious ethical and technical problems. They have trophic effects for protecting damaged tissues as well as differentiation ability to generate a broad spectrum of cells, including dopamine neurons, which contribute to the replenishment of lost cells in Parkinson's disease. This paper focuses mainly on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic cell source and discusses their potential clinical application in Parkinson's disease.

  8. Premature ejaculation. 3. Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piediferro, Guido; Colpi, Elisabetta M; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Scroppo, Fabrizio I

    2004-12-01

    Serotonergic drugs (SSRIs) are the most commonly used, but they are characterized by relapse some time after medication interruption as well as by sexual side effects. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors seems excellent, but the risk of tachyphylaxis has been reported. The former (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, clomipramine) should be used in young patients with hyper-orgasmic forms, while the latter (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) should be used in hypo-orgasmic forms, in old age or when PE is associated with erectile dysfunction. Topical anesthetics provide satisfactory results in premature ejaculation due to hypersensitivity of the glans, and physiotherapy of the pelvic floor muscles proves successful in cases associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Therapeutic associations and psycho-sexual therapy techniques may improve results, particularly in the long term.

  9. Neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Song, Ping Huang, Chun Zhang Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Glaucoma is the second leading cause for blindness worldwide. It is mainly caused by glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss, which leads to visual field defect and blindness. Up to now, the main purpose of antiglaucomatous therapies has been to lower intraocular pressure (IOP through surgeries and medications. However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease. Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON. Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve. Keywords: glaucoma, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, retinal ganglion cells, neuro­protection

  10. Accelerators for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlit, W.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decades circular and linear electron accelerators have been developed for clinical use in radiation therapy of tumors with the aim of achieving a high radiation dose in the tumor and as low as possible dose in the adjacent normal tissues. Today about one thousand accelerators are in medical use throughout the world and many hundred thousand patients are treated every day with accelerator-produced radiation. There exists, however, a large number of patients who cannot be treated satisfactorily in this way. New types of radiations such as neutrons, negative pions, protons and heavy ions were therefore tested recently. The clinical experience with these radiations and with new types of treatment procedures indicate that in future the use of a scanning beam of high energy protons might be optimal for the treatment of tumors. (orig.)

  11. [Limiting life sustaining therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, E

    2006-09-01

    Intensivists are increasingly implementing end-of-life decisions in patients who remain dependent on life sustaining therapies without hope for recovery. Descriptive studies have provided epidemiological data on ICU end-of-life care, identifying areas for improvement. Qualitative studies have highlighted the complexity of the decision making process. In addition to considering the legal and ethical issues involved, this review describes cultural, religious and individual variations observed in ICU end-of-life care. It is important for intensivists to respect patients' preferences and values, but also, in some family members, to avoid increasing the burden and the guilt of sharing the decision. Intensivists should improve their ability to meet the needs of dying patients and their family members. Each situation, patient, family and caregiver is unique, and therefore needs a specific approach. Introducing palliative care and multidisciplinary teams into the ICU might provide an additional opportunity for patients and families to be informed and listened to.

  12. [Therapy of hemorrhoidal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, A

    2006-08-01

    Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the most frequent disorders in western countries. The aim of individual therapy is freedom from symptoms achieved by normalisation of anatomy and physiology. Treatment is orientated to the stage of disease: haemorrhoids 1 are treated conservatively. In addition to high-fibre diet, sclerotherapy is used. Haemorrhoids 2 prolapse during defecation and return spontaneously. First-line treatment is rubber band ligation. Haemorrhoids 3 that prolapse during defecation have to be digitally reduced, and the majority need surgery. For segmental disorders, haemorrhoidectomy according to Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson is recommended. In circular disease, Stapler hemorrhoidopexy is now the procedure of choice. Using a therapeutic regime according to the hemorrhoidal disease classification offers high healing rates and low rates of complications and recurrence.

  13. Gene therapy for hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Geoffrey L.; Herzog, Roland W.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder consisting of two classifications, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, depending on the underlying mutation. Although the disease is currently treatable with intravenous delivery of replacement recombinant clotting factor, this approach represents a significant cost both monetarily and in terms of quality of life. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative approach to the treatment of hemophilia that would ideally provide life-long correction of clotting activity with a single injection. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of approaches that have been explored for the treatment of both hemophilia A and B, including both in vivo and ex vivo approaches with viral and nonviral delivery vectors. PMID:25553466

  14. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... in localized cortical and subcortical areas of the brain and have revealed differences in neurophysiology and metabolism between the hyperactive ictal state and the restorative interictal/postictal periods. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies seem to pave way for new insights into ECT's effects...... on increased connectivity in the brain during depression. CONCLUSION: The existing data reveal considerable variations among studies and therefore do not yet allow the formulation of a unified hypothesis for the mechanism of ECT. The rapid developments in imaging technology, however, hold promises for further...

  15. Experimental tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This study was concentrated on the investigation of practically oriented problems of tumour therapy, under the application of possibly differing experimental test subjects, ranging from cell cultures to the living animal. The development of the test systems was advanced and some systems were replaced by new ones. An enrichment of great significance is also the fibrosarcoma SSK-2 of the C3H mouse, whose cells form colonies with an exploitation of about 50% when the explant is transferred directly to the cell culture. The subject matter of the experiments ranged from the effect of irradiation on cells in vitro to the proliferation kinetics of human tumours under treatment. As in the last year the main significance and attention was attributed to the analysis of time dependency in radiotherapy. The second main point were investigations on the interaction of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, supplemented by experiments to the time dependency in chemotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Immunosupportive therapies in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Tamas; Larbi, Anis; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Lesourd, Bruno; Castle, Stephen; Wikby, Anders; Franceschi, Claudio; Pawelec, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The primary role of the immune system is to protect the organism against pathogens, but age-associated alterations to immunity increase the susceptibility of the elderly to infectious disease. The exact nature of these changes is still controversial, but the use of screening procedures, such as the SENIEUR protocol to exclude underlying illness, helped to better characterize the changes actually related to physiological aging rather than pathology. It is generally agreed that the most marked changes occur in the cellular immune response reflecting profound alterations in T cells. Much of this is due to thymic involution as well as changes in the proportions of T cell subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible

  17. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  18. Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry

    This book provides an atheoretical orientation to basic concepts involved in play therapy and an introduction to different skills used in play therapy. The demand for mental professionals and school counselors who have training and expertise in using play as a therapeutic tool when working with children has increased tremendously. In response to…

  19. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  20. Cardiovascular toxicities of biological therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of biological therapy is based on growing knowledge regarding the molecular changes required in cells for the development and progression of cancer to occur. Molecular targeted therapy is designed to inhibit the major molecular pathways identified as essential for a specific...

  1. When to start antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred M

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have traditionally focused on providing treatment to persons who stand to benefit immediately from initiating the therapy. There is global consensus that any HIV+ person with CD4 counts less than 350 cells/μl should initiate ART. However, it rema...

  2. A Feminist Family Therapy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Leora; Piercy, Fred P.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on development and psychometric properties of Feminist Family Therapy Scale (FFTS), a 17-item instrument intended to reflect degree to which family therapists conceptualize process of family therapy from feminist-informed perspective. Found that the instrument discriminated between self-identified feminists and nonfeminists, women and men,…

  3. Learning theory and gestalt therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R; Bauer, R; Kannarkat, J

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and operations of Gestalt Therapy from the viewpoint of learning theory. General comparative issues are elaborated as well as the concepts of introjection, retroflextion, confluence, and projection. Principles and techniques of Gestalt Therapy are discussed in terms of learning theory paradigm. Practical implications of the various Gestalt techniques are presented.

  4. Clinical databases in physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, I.C.S.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Bakker, D. de; Wees, Ph.J van der; Hart, D.L.; Deutscher, D.; Bosch, W.J.H. van den; Dekker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical databases in physical therapy provide increasing opportunities for research into physical therapy theory and practice. At present, information on the characteristics of existing databases is lacking. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical databases in which physical therapists

  5. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  6. [Why proton therapy? And how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariat, Juliette; Habrand, Jean Louis; Lesueur, Paul; Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Kammerer, Emmanuel; Lecomte, Delphine; Batalla, Alain; Balosso, Jacques; Tessonnier, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Proton therapy is a radiotherapy, based on the use of protons, charged subatomic particles that stop at a given depth depending on their initial energy (pristine Bragg peak), avoiding any output beam, unlike the photons used in most of the other modalities of radiotherapy. Proton therapy has been used for 60 years, but has only become ubiquitous in the last decade because of recent major advances in particle accelerator technology. This article reviews the history of clinical implementation of protons, the nature of the technological advances that now allows its expansion at a lower cost. It also addresses the technical and physical specificities of proton therapy and the clinical situations for which proton therapy may be relevant but requires evidence. Different proton therapy techniques are possible. These are explained in terms of their clinical potential by explaining the current terminology (such as cyclotrons, synchrotrons or synchrocyclotrons, using superconducting magnets, fixed line or arm rotary with passive diffusion delivery or active by scanning) in basic words. The requirements associated with proton therapy are increased due to the precision of the depth dose deposit. The learning curve of proton therapy requires that clinical indications be prioritized according to their associated uncertainties (such as range uncertainties and movement in lung tumors). Many clinical indications potentially fall under proton therapy ultimately. Clinical strategies are explained in a paralleled manuscript. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Statin therapy for the octogenarian?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-23

    Apr 23, 2011 ... placebo groups.41 A recent Cochrane meta-analysis identified three randomised trials of statin therapy in patients with established Alzheimer-type dementia. Statin therapy was not associated with improved cognition or functioning, although the results of one large randomised trial were still outstanding.42.

