WorldWideScience

Sample records for integration time window

  1. New design for photonic temporal integration with combined high processing speed and long operation time window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Park, Yongwoo; Azaña, José

    2011-01-17

    We propose and experimentally prove a novel design for implementing photonic temporal integrators simultaneously offering a high processing bandwidth and a long operation time window, namely a large time-bandwidth product. The proposed scheme is based on concatenating in series a time-limited ultrafast photonic temporal integrator, e.g. implemented using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), with a discrete-time (bandwidth limited) optical integrator, e.g. implemented using an optical resonant cavity. This design combines the advantages of these two previously demonstrated photonic integrator solutions, providing a processing speed as high as that of the time-limited ultrafast integrator and an operation time window fixed by the discrete-time integrator. Proof-of-concept experiments are reported using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (as the original time-limited integrator) connected in series with a bulk-optics coherent interferometers' system (as a passive 4-points discrete-time photonic temporal integrator). Using this setup, we demonstrate accurate temporal integration of complex-field optical signals with time-features as fast as ~6 ps, only limited by the processing bandwidth of the FBG integrator, over time durations as long as ~200 ps, which represents a 4-fold improvement over the operation time window (~50 ps) of the original FBG integrator.

  2. Multisensory integration: the case of a time window of gesture-speech integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Gunter, Thomas C

    2015-02-01

    This experiment investigates the integration of gesture and speech from a multisensory perspective. In a disambiguation paradigm, participants were presented with short videos of an actress uttering sentences like "She was impressed by the BALL, because the GAME/DANCE...." The ambiguous noun (BALL) was accompanied by an iconic gesture fragment containing information to disambiguate the noun toward its dominant or subordinate meaning. We used four different temporal alignments between noun and gesture fragment: the identification point (IP) of the noun was either prior to (+120 msec), synchronous with (0 msec), or lagging behind the end of the gesture fragment (-200 and -600 msec). ERPs triggered to the IP of the noun showed significant differences for the integration of dominant and subordinate gesture fragments in the -200, 0, and +120 msec conditions. The outcome of this integration was revealed at the target words. These data suggest a time window for direct semantic gesture-speech integration ranging from at least -200 up to +120 msec. Although the -600 msec condition did not show any signs of direct integration at the homonym, significant disambiguation was found at the target word. An explorative analysis suggested that gesture information was directly integrated at the verb, indicating that there are multiple positions in a sentence where direct gesture-speech integration takes place. Ultimately, this would implicate that in natural communication, where a gesture lasts for some time, several aspects of that gesture will have their specific and possibly distinct impact on different positions in an utterance.

  3. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  4. Neural basis of the time window for subjective motor-auditory integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi eToida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal contiguity between an action and corresponding auditory feedback is crucial to the perception of self-generated sound. However, the neural mechanisms underlying motor–auditory temporal integration are unclear. Here, we conducted four experiments with an oddball paradigm to examine the specific event-related potentials (ERPs elicited by delayed auditory feedback for a self-generated action. The first experiment confirmed that a pitch-deviant auditory stimulus elicits mismatch negativity (MMN and P300, both when it is generated passively and by the participant’s action. In our second and third experiments, we investigated the ERP components elicited by delayed auditory feedback of for a self-generated action. We found that delayed auditory feedback elicited an enhancement of P2 (enhanced-P2 and a N300 component, which were apparently different from the MMN and P300 components observed in the first experiment. We further investigated the sensitivity of the enhanced-P2 and N300 to delay length in our fourth experiment. Strikingly, the amplitude of the N300 increased as a function of the delay length. Additionally, the N300 amplitude was significantly correlated with the conscious detection of the delay (the 50% detection point was around 200 ms, and hence reduction in the feeling of authorship of the sound (the sense of agency. In contrast, the enhanced-P2 was most prominent in short-delay (≤ 200 ms conditions and diminished in long-delay conditions. Our results suggest that different neural mechanisms are employed for the processing of temporally-deviant and pitch-deviant auditory feedback. Additionally, the temporal window for subjective motor–auditory integration is likely about 200 ms, as indicated by these auditory ERP components.

  5. Integrated Harvest and Distribution Scheduling with Time Windows of Perishable Agri-Products in One-Belt and One-Road Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The unique characteristics of perishable agri-products are a short lifespan and rapid quality deterioration. This establishes the need to significantly reduce the time from harvest to distribution. These features require reducing the processing time from harvest to distribution to being as short as possible. In this study, we focus on an integrated perishable agri-products scheduling problem that combines harvest and distribution simultaneously, with the purpose of reducing processing time and quality decay. We propose this problem as a mixed integer nonlinear programming model (MINLP to optimize the harvest time and the vehicle routing to consumers, and this MINIP is formulated as a vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. We introduce a big M method to transform the nonlinear model into a linear model, then apply CPLEX to solve the transformed model. Numerical experiments and sensitive analysis are conducted to verify the efficiency of the proposed model and to provide managerial insights.

  6. Temporal integration windows for naturalistic visual sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L Fairhall

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the brain possesses mechanisms to integrate incoming sensory information as it unfolds over time-periods of 2-3 seconds. The ubiquity of this mechanism across modalities, tasks, perception and production has led to the proposal that it may underlie our experience of the subjective present. A critical test of this claim is that this phenomenon should be apparent in naturalistic visual experiences. We tested this using movie-clips as a surrogate for our day-to-day experience, temporally scrambling them to require (re- integration within and beyond the hypothesized 2-3 second interval. Two independent experiments demonstrate a step-wise increase in the difficulty to follow stimuli at the hypothesized 2-3 second scrambling condition. Moreover, only this difference could not be accounted for by low-level visual properties. This provides the first evidence that this 2-3 second integration window extends to complex, naturalistic visual sequences more consistent with our experience of the subjective present.

  7. Managing customer arrivals with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Jiang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing container traffic and mega-ships, many seaports face challenges of huge amounts of truck arrivals and congestion problem at terminal gates, which affect port efficiency and generate serious air pollution. To solve this congestion problem, we propose a solution of managing truck...... arrivals with time windows based on the truck-vessel service relationship, specifically trucks delivering containers for the same vessel share one common time window. Time windows can be optimized with different strategies. In this paper, we first propose a framework for installing this solution...

  8. Time Modeling: Salvatore Sciarrino, Windows and Beclouding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I intend to discuss one of the figures created by the Italian composer Salvatore Sciarrino: the windowed form. After the composer's explanation of this figure, I argue that windows in composition can open inwards and outwards the musical discourse. On one side, they point to the composition's inner ambiences and constitute an internal remission. On the other, they instigate the audience to comprehend the external reference, thereby constructing intertextuality. After the outward window form, I will consider some techniques of distortion, particularly one that I call beclouding. To conclude, I will comment the question of memory and of compostition as time modeling.

  9. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  10. Real time programming environment for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, D.R. [LaBelle (Dennis R.), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  11. Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup

    2004-01-01

    Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.

  12. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  13. Reachability cuts for the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a class of cuts, called reachability cuts, for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). Reachability cuts are closely related to cuts derived from precedence constraints in the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows and to k-path cuts...

  14. Path inequalities for the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Brian; Boland, Natashia; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new formulation of the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW) involving only binary variables. The new formulation is based on the formulation of the asymmetric traveling salesman problem with time windows by Ascheuer et al. (Networks 36 (2000) 69-79) and has...

  15. Optimising and Recognising 2-Stage Delivery Chains with Time Windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Phillipson, F.; Ortega del Vecchyo, M.; Ginkel, B. van; Huizing, S.; Sangers, A.

    2017-01-01

    In logistic delivery chains time windows are common. An arrival has to be in a certain time interval, at the expense of waiting time or penalties if the time limits are exceeded. This paper looks at the optimal placement of those time intervals in a specific case of a barge visiting two ports in

  16. On the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Brian

    2006-01-01

    . The fourth and final paper ‘Vehicle routing problem with time windows’ (Kallehauge, Larsen, Madsen, and Solomon. In Desaulniers, Desrosiers, and Solomon, editors, Column generation, pages 67-98, Springer, New York, 2005) is a contribution to a book on column generation edited by G. Desaulniers, J. Desrosiers......The vehicle routing problem with time windows is concerned with the optimal routing of a fleet of vehicles between a depot and a number of customers that must be visited within a specified time interval, called a time window. The purpose of this thesis is to develop new and efficient solution...... techniques for solving the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW). The thesis consists of a section of introductory remarks and four independent papers. The first paper ‘Formulations and exact approaches for the vehicle routing problem with time windows’ (Kallehauge, 2005, unpublished) is a review...

  17. Vehicle Routing Problem with Backhaul, Multiple Trips and Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Oscar Ong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning is one of the important components to increase efficiency and effectiveness in the supply chain system. Good planning will give a saving in total cost of the supply chain. This paper develops the new VRP variants’, VRP with backhauls, multiple trips, and time window (VRPBMTTW along with its problem solving techniques by using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Sequential Insertion as initial solution algorithm. ACO is modified by adding the decoding process in order to determine the number of vehicles, total duration time, and range of duration time regardless of checking capacity constraint and time window. This algorithm is tested by using set of random data and verified as well as analyzed its parameter changing’s. The computational results for hypothetical data with 50% backhaul and mix time windows are reported.

  18. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sol; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e., maximally overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e., no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: Neurons that started axon growth early on in serial growth achieved higher out-degrees, higher local efficiency and longer axon lengths while neurons demonstrated more homogeneous connectivity patterns for parallel growth. Second, connection probability decreased more rapidly with distance between neurons for parallel growth than for serial growth. Third, bidirectional connections were more numerous for parallel growth. Finally, we tested our predictions with C. elegans data. Together, this indicates that time windows for axon growth influence the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks opening up the possibility to a posteriori estimate developmental mechanisms based on network properties of a developed network.

  19. Evolutionary algorithms for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout; Gendreau, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys the research on evolutionary algorithms for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW can be described as the problem of designing least cost routes from a single depot to a set of geographically scattered points. The routes must be designed in such a way

  20. The Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Temporal Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Dohn, Anders Høeg; Larsen, Jesper

    to be scheduled with a certain slack between them. They refer to the vehicle problem as having interdependent time windows. Temporal dependencies have been modeled for a home care routing problem in a mixed integer programming model (MIP) which was solved with a standard MIP solver. An application with general...

  1. The Electric Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberti, Roberto; Wen, Min

    2016-01-01

    To minimize greenhouse gas emissions, the logistic field has seen an increasing usage of electric vehicles. The resulting distribution planning problems present new computational challenges.We address a problem, called Electric Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows. We propose a mixed...

  2. Optimization of ramp area aircraft push back time windows in the presence of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, William Jeremy

    It is well known that airport surface traffic congestion at major airports is responsible for increased taxi-out times, fuel burn and excess emissions and there is potential to mitigate these negative consequences through optimizing airport surface traffic operations. Due to a highly congested voice communication channel between pilots and air traffic controllers and a data communication channel that is used only for limited functions, one of the most viable near-term strategies for improvement of the surface traffic is issuing a push back advisory to each departing aircraft. This dissertation focuses on the optimization of a push back time window for each departing aircraft. The optimization takes into account both spatial and temporal uncertainties of ramp area aircraft trajectories. The uncertainties are described by a stochastic kinematic model of aircraft trajectories, which is used to infer distributions of combinations of push back times that lead to conflict among trajectories from different gates. The model is validated and the distributions are included in the push back time window optimization. Under the assumption of a fixed taxiway spot schedule, the computed push back time windows can be integrated with a higher level taxiway scheduler to optimize the flow of traffic from the gate to the departure runway queue. To enable real-time decision making the computational time of the push back time window optimization is critical and is analyzed throughout.

  3. An Optimization Method of Time Window Based on Travel Time and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjie Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic change of urban road travel time was analyzed using video image detector data, and it showed cyclic variation, so the signal cycle length at the upstream intersection was conducted as the basic unit of time window; there was some evidence of bimodality in the actual travel time distributions; therefore, the fitting parameters of the travel time bimodal distribution were estimated using the EM algorithm. Then the weighted average value of the two means was indicated as the travel time estimation value, and the Modified Buffer Time Index (MBIT was expressed as travel time variability; based on the characteristics of travel time change and MBIT along with different time windows, the time window was optimized dynamically for minimum MBIT, requiring that the travel time change be lower than the threshold value and traffic incidents can be detected real time; finally, travel times on Shandong Road in Qingdao were estimated every 10 s, 120 s, optimal time windows, and 480 s and the comparisons demonstrated that travel time estimation in optimal time windows can exactly and steadily reflect the real-time traffic. It verifies the effectiveness of the optimization method.

  4. The A-priori Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Solomon, Marius M.

    2004-01-01

    seek to minimize lateness and examine the impact of this criterion choice on the distance traveled. Our focus on lateness is motivated by the problem faced by overnight mail service providers. We propose a real-time solution method that requires the vehicle, when idle, to wait at the current customer......In this paper we examine the traveling saleman problem with time windows for various degrees of dynamism. In contrast to the static problem, where the dispatcher can plan ahead, in the dynamic version, part or all of the necessary information becomes available only during the day of operation. We...... randomly generated data and on a real-world case study indicate that all policies proved capable of significantly reducing lateness. Our results also show that this can be accomplished with only small distance increases. The basic policy outperformed the other methods primarily when lateness and distance...

  5. Multidepot UAV Routing Problem with Weapon Configuration and Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianren Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent wars, there is an increasing trend that unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are utilized to conduct military attacking missions. In this paper, we investigate a novel multidepot UAV routing problem with consideration of weapon configuration in the UAV and the attacking time window of the target. A mixed-integer linear programming model is developed to jointly optimize three kinds of decisions: the weapon configuration strategy in the UAV, the routing strategy of target, and the allocation strategy of weapons to targets. An adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS algorithm is proposed for solving the problem, which is tested by randomly generated instances covering the small, medium, and large sizes. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed ALNS algorithm.

  6. A window-based time series feature extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu-Öztürk, Deniz; Güvenir, H Altay; Ravens, Ursula; Baykal, Nazife

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a robust similarity score-based time series feature extraction method that is termed as Window-based Time series Feature ExtraCtion (WTC). Specifically, WTC generates domain-interpretable results and involves significantly low computational complexity thereby rendering itself useful for densely sampled and populated time series datasets. In this study, WTC is applied to a proprietary action potential (AP) time series dataset on human cardiomyocytes and three precordial leads from a publicly available electrocardiogram (ECG) dataset. This is followed by comparing WTC in terms of predictive accuracy and computational complexity with shapelet transform and fast shapelet transform (which constitutes an accelerated variant of the shapelet transform). The results indicate that WTC achieves a slightly higher classification performance with significantly lower execution time when compared to its shapelet-based alternatives. With respect to its interpretable features, WTC has a potential to enable medical experts to explore definitive common trends in novel datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved hybrid information filtering based on limited time window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Jun; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-12-01

    Adopting the entire collecting information of users, the hybrid information filtering of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM) (Zhou et al., 2010) was successfully proposed to solve the apparent diversity-accuracy dilemma. Since the recent behaviors are more effective to capture the users' potential interests, we present an improved hybrid information filtering of adopting the partial recent information. We expand the time window to generate a series of training sets, each of which is treated as known information to predict the future links proven by the testing set. The experimental results on one benchmark dataset Netflix indicate that by only using approximately 31% recent rating records, the accuracy could be improved by an average of 4.22% and the diversity could be improved by 13.74%. In addition, the performance on the dataset MovieLens could be preserved by considering approximately 60% recent records. Furthermore, we find that the improved algorithm is effective to solve the cold-start problem. This work could improve the information filtering performance and shorten the computational time.

  8. Vehicle routing problem with time windows using natural inspired algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, A. B.; Pratama, A.; Sa’diyah, I.; Suprajitno, H.

    2018-03-01

    Process of distribution of goods needs a strategy to make the total cost spent for operational activities minimized. But there are several constrains have to be satisfied which are the capacity of the vehicles and the service time of the customers. This Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW) gives complex constrains problem. This paper proposes natural inspired algorithms for dealing with constrains of VRPTW which involves Bat Algorithm and Cat Swarm Optimization. Bat Algorithm is being hybrid with Simulated Annealing, the worst solution of Bat Algorithm is replaced by the solution from Simulated Annealing. Algorithm which is based on behavior of cats, Cat Swarm Optimization, is improved using Crow Search Algorithm to make simplier and faster convergence. From the computational result, these algorithms give good performances in finding the minimized total distance. Higher number of population causes better computational performance. The improved Cat Swarm Optimization with Crow Search gives better performance than the hybridization of Bat Algorithm and Simulated Annealing in dealing with big data.

  9. An Optimization Method of Time Window Based on Travel Time and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Fengjie; Ma, Dongfang; Wang, Dianhai; Qian, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic change of urban road travel time was analyzed using video image detector data, and it showed cyclic variation, so the signal cycle length at the upstream intersection was conducted as the basic unit of time window; there was some evidence of bimodality in the actual travel time distributions; therefore, the fitting parameters of the travel time bimodal distribution were estimated using the EM algorithm. Then the weighted average value of the two means was indicated as the travel t...

  10. Single-machine common/slack due window assignment problems with linear decreasing processing times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingong; Lin, Win-Chin; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Wu, Chin-Chia

    2017-08-01

    This paper studies linear non-increasing processing times and the common/slack due window assignment problems on a single machine, where the actual processing time of a job is a linear non-increasing function of its starting time. The aim is to minimize the sum of the earliness cost, tardiness cost, due window location and due window size. Some optimality results are discussed for the common/slack due window assignment problems and two O(n log n) time algorithms are presented to solve the two problems. Finally, two examples are provided to illustrate the correctness of the corresponding algorithms.

  11. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  12. Traversing Time and Space from the Blessing Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Ling

    2013-02-01

    The visual graphics for the holographic artwork "Blessing Window" were created from observations of Tainan city, with a focus on the beauty of Chinese characters, their typographic. The concept of movement in the artwork is from a traditional Chinese philosophy, "When the mountain does not move, the road extends, when the road does not extend to the destination, the heart will extend". One multiplex-hologram and an interactive installation were used to combine the visual concepts of typography and the philosophy.

  13. New heuristics for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, W.; Janssens, Gerrit K.; Sirensen, K.; Vernimmen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    In the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (FSMVRPTW) customers need to be serviced in their time windows at minimal costs by a heterogeneous fleet. In this paper new heuristics for the FSMVRPTW are developed. The performance of the heuristics is shown to be significantly

  14. A branch-and-cut algorithm for the Time Window Assignment Vehicle Routing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dalmeijer (Kevin); R. Spliet (Remy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a branch-and-cut algorithm for the Time Window Assignment Vehicle Routing Problem (TWAVRP), the problem of assigning time windows for delivery before demand volume becomes known. A novel set of valid inequalities, the precedence inequalities, is introduced and

  15. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... into groups and assigning different time windows to the groups. The proposed VDTWs method includes three steps: (1) predicting truck arrivals based on the time window assignment, (2) estimating the queue length of trucks, and (3) optimizing the arrangement of time windows to minimize the total cost...

  16. A hybrid metaheuristic for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with hard time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rincon-Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article paper presents a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm to solve the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with hard time windows. Time-dependent travel times are influenced by different congestion levels experienced throughout the day. Vehicle scheduling without consideration of congestion might lead to underestimation of travel times and consequently missed deliveries. The algorithm presented in this paper makes use of Large Neighbourhood Search approaches and Variable Neighbourhood Search techniques to guide the search. A first stage is specifically designed to reduce the number of vehicles required in a search space by the reduction of penalties generated by time-window violations with Large Neighbourhood Search procedures. A second stage minimises the travel distance and travel time in an ‘always feasible’ search space. Comparison of results with available test instances shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of obtaining a reduction in the number of vehicles (4.15%, travel distance (10.88% and travel time (12.00% compared to previous implementations in reasonable time.

  17. An analysis of latch-up characteristics and latch-up windows in CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xianguo; Yang Huaimin

    2004-01-01

    Because of topology's complexity, there may be several potential parasitic latch-up paths in a CMOS integrated circuit. All of the latch-up paths may have an effect on each other or one another due to different triggering dose rate, holding voltage and holding current and then one or more latch-up windows may appear. After we analyze the latch-up characteristic of CMOS integrated circuits in detail, a 'three-path' latch-up model is developed and used to explain the latch-up window phenomena reasonably. (authors)

  18. Optimizing Time Windows For Managing Export Container Arrivals At Chinese Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2010-01-01

    window management programme that is widely used in Chinese terminals to facilitate terminal and truck delivery operations. Firstly, the arrangement of time windows is assumed to follow the principle of minimizing transport costs. A cost function is defined that includes the costs of truck and driver...... waiting time, fuel consumption associated with truck idling, storage time of the containerized cargos and yard fee. Secondly, to minimize the total cost, a heuristic is developed based on a genetic algorithm to find a near optimal time window arrangement. The optimized solution involves the position...

  19. OPTIMIZING TIME WINDOWS FOR MANAGING ARRIVALS OF EXPORT CONTAINERS AT CHINESE CONTAINER TERMINALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2009-01-01

    of driver and truck waiting time, the cost of container cargo storage time, the truck idle cost and terminal yard fee. Secondly, to minimize the costs, a heuristic is developed based on a genetic algorithm to optimize the time window arrangement. The optimal solution involves the position and the length...... window management programme that is widely used in Chinese terminals to facilitate the terminal operations and the truck delivery operations. Firstly, the arrangement of time windows is assumed to follow the principle of minimizing the transport costs. A cost function is defined that includes the cost...

  20. Branch-and-cut-and-price for the traveling salesman problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    In the traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW) one is given a depot and a set of nodes to be visited by a salesman. The salesman starts his trip at the depot and must visit all nodes while respecting time windows at the nodes. The objective of the problem is to minimize the total...... distance traveled by the salesman. The TSPTW is formulated as a set-partitioning problem which is solved by using combined cut and column generation. The pricing sub problem in the column generation procedure is a shortest path problem with time window constraints and 2-cycle elimination. A standard column...

  1. Office automation: The administrative window into the integrated DBMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    In parallel to the evolution of Management Information Systems from simple data files to complex data bases, the stand-alone computer systems have been migrating toward fully integrated systems serving the work force. The next major productivity gain may very well be to make these highly sophisticated working level Data Base Management Systems (DMBS) serve all levels of management with reports of varying levels of detail. Most attempts by the DBMS development organization to provide useful information to management seem to bog down in the quagmire of competing working level requirements. Most large DBMS development organizations possess three to five year backlogs. Perhaps Office Automation is the vehicle that brings to pass the Management Information System that really serves management. A good office automation system manned by a team of facilitators seeking opportunities to serve end-users could go a long way toward defining a DBMS that serves management. This paper will briefly discuss the problems of the DBMS organization, alternative approaches to solving some of the major problems, a debate about problems that may have no solution, and finally how office automation fits into the development of the Manager's Management Information System.

  2. Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee Ling eLee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study used musicians as a model to investigate whether musical expertise shapes the temporal integration window for audiovisual speech, sinewave speech or music. Musicians and non-musicians judged the audiovisual synchrony of speech, sinewave analogues of speech, and music stimuli at 13 audiovisual stimulus onset asynchronies (±360, ±300 ±240, ±180, ±120, ±60, and 0 ms. Further, we manipulated the duration of the stimuli by presenting sentences/melodies or syllables/tones. Critically, musicians relative to non-musicians exhibited significantly narrower temporal integration windows for both music and sinewave speech. Further, the temporal integration window for music decreased with the amount of music practice, but not with age of acquisition. In other words, the more musicians practiced piano in the past three years, the more sensitive they became to the temporal misalignment of visual and auditory signals. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that music practicing fine-tunes the audiovisual temporal integration window to various extents depending on the stimulus class. While the effect of piano practicing was most pronounced for music, it also generalized to other stimulus classes such as sinewave speech and to a marginally significant degree to natural speech.

  3. Computation of the Short-Time Linear Canonical Transform with Dual Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The short-time linear canonical transform (STLCT, which maps the time domain signal into the joint time and frequency domain, has recently attracted some attention in the area of signal processing. However, its applications are still limited due to the fact that selection of coefficients of the short-time linear canonical series (STLCS is not unique, because time and frequency elementary functions (together known as basis function of STLCS do not constitute an orthogonal basis. To solve this problem, this paper investigates a dual window solution. First, the nonorthogonal problem that suffered from original window is fulfilled by orthogonal condition with dual window. Then based on the obtained condition, a dual window computation approach of the GT is extended to the STLCS. In addition, simulations verify the validity of the proposed condition and solutions. Furthermore, some possible applied directions are discussed.

  4. A multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dezhi; He, Runzhong; Li, Shuangyan; Wang, Zhongwei

    2017-01-01

    The design of a multimodal logistics service network with customer service time windows and environmental costs is an important and challenging issue. Accordingly, this work established a model to minimize the total cost of multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns. The proposed model incorporates CO2 emission costs to determine the optimal transportation mode combinations and investment selections for transfer nodes, which consider transport cost, transport time, carbon emission, and logistics service time window constraints. Furthermore, genetic and heuristic algorithms are proposed to set up the abovementioned optimal model. A numerical example is provided to validate the model and the abovementioned two algorithms. Then, comparisons of the performance of the two algorithms are provided. Finally, this work investigates the effects of the logistics service time windows and CO2 emission taxes on the optimal solution. Several important management insights are obtained.

  5. Simulated annealing (SA to vehicle routing problems with soft time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphan Sodsoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The researcher has applied and develops the meta-heuristics method to solve Vehicle Routing Problems with Soft Time Windows (VRPSTW. For this case there was only one depot, multi customers which each generally sparse either or demand was different though perceived number of demand and specific period of time to receive them. The Operation Research was representative combinatorial optimization problems and is known to be NP-hard. In this research algorithm, use Simulated Annealing (SA to determine the optimum solutions which rapidly time solving. After developed the algorithms, apply them to examine the factors and the optimum extended time windows and test these factors with vehicle problem routing under specific time windows by Solomon in OR-Library in case of maximum 25 customers. Meanwhile, 6 problems are including of C101, C102, R101, R102, RC101 and RC102 respectively. The result shows the optimum extended time windows at level of 50%. At last, after comparison these answers with the case of vehicle problem routing under specific time windows and flexible time windows, found that percentage errors on number of vehicles approximately by -28.57% and percentage errors on distances approximately by -28.57% which this algorithm spent average processing time on 45.5 sec/problems.

  6. Finding Frequent Closed Itemsets in Sliding Window in Linear Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junbo; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Lu; Wang, Xinyu; Ding, Yiqun

    One of the most well-studied problems in data mining is computing the collection of frequent itemsets in large transactional databases. Since the introduction of the famous Apriori algorithm [14], many others have been proposed to find the frequent itemsets. Among such algorithms, the approach of mining closed itemsets has raised much interest in data mining community. The algorithms taking this approach include TITANIC [8], CLOSET+[6], DCI-Closed [4], FCI-Stream [3], GC-Tree [15], TGC-Tree [16] etc. Among these algorithms, FCI-Stream, GC-Tree and TGC-Tree are online algorithms work under sliding window environments. By the performance evaluation in [16], GC-Tree [15] is the fastest one. In this paper, an improved algorithm based on GC-Tree is proposed, the computational complexity of which is proved to be a linear combination of the average transaction size and the average closed itemset size. The algorithm is based on the essential theorem presented in Sect. 4.2. Empirically, the new algorithm is several orders of magnitude faster than the state of art algorithm, GC-Tree.

  7. On using moving windows in finite element time domain simulation for long accelerator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.-Q.; Candel, Arno; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok

    2010-01-01

    A finite element moving window technique is developed to simulate the propagation of electromagnetic waves induced by the transit of a charged particle beam inside large and long structures. The window moving along with the beam in the computational domain adopts high-order finite element basis functions through p refinement and/or a high-resolution mesh through h refinement so that a sufficient accuracy is attained with substantially reduced computational costs. Algorithms to transfer discretized fields from one mesh to another, which are the keys to implementing a moving window in a finite element unstructured mesh, are presented. Numerical experiments are carried out using the moving window technique to compute short-range wakefields in long accelerator structures. The results are compared with those obtained from the normal finite element time domain (FETD) method and the advantages of using the moving window technique are discussed.

  8. A Combination of Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Ji-Ping; Zhang, Fu-Hao; Wang, Liang; Sun, Li-Jian

    2015-08-27

    A combination of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for vehicle routing problems with time windows (VRPTW) is proposed in this paper. The improvements of the proposed algorithm include: using the particle real number encoding method to decode the route to alleviate the computation burden, applying a linear decreasing function based on the number of the iterations to provide balance between global and local exploration abilities, and integrating with the crossover operator of genetic algorithm to avoid the premature convergence and the local minimum. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is not only more efficient and competitive with other published results but can also obtain more optimal solutions for solving the VRPTW issue. One new well-known solution for this benchmark problem is also outlined in the following.

  9. Iterated local search algorithm for solving the orienteering problem with soft time windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghezzaf, Brahim; Fahim, Hassan El

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the orienteering problem with time windows (OPTW) and the impact of relaxing the time windows on the profit collected by the vehicle. The way of relaxing time windows adopted in the orienteering problem with soft time windows (OPSTW) that we study in this research is a late service relaxation that allows linearly penalized late services to customers. We solve this problem heuristically by considering a hybrid iterated local search. The results of the computational study show that the proposed approach is able to achieve promising solutions on the OPTW test instances available in the literature, one new best solution is found. On the newly generated test instances of the OPSTW, the results show that the profit collected by the OPSTW is better than the profit collected by the OPTW.

  10. Dynamic Allan Variance Analysis Method with Time-Variant Window Length Based on Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem that dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR with fixed length of window cannot meet the identification accuracy requirement of fiber optic gyro (FOG signal over all time domains, a dynamic Allan variance analysis method with time-variant window length based on fuzzy control is proposed. According to the characteristic of FOG signal, a fuzzy controller with the inputs of the first and second derivatives of FOG signal is designed to estimate the window length of the DAVAR. Then the Allan variances of the signals during the time-variant window are simulated to obtain the DAVAR of the FOG signal to describe the dynamic characteristic of the time-varying FOG signal. Additionally, a performance evaluation index of the algorithm based on radar chart is proposed. Experiment results show that, compared with different fixed window lengths DAVAR methods, the change of FOG signal with time can be identified effectively and the evaluation index of performance can be enhanced by 30% at least by the DAVAR method with time-variant window length based on fuzzy control.

  11. Location-routing Problem with Fuzzy time windows and Traffic time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Teimoori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The location-routing problem is a relatively new branch of logistics system. Its objective is to determine a suitable location for constructing distribution warehouses and proper transportation routing from warehouse to the customer. In this study, the location-routing problem is investigated with considering fuzzy servicing time window for each customer. Another important issue in this regard is the existence of congested times during the service time and distributing goods to the customer. This caused a delay in providing service for customer and imposed additional costs to distribution system. Thus we have provided a mathematical model for designing optimal distributing system. Since the vehicle location-routing problem is Np-hard, thus a solution method using genetic meta-heuristic algorithm was developed and the optimal sequence of servicing for the vehicle and optimal location for the warehouses were determined through an example.

  12. Fully automatic time-window selection using machine learning for global adjoint tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hill, J.; Lei, W.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Bozdag, E.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    Selecting time windows from seismograms such that the synthetic measurements (from simulations) and measured observations are sufficiently close is indispensable in a global adjoint tomography framework. The increasing amount of seismic data collected everyday around the world demands "intelligent" algorithms for seismic window selection. While the traditional FLEXWIN algorithm can be "automatic" to some extent, it still requires both human input and human knowledge or experience, and thus is not deemed to be fully automatic. The goal of intelligent window selection is to automatically select windows based on a learnt engine that is built upon a huge number of existing windows generated through the adjoint tomography project. We have formulated the automatic window selection problem as a classification problem. All possible misfit calculation windows are classified as either usable or unusable. Given a large number of windows with a known selection mode (select or not select), we train a neural network to predict the selection mode of an arbitrary input window. Currently, the five features we extract from the windows are its cross-correlation value, cross-correlation time lag, amplitude ratio between observed and synthetic data, window length, and minimum STA/LTA value. More features can be included in the future. We use these features to characterize each window for training a multilayer perceptron neural network (MPNN). Training the MPNN is equivalent to solve a non-linear optimization problem. We use backward propagation to derive the gradient of the loss function with respect to the weighting matrices and bias vectors and use the mini-batch stochastic gradient method to iteratively optimize the MPNN. Numerical tests show that with a careful selection of the training data and a sufficient amount of training data, we are able to train a robust neural network that is capable of detecting the waveforms in an arbitrary earthquake data with negligible detection error

  13. Residual Motion and Duty Time in Respiratory Gating Radiotherapy Using Individualized or Population-Based Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, Hiroshi; Asada, Yoshihiro; Numano, Masumi; Yamashita, Haruo; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Harada, Hideyuki; Asakura, Hirofumi; Murayama, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The efficiency and precision of respiratory gated radiation therapy for tumors is affected by variations in respiration-induced tumor motion. We evaluated the use of individualized and population-based parameters for such treatment. Methods and Materials: External respiratory signal records and images of respiration-induced tumor motion were obtained from 42 patients undergoing respiratory gated radiation therapy for liver tumors. Gating window widths were calculated for each patient, with 2, 4, and 10 mm of residual motion, and the mean was defined as the population-based window width. Residual motions based on population-based and predefined window widths were compared. Duty times based on whole treatment sessions, at various window levels, were calculated. The window level giving the longest duty time was defined as the individualized most efficient level (MEL). MELs were also calculated based on the first 10 breathing cycles. The duty times for population-based MELs (defined as mean MELs) and individualized MELs were compared. Results: Tracks of respiration-induced tumor motion ranged from 3 to 50 mm. Half of the patients had larger actual residual motions than the assigned residual motions. Duty times were greater when based on individualized, rather than population-based, window widths. The MELs established during whole treatment sessions for 2 mm and 4 mm of residual motion gave significantly increased duty times, whereas those calculated using the first 10 breathing cycles showed only marginal increases. Conclusions: Using individualized window widths and levels provided more precise and efficient respiratory gated radiation therapy. However, methods for predicting individualized window levels before treatment remain to be explored.

  14. Integrated guidance and control design of a flight vehicle with side-window detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu ZHENG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the guidance and control problem of a flight vehicle with side-window detection. In order to guarantee the target remaining in the seeker's sight of view, the line of sight and the attitude of the flight vehicle should be under some constraints caused by the side-window, which leads to coupling between the guidance and the attitude dynamics model. To deal with the side-window constraints and the coupling, a novel Integrated Guidance and Control (IGC design approach is proposed. Firstly, the relative motion equations are derived in the body-Line of Sight (LOS coordinate system. And the guidance and control problem of the flight vehicle is formulated into an IGC problem with state constraints. Then, based on the singular perturbation method, the IGC problem is decomposed into the control design of the quasi-steady-state subsystem and the boundary-layer subsystem which can be designed separately. Finally, the receding horizon control is applied to the control design for the two subsystems. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Keywords: Integrated guidance and control, Receding horizon control, Side-window detection, Singular perturbation, Terminal guidance

  15. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within ...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  16. Time Series Outlier Detection Based on Sliding Window Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect outliers in hydrological time series data for improving data quality and decision-making quality related to design, operation, and management of water resources, this research develops a time series outlier detection method for hydrologic data that can be used to identify data that deviate from historical patterns. The method first built a forecasting model on the history data and then used it to predict future values. Anomalies are assumed to take place if the observed values fall outside a given prediction confidence interval (PCI, which can be calculated by the predicted value and confidence coefficient. The use of PCI as threshold is mainly on the fact that it considers the uncertainty in the data series parameters in the forecasting model to address the suitable threshold selection problem. The method performs fast, incremental evaluation of data as it becomes available, scales to large quantities of data, and requires no preclassification of anomalies. Experiments with different hydrologic real-world time series showed that the proposed methods are fast and correctly identify abnormal data and can be used for hydrologic time series analysis.

