WorldWideScience

Sample records for integration scheme increases

  1. A New time Integration Scheme for Cahn-hilliard Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, R.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present a new integration scheme that can be applied to solving difficult non-stationary non-linear problems. It is obtained by a successive linearization of the Crank- Nicolson scheme, that is unconditionally stable, but requires solving non-linear equation at each time step. We applied our linearized scheme for the time integration of the challenging Cahn-Hilliard equation, modeling the phase separation in fluids. At each time step the resulting variational equation is solved using higher-order isogeometric finite element method, with B- spline basis functions. The method was implemented in the PETIGA framework interfaced via the PETSc toolkit. The GMRES iterative solver was utilized for the solution of a resulting linear system at every time step. We also apply a simple adaptivity rule, which increases the time step size when the number of GMRES iterations is lower than 30. We compared our method with a non-linear, two stage predictor-multicorrector scheme, utilizing a sophisticated step length adaptivity. We controlled the stability of our simulations by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional. The proposed integration scheme outperforms the two-stage competitor in terms of the execution time, at the same time having a similar evolution of the free energy functional.

  2. A New time Integration Scheme for Cahn-hilliard Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, R.; Smol-ka, M.; Dalcin, L; Paszyn'ski, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a new integration scheme that can be applied to solving difficult non-stationary non-linear problems. It is obtained by a successive linearization of the Crank- Nicolson scheme, that is unconditionally stable, but requires solving non-linear equation at each time step. We applied our linearized scheme for the time integration of the challenging Cahn-Hilliard equation, modeling the phase separation in fluids. At each time step the resulting variational equation is solved using higher-order isogeometric finite element method, with B- spline basis functions. The method was implemented in the PETIGA framework interfaced via the PETSc toolkit. The GMRES iterative solver was utilized for the solution of a resulting linear system at every time step. We also apply a simple adaptivity rule, which increases the time step size when the number of GMRES iterations is lower than 30. We compared our method with a non-linear, two stage predictor-multicorrector scheme, utilizing a sophisticated step length adaptivity. We controlled the stability of our simulations by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional. The proposed integration scheme outperforms the two-stage competitor in terms of the execution time, at the same time having a similar evolution of the free energy functional.

  3. Integrated engineering increases flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Integrated Engineering (IE) can be used to describe the best use of increasingly rare good engineering talent in an increasingly competive world. A number of organisations are now moving towards IE without any general agreement on a precise definition. The engineering division of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is one such organisation. This feature covers the reasoning behind the decision, and our experience to date. BNFL engineering division is responsible primarily for the provision of major facilities on BNFL operational sites. This provision includes feasibility, front end and detailed design, procurement, installation and commissioning. Task force working has been used for some of the large projects. But the future workload is expected to comprise many more smaller projects. At the same time, equipment is becoming more complex and the need for mutual understanding and appreciation between disciplines is increasing. To meet this increasing need for flexibility, BNFL has decided to move to the matrix structure of project management and functional departments described in the article. (Author)

  4. A Scheme for the Integrated Assessment of Mitigation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, H.; Edenhofer, O.

    2003-04-01

    After some consensus has been achieved that the global mean temperature will have increased by 1.4 to 5.8^oC at the end of this century in case of continued ``business as usual'' greenhouse gas emissions, society has to decide if or which mitigation measures should be taken. A new integrated assessment project on this very issue will be started at PIK in spring 2003. The assessment will cover economic aspects as well as potential side effects of various measures. In the economic module, the effects of investment decisions on technological innovation will be explicitly taken into account. Special emphasize will be put on the issue of uncertainty. Hereby we distinguish the uncertainty related to the Integrated Assessment modules, including the economic module, from the fact that no over-complex system can be fully captured by a model. Therefore, a scheme for the assessment of the ``residual'', the non-modelled part of the system, needs to be worked out. The scheme must be truly interdisciplinary, i.e. must be applicable to at least the natural science and the economic aspects. A scheme based on meta-principles like minimum persistence, ubiquity, or irreversibility of potential measures appears to be a promising candidate. An implementation of ubiquity as at present successfully operated in environmental chemistry may serve as a guideline [1]. Here, the best-known mechanism within a complex impact chain of potentially harmful chemicals, their transport, is captured by a reaction-diffusion mechanism [2]. begin{thebibliography}{0} bibitem{s} M. Scheringer, Persistence and spatial range as endpoints of an exposure-based assessment of organic chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 1652-1659 (1996). bibitem{h} H. Held, Robustness of spatial ranges of environmental chemicals with respect to model dimension, accepted for publication in Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assessment.

  5. IR subtraction schemes. Integrating the counterterms at NNLO in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzoni, Paolo; Somogyi, Gabor

    2010-06-15

    We briefly review a subtraction scheme for computing radiative corrections to QCD jet cross sections that can be defined at any order in perturbation theory. Hereafter we discuss the computational methods used to evaluate analytically and numerically the integrated counterterms arising from such a subtraction scheme. Basically these methods the Mellin-Barnes (MB) representations technique together with the harmonic summation and the sector decomposition. (orig.)

  6. IR subtraction schemes. Integrating the counterterms at NNLO in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzoni, Paolo; Somogyi, Gabor

    2010-06-01

    We briefly review a subtraction scheme for computing radiative corrections to QCD jet cross sections that can be defined at any order in perturbation theory. Hereafter we discuss the computational methods used to evaluate analytically and numerically the integrated counterterms arising from such a subtraction scheme. Basically these methods the Mellin-Barnes (MB) representations technique together with the harmonic summation and the sector decomposition. (orig.)

  7. Enabling an Integrated Rate-temporal Learning Scheme on Memristor

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Huang, Kejie; Ning, Ning; Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Li, Guoqi; Jiang, Yu; Sze, Jiayin; Shi, Luping; Zhao, Rong; Pei, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Learning scheme is the key to the utilization of spike-based computation and the emulation of neural/synaptic behaviors toward realization of cognition. The biological observations reveal an integrated spike time- and spike rate-dependent plasticity as a function of presynaptic firing frequency. However, this integrated rate-temporal learning scheme has not been realized on any nano devices. In this paper, such scheme is successfully demonstrated on a memristor. Great robustness against the spiking rate fluctuation is achieved by waveform engineering with the aid of good analog properties exhibited by the iron oxide-based memristor. The spike-time-dependence plasticity (STDP) occurs at moderate presynaptic firing frequencies and spike-rate-dependence plasticity (SRDP) dominates other regions. This demonstration provides a novel approach in neural coding implementation, which facilitates the development of bio-inspired computing systems.

  8. Integrated optical 3D digital imaging based on DSP scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2008-03-01

    We present a scheme of integrated optical 3-D digital imaging (IO3DI) based on digital signal processor (DSP), which can acquire range images independently without PC support. This scheme is based on a parallel hardware structure with aid of DSP and field programmable gate array (FPGA) to realize 3-D imaging. In this integrated scheme of 3-D imaging, the phase measurement profilometry is adopted. To realize the pipeline processing of the fringe projection, image acquisition and fringe pattern analysis, we present a multi-threads application program that is developed under the environment of DSP/BIOS RTOS (real-time operating system). Since RTOS provides a preemptive kernel and powerful configuration tool, with which we are able to achieve a real-time scheduling and synchronization. To accelerate automatic fringe analysis and phase unwrapping, we make use of the technique of software optimization. The proposed scheme can reach a performance of 39.5 f/s (frames per second), so it may well fit into real-time fringe-pattern analysis and can implement fast 3-D imaging. Experiment results are also presented to show the validity of proposed scheme.

  9. An integration scheme for stiff solid-gas reactor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne A. Foss

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Many dynamic models encounter numerical integration problems because of a large span in the dynamic modes. In this paper we develop a numerical integration scheme for systems that include a gas phase, and solid and liquid phases, such as a gas-solid reactor. The method is based on neglecting fast dynamic modes and exploiting the structure of the algebraic equations. The integration method is suitable for a large class of industrially relevant systems. The methodology has proven remarkably efficient. It has in practice performed excellent and been a key factor for the success of the industrial simulator for electrochemical furnaces for ferro-alloy production.

  10. Materials and integration schemes for above-IC integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan; Rangarajan, B.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented on silicon oxynitride material for waveguides and germanium-silicon alloys for p-i-n diodes. The materials are manufactured at low, CMOS-backend compatible temperatures, targeting the integration of optical functions on top of CMOS chips. Low-temperature germanium-silicon

  11. Integrated outages increase Surry's availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, S.R.; Downs, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how, through Virginia Power's and Westinghouse's goal-oriented planning philosophy, teamwork and commitment, average outage duration has decreased significantly. During the past 10 years Virginia Power and its nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) services vendor, Westinghouse Electric Corp., have developed a working partnership with one goal in mind: increasing the availability and capacity factors of the North Anna and Surry nuclear power stations while driving down the operating costs of the plants. The outage integration program, steam generator maintenance agreement (SGMA), and integrated radiological services program form the core of this relationship and helped Virginia Power complete one of the most successful outages in Surry Power Station's operating history

  12. An integrated urban drainage system model for assessing renovation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J; Zhao, D

    2012-01-01

    Due to sustained economic growth in China over the last three decades, urbanization has been on a rapidly expanding track. In recent years, regional industrial relocations were also accelerated across the country from the east coast to the west inland. These changes have led to a large-scale redesign of urban infrastructures, including the drainage system. To help the reconstructed infrastructures towards a better sustainability, a tool is required for assessing the efficiency and environmental performance of different renovation schemes. This paper developed an integrated dynamic modeling tool, which consisted of three models for describing the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the receiving water body respectively. Three auxiliary modules were also incorporated to conceptualize the model, calibrate the simulations, and analyze the results. The developed integrated modeling tool was applied to a case study in Shenzhen City, which is one of the most dynamic cities and facing considerable challenges for environmental degradation. The renovation scheme proposed to improve the environmental performance of Shenzhen City's urban drainage system was modeled and evaluated. The simulation results supplied some suggestions for the further improvement of the renovation scheme.

  13. Integrated Electromechanical Transduction Schemes for Polymer MEMS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Thuau

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymer Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS have the potential to constitute a powerful alternative to silicon-based MEMS devices for sensing applications. Although the use of commercial photoresists as structural material in polymer MEMS has been widely reported, the integration of functional polymer materials as electromechanical transducers has not yet received the same amount of interest. In this context, we report on the design and fabrication of different electromechanical schemes based on polymeric materials ensuring different transduction functions. Piezoresistive transduction made of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites with a gauge factor of 200 was embedded within U-shaped polymeric cantilevers operating either in static or dynamic modes. Flexible resonators with integrated piezoelectric transduction were also realized and used as efficient viscosity sensors. Finally, piezoelectric-based organic field effect transistor (OFET electromechanical transduction exhibiting a record sensitivity of over 600 was integrated into polymer cantilevers and used as highly sensitive strain and humidity sensors. Such advances in integrated electromechanical transduction schemes should favor the development of novel all-polymer MEMS devices for flexible and wearable applications in the future.

  14. Analog implementation of an integral resonant control scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E; Moheimani, S O R; Aphale, S S

    2008-01-01

    Integral resonant control (IRC) has been introduced as a high performance controller design methodology for flexible structures with collocated actuator–sensor pairs. IRC has a simple structure and is capable of achieving significant damping, over several modes, while guaranteeing closed-loop stability of the system in the presence of unmodeled out-of-bandwidth dynamics. IRC can be an ideal controller for various industrial damping applications, if packaged in a simple easy-to-implement electronic module. This work proposes an analog implementation of the IRC scheme using a single Op-Amp circuit. The objective is to show that with simple analog realization of the modified IRC scheme, it is possible to damp a large number of vibration modes. A brief discussion about the modeling, circuit considerations, implementation and experimental results is presented in order to validate the usefulness and practicality of the proposed analog IRC implementation. (technical note)

  15. Fault tolerant control schemes using integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamayun, Mirza Tariq; Alwi, Halim

    2016-01-01

    The key attribute of a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) system is its ability to maintain overall system stability and acceptable performance in the face of faults and failures within the feedback system. In this book Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) Control Allocation (CA) schemes for FTC are described, which have the potential to maintain close to nominal fault-free performance (for the entire system response), in the face of actuator faults and even complete failures of certain actuators. Broadly an ISM controller based around a model of the plant with the aim of creating a nonlinear fault tolerant feedback controller whose closed-loop performance is established during the design process. The second approach involves retro-fitting an ISM scheme to an existing feedback controller to introduce fault tolerance. This may be advantageous from an industrial perspective, because fault tolerance can be introduced without changing the existing control loops. A high fidelity benchmark model of a large transport aircraft is u...

  16. A discontinous Galerkin finite element method with an efficient time integration scheme for accurate simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Meilin; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly-accurate time integration scheme is presented. The scheme achieves its high accuracy using numerically constructed predictor-corrector integration coefficients. Numerical results

  17. New unified fracture toughness estimation scheme for structural integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, K.; Nevasmaa, P. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bannister, A. [Research and Development, British Steel plc., Swinden Technology Centre Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    At present, treatment of fracture toughness data varies depending on the type of data (K{sub IC}, J, CTOD) that are available for fracture mechanics analysis. This complicates structural integrity assessment and makes it difficult to apply any single, unified procedure. Within the Brite-Euram project `SINTAP` a fracture toughness estimation scheme has been developed for the unified treatment of data for use in structural integrity assessment. As a procedure, it can be applied to Charpy data, as well as to fracture toughness data, and is suitable for the treatment of data at both single and different temperatures. The data sets may contain results from both homogeneous and inhomogeneous material, making the procedure applicable also to welded joints. The procedure allows fracture toughness assessment with quantified probability and confidence levels. Irrespective of the type of the original data, one material-specific K{sub mat} value representing a conservative estimate of the mean fracture toughness is obtained (with its probability distribution). This information can then be applied to structural integrity assessment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  18. New unified fracture toughness estimation scheme for structural integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, K; Nevasmaa, P [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bannister, A [Research and Development, British Steel plc., Swinden Technology Centre Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    At present, treatment of fracture toughness data varies depending on the type of data (K{sub IC}, J, CTOD) that are available for fracture mechanics analysis. This complicates structural integrity assessment and makes it difficult to apply any single, unified procedure. Within the Brite-Euram project `SINTAP` a fracture toughness estimation scheme has been developed for the unified treatment of data for use in structural integrity assessment. As a procedure, it can be applied to Charpy data, as well as to fracture toughness data, and is suitable for the treatment of data at both single and different temperatures. The data sets may contain results from both homogeneous and inhomogeneous material, making the procedure applicable also to welded joints. The procedure allows fracture toughness assessment with quantified probability and confidence levels. Irrespective of the type of the original data, one material-specific K{sub mat} value representing a conservative estimate of the mean fracture toughness is obtained (with its probability distribution). This information can then be applied to structural integrity assessment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  19. Generalization of the event-based Carnevale-Hines integration scheme for integrate-and-fire models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, R.A.J.; van Ooyen, A.

    2009-01-01

    An event-based integration scheme for an integrate-and-fire neuron model with exponentially decaying excitatory synaptic currents and double exponential inhibitory synaptic currents has been introduced by Carnevale and Hines. However, the integration scheme imposes nonphysiological constraints on

  20. Generalization of the Event-Based Carnevale-Hines Integration Scheme for Integrate-and-Fire Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, Ronald A. J.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    An event-based integration scheme for an integrate-and-fire neuron model with exponentially decaying excitatory synaptic currents and double exponential inhibitory synaptic currents has been introduced by Carnevale and Hines. However, the integration scheme imposes nonphysiological constraints on

  1. A discontinous Galerkin finite element method with an efficient time integration scheme for accurate simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Meilin

    2011-07-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly-accurate time integration scheme is presented. The scheme achieves its high accuracy using numerically constructed predictor-corrector integration coefficients. Numerical results show that this new time integration scheme uses considerably larger time steps than the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method when combined with a DG-FEM using higher-order spatial discretization/basis functions for high accuracy. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Handover Scheme in Integrated EPON-WiMAX Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the seamless handover problem in integrated optical wireless networks. Our model applies for the convergence network of EPON and WiMAX and a mobilityaware signaling protocol is proposed. The proposed handover scheme, Integrated Mobility Management Scheme (IMMS), is assisted...... by enhancing the traditional MPCP signaling protocol, which cooperatively collects mobility information from the front-end wireless network and makes centralized bandwidth allocation decisions in the backhaul optical network. The integrated network architecture and the joint handover scheme are simulated using...... OPNET modeler. Results show validation of the protocol, i.e., integrated handover scheme gains better network performances....

  3. Wind power and market integration, comparative study of financing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    The financing scheme of renewable energies is a key factor for their development pace and cost. As some countries like France, Germany or Spain have chosen a Feed-in Tariff (FiT) scheme, there are in fact four possible financing schemes: FiT, ex-post prime, ex-ante prime, and quotas (green certificates). A market convergence is then supposed to meet two main objectives: the control of market distortions related to wind energy development, and the optimization of wind energy production with respect to market signals. The authors analyse the underlying economic challenges and the ability of financing schemes to meet these objectives within a short term horizon (2015). They present the different financing schemes, analyse the impact of three key economic factors (market distortion, production optimization, financing costs)

  4. Support schemes and vertical integration-Who skims the cream?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jensen, Stine Grenaa

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the effectiveness of feed-in tariffs for distributed generators, producing renewable electricity, depends on industry structure, i.e., vertical integration vs. unbundling. A stylized analytical model with a monopolist and a competitive fringe (distributed generators) will be developed to analyze the impact of feed-in tariffs on renewable power production. The vertically integrated monopolist maximizes profits by setting the electricity price for residual demand and a network access charge incurred by the fringe. The fringe receives a fixed feed-in tariff per unit of electricity produced. Under vertical integration, a rise in the feed-in tariff induces the monopolist to raise access charges for fringe firms and skim part of their additional income. This partially offsets the supply increase of the fringe firms stimulated by the feed-in tariff. However, in the case of effective unbundling with an externally set access charge, there is no possibility for the monopolist to extract part of the fringe's profit. Then, the feed-in tariff fully accrues to the competitive fringe, and its supply will further increase. This setting will be extended to horizontal expansion when the monopolist also enters the renewable production segment. The effects on prices and output will be derived and compared

  5. Support schemes and vertical integration - who skims the cream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jensen, Stine Grenaa

    2009-01-01

    ) will be developed to analyze the impact of feed-in tariffs on renewable power production. The vertically integrated monopolist maximizes profits by setting the electricity price for residual demand and a network access charge incurred by the fringe. The fringe receives a fixed feed-in tariff per unit of electricity...... unbundling with an externally set access charge, there is no possibility for the monopolist to extract part of the fringe's profit. Then, the feed-in tariff fully accrues to the competitive fringe, and its supply will further increase. This setting will be extended to horizontal expansion when the monopolist...