  8. Internal Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When getting internal radiation therapy, a source of radiation is put inside your body, in either liquid or solid form. It can be used treat different kinds of cancer, including thyroid, head and neck, breast, cervix, prostate, and eye. Learn more about how what to expect when getting internal radiation therapy.

  9. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  10. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoshuk, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  11. Particle therapy for noncancer diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Radiology, Department of Radiation Therapy, Baldinger Strasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 3, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany) and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

  12. Art, dance, and music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo

    2004-11-01

    Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century.

  13. Immunosupportive therapies in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Fülöp

    2007-04-01

    subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible interventions that might one day become applicable in an appropriate ethical environment.Keywords: immunosenescence, T cells, phagocytic cells, nutrition, vaccination, exercise, CMV, inflammaging, IRP, immunorestorative therapies

  14. Compliance to antihypertensive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, B.; Islam, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine compliance, factors affecting compliance to antihypertensive therapy and to compare compliant and non-compliant groups, in a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Analytical (cross-sectional) study. Place and Duration of Study: The outpatient clinics at the Aga Khan University from May 2004 to February 2005. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients presenting to the outpatients clinic were included. All patients 18 years and above, who had stage 1 and 2 hypertension, had one clinic visit to a medicine clinic, 6 months prior to presentation and started on antihypertensive medicines, were included. Results: Sixty-six percent were males and 33.5 % were females. Mean age was 58.1 ( +- 12) years and mean duration of hypertension was 7.2 (+- 6.7) years. Fifty-seven percent were compliant and 43% were noncompliant. In the noncompliant group, 53.4 % had mild noncompliance, 24.4 % had severe non-compliance, while 22% had moderate noncompliance. Factors of noncompliance were 56.8% missed doses due to forgetfulness, 12.7% deliberately missed their doses, 11.6% could not take the medicine due to side effects, 10.4% did not take the dose due to increased number of tablets, 4.6% were not properly counseled by the physician and 3.48% did not take medicines due to cost issues. The mean systolic blood pressure was 126 +- 19.2 mmHg in the compliant group while it was 133 +- 16.5 mmHg in the noncompliant group (p-value 0.004). The mean diastolic blood pressure in the compliant group was 76 +- 11.9 mmHg, while in the noncompliant group it was 81.9 +- 10.9 mmHg (p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Compliance to antihypertensive therapy in a tertiary care center is significantly good. Forgetfulness was the major reason for noncompliance. The mean blood pressure control was better in the compliant group. (author)

  15. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy; Diagnostik und Therapie des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann (eds.) [Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen BZG, Goettingen(Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  16. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at an approved music therapy degree program, the music therapy student must complete an internship at an approved internship ... needs to play in every session, but rather, music therapy students choose one instrument to be their major instrument ...

  18. Inversion Therapy: Can It Relieve Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inversion therapy: Can it relieve back pain? Does inversion therapy relieve back pain? Is it safe? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. Inversion therapy doesn't provide lasting relief from back ...

  19. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth / For Parents / Gene Therapy ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ...

  20. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  1. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Simon S. [Univ. Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Case Comprehensive Cancer Center; Teh, Bin S. [The Methodist Hospital Cancer Center and Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States). Weill Cornell Medical College; Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schefter, Tracey E. (eds.) [Colorado Univ., Aurora, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-11-01

    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  2. Antimetabolites: Established cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjul Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell death has been divided into two main types: programmed cell death, in which the cell plays an active role, and passive (necrotic cell death. Senescence arrest, accelerated senescence and differentiation are also responses that can be induced in response to DNA-damaging agents. Apoptosis may occur as a primary event following chemotherapy, in which genes that regulate apoptosis will influence the outcome of therapy or, alternatively, as an event secondary to the induction of lethal damage that involves the subsequent processing of cellular damage. The particular type of response induced is highly dependent on the agent and dose employed, the type of DNA damage induced as well as the genetic and cellular phenotypes. It has been proposed that apoptosis may play a lesser role in tumor response to radiation in comparison with the induction of cell death through mitotic catastrophe or a senescence-like irreversible growth arrest. However, in comparison with the induction of apoptosis, there is a lack of as much definitive information on other cell death processes that occur in cancer cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents, including antimetabolites. This article reviews what is known about these processes at the present time in response to experimental or clinically used agents that are analogs of 5-fluorouracil, cytidine or purines, hydroxyurea, or that belong to the family of folate antagonists.

  3. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, B. J.

    1998-11-01

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Neurobrucellosis: Challenges for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Alothman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection throughout the world, and is endemic in Saudi Arabia. Neurobrucellosis is a rare, severe form of systemic brucella infection. Treatment of neurobrucellosis continues to be variable, depending on the location of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective patient chart review was undertaken from 1995 to 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, to identify cases of neurobrucellosis following a proposed case definition. Follow-up visits were evaluated to determine response to treatment. Results A total of 22 cases of neurobrucellosis were identified from a total of 517 cases of brucellosis. The mean patient age was 42.5 years with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Most antibiotic combinations included doxycycline, rifampin, and cotrimoxazole (36%. Three patients received ciprofloxacin in combination with other antibiotics and showed a satisfactory response. Conclusion Combination of antibrucella antibiotics is recommended, but there are no clear guidelines regarding antibiotic selection and duration of therapy. The use of ciprofloxacin in cases of neurobrucellosis should be evaluated.

  5. Therapy of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yutaka; Kitagawa, Toru; Nakamori, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most difficult diseases to cure. Japan pancreas society guidelines for management of pancreatic cancer indicate therapeutic algorithm according to the clinical stage. For locally limited pancreatic cancer (cStage I, II, III in Japanese classification system), surgical resection is recommended, however prognosis is still poor. Major randomized controlled trials of resected pancreatic cancer indicates that adjuvant chemotherapy is superior to observation and gemcitabine is superior to 5-fluorouracil (FU). For locally advanced resectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in Japanese classification system (JCS)), we perform neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Phase I study established a recommended dose of 800 mg gemcitabine and radiation dose of 36 Gy. For locally advanced nonresectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in JCS), chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy is recommended. Although pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy resistant tumor, systemic chemotherapy is recommended for metastatic pancreatic cancer (cStage IVb in JCS). Single-agent gemcitabine is the standard first line agent for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy showed possibility of survival benefit of gemcitabine combination chemotherapy over gemcitabine alone. We hope gemcitabine combination chemotherapy or molecular targeted therapy will improve prognosis of pancreatic cancer in the future. (author)

  6. Meson radiobiology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgerman, M.M.

    1975-08-01

    High-linear energy transfer radiation (neutrons, heavy ions, and pions) have a greater relative biological effectiveness than low-linear energy transfer radiation by depositing a high density of ionization in irradiated cells. This overcomes the protective effect of oxygen; decreases the variation in sensitivity among the several stages of the cell cycles; and, inhibits the repair of sublethal damage as compared to x-rays, gamma rays, electrons and protons. Negative pi mesons (pions), appear particularly suited for radiation therapy as their penetration and depth-dose profiles lend themselves to shaping the high dose area to the tumor size and location. Preliminary biological experiments with pions produced at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility studied cell survival at various radiation depths and cell cycle sensitivity. Histologic study of data from the first human experiments indicated severe tumor cell destruction by pions as compared to x-rays in treating malignant melanoma skin nodules, without increased effects on dermal elements. (U.S.)

  7. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P; Keller, J; Lankisch, P G

    2001-04-01

    Malabsorption due to severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is one of the most important late features of chronic pancreatitis. Generally, steatorrhea is more severe and occurs several years prior to malabsorption of other nutrients because synthesis and secretion of lipase are impaired more rapidly, its intraluminal survival is shorter, and the lack of pancreatic lipase activity is not compensated for by nonpancreatic mechanisms. Patients suffer not only from nutritional deficiencies but also from increased nutrient delivery to distal intestinal sites, causing symptoms by profound alteration of upper gastrointestinal secretory and motor functions. Adequate nutrient absorption requires delivery of sufficient enzymatic activity into the duodenal lumen simultaneously with meal nutrients. The following recommendations are based on modern therapeutic concepts: 25,000 to 40,000 units of lipase per meal using pH-sensitive pancreatin microspheres, with dosage increases, compliance checks, and differential diagnosis in case of treatment failure. Still, in most patients, lipid digestion cannot be completely normalized by current standard therapy, and future developments are needed to optimize treatment.

  8. Pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Carlo; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    The current pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis (SpA) includes several drugs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic drugs. A systematic literature search was completed using the largest electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane), starting from 1995, with the aim to review data on traditional and biologic agents commercialised for SpA treatment. Randomised controlled trials and large observational studies were considered. In addition, studies performed in SpA patients treated with other, still unapproved, drugs (rituximab, anti-IL6 agents, apremilast, IL17 inhibitors and anakinra) were also taken into account. Biologic agents, especially anti-TNF drugs, have resulted in significant progress in improving clinical symptoms and signs, reducing inflammatory features in laboratory tests and imaging findings, and recovering all functional indexes. Anti-TNF drugs have radically changed the evolution of radiographic progression in peripheral joints; the first disappointing data concerning their efficacy on new bone formation of axial SpA has been recently challenged by studies enrolling patients who have been earlier diagnosed and treated. The opportunity to extend the interval of administration or to reduce the doses of anti-TNF agents can favourably influence the costs. Ustekinumab, the first non-anti-TNF biologic drug commercialised for psoriatic arthritis, offers new chances to patients that are unresponsive to anti-TNF.