  17. Critical time window of neuronal cholesterol synthesis during neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fünfschilling, Ursula; Jockusch, Wolf J; Sivakumar, Nandhini; Möbius, Wiebke; Corthals, Kristina; Li, Sai; Quintes, Susanne; Kim, Younghoon; Schaap, Iwan A T; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Saher, Gesine

    2012-05-30

    Cholesterol is an essential membrane component enriched in plasma membranes, growth cones, and synapses. The brain normally synthesizes all cholesterol locally, but the contribution of individual cell types to brain cholesterol metabolism is unknown. To investigate whether cortical projection neurons in vivo essentially require cholesterol biosynthesis and which cell types support neurons, we have conditionally ablated the cholesterol biosynthesis in these neurons in mice either embryonically or postnatally. We found that cortical projection neurons synthesize cholesterol during their entire lifetime. At all stages, they can also benefit from glial support. Adult neurons that lack cholesterol biosynthesis are mainly supported by astrocytes such that their functional integrity is preserved. In contrast, microglial cells support young neurons. However, compensatory efforts of microglia are only transient leading to layer-specific neuronal death and the reduction of cortical projections. Hence, during the phase of maximal membrane growth and maximal cholesterol demand, neuronal cholesterol biosynthesis is indispensable. Analysis of primary neurons revealed that neurons tolerate only slight alteration in the cholesterol content and plasma membrane tension. This quality control allows neurons to differentiate normally and adjusts the extent of neurite outgrowth, the number of functional growth cones and synapses to the available cholesterol. This study highlights both the flexibility and the limits of horizontal cholesterol transfer in vivo and may have implications for the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Refinements of the column generation process for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    interval denoted the time window. The objective is to determine routes for the vehicles that minimizes the accumulated cost (or distance) with respect to the above mentioned constraints. Currently the best approaches for determining optimal solutions are based on column generation and Branch......-and-Bound, also known as Branch-and-Price. This paper presents two ideas for run-time improvements of the Branch-and-Price framework for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows. Both ideas reveal a significant potential for using run-time refinements when speeding up an exact approach without compromising...

  19. The Time Window Vehicle Routing Problem Considering Closed Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsa Syahputri, Nenna; Mawengkang, Herman

    2017-12-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) determines the optimal set of routes used by a fleet of vehicles to serve a given set of customers on a predefined graph; the objective is to minimize the total travel cost (related to the travel times or distances) and operational cost (related to the number of vehicles used). In this paper we study a variant of the predefined graph: given a weighted graph G and vertices a and b, and given a set X of closed paths in G, find the minimum total travel cost of a-b path P such that no path in X is a subpath of P. Path P is allowed to repeat vertices and edges. We use integer programming model to describe the problem. A feasible neighbourhood approach is proposed to solve the model

  20. Lagged kernel machine regression for identifying time windows of susceptibility to exposures of complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelley H; Bobb, Jennifer F; Lee, Kyu Ha; Gennings, Chris; Claus Henn, Birgit; Bellinger, David; Austin, Christine; Schnaas, Lourdes; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O; Arora, Manish; Coull, Brent A

    2018-07-01

    The impact of neurotoxic chemical mixtures on children's health is a critical public health concern. It is well known that during early life, toxic exposures may impact cognitive function during critical time intervals of increased vulnerability, known as windows of susceptibility. Knowledge on time windows of susceptibility can help inform treatment and prevention strategies, as chemical mixtures may affect a developmental process that is operating at a specific life phase. There are several statistical challenges in estimating the health effects of time-varying exposures to multi-pollutant mixtures, such as: multi-collinearity among the exposures both within time points and across time points, and complex exposure-response relationships. To address these concerns, we develop a flexible statistical method, called lagged kernel machine regression (LKMR). LKMR identifies critical exposure windows of chemical mixtures, and accounts for complex non-linear and non-additive effects of the mixture at any given exposure window. Specifically, LKMR estimates how the effects of a mixture of exposures change with the exposure time window using a Bayesian formulation of a grouped, fused lasso penalty within a kernel machine regression (KMR) framework. A simulation study demonstrates the performance of LKMR under realistic exposure-response scenarios, and demonstrates large gains over approaches that consider each time window separately, particularly when serial correlation among the time-varying exposures is high. Furthermore, LKMR demonstrates gains over another approach that inputs all time-specific chemical concentrations together into a single KMR. We apply LKMR to estimate associations between neurodevelopment and metal mixtures in Early Life Exposures in Mexico and Neurotoxicology, a prospective cohort study of child health in Mexico City.

  1. Effect of the time window on the heat-conduction information filtering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Song, Wen-Jun; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Recommendation systems have been proposed to filter out the potential tastes and preferences of the normal users online, however, the physics of the time window effect on the performance is missing, which is critical for saving the memory and decreasing the computation complexity. In this paper, by gradually expanding the time window, we investigate the impact of the time window on the heat-conduction information filtering model with ten similarity measures. The experimental results on the benchmark dataset Netflix indicate that by only using approximately 11.11% recent rating records, the accuracy could be improved by an average of 33.16% and the diversity could be improved by 30.62%. In addition, the recommendation performance on the dataset MovieLens could be preserved by only considering approximately 10.91% recent records. Under the circumstance of improving the recommendation performance, our discoveries possess significant practical value by largely reducing the computational time and shortening the data storage space.

  2. Defining the therapeutic time window for suppressing the inflammatory prostaglandin E2 signaling after status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yifeng; Kemper, Timothy; Qiu, Jiange; Jiang, Jianxiong

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common feature in nearly all neurological and some psychiatric disorders. Resembling its extraneural counterpart, neuroinflammation can be both beneficial and detrimental depending on the responding molecules. The overall effect of inflammation on disease progression is highly dependent on the extent of inflammatory mediator production and the duration of inflammatory induction. The time-dependent aspect of inflammatory responses suggests that the therapeutic time window for quelling neuroinflammation might vary with molecular targets and injury types. Therefore, it is important to define the therapeutic time window for anti-inflammatory therapeutics, as contradicting or negative results might arise when different treatment regimens are utilized even in similar animal models. Herein, we discuss a few critical factors that can help define the therapeutic time window and optimize treatment paradigm for suppressing the cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin-mediated inflammation after status epilepticus. These determinants should also be relevant to other anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies for the CNS diseases. PMID:26689339

  3. The Linehaul-Feeder Vehicle Routing Problem with Virtual Depots and Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Kuo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the linehaul-feeder vehicle routing problem with virtual depots and time windows (LFVRPTW. Small and large vehicles deliver services to customers within time constraints; small vehicles en route may reload commodities from either the physical depot or from the larger vehicle at a virtual depot before continuing onward. A two-stage solution heuristic involving Tabu search is proposed to solve this problem. The test results show that the LFVRPTW performs better than the vehicle routing problem with time windows in terms of both objective value and the number of small vehicles dispatched.

  4. WinGraphics: An optimized windowing environment for interactive real-time simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboncoeur, J.P.; Vahedi, V.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a customized windowing environment, Win Graphics, which provides particle simulation codes with an interactive user interface. The environment supports real-time animation of the simulation, displaying multiple diagnostics as they evolve in time. In addition, keyboard and printer (PostScript and dot matrix) support is provided. This paper describes this environment

  5. Reducing Marine Container Terminal Gate Congestion with Vessel-Dependent Time Windows For Truck Entries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Liping

    In recent years, marine container terminal gate congestion has become a serious issue, because it not only limits the efficiency of the logistics system but also generates serious air pollution. The direct reason has been recognized to be the unmanaged container truck arrivals. One of the possible...... and the heuristic of genetic algorithm is improved to be more efficient. Then two optimization strategies are proposed namely fixed end-point time window (FEP) and variable end-point time window (VEP). To compare the effectiveness of two strategies, the optimization model and the heuristic are applied to some tests...

  6. Branch-and-Cut-and-Price for the Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan; Cordeau, Jean-Francois

    2009-01-01

    In the pickup and delivery problem with time windows (PDPTW), vehicle routes must be designed to satisfy a set of transportation requests, each involving a pickup and a delivery location, under capacity, time window, and precedence constraints. This paper introduces a new branch......-and-cut-and-price algorithm in which lower bounds are computed by solving through column generation the linear programming relaxation of a set partitioning formulation. Two pricing subproblems are considered in the column generation algorithm: an elementary and a non-elementary shortest path problem. Valid inequalities...

  7. In times of Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Maria Rosa Rovira; Lehmann, Martin; Zinenko, Anna

    From late last century there has been a great development of international standards and tools on environment, sustainability and corporate responsibility issues. This has been along with the globalization of economy and politics, as well as a shift in the social responsibilities of the private vis...... procedures, such as cases of for example ISO integrated management systems, mutual equivalences recognition of Global Compact-GRI-ISO26000, or the case of IIRC initiative to develop integrated reporting on an organization’s Financial, Environmental, Social and Governance performance. This paper focuses......-a-vis the public sectors. Internationally, organisations have implemented a collection of these standards to be in line with such development and to obtain or keep their licence to operate globally. After two decades of development and maturation, the scenario is now different: (i) the economic context has changed...

  8. Efficient Constraint Handling in Electromagnetism-Like Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtkuran, Alkın

    2014-01-01

    The traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW) is a variant of the traveling salesman problem in which each customer should be visited within a given time window. In this paper, we propose an electromagnetism-like algorithm (EMA) that uses a new constraint handling technique to minimize the travel cost in TSPTW problems. The EMA utilizes the attraction-repulsion mechanism between charged particles in a multidimensional space for global optimization. This paper investigates the problem-specific constraint handling capability of the EMA framework using a new variable bounding strategy, in which real-coded particle's boundary constraints associated with the corresponding time windows of customers, is introduced and combined with the penalty approach to eliminate infeasibilities regarding time window violations. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the constraint handling technique have been studied extensively, comparing it to that of state-of-the-art metaheuristics using several sets of benchmark problems reported in the literature. The results of the numerical experiments show that the EMA generates feasible and near-optimal results within shorter computational times compared to the test algorithms. PMID:24723834

  9. Efficient Constraint Handling in Electromagnetism-Like Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkın Yurtkuran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traveling salesman problem with time windows (TSPTW is a variant of the traveling salesman problem in which each customer should be visited within a given time window. In this paper, we propose an electromagnetism-like algorithm (EMA that uses a new constraint handling technique to minimize the travel cost in TSPTW problems. The EMA utilizes the attraction-repulsion mechanism between charged particles in a multidimensional space for global optimization. This paper investigates the problem-specific constraint handling capability of the EMA framework using a new variable bounding strategy, in which real-coded particle’s boundary constraints associated with the corresponding time windows of customers, is introduced and combined with the penalty approach to eliminate infeasibilities regarding time window violations. The performance of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the constraint handling technique have been studied extensively, comparing it to that of state-of-the-art metaheuristics using several sets of benchmark problems reported in the literature. The results of the numerical experiments show that the EMA generates feasible and near-optimal results within shorter computational times compared to the test algorithms.

  10. Approximation algorithms for deadline-TSP and vehicle routing with time-windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Blum, A.; Chawla, S.; Meyerson, A.; Babai, L.

    2004-01-01

    Given a metric space G on n nodes, with a start node r and deadlines D(v) for each vertex v, we consider the Deadline-TSP problem of finding a path starting at r that visits as many nodes as possible by their deadlines. We also consider the more general Vehicle Routing with Time-Windows problem, in

  11. Constraint Programming based Local Search for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Sala Reixach, Joan

    2012-01-01

    El projecte es centra en el "Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows". Explora i testeja un mètode basat en una formulació del problema en termes de programació de restriccions. Implementa un mètode de cerca local amb la capacitat de fer grans moviments anomenat "Large Neighbourhood Search".

  12. Short time window for transmissibility of African swine fever virus from a contaminated environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, A S; Lohse, L; Boklund, A.

    2018-01-01

    pens after 3, 5 or 7 days did not develop any signs of ASFV infection and no viral DNA was detected in blood samples obtained from these pigs within the following 3 weeks. Thus, it was shown that exposure of pigs to an environment contaminated with ASFV can result in infection. However, the time window...

  13. The waste collection vehicle routing problem with time windows in a city logistics context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhrkal, Katja Frederik; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Collection of waste is an important logistic activity within any city. In this paper we study how to collect waste in an efficient way. We study the Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window which is concerned with finding cost optimal routes for garbage trucks such that all garbage...

  14. Formulations and exact algorithms for the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Brian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we review the exact algorithms proposed in the last three decades for the solution of the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW). The exact algorithms for the VRPTW are in many aspects inherited from work on the traveling salesman problem (TSP). In recognition of this fact...

  15. Controlled time of arrival windows for already initiated energy-neutral continuous descent operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Continuous descent operations with controlled times of arrival at one or several metering fixes could enable environmentally friendly procedures without compromising terminal airspace capacity. This paper focuses on controlled time of arrival updates once the descent has been already initiated, assessing the feasible time window (and associated fuel consumption) of continuous descent operations requiring neither thrust nor speed-brake usage along the whole descent (i.e. only elevator control ...

  16. Calculation of retention time tolerance windows with absolute confidence from shared liquid chromatographic retention data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Paul G; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Hewitt, Joshua T

    2015-09-18

    Compound identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a tedious process, mainly because authentic standards must be run on a user's system to be able to confidently reject a potential identity from its retention time and mass spectral properties. Instead, it would be preferable to use shared retention time/index data to narrow down the identity, but shared data cannot be used to reject candidates with an absolute level of confidence because the data are strongly affected by differences between HPLC systems and experimental conditions. However, a technique called "retention projection" was recently shown to account for many of the differences. In this manuscript, we discuss an approach to calculate appropriate retention time tolerance windows for projected retention times, potentially making it possible to exclude candidates with an absolute level of confidence, without needing to have authentic standards of each candidate on hand. In a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates run among seven different labs, the new approach calculated tolerance windows that were significantly more appropriate for each retention projection than global tolerance windows calculated for retention projections or linear retention indices. Though there were still some small differences between the labs that evidently were not taken into account, the calculated tolerance windows only needed to be relaxed by 50% to make them appropriate for all labs. Even then, 42% of the tolerance windows calculated in this study without standards were narrower than those required by WADA for positive identification, where standards must be run contemporaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Windowing of THz time-domain spectroscopy signals: A study based on lactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cabo, José; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Fraile-Peláez, Francisco Javier; Rubiños-López, Óscar; López-Santos, José María; Martín-Ramos, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Time-domain spectroscopy has established itself as a reference method for determining material parameters in the terahertz spectral range. This procedure requires the processing of the measured time-domain signals in order to estimate the spectral data. In this work, we present a thorough study of the properties of the signal windowing, a step previous to the parameter extraction algorithm, that permits to improve the accuracy of the results. Lactose has been used as sample material in the study.

  18. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and

  19. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes...... detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...

  20. Split delivery vehicle routing problem with time windows: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latiffianti, E.; Siswanto, N.; Firmandani, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to implement an extension of VRP so called split delivery vehicle routing problem (SDVRP) with time windows in a case study involving pickups and deliveries of workers from several points of origin and several destinations. Each origin represents a bus stop and the destination represents either site or office location. An integer linear programming of the SDVRP problem is presented. The solution was generated using three stages of defining the starting points, assigning busses, and solving the SDVRP with time windows using an exact method. Although the overall computational time was relatively lengthy, the results indicated that the produced solution was better than the existing routing and scheduling that the firm used. The produced solution was also capable of reducing fuel cost by 9% that was obtained from shorter total distance travelled by the shuttle buses.

  1. Improving Music Genre Classification by Short-Time Feature Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Many different short-time features, using time windows in the size of 10-30 ms, have been proposed for music segmentation, retrieval and genre classification. However, often the available time frame of the music to make the actual decision or comparison (the decision time horizon) is in the range...... of seconds instead of milliseconds. The problem of making new features on the larger time scale from the short-time features (feature integration) has only received little attention. This paper investigates different methods for feature integration and late information fusion for music genre classification...

  2. Applying Particle Swarm Optimization for Solving Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Jin Ai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Team Orienteering Problem With Time Windows (TOPTW is a transportation problem case that have a set of vertices with a score, service time, and the time windows, start and final at a depot location. A number of paths are constructed to maximize the total collected score by the vertices which is visited. Each vertice can be visited only once and the visit can only start during the  time window of vertices. This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for solving the TOPTW, by defining a specific particle for representing the solution of TOPTW within the PSO algorithm and two alternatives, called PSO_TOPTW1 and PSO_TOPTW2, for translating the particle position to form the routes of the path. The performance of the proposed PSO algorithm is evaluated through some benchmark data problem available in the literature. The computational results show that the proposed PSO is able to produce sufficiently good TOPTW solutions that are comparable with corresponding solutions from other existing methods for solving the TOPTW.

  3. Efficient Metaheuristics for the Mixed Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianos Gavalas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph whose nodes and edges are associated with a profit, a visiting (or traversing time and an admittance time window, the Mixed Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows (MTOPTW seeks for a specific number of walks spanning a subset of nodes and edges of the graph so as to maximize the overall collected profit. The visit of the included nodes and edges should take place within their respective time window and the overall duration of each walk should be below a certain threshold. In this paper we introduce the MTOPTW, which can be used for modeling a realistic variant of the Tourist Trip Design Problem where the objective is the derivation of near-optimal multiple-day itineraries for tourists visiting a destination which features several points of interest (POIs and scenic routes. Since the MTOPTW is a NP-hard problem, we propose the first metaheuristic approaches to tackle it. The effectiveness of our algorithms is validated through a number of experiments on POI and scenic route sets compiled from the city of Athens (Greece.

  4. Partial path column generation for the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Jepsen, Mads Kehlet

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a column generation algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). Traditionally, column generation models of the VRPTW have consisted of a Set Partitioning master problem with each column representing a route, i.e., a resource feasible path starting...... and ending at the depot. Elementary routes (no customer visited more than once) have shown superior results on difficult instances (less restrictive capacity and time windows). However, the pricing problems do not scale well when the number of feasible routes increases, i.e., when a route may contain a large...... number of customers. We suggest to relax that ‘each column is a route’ into ‘each column is a part of the giant tour’; a so-called partial path, i.e., not necessarily starting and ending in the depot. This way, the length of the partial path can be bounded and a better control of the size of the solution...

  5. Multiple Charging Station Location-Routing Problem with Time Window of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-ying

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the electric vehicle (EV multiple charging station location-routing problem with time window to optimize the routing plan of capacitated EVs and the strategy of charging stations. In particular, the strategy of charging stations includes both infrastructure-type selection and station location decisions. The problem accounts for two critical constraints in logistic practice: the vehicle loading capacity and the customer time windows. A hybrid heuristic that incorporates an adaptive variable neighborhood search (AVNS with the tabu search algorithm for intensification was developed to address the problem. The specialized neighborhood structures and the selection methods of charging station used in the shaking step of AVNS were proposed. In contrast to the commercial solver CPLEX, experimental results on small-scale test instances demonstrate that the algorithm can find nearly optimal solutions on small-scale instances. The results on large-scale instances also show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  6. Time series analytics using sliding window metaheuristic optimization-based machine learning system for identifying building energy consumption patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Ngo, Ngoc-Tri

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study develops a novel time-series sliding window forecast system. • The system integrates metaheuristics, machine learning and time-series models. • Site experiment of smart grid infrastructure is installed to retrieve real-time data. • The proposed system accurately predicts energy consumption in residential buildings. • The forecasting system can help users minimize their electricity usage. - Abstract: Smart grids are a promising solution to the rapidly growing power demand because they can considerably increase building energy efficiency. This study developed a novel time-series sliding window metaheuristic optimization-based machine learning system for predicting real-time building energy consumption data collected by a smart grid. The proposed system integrates a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and metaheuristic firefly algorithm-based least squares support vector regression (MetaFA-LSSVR) model. Specifically, the proposed system fits the SARIMA model to linear data components in the first stage, and the MetaFA-LSSVR model captures nonlinear data components in the second stage. Real-time data retrieved from an experimental smart grid installed in a building were used to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of the proposed system. A k-week sliding window approach is proposed for employing historical data as input for the novel time-series forecasting system. The prediction system yielded high and reliable accuracy rates in 1-day-ahead predictions of building energy consumption, with a total error rate of 1.181% and mean absolute error of 0.026 kW h. Notably, the system demonstrates an improved accuracy rate in the range of 36.8–113.2% relative to those of the linear forecasting model (i.e., SARIMA) and nonlinear forecasting models (i.e., LSSVR and MetaFA-LSSVR). Therefore, end users can further apply the forecasted information to enhance efficiency of energy usage in their buildings, especially

  7. Optimizing Ship Speed to Minimize Total Fuel Consumption with Multiple Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the ship speed optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the total fuel consumption. We consider multiple time windows for each port call as constraints and formulate the problem as a nonlinear mixed integer program. We derive intrinsic properties of the problem and develop an exact algorithm based on the properties. Computational experiments show that the suggested algorithm is very efficient in finding an optimal solution.

  8. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leváková, Marie; Tamborrino, M.; Košťál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 022310. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB17AT048 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * observation window * spontaneous activity * Fisher information * perfect integrate- and -fire model * Wiener process Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  9. RENEW: a real-time and effective network emulator of windows for IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Li, Yu; Cen, Dan

    2007-09-01

    Although IPv4 is still working, IPv6 is considered as the backbone and characteristic of the NGI. With the development of Internet, new protocols and network equipments are required to develop. It is necessary to test the new protocols and network equipments extensively before deployment. This paper proposes the design and implementation of RENEW, a useable and accurate network emulator which supports both IPv4 and IPv6 protocols. Besides, it also works on Windows platform. In our IPv6 testbed, we use RENEW to emulate various network characteristics and conditions including bandwidth, delay packet loss and jitter. Compared with the expected values, results are acceptable. Through implementation and experimentation study, we have shown that RENEW does provide the real-time control and change on the parameters of IPv6 network conditions effectively and expediently on Windows. It also gives enough accuracy and more satisfactory convenience to the development and test work for the new protocols.

  10. Lagrangian duality applied to the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Brian; Larsen, Jesper; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the vehicle routing problem with time windows, where the service of each customer must start within a specified time interval. We consider the Lagrangian relaxation of the constraint set requiring that each customer must be served by exactly one vehicle yielding a constrained...... respectively, which to date are the largest problems ever solved to optimality. We have implemented the LBCP algorithm using the ABACUS open-source framework for solving mixed-integer linear-programs by branch, cut, and price....

  11. Reporting time of ischemic stroke patients within the time window for thrombolysis in a tertiary care hospital at rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Ishtiaq, S.; Anwar, S.O.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the reporting time of ischemic stroke patients within the time window for thrombolysis at Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi. Design: A descriptive study. Place and duration of Study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi over a period of four months from Dec 2013 to Mar 2014. Patients and Methods: Patients admitted to MH Rawalpindi with symptoms suggestive of stroke and having objective focal neurologic deficits consistent with stroke were included in the study. A CT scan of brain was carried out immediately to rule out intracranial bleed. The CT scan of brain was either normal or revealed radiological findings suggestive of an infarct. Results: A total of 86 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. Only 19 (22%) patients with ischemic stroke presented to the hospital within 4.5 hours after onset of their symptoms. Conclusion: Only a small number of ischemic stroke patients report to the hospital within the therapeutic window for thrombolytic therapy. (author)

  12. A constructive heuristic for time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time-windows and heterogeneous fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the time-dependent multi-depot vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize the total heterogeneous fleet cost assuming that the travel time between locations depends on the departure time. Also, hard time window constraints for the customers and limitation on maximum number of the vehicles in depots must be satisfied. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming model. A constructive heuristic procedure is proposed for the problem. Also, the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on 180 test problems. The obtained computational results indicate that the procedure is capable to obtain a satisfying solution.

  13. Integrating speech in time depends on temporal expectancies and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Steinberg, Johanna; Tavano, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Sensory information that unfolds in time, such as in speech perception, relies on efficient chunking mechanisms in order to yield optimally-sized units for further processing. Whether or not two successive acoustic events receive a one-unit or a two-unit interpretation seems to depend on the fit between their temporal extent and a stipulated temporal window of integration. However, there is ongoing debate on how flexible this temporal window of integration should be, especially for the processing of speech sounds. Furthermore, there is no direct evidence of whether attention may modulate the temporal constraints on the integration window. For this reason, we here examine how different word durations, which lead to different temporal separations of sound onsets, interact with attention. In an Electroencephalography (EEG) study, participants actively and passively listened to words where word-final consonants were occasionally omitted. Words had either a natural duration or were artificially prolonged in order to increase the separation of speech sound onsets. Omission responses to incomplete speech input, originating in left temporal cortex, decreased when the critical speech sound was separated from previous sounds by more than 250 msec, i.e., when the separation was larger than the stipulated temporal window of integration (125-150 msec). Attention, on the other hand, only increased omission responses for stimuli with natural durations. We complemented the event-related potential (ERP) analyses by a frequency-domain analysis on the stimulus presentation rate. Notably, the power of stimulation frequency showed the same duration and attention effects than the omission responses. We interpret these findings on the background of existing research on temporal integration windows and further suggest that our findings may be accounted for within the framework of predictive coding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Collateral status affects the onset-to-reperfusion time window for good outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Moon; Baek, Jang-Hyun; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Yoo, Joonsang; Kim, Dong Joon; Jeon, Pyoung; Baik, Seung Kug; Suh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Kyung Yol; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Roh, Hong Gee; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Sang Heum; Ryu, Chang-Woo; Ihn, Yon-Kwon; Kim, Byungjoon; Jeon, Hong Jun; Kim, Jin Woo; Byun, Jun Soo; Suh, Sangil; Park, Jeong Jin; Lee, Woong Jae; Roh, Jieun; Shin, Byoung-Soo; Bang, Oh Young

    2018-03-08

    To characterise the time window in which endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is associated with good outcome, and to test the differential relationship between functional outcome and onset-to-reperfusion time (ORT), depending on collateral status. This was a retrospective analysis of clinical and imaging data of 554 consecutive patients, who had recanalisation success by EVT for anterior circulation large artery occlusion, from the prospectively maintained registries of 16 comprehensive stroke centres between September 2010 and December 2015. The patients were dichotomised into good and poor collateral groups, based on CT angiography. We tested whether the likelihood of good outcome (modified Rankin Scale, 0-2) by ORT was different between two groups. ORT was 298 min±113 min (range, 81-665 min), and 84.5% of patients had good collaterals. Age, diabetes mellitus, previous infarction, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, good collaterals (OR 40.766; 95% CI 10.668 to 155.78; pcollateral group (OR 0.305 for every 30 min; 95% CI 0.113 to 0.822) than in good collateral group (OR 0.926 for every 30 min; 95% CI 0.875 to 0.980). Earlier successful recanalisation was strongly associated with good outcome in poor collateral group; however, this association was weak during the tested time window in good collateral group. This suggests that the ORT window for good outcome can be adjusted according to collateral status. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Analysis on Time Window of Shared Parking in Hospitals Based on Parking Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are essential components of a city; huge traffic demand is generated and attracted, causing contradiction between parking supply and demand. By sharing parking berths, limited space can serve more demand which is beneficial to alleviating parking problems. Aimed at improving the capacity of shared parking, the paper analyzes four parking groups in typical hospitals, which are medical staff, outpatients, emergency patients, and visiting groups. The parking demand of medical staff is rigid. For outpatients and visiting groups, longer walking distance is acceptable and more attention is paid to parking fee. By contrast, emergency patients can accept shorter walking distance and focus more on convenience due to urgency. Under this circumstance, parking behaviors selection models are established by means of Multinomial Logit Model. On this basis, time value is adopted to calculate the tolerance of alterative parking time. Moreover, this paper explores the variation of time window, under different parking impedance. A case study is conducted and suggests that start and end point of a certain time window can be influenced by external factors.

  16. Impact of the time window on plasma volume measurement with indocyanine green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M; Chappell, D; Conzen, P; Finsterer, U; Rehm, M; Krafft, A; Becker, B F

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have questioned the accuracy of the indocyanine green dilution technique for measuring plasma volume. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of different time windows for monoexponential extrapolation. We retrospectively analysed 31 indocyanine green decay curves to investigate the problem in principle (group 1) and prospectively performed another 21 plasma volume measurements to estimate its practical impact (group 2). To monoexponentially extrapolate back to the specific extinction at the time of dye injection, two different time windows were applied to each decay curve, comparing the plasma volumes resulting from sampling within a short (≤5 min) versus a longer (>5 min) period of time. Extrapolating back from the longer period led to a higher apparent plasma volume relative to the shorter period in both groups, the difference being 348 ± 171 ml (group 1) and 384 ± 131 ml (group 2; mean ± SD; p < 0.05 each). This result was due to a reliable monoexponentiality of decay only up to the 5th min after dye injection. Thus, to estimate the initial distribution space of indocyanine green via monoexponential extrapolation, the first linear kinetic of indocyanine green decay should be taken

  17. Exact Algorithm for the Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyuk Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacitated team orienteering problem with time windows (CTOPTW is a problem to determine players’ paths that have the maximum rewards while satisfying the constraints. In this paper, we present the exact solution approach for the CTOPTW which has not been done in previous literature. We show that the branch-and-price (B&P scheme which was originally developed for the team orienteering problem can be applied to the CTOPTW. To solve pricing problems, we used implicit enumeration acceleration techniques, heuristic algorithms, and ng-route relaxations.

  18. VLSI Architectures for Sliding-Window-Based Space-Time Turbo Trellis Code Decoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Passas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The VLSI implementation of SISO-MAP decoders used for traditional iterative turbo coding has been investigated in the literature. In this paper, a complete architectural model of a space-time turbo code receiver that includes elementary decoders is presented. These architectures are based on newly proposed building blocks such as a recursive add-compare-select-offset (ACSO unit, A-, B-, Γ-, and LLR output calculation modules. Measurements of complexity and decoding delay of several sliding-window-technique-based MAP decoder architectures and a proposed parameter set lead to defining equations and comparison between those architectures.

  19. The Edge Set Cost of the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Pisinger, David

    2016-01-01

    . The certifications and investments impose a cost for the company while they also give unlimited usage of a set of roads to all vehicles belonging to the company. This violates the traditional assumption that the path between two destinations is well defined and independent of other choices. Different versions......We consider an important generalization of the vehicle routing problem with time windows in which a fixed cost must be paid for accessing a set of edges. This fixed cost could reflect payment for toll roads, investment in new facilities, the need for certifications, and other costly investments...

  20. Medicine Time -lääkemuistutin : Sovelluksen kehitys Windows Phone 7.5 alustalle

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtorinne, Jarno

    2012-01-01

    Oulun seudun ammattikorkeakoulun ubiHOME-laboratorio kehittää yksinelävien vanhusten tarpeisiin soveltuvaa älytekniikkaa, ja ubiPILL-lääkeannostelija on yksi näistä projekteista. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kehittää erillinen sovellus Windows Phone 7.5 -alustalle, joka pohjautuu samaan ideaan kuin ubiPILL. UbiPILL-järjestelmän aikaisemmat versiot koostuivat päätelaitteesta, henkilökohtaisesta hälyttimestä ja palvelimesta. Medicine Time -sovellus ei tarvitse erillistä päätelaitetta, vaa...

  1. Time integration of tensor trains

    OpenAIRE

    Lubich, Christian; Oseledets, Ivan; Vandereycken, Bart

    2014-01-01

    A robust and efficient time integrator for dynamical tensor approximation in the tensor train or matrix product state format is presented. The method is based on splitting the projector onto the tangent space of the tensor manifold. The algorithm can be used for updating time-dependent tensors in the given data-sparse tensor train / matrix product state format and for computing an approximate solution to high-dimensional tensor differential equations within this data-sparse format. The formul...

  2. Methodology of mixed load customized bus lines and adjustment based on time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Custom bus routes need to be optimized to meet the needs of a customized bus for personalized trips of different passengers. This paper introduced a customized bus routing problem in which trips for each depot are given, and each bus stop has a fixed time window within which trips should be completed. Treating a trip as a virtual stop was the first consideration in solving the school bus routing problem (SBRP). Then, the mixed load custom bus routing model was established with a time window that satisfies its requirement and the result were solved by Cplex software. Finally, a simple network diagram with three depots, four pickup stops, and five delivery stops was structured to verify the correctness of the model, and based on the actual example, the result is that all the buses ran 124.42 kilometers, the sum of kilometers was 10.35 kilometers less than before. The paths and departure times of the different busses that were provided by the model were evaluated to meet the needs of the given conditions, thus providing valuable information for actual work. PMID:29320505

  3. The Optimization of Transportation Costs in Logistics Enterprises with Time-Window Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyou Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for solving a multiobjective vehicle routing problem with soft time-window constraints that specify the earliest and latest arrival times of customers. If a customer is serviced before the earliest specified arrival time, extra inventory costs are incurred. If the customer is serviced after the latest arrival time, penalty costs must be paid. Both the total transportation cost and the required fleet size are minimized in this model, which also accounts for the given capacity limitations of each vehicle. The total transportation cost consists of direct transportation costs, extra inventory costs, and penalty costs. This multiobjective optimization is solved by using a modified genetic algorithm approach. The output of the algorithm is a set of optimal solutions that represent the trade-off between total transportation cost and the fleet size required to service customers. The influential impact of these two factors is analyzed through the use of a case study.

  4. Mathematical Formulation and Comparison of Solution Approaches for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Access Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Grosso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the principles of sustainability to the implementation of urban freight policies requires the estimation of all the costs and externalities involved. We focus here on the case of access time windows, which ban the access of freight vehicles to central urban areas in many European cities. Even though this measure seeks to reduce congestion and emissions in the most crowded periods of the day, it also imposes additional costs for carriers and results in higher emissions and energy consumption. We present here a mathematical model for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Access Time Windows, a variant of the VRP suitable for planning delivery routes in a city subject to this type of accessibility restriction. We use the model to find exact solutions to small problem instances based on a case study and then compare the performance over larger instances of a modified savings algorithm, a genetic algorithm, and a tabu search procedure, with the results showing no clear prevalence of any of them, but confirming the significance of those additional costs and externalities.

  5. The window of opportunity: decision theory and the timing of prognostic tests for newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic

    2009-11-01

    In many forms of severe acute brain injury there is an early phase when prognosis is uncertain, followed later by physiological recovery and the possibility of more certain predictions of future impairment. There may be a window of opportunity for withdrawal of life support early, but if decisions are delayed there is the risk that the patient will survive with severe impairment. In this paper I focus on the example of neonatal encephalopathy and the question of the timing of prognostic tests and decisions to continue or to withdraw life-sustaining treatment. Should testing be performed early or later; and how should parents decide what to do given the conflicting values at stake? I apply decision theory to the problem, using sensitivity analysis to assess how different features of the tests or different values would affect a decision to perform early or late prognostic testing. I draw some general conclusions from this model for decisions about the timing of testing in neonatal encephalopathy. Finally I consider possible solutions to the problem posed by the window of opportunity. Decision theory highlights the costs of uncertainty. This may prompt further research into improving prognostic tests. But it may also prompt us to reconsider our current attitudes towards the palliative care of newborn infants predicted to be severely impaired.