  6. Novel scheme for simple label-swapping employing XOR logic in an integrated interferometric wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan; Wolfson, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for all-optical label swapping that relies on logic exclusive-OR (XOR) in an integrated SOA-based Michelson interferometer. The scheme allows simple, efficient and mechanically stable operation, while relaxing the requirements on packet format and simplifying switch...

  7. A Scheme for Verification on Data Integrity in Mobile Multicloud Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laicheng Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the data integrity in mobile multicloud computing environment, a MMCDIV (mobile multicloud data integrity verification scheme is proposed. First, the computability and nondegeneracy of verification can be obtained by adopting BLS (Boneh-Lynn-Shacham short signature scheme. Second, communication overhead is reduced based on HVR (Homomorphic Verifiable Response with random masking and sMHT (sequence-enforced Merkle hash tree construction. Finally, considering the resource constraints of mobile devices, data integrity is verified by lightweight computing and low data transmission. The scheme improves shortage that mobile device communication and computing power are limited, it supports dynamic data operation in mobile multicloud environment, and data integrity can be verified without using direct source file block. Experimental results also demonstrate that this scheme can achieve a lower cost of computing and communications.

  8. Explicit solution of the time domain volume integral equation using a stable predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed; Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan; Benson, Trevor; Sewell, Phillip D.; Vuković, Ana

    2012-01-01

    An explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain volume integral equation is presented. The proposed method achieves its stability by employing, at each time step, a corrector scheme, which updates/corrects fields computed by the explicit predictor scheme. The proposedmethod is computationally more efficient when compared to the existing filtering techniques used for the stabilization of explicit MOT schemes. Numerical results presented in this paper demonstrate that the proposed method maintains its stability even when applied to the analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions with electrically large structures meshed using approximately half a million discretization elements.

  9. Explicit solution of the time domain volume integral equation using a stable predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2012-11-01

    An explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain volume integral equation is presented. The proposed method achieves its stability by employing, at each time step, a corrector scheme, which updates/corrects fields computed by the explicit predictor scheme. The proposedmethod is computationally more efficient when compared to the existing filtering techniques used for the stabilization of explicit MOT schemes. Numerical results presented in this paper demonstrate that the proposed method maintains its stability even when applied to the analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions with electrically large structures meshed using approximately half a million discretization elements.

  10. On the integration scheme along a trajectory for the characteristics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, Romain; Hebert, Alain

    2006-01-01

    The issue of the integration scheme along a trajectory which appears for all tracking-based transport methods is discussed from the point of view of the method of characteristics. The analogy with the discrete ordinates method in slab geometry is highlighted along with the practical limitation in transposing high-order S N schemes to a trajectory-based method. We derived an example of such a transposition starting from the linear characteristic scheme. This new scheme is compared with the standard flat-source approximation of the step characteristic scheme and with the diamond differencing scheme. The numerical study covers a 1D analytical case, 2D one-group critical and fixed-source benchmarks and finally a realistic multigroup calculation on a BWR-MOX assembly

  11. Vehicle scheduling schemes for commercial and emergency logistics integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models.

  12. Reduction schemes for one-loop tensor integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.

    2006-01-01

    We present new methods for the evaluation of one-loop tensor integrals which have been used in the calculation of the complete electroweak one-loop corrections to e + e - ->4 fermions. The described methods for 3-point and 4-point integrals are, in particular, applicable in the case where the conventional Passarino-Veltman reduction breaks down owing to the appearance of Gram determinants in the denominator. One method consists of different variants for expanding tensor coefficients about limits of vanishing Gram determinants or other kinematical determinants, thereby reducing all tensor coefficients to the usual scalar integrals. In a second method a specific tensor coefficient with a logarithmic integrand is evaluated numerically, and the remaining coefficients as well as the standard scalar integral are algebraically derived from this coefficient. For 5-point tensor integrals, we give explicit formulas that reduce the corresponding tensor coefficients to coefficients of 4-point integrals with tensor rank reduced by one. Similar formulas are provided for 6-point functions, and the generalization to functions with more internal propagators is straightforward. All the presented methods are also applicable if infrared (soft or collinear) divergences are treated in dimensional regularization or if mass parameters (for unstable particles) become complex

  13. Multiscale integration schemes for jump-diffusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givon, D.; Kevrekidis, I.G.

    2008-12-09

    We study a two-time-scale system of jump-diffusion stochastic differential equations. We analyze a class of multiscale integration methods for these systems, which, in the spirit of [1], consist of a hybridization between a standard solver for the slow components and short runs for the fast dynamics, which are used to estimate the effect that the fast components have on the slow ones. We obtain explicit bounds for the discrepancy between the results of the multiscale integration method and the slow components of the original system.

  14. Hierarchical predictive control scheme for distributed energy storage integrated with residential demand and photovoltaic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Garoufalis, P.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical control scheme is defined for the energy management of a battery energy storage system which is integrated in a low-voltage distribution grid with residential customers and photovoltaic installations. The scope is the economic optimisation of the integrated system by employing

  15. Scalability of Direct Solver for Non-stationary Cahn-Hilliard Simulations with Linearized time Integration Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Woźniak, M.; Smołka, M.; Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Paszyński, M.; Schaefer, R.

    2016-01-01

    We study the features of a new mixed integration scheme dedicated to solving the non-stationary variational problems. The scheme is composed of the FEM approximation with respect to the space variable coupled with a 3-leveled time integration scheme

  16. Evaluation of J-integral estimation scheme for flawed throughwall pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-02-01

    The accuracy of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme for pipes with throughwall cracks and subjected to pure bending was assessed using available experimental data on circumferentially flawed throughwall pipes. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. The results indicated that the EPRI J estimation scheme solutions are unnecessarily conservative compared to results from pipe experiments. As a result of these evaluations an improved J estimation scheme is developed, which is shown to have improved accuracy compared to the original EPRI J estimation scheme. These results imply that the flaw evaluation procedures in the ASME Code on austenitic piping welds are conservative. These results also have applications to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses.

  17. Evaluation of J-integral estimation scheme for flawed throughwall pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme for pipes with throughwall cracks and subjected to pure bending was assessed using available experimental data on circumferentially flawed throughwall pipes. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. The results indicated that the EPRI J estimation scheme solutions are unnecessarily conservative compared to results from pipe experiments. As a result of these evaluations an improved J estimation scheme is developed, which is shown to have improved accuracy compared to the original EPRI J estimation scheme. These results imply that the flaw evaluation procedures in the ASME Code on austenitic piping welds are conservative. These results also have applications to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses. (orig.)

  18. A Time Marching Scheme for Solving Volume Integral Equations on Nonlinear Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are oftentimes solved using marchingon-in-time (MOT) schemes. Unlike finite difference and finite element schemes, MOT-TDVIE solvers require discretization of only the scatterers, do not call for artificial absorbing boundary conditions, and are more robust to numerical phase dispersion. On the other hand, their computational cost is high, they suffer from late-time instabilities, and their implicit nature makes incorporation of nonlinear constitutive relations more difficult. Development of plane-wave time-domain (PWTD) and FFT-based schemes has significantly reduced the computational cost of the MOT-TDVIE solvers. Additionally, latetime instability problem has been alleviated for all practical purposes with the development of accurate integration schemes and specially designed temporal basis functions. Addressing the third challenge is the topic of this presentation. I will talk about an explicit MOT scheme developed for solving the TDVIE on scatterers with nonlinear material properties. The proposed scheme separately discretizes the TDVIE and the nonlinear constitutive relation between electric field intensity and flux density. The unknown field intensity and flux density are expanded using half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson (SWG) basis functions in space and polynomial temporal interpolators in time. The resulting coupled system of the discretized TDVIE and constitutive relation is integrated in time using an explicit P E(CE) m scheme to yield the unknown expansion coefficients. Explicitness of time marching allows for straightforward incorporation of the nonlinearity as a function evaluation on the right hand side of the coupled system of equations. Consequently, the resulting MOT scheme does not call for a Newton-like nonlinear solver. Numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability

  19. A Time Marching Scheme for Solving Volume Integral Equations on Nonlinear Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-07

    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are oftentimes solved using marchingon-in-time (MOT) schemes. Unlike finite difference and finite element schemes, MOT-TDVIE solvers require discretization of only the scatterers, do not call for artificial absorbing boundary conditions, and are more robust to numerical phase dispersion. On the other hand, their computational cost is high, they suffer from late-time instabilities, and their implicit nature makes incorporation of nonlinear constitutive relations more difficult. Development of plane-wave time-domain (PWTD) and FFT-based schemes has significantly reduced the computational cost of the MOT-TDVIE solvers. Additionally, latetime instability problem has been alleviated for all practical purposes with the development of accurate integration schemes and specially designed temporal basis functions. Addressing the third challenge is the topic of this presentation. I will talk about an explicit MOT scheme developed for solving the TDVIE on scatterers with nonlinear material properties. The proposed scheme separately discretizes the TDVIE and the nonlinear constitutive relation between electric field intensity and flux density. The unknown field intensity and flux density are expanded using half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson (SWG) basis functions in space and polynomial temporal interpolators in time. The resulting coupled system of the discretized TDVIE and constitutive relation is integrated in time using an explicit P E(CE) m scheme to yield the unknown expansion coefficients. Explicitness of time marching allows for straightforward incorporation of the nonlinearity as a function evaluation on the right hand side of the coupled system of equations. Consequently, the resulting MOT scheme does not call for a Newton-like nonlinear solver. Numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability

  20. Explicit solution of the time domain magnetic field integral equation using a predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2012-01-01

    An explicit yet stable marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE) is presented. The stability of the explicit scheme is achieved via (i) accurate evaluation of the MOT matrix elements using closed form expressions and (ii) a PE(CE) m type linear multistep method for time marching. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and stability of the proposed explicit MOT-TD-MFIE solver. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Explicit solution of the time domain magnetic field integral equation using a predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2012-09-01

    An explicit yet stable marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE) is presented. The stability of the explicit scheme is achieved via (i) accurate evaluation of the MOT matrix elements using closed form expressions and (ii) a PE(CE) m type linear multistep method for time marching. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and stability of the proposed explicit MOT-TD-MFIE solver. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Geometric Integration Of The Valsov-Maxwell System With A Variational Particle-in-cell Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, J.; Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    A fully variational, unstructured, electromagnetic particle-in-cell integrator is developed for integration of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. Using the formalism of Discrete Exterior Calculus [1], the field solver, interpolation scheme and particle advance algorithm are derived through minimization of a single discrete field theory action. As a consequence of ensuring that the action is invariant under discrete electromagnetic gauge transformations, the integrator exactly conserves Gauss's law.

  3. Geometric integration of the Vlasov-Maxwell system with a variational particle-in-cell scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squire, J.; Tang, W. M. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Qin, H. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-08-15

    A fully variational, unstructured, electromagnetic particle-in-cell integrator is developed for integration of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. Using the formalism of discrete exterior calculus [Desbrun et al., e-print arXiv:math/0508341 (2005)], the field solver, interpolation scheme, and particle advance algorithm are derived through minimization of a single discrete field theory action. As a consequence of ensuring that the action is invariant under discrete electromagnetic gauge transformations, the integrator exactly conserves Gauss's law.

  4. Methodology for optimization of process integration schemes in a biorefinery under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Facultad de Química y Farmacia. Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" >González-Cortés, Meilyn; Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Facultad de Química y Farmacia. Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" >Martínez-Martínez, Yenisleidys; Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Facultad de Química y Farmacia. Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" >Albernas-Carvajal, Yailet; Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Facultad de Química y Farmacia. Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" >Pedraza-Garciga, Julio; Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Facultad de Química y Farmacia. Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" >Morales-Zamora, Marlen

    2017-01-01

    The uncertainty has a great impact in the investment decisions, operability of the plants and in the feasibility of integration opportunities in the chemical processes. This paper, presents the steps to consider the optimization of process investment in the processes integration under conditions of uncertainty. It is shown the potentialities of the biomass cane of sugar for the integration with several plants in a biorefinery scheme for the obtaining chemical products, thermal and electric energy. Among the factories with potentialities for this integration are the pulp and paper and sugar factories and other derivative processes. Theses factories have common resources and also have a variety of products that can be exchange between them so certain products generated in a one of them can be raw matter in another plant. The methodology developed guide to obtaining of feasible investment projects under uncertainty. As objective function was considered the maximization of net profitable value in different scenarios that are generated from the integration scheme. (author)

  5. A predictor-corrector scheme for solving the Volterra integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2011-08-01

    The occurrence of late time instabilities is a common problem of almost all time marching methods developed for solving time domain integral equations. Implicit marching algorithms are now considered stable with various efforts that have been developed for removing low and high frequency instabilities. On the other hand, literature on stabilizing explicit schemes, which might be considered more efficient since they do not require a matrix inversion at each time step, is practically non-existent. In this work, a stable but still explicit predictor-corrector scheme is proposed for solving the Volterra integral equation and its efficacy is verified numerically. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Practical splitting methods for the adaptive integration of nonlinear evolution equations. Part I: Construction of optimized schemes and pairs of schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Auzinger, Winfried; Hofstä tter, Harald; Ketcheson, David I.; Koch, Othmar

    2016-01-01

    We present a number of new contributions to the topic of constructing efficient higher-order splitting methods for the numerical integration of evolution equations. Particular schemes are constructed via setup and solution of polynomial systems for the splitting coefficients. To this end we use and modify a recent approach for generating these systems for a large class of splittings. In particular, various types of pairs of schemes intended for use in adaptive integrators are constructed.

  7. Practical splitting methods for the adaptive integration of nonlinear evolution equations. Part I: Construction of optimized schemes and pairs of schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Auzinger, Winfried

    2016-07-28

    We present a number of new contributions to the topic of constructing efficient higher-order splitting methods for the numerical integration of evolution equations. Particular schemes are constructed via setup and solution of polynomial systems for the splitting coefficients. To this end we use and modify a recent approach for generating these systems for a large class of splittings. In particular, various types of pairs of schemes intended for use in adaptive integrators are constructed.

  8. Gauss-Kronrod-Trapezoidal Integration Scheme for Modeling Biological Tissues with Continuous Fiber Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chieh; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous biological tissues may be modeled using a continuous fiber distribution (CFD) to capture tension-compression nonlinearity, anisotropic fiber distributions, and load-induced anisotropy. The CFD framework requires spherical integration of weighted individual fiber responses, with fibers contributing to the stress response only when they are in tension. The common method for performing this integration employs the discretization of the unit sphere into a polyhedron with nearly uniform triangular faces (finite element integration or FEI scheme). Although FEI has proven to be more accurate and efficient than integration using spherical coordinates, it presents three major drawbacks: First, the number of elements on the unit sphere needed to achieve satisfactory accuracy becomes a significant computational cost in a finite element analysis. Second, fibers may not be in tension in some regions on the unit sphere, where the integration becomes a waste. Third, if tensed fiber bundles span a small region compared to the area of the elements on the sphere, a significant discretization error arises. This study presents an integration scheme specialized to the CFD framework, which significantly mitigates the first drawback of the FEI scheme, while eliminating the second and third completely. Here, integration is performed only over the regions of the unit sphere where fibers are in tension. Gauss-Kronrod quadrature is used across latitudes and the trapezoidal scheme across longitudes. Over a wide range of strain states, fiber material properties, and fiber angular distributions, results demonstrate that this new scheme always outperforms FEI, sometimes by orders of magnitude in the number of computational steps and relative accuracy of the stress calculation. PMID:26291492

  9. A Gauss-Kronrod-Trapezoidal integration scheme for modeling biological tissues with continuous fiber distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chieh; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous biological tissues may be modeled using a continuous fiber distribution (CFD) to capture tension-compression nonlinearity, anisotropic fiber distributions, and load-induced anisotropy. The CFD framework requires spherical integration of weighted individual fiber responses, with fibers contributing to the stress response only when they are in tension. The common method for performing this integration employs the discretization of the unit sphere into a polyhedron with nearly uniform triangular faces (finite element integration or FEI scheme). Although FEI has proven to be more accurate and efficient than integration using spherical coordinates, it presents three major drawbacks: First, the number of elements on the unit sphere needed to achieve satisfactory accuracy becomes a significant computational cost in a finite element (FE) analysis. Second, fibers may not be in tension in some regions on the unit sphere, where the integration becomes a waste. Third, if tensed fiber bundles span a small region compared to the area of the elements on the sphere, a significant discretization error arises. This study presents an integration scheme specialized to the CFD framework, which significantly mitigates the first drawback of the FEI scheme, while eliminating the second and third completely. Here, integration is performed only over the regions of the unit sphere where fibers are in tension. Gauss-Kronrod quadrature is used across latitudes and the trapezoidal scheme across longitudes. Over a wide range of strain states, fiber material properties, and fiber angular distributions, results demonstrate that this new scheme always outperforms FEI, sometimes by orders of magnitude in the number of computational steps and relative accuracy of the stress calculation.