  9. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.P.; Share, F.S.; Goodman, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation oncology now represents the integration of knowledge obtained over an 80-year period from the physics and biology laboratories and the medical clinic. Such integration is recent; until the supervoltage era following World War II, the chief developments in these three areas for the most part were realized independently. The physics and engineering laboratories have now developed a dependable family of sources of ionizing radiations that can be precisely directed at tumor volumes at various depths within the body. The biology laboratory has provided the basic scientific support underlying the intensive clinical experience and currently is suggesting ways of using ionizing radiations more effectively, such as modified fractionation schedules relating to cell cycle kinetics and the use of drugs and chemicals as modifiers of radiation response and normal tissue reaction. The radiation therapy clinic has provided the patient stratum on which the acute and chronic effects of irradiation have been assessed, and the patterns of treatment success and failure identified. The radiation therapist has shared with the surgeon and medical oncologist the responsibility for clarifying the natural history of a large number of human neoplasms, and through such clarifications, has developed more effective treatment strategies. Several examples of this include the improved results in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, seminoma, and epithelial neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract

  10. Laser therapy in sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Diaz, Adel; Orellana Molina, Alina; Larrea Cox, Pedro; Combarro Romero, Andres; Corcho Corcho, Carlos; Morales Valdes, Omar; Gonzalez Mendez, Bianka M.

    2009-01-01

    The sinusitis is an inflammation of one or more breasts peri-nasals. It is common in the months of winter and it can last months or years if it is not treat. At the moment we have several means that try to offer our patients a better treatment. One of these instruments is the low power laser that for their properties to the interaction with the biological tissues offers therapeutic effects on the alive tissues, achieving at the level cellular important changes for a quick answer of the damaged tissue. We intended to demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment with low power laser in patient with sinusitis. It was carried out an explanatory and retrospective study, where it was applied as treatment the low power laser, for that which a team of model Cuban production Fisser 21. The feminine sex, the affected age group prevailed it was among 36 to 50 years for both groups, the maxillary sinusitis prevailed regarding the frontal. The migraine, the nasal obstruction and the sensation of congestion of the head were present in most of the cases. 75% of the patients' treaties noticed improvement of the symptoms between the 1st and 3rd sessions. At the end 80% cured without necessity of a second treatment cycle. The accompanying symptoms almost disappeared in their entirety. We recommend using the treatment of low power laser, as therapy of first line for the treatment of sinusitis of infectious cause. (Author)

  11. Viewpoint: Personalizing Statin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Keidar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD, associated with vascular atherosclerosis, is the major cause of death in Western societies. Current risk estimation tools, such as Framingham Risk Score (FRS, based on evaluation of multiple standard risk factors, are limited in assessment of individual risk. The majority (about 70% of the general population is classified as low FRS where the individual risk for CVD is often underestimated but, on the other hand, cholesterol lowering with statin is often excessively administered. Adverse effects of statin therapy, such as muscle pain, affect a large proportion of the treated patients and have a significant influence on their quality of life. Coronary artery calcification (CAC, as assessed by computed tomography, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and especially presence of plaques as assessed by B-mode ultrasound are directly correlated with increased risk for cardiovascular events and provide accurate and relevant information for individual risk assessment. Absence of vascular pathology as assessed by these imaging methods has a very high negative predictive value and therefore could be used as a method to reduce significantly the number of subjects who, in our opinion, would not benefit from statins and only suffer from their side-effects. In summary, we suggest that in very-low-risk subjects, with the exception of subjects with low FRS with a family history of coronary artery disease (CAD at young age, if vascular imaging shows no CAC or normal CIMT without plaques, statin treatment need not be administered.

  12. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  13. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  14. Gene therapy and reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribley, John M; Rehman, Khurram S; Niu, Hairong; Christman, Gregory M

    2002-04-01

    To review the literature on the principles of gene therapy and its potential application in reproductive medicine. Literature review. Gene therapy involves transfer of genetic material to target cells using a delivery system, or vector. Attention has primarily focused on viral vectors. Significant problems remain to be overcome including low efficacy of gene transfer, the transient expression of some vectors, safety issues with modified adenoviruses and retroviruses, and ethical concerns. If these issues can be resolved, gene therapy will be applicable to an increasing spectrum of single and multiple gene disorders, as the Human Genome Project data are analyzed, and the genetic component of human disease becomes better understood. Gynecologic gene therapy has advanced to human clinical trials for ovarian carcinoma, and shows potential for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata. Obstetric applications of gene therapy, including fetal gene therapy, remain more distant goals. Concerns about the safety of human gene therapy research are being actively addressed, and remarkable progress in improving DNA transfer has been made. The first treatment success for a genetic disease (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) has been achieved, and ongoing research efforts will eventually yield clinical applications in many spheres of reproductive medicine.

  15. Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-05-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  16. Nuclear medicine therapy of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    Specific targeting of radionuclides to neuroblastoma, a neural crest tumor occurring predominantly in young children and associated with a relatively poor prognosis, may be achieved via the metabolic route (Mibg), receptor binding (peptides) or immunological approach (antibodies). The clinical role of 1 31 I -Mibg therapy and radioimmunotherapy in neuroblastoma is discussed. In recurrent or progressive metastatic disease after conventional treatment modalities have failed, 1 31 I -Mibg therapy, with an overall objective response rate of 35%, is probably the best palliative treatment, as the invasiveness and toxicity of this therapy compare favourably with that of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. In patients presenting with inoperable stage III and IV neuroblastoma, 1 31 I -Mibg therapy at diagnosis is at least as effective as combination chemotherapy but is associated with much less toxicity. In patients with recurrent disease 1 31 I -Mibg therapy in combination with hyperbaric oxygen therapy proved feasible and encouraging effects on survival have ben observed. Attempts to intensify the treatment in relapsed patients by combination of 1 31 I -Mibg therapy with high dose chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation have met with considerable toxicity. Developments in Mibg therapy aiming at improving the therapeutic index are mentioned. Early results of radioimmunotherapy using 1 31 I -UJ13A or 1 31 I -3F8 monoclonal antibodies have shown moderate objective response and considerable side effects in patients with stage IV neuroblastoma, who had relapsed or failed conventional therapy. New developments in radioimmunotherapy of neuroblastoma include the use of chimeric antibodies, the enhancement of tumor uptake by modulation of antigen expression or by increasing the tumor perfusion/vascularity/permeability, the use of other labels and multistep targeting techniques, e.g. using bispecific monoclonal antibodies

  17. Therapy: a new nonsurgical therapy option for benign thyroid nodules?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing implementation of iodization programs, benign nodular thyroid disease will remain a prevalent therapeutic concern for decades. recent research suggests that nonsurgical therapy, including radioactive iodine, radiofrequency thermal ablation and percutaneous laser ablation, m...

  18. Play therapy in perspective theory of eco systemic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofwan Adiputra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Play therapy is a counseling approach for children applying toys, games, and other play media to communicate to the children "language." One of the Play therapy models that combine ecosystems as being formed by an inseparable reciprocal relationship between living things, and their environment is Eco systemic Play Therapy (EPT. Ecosystem Play Therapy as a hybrid model that integrates the concepts of science biology, several models of child psychotherapy, and developmental theories. This model is not eclectic. Rather, it is the integration of several models to create an independent model that is different from the sum of its parts. The focus of EPT is on the process of optimizing the implementation of the child's function as the context of the child's ecosystem or world. EPT is developed from a phenomenological philosophical perspective, in contrast to traditional perspectives.

  19. Proton-therapy and hadron-therapy ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnat, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the ARCHADE project (Advanced Resource Center for Hadron-therapy in Europe), a research project in Carbone ion beam therapy and clinical Proton-therapy, this work investigates the beam monitoring and dosimetry aspects of ion beam therapy. The main goal, here, is to understand the operating mode of air ionization chambers, the detectors used for such applications. This study starts at a very fundamental level as the involved physical and chemical parameters of air were measured in various electric field conditions with dedicated setups and used to produce a simulation tools aiming at reproducing the operating response in high intensity PBS (Pencil Beam Scanning) coming from IBA's (Ion Beam Applications) next generation of proton beam accelerators. In addition, an ionization chamber-based dosimetry equipment was developed, DOSION III, for radiobiology studies conducted at GANIL under the supervision of the CIMAP laboratory. (author)

  20. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  1. Wanted: entrepreneurs in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin M; Nelson, David L

    2011-01-01

    The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) has challenged occupational therapy practitioners to advance the profession so that we may become more "powerful" and "widely recognized" by the year 2017 (AOTA, 2007a). To fully achieve this vision, this article argues that the profession should encourage occupational therapy entrepreneurship. As Herz, Bondoc, Richmond, Richman, and Kroll (2005, p.2) stated, "Entrepreneurship may provide us with the means to achieve the outcomes we need to succeed in the current health care environment." This article also argues the urgency of seizing the many opportunities that entrepreneurship offers and recommends specific actions to be taken by AOTA and by therapists.

  2. Hadron accelerators in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.; Silari, M.

    1997-01-01

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadrontherapy Project (the largest project of this type in Europe) is then described, with reference to both the National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy and the design of two types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large number of hospitals. Finally, the radiation protection requirements are discussed. (author)

  3. Family therapy and clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The results of a survey of 111 clinical psychologists in the Republic of Ireland along with some comparable data from US and UK surveys were used to address a series of questions about the link between family therapy and clinical psychology. Family therapy was not a clearly identifiable sub-specialty within clinical psychology in Ireland. Family therapy theoretical models were used by more than a quarter of the Irish sample to conceptualize their work but by less than a tenth of US and UK res...