  6. Long Pulse Integrator of Variable Integral Time Constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Ji Zhenshan; Du Xiaoying; Wu Yichun; Li Shi; Luo Jiarong

    2010-01-01

    A kind of new long pulse integrator was designed based on the method of variable integral time constant and deducting integral drift by drift slope. The integral time constant can be changed by choosing different integral resistors, in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and avoid output saturation; the slope of integral drift of a certain period of time can be calculated by digital signal processing, which can be used to deduct the drift of original integral signal in real time to reduce the integral drift. The tests show that this kind of long pulse integrator is good at reducing integral drift, which also can eliminate the effects of changing integral time constant. According to experiments, the integral time constant can be changed by remote control and manual adjustment of integral drift is avoided, which can improve the experiment efficiency greatly and can be used for electromagnetic measurement in Tokamak experiment. (authors)

  7. Predicting progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia using neuropsychological data: a supervised learning approach using time windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Telma; Lemos, Luís; Cardoso, Sandra; Silva, Dina; Rodrigues, Ana; Santana, Isabel; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Manuela; Madeira, Sara C

    2017-07-19

    Predicting progression from a stage of Mild Cognitive Impairment to dementia is a major pursuit in current research. It is broadly accepted that cognition declines with a continuum between MCI and dementia. As such, cohorts of MCI patients are usually heterogeneous, containing patients at different stages of the neurodegenerative process. This hampers the prognostic task. Nevertheless, when learning prognostic models, most studies use the entire cohort of MCI patients regardless of their disease stages. In this paper, we propose a Time Windows approach to predict conversion to dementia, learning with patients stratified using time windows, thus fine-tuning the prognosis regarding the time to conversion. In the proposed Time Windows approach, we grouped patients based on the clinical information of whether they converted (converter MCI) or remained MCI (stable MCI) within a specific time window. We tested time windows of 2, 3, 4 and 5 years. We developed a prognostic model for each time window using clinical and neuropsychological data and compared this approach with the commonly used in the literature, where all patients are used to learn the models, named as First Last approach. This enables to move from the traditional question "Will a MCI patient convert to dementia somewhere in the future" to the question "Will a MCI patient convert to dementia in a specific time window". The proposed Time Windows approach outperformed the First Last approach. The results showed that we can predict conversion to dementia as early as 5 years before the event with an AUC of 0.88 in the cross-validation set and 0.76 in an independent validation set. Prognostic models using time windows have higher performance when predicting progression from MCI to dementia, when compared to the prognostic approach commonly used in the literature. Furthermore, the proposed Time Windows approach is more relevant from a clinical point of view, predicting conversion within a temporal interval

  8. Penanganan Fuzzy Time Window pada Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP dengan Penerapan Algoritma Genetika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Eka Yuliastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The route of the travel tour packages offered by travel agents is not considered optimum, so the level of satisfaction the tourist is not maximal. Selection of the route of the travel packages included in the traveling salesman problem (TSP. The problem that occurs is uncertain tourists visiting destinations at the best destinations timing hereinafter be referred to as the fuzzy time window problem. Therefore, the authors apply the genetic algorithm to solve the problem. Based on test results obtained optimum solution with the fitness value of 1.3291, a population size of 100, the number of generations of 1000, a combination of CR=0,4 and MR=0.6.

  9. Understanding Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. Subset-row inequalities applied to the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    2008-01-01

    constraints as the pricing problem. We introduce the subset-row inequalities, which are Chvatal-Gomory rank-1 cuts based on a subset of the constraints in the master problem. Applying a subset-row inequality in the master problem increases the complexity of the label-setting algorithm used to solve......This paper presents a branch-and-cut-and-price algorithm for the vehicle-routing problem with time windows. The standard Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition of the arc flow formulation leads to a set-partitioning problem as the master problem and an elementary shortest-path problem with resource...... the pricing problem because an additional resource is added for each inequality. We propose a modified dominance criterion that makes it possible to dominate more labels by exploiting the step-like structure of the objective function of the pricing problem. Computational experiments have been performed...

  11. Integral window/photon beam position monitor and beam flux detectors for x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    1995-01-01

    A monitor/detector assembly in a synchrotron for either monitoring the position of a photon beam or detecting beam flux may additionally function as a vacuum barrier between the front end and downstream segment of the beamline in the synchrotron. A base flange of the monitor/detector assembly is formed of oxygen free copper with a central opening covered by a window foil that is fused thereon. The window foil is made of man-made materials, such as chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and in certain configurations includes a central opening through which the beams are transmitted. Sensors of low atomic number materials, such as aluminum or beryllium, are laid on the window foil. The configuration of the sensors on the window foil may be varied depending on the function to be performed. A contact plate of insulating material, such as aluminum oxide, is secured to the base flange and is thereby clamped against the sensor on the window foil. The sensor is coupled to external electronic signal processing devices via a gold or silver lead printed onto the contact plate and a copper post screw or alternatively via a copper screw and a copper spring that can be inserted through the contact plate and coupled to the sensors. In an alternate embodiment of the monitor/detector assembly, the sensors are sandwiched between the window foil of chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and a front foil made of similar material.

  12. Online stochastic UAV mission planning with time windows and time-sensitive targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we simultaneously consider three extensions to the standard Orienteering Problem (OP) to model characteristics that are of practical relevance in planning reconnaissance missions of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). First, travel and recording times are uncertain. Secondly, the

  13. Application of the multi-objective cross-entropy method to the vehicle routing problem with soft time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Hauman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem with time windows is a widely studied problem with many real-world applications. The problem considered here entails the construction of routes that a number of identical vehicles travel to service different nodes within a certain time window. New benchmark problems with multi-objective features were recently suggested in the literature and the multi-objective optimisation cross-entropy method is applied to these problems to investigate the feasibility of the method and to determine and propose reference solutions for the benchmark problems. The application of the cross-entropy method to the multi-objective vehicle routing problem with soft time windows is investigated. The objectives that are evaluated include the minimisation of the total distance travelled, the number of vehicles and/or routes, the total waiting time and delay time of the vehicles and the makespan of a route.

  14. Mining Frequent Item Sets in Asynchronous Transactional Data Streams over Time Sensitive Sliding Windows Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, Q.; Memon, F.; Talpur, S.; Arif, M.; Awan, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    EPs (Extracting Frequent Patterns) from the continuous transactional data streams is a challenging and critical task in some of the applications, such as web mining, data analysis and retail market, prediction and network monitoring, or analysis of stock market exchange data. Many algorithms have been developed previously for mining FPs (Frequent Patterns) from a data stream. Such algorithms are currently highly required to develop new solutions and approaches to the precise handling of data streams. New techniques, solutions, or approaches are developed to address unbounded, ordered, and continuous sequences of data and for the generation of data at a rapid speed from data streams. Hence, extracting FPs using fresh or recent data involves the high-level analysis of data streams. We have suggested an efficient technique for the window sliding model; this technique extracts new and fresh FPs from high-speed data streams. In this study, a CPILT (Compacted Tree Compact Pattern Tree) is developed to capture the latest contents in the stream and to efficiently remove outdated contents from the data stream. The main concept introduced in this work on CPILT is the dynamic restructuring of a tree, which is helpful in producing a compacted tree and the frequency descending structure of a tree on runtime. With the help of the mining technique of FP growth, a complete list of new and fresh FPs is obtained from a CPILT using an existing window. The memory usage and time complexity of the latest FPs in high-speed data streams can efficiently be determined through proper experimentation and analysis. (author)

  15. Branch and price for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabia, Said; Dabia, Said; Van Woensel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    of column generation, and a tailored labeling algorithm is used to solve the pricing problem. We introduce new dominance criteria that allow more label dominance. For our numerical results, we modified Solomon's data sets by adding time dependency. Our algorithm is able to solve about 63% of the instances...... solution methods to the DM-TDVRPTW are based on (meta-)heuristics. The decomposition of an arc-based formulation leads to a setpartitioning problem as the master problem, and a time-dependent shortest path problem with resource constraints as the pricing problem. The master problem is solved by means...... with 25 customers, 38% of the instances with 50 customers, and 15% of the instances with 100 customers. © 2013 INFORMS....

  16. The multi-depot electric vehicle location routing problem with time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Paz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Multi-Depot Electric Vehicle Location Routing Problem with Time Windows (MDVLRP is addressed. This problem is an extension of the MDVLRP, where electric vehicles are used instead of internal combustion engine vehicles. The recent development of this model is explained by the advantages of this technology, such as the diminution of carbon dioxide emissions, and the support that they can provide to the design of the logistic and energy-support structure of electric vehicle fleets. There are many models that extend the classical VRP model to take electric vehicles into consideration, but the multi-depot case for location-routing models has not been worked out yet. Moreover, we consider the availability of two energy supply technologies: the “Plug-in” Conventional Charge technology, and Battery Swapping Stations; options in which the recharging time is a function of the amount of energy to charge and a fixed time, respectively. Three models are proposed: one for each of the technologies mentioned above, and another in which both options are taken in consideration. The models were solved for small scale instances using C++ and Cplex 12.5. The results show that the models can be used to design logistic and energy-support structures, and compare the performance of the different options of energy supply, as well as measure the impact of these decisions on the overall distance traveled or other optimization objectives that could be worked on in the future.

  17. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragon Alan Albert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nutrient timing is a popular nutritional strategy that involves the consumption of combinations of nutrients--primarily protein and carbohydrate--in and around an exercise session. Some have claimed that this approach can produce dramatic improvements in body composition. It has even been postulated that the timing of nutritional consumption may be more important than the absolute daily intake of nutrients. The post-exercise period is widely considered the most critical part of nutrient timing. Theoretically, consuming the proper ratio of nutrients during this time not only initiates the rebuilding of damaged muscle tissue and restoration of energy reserves, but it does so in a supercompensated fashion that enhances both body composition and exercise performance. Several researchers have made reference to an anabolic “window of opportunity” whereby a limited time exists after training to optimize training-related muscular adaptations. However, the importance - and even the existence - of a post-exercise ‘window’ can vary according to a number of factors. Not only is nutrient timing research open to question in terms of applicability, but recent evidence has directly challenged the classical view of the relevance of post-exercise nutritional intake with respect to anabolism. Therefore, the purpose of this paper will be twofold: 1 to review the existing literature on the effects of nutrient timing with respect to post-exercise muscular adaptations, and; 2 to draw relevant conclusions that allow practical, evidence-based nutritional recommendations to be made for maximizing the anabolic response to exercise.

  18. Steffensen's Integral Inequality on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Umut Mutlu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish generalizations of Steffensen's integral inequality on time scales via the diamond- dynamic integral, which is defined as a linear combination of the delta and nabla integrals.

  19. MASMA: a versatile multifunctional unit (gated window amplifier, analog memory, and height-to-time converter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.; Thenes, P.

    1969-01-01

    This multipurpose unit is designed to accomplish one of the following functions: - gated window amplifier, - Analog memory and - Amplitude-to-time converter. The first function is mainly devoted to improve the poor resolution of pulse-height analyzers with a small number of channels. The analog memory, a new function in the standard range of plug-in modules, is capable of performing a number of operations: 1) fixed delay, or variable delay dependent on an external parameter (application to the analog processing of non-coincident pulses), 2) de-randomiser to increase the efficiency of the pulse height analysis in a spectrometry experiment, 3) linear multiplexer to allow an analyser to serve as many spectrometry devices as memory elements that it possesses. Associated with a coding scaler, this unit, if used as a amplitude-to-time converter, constitutes a Wilkinson A.D.C with a capability of 10 bits (or more) and with a 100 MHz clock frequency. (authors) [fr

  20. Therapeutic Time Window for Edaravone Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Dohi, Kenji; Tsumuraya, Tomomi; Song, Dandan; Kiriyama, Keisuke; Satoh, Kazue; Shimizu, Ai; Aruga, Tohru; Shioda, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in young people. No effective therapy is available to ameliorate its damaging effects. Our aim was to investigate the optimal therapeutic time window of edaravone, a free radical scavenger which is currently used in Japan. We also determined the temporal profile of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative stress, and neuronal death. Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to a controlled cortical impact (CCI). Edaravone (3.0 mg/kg), or vehicle, was administered intravenously at 0, 3, or 6 hours following CCI. The production of superoxide radicals (O2 ∙−) as a marker of ROS, of nitrotyrosine (NT) as an indicator of oxidative stress, and neuronal death were measured for 24 hours following CCI. Superoxide radical production was clearly evident 3 hours after CCI, with oxidative stress and neuronal cell death becoming apparent after 6 hours. Edaravone administration after CCI resulted in a significant reduction in the injury volume and oxidative stress, particularly at the 3-hour time point. Moreover, the greatest decrease in O2 ∙− levels was observed when edaravone was administered 3 hours following CCI. These findings suggest that edaravone could prove clinically useful to ameliorate the devastating effects of TBI. PMID:23710445

  1. Therapeutic Time Window for Edaravone Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Miyamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of death and disability in young people. No effective therapy is available to ameliorate its damaging effects. Our aim was to investigate the optimal therapeutic time window of edaravone, a free radical scavenger which is currently used in Japan. We also determined the temporal profile of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, oxidative stress, and neuronal death. Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to a controlled cortical impact (CCI. Edaravone (3.0 mg/kg, or vehicle, was administered intravenously at 0, 3, or 6 hours following CCI. The production of superoxide radicals (O2∙- as a marker of ROS, of nitrotyrosine (NT as an indicator of oxidative stress, and neuronal death were measured for 24 hours following CCI. Superoxide radical production was clearly evident 3 hours after CCI, with oxidative stress and neuronal cell death becoming apparent after 6 hours. Edaravone administration after CCI resulted in a significant reduction in the injury volume and oxidative stress, particularly at the 3-hour time point. Moreover, the greatest decrease in O2∙- levels was observed when edaravone was administered 3 hours following CCI. These findings suggest that edaravone could prove clinically useful to ameliorate the devastating effects of TBI.

  2. Warm/cool-tone switchable thermochromic material for smart windows by orthogonally integrating properties of pillar[6]arene and ferrocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Xu, Zuqiang; Wang, Tingting; Xiao, Tangxin; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Shen, Ying-Zhong; Wang, Leyong

    2018-04-30

    Functional materials play a vital role in the fabrication of smart windows, which can provide a more comfortable indoor environment for humans to enjoy a better lifestyle. Traditional materials for smart windows tend to possess only a single functionality with the purpose of regulating the input of solar energy. However, different color tones also have great influences on human emotions. Herein, a strategy for orthogonal integration of different properties is proposed, namely the thermo-responsiveness of ethylene glycol-modified pillar[6]arene (EGP6) and the redox-induced reversible color switching of ferrocene/ferrocenium groups are orthogonally integrated into one system. This gives rise to a material with cooperative and non-interfering dual functions, featuring both thermochromism and warm/cool tone-switchability. Consequently, the obtained bifunctional material for fabricating smart windows can not only regulate the input of solar energy but also can provide a more comfortable color tone to improve the feelings and emotions of people in indoor environments.

  3. Comparison of the Time Domain Windows Specified in the ISO 18431 Standards Used to Estimate Modal Parameters in Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonatan Camacho-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The procedures used to estimate structural modal parameters as natural frequency, damping ratios, and mode shapes are generally based on frequency methods. However, methods of time-frequency analysis are highly sensible to the parameters used to calculate the discrete Fourier transform: windowing, resolution, and preprocessing. Thus, the uncertainty of the modal parameters is increased if a proper parameter selection is not considered. In this work, the influence of three different time domain windows functions (Hanning, flat-top, and rectangular used to estimate modal parameters are discussed in the framework of ISO 18431 standard. Experimental results are conducted over an AISI 1020 steel plate, which is excited by means of a hammer element. Vibration response is acquired by using acceleration records according to the ISO 7626-5 reference guides. The results are compared with a theoretical method and it is obtained that the flat-top window is the best function for experimental modal analysis.

  4. Windowed time-reversal music technique for super-resolution ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin

    2018-05-01

    Systems and methods for super-resolution ultrasound imaging using a windowed and generalized TR-MUSIC algorithm that divides the imaging region into overlapping sub-regions and applies the TR-MUSIC algorithm to the windowed backscattered ultrasound signals corresponding to each sub-region. The algorithm is also structured to account for the ultrasound attenuation in the medium and the finite-size effects of ultrasound transducer elements.

  5. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  6. A Hybrid Chaos-Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Hu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art heuristic algorithms to solve the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW usually present slow speeds during the early iterations and easily fall into local optimal solutions. Focusing on solving the above problems, this paper analyzes the particle encoding and decoding strategy of the particle swarm optimization algorithm, the construction of the vehicle route and the judgment of the local optimal solution. Based on these, a hybrid chaos-particle swarm optimization algorithm (HPSO is proposed to solve VRPTW. The chaos algorithm is employed to re-initialize the particle swarm. An efficient insertion heuristic algorithm is also proposed to build the valid vehicle route in the particle decoding process. A particle swarm premature convergence judgment mechanism is formulated and combined with the chaos algorithm and Gaussian mutation into HPSO when the particle swarm falls into the local convergence. Extensive experiments are carried out to test the parameter settings in the insertion heuristic algorithm and to evaluate that they are corresponding to the data’s real-distribution in the concrete problem. It is also revealed that the HPSO achieves a better performance than the other state-of-the-art algorithms on solving VRPTW.

  7. Modified artificial bee colony for the vehicle routing problems with time windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaqebah, Malek; Abdullah, Salwani; Jawarneh, Sana

    2016-01-01

    The natural behaviour of the honeybee has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years and several algorithms have been developed that mimic swarm behaviour to solve optimisation problems. This paper introduces an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW). A Modified ABC algorithm is proposed to improve the solution quality of the original ABC. The high exploration ability of the ABC slows-down its convergence speed, which may due to the mechanism used by scout bees in replacing abandoned (unimproved) solutions with new ones. In the Modified ABC a list of abandoned solutions is used by the scout bees to memorise the abandoned solutions, then the scout bees select a solution from the list based on roulette wheel selection and replace by a new solution with random routs selected from the best solution. The performance of the Modified ABC is evaluated on Solomon benchmark datasets and compared with the original ABC. The computational results demonstrate that the Modified ABC outperforms the original ABC also produce good solutions when compared with the best-known results in the literature. Computational investigations show that the proposed algorithm is a good and promising approach for the VRPTW.

  8. Impact of an observational time window on coupled data assimilation: simulation with a simple climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate signals are the results of interactions of multiple timescale media such as the atmosphere and ocean in the coupled earth system. Coupled data assimilation (CDA pursues balanced and coherent climate analysis and prediction initialization by incorporating observations from multiple media into a coupled model. In practice, an observational time window (OTW is usually used to collect measured data for an assimilation cycle to increase observational samples that are sequentially assimilated with their original error scales. Given different timescales of characteristic variability in different media, what are the optimal OTWs for the coupled media so that climate signals can be most accurately recovered by CDA? With a simple coupled model that simulates typical scale interactions in the climate system and twin CDA experiments, we address this issue here. Results show that in each coupled medium, an optimal OTW can provide maximal observational information that best fits the characteristic variability of the medium during the data blending process. Maintaining correct scale interactions, the resulting CDA improves the analysis of climate signals greatly. These simple model results provide a guideline for when the real observations are assimilated into a coupled general circulation model for improving climate analysis and prediction initialization by accurately recovering important characteristic variability such as sub-diurnal in the atmosphere and diurnal in the ocean.

  9. Stress within a Restricted Time Window Selectively Affects the Persistence of Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qin; Chai, Ning; Zhao, Li-Yan; Xue, Yan-Xue; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Jian, Min; Han, Ying; Shi, Hai-Shui; Lu, Lin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Ji-Shi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of stress on emotional memory are distinct and depend on the stages of memory. Memory undergoes consolidation and reconsolidation after acquisition and retrieval, respectively. Stress facilitates the consolidation but disrupts the reconsolidation of emotional memory. Previous research on the effects of stress on memory have focused on long-term memory (LTM) formation (tested 24 h later), but the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM (tested at least 1 week later) are unclear. Recent findings indicated that the persistence of LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the dorsal hippocampus. The present study investigated the effect of stress (i.e., cold water stress) during the late phase after the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory in rats. We found that stress and corticosterone administration during the late phase (12 h) after acquisition, referred to as late consolidation, selectively enhanced the persistence of LTM, whereas stress during the late phase (12 h) after retrieval, referred to as late reconsolidation, selectively disrupted the restabilized persistence of LTM. Moreover, the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM were blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, which was administered before stress, suggesting that the glucocorticoid system is involved in the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM. We conclude that stress within a restricted time window after acquisition or retrieval selectively affects the persistence of LTM and depends on the glucocorticoid system. PMID:23544051

  10. Face perception is tuned to horizontal orientation in the N170 time window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Corentin; Schiltz, Christine; Goffaux, Valerie

    2014-02-07

    The specificity of face perception is thought to reside both in its dramatic vulnerability to picture-plane inversion and its strong reliance on horizontally oriented image content. Here we asked when in the visual processing stream face-specific perception is tuned to horizontal information. We measured the behavioral performance and scalp event-related potentials (ERP) when participants viewed upright and inverted images of faces and cars (and natural scenes) that were phase-randomized in a narrow orientation band centered either on vertical or horizontal orientation. For faces, the magnitude of the inversion effect (IE) on behavioral discrimination performance was significantly reduced for horizontally randomized compared to vertically or nonrandomized images, confirming the importance of horizontal information for the recruitment of face-specific processing. Inversion affected the processing of nonrandomized and vertically randomized faces early, in the N170 time window. In contrast, the magnitude of the N170 IE was much smaller for horizontally randomized faces. The present research indicates that the early face-specific neural representations are preferentially tuned to horizontal information and offers new perspectives for a description of the visual information feeding face-specific perception.

  11. Time Window Is Important for Adenosine Preventing Cold-induced Injury to the Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Hu, Xiao-Xia; Fu, Li; Chen, Jing; Lu, Li-He; Liu, Xiang; Xu, Zhe; Zhou, Li; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xi; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Ou, Jing-Song

    2017-06-01

    Cold cardioplegia is used to induce heart arrest during cardiac surgery. However, endothelial function may be compromised after this procedure. Accordingly, interventions such as adenosine, that mimic the effects of preconditioning, may minimize endothelial injury. Herein, we investigated whether adenosine prevents cold-induced injury to the endothelium. Cultured human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells were treated with adenosine for different durations. Phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and p70S6K6 were measured along with nitric oxide (NO) production using diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA) probe. Cold-induced injury by hypothermia to 4°C for 45 minutes to mimic conditions of cold cardioplegia during open heart surgery was induced in human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Under basal conditions, adenosine stimulated NO production, eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 from 5 minutes to 4 hours and inhibited eNOS phosphorylation at threonine 495 from 5 minutes to 6 hours, but increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and p70S6K only after exposure for 5 minutes. Cold-induced injury inhibited NO production and the phosphorylation of the different enzymes. Importantly, adenosine prevented these effects of hypothermic injury. Our data demonstrated that adenosine prevents hypothermic injury to the endothelium by activating ERK1/2, eNOS, p70S6K, and p38MAPK signaling pathways at early time points. These findings also indicated that 5 minutes after administration of adenosine or release of adenosine is an important time window for cardioprotection during cardiac surgery.

  12. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for the pickup and delivery problem with time Windows and scheduled lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghilas, V.; Demir, E.; van Woensel, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows and Scheduled Lines (PDPTW-SL) concerns scheduling a set of vehicles to serve freight requests such that a part of the journey can be carried out on a scheduled public transportation line. Due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we

  13. A well-scalable metaheuristic for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bräysy, Olli; Porkka, Pasi P.; Dullaert, Wout; Repoussis, Panagiotis P.; Tarantilis, Christos D.

    This paper presents an efficient and well-scalable metaheuristic for fleet size and mix vehicle routing with time windows. The suggested solution method combines the strengths of well-known threshold accepting and guided local search metaheuristics to guide a set of four local search heuristics. The

  14. The Plant-Window system: A flexible, expandable computing environment for the integration of power plant activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the US nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed on Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  15. The Plant-Window System: A framework for an integrated computing environment at advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The extensive use of computer technology in advanced reactor designs provides the opportunity to greatly expand the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, to support highly efficient and increasingly safe operation of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and sued, to the proper users throughout the plan. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications within a common computing environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces so as to define a flexible computing environment for both current generation nuclear power plants and advanced reactor designs

  16. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  17. The impact of skin decontamination on the time window for effective treatment of percutaneous VX exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Berg, R.M. van den; Jong, A.L. de; Schans, M.J. van der; Noort, D.; Langenberg, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to obtain insight into depot formation and penetration following percutaneous VX poisoning, in order to identify an appropriate decontamination window that can enhance or support medical countermeasures. The study was executed in two phases, using the hairless

  18. Integration of ground-penetrating radar, ultrasonic tests and infrared thermography for the analysis of a precious medieval rose window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, L.; Calia, A.; Liberatore, D.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.

    2010-04-01

    The integration of high-resolution, non-invasive geophysical techniques (such as ground-penetrating radar or GPR) with emerging sensing techniques (acoustics, thermography) can complement limited destructive tests to provide a suitable methodology for a multi-scale assessment of the state of preservation, material and construction components of monuments. This paper presents the results of the application of GPR, infrared thermography (IRT) and ultrasonic tests to the 13th century rose window of Troia Cathedral (Apulia, Italy), affected by widespread decay and instability problems caused by the 1731 earthquake and reactivated by recent seismic activity. This integrated approach provided a wide amount of complementary information at different scales, ranging from the sub-centimetre size of the metallic joints between the various architectural elements, narrow fractures and thin mortar fillings, up to the sub-metre scale of the internal masonry structure of the circular ashlar curb linking the rose window to the façade, which was essential to understand the original building technique and to design an effective restoration strategy.

  19. Therapeutic time window and underlying therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine injection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Zhu, Yanrong; Weng, Yan; Wang, Shiquan; Guan, Yue; Wei, Guo; Yin, Ying; Xi, Miaomaio; Wen, Aidong

    2014-01-01

    Breviscapine injection is a Chinese herbal medicine standardized product extracted from Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It has been widely used for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the therapeutic time window and the action mechanism of breviscapine are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic time window and underlying therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine injection against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h followed by 24h of reperfusion. Experiment part 1 was used to investigate the therapeutic time window of breviscapine. Rats were injected intravenously with 50mg/kg breviscapine at different time-points of reperfusion. After 24h of reperfusion, neurologic score, infarct volume, brain water content and serum level of neuron specific enolase (NSE) were measured in a masked fashion. Part 2 was used to explore the therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 8-hydroxyl-2'- deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and the antioxidant capacity of ischemia cortex were measured by ELISA and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis were used to analyze the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Part 1: breviscapine injection significantly ameliorated neurologic deficit, reduced infarct volume and water content, and suppressed the levels of NSE in a time-dependent manner. Part 2: breviscapine inhibited the increased levels of 4-HNE and 8-OHdG, and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of cortex tissue. Moreover, breviscapine obviously raised the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins after 24h of reperfusion. The therapeutic time window of breviscapine injection for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury seemed to be within 5h after reperfusion. By up-regulating the expression of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

  20. Windows server cookbook for Windows server 2003 and Windows 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Robbie

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference guide offers hundreds of useful tasks for managing Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003, Microsoft's latest server. These concise, on-the-job solutions to common problems are certain to save you many hours of time searching through Microsoft documentation. Topics include files, event logs, security, DHCP, DNS, backup/restore, and more

  1. The delivery dispatching problem with time windows for urban consolidation centers

    OpenAIRE

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the dispatch decision problem faced by an urban consolidation center. The center receives orders according to a stochastic arrival process, and dispatches them for the last-mile distribution in batches. The operator of the center aims to fi nd the cost-minimizing consolidation policy, depending on the orders at hand, pre-announced orders, and stochastic arrivals. We present this problem as a variant of the Delivery Dispatching Problem that includes dispatch windows, and m...

  2. Time-symmetric integration in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2018-04-01

    Calculating the long-term solution of ordinary differential equations, such as those of the N-body problem, is central to understanding a wide range of dynamics in astrophysics, from galaxy formation to planetary chaos. Because generally no analytic solution exists to these equations, researchers rely on numerical methods that are prone to various errors. In an effort to mitigate these errors, powerful symplectic integrators have been employed. But symplectic integrators can be severely limited because they are not compatible with adaptive stepping and thus they have difficulty in accommodating changing time and length scales. A promising alternative is time-reversible integration, which can handle adaptive time-stepping, but the errors due to time-reversible integration in astrophysics are less understood. The goal of this work is to study analytically and numerically the errors caused by time-reversible integration, with and without adaptive stepping. We derive the modified differential equations of these integrators to perform the error analysis. As an example, we consider the trapezoidal rule, a reversible non-symplectic integrator, and show that it gives secular energy error increase for a pendulum problem and for a Hénon-Heiles orbit. We conclude that using reversible integration does not guarantee good energy conservation and that, when possible, use of symplectic integrators is favoured. We also show that time-symmetry and time-reversibility are properties that are distinct for an integrator.

  3. The Manpower Allocation Problem with Time Windows and Job-Teaming Constraints: A Branch-and-Price Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Kolind, Esben; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Manpower Allocation Problem with Time Windows, Job-Teaming Constraints and a limited number of teams (m-MAPTWTC). Given a set of teams and a set of tasks, the problem is to assign to each team a sequential order of tasks to maximize the total number of assigned tasks....... Both teams and tasks may be restricted by time windows outside which operation is not possible. Some tasks require cooperation between teams, and all teams cooperating must initiate execution simultaneously. We present an IP-model for the problem, which is decomposed using Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition....... The problem is solved by column generation in a Branch-and-Price framework. Simultaneous execution of tasks is enforced by the branching scheme. To test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, 12 realistic test instances are introduced. The algorithm is able to find the optimal solution in 11 of the test...

  4. The Manpower Allocation Problem with Time Windows and Job-Teaming Constraints: A Branch-and-Price Approach - Technical Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Kolind, Esben; Clausen, Jens

    In this paper, we consider the Manpower Allocation Problem with Time Windows, Job-Teaming Constraints and a limited number of teams (m-MAPTWTC). Given a set of teams and a set of tasks, the problem is to assign to each team a sequential order of tasks to maximize the total number of assigned tasks....... Both teams and tasks may be restricted by time windows outside which operation is not possible. Some tasks require cooperation between teams, and all teams cooperating must initiate execution simultaneously. We present an IP-model for the problem, which is decomposed using Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition....... The problem is solved by column generation in a Branch-and-Price framework. Simultaneous execution of tasks is enforced by the branching scheme. To test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, 12 realistic test instances are introduced. The algorithm is able to find the optimal solution in 11 of the test...

  5. Clinical observation of the combined treatment of edaravone and ozagrel sodium in acute ischemic stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Rui-xing

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The curative effect of edaravone combined with ozagrel sodium on acute ischemic stroke beyond the time window of thrombolysis was investigated. A total of 100 patients with acute ischemic stroke beyond the time window of thrombolysis were admitted in our hospital from December 2010 to December 2012. The patients were divided into combined treatment group (N = 50 and ozagrel sodium monotherapy group (control group, N = 50. After 14 days' treatment, total effective rate of the combined treatment group (92% , 46/50 was significantly higher than that of the control group (66% , 33/50; χ2 = 10.780, P = 0.029. After treatment, the nerve function defect score was significantly improved in comparison with before treatment in both groups, but the improvement in combined treatment group (8.21 ± 3.58 was much better than that in the control group (14.60 ± 4.39; t = 7.976, P = 0.000. Therefore, treatment of edaravone combined with ozagrel sodium for patients with acute ischemic stroke beyond the thrombolytic time window can significantly raise the curative effect and improve the neurological function of these patients.

  6. Optimal scanning time window for 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ (18F-AV-133) summed uptake measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Lin, Wey-Yil; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Lu, Chin-Song; Skovronsky, Daniel; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Chang, Chee-Jen; Kung, Mei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    18 F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ( 18 F-AV-133) is a novel positron emission tomography tracer for imaging the vesicular monoamine transporter II in dopaminergic neuron degeneration, which might be indicative for Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonism. Studies were performed to optimize the imaging time window for calculating standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) with correlation to distribution volume ratio (DVR) and in differentiating PD from normal controls (NCs). Methods: Thirteen 18 F-AV-133 positron emission tomography studies were conducted on four NCs (age, 62.3±4.9 years) and nine PD patients (age, 60.8±6.0 years) with Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 to 3. Dynamic images were acquired within 180 min (0–30, 50–140 and 160–180 min) and were rearranged into 14 of 10-min scans. The contralateral striatum was defined as the opposite striatum to the predominantly affected limbs. Volumes of interest (VOIs) of bilateral putamen, caudate nuclei and occipital cortex (OC; as the reference region) were delineated from individual magnetic resonance imaging. SUVRs of striatum to OC were computed from 14 dynamic image sets. The DVRs were computed from Logan graphic analysis by using OC as the input. The performance of SUVR was evaluated based on the correlation of SUVR at each time window to DVR, as well as the Cohen effect size (group mean SUVR difference between PD and NC/standard deviation). Results: 18 F-AV-133 uptake decreased in PD subjects at bilateral striatum especially at contralateral side with posterior putamen predominant as compared with NC. Consistent higher correlations of SUVRs to DVR for all VOIs were observed at later time window and reached to its maximal value of 0.9917 at 90–100 min. The group mean SUVR differences between NC and PD subjects increased and reached relatively stable values after 90 min. The effect sizes for all VOIs were stable across different time window and with the largest value around 90∼120 min

  7. Gaussian-windowed frame based method of moments formulation of surface-integral-equation for extended apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlivinski, A., E-mail: amirshli@ee.bgu.ac.il [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Lomakin, V., E-mail: vlomakin@eng.ucsd.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Scattering or coupling of electromagnetic beam-field at a surface discontinuity separating two homogeneous or inhomogeneous media with different propagation characteristics is formulated using surface integral equation, which are solved by the Method of Moments with the aid of the Gabor-based Gaussian window frame set of basis and testing functions. The application of the Gaussian window frame provides (i) a mathematically exact and robust tool for spatial-spectral phase-space formulation and analysis of the problem; (ii) a system of linear equations in a transmission-line like form relating mode-like wave objects of one medium with mode-like wave objects of the second medium; (iii) furthermore, an appropriate setting of the frame parameters yields mode-like wave objects that blend plane wave properties (as if solving in the spectral domain) with Green's function properties (as if solving in the spatial domain); and (iv) a representation of the scattered field with Gaussian-beam propagators that may be used in many large (in terms of wavelengths) systems.

  8. Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piracha, Afaq H; Rath, Patrik; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Kühn, Stefan; Pernice, Wolfram H P; Prawer, Steven

    2016-05-11

    Diamond has emerged as a promising platform for nanophotonic, optical, and quantum technologies. High-quality, single crystalline substrates of acceptable size are a prerequisite to meet the demanding requirements on low-level impurities and low absorption loss when targeting large photonic circuits. Here, we describe a scalable fabrication method for single crystal diamond membrane windows that achieves three major goals with one fabrication method: providing high quality diamond, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy; achieving homogeneously thin membranes, enabled by ion implantation; and providing compatibility with established planar fabrication via lithography and vertical etching. On such suspended diamond membranes we demonstrate a suite of photonic components as building blocks for nanophotonic circuits. Monolithic grating couplers are used to efficiently couple light between photonic circuits and optical fibers. In waveguide coupled optical ring resonators, we find loaded quality factors up to 66 000 at a wavelength of 1560 nm, corresponding to propagation loss below 7.2 dB/cm. Our approach holds promise for the scalable implementation of future diamond quantum photonic technologies and all-diamond photonic metrology tools.