  10. A secure and efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Chang, I-Pin; Lin, Tsung-Hung; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    The integrated EPR information system supports convenient and rapid e-medicine services. A secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system provides safeguarding patients' electronic patient records (EPRs) and helps health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed an efficient password-based user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various malicious attacks. However, their scheme is still vulnerable to lost smart card and stolen verifier attacks. This investigation discusses these weaknesses and proposes a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system as alternative. Compared with related approaches, the proposed scheme not only retains a lower computational cost and does not require verifier tables for storing users' secrets, but also solves the security problems in previous schemes and withstands possible attacks.

  11. A subtraction scheme for computing QCD jet cross sections at NNLO: integrating the subtraction terms I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Gábor; Trócsányi, Zoltán

    2008-08-01

    In previous articles we outlined a subtraction scheme for regularizing doubly-real emission and real-virtual emission in next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) calculations of jet cross sections in electron-positron annihilation. In order to find the NNLO correction these subtraction terms have to be integrated over the factorized unresolved phase space and combined with the two-loop corrections. In this paper we perform the integration of all one-parton unresolved subtraction terms.

  12. A splitting integration scheme for the SPH simulation of concentrated particle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xin; Ellero, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Simulating nearly contacting solid particles in suspension is a challenging task due to the diverging behavior of short-range lubrication forces, which pose a serious time-step limitation for explicit integration schemes. This general difficulty limits severely the total duration of simulations of concentrated suspensions. Inspired by the ideas developed in [S. Litvinov, M. Ellero, X.Y. Hu, N.A. Adams, J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 5457-5464] for the simulation of highly dissipative fluids, we propose in this work a splitting integration scheme for the direct simulation of solid particles suspended in a Newtonian liquid. The scheme separates the contributions of different forces acting on the solid particles. In particular, intermediate- and long-range multi-body hydrodynamic forces, which are computed from the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, are taken into account using an explicit integration; for short-range lubrication forces, velocities of pairwise interacting solid particles are updated implicitly by sweeping over all the neighboring pairs iteratively, until convergence in the solution is obtained. By using the splitting integration, simulations can be run stably and efficiently up to very large solid particle concentrations. Moreover, the proposed scheme is not limited to the SPH method presented here, but can be easily applied to other simulation techniques employed for particulate suspensions.

  13. A new entropy condition for increasing accuracy and convergence rate of TVD scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, M.M.; Esfahanian, V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a TVD method is applied to the numerical solution of the flow over axisymmetric steady hypersonic viscous flow using TLNS equations over blunt cone. In the TVD schemes, the artificial viscosity (AV) is implemented using entropy condition. For hypersonic flow, Yee entropy condition shows relatively a better stability and convergence rate than others. This paper presents a new entropy condition for increasing the accuracy and convergence rate of the TVD scheme which does not have the difficulty associated with Yee entropy condition for viscous flow in the hypersonic regime. The entropy condition increases the AV in the shocks and decreases AV in the smooth region. The numerical solution has been compared with the Beam and Warming shock fitting approach indicating a better numerical accuracy. (author)

  14. Increasing efficiency through integrated energy data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses how improved management of energy data can bring about the increase in efficiency that is necessary for an electricity enterprise operating in a liberalised electricity market. The relevant technical and business processes involved for a typical power distribution utility are described. The present situation is reviewed and the various physical, data-logistics and commercial 'domains' involved are examined. Possible solutions for energy data logistics and integrated data management are discussed from the points of view of the operating utility, the power supplier and those responsible for balancing out supply and demand

  15. Application of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) accelerators to the Pleim-Xiu land surface scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2015-10-01

    The land-surface model (LSM) is one physics process in the weather research and forecast (WRF) model. The LSM includes atmospheric information from the surface layer scheme, radiative forcing from the radiation scheme, and precipitation forcing from the microphysics and convective schemes, together with internal information on the land's state variables and land-surface properties. The LSM is to provide heat and moisture fluxes over land points and sea-ice points. The Pleim-Xiu (PX) scheme is one LSM. The PX LSM features three pathways for moisture fluxes: evapotranspiration, soil evaporation, and evaporation from wet canopies. To accelerate the computation process of this scheme, we employ Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture as it is a multiprocessor computer structure with merits of efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials. Our results show that the MIC-based optimization of this scheme running on Xeon Phi coprocessor 7120P improves the performance by 2.3x and 11.7x as compared to the original code respectively running on one CPU socket (eight cores) and on one CPU core with Intel Xeon E5-2670.

  16. Macro-level integrated renewable energy production schemes for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable clean energy is a prime necessity for the sustainable future existence of our planet. However, because of the resource-intensive nature, and other challenges associated with these new generation renewable energy sources, novel industrial frameworks need to be co-developed. Integrated renewable energy production schemes with foundations on resource sharing, carbon neutrality, energy-efficient design, source reduction, green processing plan, anthropogenic use of waste resources for the production green energy along with the production of raw material for allied food and chemical industries is imperative for the sustainable development of this sector especially in an emission-constrained future industrial scenario. To attain these objectives, the scope of hybrid renewable production systems and integrated renewable energy industrial ecology is briefly described. Further, the principles of Integrated Renewable Energy Park (IREP) approach, an example for macro-level energy production, and its benefits and global applications are also explored. - Research highlights: → Discusses the need for macro-level renewable energy production schemes. → Scope of hybrid and integrated industrial ecology for renewable energy production. → Integrated Renewable Energy Parks (IREPs): A macro-level energy production scheme. → Discusses the principle foundations and global applications of IREPs. → Describes the significance of IREPs in the carbon-neutral future business arena.

  17. Integrated engineering increases flexibility. [At BNFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ray [British Nuclear Fuels plc, London (UK)

    1991-05-01

    Integrated Engineering (IE) can be used to describe the best use of increasingly rare good engineering talent in an increasingly competive world. A number of organisations are now moving towards IE without any general agreement on a precise definition. The engineering division of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is one such organisation. This feature covers the reasoning behind the decision, and our experience to date. BNFL engineering division is responsible primarily for the provision of major facilities on BNFL operational sites. This provision includes feasibility, front end and detailed design, procurement, installation and commissioning. Task force working has been used for some of the large projects. But the future workload is expected to comprise many more smaller projects. At the same time, equipment is becoming more complex and the need for mutual understanding and appreciation between disciplines is increasing. To meet this increasing need for flexibility, BNFL has decided to move to the matrix structure of project management and functional departments described in the article. (Author).

  18. A secure and robust password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-03-01

    An integrated EPR (Electronic Patient Record) information system of all the patients provides the medical institutions and the academia with most of the patients' information in details for them to make corrective decisions and clinical decisions in order to maintain and analyze patients' health. In such system, the illegal access must be restricted and the information from theft during transmission over the insecure Internet must be prevented. Lee et al. proposed an efficient password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart card for the integrated EPR information system. Their scheme is very efficient due to usage of one-way hash function and bitwise exclusive-or (XOR) operations. However, in this paper, we show that though their scheme is very efficient, their scheme has three security weaknesses such as (1) it has design flaws in password change phase, (2) it fails to protect privileged insider attack and (3) it lacks the formal security verification. We also find that another recently proposed Wen's scheme has the same security drawbacks as in Lee at al.'s scheme. In order to remedy these security weaknesses found in Lee et al.'s scheme and Wen's scheme, we propose a secure and efficient password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards for the integrated EPR information system. We show that our scheme is also efficient as compared to Lee et al.'s scheme and Wen's scheme as our scheme only uses one-way hash function and bitwise exclusive-or (XOR) operations. Through the security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. Furthermore, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks.

  19. Multi-symplectic integrators: numerical schemes for Hamiltonian PDEs that conserve symplecticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Thomas J.; Reich, Sebastian

    2001-06-01

    The symplectic numerical integration of finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems is a well established subject and has led to a deeper understanding of existing methods as well as to the development of new very efficient and accurate schemes, e.g., for rigid body, constrained, and molecular dynamics. The numerical integration of infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems or Hamiltonian PDEs is much less explored. In this Letter, we suggest a new theoretical framework for generalizing symplectic numerical integrators for ODEs to Hamiltonian PDEs in R2: time plus one space dimension. The central idea is that symplecticity for Hamiltonian PDEs is directional: the symplectic structure of the PDE is decomposed into distinct components representing space and time independently. In this setting PDE integrators can be constructed by concatenating uni-directional ODE symplectic integrators. This suggests a natural definition of multi-symplectic integrator as a discretization that conserves a discrete version of the conservation of symplecticity for Hamiltonian PDEs. We show that this approach leads to a general framework for geometric numerical schemes for Hamiltonian PDEs, which have remarkable energy and momentum conservation properties. Generalizations, including development of higher-order methods, application to the Euler equations in fluid mechanics, application to perturbed systems, and extension to more than one space dimension are also discussed.

  20. A Hash Based Remote User Authentication and Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To protect patient privacy and ensure authorized access to remote medical services, many remote user authentication schemes for the integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system have been proposed in the literature. In a recent paper, Das proposed a hash based remote user authentication scheme using passwords and smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various passive and active attacks. However, in this paper, we found that Das's authentication scheme is still vulnerable to modification and user duplication attacks. Thereafter we propose a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system based on lightweight hash function and bitwise exclusive-or (XOR) operations. The security proof and performance analysis show our new scheme is well-suited to adoption in remote medical healthcare services.

  1. A Fault Tolerant Direct Control Allocation Scheme with Integral Sliding Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamayun Mirza Tariq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, integral sliding mode control ideas are combined with direct control allocation in order to create a fault tolerant control scheme. Traditional integral sliding mode control can directly handle actuator faults; however, it cannot do so with actuator failures. Therefore, a mechanism needs to be adopted to distribute the control effort amongst the remaining functioning actuators in cases of faults or failures, so that an acceptable level of closed-loop performance can be retained. This paper considers the possibility of introducing fault tolerance even if fault or failure information is not provided to the control strategy. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme, a high fidelity nonlinear model of a large civil aircraft is considered in the simulations in the presence of wind, gusts and sensor noise.

  2. The Kembs project: environmental integration of a large existing hydropower scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Alain; Barillier, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    The environment was a major issue for the Kembs re-licensing process on the upper Rhine River. Since 1932, Kembs dam derives water from the Rhine River to the 'Grand Canal d'Alsace' (GCA) which is equipped with four hydropower plants (max. diverted flow: 1400 m 3 /s, 630 MW, 3760 GWh/y). The Old Rhine River downstream of the dam is 50 km long and has been strongly affected by works (dikes) since the 19. century for flood protection and navigation, and then by the construction of the dam. Successive engineering works induced morphological simplification and stabilization of the channel pattern from a formerly braided form to a single incised channel, generating ecological alterations. As the Kembs hydroelectric scheme concerns three countries (France, Germany and Switzerland) with various regulations and views on how to manage with environment, EDF undertook an integrated environmental approach instead of a strict 'impact/mitigation' balance that took 10 years to develop. Therefore, the project simultaneously acts on complementary compartments of the aquatic, riparian and terrestrial environment, to benefit from the synergies that exist between them; a new power plant (8,5 MW, 28 GWh/y) is built to limit the energetic losses and to ensure various functions thereby increasing the overall environmental gain. (authors)

  3. Development of highly accurate approximate scheme for computing the charge transfer integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pershin, Anton; Szalay, Péter G. [Laboratory for Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-08-21

    The charge transfer integral is a key parameter required by various theoretical models to describe charge transport properties, e.g., in organic semiconductors. The accuracy of this important property depends on several factors, which include the level of electronic structure theory and internal simplifications of the applied formalism. The goal of this paper is to identify the performance of various approximate approaches of the latter category, while using the high level equation-of-motion coupled cluster theory for the electronic structure. The calculations have been performed on the ethylene dimer as one of the simplest model systems. By studying different spatial perturbations, it was shown that while both energy split in dimer and fragment charge difference methods are equivalent with the exact formulation for symmetrical displacements, they are less efficient when describing transfer integral along the asymmetric alteration coordinate. Since the “exact” scheme was found computationally expensive, we examine the possibility to obtain the asymmetric fluctuation of the transfer integral by a Taylor expansion along the coordinate space. By exploring the efficiency of this novel approach, we show that the Taylor expansion scheme represents an attractive alternative to the “exact” calculations due to a substantial reduction of computational costs, when a considerably large region of the potential energy surface is of interest. Moreover, we show that the Taylor expansion scheme, irrespective of the dimer symmetry, is very accurate for the entire range of geometry fluctuations that cover the space the molecule accesses at room temperature.

  4. Financing schemes increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use in public and private buildings. Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    resources to financial engineering and creation of innovative financing schemes that will help them keep the money spent on energy near home. They strive for sustainable, long-term financing solutions capable to generate large-scale investments. Indeed, financing energy transition will require strong technical, financial, legal and coordination skills and expertise in local authorities. Many different players at all levels of governance have already tested and implemented successful innovative financing schemes. However, the existing and emerging financing solutions remain isolated and not well known. Energy Cities - the European association of local authorities in energy transition - aims at strengthening the skills of local authorities in this field and facilitating the exchange of their experiences so that successful schemes can be more easily replicated all over the EU and beyond. Thus, Energy Cities identified 9 existing local, regional and national financing schemes aiming at increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use in public and private buildings, which are usually the biggest energy consumer at local level. They are presented in this study. The financing schemes have been selected with the aim to present a myriad of different solutions that are implemented to address the same problem: - Local investment funds (Almada in Portugal, Amsterdam in the Netherlands and Region Centre in France). - Local public and semi-public companies (Ile de France and Rhone-Alpes Regions in France). - Revolving funds linked to grants and soft-loan schemes (Lithuania, Estonia, Brussels-Capital Region, Delft in the Netherlands)

  5. Vertical integration increases opportunities for patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoccia, R A; Benvenuto, J A; Blancett, L

    1991-08-01

    New sources of patients will become more and more important in the next decade as hospitals continue to feel the squeeze of a competitive marketplace. Vertical integration, a distribution tool used in other industries, will be a significant tool for health care administrators. In the following article, the authors explain the vertical integration model that shows promise for other institutions.

  6. Developing support schemes for electric renewable energy in France: how to reconcile integration and deployment challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde; Ruedinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The reform for a greater integration of support schemes in the electricity market is not a marginal development, and should allow for a transition period for market actors to adapt. Lessons from the experience of neighboring countries will be valuable, especially in view of greater regional harmonization in the future. Better integration of solutions for reducing demand and greater system flexibility would also be advisable going forward. Finally, it is also essential to evaluate the impact of the reform on the risk of electricity market concentration and a reduced diversity of actors; as well as of the potential increase in barriers to entry which could hinder the emergence of collaborative or citizen projects, as these are crucial for improving project acceptance and sharing RES costs. Through stronger exposure to market signals, market premia can assist the technical and economic integration of renewable energy (RES). The resultant advantages in terms of improvements in forecasting and marketing tools, negative price management and support for more valuable technologies and practices in the system closely depends, however, on the precise calibration of the mechanisms involved. To address this, it seems essential to learn from the experiences of neighboring countries and to plan an adequate transition period for all actors to adapt to the change in regulation. The rise in transaction costs and risk premia can lead to additional costs under the new mechanisms. Direct costs, which are linked to the marketing of electricity and to rules aimed at curtailing negative prices, remain limited. However, a cost-benefit analysis must consider the impact of changes in regulation on risk perception and the cost of capital for financing projects - a determinant factor in the economic viability of the project. This further implies a need to consider complementary measures aimed at reducing the financial risks to limit production costs and incremental costs for society. The push

  7. Integrated subsurface water solutions for coastal environments through integrated pump&treat and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikaki, Martha; Kallioras, Andreas; Christoforidis, Christophoros; Iossifidis, Dimitris; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Makropoulos, Christos; Raat, Klaasjan; van den Berg, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands in semi-arid regions, as in Circum-Mediterranean, are considered important ecosystems that provide valuable services to human population and the environment, such as: flood protection, erosion control, wildlife habitat, water quality, recreation and carbon sequestration. Un-managed surface and groundwater exploitation in these areas usually leads to deterioration of such sensitive ecosystems by means of water resources degradation and/or increased salinity. Groundwater usually plays a vital role for the sustainability of these hydrological systems, as the underlying aquifers operate as regulators for both quantity and quality of their waters. Multi-layer and multi-objective Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be proved effective groundwater engineered solutions for the restoration of deteriorated coastal wetlands in semi- and arid regions. The plain of Marathon is a typical Mediterranean environment that hosts a naturally occurring -and today degraded- coastal wetland with the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem linked to a typical coastal hydrogeological system of a semi-arid region; and therefore can serve as a model for similar systems world-wide. The geo-hydrological setting of the area involves a multi-layer aquifer system consisting of (i) an upper un-consolidated formation of depositional unit dominated mostly by fluvial sediments and (ii) the surrounding and underlying karstified marbles; both being linked to the investigated wetland and also subjected to seawater encroachment. A smart engineered MAR system via an optimised Pump & Treat system integrated with an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) scheme in this area would include the abstraction of brackish groundwater from the deeper karst aquifer at a location close to the shoreline and direct treatment with Reverse Osmosis (RO). for desalination. Two-fold re-use scheme of the purified effluent can then be engineered for (i) the restoration of the coastal wetland; and (ii

  8. Scalability of Direct Solver for Non-stationary Cahn-Hilliard Simulations with Linearized time Integration Scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Woźniak, M.

    2016-06-02

    We study the features of a new mixed integration scheme dedicated to solving the non-stationary variational problems. The scheme is composed of the FEM approximation with respect to the space variable coupled with a 3-leveled time integration scheme with a linearized right-hand side operator. It was applied in solving the Cahn-Hilliard parabolic equation with a nonlinear, fourth-order elliptic part. The second order of the approximation along the time variable was proven. Moreover, the good scalability of the software based on this scheme was confirmed during simulations. We verify the proposed time integration scheme by monitoring the Ginzburg-Landau free energy. The numerical simulations are performed by using a parallel multi-frontal direct solver executed over STAMPEDE Linux cluster. Its scalability was compared to the results of the three direct solvers, including MUMPS, SuperLU and PaSTiX.