  4. Bone changes from prostaglandin therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznanski, A.K.; Fernbach, S.K.; Berry, T.E.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1985-01-01

    Prostaglandin E therapy in infants causes periosteal elevation. Although the changes usually take 30-40 days to become visible, we have seen them as early as nine days. In 15 infants who had prostaglandin E therapy for over six days, three developed periosteal elevation. Three other cases are described in greater detail, with long-term follow-up in two in which the bone remodeled to normal. Gallium scan in one showed increased uptake in areas involved. The periosteal cloaking may mimic Caffey disease but the pattern of involvement is different, since the mandible, which is commonly affected in Caffey disease, is rarely involved in prostaglandin E therapy. (orig.)

  5. [Music therapy on Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrte, Beltrina; Lodovici Neto, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    This study is a result of a qualitative research, in the Gerontology and Music therapy scenario. It was analyzed the importance of alternative practices like playing an instrument (piano, violin, etc.), singing, or practicing a guided musical exercise as a therapy activity for elder people with Parkinson Disease. The analysis, systematization and interpretation of the data pointed: music therapy is an excellent way to improve the life of the patient that becomes more sociable, decreasing physical and psychological symptoms ('symptomatology') and the subject change for a singular and own position in the relation with your disease and the people around.

  6. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  7. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radder, Danique L M; Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; van Nimwegen, Marlies; Keus, Samyra H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M

    2017-10-01

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in daily activities. In this narrative review, we address the limitations that people with Parkinson's disease may encounter despite optimal medical management, and we clarify both the unique and shared approaches that physical therapists and occupational therapists can apply in treating these limitations.

  8. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potish, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common malignant tumor in the female genital tract. Radiation therapy continues to play a major role in the management of endometrial carcinoma, both as primary therapy and as adjuvant treatment. The utility of pelvic external beam therapy and intracavitary therapy is long established. However, the modern era of surgical staging has lead to an appreciation of the role of radiation therapy beyond the pelvis. Radiation therapy has been shown to be of particular benefit in peritoneal and nodal spread. The classic management of endometrial cancer is reviewed and relatively new and somewhat controversial topics, such as preoperative intracavitary therapy followed by external beam therapy are discussed

  9. Gene therapy and radiotherapy in malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaowen; Cao Yongzhen; Li Jin; Wang Qin

    2008-01-01

    Tumor treatment is one of the most important fields in medical research. Nowadays, a novel method which is combined gene therapy with radiotherapy plays an important role in the field of cancer research, and mainly includes immune gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, suicide gene therapy or tumor suppressor gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and protective gene therapy combined with radiotherapy based on the technical features. This review summarized the current status of combined therapies of gene therapy and radiotherapy and possible mechanism. (authors)

  10. Therapy of the burnout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Wastian, Monika; Schneider, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, diagnostics and therapy of the burnout syndrome are increasingly discussed in the public. The unclear definition and diagnostics of the burnout syndrome are scientifically criticized. There are several therapies with unclear evidence for the treatment of burnout in existence. The health technology assessment (HTA) report deals with the question of usage and efficacy of different burnout therapies. For the years 2006 to 2011, a systematic literature research was done in 31 electronic databases (e.g. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO). Important inclusion criteria are burnout, therapeutic intervention and treatment outcome. 17 studies meet the inclusion criteria and are regarded for the HTA report. The studies are very heterogeneous (sample size, type of intervention, measuring method, level of evidence). Due to their study design (e.g. four reviews, eight randomized controlled trials) the studies have a comparable high evidence: three times 1A, five times 1B, one time 2A, two times 2B and six times 4. 13 of the 17 studies are dealing with the efficacy of psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions for the reduction of burnout (partly in combination with other techniques). Cognitive behaviour therapy leads to the improvement of emotional exhaustion in the majority of the studies. The evidence is inconsistent for the efficacy of stress management and music therapy. Two studies regarding the efficacy of Qigong therapy do not deliver a distinct result. One study proves the efficacy of roots of Rhodiola rosea (evidence level 1B). Physical therapy is only in one study separately examined and does not show a better result than standard therapy. Despite the number of studies with high evidence the results for the efficacy of burnout therapies are preliminary and do have only limited reach. The authors of the studies complain about the low number of skilled studies for the therapy of burnout. Furthermore, they point to the insufficient evaluation of the therapy

  11. Effectiveness of hypnosis therapy and Gestalt therapy as depression treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth González-Ramírez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effectiveness of two psychological therapies to treat depression in the Culiacan population, Mexico. According to criteria of MINI (international Neuropsychiatric interview, 30 individuals from a total of 300 were selected and diagnosed with some kind of depression. Patients were divided in three groups: 1 treatment with hypnosis therapy, 2 treatment with Gestalt-hypnosis therapy, and 3 control group. Before and after the treatments the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI was applied to know the depression level of the analyzed groups. The results show that the three groups were presenting a moderated level of depression. The groups under hypnosis therapy and Gestalt-hypnosis therapy show statistical differences between pre-test and post-test. The hypnosis therapy shows significant statistic differences to treat depression with respect to the other two groups. In conclusion, the therapeutic hypnosis is an effective treatment and has relevance to treat depression, while other therapeutic treatments tend to be slow and with minor result. This study is the first of this kind carried out in Culiacan in Sinaloa, Mexico.

  12. Gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy--contrasts or complementarities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesvang, Jan; Sommer, Ulla; Hammink, James; Sonne, Mikael

    2010-12-01

    The article investigates the relationship between crucial concepts and understandings in gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy aiming at discussing if and how they can be mutually enriching when considered as complementary parts in a more encompassing integrative therapeutic approach. It is argued that gestalt therapy, defined as a field-theoretical approach to the study of gestalt formation process, can complement the schema-based understanding and practice in cognitive therapy. The clinical benefits from a complementary view of the two approaches will be a wider scope of awareness toward individual and contextual aspects of therapeutic change processes, toward different levels of memory involved in these processes, and toward the relationship between basic needs, sensation and cognition in therapeutic work. Further, a dialogue between the two approaches will pave the way for addressing the connection between fundamental awareness work in gestalt therapy and the tendency within cognitive therapy toward incorporating mindfulness as a therapeutic tool. In the conclusion of the article, additional complementary points between the two approaches are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Chemotherapy and molecular target therapy combined with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been established as standard treatment approach for locally advanced head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer and so on through randomized clinical trials. However, radiation-related morbidity such as acute toxicity also increased as treatment intensity has increased. In underlining mechanism for enhancement of normal tissue reaction in chemo-radiation therapy, chemotherapy enhanced radiosensitivity of normal tissues in addition to cancer cells. Molecular target-based drugs combined with radiation therapy have been expected as promising approach that makes it possible to achieve cancer-specific enhancement of radiosensitivity, and clinical trials using combined modalities have been performed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of this approach. In order to obtain maximum radiotherapeutic gain, a detailed understanding of the mechanism underlying the interaction between radiation and Molecular target-based drugs is indispensable. Among molecular target-based drugs, inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its signal transduction pathways have been vigorously investigated, and mechanisms regarding the radiosensitizing effect have been getting clear. In addition, the results of randomized clinical trials demonstrated that radiation therapy combined with cetuximab resulted in improvement of overall and disease-specific survival rate compared with radiation therapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer. In this review, clinical usefulness of chemo-radiation therapy and potential molecular targets for potentiation of radiation-induced cell killing are summarized. (author)

  14. Optimization of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsubo, Masaaki

    1990-01-01

    In radiotherapy, dose optimization is to give adequate dose uniformly over target volume and minimize the dose to normal and adjacent critical organs. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze dose distribution in detail. This paper presents a method for quantitatively assessing treatment planning by analysis of dose distribution. For this purpose, several parameters were introduced, such as D T, min (minimum target absorbed dose), NUF (nonuniformity factor), volume rate of damaged lung and spinal cord, R T/T (ratio of target volume to treatment volume), LE (local efficiency), integral dose, etc. And some criteria were made using these parameters, and were applied to evaluate various plans in external beam radiation therapy for lung and esophagus cancer. In these parameters, NUF was especially useful to obtain three-dimensional dose information of target volume, and value of NUF was in agreement with the information provided by dose volume histogram. AP-PA parallel opposed fields technique was inferior in D T,min and NUF. In lung cancer, there was no spinal cord injury in oblique parallel opposed fields technique, and this technique is particularly useful when target volume is in posterior. In these two techniques, R T/T was small and hot spots were frequently observed. R T/T was largest in oblique wedged two-fields technique, but this technique was inferior in D T, min and NUF. About D T, min and NUF, four fields technique was the best, but in this technique spinal cord complication often occurred in case that target volume was in the middle. In moving beam technique (360deg rotation or arc), integral dose is large, and the more target volume is in posterior, the more often spinal cord complication occurs. In esophageal cancer, three fields technique was the best to avoid spinal cord injury. It seems that this method is very useful for optimization in radiation treatment planning. (author)

  15. [Diuretic-based therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presne, Claire; Monge, Matthieu; Mansour, Janette; Oprisiu, Roxana; Choukroun, Gabriel; Achard, Jean Michel; Fournier, Albert