  9. Strategies of statistical windows in PET image reconstruction to improve the user’s real time experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, L.; Correcher, C.; Gimenez-Alventosa, V.; Ilisie, V.; Alvarez, J.; Sanchez, S.; Rodríguez-Alvarez, M. J.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, with the increase of the computational power of modern computers together with the state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms, it is possible to obtain Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images in practically real time. These facts open the door to new applications such as radio-pharmaceuticals tracking inside the body or the use of PET for image-guided procedures, such as biopsy interventions, among others. This work is a proof of concept that aims to improve the user experience with real time PET images. Fixed, incremental, overlapping, sliding and hybrid windows are the different statistical combinations of data blocks used to generate intermediate images in order to follow the path of the activity in the Field Of View (FOV). To evaluate these different combinations, a point source is placed in a dedicated breast PET device and moved along the FOV. These acquisitions are reconstructed according to the different statistical windows, resulting in a smoother transition of positions for the image reconstructions that use the sliding and hybrid window.

  10. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  11. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  12. Integration of risk and benefit analysis - The window of benefit as a new tool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palou, A.; Pico, C.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Foods and food components can have positive and/or negative effects on our health, resulting in benefits and risks. At present these are evaluated in largely separated trajectories. In view of assessment, management, and communication, we here propose and argue for an integrated evaluation of risk

  13. Dynamic species classification of microorganisms across time, abiotic and biotic environments-A sliding window approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Pennekamp

    Full Text Available The development of video-based monitoring methods allows for rapid, dynamic and accurate monitoring of individuals or communities, compared to slower traditional methods, with far reaching ecological and evolutionary applications. Large amounts of data are generated using video-based methods, which can be effectively processed using machine learning (ML algorithms into meaningful ecological information. ML uses user defined classes (e.g. species, derived from a subset (i.e. training data of video-observed quantitative features (e.g. phenotypic variation, to infer classes in subsequent observations. However, phenotypic variation often changes due to environmental conditions, which may lead to poor classification, if environmentally induced variation in phenotypes is not accounted for. Here we describe a framework for classifying species under changing environmental conditions based on the random forest classification. A sliding window approach was developed that restricts temporal and environmentally conditions to improve the classification. We tested our approach by applying the classification framework to experimental data. The experiment used a set of six ciliate species to monitor changes in community structure and behavior over hundreds of generations, in dozens of species combinations and across a temperature gradient. Differences in biotic and abiotic conditions caused simplistic classification approaches to be unsuccessful. In contrast, the sliding window approach allowed classification to be highly successful, as phenotypic differences driven by environmental change, could be captured by the classifier. Importantly, classification using the random forest algorithm showed comparable success when validated against traditional, slower, manual identification. Our framework allows for reliable classification in dynamic environments, and may help to improve strategies for long-term monitoring of species in changing environments. Our

  14. Numerical time integration for air pollution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem); J.G. Blom (Joke)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDue to the large number of chemical species and the three space dimensions, off-the-shelf stiff ODE integrators are not feasible for the numerical time integration of stiff systems of advection-diffusion-reaction equations [ fracpar{c{t + nabla cdot left( vu{u c right) = nabla cdot left(

  15. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...... energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  16. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and wh...

  17. Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Simultaneous Delivery and Pick-Up Service Based on MCPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Gan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers two additional factors of the widely researched vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. The two factors, which are very common characteristics in realworld, are uncertain number of vehicles and simultaneous delivery and pick-up service. Using minimization of the total transport costs as the objective of the extension VRPTW, a mathematic model is constructed. To solve the problem, an efficient multiswarm cooperative particle swarm optimization (MCPSO algorithm is applied. And a new encoding method is proposed for the extension VRPTW. Finally, comparing with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, the MCPSO algorithm performs best for solving this problem.

  18. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor's definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals' impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or similar patterns. We designed the survey questionnaire

  19. Hypothermia broadens the therapeutic time window of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Chang, Yun Sil; Sung, Dong Kyung; Sung, Se In; Park, Won Soon

    2018-05-16

    Recently, we have demonstrated that concurrent hypothermia and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation synergistically improved severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The current study was designed to determine whether hypothermia could extend the therapeutic time window of MSC transplantation for severe neonatal HIE. To induce HIE, newborn rat pups were exposed to 8% oxygen for 2 h following unilateral carotid artery ligation on postnatal day (P) 7. After approving severe HIE involving >50% of the ipsilateral hemisphere volume, hypothermia (32 °C) for 2 days was started. MSCs were transplanted 2 days after HIE modeling. Follow-up brain MRI, sensorimotor function tests, assessment of inflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and histological evaluation of peri-infarction area were performed. HIE induced progressively increasing brain infarction area over time, increased cell death, reactive gliosis and brain inflammation, and impaired sensorimotor function. All these damages observed in severe HIE showed better, robust improvement with a combination treatment of hypothermia and delayed MSC transplantation than with either stand-alone therapy. Hypothermia itself did not significantly reduce brain injury, but broadened the therapeutic time window of MSC transplantation for severe newborn HIE.

  20. Structural integrity of heavy liquid-metal target installed in spallation neutron facility. Part 4: Consideration by fracture mechanics of target container window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2004-01-01

    Developments of the neutron scattering facility is carried out under the high-intensity proton accelerator project promoted by JAERI and KEK. To estimate the structural integrity of the heavy liquid-metal (mercury) target used as a spallation neutron source in a MW-class neutron scattering facility, static and dynamic stress (including pressure wave in mercury) behaviors due to the incident of 1MW-pulsed proton beam (Maximum heat density is 461W/cc) were analyzed. In the analyses, two type target containers with semi-cylindrical type and flat-type beam windows were used as analytical models. As a result, it is confirmed that the stress generated by the pressure wave becomes the largest at the center of the beam window, and the flat-type beam window is more advantageous from the structural viewpoint than the semi-cylindrical type beam window. It has been understood that the stress generated in the beam window by the pressure wave can be treated as the secondary stress. Then, it has been understood that the stress and the stress range generated in the target window were bellow the allowable stress level defined by the standard of JIS on the maximum stress and fatigue strength. It has been experimentally confirmed that a cavitation was generated by generating the negative pressure in mercury near the target beam window and a collapse of cavitation damaged to the target container material, as pits. Then, the fracture mechanical analyses were carried out on the pit and a crack on pit tip. Consequently, it was clarified that the crack would not propagate because the inner surface of the beam window was become the compressive stress field due to the steady state thermal stress. Moreover, the evaluation technique of the cavitation which would be needed in the future was summarized. (author)

  1. Human umbilical-cord-blood mononucleated cells enhance the survival of lethally irradiated mice. Dosage and the window of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Olga A.; Ende, Norman; Azzam, Edouard I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the window of time and dose of human umbilical-cord-blood (HUCB) mononucleated cells necessary for successful treatment of radiation injury in mice. Female A/J mice (27-30 weeks old) were exposed to an absorbed dose of 9-10 Gy of 137 Cs γ-rays delivered acutely to the whole body. They were treated either with 1 × 10 8 or 2 × 10 8 HUCB mononucleated cells at 24-52 h after the irradiation. The antibiotic Levaquin was applied 4 h postirradiation. The increased dose of cord-blood cells resulted in enhanced survival. The enhancement of survival in animals that received 2 × 10 8 HUCB mononucleated cells relative to irradiated but untreated animals was highly significant (P < 0.01). Compared with earlier studies, the increased dose of HUCB mononucleated cells, coupled with early use of an antibiotic, extended the window of time for effective treatment of severe radiation injury from 4 to 24-52 h after exposure. (author)

  2. GENERIC Integrators: Structure Preserving Time Integration for Thermodynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2018-04-01

    Thermodynamically admissible evolution equations for non-equilibrium systems are known to possess a distinct mathematical structure. Within the GENERIC (general equation for the non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling) framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which is based on continuous time evolution, we investigate the possibility of preserving all the structural elements in time-discretized equations. Our approach, which follows Moser's [1] construction of symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems, is illustrated for the damped harmonic oscillator. Alternative approaches are sketched.

  3. Integrable Time-Dependent Quantum Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Yuzbashyan, Emil A.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Patra, Aniket; Sun, Chen

    2018-05-01

    We formulate a set of conditions under which the nonstationary Schrödinger equation with a time-dependent Hamiltonian is exactly solvable analytically. The main requirement is the existence of a non-Abelian gauge field with zero curvature in the space of system parameters. Known solvable multistate Landau-Zener models satisfy these conditions. Our method provides a strategy to incorporate time dependence into various quantum integrable models while maintaining their integrability. We also validate some prior conjectures, including the solution of the driven generalized Tavis-Cummings model.

  4. A new supply chain management method with one-way time window: A hybrid PSO-SA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tavakkoli-Moghaddam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a supply chain problem where a whole seller/producer distributes goods among different retailers. The proposed model of this paper is formulated as a more general and realistic form of traditional vehicle routing problem (VRP. The main advantages of the new proposed model are twofold. First, the time window does not consider any lower bound and second, it treats setup time as separate cost components. The resulted problem is solved using a hybrid of particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing (PSO-SA. The results are compared with other hybrid method, which is a combination of Ant colony and Tabu search. We use some well-known benchmark problems to compare the results of our proposed model with other method. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model of this paper performs reasonably well.

  5. INTEGRAL EDUCATION, TIME AND SPACE: PROBLEMATIZING CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Spaolonzi Queiroz Assis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Integral Education, despite being the subject of public policy agenda for some decades, still carries disparities related to its concept. In this sense, this article aims to problematize not only the concepts of integral education but also the categories time and space contained in the magazines Em Aberto. They were organized and published by the National Institute of Educational Studies Anísio Teixeira (INEP, numbers 80 (2009 and 88 (2012, respectively entitled "Educação Integral e tempo integral" and " Políticas de educação integral em jornada ampliada". The methodology is based on Bardin’s content analysis, respecting the steps of pre-analysis (research corpus formed by the texts in the journals; material exploration (reading the texts encoding data choosing the registration units for categorization; and processing and interpretation of results, based on Saviani’s Historical-Critical Pedagogy. The work reveals convergent and divergent conceptual multiplicity, provoking a discussion about a critical conception of integral education. Keywords: Integral Education. Historical-Critical Pedagogy. Content Analysis.

  6. A method for detecting crack wave arrival time and crack localization in a tunnel by using moving window technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Chul; Park, Tae Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Source localization in a dispersive medium has been carried out based on the time-of-arrival-differences (TOADs) method: a triangulation method and a circle intersection technique. Recent signal processing advances have led to calculation TOAD using a joint time-frequency analysis of the signal, where a short-time Fourier transform(STFT) and wavelet transform can be included as popular algorithms. The time-frequency analysis method is able to provide various information and more reliable results such as seismic-attenuation estimation, dispersive characteristics, a wave mode analysis, and temporal energy distribution of signals compared with previous methods. These algorithms, however, have their own limitations for signal processing. In this paper, the effective use of proposed algorithm in detecting crack wave arrival time and source localization in rock masses suggest that the evaluation and real-time monitoring on the intensity of damages related to the tunnels or other underground facilities is possible. Calculation of variances resulted from moving windows as a function of their size differentiates the signature from noise and from crack signal, which lead us to determine the crack wave arrival time. Then, the source localization is determined to be where the variance of crack wave velocities from real and virtual crack localization becomes a minimum. To validate our algorithm, we have performed experiments at the tunnel, which resulted in successful determination of the wave arrival time and crack localization.

  7. A new time-varying harmonic decomposition structure based on recursive hanning window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.H.; Silva, L.R.M.; Duque, C.A.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Teixeira, E.C.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of power quality phenomena under time-varying conditions has become an important subject as the complexity of the grid increases. As a consequence, several methods have been developed/applied also to study power quality parameters during transient conditions such as time-frequency methods.

  8. Symplectic integrators with adaptive time steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. S.; Finn, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there have been many attempts to construct symplectic integrators with variable time steps, with rather disappointing results. In this paper, we identify the causes for this lack of performance, and find that they fall into two categories. In the first, the time step is considered a function of time alone, Δ = Δ(t). In this case, backward error analysis shows that while the algorithms remain symplectic, parametric instabilities may arise because of resonance between oscillations of Δ(t) and the orbital motion. In the second category the time step is a function of phase space variables Δ = Δ(q, p). In this case, the system of equations to be solved is analyzed by introducing a new time variable τ with dt = Δ(q, p) dτ. The transformed equations are no longer in Hamiltonian form, and thus do not benefit from integration methods which would be symplectic for Hamiltonian systems. We analyze two methods for integrating the transformed equations which do, however, preserve the structure of the original equations. The first is an extended phase space method, which has been successfully used in previous studies of adaptive time step symplectic integrators. The second, novel, method is based on a non-canonical mixed-variable generating function. Numerical trials for both of these methods show good results, without parametric instabilities or spurious growth or damping. It is then shown how to adapt the time step to an error estimate found by backward error analysis, in order to optimize the time-stepping scheme. Numerical results are obtained using this formulation and compared with other time-stepping schemes for the extended phase space symplectic method.

  9. Proper Installation of Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  10. Window Glazing Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. Window Frame Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. Performance Standards for Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Benefits of Efficient Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. Assessing Window Replacement Options | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. Windows for New Construction | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  16. Window Operator Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  17. Limb remote-preconditioning protects against focal ischemia in rats and contradicts the dogma of therapeutic time windows for preconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chuancheng; Gao, Xuwen; Steinberg, Gary K.; Zhao, Heng

    2009-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning is an emerging concept for stroke treatment, but its protection against focal stroke has not been established. We tested whether remote preconditioning, performed in the ipsilateral hind limb, protects against focal stroke and explored its protective parameters. Stroke was generated by a permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) combined with a 30 minute occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA) in male rats. Limb preconditioning was generated by 5 or 15 minute occlusion followed with the same period of reperfusion of the left hind femoral artery, and repeated for 2 or 3 cycles. Infarct was measured 2 days later. The results showed that rapid preconditioning with 3 cycles of 15 minutes performed immediately before stroke reduced infarct size from 47.7±7.6% of control ischemia to 9.8±8.6%; at 2 cycles of 15 minutes, infarct was reduced to 24.7±7.3%; at 2 cycles of 5 minutes, infarct was not reduced. Delayed preconditioning with 3 cycles of 15 minutes conducted 2 days before stroke also reduced infarct to 23.0 ±10.9%, but with 2 cycles of 15 minutes it offered no protection. The protective effects at these two therapeutic time windows of remote preconditioning are consistent with those of conventional preconditioning, in which the preconditioning ischemia is induced in the brain itself. Unexpectedly, intermediate preconditioning with 3 cycles of 15 minutes performed 12 hours before stroke also reduced infarct to 24.7±4.7%, which contradicts the current dogma for therapeutic time windows for the conventional preconditioning that has no protection at this time point. In conclusion, remote preconditioning performed in one limb protected against ischemic damage after focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:18201834

  18. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to intensities of occupational mechanical exposures across 10-year exposure time windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to identify intensities of occupational mechanical exposures (force, arm elevation and repetition) that do not entail an increased risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) even after prolonged durations of exposure. Additionally, we wanted to evaluate if exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) is an independent risk factor. We used data from a register-based cohort study of the entire Danish working population (n=2 374 403). During follow-up (2003-2008), 14 118 first-time events of surgery for SIS occurred. For each person, we linked register-based occupational codes (1993-2007) to a general population job exposure matrix to obtain year-by-year exposure intensities on measurement scales for force, upper arm elevation >90° and repetition and expert rated intensities of exposure to HAV. For 10-year exposure time windows, we calculated the duration of exposure at specific intensities above minimal (low, medium and high). We used a logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis adjusting for cumulative effects of other mechanical exposures. We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition (median angular velocity 90° >2 min/day implied an increased risk reaching ORs of 1.7 and 1.5 after 10 years at low intensities. No associations were found for HAV. We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition. Any intensities of force and upper arm elevation >90° above minimal implied an increased risk across 10-year exposure time windows. No independent associations were found for HAV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  20. Energy drift in reversible time integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, R I; Perlmutter, M

    2004-01-01

    Energy drift is commonly observed in reversible integrations of systems of molecular dynamics. We show that this drift can be modelled as a diffusion and that the typical energy error after time T is O(√T). (letter to the editor)

  1. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?

    OpenAIRE

    Aragon Alan Albert; Schoenfeld Brad Jon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nutrient timing is a popular nutritional strategy that involves the consumption of combinations of nutrients--primarily protein and carbohydrate--in and around an exercise session. Some have claimed that this approach can produce dramatic improvements in body composition. It has even been postulated that the timing of nutritional consumption may be more important than the absolute daily intake of nutrients. The post-exercise period is widely considered the most critical part of nutri...

  2. Interconnect rise time in superconducting integrating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, D.; Shlager, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of resistive losses on the voltage rise time of an integrated-circuit interconnection is reported. A distribution-circuit model is used to present the interconnect. Numerous parametric curves are presented based on numerical evaluation of the exact analytical expression for the model's transient response. For the superconducting case in which the series resistance of the interconnect approaches zero, the step-response rise time is longer but signal strength increases significantly

  3. Development of windows based software to analyze fluorescence decay with time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, M.B.; Ravindranath, S.V.G.; Das, N.C.

    2002-07-01

    A VUV spectroscopic facility for studies in photophysics and photochemistry is being set up at INDUS-I synchrotron source, CAT, Indore. For this purpose, a data acquisition system based on time-correlated single photon counting method is being developed for fluorescence lifetime measurement. To estimate fluorescence lifetime from the data collected with this sytem, a Windows based program has been developed using Visual Basic 5.0. It uses instrument response function (IRF) and observed decay curve and estimates parameters of single exponential decay by least square analysis and Marquardt method as convergence mechanism. Estimation of parameters was performed using data collected with a commercial setup. Goodness of fit was judged by evaluating χR 2 , weighted residuals and autocorrelation function. Performance is compared with two commercial software packages and found to be satisfactory. (author)

  4. Evaluation of optimized magnetic resonance perfusion imaging scanning time window after contrast agent injection for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Wang, Dawei; Ma, Zhenshen; Deng, Guodong; Wang, Lanhua; Zhang, Jiandong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was evaluate the 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging scanning time window following contrast injection for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions and to determine the optimum scanning time window for increased scanner usage efficiency and reduced diagnostic adverse risk factors. A total of 52 women with breast abnormalities were selected for conventional MR imaging and T1 dynamic-enhanced imaging. Quantitative parameters [volume transfer constant (K trans ), rate constant (K ep ) and extravascular extracellular volume fraction (V e )] were calculated at phases 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50, which represented time windows at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min, respectively, following injection of contrast agent. The association of the parameters at different phases with benign and malignant tumor diagnosis was analyzed. MR perfusion imaging was verified as an effective modality in the diagnosis of breast malignancies and the best scanning time window was identified: i) Values of K trans and K ep at all phases were statistically significant in differentiating benign and malignant tumors (P0.05); ii) values of V e in benign tumors increased with phase number, but achieved no obvious changes at different phases in malignant tumors; iii) the optimum scanning time window of breast perfusion imaging with 3.0 T MR was between phases 10 and 30 (i.e., between 5 and 15 min after contrast agent injection). The variation trend of V e values at different phases may serve as a diagnostic reference for differentiating benign and malignant breast abnormalities. The most efficient scanning time window was indicated to be 5 min after contrast injection, based on the observation that the V e value only had statistical significance in diagnosis at stage 10. However, the optimal scanning time window is from 5 to 15 min following the injection of contrast agent, since that the variation trend of V e is able to serve as a diagnostic reference.

  5. Hippocampal “Time Cells”: Time versus Path Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Benjamin J.; Robinson, Robert J.; White, John A.; Eichenbaum, Howard; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent studies have reported the existence of hippocampal “time cells,” neurons that fire at particular moments during periods when behavior and location are relatively constant. However, an alternative explanation of apparent time coding is that hippocampal neurons “path integrate” to encode the distance an animal has traveled. Here, we examined hippocampal neuronal firing patterns as rats ran in place on a treadmill, thus “clamping” behavior and location, while we varied the treadmill speed to distinguish time elapsed from distance traveled. Hippocampal neurons were strongly influenced by time and distance, and less so by minor variations in location. Furthermore, the activity of different neurons reflected integration over time and distance to varying extents, with most neurons strongly influenced by both factors and some significantly influenced by only time or distance. Thus, hippocampal neuronal networks captured both the organization of time and distance in a situation where these dimensions dominated an ongoing experience. PMID:23707613

  6. Human synapses show a wide temporal window for spike-timing-dependent plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testa-Silva, G.; Verhoog, M.B.; Goriounova, N.A.; Loebel, A.; Hjorth, J.; Baayen, J.C.; de Kock, C.P.J.; Mansvelder, H.D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout our lifetime, activity-dependent changes in neuronal connection strength enable the brain to refine neural circuits and learn based on experience. Synapses can bi-directionally alter strength and the magnitude and sign depend on the millisecond timing of presynaptic and postsynaptic

  7. Multi-objective Mobile Robot Scheduling Problem with Dynamic Time Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of scheduling feeding tasks of a single mobile robot which has capability of supplying parts to feeders on pro-duction lines. The performance criterion is to minimize the total traveling time of the robot and the total tardiness of the feeding tasks being scheduled...

  8. Establishment of an ideal time window model in hypothermic-targeted temperature management after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wan-Yong; Chen, Shao-Bo; Wang, Jing-Jing; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Ming-Liang; Dong, Hua-Jiang; Liang, Hai-Qian; Li, Xiao-Hong; Tu, Yue; Zhang, Sai; Chen, Chong; Sun, Hong-Tao

    2017-08-15

    Although hypothermic-targeted temperature management (HTTM) holds great potential for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI), translation of the efficacy of hypothermia from animal models to TBI patientshas no entire consistency. This study aimed to find an ideal time window model in experimental rats which was more in accordance with clinical practice through the delayed HTTM intervention. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral cortical contusion injury and received therapeutic hypothermia at 15mins, 2 h, 4 h respectively after TBI. The neurological function was evaluated with the modified neurological severity score and Morris water maze test. The brain edema and morphological changes were measured with the water content and H&E staining. Brain sections were immunostained with antibodies against DCX (a neuroblast marker) and GFAP (an astrocyte marker). The apoptosis levels in the ipsilateral hippocampi and cortex were examined with antibodies against the apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 by the immunofluorescence and western blotting. The results indicated that each hypothermia therapy group could improve neurobehavioral and cognitive function, alleviate brain edema and reduce inflammation. Furthermore, we observed that therapeutic hypothermia increased DCX expression, decreased GFAP expression, upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax and cleaved Caspase-3 expression. The above results suggested that HTTM at 2h or even at 4h post-injury revealed beneficial brain protection similarly, despite the best effect at 15min post-injury. These findings may provide relatively ideal time window models, further making the following experimental results more credible and persuasive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Routing Multiple UAVs under Flight Range and Service Time Window Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    KARAKAYA, Murat; SEVİNÇ, Ender

    2017-01-01

    Recently using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) either for military or civilian purposes is getting popularity. However, UAVs have their own limitations which require adopted approaches to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) promised by the applications depending on effective use of UAVs. One of the important limitations of the UAVs encounter is the flight range. Most of the time, UAVs have very scarce energy resources and, thus, they have relatively short flight ranges. Besides, for the appl...

  10. Optimization of Ramp Area Aircraft Push Back Time Windows in the Presence of Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Coupe, William Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that airport surface traffic congestion at major airports is responsible for increased taxi-out times, fuel burn and excess emissions and there is potential to mitigate these negative consequences through optimizing airport surface traffic operations. Due to a highly congested voice communication channel between pilots and air traffic controllers and a data communication channel that is used only for limited functions, one of the most viable near-term strategies for improveme...

  11. The Crank Nicolson Time Integrator for EMPHASIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Duncan Alisdair Odum; Love, Edward; Kramer, Richard Michael Jack

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the use of implicit time integrators for finite element time domain approxi- mations of Maxwell's equations in vacuum. We discretize Maxwell's equations in time using Crank-Nicolson and in 3D space using compatible finite elements. We solve the system by taking a single step of Newton's method and inverting the Eddy-Current Schur complement allowing for the use of standard preconditioning techniques. This approach also generalizes to more complex material models that can include the Unsplit PML. We present verification results and demonstrate performance at CFL numbers up to 1000.

  12. Estimation of temporary change of activation areas by moving an analysis time window in fMRI measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Akatsuka, Takao; Ishikawa, Fumito; Saito, Yoichi

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to acquire temporal changes of activations by moving an analysis time window. An advantage of this method is that it can acquire rough changes of activated areas even with the data having low time resolution. We ascertained that activations from our method do not contradict previous reports on the oddball paradigm, thus showing its effectiveness. Eight normal subjects participated in the study, which consisted of a random series of 30 target and 70 nontarget stimuli. We investigated the activated area in three kinds of analysis time sections, from stimulus onset to 5 s after the stimulus (time section A), from 2 to 7 s after (B) and from 4 to 9 s after (C). In time section A, representative activated areas were regions including the left and supplementary motor areas (SMA), and cerebellum. In B, regions including the left motor area and SMA, right parahippocampal gyrus (Broadmann Area (BA) 30), right limbic lobe and cerebellum were activated. In C, bilaterally postcentral gyrus (BA 3,40), right anterior cingulate (ACC, BA 32), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9) and right parahippocampal gyrus were activated. Most activations were consistent with previous studies.

  13. Path integration on space times with symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    Path integration on space times with symmetry is investigated using a definition of path integration of Gaussian integrators. Gaussian integrators, systematically developed using the theory of projective distributions, may be defined in terms of a Jacobi operator Green function. This definition of the path integral yields a semiclassical expansion of the propagator which is valid on caustics. The semiclassical approximation to the free particle propagator on symmetric and reductive homogeneous spaces is computed in terms of the complete solution of the Jacobi equation. The results are used to test the validity of using the Schwinger-DeWitt transform to compute an approximation to the coincidence limit of a field theory Green function from a WKB propagator. The method is found not to be valid except for certain special cases. These cases include manifolds constructed from the direct product of flat space and group manifolds, on which the free particle WKB approximation is exact and two sphere. The multiple geodesic contribution to 2 > on Schwarzschild in the neighborhood of rho = 3M is computed using the transform

  14. Gas flushing through hyper-acidic crater lakes: the next steps within a reframed monitoring time window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouwet, Dmitri

    2016-04-01

    Tracking variations in the chemical composition, water temperature and pH of brines from peak-activity crater lakes is the most obvious way to forecast phreatic activity. Volcano monitoring intrinsically implies a time window of observation that should be synchronised with the kinetics of magmatic processes, such as degassing and magma intrusion. To decipher "how much time ago" a variation in degassing regime actually occurred before eventually being detected in a crater lake is key, and depends on the lake water residence time. The above reasoning assumes that gas is preserved as anions in the lake water (SO4, Cl, F anions), in other words, that scrubbing of acid gases is complete and irreversible. Less is true. Recent work has confirmed, by direct MultiGas measurement from evaporative plumes, that even the strongest acid in liquid medium (i.e. SO2) degasses from hyper-acidic crater lakes. The less strong acid HCl has long been recognised as being more volatile than hydrophyle in extremely acidic solutions (pH near 0), through a long-term steady increase in SO4/Cl ratios in the vigorously evaporating crater lake of Poás volcano. We now know that acidic gases flush through hyper-acidic crater lake brines, but we don't know to which extend (completely or partially?), and with which speed. The chemical composition hence only reflects a transient phase of the gas flushing through the lake. In terms of volcanic surveillance this brings the advantage that the monitoring time window is definitely shorter than defined by the water chemistry, but yet, we do not know how much shorter. Empirical experiments by Capaccioni et al. (in press) have tried to tackle this kinetic problem for HCl degassing from a "lab-lake" on the short-term (2 days). With this state of the art in mind, two new monitoring strategies can be proposed to seek for precursory signals of phreatic eruptions from crater lakes: (1) Tracking variations in gas compositions, fluxes and ratios between species in

  15. Aspects for Run-time Component Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truyen, Eddy; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Joosen, Wouter

    2000-01-01

    Component framework technology has become the cornerstone of building a family of systems and applications. A component framework defines a generic architecture into which specialized components can be plugged. As such, the component framework leverages the glue that connects the different inserted...... to dynamically integrate into the architecture of middleware systems new services that support non-functional aspects such as security, transactions, real-time....

  16. Effect of using fluoxetine at different time windows on neurological functional prognosis after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; He, Yitao; Tang, Bingshan; Ma, Kefu; Cai, Zhili; Zeng, Siling; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of using fluoxetine at different time intervals after ischemic stroke on neurological functional prognosis in China. The patients enrolled were randomly allocated to three groups. Group A received fluoxetine 20 mg/day immediately; group B received fluoxetine 20 mg/day 7 days after enrollment; and group C did not receive fluoxetine. The therapeutic duration of fluoxetine was 90 days and the follow-up period was 180 days. The mean NIHSS score at day 90 was significantly lower in group A than group C (P = 0.005), while at day 180, the mean score in group A was significantly lower than groups B and C (P = 0.035, P = 0.000), respectively. The mean BI score at day 90 was significantly higher in group A than group C (P = 0.001), while at day 180, the mean score in group A was significantly higher than groups B and C (P = 0.036, P = 0.000), respectively. Regression analysis indicated that lower NIHSS score and higher BI score at day 180 were attributed to the early administration of fluoxetine. In patients with ischemic stroke, early administration of fluoxetine may improve the neurological functional prognosis.

  17. GA microwave window development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE 11 mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec

  18. Study of a brittle and precious medieval rose-window by means of the integration of GPR, stress wave tests and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, L.; Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.

    2009-04-01

    The correct management and restoration of architectural monuments of high cultural interest requires a comprehensive understanding of their status of preservation, the detection of the building features, the localization of damages and possibly the identification of their causes, nature and extent. To this aim, in recent times there is a growing interest on non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical methods as an invaluable tool for correlating spatially the information gained through destructive tests, which are restricted to a few locations of the investigated structure, and to optimize the choice of their position in order to minimize their impact on the monument structural stability. Moreover, the integration of the classical geophysical techniques with emerging surface and subsurface sensing techniques (acoustics, thermography) provides a suitable methodology for a multi-scale assessment of the monument state of preservation and its material and building components, which is vital for addressing maintenance and restoration issues. The present case study focuses on the application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), infrared thermography (IRT), sonic and ultrasonic tests to analyze a 13th century precious rose window in Southern Italy, affected by widespread decay and instability problems. The Cathedral of Troia (Apulia, Italy) is the masterpiece of the Apulian Romanesque architecture. Its façade is adorned with an astonishing 6 m diameter rose window consisting of 11 twin columns, in various stone and reused marbles, connected to a central oculus and to a ring of trapezoidal elements decorated with arched ribworks. Between the twin columns there are 11 triangular carved panels with different and strongly symbolic geometrical patterns. According to visual inspection, mineralogical and petrographic studies, different materials have been used for the different architectural elements: fine grained limestone for the central oculus, medium-fine grained calcarenite

  19. Application of xCELLigence RTCA Biosensor Technology for Revealing the Profile and Window of Drug Responsiveness in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The xCELLigence technology is a real-time cellular biosensor, which measures the net adhesion of cells to high-density gold electrode arrays printed on custom-designed E-plates. The strength of cellular adhesion is influenced by a myriad of factors that include cell type, cell viability, growth, migration, spreading and proliferation. We therefore hypothesised that xCELLigence biosensor technology would provide a valuable platform for the measurement of drug responses in a multitude of different experimental, clinical or pharmacological contexts. In this manuscript, we demonstrate how xCELLigence technology has been invaluable in the identification of (1 not only if cells respond to a particular drug, but (2 the window of drug responsiveness. The latter aspect is often left to educated guess work in classical end-point assays, whereas biosensor technology reveals the temporal profile of the response in real time, which enables both acute responses and longer term responses to be profiled within the same assay. In our experience, the xCELLigence biosensor technology is suitable for highly targeted drug assessment and also low to medium throughput drug screening, which produces high content temporal data in real time.

  20. Time-Lapse Measurement of Wellbore Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguid, A.

    2017-12-01

    Well integrity is becoming more important as wells are used longer or repurposed. For CO2, shale gas, and other projects it has become apparent that wells represent the most likely unintended migration pathway for fluids out of the reservoir. Comprehensive logging programs have been employed to determine the condition of legacy wells in North America. These studies provide examples of assessment technologies. Logging programs have included pulsed neutron logging, ultrasonic well mapping, and cement bond logging. While these studies provide examples of what can be measured, they have only conducted a single round of logging and cannot show if the well has changed over time. Recent experience with time-lapse logging of three monitoring wells at a US Department of Energy sponsored CO2 project has shown the full value of similar tools. Time-lapse logging has shown that well integrity changes over time can be identified. It has also shown that the inclusion of and location of monitoring technologies in the well and the choice of construction materials must be carefully considered. Two of the wells were approximately eight years old at the time of study; they were constructed with steel and fiberglass casing sections and had lines on the outside of the casing running to the surface. The third well was 68 years old when it was studied and was originally constructed as a production well. Repeat logs were collected six or eight years after initial logging. Time-lapse logging showed the evolution of the wells. The results identified locations where cement degraded over time and locations that showed little change. The ultrasonic well maps show clearly that the lines used to connect the monitoring technology to the surface are visible and have a local effect on cement isolation. Testing and sampling was conducted along with logging. It provided insight into changes identified in the time-lapse log results. Point permeability testing was used to provide an in-situ point

  1. No specific time window distinguishes between community-, healthcare-, and hospital-acquired bacteremia, but they are prognostically robust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, Court

    2014-01-01

    ), and hospital acquisition influenced the results of prognostic models. Design. Population-based cohort study. Setting. Hospitals in 3 areas of Denmark (2.3 million inhabitants) during 2000-2011. Methods. We computed graphs depicting proportions of males, absence of comorbidity, microorganisms, and 30-day......], 1.23-1.37) to 1.99 (95% CI, 1.48-2.67) for HCA and from 1.36 (95% CI, 1.24-1.50) to 2.53 (95% CI, 2.01-3.20) for hospital acquisition compared with community acquisition. Area under the ROC curve changed marginally from 0.684 (95% CI, 0.679-0.689) to 0.700 (95% CI, 0.695-0.705). Conclusions. No time......) curve for 30-day mortality, adjusting for sex, age, comorbidity, and microorganisms. Results. For 56,606 bacteremic episodes, no sharp transitions were detected on a specific day after admission. Among the 8 combined time windows, ORs for 30-day mortality varied from 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI...

  2. Protective effect of tetraethyl pyrazine against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: therapeutic time window and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jie; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Yong-Shan; Wu, Yi; Wang, Qing-Zhi; Li, Na-Na; Wu, Cai-Qin; Yu, Hui-Xian; Guo, Qing-Chuan

    2009-03-01

    Tetramethyl pyrazine has been considered an effective agent in treating neurons ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the mechanism of its therapeutic effect remains unclear. This study was to explore the therapeutic time window and mechanism of tetramethyl pyrazine on temporary focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats and 20 mg/kg of tetramethyl pyrazine was intraperitoneally injected at different time points. At 72 h after reperfusion, all animals' neurologic deficit scores were evaluated. Cerebrums were removed and cerebral infarction volume was measured. The expression of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase mRNA was determined at 6 and 24 h after reperfusion. Cerebral infarction volume and neurological deficit scores were significantly decreased in the group with tetramethyl pyrazine treatment. The expression of thioredoxin-1/thioredoxin-2 and thioredoxin reductase-1/thioredoxin reductase-2 was significantly decreased in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury, while it was increased by tetramethyl pyrazine administration. Treatment with tetramethyl pyrazine, within 4 h after reperfusion, protects the brain from ischemic reperfusion injury in rats. The neuroprotective mechanism of tetramethyl pyrazine treatment is, in part, mediated through the upregulation of thioredoxin transcription.