  9. Robot vision language RVL/V: An integration scheme of visual processing and manipulator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Sato, T.; Hirai, S.

    1984-01-01

    RVL/V is a robot vision language designed to write a program for visual processing and manipulator control of a hand-eye system. This paper describes the design of RVL/V and the current implementation of the system. Visual processing is performed on one-dimensional range data of the object surface. Model-based instructions execute object detection, measurement and view control. The hierarchy of visual data and processing is introduced to give RVL/V generality. A new scheme to integrate visual information and manipulator control is proposed. The effectiveness of the model-based visual processing scheme based on profile data is demonstrated by a hand-eye experiment

  10. Integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of agri-environmental schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Christopher Mark; Reed, Mark; Bieling, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    While multiple studies have identified land managers’ preferences for agri-environmental schemes (AES), few approaches exist for integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of these measures. We compared and contrasted rural land managers’ attitudes toward AES...... to the reduced amount of funding available for entry-level and higher-level stewardship schemes in the UK since 2008, changing funding priorities, perceived overstrict compliance and lack of support for farm succession and new entrants into farming. However, there were differences in concerns across...... understandings of landscape stewardship, with production respondents citing that AES do not encourage food production, whereas environmental and holistic farmers citing that AES do not support the development of a local green food culture and associated social infrastructure. These differences also emerged...

  11. Solution of the Stokes system by boundary integral equations and fixed point iterative schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Lubuma, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The solution to the exterior three dimensional Stokes problem is sought in the form of a single layer potential of unknown density. This reduces the problem to a boundary integral equation of the first kind whose operator is the velocity component of the single layer potential. It is shown that this component is an isomorphism between two appropriate Sobolev spaces containing the unknown densities and the data respectively. The isomorphism corresponds to a variational problem with coercive bilinear form. The latter property allows us to consider various fixed point iterative schemes that converge to the unique solution of the integral equation. Explicit error estimates are also obtained. The successive approximations are also considered in a more computable form by using the product integration method of Atkinson. (author). 47 refs

  12. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and integration schemes for physiological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Exercise subroutine modifications are implemented in an exercise-respiratory system model yielding improvement of system response to exercise forcings. A more physiologically desirable respiratory ventilation rate in addition to an improved regulation of arterial gas tensions and cerebral blood flow is observed. A respiratory frequency expression is proposed which would be appropriate as an interfacing element of the respiratory-pulsatile cardiovascular system. Presentation of a circulatory-respiratory system integration scheme along with its computer program listing is given. The integrated system responds to exercise stimulation for both nonstressed and stressed physiological states. Other integration possibilities are discussed with respect to the respiratory, pulsatile cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and the long-term circulatory systems.

  13. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Beghein, Yves; Nair, Naveen V.; Cools, Kristof; Bagci, Hakan; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method's efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  14. Integrating environmental goals into urban redevelopment schemes: lessons from the Code River, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B B

    2002-01-01

    The settlement along the bank of the Code River in Yogyakarta, Indonesia provides housing for a large mass of the city's poor. Its strategic location and the fact that most urban poor do not have access to land, attracts people to "illegally" settle along the bank of the river. This brings negative consequences for the environment, particularly the increasing domestic waste along the river and the annual flooding in the rainy season. While the public controversies regarding the existence of the settlement along the Code River were still not resolved, at the end of the 1980s, a group of architects, academics and community members proposed the idea of constructing a dike along the River as part of a broader settlement improvement program. From 1991 to 1998, thousands of local people mobilized their resources and were able to construct 6,000 metres of riverside dike along the Code River. The construction of the riverside dike along the River has become an important "stimulant" that generated not only settlement improvement, but also a better treatment of river water. As all housing units located along the River are now facing the River, the River itself is considered the "front-yard". Before the dike was constructed, the inhabitants used to treat the River as the "backyard" and therefore just throw waste into the River. They now really want to have a cleaner river, since the River is an important part of their settlement. The settlement along the Code River presents a complex range of persistent problems with informal settlements in Indonesia; such problems are related to the issues of how to provide more affordable and adequate housing for the poor, while at the same time, to improve the water quality of the river. The project represents a good case, which shows that through a mutual partnership among stakeholders, it is possible to integrate environmental goals into urban redevelopment schemes.

  15. Utilization of cellulosic materials through enzymic hydrolysis. 11. Preliminary assessment of an integrated processing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, C R; Cysewski, G R; Yang, R D

    1976-01-01

    An integrated processing scheme is described for the conversion of a cellulose waste (newsprint) to sugars by enzymic hydrolysis and then to ethanol and yeast by fermentation. The unconverted solids are burned to produce process energy requirements and surplus electric power. With the preliminary design at an estimate total capital investment of $33.4 x 10/sup 6/, 95% ethanol may be produced FOB (free on board) the plant for approx.61 cents/gal, assuming zero cost for cellulosic feed; taking into account interest rates and taxes and a cellulose feed cost of $20/ton the figure becomes $1.67/gal.

  16. Network Regulation and Support Schemes - How Policy Interactions Affect the Integration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect distributed generation. Firstly, the incentives of distributed generators and distribution system operators are examined. Frequently there exists a trade......-off between the incentives for these two market agents to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based on five EU Member States. Aspects of operational nature and investments in grid and distributed...

  17. A comprehensive review on two-stage integrative schemes for the valorization of dark fermentative effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Kuppam, Chandrasekhar; Mudhoo, Ackmez; Saratale, Ganesh D; Kadier, Abudukeremu; Zhen, Guangyin; Chatellard, Lucile; Trably, Eric; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan

    2017-12-21

    This review provides the alternative routes towards the valorization of dark H 2 fermentation effluents that are mainly rich in volatile fatty acids such as acetate and butyrate. Various enhancement and alternative routes such as photo fermentation, anaerobic digestion, utilization of microbial electrochemical systems, and algal system towards the generation of bioenergy and electricity and also for efficient organic matter utilization are highlighted. What is more, various integration schemes and two-stage fermentation for the possible scale up are reviewed. Moreover, recent progress for enhanced performance towards waste stabilization and overall utilization of useful and higher COD present in the organic source into value-added products are extensively discussed.

  18. Integrated data lookup and replication scheme in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2001-11-01

    Accessing remote data is a challenging task in mobile ad hoc networks. Two problems have to be solved: (1) how to learn about available data in the network; and (2) how to access desired data even when the original copy of the data is unreachable. In this paper, we develop an integrated data lookup and replication scheme to solve these problems. In our scheme, a group of mobile nodes collectively host a set of data to improve data accessibility for all members of the group. They exchange data availability information by broadcasting advertising (ad) messages to the group using an adaptive sending rate policy. The ad messages are used by other nodes to derive a local data lookup table, and to reduce data redundancy within a connected group. Our data replication scheme predicts group partitioning based on each node's current location and movement patterns, and replicates data to other partitions before partitioning occurs. Our simulations show that data availability information can quickly propagate throughout the network, and that the successful data access ratio of each node is significantly improved.

  19. Meaningful Share Generation for Increased Number of Secrets in Visual Secret-Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ulutas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new scheme for hiding two halftone secret images into two meaningful shares created from halftone cover images. Meaningful shares are more desirable than noise-like (meaningless shares in Visual Secret Sharing because they look natural and do not attract eavesdroppers' attention. Previous works in the field focus on either increasing number of secrets or creating meaningful shares for one secret image. The method outlined in this paper both increases the number of secrets and creates meaningful shares at the same time. While the contrast ratio of shares is equal to that of Extended Visual Cryptography, two secrets are encoded into two shares as opposed to one secret in the Extended Visual Cryptography. Any two natural-looking images can be used as cover unlike the Halftone Visual Cryptography method where one cover should be the negative of the other cover image and can only encode one secret. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by an experiment.

  20. Implementation of numerical integration schemes for the simulation of magnetic SMA constitutive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, B; Bartel, T; Menzel, A

    2012-01-01

    Several constitutive models for magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) have been proposed in the literature. The implementation of numerical integration schemes, which allow the prediction of constitutive response for general loading cases and ultimately the incorporation of MSMA response into numerical solution algorithms for fully coupled magneto-mechanical boundary value problems, however, has received only very limited attention. In this work, we establish two algorithmic implementations of the internal variable model for MSMAs proposed in (Kiefer and Lagoudas 2005 Phil. Mag. Spec. Issue: Recent Adv. Theor. Mech. 85 4289–329, Kiefer and Lagoudas 2009 J. Intell. Mater. Syst. 20 143–70), where we restrict our attention to pure martensitic variant reorientation to limit complexity. The first updating scheme is based on the numerical integration of the reorientation strain evolution equation and represents a classical predictor–corrector-type general return mapping algorithm. In the second approach, the inequality-constrained optimization problem associated with internal variable evolution is converted into an unconstrained problem via Fischer–Burmeister complementarity functions and then iteratively solved in standard Newton–Raphson format. Simulations are verified by comparison to closed-form solutions for experimentally relevant loading cases. (paper)

  1. Impact of integrated child development scheme on child malnutrition in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arijita; Ghosh, Smritikana

    2017-10-01

    With child malnutrition detected as a persistent problem in most of the developing countries, public policy has been directed towards offering community-based supplementary feeding provision and nutritional information to caregivers. India, being no exception, has initiated these programs as early as 1970s under integrated child development scheme. Using propensity score matching technique on primary data of 390 households in two districts of West Bengal, an Eastern state in India, the study finds that impact of being included in the program and receiving supplementary feeding is insignificant on child stunting measures, though the program can break the intractable barriers of child stunting only when the child successfully receives not only just the supplementary feeding but also his caregiver collects crucial information on nutritional awareness and growth trajectory of the child. Availability of regular eggs in the feeding diet too can reduce protein-related undernutrition. Focusing on just feeding means low depth of other services offered under integrated child development scheme, including pre-school education, nutritional awareness, and hygiene behavior; thus repealing a part of the apparent food-secure population who puts far more importance on the latter services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Kibret, Solomon; Wilson, G Glenn; Tekie, Habte; Petros, Beyene

    2014-01-01

    Background Irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. This study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in Central Ethiopia. Methods Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected fortnightly between November 2009 and October 2010 from two irrigated and two non-irrigated (control) villages in the Ziway area, Central Ethiopia...

  3. 3-D fracture analysis using a partial-reduced integration scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents details of 3-D elastic-plastic analyses of axially orientated external surface flaw in an internally pressurized thin-walled cylinder and discusses the variation of the J-integral values around the crack tip. A partial-reduced-integration-penalty method is introduced to minimize this variation of the J-integral near the crack tip. Utilizing 3-D symmetry, an eighth segment of a tube containing an elliptically shaped external surface flaw is modelled using 20-noded isoparametric elements. The crack-tip elements are collapsed to form a 1/r stress singularity about the curved crack front. The finite element model is subjected to internal pressure and axial pressure-generated loads. The virtual crack extension method is used to determine linear elastic stress intensity factors from the J-integral results at various points around the crack front. Despite the different material constants and the thinner wall thickness in this analysis, the elastic results compare favourably with those obtained by other researchers. The nonlinear stress-strain behaviour of the tube material is modelled using an incremental theory of plasticity. Variations of the J-integral values around the curved crack front of the 3-D flaw were seen. These variations could not be resolved by neglecting the immediate crack-tip elements J-integral results in favour of the more remote contour paths or else smoothed out when all the path results are averaged. Numerical incompatabilities in the 20-noded 3-D finite elements used to model the surface flaw were found. A partial-reduced integration scheme, using a combination of full and reduced integration elements, is proposed to determine J-integral results for 3-D fracture analyses. This procedure is applied to the analysis of an external semicircular surface flaw projecting halfway into the tube wall thickness. Examples of the J-integral values, before and after the partial-reduced integration method is employed, are given around the

  4. Fuzzy adaptive integration scheme for low-cost SINS/GPS navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammadi, Hossein; Keighobadi, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Due to weak stand-alone accuracy as well as poor run-to-run stability of micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors, special approaches are required to integrate low-cost strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) with global positioning system (GPS), particularly in long-term applications. This paper aims to enhance long-term performance of conventional SINS/GPS navigation systems using a fuzzy adaptive integration scheme. The main concept behind the proposed adaptive integration is the good performance of attitude-heading reference system (AHRS) in low-accelerated motions and its degradation in maneuvered or accelerated motions. Depending on vehicle maneuvers, gravity-based attitude angles can be intelligently utilized to improve orientation estimation in the SINS. Knowledge-based fuzzy inference system is developed for decision-making between the AHRS and the SINS according to vehicle maneuvering conditions. Inertial measurements are the main input data of the fuzzy system to determine the maneuvering level during the vehicle motions. Accordingly, appropriate weighting coefficients are produced to combine the SINS/GPS and the AHRS, efficiently. The assessment of the proposed integrated navigation system is conducted via real data in airborne tests.

  5. Integration of electromagnetic induction sensor data in soil sampling scheme optimization using simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, E; Castrignanò, A; Buttafuoco, G; De Benedetto, D; Passarella, G

    2015-07-01

    Soil survey is generally time-consuming, labor-intensive, and costly. Optimization of sampling scheme allows one to reduce the number of sampling points without decreasing or even increasing the accuracy of investigated attribute. Maps of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC a ) recorded with electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors could be effectively used to direct soil sampling design for assessing spatial variability of soil moisture. A protocol, using a field-scale bulk EC a survey, has been applied in an agricultural field in Apulia region (southeastern Italy). Spatial simulated annealing was used as a method to optimize spatial soil sampling scheme taking into account sampling constraints, field boundaries, and preliminary observations. Three optimization criteria were used. the first criterion (minimization of mean of the shortest distances, MMSD) optimizes the spreading of the point observations over the entire field by minimizing the expectation of the distance between an arbitrarily chosen point and its nearest observation; the second criterion (minimization of weighted mean of the shortest distances, MWMSD) is a weighted version of the MMSD, which uses the digital gradient of the grid EC a data as weighting function; and the third criterion (mean of average ordinary kriging variance, MAOKV) minimizes mean kriging estimation variance of the target variable. The last criterion utilizes the variogram model of soil water content estimated in a previous trial. The procedures, or a combination of them, were tested and compared in a real case. Simulated annealing was implemented by the software MSANOS able to define or redesign any sampling scheme by increasing or decreasing the original sampling locations. The output consists of the computed sampling scheme, the convergence time, and the cooling law, which can be an invaluable support to the process of sampling design. The proposed approach has found the optimal solution in a reasonable computation time. The

  6. Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Cellular/WLAN Systems with Integrated Service-Based Vertical Handoff Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weiwei; Shen, Lianfeng

    We propose two vertical handoff schemes for cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) integration: integrated service-based handoff (ISH) and integrated service-based handoff with queue capabilities (ISHQ). Compared with existing handoff schemes in integrated cellular/WLAN networks, the proposed schemes consider a more comprehensive set of system characteristics such as different features of voice and data services, dynamic information about the admitted calls, user mobility and vertical handoffs in two directions. The code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular network and IEEE 802.11e WLAN are taken into account in the proposed schemes. We model the integrated networks by using multi-dimensional Markov chains and the major performance measures are derived for voice and data services. The important system parameters such as thresholds to prioritize handoff voice calls and queue sizes are optimized. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed ISHQ scheme can maximize the utilization of overall bandwidth resources with the best quality of service (QoS) provisioning for voice and data services.

  7. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2014-12-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method\\'s efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  8. An integrated control scheme for space robot after capturing non-cooperative target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingming; Luo, Jianjun; Yuan, Jianping; Walter, Ulrich

    2018-06-01

    How to identify the mass properties and eliminate the unknown angular momentum of space robotic system after capturing a non-cooperative target is of great challenge. This paper focuses on designing an integrated control framework which includes detumbling strategy, coordination control and parameter identification. Firstly, inverted and forward chain approaches are synthesized for space robot to obtain dynamic equation in operational space. Secondly, a detumbling strategy is introduced using elementary functions with normalized time, while the imposed end-effector constraints are considered. Next, a coordination control scheme for stabilizing both base and end-effector based on impedance control is implemented with the target's parameter uncertainty. With the measurements of the forces and torques exerted on the target, its mass properties are estimated during the detumbling process accordingly. Simulation results are presented using a 7 degree-of-freedom kinematically redundant space manipulator, which verifies the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Long-term stable time integration scheme for dynamic analysis of planar geometrically exact Timoshenko beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Long; Sansour, Carlo; Hjiaj, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an energy-momentum method for geometrically exact Timoshenko-type beam is proposed. The classical time integration schemes in dynamics are known to exhibit instability in the non-linear regime. The so-called Timoshenko-type beam with the use of rotational degree of freedom leads to simpler strain relations and simpler expressions of the inertial terms as compared to the well known Bernoulli-type model. The treatment of the Bernoulli-model has been recently addressed by the authors. In this present work, we extend our approach of using the strain rates to define the strain fields to in-plane geometrically exact Timoshenko-type beams. The large rotational degrees of freedom are exactly computed. The well-known enhanced strain method is used to avoid locking phenomena. Conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum is proved formally and numerically. The excellent performance of the formulation will be demonstrated through a range of examples.

  10. A subtraction scheme for computing QCD jet cross sections at NNLO: integrating the doubly unresolved subtraction terms

    CERN Document Server

    Somogyi, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    We finish the definition of a subtraction scheme for computing NNLO corrections to QCD jet cross sections. In particular, we perform the integration of the soft-type contributions to the doubly unresolved counterterms via the method of Mellin-Barnes representations. With these final ingredients in place, the definition of the scheme is complete and the computation of the regularised doubly virtual contribution to the NNLO cross section becomes feasible.