    2007-10-01

    Diuretics are pharmacological agents that increase natriuresis through inhibition of tubular re-absorption of sodium. The mechanisms and site of this inhibition differ with each drug class, accounting for their additive effects on natriuresis increase and their hydroelectrolytic side effects. The response to a given diuretic dose depends on the diuretic concentration on the urine at its action site. This concentration may be decreased by pharmacokinetic factors such as encountered in renal insufficiency or in nephrotic syndrome. These resistance mechanisms of diuretics may be corrected by dose increase, previous diuretic fixation on albumin or warfarin administration. Once these mechanisms are opposed, the diuretic concentration for maximal efficacy is reached at is action site and the natriuresis obtained as the normal maximal plateau. This is not the case when an oedematous systemic disease with effective hypovolemia is present, like in heart failure or cirrhosis, or when chronic use of loop diuretics has induced a hypertrophy of the more distant part of the tubule. In theses cases, a pharmacodynamic resistance exists, resulting in a lower maximal natriuresis plateau in spite of adequate concentration of the diuretic at its action site, even in the absence of pharmacokinetic resistance factors. The main indications of diuretics are systemic oedematous disease and hypertension. In the oedematous diseases, diuretics indication is both straightforward and sufficient only if effective hypervolemia is present. The therapeutic approach is discussed according to the various clinical conditions and pathophysiological background. In uncomplicated hypertension, diuretics are the cornerstone of the therapy. The most suitable diuretic treatment for hypertension is an association of low doses thiazide (12.5-50 mg/day) with potassium sparing diuretics. Rare indications of diuretics are also reviewed.

  16. Family therapy, conflicts and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Given the relative lack of sociocultural approaches to therapy, this presentation aims to contribute to a sociocultural understanding of motivation and socio-emotional problems in children and families undergoing family therapy. The study was designed as a case study using semi structured...... will be sketched pertaining to the area of family therapy. The study argues for the importance of a holistic, non-mechanical (Valsiner) approach to motivation for change in understanding how "at risk" or "problematic" children and youth (who are for instance experiencing school absenteeism, domestic violence...... interviews with 15 families undergoing family therapy delivered by a communal agency in Denmark.   Using notions of crisis interlinked with institutions and everyday lives (Hedegaard) framed by historical, contentious struggles (Holland and Lave), a model of conflict, violence, learning and motivation...

  17. International Occupational Therapy Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Coppola, Susan; Alvarez, Liliana; Cibule, Lolita; Maltsev, Sergey; Loh, Siew Yim; Mlambo, Tecla; Ikiugu, Moses N; Pihlar, Zdenka; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Baptiste, Sue; Ledgerd, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Occupational therapy is a global profession represented by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT). International research priorities are needed for strategic guidance on global occupational therapy practice. The objective of this study was to develop international research priorities to reflect global occupational therapy practice. A Delphi study using three rounds of electronic surveys, distributed to WFOT member organizations and WFOT accredited universities, was conducted. Data were analyzed after each round, and priorities were presented for rating and ranking in order of importance. Forty-six (53%) out of 87 WFOT member countries participated in the Delphi process. Eight research priorities were confirmed by the final electronic survey round. Differences were observed in rankings given by member organizations and university respondents. Despite attrition at Round 3, the final research priorities will help to focus research efforts in occupational therapy globally. Follow-up research is needed to determine how the research priorities are being adopted internationally.

  18. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  19. Occupational Therapy's Role with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a lifelong condition associated with a varied course from early childhood through adulthood. Occupational therapy practitioners are distinctly qualified to ...

  20. Gene therapy for lipid disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lipid disorders are associated with atherosclerotic vascular disease, and therapy is associated with a substantial reduction in cardiovascular events. Current approaches to the treatment of lipid disorders are ineffective in a substantial number of patients. New therapies for refractory hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are needed: somatic gene therapy is one viable approach. The molecular etiology and pathophysiology of most of the candidate diseases are well understood. Animal models exist for the diseases and in many cases preclinical proof-of-principle studies have already been performed. There has been progress in the development of vectors that provide long-term gene expression. New clinical gene therapy trials for lipid disorders are likely to be initiated within the next few years.

  1. Radiation therapy for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobelbower, R.R.; Bagne, F.; Ajlouni, M.I.; Milligan, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a moderately radioresponsive neoplasm. Attempts to treat patients with unresectable disease with external beam radiation therapy alone have generally failed because of problems with tumor localization and adequate dose delivery as well as the inherent radioresponsiveness of the gastric mucosa and the organs intimately related to the stomach. Combining external beam therapy and chemotherapy (acting as a systemic agent and as a radiosensitizer) seems to be of some (albeit limited) benefit in the management of unresectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Optimum combinations of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation sensitizers in this situation remain to be determined. The authors discuss strides which have been made in the treatment of gastric cancer. They also address the unanswered clinical questions which remain regarding the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of this highly lethal disease

  2. Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Denyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic improvements to those suffering from this incurable degenerative neurological disorder, but none of these has convincingly shown effects on disease progression. Novel approaches based on gene therapy have several potential advantages over conventional treatment modalities. These could be used to provide more consistent dopamine supplementation, potentially providing superior symptomatic relief with fewer side effects. More radically, gene therapy could be used to correct the imbalances in basal ganglia circuitry associated with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or to preserve or restore dopaminergic neurons lost during the disease process itself. The latter neuroprotective approach is the most exciting, as it could theoretically be disease modifying rather than simply symptom alleviating. Gene therapy agents using these approaches are currently making the transition from the laboratory to the bedside. This paper summarises the theoretical approaches to gene therapy for Parkinson's disease and the findings of clinical trials in this rapidly changing field.

  3. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsana Tanwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsurgical therapy aims to eliminate both living bacteria in the microbial biofilm and calcified biofilm microorganisms from the tooth surface and adjacent soft tissues. Complete elimination of such pathogenic microorganisms is perhaps over-ambitious. However, a reduction in inflammation of the periodontium due to a lesser bacterial load leads to beneficial clinical changes. In addition, nonsurgical therapy aims to create an environment in which the host can more effectively prevent pathogenic microbial recolonization using personal oral hygiene methods. The concept of critical probing depth was consistently found to be greater for the surgical approach than for the nonsurgical treatment. The various methods used in nonsurgical therapy, such as hand instrumentation, ultrasonic and sonic scalers, and ablative laser therapy.

  4. Cell based therapy in Parkinsonism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, J.P.J.M.; Lee, C.; Wolters, E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a synucleinopathy-induced chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder, worldwide affecting about 5 million humans. As of yet, actual therapies are symptomatic, and neuroprotective strategies are an unmet need. Due to their capability to transdifferentiate, to immune

  5. Umbanda, Music and Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio José Pereira de Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations among the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of its approaches.

  6. THERAPY DEVELOPMENTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the potential benefits of structured treatment interruptions. Second, extensive .... suppression can facilitate restoration of CD4+ T-cell prolif- erative responses to recall ..... women after initiation of protease inhibitor therapy. In: 12th World.

  7. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  8. Does Psychodynamic Environmental Therapy Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul; Hansen, Kim Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first Danish prospective outcome study of psychodynamic environmental therapy of children in residential treatment with early, serious traumatisation and extential relational disturbances. The study delves beneath the surface and explores the extent to which the children...

  9. Interaction Themes in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapy interaction called ‘Interaction Themes.’ These are developed from session to session and often appear in music therapy interventions with children with severe functional limitations, especially children with autism. Although...... whose expressions are often difficult to understand. The presented article describes the characteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares the phenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regard to other types of music therapy interaction with this client group....... the Interaction Themes are characterised by a relatively simple and self-generated content, they have an essential function because they contain the child’s and music therapist’s joint interaction history. They make up the context within which it is possible to create meaningful interaction with a client group...

  10. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  11. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social

  12. Patient communication in hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnare, S M

    2001-01-01

    Common regimens of HRT therapy are reviewed, including common routes of hormone administration. Inconsistent patterns of HRT use are discussed, including the reasons women most often give for discontinuing hormone therapies. Specific issues related to misperceptions and fears regarding HRT are clarified, and specific, focused patient education formats are discussed to address women's common concerns about HRT. Obstacles to HRT use are elucidated, with suggestions for clinicians about how to communicate more effectively with women: clinicians must focus on emotional and physical aspects of HRT choices and tailor therapies to the individual patient. Discussing frankly the very serious concerns of women regarding the association between lobular breast cancer and endometrial cancer is important; discussing and preparing women for possible side effects helps patients cope better if and when side effects occur. Finally, offering a wide variety of HRT therapies provides women with a broader choice if an initial regimen is unsuccessful.

  13. Oculomotor biofeedback therapy for exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrich, S G

    1982-04-01

    Twelve exotropes of various types received oculomotor biofeedback therapy at State College of New York (SUNY) University Optometric Center. Feedback of a variable pitch tone which reflected changes in ocular vergence reinforced motor control of eye posture. Patients were trained to achieve and sustain alignment in a variety of viewing situations. The six intermittent exotropes in the study who did not have amblyopia or prior history of unsuccessful surgical or orthoptic therapy achieved the highest recovery rating after training. The amblyope and those who had orthoptic training learned to voluntarily correct their eye position, although they did not achieve as acute a sensitivity to loss of alignment as did the others. Therapy restored eye control at near in a young constant exotrope whose condition resulted from severe neurological dysfunction. A constant postsurgical exotrope who had no ability for sensory fusion made little progress. Advantages of oculomotor biofeedback therapy are shorter treatment time, elimination of lengthy home training exercises, and enhanced patient motivation.