  3. Time series analysis of the developed financial markets' integration using visibility graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Enyu; Small, Michael; Feng, Gang

    2014-09-01

    A time series representing the developed financial markets' segmentation from 1973 to 2012 is studied. The time series reveals an obvious market integration trend. To further uncover the features of this time series, we divide it into seven windows and generate seven visibility graphs. The measuring capabilities of the visibility graphs provide means to quantitatively analyze the original time series. It is found that the important historical incidents that influenced market integration coincide with variations in the measured graphical node degree. Through the measure of neighborhood span, the frequencies of the historical incidents are disclosed. Moreover, it is also found that large "cycles" and significant noise in the time series are linked to large and small communities in the generated visibility graphs. For large cycles, how historical incidents significantly affected market integration is distinguished by density and compactness of the corresponding communities.

  4. Mixed time slicing in path integral simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, Ryan P.; Zwickl, Jill; Shushkov, Philip; Tully, John C.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and efficient scheme is presented for using different time slices for different degrees of freedom in path integral calculations. This method bridges the gap between full quantization and the standard mixed quantum-classical (MQC) scheme and, therefore, still provides quantum mechanical effects in the less-quantized variables. Underlying the algorithm is the notion that time slices (beads) may be 'collapsed' in a manner that preserves quantization in the less quantum mechanical degrees of freedom. The method is shown to be analogous to multiple-time step integration techniques in classical molecular dynamics. The algorithm and its associated error are demonstrated on model systems containing coupled high- and low-frequency modes; results indicate that convergence of quantum mechanical observables can be achieved with disparate bead numbers in the different modes. Cost estimates indicate that this procedure, much like the MQC method, is most efficient for only a relatively few quantum mechanical degrees of freedom, such as proton transfer. In this regime, however, the cost of a fully quantum mechanical simulation is determined by the quantization of the least quantum mechanical degrees of freedom.

  5. Biased random key genetic algorithm with insertion and gender selection for capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.

  6. Time-windows-based filtering method for near-surface detection of leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Fischer, M.L.

    2010-02-28

    We use process-based modeling techniques to characterize the temporal features of natural biologically controlled surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and the relationships between the assimilation and respiration fluxes. Based on these analyses, we develop a signal-enhancing technique that combines a novel time-window splitting scheme, a simple median filtering, and an appropriate scaling method to detect potential signals of leakage of CO{sub 2} from geologic carbon sequestration sites from within datasets of net near-surface CO{sub 2} flux measurements. The technique can be directly applied to measured data and does not require subjective gap filling or data-smoothing preprocessing. Preliminary application of the new method to flux measurements from a CO{sub 2} shallow-release experiment appears promising for detecting a leakage signal relative to background variability. The leakage index of ?2 was found to span the range of biological variability for various ecosystems as determined by observing CO{sub 2} flux data at various control sites for a number of years.

  7. On the relationship between instantaneous phase synchrony and correlation-based sliding windows for time-resolved fMRI connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mangor; Omidvarnia, Amir; Zalesky, Andrew; Jackson, Graeme D

    2018-06-08

    Correlation-based sliding window analysis (CSWA) is the most commonly used method to estimate time-resolved functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity. However, instantaneous phase synchrony analysis (IPSA) is gaining popularity mainly because it offers single time-point resolution of time-resolved fMRI connectivity. We aim to provide a systematic comparison between these two approaches, on both temporal and topological levels. For this purpose, we used resting-state fMRI data from two separate cohorts with different temporal resolutions (45 healthy subjects from Human Connectome Project fMRI data with repetition time of 0.72 s and 25 healthy subjects from a separate validation fMRI dataset with a repetition time of 3 s). For time-resolved functional connectivity analysis, we calculated tapered CSWA over a wide range of different window lengths that were temporally and topologically compared to IPSA. We found a strong association in connectivity dynamics between IPSA and CSWA when considering the absolute values of CSWA. The association between CSWA and IPSA was stronger for a window length of ∼20 s (shorter than filtered fMRI wavelength) than ∼100 s (longer than filtered fMRI wavelength), irrespective of the sampling rate of the underlying fMRI data. Narrow-band filtering of fMRI data (0.03-0.07 Hz) yielded a stronger relationship between IPSA and CSWA than wider-band (0.01-0.1 Hz). On a topological level, time-averaged IPSA and CSWA nodes were non-linearly correlated for both short (∼20 s) and long (∼100 s) windows, mainly because nodes with strong negative correlations (CSWA) displayed high phase synchrony (IPSA). IPSA and CSWA were anatomically similar in the default mode network, sensory cortex, insula and cerebellum. Our results suggest that IPSA and CSWA provide comparable characterizations of time-resolved fMRI connectivity for appropriately chosen window lengths. Although IPSA requires narrow-band fMRI filtering, we recommend the use of

  8. Two phase genetic algorithm for vehicle routing and scheduling problem with cross-docking and time windows considering customer satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniamerian, Ali; Bashiri, Mahdi; Zabihi, Fahime

    2018-03-01

    Cross-docking is a new warehousing policy in logistics which is widely used all over the world and attracts many researchers attention to study about in last decade. In the literature, economic aspects has been often studied, while one of the most significant factors for being successful in the competitive global market is improving quality of customer servicing and focusing on customer satisfaction. In this paper, we introduce a vehicle routing and scheduling problem with cross-docking and time windows in a three-echelon supply chain that considers customer satisfaction. A set of homogeneous vehicles collect products from suppliers and after consolidation process in the cross-dock, immediately deliver them to customers. A mixed integer linear programming model is presented for this problem to minimize transportation cost and early/tardy deliveries with scheduling of inbound and outbound vehicles to increase customer satisfaction. A two phase genetic algorithm (GA) is developed for the problem. For investigating the performance of the algorithm, it was compared with exact and lower bound solutions in small and large-size instances, respectively. Results show that there are at least 86.6% customer satisfaction by the proposed method, whereas customer satisfaction in the classical model is at most 33.3%. Numerical examples results show that the proposed two phase algorithm could achieve optimal solutions in small-size instances. Also in large-size instances, the proposed two phase algorithm could achieve better solutions with less gap from the lower bound in less computational time in comparison with the classic GA.

  9. A warping window approach to real-time vision-based pedestrian detection in a truck’s blind spot zone

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beeck, Kristof; Goedemé, Toon; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2012-01-01

    Van Beeck K., Goedemé T., Tuytelaars T., ''A warping window approach to real-time vision-based pedestrian detection in a truck’s blind spot zone'', Proceedings 9th international conference on informatics in control, automation and robotics - ICINCO 2012, vol. 2, pp. 561-568, July 28-31, 2012, Rome, Italy.

  10. Real-time vision-based pedestrian detection in a truck’s blind spot zone using a warping window approach

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beeck, Kristof; Goedemé, Toon; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    Van Beeck K., Goedemé G., Tuytelaars T., ''Real-time vision-based pedestrian detection in a truck’s blind spot zone using a warping window approach'', Informatics in control, automation and robotics - lecture notes in electrical engineering, vol. 283, pp. 251-264, Ferrier J.-L., Bernard A., Gusikhin O. and Madani K., eds., 2014.

  11. Resources | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. Links | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Efficient Windows Collaborative | Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. FAQ | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. Glossary | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  16. Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mor, I; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Feldman, G; Goldberg, M B; Brandis, M; Dangendorf, V; Tittelmeier, K; Bromberger, B; Weierganz, M

    2013-01-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the E n = 1–10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system

  17. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  18. Window shopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    'A large window for surprises' was how Gordon Kane of Michigan summarized the potential of the proposed 84-kilometre US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC). With George Trilling of Berkeley unable to attend this year's High Energy Physics Conference at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, from 8-10 October, Kane played a dual role - looking ahead to SSC physics, and summarizing the meeting

  19. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  20. Integration time for the perception of depth from motion parallax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Mark; Stroyan, Keith

    2012-04-15

    The perception of depth from relative motion is believed to be a slow process that "builds-up" over a period of observation. However, in the case of motion parallax, the potential accuracy of the depth estimate suffers as the observer translates during the viewing period. Our recent quantitative model for the perception of depth from motion parallax proposes that relative object depth (d) can be determined from retinal image motion (dθ/dt), pursuit eye movement (dα/dt), and fixation distance (f) by the formula: d/f≈dθ/dα. Given the model's dynamics, it is important to know the integration time required by the visual system to recover dα and dθ, and then estimate d. Knowing the minimum integration time reveals the incumbent error in this process. A depth-phase discrimination task was used to determine the time necessary to perceive depth-sign from motion parallax. Observers remained stationary and viewed a briefly translating random-dot motion parallax stimulus. Stimulus duration varied between trials. Fixation on the translating stimulus was monitored and enforced with an eye-tracker. The study found that relative depth discrimination can be performed with presentations as brief as 16.6 ms, with only two stimulus frames providing both retinal image motion and the stimulus window motion for pursuit (mean range=16.6-33.2 ms). This was found for conditions in which, prior to stimulus presentation, the eye was engaged in ongoing pursuit or the eye was stationary. A large high-contrast masking stimulus disrupted depth-discrimination for stimulus presentations less than 70-75 ms in both pursuit and stationary conditions. This interval might be linked to ocular-following response eye-movement latencies. We conclude that neural mechanisms serving depth from motion parallax generate a depth estimate much more quickly than previously believed. We propose that additional sluggishness might be due to the visual system's attempt to determine the maximum dθ/dα ratio

  1. Applications of a saving method with max-min ant system to a vehicle routing problem with time windows and speed limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphan Sodsoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Speed Limits (VRPTWSL, which has received considerable attention in recent years. The vehicle routing problem with time windows is an extension of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP and involves a fleet of vehicles set of from a depot to serve a number of customers at different geographic locations with various demands within specific time and speed limits before returning to the depot eventually. To solve the problem, an efficient Saving Method-Max Min Ant System (Saving-MMAS with Local Search algorithm is applied. Using minimization of the total transportation costs as the objective of the extension VRPTWSL, a mathematic model is constructed. Finally, the Saving-MMAS algorithms indicated the good quality of the method in this problem.

  2. Modeling and Solving the Multi-depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window by Considering the Flexible end Depot in Each Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time window in which each vehicle starts from a depot and there is no need to return to its primary depot after serving customers. The mathematical model which is developed by new approach aims to minimizing the transportation cost including the travelled distance, the latest and the earliest arrival time penalties. Furthermore, in order to reduce the problem searching space, a novel GA clustering method is developed. Finally, Experiments are run on number problems of varying depots and time window, and customer sizes. The method is compared to two other clustering techniques, fuzzy C means (FCM and K-means algorithm. Experimental results show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Determination of Equine Cytochrome c Backbone Amide Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Rates by Mass Spectrometry Using a Wider Time Window and Isotope Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuro, Yoshitomo

    2017-03-01

    A new strategy to analyze amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) data is proposed, utilizing a wider time window and isotope envelope analysis of each peptide. While most current scientific reports present HDX-MS data as a set of time-dependent deuteration levels of peptides, the ideal HDX-MS data presentation is a complete set of backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates. The ideal data set can provide single amide resolution, coverage of all exchange events, and the open/close ratio of each amide hydrogen in EX2 mechanism. Toward this goal, a typical HDX-MS protocol was modified in two aspects: measurement of a wider time window in HDX-MS experiments and deconvolution of isotope envelope of each peptide. Measurement of a wider time window enabled the observation of deuterium incorporation of most backbone amide hydrogens. Analysis of the isotope envelope instead of centroid value provides the deuterium distribution instead of the sum of deuteration levels in each peptide. A one-step, global-fitting algorithm optimized exchange rate and deuterium retention during the analysis of each amide hydrogen by fitting the deuterated isotope envelopes at all time points of all peptides in a region. Application of this strategy to cytochrome c yielded 97 out of 100 amide hydrogen exchange rates. A set of exchange rates determined by this approach is more appropriate for a patent or regulatory filing of a biopharmaceutical than a set of peptide deuteration levels obtained by a typical protocol. A wider time window of this method also eliminates false negatives in protein-ligand binding site identification. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. Novel Design for a Diffusive Solar Cell Window

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ruei-Tang; Kang, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Jeng-Feng; Chiou, Sheng-Wei; Cheng, Hung-Hsiang; Lai, Chih-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are an important application of future solar energy development. The incorporation of solar cells into windows must not only maintain indoor natural lighting but also generate electrical power at the same time. In our continuing effort to improve the design of diffusion solar window, a more fundamental and efficient three-layer structure—glass/EVA with TiO2 nanoparticles embedded/glass—was proposed. In this work, a well-established ASAP ray-tracing mod...

  5. Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Nanomaterials (Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 /Bi 1.75 Te 3.25 ) and Integration into Window Glasses for Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Inayat, Salman Bin

    2014-02-26

    We embed thermoelectric nanomaterials into window glass to generate thermoelectricity from the temperature gradient between the solar-heated outdoors and the relatively cold indoor temperature. Until now thermoelectric generators have been built on a single side of a substrate, therefore requiring the two temperature environments to exist on the same side of the substrate. For this application, substantially thick window glass (>5 mm) serves as the interface for which the hot side is on the exterior side of the window and the cold side on the interior side. We demonstrate thermopiles made of nanomaterials integrated through the glass. With meticulous engineering, 300 W of power can be generated from a 9 m(2) window for a temperature gradient of 20 degrees C, which is typical in hot climates, such as the desert areas in the Middle East and African Sahara. A thermoelectric window can be a supplementary power source for waste heat recovery in green building technology.

  6. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  7. Time for creative integration in medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S

    1995-01-01

    The burgeoning of medical sociology has sometimes been accompanied by unfortunate parochialism and the presence of opposing intellectual camps that ignore and even impugn each other's work. We have lost opportunities to achieve creative discourse and integration of different perspectives, methods, and findings. At this stage we should consider how we can foster creative integration within our field.

  8. A granular t abu search algorithm for a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Jose; Escobar, John Willmer; Linfati, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    We consider a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows (HFVRPTW) for a franchise company bottling Coca-Cola products in Colombia. This study aims to determine the routes to be performed to fulfill the demand of the customers by using a heterogeneous fleet and considering soft time windows. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled by the performed routes. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a two-phase heuristic algorithm. In the proposed approach, after an initial phase (first phase), a granular tabu search is applied during the improvement phase (second phase). Two additional procedures are considered to help that the algorithm could escape from local optimum, given that during a given number of iterations there has been no improvement. Findings: Computational experiments on real instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within a short computing time compared to the results found by the software that the company currently uses to plan the daily routes. Originality/value: We propose a novel metaheuristic algorithm for solving a real routing problem by considering heterogeneous fleet and time windows. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been tested on real instances, and the computational experiments shown its applicability and performance for solving NP-Hard Problems related with routing problems with similar characteristics. The proposed algorithm was able to improve some of the current solutions applied by the company by reducing the route length and the number of vehicles.

  9. A granular t abu search algorithm for a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Jose; Escobar, John Willmer; Linfati, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    We consider a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows (HFVRPTW) for a franchise company bottling Coca-Cola products in Colombia. This study aims to determine the routes to be performed to fulfill the demand of the customers by using a heterogeneous fleet and considering soft time windows. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled by the performed routes. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a two-phase heuristic algorithm. In the proposed approach, after an initial phase (first phase), a granular tabu search is applied during the improvement phase (second phase). Two additional procedures are considered to help that the algorithm could escape from local optimum, given that during a given number of iterations there has been no improvement. Findings: Computational experiments on real instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within a short computing time compared to the results found by the software that the company currently uses to plan the daily routes. Originality/value: We propose a novel metaheuristic algorithm for solving a real routing problem by considering heterogeneous fleet and time windows. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been tested on real instances, and the computational experiments shown its applicability and performance for solving NP-Hard Problems related with routing problems with similar characteristics. The proposed algorithm was able to improve some of the current solutions applied by the company by reducing the route length and the number of vehicles.

  10. Global integration in times of crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    shock) from other subsidiaries downstream in the value chain. While in a comparative perspective multinational subsidiaries are found to perform relatively better than local firms that are integrated differently (arms' length) in global production networks (e.g. offshoring outsourcing). This paper tries...... to reconcile these findings by testing a number of hypothesis about global integration strategies in the context of the global financial crisis and how it affected exporting among multinational subsidiaries operating out of Turkey. Controlling for the impact that depreciations and exchange rate volatility has...... integration strategies throughout the course of the global financial crisis....

  11. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  12. An Airlift Hub-and-Spoke Location-Routing Model with Time Windows: Case Study of the CONUS-to-Korea Airlift Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    a point of embarkation to a point of debarkation. This study develops an alternative hub-and-spoke combined location-routing integer linear...programming prototype model, and uses this model to determine what advantages a hub-and-spoke system offers, and in which scenarios it is better-suited than the...extension on the following works: the hierarchical model of Perl and Daskin (1983), time windows features of Chan (1991), combining subtour-breaking and range

  13. Is the tourism-economic growth nexus time-varying? Bootstrap rolling-window causality analysis for the top ten tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ferrer, Román; Hussain Shahzad, Syed Jawad; Haouas, Ilham

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the time-varying causal nexus between tourism development and economic growth for the top ten tourist destinations in the world, namely China, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, the Russian Federation, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, over the period 1990-2015. To that end, a bootstrap rolling window Granger causality approach based on the modified Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) and Dolado and Lütkepohl (1996), ...

  14. Feasible Initial Population with Genetic Diversity for a Population-Based Algorithm Applied to the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Cruz-Chávez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic algorithm for obtaining feasible initial populations to the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows is presented. The theoretical formulation for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows is explained. The proposed method is primarily divided into a clustering algorithm and a two-phase algorithm. The first step is the application of a modified k-means clustering algorithm which is proposed in this paper. The two-phase algorithm evaluates a partial solution to transform it into a feasible individual. The two-phase algorithm consists of a hybridization of four kinds of insertions which interact randomly to obtain feasible individuals. It has been proven that different kinds of insertions impact the diversity among individuals in initial populations, which is crucial for population-based algorithm behavior. A modification to the Hamming distance method is applied to the populations generated for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows to evaluate their diversity. Experimental tests were performed based on the Solomon benchmarking. Experimental results show that the proposed method facilitates generation of highly diverse populations, which vary according to the type and distribution of the instances.

  15. SOCIAL INTEGRATION: TESTING ANTECEDENTS OF TIME SPENT ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Suriani Mohd Arif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the relationship of social integration and time spent onlineprovides conflicting evidence of the relationship of social integration with timespent online. The study identifies and highlightsthe controversy and attempts toclarify the relationship of social integration withtime spent online bydecomposing the construct social integration into its affective and behavioraldimensions . Thestudy tests antecedents and effects of time spent online in arandom sample of senior level undergraduate students at a public university inMalaysia. The findings indicated that while self-report measures of behavioralsocial integration did not predict time spent online, and, the affective socialintegration had an inverse relationship with time spent online.

  16. Integrated watershed analysis: adapting to changing times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers are increasingly required to conduct integrated analyses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems before undertaking any activities. Th ere are a number of research studies on the impacts of management actions on these ecosystems, as well as a growing body of knowledge about ecological processes that aff ect them, particularly aquatic ecosystems, which...

  17. Minimizing time for test in integrated circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Andonova, A. S.; Dimitrov, D. G.; Atanasova, N. G.

    2004-01-01

    The cost for testing integrated circuits represents a growing percentage of the total cost for their production. The former strictly depends on the length of the test session, and its reduction has been the target of many efforts in the past. This paper proposes a new method for reducing the test length by adopting a new architecture and exploiting an evolutionary optimisation algorithm. A prototype of the proposed approach was tested on 1SCAS standard benchmarks and theexperimental results s...

  18. Designing driver assistance systems with crossmodal signals: multisensory integration rules for saccadic reaction times apply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rike Steenken

    Full Text Available Modern driver assistance systems make increasing use of auditory and tactile signals in order to reduce the driver's visual information load. This entails potential crossmodal interaction effects that need to be taken into account in designing an optimal system. Here we show that saccadic reaction times to visual targets (cockpit or outside mirror, presented in a driving simulator environment and accompanied by auditory or tactile accessories, follow some well-known spatiotemporal rules of multisensory integration, usually found under confined laboratory conditions. Auditory nontargets speed up reaction time by about 80 ms. The effect tends to be maximal when the nontarget is presented 50 ms before the target and when target and nontarget are spatially coincident. The effect of a tactile nontarget (vibrating steering wheel was less pronounced and not spatially specific. It is shown that the average reaction times are well-described by the stochastic "time window of integration" model for multisensory integration developed by the authors. This two-stage model postulates that crossmodal interaction occurs only if the peripheral processes from the different sensory modalities terminate within a fixed temporal interval, and that the amount of crossmodal interaction manifests itself in an increase or decrease of second stage processing time. A qualitative test is consistent with the model prediction that the probability of interaction, but not the amount of crossmodal interaction, depends on target-nontarget onset asynchrony. A quantitative model fit yields estimates of individual participants' parameters, including the size of the time window. Some consequences for the design of driver assistance systems are discussed.

  19. Activin/Nodal Signaling Supports Retinal Progenitor Specification in a Narrow Time Window during Pluripotent Stem Cell Neuralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bertacchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Retinal progenitors are initially found in the anterior neural plate region known as the eye field, whereas neighboring areas undertake telencephalic or hypothalamic development. Eye field cells become specified by switching on a network of eye field transcription factors, but the extracellular cues activating this network remain unclear. In this study, we used chemically defined media to induce in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs toward eye field fates. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling was sufficient to drive ESCs to telencephalic, but not retinal, fates. Instead, retinal progenitors could be generated from competent differentiating mouse ESCs by activation of Activin/Nodal signaling within a narrow temporal window corresponding to the emergence of primitive anterior neural progenitors. Activin also promoted eye field gene expression in differentiating human ESCs. Our results reveal insights into the mechanisms of eye field specification and open new avenues toward the generation of retinal progenitors for translational medicine.

  20. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  1. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  2. Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko eŽarić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A failure to build solid letter-speech sound associations may contribute to reading impairments in developmental dyslexia. Whether this reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds changes over time within individual children and how this relates to behavioral gains in reading skills remains unknown. In this research, we examined changes in event-related potential (ERP measures of letter-speech sound integration over a 6-month period during which 9-year-old dyslexic readers (n=17 followed a training in letter-speech sound coupling next to their regular reading curriculum. We presented the Dutch spoken vowels /a/ and /o/ as standard and deviant stimuli in one auditory and two audiovisual oddball conditions. In one audiovisual condition (AV0, the letter ‘a’ was presented simultaneously with the vowels, while in the other (AV200 it was preceding vowel onset for 200 ms. Prior to the training (T1, dyslexic readers showed the expected pattern of typical auditory mismatch responses, together with the absence of letter-speech sound effects in a late negativity (LN window. After the training (T2, our results showed earlier (and enhanced crossmodal effects in the LN window. Most interestingly, earlier LN latency at T2 was significantly related to higher behavioral accuracy in letter-speech sound coupling. On a more general level, the timing of the earlier mismatch negativity (MMN in the simultaneous condition (AV0 measured at T1, significantly related to reading fluency at both T1 and T2 as well as with reading gains. Our findings suggest that the reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children may show moderate improvement with reading instruction and training and that behavioral improvements relate especially to individual differences in the timing of this neural integration.

  3. Ecotoxicology and macroecology – Time for integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Liess, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in ecotoxicology, it has become clear that this discipline cannot answer its central questions, such as, “What are the effects of toxicants on biodiversity?” and “How the ecosystem functions and services are affected by the toxicants?”. We argue that if such questions are to be answered, a paradigm shift is needed. The current bottom-up approach of ecotoxicology that implies the use of small-scale experiments to predict effects on the entire ecosystems and landscapes should be merged with a top-down macroecological approach that is directly focused on ecological effects at large spatial scales and consider ecological systems as integral entities. Analysis of the existing methods in ecotoxicology, ecology, and environmental chemistry shows that such integration is currently possible. Therefore, we conclude that to tackle the current pressing challenges, ecotoxicology has to progress using both the bottom-up and top-down approaches, similar to digging a tunnel from both ends at once. - To tackle the current pressing challenges, ecotoxicology has to progress using both the bottom-up experimental and top-down observational approaches.

  4. A granular tabu search algorithm for a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Bernal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a real case study of a vehicle routing problem with a heterogeneous fleet and time windows (HFVRPTW for a franchise company bottling Coca-Cola products in Colombia. This study aims to determine the routes to be performed to fulfill the demand of the customers by using a heterogeneous fleet and considering soft time windows. The objective is to minimize the distance traveled by the performed routes. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a two-phase heuristic algorithm. In the proposed approach, after an initial phase (first phase, a granular tabu search is applied during the improvement phase (second phase. Two additional procedures are considered to help that the algorithm could escape from local optimum, given that during a given number of iterations there has been no improvement. Findings: Computational experiments on real instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to obtain high-quality solutions within a short computing time compared to the results found by the software that the company currently uses to plan the daily routes. Originality/value: We propose a novel metaheuristic algorithm for solving a real routing problem by considering heterogeneous fleet and time windows. The efficiency of the proposed approach has been tested on real instances, and the computational experiments shown its applicability and performance for solving NP-Hard Problems related with routing problems with similar characteristics. The proposed algorithm was able to improve some of the current solutions applied by the company by reducing the route length and the number of vehicles.

  5. Advanced integrated real-time clinical displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Grant H; Tremper, Kevin K

    2011-09-01

    Intelligent medical displays have the potential to improve patient outcomes by integrating multiple physiologic signals, exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity, and reducing information overload for physicians. Research findings have suggested that information overload and distractions caused by patient care activities and alarms generated by multiple monitors in acute care situations, such as the operating room and the intensive care unit, may produce situations that negatively impact the outcomes of patients under anesthesia. This can be attributed to shortcomings of human-in-the-loop monitoring and the poor specificity of existing physiologic alarms. Modern artificial intelligence techniques (ie, intelligent software agents) are demonstrating the potential to meet the challenges of next-generation patient monitoring and alerting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of scanning time window on the binding potentials of dopamine transporter in the brain of healthy volunteers with 11C-CFT PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chun; Zuo Chuantao; Zhang Zhengwei; Wu Ping; Zhang Huiwei; Guan Yihui

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find the optimal scanning time window and then set up the normal binding potentials (BPs) of 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)-(N- 11 C-methyl) tropane ( 11 C-CFT) DAT PET/CT imaging. Methods: Thirty-one healthy volunteers (20 males, 11 females, average age: (55.7±2.3) years), who all gave written informed consent, were divided into three age and gender-matched groups according to block randomization. Each group underwent static PET/CT scan in different time windows from 40-60 min, 60-80 min to 80-100 min after 11 C-CFT injection. To determine the best scanning time window, the ratios of caudate and putamen of all volunteers were analyzed using automatic ROI method (caudate (putamen)/parieto-occipital cotex-1) and compared by one-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference (LSD) t test. The ratio of the same area between different age-groups and gender-groups was compared with independent two-sample t test. Results: Ratios of left caudate (2.08±0.06, 1.75±0.07 and 1.77±0.12 respectively), right anterior putamen (2.33±0.06, 1.95±0.09 and 2.08±0.12 respectively) and bilateral posterior putamen (left: 1.88±0.66, 1.55±0.88 and 1.72±0.09; right: 1.98±0.07, 1.61±0.09 and 1.69±0.12) were all different in three time windows (F=3.588, 3.345, 4.479, 3.557, all P<0.05). There were significant differences in ratios of left caudate, right anterior and bilateral posterior putamen between 40-60 min and the 60-80 min (all P<0.05), as well as the ratios of left caudate between 40-60 min and the 80-100 min group (P<0.05). While no valid differences in ratios of those areas were shown between the groups of 60-80 min and 80-100 min scanning time window (all P>0.05). DAT densities in right and left side of caudate, anterior and posterior putamen were significantly lower in the group over 60 years of age than those under 60 years (t=-3.260, -3.090, -3.270, -3.190, -2.270, -3.110, all P<0.05), but were not different between gender

  7. Integrating Satellite, Radar and Surface Observation with Time and Space Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y.; Weber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) from Unidata is a Java™-based software framework for analyzing and visualizing geoscience data. It brings together the ability to display and work with satellite imagery, gridded data, surface observations, balloon soundings, NWS WSR-88D Level II and Level III RADAR data, and NOAA National Profiler Network data, all within a unified interface. Applying time and space matching on the satellite, radar and surface observation datasets will automatically synchronize the display from different data sources and spatially subset to match the display area in the view window. These features allow the IDV users to effectively integrate these observations and provide 3 dimensional views of the weather system to better understand the underlying dynamics and physics of weather phenomena.

  8. Alternative approach for management of an electrical storm in Brugada syndrome:Importance of primary ablation within a narrow time window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Karim Talib, MD, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Placement of an implantable cardioverter–defibrillator (ICD is the only powerful treatment modality for Brugada syndrome in patients presenting with ventricular fibrillation (VF. For those whose first presentation is an electrical storm, pharmacologic therapy is typically used to control VF followed by ICD implantation. We report an alternative approach whereby, before ICD implantation, emergency catheter ablation of the VF-triggering premature ventricular contraction (PVC resulted in long-term VF-free survival. The results suggest that, because VF triggers appear in a narrow time window, ablation of the culprit PVCs that initiate VF before the index PVCs subside is a reasonable alternative approach.

  9. An integrated technique for developing real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooman, J.J.M.; Vain, J.

    1995-01-01

    The integration of conceptual modeling techniques, formal specification, and compositional verification is considered for real time systems within the knowledge engineering context. We define constructive transformations from a conceptual meta model to a real time specification language and give

  10. Measurement of the response time of the delay window for the neutron converter of the SPIRAL2 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Andre, T. [GANIL, Caen (France); Bermudez, J. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Blinov, M.F. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jamet, C. [GANIL, Caen (France); Logatchev, P.V.; Semenov, Y.I.; Starostenko, A.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tecchio, L.B., E-mail: tecchio@lnl.infn.it [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Tsyganov, A.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Udup, E. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); University Polytechnic of Bucharest (Romania); Vasquez, J. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-09-11

    Research and development of a safety system for the SPIRAL2 facility has been conceived to protect the UCx target from a possible interaction with the 200 kW deuteron beam. The system called “delay window” (DW) is designed as an integral part of the neutron converter module and is located in between the neutron converter and the fission target. The device has been designed as a barrier, located directly behind the neutron converter on the axis of the deuteron beam, with the purpose of “delaying” the eventual interaction of the deuteron beam with the UCx target in case of a failure of the neutron converter. The “delay” must be long enough to allow the interlock to react and safely stop the beam operation, before the beam will reach the UCx target. The working concept of the DW is based on the principle of the electrical fuse. Electrically insulated wires placed on the surface of a Tantalum disk assure a so called “free contact”, normally closed to an electronic circuit located on the HV platform, far from the radioactive environment. The melting temperature of the wires is much less than Tantalum. Once the beam is impinging on the disk, one or more wires are melted and the “free contact” is open. A solid state relay is changing its state and a signal is sent to the interlock device. A prototype of the DW has been constructed and tested with an electron beam of power density equivalent to the SPIRAL2 beam. The measured “delay” is 682.5 ms (σ=116 ms), that is rather long in comparison to the intrinsic delays introduced by the detectors itself (2 ms) and by the associated electronic devices (120 ns). The experimental results confirm that, in the case of a failure of the neutron converter, the DW as conceived is enable to withstand the beam power for a period of time sufficiently long to safely shut down the SPIRAL2 accelerator.

  11. Exponential integrators in time-dependent density-functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Daniel; Covington, Cody; Varga, Kálmán

    2017-12-01

    The integrating factor and exponential time differencing methods are implemented and tested for solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. Popular time propagation methods used in physics, as well as other robust numerical approaches, are compared to these exponential integrator methods in order to judge the relative merit of the computational schemes. We determine an improvement in accuracy of multiple orders of magnitude when describing dynamics driven primarily by a nonlinear potential. For cases of dynamics driven by a time-dependent external potential, the accuracy of the exponential integrator methods are less enhanced but still match or outperform the best of the conventional methods tested.

  12. A window on urban sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced

  13. A window on urban sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: rien.vanstigt@hu.nl [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: T.J.M.Spit@uu.nl [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  14. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Amos-Abanyie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+ simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT. An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses.

  15. Time-window of early detection of response to concurrent chemoradiation in cervical cancer by using diffusion-weighted MR imaging: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Sun, Haoran; Bai, Renju; Ye, Zhaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of DWI in evaluating early therapeutic response of uterine cervical cancer to concurrent chemoradiation (CCR) and establish optimal time window for early detection of treatment response. This was a prospective study and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-three patients with uterine cervical cancer who received CCR underwent conventional MRI and DWI examinations prior to therapy (base-line) and at 3 days (postT1), 7 days (postT2), 14 days (postT3), 1 month (postT4) and 2 months (postT5) after the therapy initiated. Tumor response was determined by comparing the base-line and postT5 MRI by using RECIST criterion. Percentage ADC change (γADC) of complete response (CR) group at each follow up time was greater than that of partial response (PR) group, and the differences were significant at postT3 (p = 0.007), postT4 (p = 0.001), and postT5 (p = 0.019). There was positive correlation between γADC at each follow-up time and percentage size reduction at postT5. The day of 14 after the therapy initiated can be considered as the optimal time for monitoring early treatment response of uterine cervical cancer to CCR, and the representative and sensitive index was γADC. With the cut-off value of 35.4 %, the sensitivity and specificity for prediction of CR group were 100 % and 73.1 %, respectively. It is feasible to use DWI to predict and monitor early treatment response in patients with uterine cervical cancer that undergoing CCR, and optimal time window for early detection of tumor response is the day of 14 after therapy initiated

  16. Parenthetical Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    and artificial soundscape as well, as long as sound is structured (therefore artificial) as a compositional model. The research takes into account the time circle of 24 hours in four groups (morning, noon, evening and night) and proceeds the results of all the above for an artistic project that values all...

  17. Time resolved spectroscopy of GRB 030501 using INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, V.; Borkowski, J.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The gamma-ray instruments on-board INTEGRAL offer an unique opportunity to perform time resolved analysis on GRBs. The imager IBIS allows accurate positioning of GRBs and broad band spectral analysis, while SPI provides high resolution spectroscopy. GRB 030501 was discovered by the INTEGRAL Burst...... the Ulysses and RHESSI experiments....

  18. Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; de Roon, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value

  19. Space-time transformations in radial path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, F.

    1984-09-01

    Nonlinear space-time transformations in the radial path integral are discussed. A transformation formula is derived, which relates the original path integral to the Green's function of a new quantum system with an effective potential containing an observable quantum correction proportional(h/2π) 2 . As an example the formula is applied to spherical Brownian motion. (orig.)

  20. Path integral solution for some time-dependent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, S.N.

    1989-12-01

    The quantum-mechanical problem with a time-dependent potential is solved by the path integral method. The solution is obtained by the application of the previously derived general formula for rheonomic homogeneous point transformation and reparametrization in the path integral. (author). 4 refs

  1. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  2. An extended Halanay inequality of integral type on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boqun Ou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain a Halanay-type inequality of integral type on time scales which improves and extends some earlier results for both the continuous and discrete cases. Several illustrative examples are also given.