  11. A subtraction scheme for computing QCD jet cross sections at NNLO: integrating the doubly unresolved subtraction terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Gábor

    2013-04-01

    We finish the definition of a subtraction scheme for computing NNLO corrections to QCD jet cross sections. In particular, we perform the integration of the soft-type contributions to the doubly unresolved counterterms via the method of Mellin-Barnes representations. With these final ingredients in place, the definition of the scheme is complete and the computation of fully differential rates for electron-positron annihilation into two and three jets at NNLO accuracy becomes feasible.

  12. A subtraction scheme for computing QCD jet cross sections at NNLO: integrating the doubly unresolved subtraction terms

    OpenAIRE

    Somogyi, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    We finish the definition of a subtraction scheme for computing NNLO corrections to QCD jet cross sections. In particular, we perform the integration of the soft-type contributions to the doubly unresolved counterterms via the method of Mellin-Barnes representations. With these final ingredients in place, the definition of the scheme is complete and the computation of fully differential rates for electron-positron annihilation into two and three jets at NNLO accuracy becomes feasible.

  13. A Stable Marching on-in-time Scheme for Solving the Time Domain Electric Field Volume Integral Equation on High-contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-05-05

    A time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) solver is proposed for characterizing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast dielectric scatterers. The TD-EFVIE is discretized using the Schaubert- Wilton-Glisson (SWG) and approximate prolate spherical wave (APSW) functions in space and time, respectively. The resulting system of equations can not be solved by a straightforward application of the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme since the two-sided APSW interpolation functions require the knowledge of unknown “future” field samples during time marching. Causality of the MOT scheme is restored using an extrapolation technique that predicts the future samples from known “past” ones. Unlike the extrapolation techniques developed for MOT schemes that are used in solving time domain surface integral equations, this scheme trains the extrapolation coefficients using samples of exponentials with exponents on the complex frequency plane. This increases the stability of the MOT-TD-EFVIE solver significantly, since the temporal behavior of decaying and oscillating electromagnetic modes induced inside the scatterers is very accurately taken into account by this new extrapolation scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed MOT solver maintains its stability even when applied to analyzing wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers.

  14. A Stable Marching on-in-time Scheme for Solving the Time Domain Electric Field Volume Integral Equation on High-contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, Huseyin; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    A time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) solver is proposed for characterizing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast dielectric scatterers. The TD-EFVIE is discretized using the Schaubert- Wilton-Glisson (SWG) and approximate prolate spherical wave (APSW) functions in space and time, respectively. The resulting system of equations can not be solved by a straightforward application of the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme since the two-sided APSW interpolation functions require the knowledge of unknown “future” field samples during time marching. Causality of the MOT scheme is restored using an extrapolation technique that predicts the future samples from known “past” ones. Unlike the extrapolation techniques developed for MOT schemes that are used in solving time domain surface integral equations, this scheme trains the extrapolation coefficients using samples of exponentials with exponents on the complex frequency plane. This increases the stability of the MOT-TD-EFVIE solver significantly, since the temporal behavior of decaying and oscillating electromagnetic modes induced inside the scatterers is very accurately taken into account by this new extrapolation scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed MOT solver maintains its stability even when applied to analyzing wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers.

  15. Natural Resource Management Schemes as Entry Points for Integrated Landscape Approaches: Evidence from Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Samson; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A F; Reed, James; Sunderland, Terry

    2017-04-20

    In recognition of the failures of sectoral approaches to overcome global challenges of biodiversity loss, climate change, food insecurity and poverty, scientific discourse on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development is shifting towards integrated landscape governance arrangements. Current landscape initiatives however very much depend on external actors and funding, raising the question of whether, and how, and under what conditions, locally embedded resource management schemes can serve as entry points for the implementation of integrated landscape approaches. This paper assesses the entry point potential for three established natural resource management schemes in West Africa that target landscape degradation with involvement of local communities: the Chantier d'Aménagement Forestier scheme encompassing forest management sites across Burkina Faso and the Modified Taungya System and community wildlife resource management initiatives in Ghana. Based on a review of the current literature, we analyze the extent to which design principles that define a landscape approach apply to these schemes. We found that the CREMA meets most of the desired criteria, but that its scale may be too limited to guarantee effective landscape governance, hence requiring upscaling. Conversely, the other two initiatives are strongly lacking in their design principles on fundamental components regarding integrated approaches, continual learning, and capacity building. Monitoring and evaluation bodies and participatory learning and negotiation platforms could enhance the schemes' alignment with integrated landscape approaches.

  16. A secure effective dynamic group password-based authenticated key agreement scheme for the integrated EPR information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanga Odelu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of the Internet, a lot of electronic patient records (EPRs have been developed for e-medicine systems. The security and privacy issues of EPRs are important for the patients in order to understand how the hospitals control the use of their personal information, such as name, address, e-mail, medical records, etc. of a particular patient. Recently, Lee et al. proposed a simple group password-based authenticated key agreement protocol for the integrated EPR information system (SGPAKE. However, in this paper, we show that Lee et al.’s protocol is vulnerable to the off-line weak password guessing attack and as a result, their scheme does not provide users’ privacy. To withstand this security weakness found in Lee et al.’s scheme, we aim to propose an effective dynamic group password-based authenticated key exchange scheme for the integrated EPR information system, which retains the original merits of Lee et al.’s scheme. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme provides users’ privacy, perfect forward security and known-key security, and also protects online and offline password guessing attacks. Furthermore, our scheme efficiently supports the dynamic group password-based authenticated key agreement for the integrated EPR information system. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool and show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks.

  17. Using two classification schemes to develop vegetation indices of biological integrity for wetlands in West Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, Walter; Rentch, James S; Grafton, William N; Kordek, Walter S; Anderson, James T

    2010-11-01

    Bioassessment methods for wetlands, and other bodies of water, have been developed worldwide to measure and quantify changes in "biological integrity." These assessments are based on a classification system, meant to ensure appropriate comparisons between wetland types. Using a local site-specific disturbance gradient, we built vegetation indices of biological integrity (Veg-IBIs) based on two commonly used wetland classification systems in the USA: One based on vegetative structure and the other based on a wetland's position in a landscape and sources of water. The resulting class-specific Veg-IBIs were comprised of 1-5 metrics that varied in their sensitivity to the disturbance gradient (R2=0.14-0.65). Moreover, the sensitivity to the disturbance gradient increased as metrics from each of the two classification schemes were combined (added). Using this information to monitor natural and created wetlands will help natural resource managers track changes in biological integrity of wetlands in response to anthropogenic disturbance and allows the use of vegetative communities to set ecological performance standards for mitigation banks.

  18. Trajectory errors of different numerical integration schemes diagnosed with the MPTRAC advection module driven by ECMWF operational analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rößler, Thomas; Stein, Olaf; Heng, Yi; Baumeister, Paul; Hoffmann, Lars

    2018-02-01

    The accuracy of trajectory calculations performed by Lagrangian particle dispersion models (LPDMs) depends on various factors. The optimization of numerical integration schemes used to solve the trajectory equation helps to maximize the computational efficiency of large-scale LPDM simulations. We analyzed global truncation errors of six explicit integration schemes of the Runge-Kutta family, which we implemented in the Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) advection module. The simulations were driven by wind fields from operational analysis and forecasts of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) at T1279L137 spatial resolution and 3 h temporal sampling. We defined separate test cases for 15 distinct regions of the atmosphere, covering the polar regions, the midlatitudes, and the tropics in the free troposphere, in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region, and in the middle stratosphere. In total, more than 5000 different transport simulations were performed, covering the months of January, April, July, and October for the years 2014 and 2015. We quantified the accuracy of the trajectories by calculating transport deviations with respect to reference simulations using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme with a sufficiently fine time step. Transport deviations were assessed with respect to error limits based on turbulent diffusion. Independent of the numerical scheme, the global truncation errors vary significantly between the different regions. Horizontal transport deviations in the stratosphere are typically an order of magnitude smaller compared with the free troposphere. We found that the truncation errors of the six numerical schemes fall into three distinct groups, which mostly depend on the numerical order of the scheme. Schemes of the same order differ little in accuracy, but some methods need less computational time, which gives them an advantage in efficiency. The selection of the integration

  19. Integrating a Trust Framework with a Distributed Certificate Validation Scheme for MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marias Giannis F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many trust establishment solutions in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs rely on public key certificates. Therefore, they should be accompanied by an efficient mechanism for certificate revocation and validation. Ad hoc distributed OCSP for trust (ADOPT is a lightweight, distributed, on-demand scheme based on cached OCSP responses, which provides certificate status information to the nodes of a MANET. In this paper we discuss the ADOPT scheme and issues on its deployment over MANETs. We present some possible threats to ADOPT and suggest the use of a trust assessment and establishment framework, named ad hoc trust framework (ATF, to support ADOPT's robustness and efficiency. ADOPT is deployed as a trust-aware application that provides feedback to ATF, which calculates the trustworthiness of the peer nodes' functions and helps ADOPT to improve its performance by rapidly locating valid certificate status information. Moreover, we introduce the TrustSpan algorithm to reduce the overhead that ATF produces, and the TrustPath algorithm to identify and use trusted routes for propagating sensitive information, such as third parties' accusations. Simulation results show that ATF adds limited overhead compared to its efficiency in detecting and isolating malicious and selfish nodes. ADOPT's reliability is increased, since it can rapidly locate a legitimate response by using information provided by ATF.

  20. Robust integration schemes for junction-based modulators in a 200mm CMOS compatible silicon photonic platform (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelag, Bertrand; Abraham, Alexis; Brision, Stéphane; Gindre, Paul; Blampey, Benjamin; Myko, André; Olivier, Segolene; Kopp, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Silicon photonic is becoming a reality for next generation communication system addressing the increasing needs of HPC (High Performance Computing) systems and datacenters. CMOS compatible photonic platforms are developed in many foundries integrating passive and active devices. The use of existing and qualified microelectronics process guarantees cost efficient and mature photonic technologies. Meanwhile, photonic devices have their own fabrication constraints, not similar to those of cmos devices, which can affect their performances. In this paper, we are addressing the integration of PN junction Mach Zehnder modulator in a 200mm CMOS compatible photonic platform. Implantation based device characteristics are impacted by many process variations among which screening layer thickness, dopant diffusion, implantation mask overlay. CMOS devices are generally quite robust with respect to these processes thanks to dedicated design rules. For photonic devices, the situation is different since, most of the time, doped areas must be carefully located within waveguides and CMOS solutions like self-alignment to the gate cannot be applied. In this work, we present different robust integration solutions for junction-based modulators. A simulation setup has been built in order to optimize of the process conditions. It consist in a Mathlab interface coupling process and device electro-optic simulators in order to run many iterations. Illustrations of modulator characteristic variations with process parameters are done using this simulation setup. Parameters under study are, for instance, X and Y direction lithography shifts, screening oxide and slab thicknesses. A robust process and design approach leading to a pn junction Mach Zehnder modulator insensitive to lithography misalignment is then proposed. Simulation results are compared with experimental datas. Indeed, various modulators have been fabricated with different process conditions and integration schemes. Extensive

  1. Recent advances in marching-on-in-time schemes for solving time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are constructed by setting the summation of the incident and scattered field intensities to the total field intensity on the volumetric support of the scatterer. The unknown can be the field intensity or flux/current density. Representing the total field intensity in terms of the unknown using the relevant constitutive relation and the scattered field intensity in terms of the spatiotemporal convolution of the unknown with the Green function yield the final form of the TDVIE. The unknown is expanded in terms of local spatial and temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDVIE and testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved by the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. At each time step, a smaller system of equations, termed MOT system is solved for the coefficients of the expansion. The right-hand side of this system consists of the tested incident field and discretized spatio-temporal convolution of the unknown samples computed at the previous time steps with the Green function.

  2. Recent advances in marching-on-in-time schemes for solving time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-05-16

    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are constructed by setting the summation of the incident and scattered field intensities to the total field intensity on the volumetric support of the scatterer. The unknown can be the field intensity or flux/current density. Representing the total field intensity in terms of the unknown using the relevant constitutive relation and the scattered field intensity in terms of the spatiotemporal convolution of the unknown with the Green function yield the final form of the TDVIE. The unknown is expanded in terms of local spatial and temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDVIE and testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved by the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. At each time step, a smaller system of equations, termed MOT system is solved for the coefficients of the expansion. The right-hand side of this system consists of the tested incident field and discretized spatio-temporal convolution of the unknown samples computed at the previous time steps with the Green function.

  3. An integrated scheme to improve pan-sharpening visual quality of satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Helmy

    2015-03-01

    In experiments with IKONOS, Quick Bird and GeoEye satellite data, we demonstrated that our scheme has good spectral quality and efficiency. Spectral and spatial quality metrics in terms of SAM, RASE, RMSE, CC, ERGAS and QNR are used in our experiments. We compared our scheme with the state-of-the-art pan-sharpening techniques and found that our new scheme improved quantitative and qualitative results.

  4. Review, modeling, Heat Integration, and improved schemes of Rectisol®-based processes for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, Manuele; Martelli, Emanuele; Marechal, François; Consonni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The paper evaluates the thermodynamic performances and the energy integration of alternative schemes of a methanol absorption based acid gas removal process designed for CO 2 Capture and Storage. More precisely, this work focuses the attention on the Rectisol ® process specifically designed for the selective removal of H 2 S and CO 2 from syngas produced by coal gasification. The study addresses the following issues: (i) perform a review of the Rectisol ® schemes proposed by engineers and researchers with the purpose of determining the best one for CO 2 capture and storage; (ii) calibrate the PC-SAFT equation of state for CH 3 OH–CO 2 –H 2 S–H 2 –CO mixtures at conditions relevant to the Rectisol ® process; (iii) evaluate the thermodynamic performances and optimize the energy integration of a “Reference” scheme derived from those available in the literature; (iv) identify and assess alternative Rectisol ® schemes with optimized performance for CO 2 Capture and Storage and Heat Integration with utilities. On the basis of the analysis of the Composite Curves of the integrated process, we propose some possible improvements at the level of the process configuration, like the introduction of mechanical vapor recompression and the development of a two stage regeneration arrangement. - Highlights: • Comprehensive review of the Rectisol ® process configurations and applications. • Calibration of PC-SAFT equation of state for Rectisol ® -relevant mixtures. • Detailed process simulation and optimized Heat Integration, and utility design. • Development of alternative Rectisol ® schemes optimized for CO 2 Capture

  5. Security Analysis and Improvement of ‘a More Secure Anonymous User Authentication Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, SK Hafizul; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Li, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, secure and privacy-preserving user authentication scheme has become an integral part of the applications of the healthcare systems. Recently, Wen has designed an improved user authentication system over the Lee et al.’s scheme for integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system, which has been analyzed in this study. We have found that Wen’s scheme still has the following inefficiencies: (1) the correctness of identity and password are not verified during the login and password change phases; (2) it is vulnerable to impersonation attack and privileged-insider attack; (3) it is designed without the revocation of lost/stolen smart card; (4) the explicit key confirmation and the no key control properties are absent, and (5) user cannot update his/her password without the help of server and secure channel. Then we aimed to propose an enhanced two-factor user authentication system based on the intractable assumption of the quadratic residue problem (QRP) in the multiplicative group. Our scheme bears more securities and functionalities than other schemes found in the literature. PMID:26263401

  6. Security Analysis and Improvement of 'a More Secure Anonymous User Authentication Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Hafizul Islam

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, secure and privacy-preserving user authentication scheme has become an integral part of the applications of the healthcare systems. Recently, Wen has designed an improved user authentication system over the Lee et al.'s scheme for integrated electronic patient record (EPR information system, which has been analyzed in this study. We have found that Wen's scheme still has the following inefficiencies: (1 the correctness of identity and password are not verified during the login and password change phases; (2 it is vulnerable to impersonation attack and privileged-insider attack; (3 it is designed without the revocation of lost/stolen smart card; (4 the explicit key confirmation and the no key control properties are absent, and (5 user cannot update his/her password without the help of server and secure channel. Then we aimed to propose an enhanced two-factor user authentication system based on the intractable assumption of the quadratic residue problem (QRP in the multiplicative group. Our scheme bears more securities and functionalities than other schemes found in the literature.

  7. Increasing cellular coverage within integrated terrestrial/satellite mobile networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jonathan P.

    1995-01-01

    When applying the hierarchical cellular concept, the satellite acts as giant umbrella cell covering a region with some terrestrial cells. If a mobile terminal traversing the region arrives to the border-line or limits of a regular cellular ground service, network transition occurs and the satellite system continues the mobile coverage. To adequately assess the boundaries of service of a mobile satellite system an a cellular network within an integrated environment, this paper provides an optimized scheme to predict when a network transition may be necessary. Under the assumption of a classified propagation phenomenon and Lognormal shadowing, the study applies an analytical approach to estimate the location of a mobile terminal based on a reception of the signal strength emitted by a base station.

  8. An Optimal Integrated Control Scheme for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Turbines under Asymmetrical Grid Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing penetration level of wind energy into power systems has brought new issues and challenges. One of the main concerns is the issue of dynamic response capability during outer disturbance conditions, especially the fault-tolerance capability during asymmetrical faults. In order to improve the fault-tolerance and dynamic response capability under asymmetrical grid fault conditions, an optimal integrated control scheme for the grid-side voltage-source converter (VSC of direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG-based wind turbine systems is proposed in this paper. The optimal control strategy includes a main controller and an additional controller. In the main controller, a double-loop controller based on differential flatness-based theory is designed for grid-side VSC. Two parts are involved in the design process of the flatness-based controller: the reference trajectories generation of flatness output and the implementation of the controller. In the additional control aspect, an auxiliary second harmonic compensation control loop based on an improved calculation method for grid-side instantaneous transmission power is designed by the quasi proportional resonant (Quasi-PR control principle, which is able to simultaneously restrain the second harmonic components in active power and reactive power injected into the grid without the respective calculation for current control references. Moreover, to reduce the DC-link overvoltage during grid faults, the mathematical model of DC-link voltage is analyzed and a feedforward modified control factor is added to the traditional DC voltage control loop in grid-side VSC. The effectiveness of the optimal control scheme is verified in PSCAD/EMTDC simulation software.