  14. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  15. Technical advances in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sause, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    Substantial advances have been made in radiation therapy. Many of these advances can be applied in most radiation therapy departments without expensive improvements in equipment. Changes in radiation fractionation, chemotherapeutic sensitization, intraoperative radiation, and interstitial implants can be performed with experience and improved physician training in most medium-sized departments. Advances that require investments in expensive equipment such as particle radiation and hyperthermia will need to be evaluated at designated treatment centers. 106 references

  16. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapies to the tumor. Futhermore, surgical resection of tumors can be guided and enhanced by way of nanotechnology tools. Find out how nanotechnology will offer the next generation of our therapeutic arsenal to the patient.

  17. Atrioventricular Dissociation after Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried William Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is increasingly used as a treatment for psychiatric disorders. Cardiac effects are the principal cause of medical complications in these patients. We report a case of atrioventricular (AV dissociation that occurred after ECT that was treated with pacemaker implantation. The mechanisms contributing to the onset of AV dissociation in this patient, and the management and rationale for device therapy, in light of the most recent guidelines, are reviewed.

  18. Hypertension and experimental stroke therapies

    OpenAIRE

    O'Collins, Victoria E; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an established target for long-term stroke prevention but procedures for management of hypertension in acute stroke are less certain. Here, we analyze basic science data to examine the impact of hypertension on candidate stroke therapies and of anti-hypertensive treatments on stroke outcome. Methods: Data were pooled from 3,288 acute ischemic stroke experiments (47,899 animals) testing the effect of therapies on infarct size (published 1978–2010). Data were combined using meta...

  19. Biological therapy in geriatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mego, M.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted biological therapy, alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy, make significant progress in the treatment of patients with malignancy. Its use as opposed to high-dose chemotherapy is not limited by age, nevertheless, we have relatively little knowledge of the toxicity and effectiveness in geriatric patients. Aim of this article is to give an overview of the biological effectiveness and toxicity of anticancer therapy in geriatric patients, based on published data. (author)

  20. Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

    In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

  1. Music Therapy in Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Marco; Keßler, Jens; Hillecke, Thomas K; Bardenheuer, Hubert J

    2015-11-13

    Music therapy has been used successfully for over 30 years as part of palliative care programs for severely ill patients. There is nonetheless a lack of high-quality studies that would enable an evidence-based evaluation of its psychological and physiological effects. In a randomized controlled trial, 84 hospitalized patients in palliative care were assigned to one of two treatment arms--music therapy and control. The music therapy intervention consisted of two sessions of live music-based relaxation exercises; the patients in the control group listened to a verbal relaxation exercise. The primary endpoints were self-ratings of relaxation, well-being, and acute pain, assessed using visual analog scales. Heart rate variability and health-related quality of life were considered as secondary outcomes. The primary data analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Analyses of covariance revealed that music therapy was more effective than the control treatment at promoting relaxation (F = 13.7; p Music therapy did not differ from control treatment with respect to pain reduction (F = 0.4; p = 0.53), but it led to a significantly greater reduction in the fatigue score on the quality-of-life scale (F = 4.74; p = 0.03). Music therapy is an effective treatment with a low dropout rate for the promotion of relaxation and well-being in terminally ill persons undergoing palliative care.

  2. Photodynamic therapy in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Filonenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review is on opportunities and possibilities of application of photodynamic therapy in clinical practice. The advantages of this method are the targeting of effect on tumor foci and high efficiency along with low systemic toxicity. The results of the set of recent Russian and foreign clinical trials are represented in the review. The method is successfully used in clinical practice with both radical (for early vulvar, cervical cancer and pre-cancer, central early lung cancer, esophageal and gastric cancer, bladder cancer and other types of malignant tumors, and palliative care (including tumor pleuritis, gastrointestinal tumors and others. Photodynamic therapy delivers results which are not available for other methods of cancer therapy. Thus, photodynamic therapy allows to avoid gross scars (that is very important, for example, in gynecology for treatment of patients of reproductive age with cervical and vulvar cancer, delivers good cosmetic effect for skin tumors, allows minimal trauma for intact tissue surrounding tumor. Photodynamic therapy is also used in other fields of medicine, such as otorhinolaryngology, dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopaedics, for treatment of papilloma virus infection and purulent wounds as antibacterial therapy.

  3. New anabolic therapies in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mishaela R; Bilezikian, John P

    2003-03-01

    Anabolic agents represent an important new advance in the therapy of osteoporosis. Their potential might be substantially greater than the anti-resorptives. Because the anti-resorptives and anabolic agents work by completely distinct mechanisms of action, it is possible that the combination of agents could be significantly more potent than either agent alone. Recent evidence suggests that a plateau in BMD might occur after prolonged exposure to PTH. Anti-resorptive therapy during or after anabolic therapy might prevent this skeletal adaptation. Protocols to consider anabolic agents as intermittent recycling therapy would be of interest. Of all the anabolics, PTH is the most promising. However, there are unanswered questions about PTH. More studies are needed to document an anabolic effect on cortical bone. More large-scale studies are needed to further determine the reduction in nonvertebral fractures with PTH, especially at the hip. In the future, PTH is likely to be modified for easier and more targeted delivery. Oral or transdermal delivery systems may become available. Recently, Gowen et al have described an oral calcilytic molecule that antagonizes the parathyroid cell calcium receptor, thus stimulating the endogenous release of PTH. This approach could represent a novel endogenous delivery system for intermittent PTH administration. Rising expectations that anabolic therapies for osteoporosis will soon play a major role in treating this disease are likely to fuel further studies and the development of even more novel approaches to therapy.

  4. Radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of I-131 in 1946 for the treatment of hyperthyroidism marked a historic event. It ushered in the era of radionuclides in medicine and led to the birth of nuclear medicine. Today I-131 has become one of the most commonly used agents for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Ninety percent (90%) of its effect is due to beta radiation and 10% is due to gamma radiation. The mechanism of action is production of radiation thyroiditis (3-10 days) and chronic gland atrophy (over a period of 3 years). To achieve the necessary dosage levels, four considerations are needed: maximum amount of I-131 taken by the thyroid gland, size of tissue to be irradiated, effective half life of the isotope in the thyroid and relative sensitivity of the thyroid to I-131. There are two kinds of dosing - the preferred dose where 160 μCi/gram of tissue of given (15-20μCi) or the usual dose 80 μCi/gram - (2 to 15 mCi). In giving these dosages, four basic approaches are utilized and two major principles are applied. However, precision in the calculation of I-131 dose makes very little difference in the outcome in any individual patients. The inherent sensitivity of the thyroid to radiation seems to vary widely for unknown reasons. The success in treatment is high with incidence of cure as follows: 70-86% in single dose; 10-20% using 2 doses and less than 5% required 3 doses or more. Adjunctive therapy in the forms of antithyroid drugs, beta blocker and steroids may be needed. There are short and long term complications where hypothyroidism is the most important complication. Long term follow-up is advocated by FT4 and TSH determinations. There is an unknown risk of malignancy and genetic damage. Finally, I-131 has been a choice of treatment for hyperthyroidism with some considerations in the U.S.A., Europe, and Asia. It is rapidly effective, predictable and inexpensive. Several studies on the experience will be discussed. (author)

  5. Meaning of dancing therapy in therapy of clients with psychological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    NĚMCOVÁ, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with meaning and effects of Dance therapy in frame of medical therapy of clients with psychical disease. Theoretical part defines words like dance, movement and Dance therapy. This part also describes history of dance, meaning and aims of Dance therapy, its school, aims and divisions. Mensioned are person of dance therapist, personalities connected with dance and Dance therapy, target groups of clients suitable for Dance therapy, importance of Dance therapy for clients w...

  6. Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharyan, P; Adams, C E

    2005-04-18

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) involves the induction of a seizure for therapeutic purposes by the administration of a variable frequency electrical stimulus shock via electrodes applied to the scalp. The effects of its use in people with schizophrenia are unclear. To determine whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) results in clinically meaningful benefit with regard to global improvement, hospitalisation, changes in mental state, behaviour and functioning for people with schizophrenia, and to determine whether variations in the practical administration of ECT influences outcome. We undertook electronic searches of Biological Abstracts (1982-1996), EMBASE (1980-1996), MEDLINE (1966-2004), PsycLIT (1974-1996),SCISEARCH (1996) and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (July 2004). We also inspected the references of all identified studies and contacted relevant authors. We included all randomised controlled clinical trials that compared ECT with placebo, 'sham ECT', non-pharmacological interventions and antipsychotics and different schedules and methods of administration of ECT for people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or chronic mental disorder. Working independently, we selected and critically appraised studies, extracted data and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Where possible and appropriate we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) with the number needed to treat (NNT). For continuous data Weighted Mean Differences (WMD) were calculated. We presented scale data for only those tools that had attained pre-specified levels of quality. We also undertook tests for heterogeneity and publication bias. This review includes 26 trials with 50 reports. When ECT is compared with placebo or sham ECT, more people improved in the real ECT group (n=392, 10 RCTs, RR 0.76 random CI 0.59 to 0.98, NNT 6 CI 4 to 12) and though data were heterogeneous (chi-square 17.49 df=9 P=0.04), its impact on variability of data was not

  7. Power System Oscillation Modes Identifications: Guidelines for Applying TLS-ESPRIT Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Gopal R.; Soman, Shreevardhan

    2013-05-01

    Fast measurements of power system quantities available through wide-area measurement systems enables direct observations for power system electromechanical oscillations. But the raw observations data need to be processed to obtain the quantitative measures required to make any inference regarding the power system state. A detailed discussion is presented for the theory behind the general problem of oscillatory mode indentification. This paper presents some results on oscillation mode identification applied to a wide-area frequency measurements system. Guidelines for selection of parametes for obtaining most reliable results from the applied method are provided. Finally, some results on real measurements are presented with our inference on them.