  3. The impact of time-window bias on the assessment of the long-term effect of medication adherence: the case of secondary prevention after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Mirko; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Agabiti, Nera; Bauleo, Lisa; Fusco, Danilo; Perucci, Carlo Alberto; Davoli, Marina

    2015-06-10

    Time-window bias was described in case-control studies and led to a biased estimate of drug effect. No studies have measured the impact of this bias on the assessment of the effect of medication adherence on health outcomes. Our goals were to estimate the association between adherence to drug therapies after myocardial infarction (MI) and the incidence of a new MI, and to quantify the error that would have been produced by a time-window bias. This is a population-based study. Data were obtained from the Regional Health Information Systems of the Lazio Region in Central Italy (around 5 million inhabitants). Patients discharged after MI in 2006-2007 were enrolled in the cohort and followed through 2009. The study outcome was reinfarction: either mortality, or hospital admission for MI, whichever occurred first. A nested case-control study was performed. Controls were selected using both time-dependent and time-independent sampling. Adherence to antiplatelets, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARBs) and statins was calculated using the proportion of days covered (PDC). A total of 6880 patients were enrolled in the cohort. Using time-dependent sampling, a protective effect was detected for all study drugs. Conversely, using time-independent sampling, the beneficial effect was attenuated, as in the case of antiplatelet agents and statins, or completely masked, as in the case of ACEI/ARBs and β-blockers. For ACEI/ARBs, the time-dependent approach produced ORs of 0.83 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.21) and 0.72 (0.55 to 0.95), respectively, for '0.5 0.75' versus '0 ≤ PDC ≤ 0.5'. Using the time-independent approach, the ORs were 0.96 (0.65 to 1.43) and 1.00 (0.76 to 1.33), respectively. A time-independent definition of a time-dependent exposure introduces a bias when the length of follow-up varies with the outcome. The persistence of time-related biases in peer-reviewed papers strongly suggests the need for increased awareness of this methodological

  4. A CMOS integrated timing discriminator circuit for fast scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochmann, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Based on a zero-crossing discriminator using a CR differentiation network for pulse shaping, a new CMOS integrated timing discriminator circuit is proposed for fast (t r ≥ 2 ns) scintillation counters at the cooler synchrotron COSY-Juelich. By eliminating the input signal's amplitude information by means of an analog continuous-time divider, a normalized pulse shape at the zero-crossing point is gained over a wide dynamic input amplitude range. In combination with an arming comparator and a monostable multivibrator this yields in a highly precise timing discriminator circuit, that is expected to be useful in different time measurement applications. First measurement results of a CMOS integrated logarithmic amplifier, which is part of the analog continuous-time divider, agree well with the corresponding simulations. Moreover, SPICE simulations of the integrated discriminator circuit promise a time walk well below 200 ps (FWHM) over a 40 dB input amplitude dynamic range

  5. Precise digital integration in wide time range: theory and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, A.M.; Pavlenko, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The digital integration method based on using high-speed precision analog-to-digital converters (ADC) has become widely used over the recent years. The paper analyzes the limitations of this method that are caused by the signal properties, ADC sampling rate and noise spectral density of the ADC signal path. This analysis allowed creating digital integrators with accurate synchronization and achieving an integration error of less than 10 −5 in the time range from microseconds to tens of seconds. The structure of the integrator is described and its basic parameters are presented. The possibilities of different ADC chips in terms of their applicability to digital integrators are discussed. A comparison with other integrating devices is presented.

  6. Time-varying spatial data integration and visualization: 4 Dimensions Environmental Observations Platform (4-DEOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciello, Rossana; Coviello, Irina; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Lisi, Mariano; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Pergola, Nicola; Sileo, Giancanio; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2014-05-01

    In environmental studies the integration of heterogeneous and time-varying data, is a very common requirement for investigating and possibly visualize correlations among physical parameters underlying the dynamics of complex phenomena. Datasets used in such kind of applications has often different spatial and temporal resolutions. In some case superimposition of asynchronous layers is required. Traditionally the platforms used to perform spatio-temporal visual data analyses allow to overlay spatial data, managing the time using 'snapshot' data model, each stack of layers being labeled with different time. But this kind of architecture does not incorporate the temporal indexing neither the third spatial dimension which is usually given as an independent additional layer. Conversely, the full representation of a generic environmental parameter P(x,y,z,t) in the 4D space-time domain could allow to handle asynchronous datasets as well as less traditional data-products (e.g. vertical sections, punctual time-series, etc.) . In this paper we present the 4 Dimensions Environmental Observation Platform (4-DEOS), a system based on a web services architecture Client-Broker-Server. This platform is a new open source solution for both a timely access and an easy integration and visualization of heterogeneous (maps, vertical profiles or sections, punctual time series, etc.) asynchronous, geospatial products. The innovative aspect of the 4-DEOS system is that users can analyze data/products individually moving through time, having also the possibility to stop the display of some data/products and focus on other parameters for better studying their temporal evolution. This platform gives the opportunity to choose between two distinct display modes for time interval or for single instant. Users can choose to visualize data/products in two ways: i) showing each parameter in a dedicated window or ii) visualize all parameters overlapped in a single window. A sliding time bar, allows

  7. Design Guidance for New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  8. Selection Process for New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  9. Selection Process for Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. Design Guidance for Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. Replacement Windows for Existing Homes Homes | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  12. Proper Installation of New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Generating a Square Switching Window for Timing Jitter Tolerant 160 Gb/s Demultiplexing by the Optical Fourier Transform Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Clausen, A. T:

    2006-01-01

    A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps.......A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps....

  14. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  15. Integration of MDSplus in real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2006-01-01

    RFX-mod makes extensive usage of real-time systems for feedback control and uses MDSplus to interface them to the main Data Acquisition system. For this purpose, the core of MDSplus has been ported to VxWorks, the operating system used for real-time control in RFX. Using this approach, it is possible to integrate real-time systems, but MDSplus is used only for non-real-time tasks, i.e. those tasks which are executed before and after the pulse and whose performance does not affect the system time constraints. More extensive use of MDSplus in real-time systems is foreseen, and a real-time layer for MDSplus is under development, which will provide access to memory-mapped pulse files, shared by the tasks running on the same CPU. Real-time communication will also be integrated in the MDSplus core to provide support for distributed memory-mapped pulse files

  16. Active control of time-varying broadband noise and vibrations using a sliding-window Kalman filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, S.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Sas, P.; Moens, D.; Denayer, H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a multiple-input/multiple-output Kalman filter technique was presented to control time-varying broadband noise and vibrations. By describing the feed-forward broadband active noise control problem in terms of a state estimation problem it was possible to achieve a faster rate of

  17. Catch the wave! Time-window sequential analysis of alertness stimulation in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munde, V. S.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.

    BackgroundWhile optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is focused on the environment' or alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking.

  18. Integrals of Motion for Discrete-Time Optimal Control Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain a discrete time analog of E. Noether's theorem in Optimal Control, asserting that integrals of motion associated to the discrete time Pontryagin Maximum Principle can be computed from the quasi-invariance properties of the discrete time Lagrangian and discrete time control system. As corollaries, results for first-order and higher-order discrete problems of the calculus of variations are obtained.

  19. Provide Views | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. Reduced Fading | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  1. EWC Members | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  2. Visible Transmittance | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  3. Gas Fills | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  4. EWC Membership | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  5. Reducing Condensation | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  6. Improved Comfort | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  7. Financing & Incentives | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  8. Tools & Resources | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  9. Books & Publications | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  10. Design Considerations | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. The Role of Memory and Integration in Early Time Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Iris; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A total of 630 boys and girls from kindergarten to second grade were asked to compare durations that differ in beginning times with those that differ in ending times. Possible sources of children's failure to integrate beginning and end points when comparing durations were discussed. (Author/CI)

  12. Windows and doors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    A complete manual is presented on windows and doors for the housing contractor. In order to understand the role of windows and doors in a house's energy performance, an introduction explains the house as a system of components that can have effects on each other. Further chapters explain in detail the parts of a window, window types and RSI values; window servicing and repair; window replacement; parts of a door, door types and RSI values; door service and repair, including weatherstripping; door replacement; and how to ensure quality, service, and customer satisfaction. A glossary of terms is included. 61 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  14. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to intensities of occupational mechanical exposures across 10-year exposure time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify intensities of occupational mechanical exposures (force, arm elevation and repetition) that do not entail an increased risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) even after prolonged durations of exposure. Additionally, we wanted to evaluate...... if exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) is an independent risk factor. METHODS: We used data from a register-based cohort study of the entire Danish working population (n=2 374 403). During follow-up (2003-2008), 14 118 first-time events of surgery for SIS occurred. For each person, we linked register...... of exposure at specific intensities above minimal (low, medium and high). We used a logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis adjusting for cumulative effects of other mechanical exposures. RESULTS: We found indications of safe exposure intensities for repetition (median angular...

  15. Design of an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) from standard components running in real-time under Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guger, C; Schlögl, A; Walterspacher, D; Pfurtscheller, G

    1999-01-01

    An EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is a direct connection between the human brain and the computer. Such a communication system is needed by patients with severe motor impairments (e.g. late stage of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) and has to operate in real-time. This paper describes the selection of the appropriate components to construct such a BCI and focuses also on the selection of a suitable programming language and operating system. The multichannel system runs under Windows 95, equipped with a real-time Kernel expansion to obtain reasonable real-time operations on a standard PC. Matlab controls the data acquisition and the presentation of the experimental paradigm, while Simulink is used to calculate the recursive least square (RLS) algorithm that describes the current state of the EEG in real-time. First results of the new low-cost BCI show that the accuracy of differentiating imagination of left and right hand movement is around 95%.

  16. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  17. Windows Vista for Starters The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    Fast-paced and easy to use, this concise book teaches you the basics of Windows Vista so you can start using this operating system right away. Written by "New York Times" columnist, bestselling author, Emmy-winning CBS News correspondent and Missing Manuals creator David Pogue, the book will help you: Navigate the desktop, including the fast, powerful and fully integrated desktop search functionUse the Media Center to record TV and radio, present photos, play music, and record all of these to a DVDBreeze across the Web with the vastly improved Internet Explorer 7 tabbed browserBecome familiar

  18. Time-of-flight depth image enhancement using variable integration time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Kwon; Choi, Ouk; Kang, Byongmin; Kim, James Dokyoon; Kim, Chang-Yeong

    2013-03-01

    Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras are used for a variety of applications because it delivers depth information at a high frame rate. These cameras, however, suffer from challenging problems such as noise and motion artifacts. To increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the camera should calculate a distance based on a large amount of infra-red light, which needs to be integrated over a long time. On the other hand, the integration time should be short enough to suppress motion artifacts. We propose a ToF depth imaging method to combine advantages of short and long integration times exploiting an imaging fusion scheme proposed for color imaging. To calibrate depth differences due to the change of integration times, a depth transfer function is estimated by analyzing the joint histogram of depths in the two images of different integration times. The depth images are then transformed into wavelet domains and fused into a depth image with suppressed noise and low motion artifacts. To evaluate the proposed method, we captured a moving bar of a metronome with different integration times. The experiment shows the proposed method could effectively remove the motion artifacts while preserving high SNR comparable to the depth images acquired during long integration time.

  19. Global Format for Conservative Time Integration in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The widely used classic collocation-based time integration procedures like Newmark, Generalized-alpha etc. generally work well within a framework of linear problems, but typically may encounter problems, when used in connection with essentially nonlinear structures. These problems are overcome....... In the present paper a conservative time integration algorithm is developed in a format using only the internal forces and the associated tangent stiffness at the specific time integration points. Thus, the procedure is computationally very similar to a collocation method, consisting of a series of nonlinear...... equivalent static load steps, easily implemented in existing computer codes. The paper considers two aspects: representation of nonlinear internal forces in a form that implies energy conservation, and the option of an algorithmic damping with the purpose of extracting energy from undesirable high...

  20. Schematic Window Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this IRAD is to produce a generic launch window analyzer (SWM) that allows for large-scale rapid analysis of a launch window and orbit design trade space....

  1. Explicit solution of Calderon preconditioned time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2013-07-01

    An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving Calderon-preconditioned time domain integral equations is proposed. The scheme uses Rao-Wilton-Glisson and Buffa-Christiansen functions to discretize the domain and range of the integral operators and a PE(CE)m type linear multistep to march on in time. Unlike its implicit counterpart, the proposed explicit solver requires the solution of an MOT system with a Gram matrix that is sparse and well-conditioned independent of the time step size. Numerical results demonstrate that the explicit solver maintains its accuracy and stability even when the time step size is chosen as large as that typically used by an implicit solver. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. A model of interval timing by neural integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simen, Patrick; Balci, Fuat; de Souza, Laura; Cohen, Jonathan D; Holmes, Philip

    2011-06-22

    We show that simple assumptions about neural processing lead to a model of interval timing as a temporal integration process, in which a noisy firing-rate representation of time rises linearly on average toward a response threshold over the course of an interval. Our assumptions include: that neural spike trains are approximately independent Poisson processes, that correlations among them can be largely cancelled by balancing excitation and inhibition, that neural populations can act as integrators, and that the objective of timed behavior is maximal accuracy and minimal variance. The model accounts for a variety of physiological and behavioral findings in rodents, monkeys, and humans, including ramping firing rates between the onset of reward-predicting cues and the receipt of delayed rewards, and universally scale-invariant response time distributions in interval timing tasks. It furthermore makes specific, well-supported predictions about the skewness of these distributions, a feature of timing data that is usually ignored. The model also incorporates a rapid (potentially one-shot) duration-learning procedure. Human behavioral data support the learning rule's predictions regarding learning speed in sequences of timed responses. These results suggest that simple, integration-based models should play as prominent a role in interval timing theory as they do in theories of perceptual decision making, and that a common neural mechanism may underlie both types of behavior.

  3. Clinical-Radiological Parameters Improve the Prediction of the Thrombolysis Time Window by Both MRI Signal Intensities and DWI-FLAIR Mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madai, Vince Istvan; Wood, Carla N; Galinovic, Ivana; Grittner, Ulrike; Piper, Sophie K; Revankar, Gajanan S; Martin, Steve Z; Zaro-Weber, Olivier; Moeller-Hartmann, Walter; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Ebinger, Martin; Fiebach, Jochen B; Sobesky, Jan

    2016-01-01

    With regard to acute stroke, patients with unknown time from stroke onset are not eligible for thrombolysis. Quantitative diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI relative signal intensity (rSI) biomarkers have been introduced to predict eligibility for thrombolysis, but have shown heterogeneous results in the past. In the present work, we investigated whether the inclusion of easily obtainable clinical-radiological parameters would improve the prediction of the thrombolysis time window by rSIs and compared their performance to the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch. In a retrospective study, patients from 2 centers with proven stroke with onset value/mean value of the unaffected hemisphere). Additionally, the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch was evaluated. Prediction of the thrombolysis time window was evaluated by the area-under-the-curve (AUC) derived from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Factors such as the association of age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, MRI field strength, lesion size, vessel occlusion and Wahlund-Score with rSI were investigated and the models were adjusted and stratified accordingly. In 82 patients, the unadjusted rSI measures DWI-mean and -SD showed the highest AUCs (AUC 0.86-0.87). Adjustment for clinical-radiological covariates significantly improved the performance of FLAIR-mean (0.91) and DWI-SD (0.91). The best prediction results based on the AUC were found for the final stratified and adjusted models of DWI-SD (0.94) and FLAIR-mean (0.96) and a multivariable DWI-FLAIR model (0.95). The adjusted visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch did not perform in a significantly worse manner (0.89). ADC-rSIs showed fair performance in all models. Quantitative DWI and FLAIR MRI biomarkers as well as the visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch provide excellent prediction of eligibility for thrombolysis in acute stroke, when easily obtainable clinical-radiological parameters are included in the prediction

  4. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    With the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs), there are significant potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy and typical implementation of building-level distributed energy resources (DERs). By integrating DSM and DERs...... into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems, and integrated communications architectures, it is possible to efficiently manage energy and comfort at the end-use location. In this paper, an ontology-driven multi......-agent control system with intelligent optimizers is proposed for optimal real-time dispatch of an integrated building and microgrid system considering coordinated demand response (DR) and DERs management. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programing problem (MINLP...

  5. Effects of integration time on in-water radiometric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Davide; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Kajiyama, Tamito

    2018-03-05

    This work investigates the effects of integration time on in-water downward irradiance E d , upward irradiance E u and upwelling radiance L u profile data acquired with free-fall hyperspectral systems. Analyzed quantities are the subsurface value and the diffuse attenuation coefficient derived by applying linear and non-linear regression schemes. Case studies include oligotrophic waters (Case-1), as well as waters dominated by Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Non-Algal Particles (NAP). Assuming a 24-bit digitization, measurements resulting from the accumulation of photons over integration times varying between 8 and 2048ms are evaluated at depths corresponding to: 1) the beginning of each integration interval (Fst); 2) the end of each integration interval (Lst); 3) the averages of Fst and Lst values (Avg); and finally 4) the values weighted accounting for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of water (Wgt). Statistical figures show that the effects of integration time can bias results well above 5% as a function of the depth definition. Results indicate the validity of the Wgt depth definition and the fair applicability of the Avg one. Instead, both the Fst and Lst depths should not be adopted since they may introduce pronounced biases in E u and L u regression products for highly absorbing waters. Finally, the study reconfirms the relevance of combining multiple radiometric casts into a single profile to increase precision of regression products.

  6. A New time Integration Scheme for Cahn-hilliard Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, R.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present a new integration scheme that can be applied to solving difficult non-stationary non-linear problems. It is obtained by a successive linearization of the Crank- Nicolson scheme, that is unconditionally stable, but requires solving non-linear equation at each time step. We applied our linearized scheme for the time integration of the challenging Cahn-Hilliard equation, modeling the phase separation in fluids. At each time step the resulting variational equation is solved using higher-order isogeometric finite element method, with B- spline basis functions. The method was implemented in the PETIGA framework interfaced via the PETSc toolkit. The GMRES iterative solver was utilized for the solution of a resulting linear system at every time step. We also apply a simple adaptivity rule, which increases the time step size when the number of GMRES iterations is lower than 30. We compared our method with a non-linear, two stage predictor-multicorrector scheme, utilizing a sophisticated step length adaptivity. We controlled the stability of our simulations by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional. The proposed integration scheme outperforms the two-stage competitor in terms of the execution time, at the same time having a similar evolution of the free energy functional.

  7. A New time Integration Scheme for Cahn-hilliard Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, R.; Smol-ka, M.; Dalcin, L; Paszyn'ski, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a new integration scheme that can be applied to solving difficult non-stationary non-linear problems. It is obtained by a successive linearization of the Crank- Nicolson scheme, that is unconditionally stable, but requires solving non-linear equation at each time step. We applied our linearized scheme for the time integration of the challenging Cahn-Hilliard equation, modeling the phase separation in fluids. At each time step the resulting variational equation is solved using higher-order isogeometric finite element method, with B- spline basis functions. The method was implemented in the PETIGA framework interfaced via the PETSc toolkit. The GMRES iterative solver was utilized for the solution of a resulting linear system at every time step. We also apply a simple adaptivity rule, which increases the time step size when the number of GMRES iterations is lower than 30. We compared our method with a non-linear, two stage predictor-multicorrector scheme, utilizing a sophisticated step length adaptivity. We controlled the stability of our simulations by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional. The proposed integration scheme outperforms the two-stage competitor in terms of the execution time, at the same time having a similar evolution of the free energy functional.

  8. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Beghein, Yves; Nair, Naveen V.; Cools, Kristof; Bagci, Hakan; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method's efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  9. Window Selection Tool | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisville LA Lake Charles LA New Orleans LA Shreveport MA Boston MD Baltimore ME Portland MI Detroit MI Window Selection Tool will take you through a series of design conditions pertaining to your design and

  10. Microsoft Windows 2000 Router Configuration Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richburg, Florence

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide technical guidance to network administrators of small to medium size networks in the configuration and integration of Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Router features...

  11. Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Architecture Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartock, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about the services that are available in the Microsoft Windows 2000 environment and how to integrate these services into their network architecture...

  12. Orientation, Evaluation, and Integration of Part-Time Nursing Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joanne S

    2015-07-10

    This study helps to quantify and describe orientation, evaluation, and integration practices pertaining to part-time clinical nursing faculty teaching in prelicensure nursing education programs. A researcher designed Web-based survey was used to collect information from a convenience sample of part-time clinical nursing faculty teaching in prelicensure nursing programs. Survey questions focused on the amount and type of orientation, evaluation, and integration practices. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze results. Respondents reported on average four hours of orientation, with close to half reporting no more than two hours. Evaluative feedback was received much more often from students than from full-time faculty. Most respondents reported receiving some degree of mentoring and that it was easy to get help from full-time faculty. Respondents reported being most informed about student evaluation procedures, grading, and the steps to take when students are not meeting course objectives, and less informed about changes to ongoing curriculum and policy.

  13. Numerical counting ratemeter with variable time constant and integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.; Fuan, J.

    1967-01-01

    We present here the prototype of a numerical counting ratemeter which is a special version of variable time-constant frequency meter (1). The originality of this work lies in the fact that the change in the time constant is carried out automatically. Since the criterion for this change is the accuracy in the annunciated result, the integration time is varied as a function of the frequency. For the prototype described in this report, the time constant varies from 1 sec to 1 millisec. for frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 10 MHz. This prototype is built entirely of MECL-type integrated circuits from Motorola and is thus contained in two relatively small boxes. (authors) [fr

  14. General new time formalism in the path integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, N.K.; Sokmen, I.

    1983-08-01

    We describe a general method of applying point canonical transformations to the path integral followed by the corresponding new time transformations aimed at reducing an arbitrary one-dimensional problem into an exactly solvable form. Our result is independent of operator ordering ambiguities by construction. (author)

  15. Prospects for direct measurement of time-integrated Bs mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siccama, I.

    1994-01-01

    This note investigates the prospects of measuring time-integrated B s mixing. Three inclusive decay modes of the B s meson are discussed. For each reconstruction mode, the expected number of events and the different background channels are discussed. Estimates are given for the uncertainty on the mixing parameter χ s . (orig.)

  16. A Fully Integrated Discrete-Time Superheterodyne Receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tohidian, M.; Madadi, I.; Staszewski, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    The zero/low intermediate frequency (IF) receiver (RX) architecture has enabled full CMOS integration. As the technology scales and wireless standards become ever more challenging, the issues related to time-varying dc offsets, the second-order nonlinearity, and flicker noise become more critical.

  17. On the solution of high order stable time integration methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Sysala, Stanislav; Ahmad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-22 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : evolution equations * preconditioners for quadratic matrix polynomials * a stiffly stable time integration method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2013 http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2013/1/108

  18. Integrated optical delay lines for time-division multiplexers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of integrated optical delay lines (DLs) for application in optical time-division multiplexers. The investigated DLs are formed by spirally folded waveguides. The components were designed in a generic approach and fabricated in multi-project wafer runs on an

  19. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  20. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  1. Feasibility of real-time calculation of correlation integral derived statistics applied to EGG time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, PLC; van Egmond, J; van Rijn, CM; Takens, F; Coenen, AML; Booij, LHDJ

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the feasibility of online calculation of the correlation integral (C(r)) aiming to apply C(r)derived statistics. For real-time application it is important to reduce calculation time. It is shown how our method works for EEG time series. Methods: To achieve online

  2. Feasibility of real-time calculation of correlation integral derived statistics applied to EEG time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, P.L.C. van den; Egmond, J. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Takens, F.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of online calculation of the correlation integral (C(r)) aiming to apply C(r)-derived statistics. For real-time application it is important to reduce calculation time. It is shown how our method works for EEG time series. Methods: To achieve online calculation of

  3. Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, F.C.J.M. de; Roon, F.A. de

    2001-01-01

    We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value of the assets that can be held by domestic investors only versus the market value of the assets that can be traded freely.Our empirical analysis for 30 emerging markets shows that there are strong...

  4. Energy conservation in Newmark based time integration algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Energy balance equations are established for the Newmark time integration algorithm, and for the derived algorithms with algorithmic damping introduced via averaging, the so-called a-methods. The energy balance equations form a sequence applicable to: Newmark integration of the undamped equations...... of motion, an extended form including structural damping, and finally the generalized form including structural as well as algorithmic damping. In all three cases the expression for energy, appearing in the balance equation, is the mechanical energy plus some additional terms generated by the discretization...

  5. Windows 8.1 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling book on Windows, now updated for the new 8.1 features Microsoft has fine-tuned Windows 8 with some important new features, and veteran author Andy Rathbone explains every one in this all-new edition of a long-time bestseller. Whether you're using Windows for the first time, upgrading from an older version, or just moving from Windows 8 to 8.1, here's what you need to know. Learn about the dual interfaces, the new Start button, how to customize the interface and boot operations, and how to work with programs and files, use the web and social media, manage music and photos, and

  6. Integration of Microsoft Windows applications with MDSplus data acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrovito, Dana M.

    2002-01-01

    Data acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has increasingly involved the use of Personal Computers and specially developed 'turn-key' hardware and software systems to control diagnostics. Interaction with these proprietary software packages is accomplished through use of Visual Basic, or Visual C++ and Component Object Model (COM) technology. COM is a software architecture that allows the components made by different software vendors to be combined into a variety of applications. This technology is particularly well suited to these systems because of its programming language independence, standards for function calling between components, and ability to transparently reference remote processes. COM objects make possible the creation of acquisition software that can control the experimental parameters of both the hardware and software. Synchronization of these applications for diagnostics, such as charged couple device cameras and residual gas analyzers, with the rest of the experiment event cycle at PPPL has been made possible by utilization of the MDSplus libraries for Windows. Instead of transferring large data files to remote disk space, Windows MDSplus events and I/O functions allow us to put raw data into MDSplus directly from interactive data language for Windows and Visual Basic. The combination of COM technology and the MDSplus libraries for Windows provide the tools for many new possibilities in versatile acquisition applications and future diagnostics

  7. Integration of Microsoft Windows Applications with MDSplus Data Acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana M. Mastrovito

    2002-01-01

    Data acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has increasingly involved the use of Personal Computers (PC's) and specially developed ''turn-key'' hardware and software systems to control diagnostics. Interaction with these proprietary software packages is accomplished through use of Visual Basic, or Visual C++ and COM (Component Object Model) technology. COM is a software architecture that allows the components made by different software vendors to be combined into a variety of applications. This technology is particularly well suited to these systems because of its programming language independence, standards for function calling between components, and ability to transparently reference remote processes. COM objects make possible the creation of acquisition software that can control the experimental parameters of both the hardware and software. Synchronization of these applications for diagnostics, such as CCD camer as and residual gas analyzers, with the rest of the experiment event cycle at PPPL has been made possible by utilization of the MDSplus libraries for Windows. Instead of transferring large data files to remote disk space, Windows MDSplus events and I/O functions allow us to put raw data into MDSplus directly from IDL for Windows and Visual Basic. The combination of COM technology and the MDSplus libraries for Windows provide the tools for many new possibilities in versatile acquisition applications and future diagnostics

  8. Integration of Microsoft Windows Applications with MDSplus Data Acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana M. Mastrovito

    2002-03-01

    Data acquisition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has increasingly involved the use of Personal Computers (PC's) and specially developed ''turn-key'' hardware and software systems to control diagnostics. Interaction with these proprietary software packages is accomplished through use of Visual Basic, or Visual C++ and COM (Component Object Model) technology. COM is a software architecture that allows the components made by different software vendors to be combined into a variety of applications. This technology is particularly well suited to these systems because of its programming language independence, standards for function calling between components, and ability to transparently reference remote processes. COM objects make possible the creation of acquisition software that can control the experimental parameters of both the hardware and software. Synchronization of these applications for diagnostics, such as CCD camer as and residual gas analyzers, with the rest of the experiment event cycle at PPPL has been made possible by utilization of the MDSplus libraries for Windows. Instead of transferring large data files to remote disk space, Windows MDSplus events and I/O functions allow us to put raw data into MDSplus directly from IDL for Windows and Visual Basic. The combination of COM technology and the MDSplus libraries for Windows provide the tools for many new possibilities in versatile acquisition applications and future diagnostics

  9. Hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to-time interval conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Dotsenko, Yu.Yu.; Man' yakov, P.K.; Fedorchenko, S.N. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

    The hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to time interval conversion with nanosecond input fast response is described. The circuit can be used in energy measuring channels, time-to-digital converters and in the modified variant in amplitude-to-digital converters. The converter described consists of a buffer amplifier, a linear transmission circuit, a direct current source and a unit of time interval separation. The buffer amplifier represents a current follower providing low input and high output resistances by the current feedback. It is concluded that the described converter excelled the QT100B circuit analogous to it in a number of parameters especially, in thermostability.

  10. Integral-Value Models for Outcomes over Continuous Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles M.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    Models of preferences between outcomes over continuous time are important for individual, corporate, and social decision making, e.g., medical treatment, infrastructure development, and environmental regulation. This paper presents a foundation for such models. It shows that conditions on prefere...... on preferences between real- or vector-valued outcomes over continuous time are satisfied if and only if the preferences are represented by a value function having an integral form......Models of preferences between outcomes over continuous time are important for individual, corporate, and social decision making, e.g., medical treatment, infrastructure development, and environmental regulation. This paper presents a foundation for such models. It shows that conditions...

  11. A Digitally Programmable Differential Integrator with Enlarged Time Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Debroy

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Operational Amplifier (OA-RC integrator network is described. The novelties of the design are used of single grounded capacitor, ideal integration function realization with dual-input capability and design flexibility for extremely large time constant involving an enlargement factor (K using product of resistor ratios. The aspect of the digital control of K through a programmable resistor array (PRA controlled by a microprocessor has also been implemented. The effect of the OA-poles has been analyzed which indicates degradation of the integrator-Q at higher frequencies. An appropriate Q-compensation design scheme exhibiting 1 : |A|2 order of Q-improvement has been proposed with supporting experimental observations.

  12. Integration and timing of basic and clinical sciences education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Glen; Boucher, Andree; Neville, Alan; Kuper, Ayelet; Hodges, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Medical education has traditionally been compartmentalized into basic and clinical sciences, with the latter being viewed as the skillful application of the former. Over time, the relevance of basic sciences has become defined by their role in supporting clinical problem solving rather than being, of themselves, a defining knowledge base of physicians. As part of the national Future of Medical Education in Canada (FMEC MD) project, a comprehensive empirical environmental scan identified the timing and integration of basic sciences as a key pressing issue for medical education. Using the literature review, key informant interviews, stakeholder meetings, and subsequent consultation forums from the FMEC project, this paper details the empirical basis for focusing on the role of basic science, the evidentiary foundations for current practices, and the implications for medical education. Despite a dearth of definitive relevant studies, opinions about how best to integrate the sciences remain strong. Resource allocation, political power, educational philosophy, and the shift from a knowledge-based to a problem-solving profession all influence the debate. There was little disagreement that both sciences are important, that many traditional models emphasized deep understanding of limited basic science disciplines at the expense of other relevant content such as social sciences, or that teaching the sciences contemporaneously rather than sequentially has theoretical and practical merit. Innovations in integrated curriculum design have occurred internationally. Less clear are the appropriate balance of the sciences, the best integration model, and solutions to the political and practical challenges of integrated curricula. New curricula tend to emphasize integration, development of more diverse physician competencies, and preparation of physicians to adapt to evolving technology and patients' expectations. Refocusing the basic/clinical dichotomy to a foundational

  13. The Slow Dynamics of Intracellular Sodium Concentration Increase the Time Window of Neuronal Integration: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i are rarely taken into account when neuronal activity is examined. As opposed to Ca2+, [Na+]i dynamics are strongly affected by longitudinal diffusion, and therefore they are governed by the morphological structure of the neurons, in addition to the localization of influx and efflux mechanisms. Here, we examined [Na+]i dynamics and their effects on neuronal computation in three multi-compartmental neuronal models, representing three distinct cell types: accessory olfactory bulb (AOB mitral cells, cortical layer V pyramidal cells, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. We added [Na+]i as a state variable to these models, and allowed it to modulate the Na+ Nernst potential, the Na+-K+ pump current, and the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger rate. Our results indicate that in most cases [Na+]i dynamics are significantly slower than [Ca2+]i dynamics, and thus may exert a prolonged influence on neuronal computation in a neuronal type specific manner. We show that [Na+]i dynamics affect neuronal activity via three main processes: reduction of EPSP amplitude in repeatedly active synapses due to reduction of the Na+ Nernst potential; activity-dependent hyperpolarization due to increased activity of the Na+-K+ pump; specific tagging of active synapses by extended Ca2+ elevation, intensified by concurrent back-propagating action potentials or complex spikes. Thus, we conclude that [Na+]i dynamics should be considered whenever synaptic plasticity, extensive synaptic input, or bursting activity are examined.

  14. HMC algorithm with multiple time scale integration and mass preconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, C.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.; Wenger, U.

    2006-01-01

    We present a variant of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning (Hasenbusch acceleration) and multiple time scale integration. We have tested this variant for standard Wilson fermions at β=5.6 and at pion masses ranging from 380 to 680 MeV. We show that in this situation its performance is comparable to the recently proposed HMC variant with domain decomposition as preconditioner. We give an update of the "Berlin Wall" figure, comparing the performance of our variant of the HMC algorithm to other published performance data. Advantages of the HMC algorithm with mass preconditioning and multiple time scale integration are that it is straightforward to implement and can be used in combination with a wide variety of lattice Dirac operators.

  15. Real-time hybrid simulation using the convolution integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Jig; Christenson, Richard E; Wojtkiewicz, Steven F; Johnson, Erik A

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time hybrid simulation method that will allow complex systems to be tested within the hybrid test framework by employing the convolution integral (CI) method. The proposed CI method is potentially transformative for real-time hybrid simulation. The CI method can allow real-time hybrid simulation to be conducted regardless of the size and complexity of the numerical model and for numerical stability to be ensured in the presence of high frequency responses in the simulation. This paper presents the general theory behind the proposed CI method and provides experimental verification of the proposed method by comparing the CI method to the current integration time-stepping (ITS) method. Real-time hybrid simulation is conducted in the Advanced Hazard Mitigation Laboratory at the University of Connecticut. A seismically excited two-story shear frame building with a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper is selected as the test structure to experimentally validate the proposed method. The building structure is numerically modeled and simulated, while the MR damper is physically tested. Real-time hybrid simulation using the proposed CI method is shown to provide accurate results

  16. Solving a bi-objective mathematical model for location-routing problem with time windows in multi-echelon reverse logistics using metaheuristic procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezavati, V. R.; Beigi, M.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade, the stringent pressures from environmental and social requirements have spurred an interest in designing a reverse logistics (RL) network. The success of a logistics system may depend on the decisions of the facilities locations and vehicle routings. The location-routing problem (LRP) simultaneously locates the facilities and designs the travel routes for vehicles among established facilities and existing demand points. In this paper, the location-routing problem with time window (LRPTW) and homogeneous fleet type and designing a multi-echelon, and capacitated reverse logistics network, are considered which may arise in many real-life situations in logistics management. Our proposed RL network consists of hybrid collection/inspection centers, recovery centers and disposal centers. Here, we present a new bi-objective mathematical programming (BOMP) for LRPTW in reverse logistic. Since this type of problem is NP-hard, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is proposed to obtain the Pareto frontier for the given problem. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm. Also, the present work is an effort to effectively implement the ɛ-constraint method in GAMS software for producing the Pareto-optimal solutions in a BOMP. The results of the proposed algorithm have been compared with the ɛ-constraint method. The computational results show that the ɛ-constraint method is able to solve small-size instances to optimality within reasonable computing times, and for medium-to-large-sized problems, the proposed NSGA-II works better than the ɛ-constraint.