  9. Decentralised schemes for integrated management of wastewater and domestic organic waste: the case of a small community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijó, Lucía; Malamis, Simos; González-García, Sara; Moreira, María Teresa; Fatone, Francesco; Katsou, Evina

    2017-12-01

    This study assesses from an environmental perspective two different configurations for the combined treatment of wastewater and domestic organic waste (DOW) in a small and decentralised community having a population of 2000. The applied schemes consist of an upflow anaerobic blanket (UASB) as core treatment process. Scheme A integrates membranes with the anaerobic treatment; while in Scheme B biological removal of nutrients in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is applied as a post treatment to UASB effluent. In energy-related categories, the main contributor is electricity consumption (producing 18-50% of the impacts); whereas in terms of eutrophication-related categories, the discharge of the treated effluent arises as a major hotspot (with 57-99% of the impacts). Scheme B consumes 25% more electricity and produces 40% extra sludge than Scheme A, resulting in worse environmental results for those energy categories. However, the environmental impact due to the discharge of the treated effluent is 75% lower in eutrophication categories due to the removal of nutrients. In addition, the quality of the final effluent in Scheme B would allow its use for irrigation (9.6 mg N/L and 2 mg P/L) if proper tertiary treatment and disinfection are provided, expanding its potential adoption at a wider scale. Direct emissions due to the dissolved methane in the UASB effluent have a significant environmental impact in climate change (23-26%). Additionally, the study shows the environmental feasibility of the use of food waste disposers for DOW collection in different integration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementation of 5-layer thermal diffusion scheme in weather research and forecasting model with Intel Many Integrated Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    For weather forecasting and research, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been developed, consisting of several components such as dynamic solvers and physical simulation modules. WRF includes several Land- Surface Models (LSMs). The LSMs use atmospheric information, the radiative and precipitation forcing from the surface layer scheme, the radiation scheme, and the microphysics/convective scheme all together with the land's state variables and land-surface properties, to provide heat and moisture fluxes over land and sea-ice points. The WRF 5-layer thermal diffusion simulation is an LSM based on the MM5 5-layer soil temperature model with an energy budget that includes radiation, sensible, and latent heat flux. The WRF LSMs are very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. The features, efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials, of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture allow us to optimize this WRF 5-layer thermal diffusion scheme. In this work, we present the results of the computing performance on this scheme with Intel MIC architecture. Our results show that the MIC-based optimization improved the performance of the first version of multi-threaded code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.1x. Accordingly, the same CPU-based optimizations improved the performance on Intel Xeon E5- 2603 by a factor of 1.6x as compared to the first version of multi-threaded code.

  11. Integration of Fault Detection and Isolation with Control Using Neuro-fuzzy Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asokan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an algorithms is developed for fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control strategy for nonlinear systems subjected to an unknown time-varying fault. At first, the design of fault diagnosis scheme is performed using model based fault detection technique. The neuro-fuzzy chi-square scheme is applied for fault detection and isolation. The fault magnitude and time of occurrence of fault is obtained through neuro-fuzzy chi-square scheme. The estimated magnitude of the fault magnitude is normalized and used by the feed-forward control algorithm to make appropriate changes in the manipulated variable to keep the controlled variable near its set value. The feed-forward controller acts along with feed-back controller to control the multivariable system. The performance of the proposed scheme is applied to a three- tank process for various types of fault inputs to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zou; Xiaolu Jiang; Xiaoli Duan; Xiuge Zhao; Jing Zhang; Jingwen Tang; Guoqing Sun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewabl...

  13. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Jiang, Xiaolu; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Jingwen; Sun, Guoqing

    2017-03-23

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewable resource industrial park in mainland China. With a discrete site investigation of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) concentrations, the continuous surfaces of carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk caused by these heavy metals were estimated and mapped. Source apportionment analysis using geographical detector methods further revealed that these risks were primarily attributed to As, according to the power of the determinant and its associated synergic actions with other heavy metals. Concentrations of critical As and Cd, and the associated exposed CRs are closed to the safe thresholds after remediating the risk areas identified by the integrated H-G scheme. Therefore, the integrated H-G scheme provides an effective approach to support decision-making for regional contaminated soil remediation at fine spatial resolution with limited sampling data over a large geographical extent.

  14. An improved algorithm for the polycrystal viscoplastic self-consistent model and its integration with implicit finite element schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galán, J; Verleysen, P; Lebensohn, R A

    2014-01-01

    A new algorithm for the solution of the deformation of a polycrystalline material using a self-consistent scheme, and its integration as part of the finite element software Abaqus/Standard are presented. The method is based on the original VPSC formulation by Lebensohn and Tomé and its integration with Abaqus/Standard by Segurado et al. The new algorithm has been implemented as a set of Fortran 90 modules, to be used either from a standalone program or from Abaqus subroutines. The new implementation yields the same results as VPSC7, but with a significantly better performance, especially when used in multicore computers. (paper)

  15. DMAC-AN INTEGRATED ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH RSA FOR AC TO OBSTRUCT INFERENCE ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jeeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of indistinguishable encryption in Randomized Arithmetic Coding(RAC doesn’t make the system efficient because it was not encrypting the messages it sends. It recomputes the cipher form of every messages it sends that increases not only the computational cost but also increases the response time.Floating point representation in cipher increases the difficulty in decryption side because of loss in precison.RAC doesn’t handle the inference attacks like Man-in-Middle attack,Third party attack etc. In our system, Dynamic Matrix Arithmetic Coding(DMAC using dynamic session matrix to encrypt the messages. The size of the matrix is deduced from the session key that contains ID of end users which proves the server authentication.Nonce values is represented as the public key of the opponents encrypted by the session key will be exchanged between the end users to provide mutual authentication. If the adversary try to compromise either server or end users,the other system won’t respond and the intrusion will be easily detected. we have increased the hacking complexity of AC by integrating with RSA upto 99%.

  16. Bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system based on polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Hwan-Wei; Ho, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Ming-Te; Huang, Sheng-Jhe; Yang, Zih-Yi; Lin, Xin-Yao

    2016-07-25

    A bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-invisible laser light communication (IVLLC) integrated system that employs polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme for hybrid cable television (CATV)/microwave (MW)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission is proposed and demonstrated. To our knowledge, it is the first one that adopts a polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme in a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system with hybrid CATV/MW/MMW/BB signal. For downlink transmission, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) perform well over 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 10-m RF/50-m optical wireless transport scenarios. For uplink transmission, good BER performance is obtained over 40-km SMF and 50-m optical wireless transport scenario. Such a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system for hybrid CATV/MW/MMW/BB signal transmission will be an attractive alternative for providing broadband integrated services, including CATV, Internet, and telecommunication services. It is shown to be a prominent one to present the advancements for the convergence of fiber backbone and RF/optical wireless feeder.

  17. Increasing self-other integration through divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that people may cognitively represent themselves and others just like any other, nonsocial event. Here, we provide evidence that the degree of self-other integration (as reflected by the joint Simon effect; JSE) is systematically affected by the control characteristics of temporally overlapping but unrelated and nonsocial creativity tasks. In particular, the JSE was found to be larger in the context of a divergent-thinking task (alternate uses task) than in the context of a convergent-thinking task (remote association task). This suggests that self-other integration and action corepresentation are controlled by domain-general cognitive-control parameters that regulate the integrativeness (strong vs. weak top-down control and a resulting narrow vs. broad attentional focus) of information processing irrespective of its social implications.

  18. Carbon emissions from Southeast Asian peatlands will increase despite emission-reduction schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedasa, Lahiru S; Sloan, Sean; Page, Susan E; Clements, Gopalasamy R; Lupascu, Massimo; Evans, Theodore A

    2018-06-01

    Carbon emissions from drained peatlands converted to agriculture in Southeast Asia (i.e. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo) are globally significant and increasing. Here, we map the growth of Southeast Asian peatland agriculture and estimate CO 2 emissions due to peat drainage in relation to official land-use plans with a focus on the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) related Indonesian moratorium on granting new concession licenses for industrial agriculture and logging. We find that, prior to 2010, 35% of Southeast Asian peatlands had been converted to agriculture, principally by smallholder farmers (15% of original peat extent) and industrial oil palm plantations (14%). These conversions resulted in 1.46-6.43 GtCO 2 of emissions between 1990 and 2010. This legacy of historical clearances on deep peat areas will contribute 51% (4.43-11.45 GtCO 2 ) of projected peatland CO 2 emissions over the period 2010-2130. In Indonesia, which hosts most of the region's peatland and where concession maps are publicly available, 70% of peatland conversion to agriculture occurred outside of known concessions for industrial plantation development, with smallholders accounting for 60% and industrial oil palm accounting for 34%. Of the remaining Indonesian peatswamp forest (PSF), 45% is not protected, and its conversion would amount to CO 2 emissions equivalent to 0.7-2.3% (5.14-14.93 Gt) of global fossil fuel and cement emissions released between 1990-2010. Of the peatland extent included in the moratorium, 48% was no longer forested, and of the PSF included 40-48% is likely to be affected by drainage impacts from agricultural areas and will emit CO 2 over time. We suggest that recent legislation and policy in Indonesia could provide a means of meaningful emission reductions if focused on revised land-use planning, PSF conservation both inside and outside agricultural concessions, and the development of agricultural practices based on

  19. An advanced teaching scheme for integrating problem-based learning in control education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuso, Esko K.

    2018-03-01

    Engineering education needs to provide both theoretical knowledge and problem-solving skills. Many topics can be presented in lectures and computer exercises are good tools in teaching the skills. Learning by doing is combined with lectures to provide additional material and perspectives. The teaching scheme includes lectures, computer exercises, case studies, seminars and reports organized as a problem-based learning process. In the gradually refining learning material, each teaching method has its own role. The scheme, which has been used in teaching two 4th year courses, is beneficial for overall learning progress, especially in bilingual courses. The students become familiar with new perspectives and are ready to use the course material in application projects.

  20. A Multiagent System-Based Protection and Control Scheme for Distribution System With Distributed-Generation Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Su, Chi; Hoidalen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multi agent system (MAS) based protection and control scheme is proposed to deal with diverse operation conditions in distribution system due to distributed generation (DG) integration. Based on cooperation between DG controller and relays, an adaptive protection and control...... algorithm is designed on converter based wind turbine DG to limit the influence of infeed fault current. With the consideration of DG control modes, an adaptive relay setting strategy is developed to help protective relays adapt suitable settings to different operation conditions caused by the variations...

  1. Marching on-in-time solution of the time domain magnetic field integral equation using a predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time-domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE) is presented. The proposed MOT-TD-MFIE solver uses Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions for spatial discretization and a PE(CE)m-type linear multistep method for time marching. Unlike previous explicit MOT-TD-MFIE solvers, the time step size can be chosen as large as that of the implicit MOT-TD-MFIE solvers without adversely affecting accuracy or stability. An algebraic stability analysis demonstrates the stability of the proposed explicit solver; its accuracy and efficiency are established via numerical examples. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  2. Marching on-in-time solution of the time domain magnetic field integral equation using a predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2013-08-01

    An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time-domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE) is presented. The proposed MOT-TD-MFIE solver uses Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions for spatial discretization and a PE(CE)m-type linear multistep method for time marching. Unlike previous explicit MOT-TD-MFIE solvers, the time step size can be chosen as large as that of the implicit MOT-TD-MFIE solvers without adversely affecting accuracy or stability. An algebraic stability analysis demonstrates the stability of the proposed explicit solver; its accuracy and efficiency are established via numerical examples. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  3. Conditioning Influences Audio-Visual Integration by Increasing Sound Saliency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Leo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of prior conditioning of an auditory stimulus on audiovisual integration in a series of four psychophysical experiments. The experiments factorially manipulated the conditioning procedure (picture vs monetary conditioning and multisensory paradigm (2AFC visual detection vs redundant target paradigm. In the conditioning sessions, subjects were presented with three pure tones (= conditioned stimulus, CS that were paired with neutral, positive, or negative unconditioned stimuli (US, monetary: +50 euro cents,.–50 cents, 0 cents; pictures: highly pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral IAPS. In a 2AFC visual selective attention paradigm, detection of near-threshold Gabors was improved by concurrent sounds that had previously been paired with a positive (monetary or negative (picture outcome relative to neutral sounds. In the redundant target paradigm, sounds previously paired with positive (monetary or negative (picture outcomes increased response speed to both auditory and audiovisual targets similarly. Importantly, prior conditioning did not increase the multisensory response facilitation (ie, (A + V/2 – AV or the race model violation. Collectively, our results suggest that prior conditioning primarily increases the saliency of the auditory stimulus per se rather than influencing audiovisual integration directly. In turn, conditioned sounds are rendered more potent for increasing response accuracy or speed in detection of visual targets.

  4. Policy schemes, operational strategies and system integration of residential co-generation fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    a heat-driven strategy, with and without time-differentiated tariffs, and an electricity price driven strategy for the operation as a virtual power plant. The corresponding support schemes identified cover feed-in tariffs, net metering and feed-in premiums. Additionally, the interplay of the micro......CHP units with the national energy systems has been analysed. Our main findings are that net metering would be an appropriate tool to support FC based microCHP in Denmark, whereas a price premium would be the preferable tool in France and Portugal. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC....... Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Degradation in urban air quality from construction activity and increased traffic arising from a road widening scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Anna; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian S; Purdie, Esme; Dunster, Christina; Fuller, Gary W

    2014-11-01

    Road widening schemes in urban areas are often proposed as a solution to traffic congestion and as a means of stimulating economic growth. There is however clear evidence that new or expanded roads rapidly fill with either displaced or induced traffic, offsetting any short-term gains in eased traffic flows. What has not been addressed in any great detail is the impact of such schemes on air quality, with modelled impact predictions seldom validated by measurements after the expansion of road capacity. In this study we made use of a road widening project in London to investigate the impact on ambient air quality (particulate matter, NOX, NO2) during and after the completion of the road works. PM10 increased during the construction period up to 15 μg m(-3) during working hours compared to concentrations before the road works. A box modelling approach was used to determine a median emission factor of 0.0022 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three times larger than that used in the UK emission inventory (0.0007 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1)). Peaks of activity released 0.0130 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three and eight times smaller than the peak values used in the European and US inventories. After the completion of the widening there was an increase in all pollutants from the road during rush hour: 2-4 μg m(-3) for PM10; 1 μg m(-3) for PM2.5; 40 and 8 μg m(-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively. NO2 EU Limit Value was breached after the road development illustrating a notable deterioration in residential air quality. Additionally, PM10, but not PM2.5, glutathione dependent oxidative potential increased after the road was widened consistent with an increase in pro-oxidant components in the coarse particle mode, related to vehicle abrasion processes. These increased air pollution indices were associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Solomon; Wilson, G Glenn; Tekie, Habte; Petros, Beyene

    2014-09-13

    Irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. This study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in Central Ethiopia. Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected fortnightly between November 2009 and October 2010 from two irrigated and two non-irrigated (control) villages in the Ziway area, Central Ethiopia. Daily canal water releases were recorded during the study period and bi-weekly correlation analysis was done to determine relationships between canal water releases and larval/adult vector densities. Blood meal sources (bovine vs human) and malaria sporozoite infection were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Monthly malaria data were also collected from central health centre of the study villages. Monthly malaria incidence was over six-fold higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The number of anopheline breeding habitats was 3.6 times higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages and the most common Anopheles mosquito breeding habitats were waterlogged field puddles, leakage pools from irrigation canals and poorly functioning irrigation canals. Larval and adult anopheline densities were seven- and nine-fold higher in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated villages, respectively, during the study period. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species in the study area. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of An. arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis were significantly higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) calculated for the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were 34.8 and 0.25 P. falciparum infective bites per person per year, respectively. A strong positive correlation was found between bi-weekly anopheline larval density and canal water

  7. A fiber orientation-adapted integration scheme for computing the hyperelastic Tucker average for short fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Niels; Ospald, Felix; Schneider, Matti

    2017-10-01

    In this article we introduce a fiber orientation-adapted integration scheme for Tucker's orientation averaging procedure applied to non-linear material laws, based on angular central Gaussian fiber orientation distributions. This method is stable w.r.t. fiber orientations degenerating into planar states and enables the construction of orthotropic hyperelastic energies for truly orthotropic fiber orientation states. We establish a reference scenario for fitting the Tucker average of a transversely isotropic hyperelastic energy, corresponding to a uni-directional fiber orientation, to microstructural simulations, obtained by FFT-based computational homogenization of neo-Hookean constituents. We carefully discuss ideas for accelerating the identification process, leading to a tremendous speed-up compared to a naive approach. The resulting hyperelastic material map turns out to be surprisingly accurate, simple to integrate in commercial finite element codes and fast in its execution. We demonstrate the capabilities of the extracted model by a finite element analysis of a fiber reinforced chain link.

  8. The scheme optimization and management innovation for the first containment integrated in-service test of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiwei; Yang Gang

    2014-01-01

    The containment integrated test is a large-scale, high risk and very difficult test in pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants. By simulating peak pressure inside the containment in DESIGN-BASIS accident conditions, measuring the total leakage rate of the containment with the peak pressure, and implementing the structure inspection test on several pressure levels, the containment's performance can be verified. Containment integrated test is an important witness point supervised by NNSA. The test results crucially decide the reactor to be started or not. The containment integrated test in 301 overhaul is the first in-service test of Unit 3. By the experience of the same 6 former tests in Qinshan Second Nuclear Power Plant and the feedback from other plants, the test scheme get more scientific and the organization management more standardized. This article discusses the containment integrated test in 301 overhaul and summarizes the experience to provide some references for the following containment integrated tests in the future. (authors)

  9. A predictor-corrector scheme for solving the Volterra integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of late time instabilities is a common problem of almost all time marching methods developed for solving time domain integral equations. Implicit marching algorithms are now considered stable with various efforts that have been

  10. Case study of developing an integrated water and nitrogen scheme for agricultural systems on the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tao, F.; Luo, Y.; Ma, J.