  8. Twenty-one Ways to Develop Esprit De Corps Among Your Student Officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalakides, Nick

    Student officials for intramural sports can be given special training to enhance their aptitude in the field, but their attitude is more difficult to develop. This paper suggests 21 ways to develop attitude among student officials. Some of the suggestions are: Athletic departments should emphasize the role of the official in the intramural…

  9. Esprit de Place: Maintaining and Designing Library Buildings To Provide Transcendent Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, Sam; Scherer, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library buildings and their role in building community. Reviews current design trends, including reading and study spaces; collaborative workspaces; technology-free zones; archives and special collections; cultural events spaces; age-specific spaces; shared spaces; natural light and landscapes; and interior design trends. (LRW)

  10. Science & Vie et l'esprit CERN Particules sans frontières

    CERN Multimedia

    Isabelle Bourdial

    2004-01-01

    CERN, celebrating this month its 50th anniversary is known to be one of the rare places in the world where it's possible to come very close to limits of the infinitely small. There, researchers from 80 nationalities collaborate in harmony (6 pages)

  11. La systématique de l’esprit pratique chez Wolff, Kant, Fichte et Hegel

    OpenAIRE

    Siep, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    En dépit des grands bouleversements systématiques dans la philosophie allemande du xviiie siècle, la continuité est étonnante, de Wolff à Hegel, pour ce qui concerne le contenu des doctrines sur la raison pratique. Une comparaison de ces doctrines chez Wolff, Kant, Fichte et Hegel peut révéler l’intention et les raisons pour lesquelles chacun de ces auteurs modifia la systématique des différentes facultés. À partir de Kant, autonomie et liberté deviennent les concepts directeurs permettant de...

  12. Final Report on Models, Periodic Progress, Report No D1.3, Globeman21, ESPRIT 26509

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Dahl; Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    ), a collection of practical experiences, and requirements for enhanced methods and tools for modelling. First, the deliverable outlines the GM21 understanding regarding extended enterprises and virtual enterprises. This is done by extracting and synthesising the essence of key definitions and concepts...... concepts that have been defined and studied in the project. The aim of the Concept Model is to show how the different concepts are related to each other and to the GM21 pilot projects. Complementary, the Methodology Model models the life cycle based activities of the Extended Enterprise Methodology as well...

  13. De L’esprit Des Lois et Le Débat Autour du Despotisme en Russie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina N. Vasilyeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The fate of The Spirit of Laws by Ch.-L. Montesquieu in Russia in the second half of the 18 th century is an example of ambiguous reception that the French enlightener and his ideas received at that time prompting both imitation and polemics. The origin of these controversies is in the unfavorable image of Russia that Montesquieu represented as a country of despotism and slavery. The ideas developed in the treatise incited various Russian authors to nourish their own thinking about the country, especially concerning such problems as liberty and equality. The article attempts to trace the emergence of this debate in political literature, including the works by F.-H. Strube de Piermont, Catherine II, and Prince M.M. Shcherbatov. Since the examined texts are interdependent, it allows me to speak of the literary polemics of a kind. It is argued that each author develops her own writing strategy in accordance with her specific position in society and intention. A comparative analysis shows the following tendencies. (1 The book by Strube de Piermont is a typical literary refutation intended to rehabilitate Russia’s reputation compromised by the author of The Spirit of Laws. (2 Prince Shcherbatov uses Montesquieu’s statements about Russia as a reference point for his own deep and original study of the phenomena and processes that existed in Russia. (3 The ambiguous position of Catherine II as both a private person and a monarch is the most vulnerable of the three and forces her to adapt her ideas to this peculiar role.

  14. ESPRIT (European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial) and related studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, P.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    1. We compared 120 patients who had had a large subcortical infarct with 324 who had had a small deep infarct and with 211 who had had a cortical infarct from the same cohort. We found no differences in risk factor profiles between the three groups, nor a difference in stroke recurrence rate. 2. We

  15. La metaphore est-elle la marque de l’insuffisance de l’esprit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available L’une des caractéristiques les plus communément reconnues à la discipline de la terminologie est sa conceptualité. Au contraire de l’opinion émise sur la métaphore, la terminologie s’efforce de travailler à partir de notions précises dont le sens doit être délimité et l’articulation à d’autres notions explicitée afin de bannir les ambiguïtés et les fausses évidences qu’elles véhiculent. Elle se distingue aussi du texte poétique caractérisé en particulier par la richesse des images et le jeu sur les signifiants. On comprend dès lors pourquoi la métaphore apparaît de prime abord comme une ennemie du champ de la terminologie qu’il faudrait bannir à tout prix. Cette figure de rhétorique consistant en un transport de sens risque à tout moment de rendre inopérant l’effort d’univocité et de rigueur du travail du terminologue. Mais la métaphore n’est pourtant pas absente des textes de spécialité. Il faut dès lors se demander si cette présence est « accidentelle”, contingente, ou si elle est incontournable et signifiante. Pour cela, il nous faudra étudier à la fois la place de la métaphore dans le texte de spécialité, et le discours des scientifiques portant sur elle. Mais une telle démarche nous laisse prisonnier de la dichotomie entre concept et métaphore et masque peutêtre une parenté inaperçue entre eux. Si le concept est habité par la métaphore, qu’en est-il du discours de spécialité? N’est-il pas réduit à n’être qu’un vaste poème qui ne s’avouerait pas comme tel? Est-elle seulement une figure de style ou aurait-elle un impact qui outrepasseraitsa modeste fonction discursive ? Il semble bien, même si le débat sur la métaphore et son usage est loin d’être clos. Notre théorie s’inscrit plutôt dans le sens d’une réévaluation du sens, d’une extension toujours plus grande de l’impact de ce trope qui, plus qu’une simple finalité esthétique, aurait une visée pratique et heuristique.

  16. Proton Therapy at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The brochure deals with the following topics: radiation therapy and its significance, proton therapy - worldwide and at PSI, advantages of the protons, the new proton therapy facility at PSI, therapy at PSI using the spot-scan technique. figs., tabs., refs

  17. Thematic review of family therapy journals 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In this article the contents of the principal English-language family therapy journals published in 2011 are reviewed under these headings: child-focused problems, adult-focused problems, couples therapy, medical family therapy, military family therapy, theory, research, training, the new Journal of Couple and Family Psychology and Human Systems twenty-first anniversary.

  18. The Use of Color in Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the published literature on the separate fields of art therapy and color therapy, synthesizing them in a proposed use of color within art therapy. Specific techniques focusing on use of color in a nonrepresentational expressive form are suggested as a way to extend the therapeutic benefits of art therapy. The intention of this…

  19. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  20. Radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author addresses the question of single session versus protracted therapy in the application of boron neutron therapy to tumors. As background he discusses the reasoning behind the current use of fractionated therapy with conventional low-LET radiations and difference which may obtain for neutron therapy. Several aspects of dose rates and dose levels are then addressed

  1. Arts Therapies and Progressive Illness: Nameless Dread

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Diane E.

    2002-01-01

    Arts Therapies and Progressive Illness is a guide to the use of arts therapies in the treatment of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. In the last few years arts therapies have been used in an increasingly wide range of applications with new groups of patients, such as patients in palliative care, or with learning disabilities - Diane Waller has been a driving force behind this expansion.\\ud This book covers treatment such as art therapy, dance movement therapy and mus...

  2. Thematic review of family therapy journals 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In this article the contents of the principal English-language family therapy journals, and key family therapy articles published in other journals in 2012 are reviewed under these headings: therapy processes in the treatment of child-focused problems, autism, adolescent substance use, human immunodeficiency virus, depression and grief, fragile families, mental health recovery, medical family therapy, family business and systemic practice, couple therapy, intimate partner violence, key issues...

  3. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  4. Optimal therapy in Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Goker-Alpan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozlem Goker-AlpanLysosomal Diseases Research and Treatment Unit, Center for Clinical Trials, O&O Alpan LLC, Springfield, VA, USAAbstract: Gaucher disease (GD, the inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, presents with a wide range of symptoms of varying severity, and primarily affects the skeletal, hematologic and nervous systems. To date, the standard of care has included enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase. Although imiglucerase is highly effective in reversing the visceral and hematologic manifestations, skeletal disease is slow to respond, pulmonary involvement is relatively resistant, and the CNS involvement is not impacted. Because of the recent manufacturing and processing problems, the research and development of alternative therapeutics has become more pressing. The divergent phenotypes and the heterogeneity involving different organ systems implicates the involvement of several pathological processes that include enzyme deficiency, substrate accumulation, protein misfolding, and macrophage activation, that differ in each patient with GD. Thus, the therapy should be tailored individually in order to target multiple pathways that interplay in GD.Keywords: glucocerebrosidase, enzyme replacement therapy, substrate reduction therapy, protein misfolding and chaperone therapy, macrophage