  17. Best time window for the use of calcium-modulating agents to improve functional recovery in injured peripheral nerves-An experiment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuhui; Shen, Feng-Yi; Agresti, Michael; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Matloub, Hani S; LoGiudice, John A; Havlik, Robert; Li, Jifeng; Gu, Yu-Dong; Yan, Ji-Geng

    2017-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury can have a devastating effect on daily life. Calcium concentrations in nerve fibers drastically increase after nerve injury, and this activates downstream processes leading to neuron death. Our previous studies showed that calcium-modulating agents decrease calcium accumulation, which aids in regeneration of injured peripheral nerves; however, the optimal therapeutic window for this application has not yet been identified. In this study, we show that calcium clearance after nerve injury is positively correlated with functional recovery in rats suffering from a crushed sciatic nerve injury. After the nerve injury, calcium accumulation increased. Peak volume is from 2 to 8 weeks post injury; calcium accumulation then gradually decreased over the following 24-week period. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) measurement from the extensor digitorum longus muscle recovered to nearly normal levels in 24 weeks. Simultaneously, real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that upregulation of calcium-ATPase (a membrane protein that transports calcium out of nerve fibers) mRNA peaked at 12 weeks. These results suggest that without intervention, the peak in calcium-ATPase mRNA expression in the injured nerve occurs after the peak in calcium accumulation, and CMAP recovery continues beyond 24 weeks. Immediately using calcium-modulating agents after crushed nerve injury improved functional recovery. These studies suggest that a crucial time frame in which to initiate effective clinical approaches to accelerate calcium clearance and nerve regeneration would be prior to 2 weeks post injury. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. System Integration for Real-Time Mobile Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Oftadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile manipulators are one of the most complicated types of mechatronics systems. The performance of these robots in performing complex manipulation tasks is highly correlated with the synchronization and integration of their low-level components. This paper discusses in detail the mechatronics design of a four wheel steered mobile manipulator. It presents the manipulator's mechanical structure and electrical interfaces, designs low-level software architecture based on embedded PC-based controls, and proposes a systematic solution based on code generation products of MATLAB and Simulink. The remote development environment described here is used to develop real-time controller software and modules for the mobile manipulator under a POSIX-compliant, real-time Linux operating system. Our approach enables developers to reliably design controller modules that meet the hard real-time constraints of the entire low-level system architecture. Moreover, it provides a systematic framework for the development and integration of hardware devices with various communication mediums and protocols, which facilitates the development and integration process of the software controller.

  19. Adaptive time-stepping Monte Carlo integration of Coulomb collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkimäki, K.; Hirvijoki, E.; Terävä, J.

    2018-01-01

    We report an accessible and robust tool for evaluating the effects of Coulomb collisions on a test particle in a plasma that obeys Maxwell-Jüttner statistics. The implementation is based on the Beliaev-Budker collision integral which allows both the test particle and the background plasma to be relativistic. The integration method supports adaptive time stepping, which is shown to greatly improve the computational efficiency. The Monte Carlo method is implemented for both the three-dimensional particle momentum space and the five-dimensional guiding center phase space. Detailed description is provided for both the physics and implementation of the operator. The focus is in adaptive integration of stochastic differential equations, which is an overlooked aspect among existing Monte Carlo implementations of Coulomb collision operators. We verify that our operator converges to known analytical results and demonstrate that careless implementation of the adaptive time step can lead to severely erroneous results. The operator is provided as a self-contained Fortran 95 module and can be included into existing orbit-following tools that trace either the full Larmor motion or the guiding center dynamics. The adaptive time-stepping algorithm is expected to be useful in situations where the collision frequencies vary greatly over the course of a simulation. Examples include the slowing-down of fusion products or other fast ions, and the Dreicer generation of runaway electrons as well as the generation of fast ions or electrons with ion or electron cyclotron resonance heating.

  20. Evaluation of the filtered leapfrog-trapezoidal time integration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roache, P.J.; Dietrich, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation are presented for a new method of time integration for fluid dynamic proposed by Dietrich. The method, called the filtered leapfrog-trapezoidal (FLT) scheme, is analyzed for the one-dimensional constant-coefficient advection equation and is shown to have some advantages for quasi-steady flows. A modification (FLTW) using a weighted combination of FLT and leapfrog is developed which retains the advantages for steady flows, increases accuracy for time-dependent flows, and involves little coding effort. Merits and applicability are discussed

  1. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  2. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  3. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  4. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  5. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  6. Windows 8 tweaks

    CERN Document Server

    Sinchak, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Acres of Windows 8 tweaks from a Microsoft MVP and creator of Tweaks.com! From a Microsoft MVP, who is also the savvy creator of Tweaks.com, comes this ultimate collection of Windows 8 workarounds. Steve Sinchak takes you way beyond default system settings, deep under the hood of Windows 8, down to the hidden gems that let you customize your Windows 8 system like you wouldn't believe. From helping you customize the appearance to setting up home networking, sharing media, and squeezing every ounce of performance out of the OS, this book delivers. Get ready to rock and roll with Wind

  7. On Tuning PI Controllers for Integrating Plus Time Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some analytical results concerning PI controller tuning based on integrator plus time delay models are worked out and presented. A method for obtaining PI controller parameters, Kp=alpha/(k*tau, and, Ti=beta*tau, which ensures a given prescribed maximum time delay error, dtau_max, to time delay, tau, ratio parameter delta=dau_max/tau, is presented. The corner stone in this method, is a method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. Analytical relations between the PI controller parameters, Ti, and, Kp, and the time delay error parameter, delta, is presented, and we propose the setting, beta=c/a*(delta+1, and, alpha=a/(delta+1, which gives, Ti=c/a*(delta+1*tau, and Kp=a/((delta+1*k*tau, where the parameter, a, is constant in the method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. It also turns out that the integral time, Ti, is linear in, delta, and the proportional gain, Kp, inversely proportional to, delta+1. For the original Ziegler Nichols (ZN method this parameter is approximately, c=2.38, and the presented method may e.g., be used to obtain new modified ZN parameters with increased robustness margins, also documented in the paper.

  8. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  9. Plaque reduction over time of an integrated oral hygiene system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Martha E; Ruhlman, C Douglas; Mallatt, Philip R; Rodriguez, Sally M; Ortblad, Katherine M

    2004-10-01

    This article compares the efficacy of a prototype integrated system (the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest) in the reduction of supragingival plaque to that of a manual toothbrush and conventional toothpaste. The integrated system was compared to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in a randomized, single-blinded, parallel, 4-week, controlled clinical trial with 100 subjects randomized to each treatment group. There was a low dropout rate, with 89 subjects in the manual toothbrush group (11% loss to follow-up) and 93 subjects in the integrated system group (7% loss to follow-up) completing the study. The Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index was used to assess full-mouth plaque scores for each subject. Prebrushing plaque scores were obtained at baseline and at 4 weeks after 14 to 20 hours of plaque accumulation. A survey also was conducted at the conclusion of the study to determine the attitude toward the two oral hygiene systems. The integrated system was found to significantly reduce overall and interproximal prebrushing plaque scores over 4 weeks, both by 8.6%, demonstrating statistically significant superiority in overall plaque reduction (P = .002) and interproximal plaque reduction (P < .001) compared to the manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste, which showed no significant reduction in either overall plaque or interproximal plaque. This study demonstrates that the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest is superior to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in reducing overall plaque and interproximal plaque over time.

  10. Rigorous time slicing approach to Feynman path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    This book proves that Feynman's original definition of the path integral actually converges to the fundamental solution of the Schrödinger equation at least in the short term if the potential is differentiable sufficiently many times and its derivatives of order equal to or higher than two are bounded. The semi-classical asymptotic formula up to the second term of the fundamental solution is also proved by a method different from that of Birkhoff. A bound of the remainder term is also proved. The Feynman path integral is a method of quantization using the Lagrangian function, whereas Schrödinger's quantization uses the Hamiltonian function. These two methods are believed to be equivalent. But equivalence is not fully proved mathematically, because, compared with Schrödinger's method, there is still much to be done concerning rigorous mathematical treatment of Feynman's method. Feynman himself defined a path integral as the limit of a sequence of integrals over finite-dimensional spaces which is obtained by...

  11. Surface Transient Binding-Based Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (STB-FCS), a Simple and Easy-to-Implement Method to Extend the Upper Limit of the Time Window to Seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sijia; Wang, Wenjuan; Chen, Chunlai

    2018-05-10

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is a powerful single-molecule tool that is able to capture kinetic processes occurring at the nanosecond time scale. However, the upper limit of its time window is restricted by the dwell time of the molecule of interest in the confocal detection volume, which is usually around submilliseconds for a freely diffusing biomolecule. Here, we present a simple and easy-to-implement method, named surface transient binding-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STB-FCS), which extends the upper limit of the time window to seconds. We further demonstrated that STB-FCS enables capture of both intramolecular and intermolecular kinetic processes whose time scales cross several orders of magnitude.

  12. Selective post-training time window for memory consolidation interference of cannabidiol into the prefrontal cortex: Reduced dopaminergic modulation and immediate gene expression in limbic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignoli, Matheus Teixeira; Lopes-Aguiar, Cleiton; Ruggiero, Rafael Naime; Do Val da Silva, Raquel Araujo; Bueno-Junior, Lezio Soares; Kandratavicius, Ludmyla; Peixoto-Santos, José Eduardo; Crippa, José Alexandre; Cecilio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Szawka, Raphael Escorsim; Anselmo-Franci, Janete; Leite, João Pereira; Romcy-Pereira, Rodrigo Neves

    2017-05-14

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala and hippocampus display a coordinated activity during acquisition of associative fear memories. Evidence indicates that PFC engagement in aversive memory formation does not progress linearly as previously thought. Instead, it seems to be recruited at specific time windows after memory acquisition, which has implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid of the Cannabis sativa plant, is known to modulate contextual fear memory acquisition in rodents. However, it is still not clear how CBD interferes with PFC-dependent processes during post-training memory consolidation. Here, we tested whether intra-PFC infusions of CBD immediately after or 5h following contextual fear conditioning was able to interfere with memory consolidation. Neurochemical and cellular correlates of the CBD treatment were evaluated by the quantification of extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and their metabolites in the PFC and by measuring the cellular expression of activity-dependent transcription factors in cortical and limbic regions. Our results indicate that bilateral intra-PFC CBD infusion impaired contextual fear memory consolidation when applied 5h after conditioning, but had no effect when applied immediately after it. This effect was associated with a reduction in DA turnover in the PFC following retrieval 5days after training. We also observed that post-conditioning infusion of CBD reduced c-fos and zif-268 protein expression in the hippocampus, PFC, and thalamus. Our findings support that CBD interferes with contextual fear memory consolidation by reducing PFC influence on cortico-limbic circuits. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A stochastic time-dependent green capacitated vehicle routing and scheduling problem with time window, resiliency and reliability: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new multi-objective model for a vehicle routing problem under a stochastic uncertainty. It considers traffic point as an inflection point to deal with the arrival time of vehicles. It aims to minimize the total transportation cost, traffic pollution, customer dissatisfaction and maximizes the reliability of vehicles. Moreover, resiliency factors are included in the model to increase the flexibility of the system and decrease the possible losses that may impose on the system. Due to the NP-hardness of the presented model, a meta-heuristic algorithm, namely Simulated Annealing (SA is developed. Furthermore, a number of sensitivity analyses are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Lastly, the foregoing meta-heuristic is compared with GAMS, in which the computational results demonstrate an acceptable performance of the proposed SA.

  14. Integrated intensities in inverse time-of-flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    In traditional data analysis a model function, convoluted with the resolution, is fitted to the measured data. In case that integrated intensities of signals are of main interest, one can use an approach which does not require a model function for the signal nor detailed knowledge of the resolution. For inverse TOF technique, this approach consists of two steps: (i) Normalisation of the measured spectrum with the help of a monitor, with 1/k sensitivity, which is positioned in front of the sample. This means at the same time a conversion of the data from time of flight to energy transfer. (ii) A Jacobian [I. Waller, P.O. Froeman, Ark. Phys. 4 (1952) 183] transforms data collected at constant scattering angle into data as if measured at constant momentum transfer Q. This Jacobian works correctly for signals which have a constant width at different Q along the trajectory of constant scattering angle. The approach has been tested on spectra of Compton scattering with neutrons, having epithermal energies, obtained on the inverse TOF spectrometer VESUVIO/ISIS. In this case the width of the signal is increasing proportional to Q and in consequence the application of the Jacobian leads to integrated intensities slightly too high. The resulting integrated intensities agree very well with results derived in the traditional way. Thus this completely different approach confirms the observation that signals from recoil by H-atoms at large momentum transfers are weaker than expected

  15. RODOS and RESY: two integrated real time on-line decision support systems for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Fischer, F.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Schuele, O.; Benz, G.; Rafat, M.

    1993-01-01

    Based on the experience gained with the development of the German real-time system RESY for near range and early phase decision support KfK has developed the hardware and software framework of RODOS, the EC real-time on-line decision support system for nuclear emergencies. The first prototype version of RODOS incorporates models for atmospheric dispersion, for external and internal dose and dose-rate assessments, for simulating sheltering, evacuation and milk interdiction, for estimating health effects and economic costs, and for evaluating action alternatives by means of a rule based system containing components of multi-attribute value techniques. The specially designed operating system has been developed on the basis of the client-server model as a transportable package to run on workstations with a standard based UNIX operating system, and an X-Window system. One of its key features is the support of integrated external software products developed by the contractors by providing standardized services, such as system control, data management and graphical presentation. A data base of geographical structures (e.g. landscape, buildings, traffic network) with an accuracy of 30 m stored as vector data and population distribution stored in a 1 kmx1 km grid allows the presentation and evaluation of results down to a high local resolution by a special graphics subsystem. (orig./DG)

  16. Hybrid state-space time integration of rotating beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    An efficient time integration algorithm for the dynamic equations of flexible beams in a rotating frame of reference is presented. The equations of motion are formulated in a hybrid state-space format in terms of local displacements and local components of the absolute velocity. With inspiration...... of the system rotation enter via global operations with the angular velocity vector. The algorithm is based on an integrated form of the equations of motion with energy and momentum conserving properties, if a kinematically consistent non-linear formulation is used. A consistent monotonic scheme for algorithmic...... energy dissipation in terms of local displacements and velocities, typical of structural vibrations, is developed and implemented in the form of forward weighting of appropriate mean value terms in the algorithm. The algorithm is implemented for a beam theory with consistent quadratic non...

  17. Vehicle speed prediction via a sliding-window time series analysis and an evolutionary least learning machine: A case study on San Francisco urban roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Mozaffari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current study is to take advantage of advanced numerical and intelligent tools to predict the speed of a vehicle using time series. It is clear that the uncertainty caused by temporal behavior of the driver as well as various external disturbances on the road will affect the vehicle speed, and thus, the vehicle power demands. The prediction of upcoming power demands can be employed by the vehicle powertrain control systems to improve significantly the fuel economy and emission performance. Therefore, it is important to systems design engineers and automotive industrialists to develop efficient numerical tools to overcome the risk of unpredictability associated with the vehicle speed profile on roads. In this study, the authors propose an intelligent tool called evolutionary least learning machine (E-LLM to forecast the vehicle speed sequence. To have a practical evaluation regarding the efficacy of E-LLM, the authors use the driving data collected on the San Francisco urban roads by a private Honda Insight vehicle. The concept of sliding window time series (SWTS analysis is used to prepare the database for the speed forecasting process. To evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, a number of well-known approaches, such as auto regressive (AR method, back-propagation neural network (BPNN, evolutionary extreme learning machine (E-ELM, extreme learning machine (ELM, and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, are considered. The performances of the rival methods are then compared in terms of the mean square error (MSE, root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, median absolute percentage error (MDAPE, and absolute fraction of variances (R2 metrics. Through an exhaustive comparative study, the authors observed that E-LLM is a powerful tool for predicting the vehicle speed profiles. The outcomes of the current study can be of use for the engineers of automotive industry who have been

  18. Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Kelly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached by focusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kind of substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time. The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “ever-living present.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductory matter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternal recurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is a treatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations in the n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have done away with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives as eternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of the nature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notion of holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory. I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence of actual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in his reflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentially more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in the last section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin, as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’s inspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretation leads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of its reconciliation

  19. Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Kelly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached byfocusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kindof substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time.The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “everlivingpresent.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complexholistic”theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductorymatter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternalrecurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is atreatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations inthe n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have doneaway with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives aseternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of thenature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notionof holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory.I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence ofactual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in hisreflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentiallymore integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in thelast section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin,as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’sinspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretationleads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of itsreconciliation with the once-only view

  20. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  1. FLRW cosmology in Weyl-integrable space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannouji, Radouane [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1–3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Nandan, Hemwati [Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidayalaya, Haridwar 249404 (India); Dadhich, Naresh, E-mail: gannouji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: hntheory@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: nkd@iucaa.ernet.in [IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the Weyl space-time extension of general relativity (GR) for studying the FLRW cosmology through focusing and defocusing of the geodesic congruences. We have derived the equations of evolution for expansion, shear and rotation in the Weyl space-time. In particular, we consider the Starobinsky modification, f(R) = R+βR{sup 2}−2Λ, of gravity in the Einstein-Palatini formalism, which turns out to reduce to the Weyl integrable space-time (WIST) with the Weyl vector being a gradient. The modified Raychaudhuri equation takes the form of the Hill-type equation which is then analysed to study the formation of the caustics. In this model, it is possible to have a Big Bang singularity free cyclic Universe but unfortunately the periodicity turns out to be extremely short.

  2. Integrated project scheduling and staff assignment with controllable processing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Viagas, Victor; Framinan, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  3. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernandez-Viagas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  4. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  5. Time step rescaling recovers continuous-time dynamical properties for discrete-time Langevin integration of nonequilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David A; Chodera, John D; Crooks, Gavin E

    2014-06-19

    When simulating molecular systems using deterministic equations of motion (e.g., Newtonian dynamics), such equations are generally numerically integrated according to a well-developed set of algorithms that share commonly agreed-upon desirable properties. However, for stochastic equations of motion (e.g., Langevin dynamics), there is still broad disagreement over which integration algorithms are most appropriate. While multiple desiderata have been proposed throughout the literature, consensus on which criteria are important is absent, and no published integration scheme satisfies all desiderata simultaneously. Additional nontrivial complications stem from simulating systems driven out of equilibrium using existing stochastic integration schemes in conjunction with recently developed nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Here, we examine a family of discrete time integration schemes for Langevin dynamics, assessing how each member satisfies a variety of desiderata that have been enumerated in prior efforts to construct suitable Langevin integrators. We show that the incorporation of a novel time step rescaling in the deterministic updates of position and velocity can correct a number of dynamical defects in these integrators. Finally, we identify a particular splitting (related to the velocity Verlet discretization) that has essentially universally appropriate properties for the simulation of Langevin dynamics for molecular systems in equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and path sampling contexts.

  6. To arrange the window - the creation of an integrated local view on information diversity / Das Fenster zur Information gestalten - die Schaffung einer integrierten lokalen Sicht auf die Vielfalt von Informationsressourcen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunnenmacher, Lothar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The way our patrons search and use information resources has already changed substantially, but the shift to new technologies is not yet completed. Currently new information is mostly coming via "the screen", at least in the STM disciplines (science, technology, medicine. The challenge for libraries nowadays is, to arrange the window towards the bulk of available information according to the needs of different users. Several measures of integration are needed to achieve this aim: * Instead of supplying the information physically, we now have to provide quick access to different information systems, as far as possible integrated, and to enhance these systems with local enrichments (e.g. availability, local views or filters. * Beyond journal articles and books we have to integrate other media like photos, videos, or even scientific data. Moreover, the scientific and scholarly information is going to change the media format from paper to electronics, which we should take into consideration in our efforts. * We have to appreciate that library services are just a small contribution to the whole environment of learning, teaching or research at university. People should be served according to their needs with all resources in an integrated way instead of splitting them up into small partitions based on organisational units. To arrange the window means to integrate the necessary resources in a way that as much information as possible is included, but guidance and filtering tools avoid information overload. Based on a model to group information hierarchically a draft for an integrated “Search Centre” is presented.

  7. The sonic window: second generation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William F.; Fuller, Michael I.; Brush, Edward V.; Eames, Matthew D. C.; Owen, Kevin; Ranganathan, Karthik; Blalock, Travis N.; Hossack, John A.

    2006-03-01

    Medical Ultrasound Imaging is widely used clinically because of its relatively low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiation, and real-time nature. However, even with these advantages ultrasound has failed to permeate the broad array of clinical applications where its use could be of value. A prime example of this untapped potential is the routine use of ultrasound to guide intravenous access. In this particular application existing systems lack the required portability, low cost, and ease-of-use required for widespread acceptance. Our team has been working for a number of years to develop an extremely low-cost, pocket-sized, and intuitive ultrasound imaging system that we refer to as the "Sonic Window." We have previously described the first generation Sonic Window prototype that was a bench-top device using a 1024 element, fully populated array operating at a center frequency of 3.3 MHz. Through a high degree of custom front-end integration combined with multiplexing down to a 2 channel PC based digitizer this system acquired a full set of RF data over a course of 512 transmit events. While initial results were encouraging, this system exhibited limitations resulting from low SNR, relatively coarse array sampling, and relatively slow data acquisition. We have recently begun assembling a second-generation Sonic Window system. This system uses a 3600 element fully sampled array operating at 5.0 MHz with a 300 micron element pitch. This system extends the integration of the first generation system to include front-end protection, pre-amplification, a programmable bandpass filter, four sample and holds, and four A/D converters for all 3600 channels in a set of custom integrated circuits with a combined area smaller than the 1.8 x 1.8 cm footprint of the transducer array. We present initial results from this front-end and present benchmark results from a software beamformer implemented on the Analog Devices BF-561 DSP. We discuss our immediate plans for further

  8. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2014-12-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method\\'s efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  9. Noether symmetries and integrability in time-dependent Hamiltonian mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Božidar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider Noether symmetries within Hamiltonian setting as transformations that preserve Poincaré-Cartan form, i.e., as symmetries of characteristic line bundles of nondegenerate 1-forms. In the case when the Poincaré-Cartan form is contact, the explicit expression for the symmetries in the inverse Noether theorem is given. As examples, we consider natural mechanical systems, in particular the Kepler problem. Finally, we prove a variant of the theorem on complete (non-commutative integrability in terms of Noether symmetries of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems.

  10. Integral ceramic superstructure evaluation using time domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Bradu, Adrian; Topala, Florin I.; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive low coherence interferometry technique that includes several technologies (and the corresponding devices and components), such as illumination and detection, interferometry, scanning, adaptive optics, microscopy and endoscopy. From its large area of applications, we consider in this paper a critical aspect in dentistry - to be investigated with a Time Domain (TD) OCT system. The clinical situation of an edentulous mandible is considered; it can be solved by inserting 2 to 6 implants. On these implants a mesostructure will be manufactured and on it a superstructure is needed. This superstructure can be integral ceramic; in this case materials defects could be trapped inside the ceramic layers and those defects could lead to fractures of the entire superstructure. In this paper we demonstrate that a TD-OCT imaging system has the potential to properly evaluate the presence of the defects inside the ceramic layers and those defects can be fixed before inserting the prosthesis inside the oral cavity. Three integral ceramic superstructures were developed by using a CAD/CAM technology. After the milling, the ceramic layers were applied on the core. All the three samples were evaluated by a TD-OCT system working at 1300 nm. For two of the superstructures evaluated, no defects were found in the most stressed areas. The third superstructure presented four ceramic defects in the mentioned areas. Because of those defects the superstructure may fracture. The integral ceramic prosthesis was send back to the dental laboratory to fix the problems related to the material defects found. Thus, TD-OCT proved to be a valuable method for diagnosing the ceramic defects inside the integral ceramic superstructures in order to prevent fractures at this level.

  11. Electric vehicle integration in a real-time market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro

    with an externally simulated model of the power grid, it is be possible, in real-time, to simulate the impact of EV charging and help to identify bottlenecks in the system. In EDISON the vehicles are aggregated using an entity called a Virtual Power Plant (VPP); a central server monitoring and controlling...... the distributed energy resources registered with it, in order to make them appear as a single producer in the eyes of the market. Although the concept of a VPP is used within the EcoGrid EU project, the idea of more individual control is introduced through a new proposed real-time electricity market, where......This project is rooted in the EDISON project, which dealt with Electrical Vehicle (EV) integration into the existing power grid, as well as with the infrastructure needed to facilitate the ever increasing penetration of fluctuating renewable energy resources like e.g. wind turbines. In the EDISON...

  12. An integrated framework for SAGD real-time monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohajer, M.; Perez-Damas, C.; Berbin, A.; Al-kinani, A. [Schlumberger, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the technologies and workflows for real-time optimization (RTO) of the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. Although SAGD operators have tried to control the reservoir's steam chamber distribution to optimize bitumen recovery and minimize steam oil ratios, a true optimization can only be accomplished by implementing RTO workflows. In order for these workflows to be successful, some elements must be properly designed and introduced into the system. Most notably, well completions must ensure the integrity of downhole sensors; the appropriate measuring instruments must be selected; and surface and downhole measurements must be obtained. Operators have not been early adopters of RTO workflows for SAGD because of the numerous parameters that must be monitored, harsh operating conditions, the lack of integration between the different data acquisition systems, and the complex criteria required to optimize SAGD performance. This paper discussed the first stage in the development of a fully integrated RTO workflow for SAGD. An experimental apparatus with fiber optics distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was connected to a data acquisition system, and intra-minute data was streamed directly into an engineering desktop. The paper showed how subcool calculations can be effectively performed along the length of the horizontal well in real time and the results used to improve SAGD operation. Observations were compared against simulated predictions. In the next stage, a more complex set of criteria will be derived and additional data will be incorporated, such as surface heave, cross-well microseismic, multiphase flowmeter, and observation wells. 9 refs., 9 tabs., 13 figs.

  13. Integrative real-time geographic visualization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokine, A.; Shankar, M.; Stovall, J.; Bhaduri, B.; King, T.; Fernandez, S.; Datar, N.; Omitaomu, O.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Several models forecast that climatic changes will increase the frequency of disastrous events like droughts, hurricanes, and snow storms. Responding to these events and also to power outages caused by system errors such as the 2003 North American blackout require an interconnect-wide real-time monitoring system for various energy resources. Such a system should be capable of providing situational awareness to its users in the government and energy utilities by dynamically visualizing the status of the elements of the energy grid infrastructure and supply chain in geographic contexts. We demonstrate an approach that relies on Google Earth and similar standard-based platforms as client-side geographic viewers with a data-dependent server component. The users of the system can view status information in spatial and temporal contexts. These data can be integrated with a wide range of geographic sources including all standard Google Earth layers and a large number of energy and environmental data feeds. In addition, we show a real-time spatio-temporal data sharing capability across the users of the system, novel methods for visualizing dynamic network data, and a fine-grain access to very large multi-resolution geographic datasets for faster delivery of the data. The system can be extended to integrate contingency analysis results and other grid models to assess recovery and repair scenarios in the case of major disruption. (author)

  14. The research of optical windows used in aircraft sensor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Feng; Li Yan; Tang Tian-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The optical windows used in aircrafts protect their imaging sensors from environmental effects. Considering the imaging performance, flat surfaces are traditionally used in the design of optical windows. For aircrafts operating at high speeds, the optical windows should be relatively aerodynamic, but a flat optical window may introduce unacceptably high drag to the airframes. The linear scanning infrared sensors used in aircrafts with, respectively, a flat window, a spherical window and a toric window in front of the aircraft sensors are designed and compared. Simulation results show that the optical design using a toric surface has the integrated advantages of field of regard, aerodynamic drag, narcissus effect, and imaging performance, so the optical window with a toric surface is demonstrated to be suited for this application. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  16. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  17. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  18. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  19. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  20. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  1. Diamond window and its application to ITER gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, K.

    1999-01-01

    On the background of having to reduce the overall cost for ITER to 50% it is proposed to replace conventional glass windows on gyrotrons by diamonds. The successful production and testing of such diamond windows is reported. A diamond window can transmit 5 times more power than usual double disk transmission windows while only costing 3 times as much. As a tradeoff, the gyrotrons could be replaced by more powerful ones and one would need fewer of them

  2. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  3. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  4. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  5. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E

    2013-11-05

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices.

  6. The plant-window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the U.S. nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  7. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  8. Integrating Real-time Earthquakes into Natural Hazard Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H. M.; Whitlock, J. S.; Bittenbinder, A. N.; Bogaert, B. B.

    2001-12-01

    Natural hazard courses are playing an increasingly important role in college and university earth science curricula. Students' intrinsic curiosity about the subject and the potential to make the course relevant to the interests of both science and non-science students make natural hazards courses popular additions to a department's offerings. However, one vital aspect of "real-life" natural hazard management that has not translated well into the classroom is the real-time nature of both events and response. The lack of a way to entrain students into the event/response mode has made implementing such real-time activities into classroom activities problematic. Although a variety of web sites provide near real-time postings of natural hazards, students essentially learn of the event after the fact. This is particularly true for earthquakes and other events with few precursors. As a result, the "time factor" and personal responsibility associated with natural hazard response is lost to the students. We have integrated the real-time aspects of earthquake response into two natural hazard courses at Penn State (a 'general education' course for non-science majors, and an upper-level course for science majors) by implementing a modification of the USGS Earthworm system. The Earthworm Database Management System (E-DBMS) catalogs current global seismic activity. It provides earthquake professionals with real-time email/cell phone alerts of global seismic activity and access to the data for review/revision purposes. We have modified this system so that real-time response can be used to address specific scientific, policy, and social questions in our classes. As a prototype of using the E-DBMS in courses, we have established an Earthworm server at Penn State. This server receives national and global seismic network data and, in turn, transmits the tailored alerts to "on-duty" students (e-mail, pager/cell phone notification). These students are responsible to react to the alarm

  9. Translational nanomedicine--through the therapeutic window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic effect, a second definition of the therapeutic window refers to the often narrow temporal window in which a therapeutic effect can be obtained. Expanding the second definition to explicitly include the spatial dimension, this article explores aspects of the therapeutic spaces created by nanomedicine that shift the traditional dimensions of symptom, sign and pathology. This article analyzes three aspects of the therapeutic window in nanomedicine - temporal, spatial and manner of construction and their impact on the dimensions of modern medicine.

  10. Mastering Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A complete, winning approach to the number one small business solution. Do you have 75 or fewer users or devices on your small-business network? Find out how to integrate everything you need for your mini-enterprise with Microsoft's new Windows Server 2008 Small Business Server, a custom collection of server and management technologies designed to help small operations run smoothly without a giant IT department. This comprehensive guide shows you how to master all SBS components as well as handle integration with other Microsoft technologies.: Focuses on Windows Server 2008 Small Business Serv

  11. Parareal algorithms with local time-integrators for time fractional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Lin; Zhou, Tao

    2018-04-01

    It is challenge work to design parareal algorithms for time-fractional differential equations due to the historical effect of the fractional operator. A direct extension of the classical parareal method to such equations will lead to unbalance computational time in each process. In this work, we present an efficient parareal iteration scheme to overcome this issue, by adopting two recently developed local time-integrators for time fractional operators. In both approaches, one introduces auxiliary variables to localized the fractional operator. To this end, we propose a new strategy to perform the coarse grid correction so that the auxiliary variables and the solution variable are corrected separately in a mixed pattern. It is shown that the proposed parareal algorithm admits robust rate of convergence. Numerical examples are presented to support our conclusions.

  12. High performance sapphire windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-02-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  13. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  14. Smart BIT/TSMD Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    integracion . Smart BIT/TSMD provides Rome Laboratory with a laboratory testbed to evaluate and assess the individual characteristics as well as the integration...that assessment. These windows are color-keyed to tie together multiple windows for the same Smart BIT techniques. The display of the neural net- work... Multiple accelerometer icons of any type may therefore be placed (non-overlapping) in the accelerometer Time Line region. The BIT Time Line Editor allows

  15. Nano-materials Enabled Thermoelectricity from Window Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Inayat, Salman Bin

    2012-11-13

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m2 window at a 206C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology.

  16. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  17. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  18. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  19. Impact of three window configurations on daylight conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau; Traberg-Borup, Steen

    The report describes the results of a pilot study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. As a tool for the analyses the Radiance Lighting Simulating System was used to simulate one room with three different window configurations, a vertical window, a dormer window......, and a roof window. The simulations were performed for overcast sky conditions and under one sunny sky, for two different times of the day. The study shows that the window configuration affects the daylight conditions (distribution and intensity) significantly. The roof window results in a higher (average......) daylight factor on a horizontal plane, i.e. more than twice as high compared with the vertical window, and more than triple as high compared with the dormer window....

  20. Timing sensory integration for robot simulation of autistic behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barakova, E.I.; Chonnaparamutt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The experiments in this paper show that the impact of temporal aspects of sensory integration on the precision of movement is concordant with behavioral studies of sensory integrative dysfunction and autism. Specifically, the simulation predicts that distant grasping will be performed properly by

  1. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Ryan Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-05-31

    This report describes the development and application of a dispatch optimization algorithm for integrated energy systems (IES) comprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, energy storage devices, and demand response opportunities. This work is intended to aid commercial and industrial sites in making use of modern computing power and optimization algorithms to make informed, near-optimal decisions under significant uncertainty and complex objective functions. The optimization algorithm uses a finite set of randomly generated future scenarios to approximate the true, stochastic future; constraints are included that prevent solutions to this approximate problem from deviating from solutions to the actual problem. The algorithm is then expressed as a mixed integer linear program, to which a powerful commercial solver is applied. A case study of United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) in four cities and under three different electricity tariff structures is conducted to (1) determine the added value of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current, heuristic control strategies; (2) determine the value of limited electric load curtailment opportunities, with and without cogeneration; and (3) determine the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon operations of a cogeneration system. Key results for the P&DC sites studied include (1) in locations where the average electricity and natural gas prices suggest a marginally profitable cogeneration system, optimal control can add up to 67% to the value of the cogeneration system; optimal control adds less value in locations where cogeneration is more clearly profitable; (2) optimal control under real-time pricing is (a) more complicated than under typical time-of-use tariffs and (b) at times necessary to make cogeneration economic at all; (3) limited electric load curtailment opportunities can be more valuable as a compliment to the cogeneration system than alone; and

  2. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  3. Windows and lighting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Recent advances in marching-on-in-time schemes for solving time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are constructed by setting the summation of the incident and scattered field intensities to the total field intensity on the volumetric support of the scatterer. The unknown can be the field intensity or flux/current density. Representing the total field intensity in terms of the unknown using the relevant constitutive relation and the scattered field intensity in terms of the spatiotemporal convolution of the unknown with the Green function yield the final form of the TDVIE. The unknown is expanded in terms of local spatial and temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDVIE and testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved by the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. At each time step, a smaller system of equations, termed MOT system is solved for the coefficients of the expansion. The right-hand side of this system consists of the tested incident field and discretized spatio-temporal convolution of the unknown samples computed at the previous time steps with the Green function.