    2013-12-01

    Appropriate irrigation and nitrogen fertilization, along with suitable crop management strategies, are essential prerequisites for optimum yields in agricultural systems. This research attempts to provide a scientific basis for sustainable agricultural production management for the North China Plain and other semi-arid regions. Based on a series of 72 treatments over 2003-2008, an optimized water and nitrogen scheme for winter wheat/summer maize cropping system was developed. Integrated systems incorporating 120 mm of water with 80 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer were used to simulate winter wheat yields in Hebei and 120 mm of water with 120 kg N ha-1 were used to simulate winter wheat yields in Shandong and Henan provinces in 2000-2007. Similarly, integrated treatments of 40 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer were used to simulate summer maize yields in Hebei, and 80 kg N ha-1 was used to simulate summer maize yields in Shandong and Henan provinces in 2000-2007. Under the optimized scheme, 341.74 107 mm ha-1 of water and 575.79 104 Mg of urea fertilizer could be saved per year under the wheat/maize rotation system. Despite slight drops in the yields of wheat and maize in some areas, water and fertilizer saving has tremendous long-term eco-environmental benefits.

  11. Integrated testing strategies (ITS) for bioaccumulation: hierarchical scheme of chemistrydriven modules and definition of applicability domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nendza, M.; Scheringer, M.; Strempel, S.

    2011-01-01

    The efficient assessment of the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals under REACH with integrated test strategies (ITS) requires multiple tools. Existing data have to be searched and information from chemical structures and physico-chemical properties need to be evaluated prior to considering to...

  12. Some comments on rigorous quantum field path integrals in the analytical regularization scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada]. E-mail: botelho.luiz@superig.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Through the systematic use of the Minlos theorem on the support of cylindrical measures on R{sup {infinity}}, we produce several mathematically rigorous path integrals in interacting euclidean quantum fields with Gaussian free measures defined by generalized powers of the Laplacian operator. (author)

  13. Some comments on rigorous quantum field path integrals in the analytical regularization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Through the systematic use of the Minlos theorem on the support of cylindrical measures on R ∞ , we produce several mathematically rigorous path integrals in interacting euclidean quantum fields with Gaussian free measures defined by generalized powers of the Laplacian operator. (author)

  14. Accounting for Location Error in Kalman Filters: Integrating Animal Borne Sensor Data into Assimilation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Aritra; Foster, Scott D.; Patterson, Toby A.; Bravington, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Data assimilation is a crucial aspect of modern oceanography. It allows the future forecasting and backward smoothing of ocean state from the noisy observations. Statistical methods are employed to perform these tasks and are often based on or related to the Kalman filter. Typically Kalman filters assumes that the locations associated with observations are known with certainty. This is reasonable for typical oceanographic measurement methods. Recently, however an alternative and abundant source of data comes from the deployment of ocean sensors on marine animals. This source of data has some attractive properties: unlike traditional oceanographic collection platforms, it is relatively cheap to collect, plentiful, has multiple scientific uses and users, and samples areas of the ocean that are often difficult of costly to sample. However, inherent uncertainty in the location of the observations is a barrier to full utilisation of animal-borne sensor data in data-assimilation schemes. In this article we examine this issue and suggest a simple approximation to explicitly incorporate the location uncertainty, while staying in the scope of Kalman-filter-like methods. The approximation stems from a Taylor-series approximation to elements of the updating equation. PMID:22900005

  15. Mutual influences of rated currents, short circuit levels, fault durations and integrated protective schemes for industrial distribution MV switchgears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidano, G. (FIAT Engineering, Torino, Italy); Lionetto, P.F.; Pelizza, C.; Tommazzolli, F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of integrated and coordinated design of distribution systems, as regards the definition of system structure and parameters together with protection criteria and schemes. Advantages in system operation, dynamic response, heavier loads with reduced machinery rating margins and overall cost reduction, can be achieved. It must be noted that MV switchgears installed in industrial main distribution substations are the vital nodes of the distribution system. Very large amounts of power (up to 100 MW and more) are conveyed through MV busbars, coming from Utility and from in-plant generators and outgoing to subdistribution substations, to step-down transformers and to main concentrated loads (big drivers, furnaces etc.). Criteria and methods already studied and applied to public distribution are examined to assess service continuity and economics by means of the reduction of thermal stresses, minimization of disturbances and improvement of system stability. The life of network components depends on sizing, on fault energy levels and on probability of fault occurrence. Constructional measures and protection schemes, which reduce probability and duration of faults, are the most important tools to improve overall reliability. The introduction of advanced techniques, mainly based on computer application, not only allows drastic reduction of fault duration, but also permits the system to operate, under any possible contingency, in the optimal conditions, as the computer provides adaptive control. This mode of system management makes it possible to size network components with reference to the true magnitude of system quantities, avoiding expensive oversizing connected to the unflexibility of conventional protection and control schemes.

  16. Increasing competitiveness with intercompany integration of logistics and marketing functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Topolšek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers of different scientific disciplines, such as management strategies, organizational theories and marketing, have in the past explored relations of mutual influences and the importance of cooperation between different functions in a company. The increased focus on the logistics function has potential to increase competitiveness. This is especially true for globally aimed production companies. In any company, logistics functions cooperate with various related functions such as production, marketing, procurement, engineering or developing new products as well as with financial functions. Each of the aforementioned connections or cooperation among logistics and its complementary functions can have a decisive effect on the company's competitiveness. Using a survey, we determined which activities in the surveyed companies are performed by the logistical function together with the marketing function and which activities they suggest should be performed together but are currently not, meaning they are co-dependent. Since interfunctional integration between logistics and marketing increases the success of a company, we also examined the connection between the current joint performance of activities and the suggested joint performance of activities among the before mentioned sectors, connected to the effectiveness of the company. To examine the mentioned connections among the logistical and marketing functions, Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM were performed.

  17. Zakharov-Shabat-Mikhailov scheme of construction of two-dimensional completely integrable field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Columbia Univ., New York; Chudnovsky, G.V.; Columbia Univ., New York

    1980-01-01

    General algebraic and analytic formalism for derivation and solution of general two dimensional field theory equations of Zakharov-Shabat-Mikhailov type is presented. The examples presented show that this class of equations covers most of the known two-dimensional completely integrable equations. Possible generalizations for four dimensional systems require detailed analysis of Baecklund transformation of these equations. Baecklund transformation is presented in the form of Riemann problem and one special case of dual symmetry is worked out. (orig.)

  18. A hybrid finite-volume and finite difference scheme for depth-integrated non-hydrostatic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Sun, Jia-wen; Wang, Xing-gang; Yu, Yong-hai; Sun, Zhao-chen

    2017-06-01

    A depth-integrated, non-hydrostatic model with hybrid finite difference and finite volume numerical algorithm is proposed in this paper. By utilizing a fraction step method, the governing equations are decomposed into hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic parts. The first part is solved by using the finite volume conservative discretization method, whilst the latter is considered by solving discretized Poisson-type equations with the finite difference method. The second-order accuracy, both in time and space, of the finite volume scheme is achieved by using an explicit predictor-correction step and linear construction of variable state in cells. The fluxes across the cell faces are computed in a Godunov-based manner by using MUSTA scheme. Slope and flux limiting technique is used to equip the algorithm with total variation dimensioning property for shock capturing purpose. Wave breaking is treated as a shock by switching off the non-hydrostatic pressure in the steep wave front locally. The model deals with moving wet/dry front in a simple way. Numerical experiments are conducted to verify the proposed model.

  19. Utilization of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme by child beneficiaries in Coastal Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sivanesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India’s main early childhood development intervention the ICDS Scheme has been sustained for 40 years and has been successful in some ways. However, nearly half of the children under six years are still under nourished. The program in reducing the proportion of undernourished children over the past decade has been modest and slower in India than what has been achieved in other countries with comparable socio-economic indicators. Aims & Objectives: 1. To study the utilization of services offered to children under ICDS, 2. To assess the perception about the services. Materials & Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done among mothers of 271 children in the age group three to six years registered in anganwadis. Results: Median duration of absenteeism to anganwadi was five months during the last six months enquired. About 95.9% of registered child beneficiaries utilized supplementary nutrition services and only 48.7% mothers of child beneficiaries were attending nutrition and health education sessions. Among mothers who were aware of growth monitoring, only 73.6% of their children’s weight was checked regularly.  About 60% of mothers were not happy with the quality of food served to their children in the anganwadi. Among children adherent to anganwadi, 72.5% children’s weight remained normal. Conclusion: Only 75% children were regularly attending. Median duration of adherence to anganwadi services was only 12 months and the most common reason for not adhering to the services is due to their simultaneous enrollment in other private nursery school.

  20. Geothermal source heat pumps under energy services companies finance scheme to increase energy efficiency and production in stockbreeding facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borge-Diez, David; Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Pérez-Molina, Clara; López-Rey, África

    2015-01-01

    In Europe energy services are underutilized in terms of their potential to improve energy efficiency and reduce external energy dependence. Agricultural and stockbreeding sectors have high potential to improve their energy efficiency. This paper presents an energy model for geothermal source heat pumps in stockbreeding facilities and an analysis of an energy services business case. The proposed solution combines both energy cost reduction and productivity increases and improves energy services company financing scheme. CO 2 emissions drop by 89%, reducing carbon footprint and improving added value for the product. For the two different evaluated scenarios, one including winter heating and one including heating and cooling, high IRR (internal return rate) values are obtained. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the IRR ranges from 10.25% to 22.02%, making the investment attractive. To make the research highly extensible, a sensitivity analysis for different locations and climatic conditions is presented, showing a direct relationship between financial parameters and climatic conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed showing that initial fuel cost and initial investment are the most decisive in the financial results. This work proves that energy services based on geothermal energy can be profitable in these sectors and can increase sustainability, reduce CO 2 emissions and improve carbon footprint. - Highlights: • Geothermal heat pumps are studied to promote industrial energy services. • Geothermal energy in farming facilities improves global competitiveness. • Research shows profitability of low enthalpy geothermal energy services. • Climatic conditions sensitivity analysis reveals IRR ranges from 10.25% to 22.02%. • Added market value for the product as carbon footprint reduction, are achieved

  1. Break-through of Mass Integration in Textile Industry through Development of Generic Water Recycle Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    processing is one of the largest and oldest industries world-wide and responsible for a substantial resource consumption and pollution. Especially the wet processing part of the industry, i.e. pre-treatment, dyeing, printing and finishing, is polluting and resource consuming in terms of both water, energy...... dyehouse, Trevira Neckelmann A/S, has now for two consecutive years successfully implemented direct water recycling saving 40 % water. Mass Integration and water pinch techniques were used to identify the potentials and combined with textile intelligence to achieve the best system design for the reuse...... of water, energy and chemicals. The same approach of combining pinch techniques and textile intelligence was applied in South African textile industry. System designs for water recycling in both cotton and acrylic wet treatment were developed. The system for cotton was successfully documented in full scale...

  2. THE PERFORMANCE OF A TIGHT INS/GNSS/PHOTOGRAMMETRIC INTEGRATION SCHEME FOR LAND BASED MMS APPLICATIONS IN GNSS DENIED ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Chu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the most common technologies used for positioning and orientation of a mobile mapping system include using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS as a major positioning sensor and Inertial Navigation System (INS as the major orientation sensor. The integration strategy of the most commercially system is the loosely coupled (LC architecture, that has the simplest architecture using the GNSS solutions to aid the INS navigation information with proper optimization estimator. The LC does combine the two sensors’ solutions when the number of tracked satellite is more than four. In recent year, another commonly integration strategy is known as tightly coupled (TC architecture. Because the TC uses the GNSS measurements to aid INS, it can integrate measurements provided by GNSS receiver and INS unless no GNSS satellite is tracked. Obviously, the TC architecture is a better candidate for land based mobile mapping applications than LC in Taiwan. Unfortunately, there are still many GNSS denied environment in the urban area, therefore the TC architecture is still not robust and stable enough for MMS application. The overall objective of this paper is to provide a scheme that tightly integrates INS/GNSS and Photogrammetric for land based MMS applications with sufficient and stable POS solutions during GNSS outages. In the traditional photogrammetry operation, numerous ground control points are applied to compute those Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs of cameras by bundle adjustment. The key opinion is to derive the INS centre position and attitude and reconstruct 3-D tracking and 3-D object space by cameras EOPs. The proposed algorithm is verified using field test data collected in GNSS denied environments and the preliminary results presented in this study illustrated that the proposed algorithm is able to provide 60% improvement in terms of positioning and orientation accuracy in Taipei and Tainan cities.

  3. The Performance of a Tight Ins/gnss/photogrammetric Integration Scheme for Land Based MMS Applications in Gnss Denied Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C. H.; Chiang, K. W.

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays the most common technologies used for positioning and orientation of a mobile mapping system include using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) as a major positioning sensor and Inertial Navigation System (INS) as the major orientation sensor. The integration strategy of the most commercially system is the loosely coupled (LC) architecture, that has the simplest architecture using the GNSS solutions to aid the INS navigation information with proper optimization estimator. The LC does combine the two sensors' solutions when the number of tracked satellite is more than four. In recent year, another commonly integration strategy is known as tightly coupled (TC) architecture. Because the TC uses the GNSS measurements to aid INS, it can integrate measurements provided by GNSS receiver and INS unless no GNSS satellite is tracked. Obviously, the TC architecture is a better candidate for land based mobile mapping applications than LC in Taiwan. Unfortunately, there are still many GNSS denied environment in the urban area, therefore the TC architecture is still not robust and stable enough for MMS application. The overall objective of this paper is to provide a scheme that tightly integrates INS/GNSS and Photogrammetric for land based MMS applications with sufficient and stable POS solutions during GNSS outages. In the traditional photogrammetry operation, numerous ground control points are applied to compute those Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs) of cameras by bundle adjustment. The key opinion is to derive the INS centre position and attitude and reconstruct 3-D tracking and 3-D object space by cameras EOPs. The proposed algorithm is verified using field test data collected in GNSS denied environments and the preliminary results presented in this study illustrated that the proposed algorithm is able to provide 60% improvement in terms of positioning and orientation accuracy in Taipei and Tainan cities.

  4. Project proposal: integrated farming scheme incorporating management of water hyacinth - Water hyacinth as a pig feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of pig research undertaken by the Research Section of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fiji), is to evaluate local feed sources in an attempt to reduce importation of pig feeds. Protein is the major limiting nutrient in most local feed sources. Fish and meat meals are incorporated in pig feeds by many farmers but the cost of these are very high. Chemical analysis of water hyacinth taken from Rewa River showed that leaves contain 22% crude protein and stems 8%. This was determined on a dry weight basis. Therefore, water hyacinth could be a good source of protein for pigs. Utilization of water hyacinth was considered in the First Review; meeting on Management of Water Hyacinth conducted by Commonwealth Regional (Asia/Pacific) Rural Technology Programme. Water hyacinth as an animal feed was discussed in that review. It points out that the following has to be taken into account in considering the use of water hyacinth as an animal feed. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of water hyacinth as a feed for pigs in an integrated farming system involving a piggery, biogas digester and a pond and: compare pig preference for water hyacinth when fed fresh or dry compare the performance of pigs when fed water hyacinth only and in combination with a normal diet and cost/benefit analysis

  5. Assessment of building integrated energy supply and energy saving schemes on a national level in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.; Morthorst, P.E.; Birkl, C.

    2011-06-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The results of these analyses were integrated in five scenarios to examine the consequences at national level of implementing insulation together with solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps in single-family houses. The simulations focused on the building period between 1961 and 1972 characterised by high building activity and low energy performance. The five scenarios - a baseline scenario, a maximum savings scenario, a maximum production scenario, and a combination scenario - showed that regardless of scenario, a consequent use of individual heat pumps leads to the greatest energy savings and CO{sub 2} reductions. (ln)

  6. Integrating Physical and Topographic Information Into a Fuzzy Scheme to Map Flooded Area by SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Macina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A flood mapping procedure based on a fuzzy sets theory has been developed. The method is based on the integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR measurements with additional data on the inundated area, such as a land cover map and a digital elevation model (DEM. The information on land cover has allowed us to account for both specular reflection, typical of open water, and double bounce backscattering, typical of forested and urban areas. DEM has been exploited to include simple hydraulic considerations on the dependence of inundation probability on surface characteristics. Contextual information has been taken into account too. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a flood occurred in Italy on November 1994. A pair of ERS-1 images, collected before and after (three days later the flood, has been used. The results have been compared with the data provided by a ground survey carried out when the flood reached its maximum extension. Despite the temporal mismatch between the survey and the post-inundation SAR image, the comparison has yielded encouraging results, with the 87% of the pixels correctly classified as inundated.

  7. Integrating Physical and Topographic Information Into a Fuzzy Scheme to Map Flooded Area by SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Chini, Marco; Pulvirenti, Luca; Macina, Flavia

    2008-07-10

    A flood mapping procedure based on a fuzzy sets theory has been developed. The method is based on the integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements with additional data on the inundated area, such as a land cover map and a digital elevation model (DEM). The information on land cover has allowed us to account for both specular reflection, typical of open water, and double bounce backscattering, typical of forested and urban areas. DEM has been exploited to include simple hydraulic considerations on the dependence of inundation probability on surface characteristics. Contextual information has been taken into account too. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a flood occurred in Italy on November 1994. A pair of ERS-1 images, collected before and after (three days later) the flood, has been used. The results have been compared with the data provided by a ground survey carried out when the flood reached its maximum extension. Despite the temporal mismatch between the survey and the post-inundation SAR image, the comparison has yielded encouraging results, with the 87% of the pixels correctly classified as inundated.