  5. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  6. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  7. Systemic couple therapy for dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Adrián; Feixas, Guillem; Muñoz, Dámaris; Compañ, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    We examined the effect of Systemic Couple Therapy on a patient diagnosed with dysthymic disorder and her partner. Marge and Peter, a middle-aged married couple, showed significant and meaningful changes in their pattern of interaction over the course of the therapy and, by the end of it, Marge no longer met the diagnostic criteria for dysthymic disorder. Her scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II) were in the clinical range before treatment and in the nonclinical one at the end of therapy. Although scores on Dyadic Adjustment Scale showed different patterns, both members reported significant improvement. The analysis of change in the alliance-related behaviors throughout the process concurred with change in couple's pattern of interaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Highlights in the therapy process showed the importance of relational mechanisms of change, such as broadening the therapeutic focus into the couple's pattern of interaction, reducing expressed emotion and resentment, as well as increasing positive exchanges. The results of this evidence-based case study should prompt further investigation of couple therapy for dysthymia disorder. Randomized clinical trial design is needed to reach an evidence-based treatment status. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF CONDYLOMATA ACUMINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Galkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliably established a causal role of human papillomavirus in the formation of condylomata acuminate. In 10% of people with the human papilloma virus develops condylomata acuminate, which can be transformed into malignant tumors. The most common treatment of condylomata acuminate is a conservative treatment, namely, the local chemical or physical destruction of the lesions and immunotherapy. With the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment resort to surgical excision. At the same time the traditional methods of treatment condylomata acuminate associated with high rates of recurrence. Moreover, these treatments are often associated with significant risk of bleeding, ulceration and scarring. The emergence of new methods of diagnosis and treatment of condylomata acuminate – fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy has opened up new opportunities to improve the treatment of this pathology. Topical administration of photosensitizers during photodynamic therapy is more convenient and less phototoxic and broaden the range of clinical applications of this technology in the medical dermatology. An increasing amount of evidence that photodynamic therapy with topical application of the photosensitizer is highly effective in the treatment of a variety of benign skin diseases, including condylomata acuminataca, for which traditional methods are ineffective treatment. However, many parameters of photodynamic therapy of this disease has not yet been optimized. It is necessary to conduct large-scale clinical studies on the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy of condylomata acuminatain order to standardize the treatment parameters.

  9. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electroconvulsive therapy guidelines state that severe major depression with psychotic features, manic delirium, or catatonia are conditions where there is a clear consensus favoring early electroconvulsive therapy. The decision to administer electroconvulsive therapy is based on an evaluation of the risks and benefits for the individual patient and involves a combination of factors, including psychiatric diagnosis, type and severity of symptoms, prior treatment history and response, identification of possible alternative treatment options, and consumer preference. In this review history, mechanisms of action, side effects that have been referenced in the literature and clinical experience are discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 107-125

  10. Cognitive-behavioral play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, S M

    1998-03-01

    Discusses cognitive-behavioral play therapy (CBPT), a developmentally sensitive treatment for young children that relies on flexibility, decreased expectation for verbalizations by the child, and increased reliance on experiential approaches. The development of CBPT for preschool-age children provides a relatively unique adaptation of cognitive therapy as it was originally developed for adults. CBPT typically contains a modeling component through which adaptive coping skills are demonstrated. Through the use of play, cognitive change is communicated indirectly, and more adaptive behaviors can be introduced to the child. Modeling is tailored for use with many specific cognitive and behavioral interventions. Generalization and response prevention are important features of CBPT. With minor modifications, many of the principles of cognitive therapy, as delineated for use with adults, are applicable to young children. Case examples are presented to highlight the application of CBPT. Although CBPT has a sound therapeutic base and utilizes proven techniques, more rigorous empirical scrutiny is needed.

  11. Embracing Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to encompass creativity. A core aspect of occupational therapy is the multi-dimensional concept of occupations; it allows for occupational therapists to incorporate creativity into daily practice. Jen’s goal is for occupational therapy to embrace its creative theoretical roots.

  12. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  13. Music therapy in psychiatry today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    A growing specialization has been developed in psychiatric institutions indicating that staff members specialize in one diagnosis. Music therapists are on the one hand asked to formulate diagnosis specific treatment models; on the other hand music therapy is also recognized to both provide quality...... to be both clinically specialized and both psychodynamic and existentially oriented in our contribution to psychiatric treatment. Cochrane Reviews show that music therapy has a significant impact on reduction of negative symptoms for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The reasons for this positive...... treatment outcome are in the literature related to music therapists´ overall attitudes and relational competencies in their work which also provide quality of life and resources for these patients. This essay, which is based on my Keynote presentation at the 7th Nordic music therapy Congress, Jyväskylä SF...

  14. Interaction themes in music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapyinteraction called ?Interaction Themes.? These are developed fromsession to session and often appear in music therapy interventions withchildren with severe functional limitations, especially children withautism. Although...... whoseexpressions are often difficult to understand. The article describes thecharacteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares thephenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regardto other types of music therapy interaction with this client group. Theresults are described through...... the Interaction Themes are characterised by arelatively simple and self-generated content, they have an essentialfunction because they contain the child?s and music therapist?s jointinteraction history. They make up the context within which it ispossible to create meaningful interaction with a client group...

  15. Group Music Therapy for Prisoners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xi Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Xu, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of psychological problems is high in prisons. Many prisoners have unmet needs for appropriate treatments. Although previous studies have suggested music therapy to be a successful treatment modality for prisoners, more rigorous evidence is needed. This parallel randomised controlled...... study aims to investigate the effectiveness of group music therapy to reduce anxiety and depression, and raise self-esteem in prisoners. One hundred and ninety two inmates from a Chinese prison will be allocated to two groups through randomisation. The experimental group will participate in biweekly...... group music therapy for 10 weeks (20 sessions) while the control group will be placed on a waitlist. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem will be measured by self-report scales three times: before, at the middle, and at the end of the intervention. Logs by the participants and their daily routine...

  16. Severe Urticaria Following Erythromycin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anada S. Prasad

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Enythromycin is believed to cause no serlous reactions after large doses, nausea, rarely vomiting and occasionally abdominal pain and diarrhea may occur, (Herrell, 1954. According to' Kagan and Faller (1955 no allergic reaction to' erythromycin has been reported. Phlebitis and thrombosis have been observed, (Shoe maker & Yow, 1954. In a report by Solomon and Johnson, (1955 toxic reactions were recorded as being uncommon. In a large series of cases, only one patient had a rash, another had fever possibly due to the drug, nne had nausea and vomiting and 4 had loose bowel movements while under therapy. Among the 122 patients treated with erythromcin, therapy was stopped owing to side effects in only one. My patient had severe urticaria within 24 hours of beginning therapy with erythromycin and a positive skin test was observed. It was believed to be an allergic reaction caused by the drug.

  17. Predictive Biomarkers for Asthma Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrek, Sarah K; Parulekar, Amit D; Hanania, Nicola A

    2017-09-19

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple phenotypes. Treatment of patients with severe disease can be challenging. Predictive biomarkers are measurable characteristics that reflect the underlying pathophysiology of asthma and can identify patients that are likely to respond to a given therapy. This review discusses current knowledge regarding predictive biomarkers in asthma. Recent trials evaluating biologic therapies targeting IgE, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-4 have utilized predictive biomarkers to identify patients who might benefit from treatment. Other work has suggested that using composite biomarkers may offer enhanced predictive capabilities in tailoring asthma therapy. Multiple biomarkers including sputum eosinophil count, blood eosinophil count, fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled breath (FeNO), and serum periostin have been used to identify which patients will respond to targeted asthma medications. Further work is needed to integrate predictive biomarkers into clinical practice.

  18. Hadron therapy physics and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an in-depth overview of the physics of hadron therapy, ranging from the history to the latest contributions to the subject. It covers the mechanisms of protons and carbon ions at the molecular level (DNA breaks and proteins 53BP1 and RPA), the physics and mathematics of accelerators (Cyclotron and Synchrotron), microdosimetry measurements (with new results so far achieved), and Monte Carlo simulations in hadron therapy using FLUKA (CERN) and MCHIT (FIAS) software. The text also includes information about proton therapy centers and carbon ion centers (PTCOG), as well as a comparison and discussion of both techniques in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. This brief is suitable for newcomers to medical physics as well as seasoned specialists in radiation oncology.

  19. Stem cell therapy for diabetes

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    K O Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Recent advances in stem cell therapy may turn this into a realistic treatment for diabetes in the near future.

  20. Neutron therapy: The historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, H.; Landberg, T.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron therapy was first introduced by Stone et al. in 1938, i.e. more than 10 years earlier than electron beam therapy and only 6 years after the discovery of neutrons. In spite of the impressive accomplishment in generating an adequate therapy beam, time was also found for careful radiobiological studies of neutron beams. However, it was not considered that for a certain early reaction the late effects were much greater with neutrons than with X-rays. The severe late sequelae in proportion to the few good results motivated the closure of this therapy. Neutron therapy was again introduced in Hammersmith hospital at the end of the 1960's. The major reason seems to have been to overcome the oxygen effect. Encouraging results were reported. It was argued that the very favourable statistics on local tumour control were obtained at the expense of more frequent and more severe complications. A clinical trial in Edinburgh seemed to indicate this, but it was not proved in the end as the two trials differed regarding fractionation. Today about 16000 patients have been treated with neutrons. The neutron beams now used differ significantly, both regarding dose distributions and microdosimetrical properties, from those utilized earlier. The advantage of neutrons is still, however, controversial. There are indications that neutron treatment may be favourable for some tumours. A careful cost-benefit study ought to be performed before the creation of a neutron therapy centre in Sweden as the group of patients suitable for neutrons is limited, and there may be new possibilities for improvement of photon and electron treatment with much smaller resources. (orig.)