  5. Recent advances in marching-on-in-time schemes for solving time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-05-16

    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are constructed by setting the summation of the incident and scattered field intensities to the total field intensity on the volumetric support of the scatterer. The unknown can be the field intensity or flux/current density. Representing the total field intensity in terms of the unknown using the relevant constitutive relation and the scattered field intensity in terms of the spatiotemporal convolution of the unknown with the Green function yield the final form of the TDVIE. The unknown is expanded in terms of local spatial and temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDVIE and testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved by the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. At each time step, a smaller system of equations, termed MOT system is solved for the coefficients of the expansion. The right-hand side of this system consists of the tested incident field and discretized spatio-temporal convolution of the unknown samples computed at the previous time steps with the Green function.

  6. Translational nanomedicine : Through the therapeutic window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic

  7. Performance of the Analog Moving Window Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, V. Gregers

    1970-01-01

    A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning...

  8. Proposal of a uniform fiber Bragg grating as an ultrafast all-optical integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaña, José

    2008-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) working in the linear regime inherently behaves as an optical temporal integrator over a limited time window. Specifically, the reflected temporal waveform from a weak-coupling uniform FBG is proportional to the time integral of an (arbitrary) optical pulse launched at the component input. This integration extends over a time window fixed by the duration of the squarelike temporal impulse response of the FBG. Ultrafast all-optical integrators capable of accurate operation over nanosecond time windows can be implemented using readily feasible FBGs. The introduced concepts are demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  9. High-power RF window and coupler development for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Fant, K.; Hodgson, J.; Judkins, J.; Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and testing of the RF windows designed to transmit power to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. Design choices to maximize the reliability of the window are discussed. Fabrication technologies for the window are described and finite-element analysis of the assembly process is presented. Conditioning and high-power testing of the window are discussed. Design of the coupler assembly including the integration of the window and other components is reported

  10. Lower HVAC Costs | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  11. Increased Light & View | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  12. Condensation Resistance (CR) | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. Fact Sheets & Publications | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. State Fact Sheets | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. State Code Guides | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  16. Low Conductance Spacers | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  17. National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  18. Energy & Cost Savings | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  19. Provide Natural Light | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. Provide Fresh Air | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  1. Air Leakage (AL) | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  2. Next generation smart window display using transparent organic display and light blocking screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyeong Woo; Lampande, Raju; Choe, Dong Cheol; Ko, Ik Jang; Park, Jin Hwan; Pode, Ramchandra; Kwon, Jang Hyuk

    2018-04-02

    Transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLED) have widespread applications in the next-generation display devices particularly in the large size transparent window and interactive displays. Herein, we report high performance and stable attractive smart window displays using facile process. Advanced smart window display is realized by integrating the high performance light blocking screen and highly transparent white OLED panel. The full smart window display reveals a maximum transmittance as high as 64.2% at the wavelength of 600 nm and extremely good along with tunable ambient contrast ratio (171.94:1) compared to that of normal TOLED (4.54:1). Furthermore, the performance decisive light blocking screen has demonstrated an excellent optical and electrical characteristics such as i) high transmittance (85.56% at 562nm) at light-penetrating state, ii) superior absorbance (2.30 at 562nm) in light interrupting mode, iii) high optical contrast (85.50 at 562 nm), iv) high optical stability for more than 25,000 cycle of driving, v) fast switching time of 1.9 sec, and vi) low driving voltage of 1.7 V. The experimental results of smart window display are also validated using optical simulation. The proposed smart window display technology allows us to adjust the intensity of daylight entering the system quickly and conveniently.

  3. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  4. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements integrated timing system SSDR 1.5.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedwald, J.; Van Aersau, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Integrated Timing System, WBS 1.5.3 which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). The Integrated Timing System provides all temporally-critical hardware triggers to components and equipment in other NIF systems

  5. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  6. On the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perols, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Kortmann, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent operations management and innovation management research emphasizes the importance of supplier integration. However, the empirical results as to the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market are ambivalent. To understand this important relationship, we incorporate two major

  7. A discontinous Galerkin finite element method with an efficient time integration scheme for accurate simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Meilin; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly-accurate time integration scheme is presented. The scheme achieves its high accuracy using numerically constructed predictor-corrector integration coefficients. Numerical results

  8. Fully Integrated SAW-Less Discrete-Time Superheterodyne Receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madadi, I.

    2015-01-01

    There are nowadays strong business and technical demands to integrate radio- frequency (RF) receivers (RX) into a complete system-on-chip (SoC) realized in scaled digital processes technology. As a consequence, the RF circuitry has to function well in face of reduced power supply ( V DD ) while the

  9. Editorial - Opening windows onto data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of Internet Archaeology's strengths and 'unique selling points' not yet replicated by (many other e-journals, is that data is integrated into articles rather than being 'supplementary' or offered for download. The aim has always been for the narrative to be a wave driving readers towards the underlying data. Opening windows onto the data from within the text is one of the things I think the journal does best and is a feature used throughout Emma Durham's article 'Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain'. Archaeological data does not speak for itself. It needs a narrative. It needs context. But by intermeshing data with interpretation, readers can dip into the data and start to explore it while reading the article, allowing a more immediate understanding of the bigger picture.

  10. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  11. Time integration in the code Zgoubi and external usage of PTC's structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, Etienne; Meot, F.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this note is to describe Zgoubi's integrator and to describe some pitfalls for time based integration when used in accelerators. We show why the convergence rate of an integrator can be affected by an improper treatment at the boundary when time is used as the integration variable. We also point out how the code PTC can be used as a container by other tracking engine. This work is not completed as far as incorporation of Zgoubi is concerned. (authors)

  12. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... be expressed as a function of two parameters representing the energy performance and two parameters representing the geometry of the window. The two energy performance parameters are the net energy gain per area of the glazing unit and the sum of the heat losses through the frame and the assembly per length...... of the frame. The two geometry numbers are the area of the glazing unit relative to the window area and the length of the frame profiles relative to the window area. Requirements and classes for the energy performance of the window can be given by assigning values to the two energy performance parameters...

  13. USB Storage Device Forensics for Windows 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ayesha; Iqbal, Waseem; Abbas, Haider

    2018-05-01

    Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device. These sets are analyzed to gather evidentiary information from Registry and Windows Event log that helps in tracking a USB device. This research furthers the prior research on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows and compares it with latest Windows 10 system. Comparison of Windows 8 and Windows 10 does not show much difference except for new subkey under USB Key in registry. However, comparison of Windows 7 with latest version indicates significant variances. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. On the initial condition problem of the time domain PMCHWT surface integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes; Bagci, Hakan; Ergin, A. Arif; Ulku, H. Arda

    2017-01-01

    Non-physical, linearly increasing and constant current components are induced in marching on-in-time solution of time domain surface integral equations when initial conditions on time derivatives of (unknown) equivalent currents are not enforced

  15. Multigrid time-accurate integration of Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Andrea; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1993-01-01

    Efficient acceleration techniques typical of explicit steady-state solvers are extended to time-accurate calculations. Stability restrictions are greatly reduced by means of a fully implicit time discretization. A four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with local time stepping, residual smoothing, and multigridding is used instead of traditional time-expensive factorizations. Some applications to natural and forced unsteady viscous flows show the capability of the procedure.

  16. System Integration for Real-time Mobile Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Oftadeh, Reza; Aref, Mohammad M.; Ghabcheloo, Reza; Mattila, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Mobile manipulators are one of the most complicated types of mechatronics systems. The performance of these robots in performing complex manipulation tasks is highly correlated with the synchronization and integration of their low-level components. This paper discusses in detail the mechatronics design of a four wheel steered mobile manipulator. It presents the manipulator ’s mechanical structure and electrical interfaces, designs low-level software architecture based on embedded PC-based con...

  17. Knowledge Representation and Management, It's Time to Integrate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhombres, F; Charlet, J

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To select, present, and summarize the best papers published in 2016 in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). Methods: A comprehensive and standardized review of the medical informatics literature was performed based on a PubMed query. Results: Among the 1,421 retrieved papers, the review process resulted in the selection of four best papers focused on the integration of heterogeneous data via the development and the alignment of terminological resources. In the first article, the authors provide a curated and standardized version of the publicly available US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Such a resource will improve the quality of the underlying data, and enable standardized analyses using common vocabularies. The second article describes a project developed in order to facilitate heterogeneous data integration in the i2b2 framework. The originality is to allow users integrate the data described in different terminologies and to build a new repository, with a unique model able to support the representation of the various data. The third paper is dedicated to model the association between multiple phenotypic traits described within the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) and the corresponding genotype in the specific context of rare diseases (rare variants). Finally, the fourth paper presents solutions to annotation-ontology mapping in genome-scale data. Of particular interest in this work is the Experimental Factor Ontology (EFO) and its generic association model, the Ontology of Biomedical AssociatioN (OBAN). Conclusion: Ontologies have started to show their efficiency to integrate medical data for various tasks in medical informatics: electronic health records data management, clinical research, and knowledge-based systems development. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  18. Nano-Micro Materials Enabled Thermoelectricity From Window Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Inayat, Salman Bin

    2012-01-01

    of individual glass strips to form the thickness depth of the glass on subsequent curing of the strips, and c) embedding nano-manufactured thermoelectric pillars, have been implemented for innovative integration of thermoelectric materials into window glasses

  19. A discontinous Galerkin finite element method with an efficient time integration scheme for accurate simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Meilin

    2011-07-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly-accurate time integration scheme is presented. The scheme achieves its high accuracy using numerically constructed predictor-corrector integration coefficients. Numerical results show that this new time integration scheme uses considerably larger time steps than the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method when combined with a DG-FEM using higher-order spatial discretization/basis functions for high accuracy. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  1. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  2. Photonic integrated circuit as a picosecond pulse timing discriminator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Arthur James; Zhuang, Leimeng

    2016-04-18

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a compact on-chip optical pulse timing discriminator that is able to provide an output voltage proportional to the relative timing of two 60-ps input pulses on separate paths. The output voltage is intrinsically low-pass-filtered, so the discriminator forms an interface between high-speed optics and low-speed electronics. Potential applications include timing synchronization of multiple pulse trains as a precursor for optical time-division multiplexing, and compact rangefinders with millimeter dimensions.

  3. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  4. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  5. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  6. The quantum state vector in phase space and Gabor's windowed Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, A J; Watson, P

    2010-01-01

    Representations of quantum state vectors by complex phase space amplitudes, complementing the description of the density operator by the Wigner function, have been defined by applying the Weyl-Wigner transform to dyadic operators, linear in the state vector and anti-linear in a fixed 'window state vector'. Here aspects of this construction are explored, and a connection is established with Gabor's 'windowed Fourier transform'. The amplitudes that arise for simple quantum states from various choices of windows are presented as illustrations. Generalized Bargmann representations of the state vector appear as special cases, associated with Gaussian windows. For every choice of window, amplitudes lie in a corresponding linear subspace of square-integrable functions on phase space. A generalized Born interpretation of amplitudes is described, with both the Wigner function and a generalized Husimi function appearing as quantities linear in an amplitude and anti-linear in its complex conjugate. Schroedinger's time-dependent and time-independent equations are represented on phase space amplitudes, and their solutions described in simple cases.

  7. Exploiting deterministic maintenance opportunity windows created by conservative engineering design rules that result in free time locked into large high-speed coupled production lines with finite buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durandt, Casper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservative engineering design rules for large serial coupled production processes result in machines having locked-in free time (also called ‘critical downtime’ or ‘maintenance opportunity windows’, which cause idle time if not used. Operators are not able to assess a large production process holistically, and so may not be aware that they form the current bottleneck – or that they have free time available due to interruptions elsewhere. A real-time method is developed to accurately calculate and display free time in location and magnitude, and efficiency improvements are demonstrated in large-scale production runs.

  8. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    The handbook on windows and energy is a general description of windows with the main focus put on the energy performance. Common window products are described by commonly used nomenclature, description of frame and sash conctructions and description of commonly used glazing types.The energy...... transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...

  9. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... resulted in a window with a positive net energy gain (in short the Net Gain Window), which means that it contributes to the space heating of the building. All improvements are based on existing technology and manufacturing methods. The results from this work show that the energy performances of windows can...

  10. Explicit solution of Calderon preconditioned time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    operators and a PE(CE)m type linear multistep to march on in time. Unlike its implicit counterpart, the proposed explicit solver requires the solution of an MOT system with a Gram matrix that is sparse and well-conditioned independent of the time step size

  11. Kwong-Wong-type integral equation on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Jia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Consider the second-order nonlinear dynamic equation $$ [r(tx^Delta(ho(t]^Delta+p(tf(x(t=0, $$ where $p(t$ is the backward jump operator. We obtain a Kwong-Wong-type integral equation, that is: If $x(t$ is a nonoscillatory solution of the above equation on $[T_0,infty$, then the integral equation $$ frac{r^sigma(tx^Delta(t}{f(x^sigma(t} =P^sigma(t+int^infty_{sigma(t}frac{r^sigma(s [int^1_0f'(x_h(sdh][x^Delta(s]^2}{f(x(s f(x^sigma(s}Delta s $$ is satisfied for $tgeq T_0$, where $P^sigma(t=int^infty_{sigma(t}p(sDelta s$, and $x_h(s=x(s+hmu(sx^Delta(s$. As an application, we show that the superlinear dynamic equation $$ [r(tx^{Delta}(ho(t]^Delta+p(tf(x(t=0, $$ is oscillatory, under certain conditions.

  12. Evaluation of time integration methods for transient response analysis of nonlinear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in the evaluation of direct time integration methods for the transient response analysis of nonlinear structures are presented. These developments, which are based on local stability considerations of an integrator, show that the interaction between temporal step size and nonlinearities of structural systems has a pronounced effect on both accuracy and stability of a given time integration method. The resulting evaluation technique is applied to a model nonlinear problem, in order to: 1) demonstrate that it eliminates the present costly process of evaluating time integrator for nonlinear structural systems via extensive numerical experiments; 2) identify the desirable characteristics of time integration methods for nonlinear structural problems; 3) develop improved stiffly-stable methods for application to nonlinear structures. Extension of the methodology for examination of the interaction between a time integrator and the approximate treatment of nonlinearities (such as due to pseudo-force or incremental solution procedures) is also discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Floral pathway integrator gene expression mediates gradual transmission of environmental and endogenous cues to flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Aalt D J; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.

  14. Floral pathway integrator gene expression mediates gradual transmission of environmental and endogenous cues to flowering time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalt D.J. van Dijk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.

  15. Numerical Time Integration Methods for a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten

    2012-01-01

    on a discretization of the convolution integral. The calculation of the convolution integral is performed at each time step regardless of the chosen numerical scheme. In the second model the convolution integral is replaced by a system of linear ordinary differential equations. The formulation of the state...

  16. The imaginary-time path integral and non-time-reversal-invariant saddle points of the Euclidean action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, I.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss new bounce-like (but non-time-reversal-invariant) solutions to Euclidean equations of motion, which we dub boomerons. In the Euclidean path integral approach to quantum theories, boomerons make an imaginary contribution to the vacuum energy. The fake vacuum instability can be removed by cancelling boomeron contributions against contributions from time reversed boomerons (anti-boomerons). The cancellation rests on a sign choice whose significance is not completely understood in the path integral method. (orig.)

  17. Windows XP ends its life at CERN – register for Windows 7 training!

    CERN Multimedia

    Michał Kwiatek (IT-OIS)

    2012-01-01

    Windows XP has been around for over 10 years and it is now time to move on. At CERN, general support for Windows XP will end in December 2012, and before this date users are requested to schedule a migration to the next version of WindowsWindows 7.   Windows 7 is already well established at CERN – it is used by a large majority of users. In fact, there was a considerable user demand even before its official release in October 2009 and its adoption has been smooth. Users praise Windows 7 for its improved stability and a clear advantage on laptops is a much more efficient implementation of offline files. The migration to Windows 7 involves a reinstallation of the operating system. Files stored in user home folders on DFS will be immediately available after the reinstallation. Applications will be upgraded to more recent versions and in certain cases, an application may even be replaced by another application providing the same functionality. Microsoft Office suite is a good ...

  18. Windows on the axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the Θ vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10 6 eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  20. Integrating Security in Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arl ington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that... operate without impacting the tinting and safety constraints of the control logic. Besides, the embedded nature of these systems limits the...only during slack times when no other real-time tasks are rwming. We propose to measure the security of the system by means of the achievable periodic

  1. Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.; Markland, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy

  2. Formulation of an explicit-multiple-time-step time integration method for use in a global primitive equation grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    With appropriate modifications, a recently proposed explicit-multiple-time-step scheme (EMTSS) is incorporated into the UCLA model. In this scheme, the linearized terms in the governing equations that generate the gravity waves are split into different vertical modes. Each mode is integrated with an optimal time step, and at periodic intervals these modes are recombined. The other terms are integrated with a time step dictated by the CFL condition for low-frequency waves. This large time step requires a special modification of the advective terms in the polar region to maintain stability. Test runs for 72 h show that EMTSS is a stable, efficient and accurate scheme.

  3. Time, dynamics and chaos. Integrating Poincare's "non-integrable systems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigogine, I.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the nature of time. The author attempts to resolve the conflict between the concept of time reversibility in classical and quantum mechanics with the macroscopic world's irreversibility of time. (LSP)

  4. Numerical integration of the Teukolsky equation in the time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos-Avalos, Enrique; Lousto, Carlos O.

    2005-01-01

    We present a fourth-order convergent (2+1)-dimensional, numerical formalism to solve the Teukolsky equation in the time domain. Our approach is first to rewrite the Teukolsky equation as a system of first-order differential equations. In this way we get a system that has the form of an advection equation. This is then used in combination with a series expansion of the solution in powers of time. To obtain a fourth-order scheme we kept terms up to fourth derivative in time and use the advectionlike system of differential equations to substitute the temporal derivatives by spatial derivatives. This scheme is applied to evolve gravitational perturbations in the Schwarzschild and Kerr backgrounds. Our numerical method proved to be stable and fourth-order convergent in r* and θ directions. The correct power-law tail, ∼1/t 2l+3 , for general initial data, and ∼1/t 2l+4 , for time-symmetric data, was found in our runs. We noted that it is crucial to resolve accurately the angular dependence of the mode at late times in order to obtain these values of the exponents in the power-law decay. In other cases, when the decay was too fast and round-off error was reached before a tail was developed, then the quasinormal modes frequencies provided a test to determine the validity of our code

  5. An integration time adaptive control method for atmospheric composition detection of occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Hou, Shuai; Yu, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Li, Chao; Zhe, Lin

    2018-01-01

    When sun is used as the light source for atmospheric composition detection, it is necessary to image sun for accurate identification and stable tracking. In the course of 180 second of the occultation, the magnitude of sun light intensity through the atmosphere changes greatly. It is nearly 1100 times illumination change between the maximum atmospheric and the minimum atmospheric. And the process of light change is so severe that 2.9 times per second of light change can be reached. Therefore, it is difficult to control the integration time of sun image camera. In this paper, a novel adaptive integration time control method for occultation is presented. In this method, with the distribution of gray value in the image as the reference variable, and the concepts of speed integral PID control, the integration time adaptive control problem of high frequency imaging. The large dynamic range integration time automatic control in the occultation can be achieved.

  6. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.

    2011-05-15

    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  7. Quantum process tomography with informational incomplete data of two J-coupled heterogeneous spins relaxation in a time window much greater than T1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Thiago O.; Vianna, Reinaldo O.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Ivan S.

    2015-11-01

    We reconstruct the time dependent quantum map corresponding to the relaxation process of a two-spin system in liquid-state NMR at room temperature. By means of quantum tomography techniques that handle informational incomplete data, we show how to properly post-process and normalize the measurements data for the simulation of quantum information processing, overcoming the unknown number of molecules prepared in a non-equilibrium magnetization state (Nj) by an initial sequence of radiofrequency pulses. From the reconstructed quantum map, we infer both longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) relaxation times, and introduce the J-coupling relaxation times ({T}1J,{T}2J), which are relevant for quantum information processing simulations. We show that the map associated to the relaxation process cannot be assumed approximated unital and trace-preserving for times greater than {T}2J.

  8. Solution-Processed Smart Window Platforms Based on Plasmonic Electrochromics

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Sara

    2018-04-30

    independent control of the transmittance of NIR and visible spectra and is done without time- and energyintensive synthesis and processing methods. We have fabricated self-powered smart windows by integrating the plasmonic and dual-band devices with organic photovoltaic mini-modules and introduced static color bias with the help of photonic crystals to explore a few possibilities of multi-platform building integration.

  9. Real-Time Integrated Re-scheduling for Tramway Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Kam-Fung; Kuo, Yong-Hong; Lai, S.W.; Leung, Janny M.Y.

    2018-01-01

    Our work aims to develop practical solution approaches for real-time dispatch of crews and vehicles for disruption management. The practical motivation for our research arose from the operations of a public tramway system in Hong Kong. The tram system shares the road with other vehicular traffic in

  10. Integrated capacity and inventory management with capacity acquisition lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mincsovics, G.Z.; Tan, T.; Alp, O.

    2009-01-01

    We model a make-to-stock production system that utilizes permanent and contingent capacity to meet non-stationary stochastic demand, where a constant lead time is associated with the acquisition of contingent capacity. We determine the structure of the optimal solution concerning both the

  11. The Feynman integral for time-dependent anharmonic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grothaus, M.; Khandekar, D.C.; da Silva, J.L.; Streit, L.

    1997-01-01

    We review some basic notions and results of white noise analysis that are used in the construction of the Feynman integrand as a generalized white noise functional. We show that the Feynman integrand for the time-dependent harmonic oscillator in an external potential is a Hida distribution. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Representing real time semantics for distributed application integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poon, P.M.S.; Dillon, T.S.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.

    Traditional real time system design and development are driven by technological requirements. With the ever growing complexity of requirements and the advances in software design, the alignment of focus has gradually been shifted to the perspective of business and industrial needs. This paper

  13. Integration of the time-dependent heat equation in the fuel rod performance program IAMBUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.

    1982-01-01

    An iterative numerical method for integration of the time-dependent heat equation is described. No presuppositions are made for the dependency of the thermal conductivity and heat capacity on space, time and temperature. (orig.) [de

  14. Novel Approaches for Visualizing and Analyzing Dose-Timing Data from Electronic Drug Monitors, or "How the 'Broken Window' Theory Pertains to ART Adherence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; DeSilva, Mary Bachman; Hamer, Davidson H; Keyi, Xu; Wilson, Ira B; Sabin, Lora

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral medications is usually expressed in terms of the proportion of doses taken. However, the timing of doses taken may also be an important dimension to overall adherence. Little is known about whether patients who mistime doses are also more likely to skip doses. Using data from the completed Adherence for Life randomized controlled trial, we created visual and statistical models to capture and analyze dose timing data collected longitudinally with electronic drug monitors (EDM). From scatter plots depicting dose time versus calendar date, we identified dominant patterns of dose taking and calculated key features [slope of line over calendar date; residual mean standard error (RMSE)]. Each was assessed for its ability to categorize subjects with 'sub-optimal' (<95 % of doses taken) using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AROC) curve analysis. Sixty eight subjects contributed EDM data, with ~300 to 400 observations/subject. While regression line slopes did not predict 'sub-optimal' adherence (AROC 0.51, 95 % CI 0.26-0.75), the variability in dose timing (RMSE) was strongly predictive (AROC 0.79, 95 % CI 0.62-0.97). Compared with the lowest quartile of RMSE (minimal dose time variability), each successive quartile roughly doubled the odds of 'sub-optimal' adherence (OR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.3-3.4). Patterns of dose timing and mistiming are strongly related to overall adherence behavior. Notably, individuals who skip doses are more likely to mistime doses, with the degree of risk positively correlated with the extent of dose timing variability.

  15. An efficient explicit marching on in time solver for magnetic field volume integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, H. Arda; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    An efficient explicit marching on in time (MOT) scheme for solving the magnetic field volume integral equation is proposed. The MOT system is cast in the form of an ordinary differential equation and is integrated in time using a PE(CE)m multistep

  16. High resolution time integration for SN radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    First-order, second-order, and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the discrete ordinates (S N ) equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first-order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second-order schemes in hyperbolic partial differential equations. The high resolution method achieves these properties by nonlinearly adapting the time stencil to use a first-order method in regions where oscillations could be created. We employ a quasi-linear solution scheme to solve the nonlinear equations that arise from the high resolution method. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second-order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first-order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first-order and matches or exceeds the second-order method

  17. An integral time series on simulated labeling using fractal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djainal, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    This research deals with the detection of time series of vertical two-phase flow, in attempt to developed an objective indicator of time series flow patterns. One of new method is fractal analysis which can complement conventional methods in the description of highly irregular fluctuations. in the present work, fractal analysis applied to analyze simulated boiling coolant signal. this simulated signals built by sum random elements in small subchannels of the coolant channel. Two modes are defined and both modes are characterized by their void fractions. in the case of unimodal-PDF signals, the difference between these modes is relative small. on other hand, bimodal-PDF signals have relative large range. in this research, fractal dimension can indicate the characters of that signals simulation

  18. Temperature Profile of IR Blocking Windows Used in Cryogenic X-Ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Funk, T.; Drury, O.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Cryogenic high-resolution X-ray spectrometers are typically operated with thin IR blocking windows to reduce radiative heating of the detector while allowing good x-ray transmission. We have estimated the temperature profile of these IR blocking windows under typical operating conditions. We show that the temperature in the center of the window is raised due to radiation from the higher temperature stages. This can increase the infrared photon flux onto the detector, thereby increasing the IR noise and decreasing the cryostat hold time. The increased window temperature constrains the maximum window size and the number of windows required. We discuss the consequences for IR blocking window design

  19. Integrated test schedule for buried waste integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.T.; McDonald, J.K.

    1992-05-01

    The Integrated Test Schedule incorporates the various schedules the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports into one document. This document contains the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order schedules for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Oak Ridge Reservation, and Fernald Environmental Materials Center. Included in the Integrated Test Schedule is the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration ''windows of opportunity'' schedule. The ''windows of opportunity'' schedule shows periods of time in which Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program-sponsored technology demonstrations could support key decisions in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. Schedules for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration-sponsored technology task plans are categorized by technology area and divided by current fiscal year and out-year. Total estimated costs for Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration-sponsored Technology Task Plans for FY-92 through FY-97 are $74.756M

  20. On the initial condition problem of the time domain PMCHWT surface integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes

    2017-05-13

    Non-physical, linearly increasing and constant current components are induced in marching on-in-time solution of time domain surface integral equations when initial conditions on time derivatives of (unknown) equivalent currents are not enforced properly. This problem can be remedied by solving the time integral of the surface integral for auxiliary currents that are defined to be the time derivatives of the equivalent currents. Then the equivalent currents are obtained by numerically differentiating the auxiliary ones. In this work, this approach is applied to the marching on-in-time solution of the time domain Poggio-Miller-Chan-Harrington-Wu-Tsai surface integral equation enforced on dispersive/plasmonic scatterers. Accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example.

  1. New window materials for high power gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsar, M.N.; Hua Chi

    1993-01-01

    A single free standing synthetic diamond window seems to have higher absorption coefficient value at millimeter wavelength region at this time although it is claimed that it possesses good mechanical strength and higher thermal conductivity characteristics. It certainly does not rule out the use of diamond film on single crystal high resistivity silicon to improve its mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. One may have to use an appropriate film thickness for a particular wavelength in gyrotron window application. It is also necessary to use an appropriate thickness for the silicon perhaps equivalent to a quaterwavelength in order to avoid the reflection mismatch

  2. MOVING WINDOW SEGMENTATION FRAMEWORK FOR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.

  3. Analytical solutions for prediction of the ignition time of wood particles based on a time and space integral method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haseli, Y.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish a simple approach for prediction of the ignition time of a wood particle assuming that the thermo-physical properties remain constant and ignition takes place at a characteristic ignition temperature. Using a time and space integral method, explicit

  4. Integrated systems for real time data acquisition and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.

    1995-01-01

    The continuous measuring of all the nuclear and dosimetric parameters in a nuclear facility is essential for personnel and environment protection. Considering the vast amount of information and data required to keep an updated overview of a situation the need for an efficient acquisition processing and information system is evident. The paper analyses the special requirements as concerning the real time inter-process communication and proposes a modern concept based on the last trends existing in the field of computer technology and operating systems. (author)

  5. High resolution time integration for Sn radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2008-01-01

    First order, second order and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the S n equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second order schemes in hyperbolic differential equations. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first order and matches or exceeds the second order method. (authors)

  6. The administrative window into the integrated DBMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    A good office automation system manned by a team of facilitators seeking opportunities to serve end users could go a long way toward defining a DBMS that serves management. The problems of DBMS organization, alternative approaches to solving some of the major problems, problems that may have no solution, and how office automation fits into the development of the manager's management information system are discussed.

  7. Design of time-pulse coded optoelectronic neuronal elements for nonlinear transformation and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Lazareva, Maria V.

    2008-03-01

    In the paper the actuality of neurophysiologically motivated neuron arrays with flexibly programmable functions and operations with possibility to select required accuracy and type of nonlinear transformation and learning are shown. We consider neurons design and simulation results of multichannel spatio-time algebraic accumulation - integration of optical signals. Advantages for nonlinear transformation and summation - integration are shown. The offered circuits are simple and can have intellectual properties such as learning and adaptation. The integrator-neuron is based on CMOS current mirrors and comparators. The performance: consumable power - 100...500 μW, signal period- 0.1...1ms, input optical signals power - 0.2...20 μW time delays - less 1μs, the number of optical signals - 2...10, integration time - 10...100 of signal periods, accuracy or integration error - about 1%. Various modifications of the neuron-integrators with improved performance and for different applications are considered in the paper.

  8. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  9. Program design of data acquisition in Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianxin; Yan Huawen

    2004-01-01

    Several methods for the design of data acquisition program based on Microsoft Windows are introduced. Then their respective advantages and disadvantages are totally analyzed. At the same time, the data acquisition modes applicable to each method are also pointed out. It is convenient for data acquisition programmers to develop data acquisition systems. (authors)

  10. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  11. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  12. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  13. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  14. Live histograms in moving windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  15. Multi-channel time-division integrator in HL-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ji

    2008-01-01

    HL-2A is China's first Tokamak device with divertor configuration (magnetic confinement controlled nuclear fusion device). To find out the details of on-going fusion reaction at different times is of important significance in achieving controlled nuclear fusion. We developed a new type multi-channel time-division integrator for HL-2A. It has functions of automatic cutting off negative pulse of the input signals, optional integrating time division spacing 0.2-1 ms, TTL starting trigger signal, automatic regularly work 20 s, and integrating 10 channel at the same time. (authors)

  16. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... the resulting time integrals of the inertia and stiffness terms via integration by parts. This process introduces the time derivatives of the state space variables, and these are then substituted from the original state-space differential equations. The resulting discrete form of the state-space equations...... is a direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained...

  17. Integrated Monitoring of Mola mola Behaviour in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lara L; López-Castejón, Francisco; Gilabert, Javier; Relvas, Paulo; Couto, Ana; Queiroz, Nuno; Caldas, Renato; Dias, Paulo Sousa; Dias, Hugo; Faria, Margarida; Ferreira, Filipe; Ferreira, António Sérgio; Fortuna, João; Gomes, Ricardo Joel; Loureiro, Bruno; Martins, Ricardo; Madureira, Luis; Neiva, Jorge; Oliveira, Marina; Pereira, João; Pinto, José; Py, Frederic; Queirós, Hugo; Silva, Daniel; Sujit, P B; Zolich, Artur; Johansen, Tor Arne; de Sousa, João Borges; Rajan, Kanna

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, ocean sunfish movements have been monitored worldwide using various satellite tracking methods. This study reports the near-real time monitoring of fine-scale (vehicles to measure both the movements and the contextual environment of the fish. A total of four individuals were tracked using custom-made GPS satellite tags providing geolocation estimates of fine-scale resolution. These accurate positions further informed sunfish areas of restricted search (ARS), which were directly correlated to steep thermal frontal zones. Simultaneously, and for two different occasions, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) video-recorded the path of the tracked fish and detected buoyant particles in the water column. Importantly, the densities of these particles were also directly correlated to steep thermal gradients. Thus, both sunfish foraging behaviour (ARS) and possibly prey densities, were found to be influenced by analogous environmental conditions. In addition, the dynamic structure of the water transited by the tracked individuals was described by a Lagrangian modelling approach. The model informed the distribution of zooplankton in the region, both horizontally and in the water column, and the resultant simulated densities positively correlated with sunfish ARS behaviour estimator (rs = 0.184, pstructure provide a rationale for a predator's fine-scale behaviour observed over a two weeks in May 2014.

  18. Integrated Monitoring of Mola mola Behaviour in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lara L.; López-Castejón, Francisco; Gilabert, Javier; Relvas, Paulo; Couto, Ana; Queiroz, Nuno; Caldas, Renato; Dias, Paulo Sousa; Dias, Hugo; Faria, Margarida; Ferreira, Filipe; Ferreira, António Sérgio; Fortuna, João; Gomes, Ricardo Joel; Loureiro, Bruno; Martins, Ricardo; Madureira, Luis; Neiva, Jorge; Oliveira, Marina; Pereira, João; Pinto, José; Py, Frederic; Queirós, Hugo; Silva, Daniel; Sujit, P. B.; Zolich, Artur; Johansen, Tor Arne; de Sousa, João Borges; Rajan, Kanna

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, ocean sunfish movements have been monitored worldwide using various satellite tracking methods. This study reports the near-real time monitoring of fine-scale (behaviour of sunfish. The study was conducted in southern Portugal in May 2014 and involved satellite tags and underwater and surface robotic vehicles to measure both the movements and the contextual environment of the fish. A total of four individuals were tracked using custom-made GPS satellite tags providing geolocation estimates of fine-scale resolution. These accurate positions further informed sunfish areas of restricted search (ARS), which were directly correlated to steep thermal frontal zones. Simultaneously, and for two different occasions, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) video-recorded the path of the tracked fish and detected buoyant particles in the water column. Importantly, the densities of these particles were also directly correlated to steep thermal gradients. Thus, both sunfish foraging behaviour (ARS) and possibly prey densities, were found to be influenced by analogous environmental conditions. In addition, the dynamic structure of the water transited by the tracked individuals was described by a Lagrangian modelling approach. The model informed the distribution of zooplankton in the region, both horizontally and in the water column, and the resultant simulated densities positively correlated with sunfish ARS behaviour estimator (rs = 0.184, pbehaviour observed over a two weeks in May 2014. PMID:27494028

  19. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  20. Assessment of critical exposure and outcome windows in time-to-event analysis with application to air pollution and preterm birth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Howard H; Warren, Joshua L; Darrow, Lnydsey A; Reich, Brian J; Waller, Lance A

    2015-07-01

    In reproductive epidemiology, there is a growing interest to examine associations between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB). One important research objective is to identify critical periods of exposure and estimate the associated effects at different stages of pregnancy. However, population studies have reported inconsistent findings. This may be due to limitations from the standard analytic approach of treating PTB as a binary outcome without considering time-varying exposures together over the course of pregnancy. To address this research gap, we present a Bayesian hierarchical model for conducting a comprehensive examination of gestational air pollution exposure by estimating the joint effects of weekly exposures during different vulnerable periods. Our model also treats PTB as a time-to-event outcome to address the challenge of different exposure lengths among ongoing pregnancies. The proposed model is applied to a dataset of geocoded birth records in the Atlanta metropolitan area between 1999-2005 to examine the risk of PTB associated with gestational exposure to ambient fine particulate matter [Formula: see text]m in aerodynamic diameter (PM[Formula: see text]). We find positive associations between PM[Formula: see text] exposure during early and mid-pregnancy, and evidence that associations are stronger for PTBs occurring around week 30. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.