  8. Development of fast ignition integrated interconnecting code (FI3) for fast ignition scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Mima, K.; Sunahara, A.; Nishihara, K.; Izawa, Y.; Sakagami, H.; Nakao, Y.; Yokota, T.; Taguchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    The numerical simulation plays an important role in estimating the feasibility and performance of the fast ignition. There are two key issues in numerical analysis for the fast ignition. One is the controlling the implosion dynamics to form a high density core plasma in non-spherical implosion, and the other is heating core plasma efficiency by the short pulse high intense laser. From initial laser irradiation to final fusion burning, all the physics are coupling strongly in any phase, and they must be solved consistently in computational simulation. However, in general, it is impossible to simulate laser plasma interaction and radiation hydrodynamics in a single computational code, without any numerical dissipation, special assumption or conditional treatment. Recently, we have developed 'Fast Ignition Integrated Interconnecting code' (FI 3 ) which consists of collective Particle-in-Cell code, Relativistic Fokker-Planck hydro code, and 2-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code. And those codes are connecting with each other in data-flow bases. In this paper, we will present detail feature of the FI 3 code, and numerical results of whole process of fast ignition. (author)

  9. Optimizing the updated Goddard shortwave radiation Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) scheme for Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) ushers in a new era of supercomputing speed, performance, and compatibility. It allows the developers to run code at trillions of calculations per second using the familiar programming model. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the updated Goddard shortwave radiation Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The co-processor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of Xeon Phi will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 1.3x.

  10. Meditation is associated with increased brain network integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; van Dellen, Edwin; Pal, Prasanta; Yang, Hua; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Brewer, Judson

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to identify novel quantitative EEG measures associated with mindfulness meditation. As there is some evidence that meditation is associated with higher integration of brain networks, we focused on EEG measures of network integration. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators performed a basic meditation practice that supported effortless awareness, which is an important quality of experience related to mindfulness practices, while their EEG was recorded. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice that supported effortless awareness. Network integration was analyzed with maximum betweenness centrality and leaf fraction (which both correlate positively with network integration) as well as with diameter and average eccentricity (which both correlate negatively with network integration), based on a phase-lag index (PLI) and minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Differences between groups were assessed using repeated-measures ANOVA for the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz) and lower beta (13-20 Hz) frequency bands. Maximum betweenness centrality was significantly higher in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.012) in the alpha band. In the same frequency band, leaf fraction showed a trend toward being significantly higher in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.056), while diameter and average eccentricity were significantly lower in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.016 and P = 0.028 respectively). No significant differences between groups were observed for the theta and beta frequency bands. These results show that alpha band functional network topology is better integrated in experienced meditators than in novice meditators during meditation. This novel finding provides the rationale to investigate the temporal relation between measures of functional connectivity network integration and meditation quality, for example using

  11. Increasing Secondary Teachers' Capacity to Integrate the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Byron; Treichel, Christa J.

    2013-01-01

    Examples from a team of collaborating secondary teachers--one visual arts teacher and one science teacher--highlight key aspects of this professional development project in arts integration. The article traces a regional network designed to build teacher capacity with implications for the design, effectiveness, and sustainability of professional…

  12. Integration of information on climate, soil and cultivar to increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BH660 shows higher water productivity (9.46 kgmm-1 of rainfall) under 2*MMP tillage than late plantings in experimental years. About 84 % of the variability in grain yield (BH660), 88% (Bolondie), 76% (A-511) and 70% (Limat) can be explained by the available soil water in crop root zone at planting. Hence, integration of ...

  13. Can Integration of Agriculture With International Trade Increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human activity is greatly constituted by transactions and exchange that can impoverish primary producers while unfairly making others rich in an inequitable manner. Integration of agriculture into international trade is always thought and assumed to bring greater income benefit to farmers, but is this really the case, ...

  14. An Analysis of Integrated Child Development Scheme Performance in Contributing to Alleviation of Malnutrition in Two Economically Resurgent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruia, Aparna; Gupta, Rajul Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Gargi; Gupta, Rajshree R

    2018-01-01

    Good economic growth is considered synonymous with good nutrition. In recent past, some states (like Bihar and Gujarat) have seen unprecedented economic growth. Despite this and introducing plethora of programs (including integrated child development scheme [ICDS]) to reduce malnutrition, one state might be performing well in reducing malnutrition whereas other with equally high economic growth rate might lag behind. Is mere economic growth good enough to alleviate malnutrition? The aim of the article is to document a critical comparative analysis of malnutrition with special emphasis on ICDS (with respect to finances, infrastructure, training, performance) in the two economically resurgent states of Gujarat and Bihar. An exploratory study using secondary data sources (for ICDS performance) to critically analyze malnutrition status in Bihar and Gujarat. Gujarat, which was criticized for placing excessive emphasis on economic growth, has shown sharp improvement in combating malnutrition. Undernourished children declined from 73.04% in 2007 to 25.09% in 2013, with just 1.6% being severely malnourished. On the other hand, Bihar too exhibited an impressive economic growth but still languishes at bottom with malnutrition rate of 82%. A high economic growth does not have automatic immediate positive gains on malnutrition alleviation.

  15. FINANCIAL-ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AS A TOOL FOR INCREASE OF INVESTMENT SUPPORT OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Zakirova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence and systematizes the advantages of financial and economic integration. In the agro-industrial complex, this kind of integration contributes to attracting investments and reducing risks for investors, increasing the competitiveness and economic growth of the region. The relevance of the study is due to insufficiently researched remains many aspects of the functioning of integrated business systems in relation to individual industries, in particular, to agroindustrial production. The aim of the article is to study theoretical approaches to the essence of financial and economic integration in agro-industrial production and analyze the mechanism of investment support for the Russian agrarian sector, taking into account financial and economic integration. In preparing the article, general scientific methods of research were used: analysis and synthesis, generalization, comparison, classification. Results. The interpretation of financial and economic integration in Russian and foreign scientific publications is generalized. Distinctions of financial and economic integration are distinguished from other economic processes. The advantages of financial and economic integration for the economy and business entities are systematized. The importance of integrating industries and business entities in the agro-industrial complex, which is of strategic importance for ensuring Russia's food security, was noted. The branch structure of the agro-industrial complex is analyzed. The scheme of the integrated financial and economic mechanism in the agroindustrial complex is described. The importance of an optimal balance between cooperation and integration was underscored. The insufficiency of the methodological level of studies of agro-industrial integration is grounded. The components of the effect of financial and economic integration are considered. Positive effects of integration processes in the agroindustrial complex are

  16. An Improved and Secure Anonymous Biometric-Based User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, many hospitals and medical institutes employ an authentication protocol within electronic patient records (EPR) services in order to provide protected electronic transactions in e-medicine systems. In order to establish efficient and robust health care services, numerous studies have been carried out on authentication protocols. Recently, Li et al. proposed a user authenticated key agreement scheme according to EPR information systems, arguing that their scheme is able to resist various types of attacks and preserve diverse security properties. However, this scheme possesses critical vulnerabilities. First, the scheme cannot prevent off-line password guessing attacks and server spoofing attack, and cannot preserve user identity. Second, there is no password verification process with the failure to identify the correct password at the beginning of the login phase. Third, the mechanism of password change is incompetent, in that it induces inefficient communication in communicating with the server to change a user password. Therefore, we suggest an upgraded version of the user authenticated key agreement scheme that provides enhanced security. Our security and performance analysis shows that compared to other related schemes, our scheme not only improves the security level, but also ensures efficiency.

  17. An Improved and Secure Anonymous Biometric-Based User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many hospitals and medical institutes employ an authentication protocol within electronic patient records (EPR services in order to provide protected electronic transactions in e-medicine systems. In order to establish efficient and robust health care services, numerous studies have been carried out on authentication protocols. Recently, Li et al. proposed a user authenticated key agreement scheme according to EPR information systems, arguing that their scheme is able to resist various types of attacks and preserve diverse security properties. However, this scheme possesses critical vulnerabilities. First, the scheme cannot prevent off-line password guessing attacks and server spoofing attack, and cannot preserve user identity. Second, there is no password verification process with the failure to identify the correct password at the beginning of the login phase. Third, the mechanism of password change is incompetent, in that it induces inefficient communication in communicating with the server to change a user password. Therefore, we suggest an upgraded version of the user authenticated key agreement scheme that provides enhanced security. Our security and performance analysis shows that compared to other related schemes, our scheme not only improves the security level, but also ensures efficiency.

  18. An Improved and Secure Anonymous Biometric-Based User Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwoo; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, many hospitals and medical institutes employ an authentication protocol within electronic patient records (EPR) services in order to provide protected electronic transactions in e-medicine systems. In order to establish efficient and robust health care services, numerous studies have been carried out on authentication protocols. Recently, Li et al. proposed a user authenticated key agreement scheme according to EPR information systems, arguing that their scheme is able to resist various types of attacks and preserve diverse security properties. However, this scheme possesses critical vulnerabilities. First, the scheme cannot prevent off-line password guessing attacks and server spoofing attack, and cannot preserve user identity. Second, there is no password verification process with the failure to identify the correct password at the beginning of the login phase. Third, the mechanism of password change is incompetent, in that it induces inefficient communication in communicating with the server to change a user password. Therefore, we suggest an upgraded version of the user authenticated key agreement scheme that provides enhanced security. Our security and performance analysis shows that compared to other related schemes, our scheme not only improves the security level, but also ensures efficiency. PMID:28046075

  19. Integrable lattices and their sublattices: From the discrete Moutard (discrete Cauchy-Riemann) 4-point equation to the self-adjoint 5-point scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doliwa, A.; Grinevich, P.; Nieszporski, M.; Santini, P. M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the sublattice approach, a procedure to generate, from a given integrable lattice, a sublattice which inherits its integrability features. We consider, as illustrative example of this approach, the discrete Moutard 4-point equation and its sublattice, the self-adjoint 5-point scheme on the star of the square lattice, which are relevant in the theory of the integrable discrete geometries and in the theory of discrete holomorphic and harmonic functions (in this last context, the discrete Moutard equation is called discrete Cauchy-Riemann equation). Therefore an integrable, at one energy, discretization of elliptic two-dimensional operators is considered. We use the sublattice point of view to derive, from the Darboux transformations and superposition formulas of the discrete Moutard equation, the Darboux transformations and superposition formulas of the self-adjoint 5-point scheme. We also construct, from algebro-geometric solutions of the discrete Moutard equation, algebro-geometric solutions of the self-adjoint 5-point scheme. In particular, we show that the corresponding restrictions on the finite-gap data are of the same type as those for the fixed energy problem for the two-dimensional Schroedinger operator. We finally use these solutions to construct explicit examples of discrete holomorphic and harmonic functions, as well as examples of quadrilateral surfaces in R 3

  20. Initial results on computational performance of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture: implementation of the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) Purdue-Lin microphysics scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    Purdue-Lin scheme is a relatively sophisticated microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The scheme includes six classes of hydro meteors: water vapor, cloud water, raid, cloud ice, snow and graupel. The scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. In this paper, we accelerate the Purdue Lin scheme using Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi is a high performance coprocessor consists of up to 61 cores. The Xeon Phi is connected to a CPU via the PCI Express (PICe) bus. In this paper, we will discuss in detail the code optimization issues encountered while tuning the Purdue-Lin microphysics Fortran code for Xeon Phi. In particularly, getting a good performance required utilizing multiple cores, the wide vector operations and make efficient use of memory. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 4.2x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved performance on Intel Xeon E5-2603 CPU by a factor of 1.2x compared to the original code.

  1. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  2. A knowledge transfer scheme to bridge the gap between science and practice: an integration of existing research frameworks into a tool for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert; Voogt, Nelly; Bruinsma, Anja; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-04-01

    Evidence of effectiveness does not equal successful implementation. To progress the field, practical tools are needed to bridge the gap between research and practice and to truly unite effectiveness and implementation evidence. This paper describes the Knowledge Transfer Scheme integrating existing implementation research frameworks into a tool which has been developed specifically to bridge the gap between knowledge derived from research on the one side and evidence-based usable information and tools for practice on the other.

  3. A Communication and Resources Management Scheme to Support the Smart Grid Integration of Multiplayers Access to Resources Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Zita; Morais, Hugo; Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The increasing and i ntensive integration of distributed energy resources into distribution systems requires adequate methodologies to ensure a secure operation according to the smart grid paradigm. In this context, SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems are an essential...... considering all the involved costs, power flows, and electricity prices leading to the network reconfiguration . The methodology also addresses the definition of the information access permissio ns of each player to each resource. The paper includes a 33 - bus network used in a case study that considers...

  4. Brillouin-zone integration schemes: an efficiency study for the phonon frequency moments of the harmonic, solid, one-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, R.C.; Gubernatis, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiency of four different Brillouin-zone integration schemes including the uniform mesh, special point method, special directions method, and Holas method are compared for calculating moments of the harmonic phonon frequencies of the solid one-component plasma. Very accurate values for the moments are also presented. The Holas method for which weights and integration points can easily be generated has roughly the same efficiency as the special directions method, which is much superior to the uniform mesh and special point methods for this problem

  5. Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture optimization strategies for a memory-bound Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard microphysics scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    The Goddard cloud microphysics scheme is a sophisticated cloud microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The WRF is a widely used weather prediction system in the world. It development is a done in collaborative around the globe. The Goddard microphysics scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. Compared to the earlier microphysics schemes, the Goddard scheme incorporates a large number of improvements. Thus, we have optimized the code of this important part of WRF. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard microphysics scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The Intel MIC is capable of executing a full operating system and entire programs rather than just kernels as the GPU do. The MIC coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discusses in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 4.7x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved performance on a dual socket Intel Xeon E5-2670 system by a factor of 2.8x compared to the original code.

  6. An Integrated Approach for the Improvement of Flood Control and Drainage Schemes in the Coastal Belt of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, L.

    2002-01-01

    During the past decades huge investments have been made in flood protection, drainage and irrigation schemes to reclaim and develop many polder areas in Bangladesh. In these areas a careful water management is required to get optimal results from the investments in the physical infrastructure and

  7. An integrated approach for the improvement of flood control and drainage schemes in the coastal belt of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liakath Ali, M.

    2002-01-01

    During the past decades huge investments have been made in flood protection, drainage and irrigation schemes to reclaim and develop many polder areas in Bangladesh. In these areas a careful water management is required to

  8. A space-time mixed galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme for the time-domain combined field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Beghein, Yves

    2013-03-01

    The time domain combined field integral equation (TD-CFIE), which is constructed from a weighted sum of the time domain electric and magnetic field integral equations (TD-EFIE and TD-MFIE) for analyzing transient scattering from closed perfect electrically conducting bodies, is free from spurious resonances. The standard marching-on-in-time technique for discretizing the TD-CFIE uses Galerkin and collocation schemes in space and time, respectively. Unfortunately, the standard scheme is theoretically not well understood: stability and convergence have been proven for only one class of space-time Galerkin discretizations. Moreover, existing discretization schemes are nonconforming, i.e., the TD-MFIE contribution is tested with divergence conforming functions instead of curl conforming functions. We therefore introduce a novel space-time mixed Galerkin discretization for the TD-CFIE. A family of temporal basis and testing functions with arbitrary order is introduced. It is explained how the corresponding interactions can be computed efficiently by existing collocation-in-time codes. The spatial mixed discretization is made fully conforming and consistent by leveraging both Rao-Wilton-Glisson and Buffa-Christiansen basis functions and by applying the appropriate bi-orthogonalization procedures. The combination of both techniques is essential when high accuracy over a broad frequency band is required. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. CMOS integration of high-k/metal gate transistors in diffusion and gate replacement (D&GR) scheme for dynamic random access memory peripheral circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentoni Litta, Eugenio; Ritzenthaler, Romain; Schram, Tom; Spessot, Alessio; O’Sullivan, Barry; Machkaoutsan, Vladimir; Fazan, Pierre; Ji, Yunhyuck; Mannaert, Geert; Lorant, Christophe; Sebaai, Farid; Thiam, Arame; Ercken, Monique; Demuynck, Steven; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2018-04-01

    Integration of high-k/metal gate stacks in peripheral transistors is a major candidate to ensure continued scaling of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) technology. In this paper, the CMOS integration of diffusion and gate replacement (D&GR) high-k/metal gate stacks is investigated, evaluating four different approaches for the critical patterning step of removing the N-type field effect transistor (NFET) effective work function (eWF) shifter stack from the P-type field effect transistor (PFET) area. The effect of plasma exposure during the patterning step is investigated in detail and found to have a strong impact on threshold voltage tunability. A CMOS integration scheme based on an experimental wet-compatible photoresist is developed and the fulfillment of the main device metrics [equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), eWF, gate leakage current density, on/off currents, short channel control] is demonstrated.

  10. The economic viability of a feed-in tariff scheme that solely rewards self-consumption to promote the use of integrated photovoltaic battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusco, Giovanni; Burgio, Alessandro; Menniti, Daniele; Pinnarelli, Anna; Sorrentino, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A FIT scheme for grid-connected integrated PV-battery systems is discussed. • The FIT tariff scheme solely rewards self-consumption. • An optimization problem minimizes the tariff and it sizes the integrated systems. • The saving on bill is approximately 50%, the end user attains 25% self-sufficiency. • The self-generation is 50% at least, the self-consumption is 80% at least. - Abstract: With reference to an integrated photovoltaic battery (PV-BES) system for grid-connected end users, a feed-in tariff scheme is discussed in this article. This scheme solely rewards self-consumption. Zero is the generation price paid for the generated renewable energy, and zero is the export price paid for the renewable energy delivered to the grid. This feed-in tariff scheme, referred to as S-FIT, also excludes the net-metering service and the possibility that the grid recharges or discharges the batteries. To calculate the incentive tariff, an optimization problem is adopted. The problem returns the minimum value of the tariff so that the subsidy given to the end user is equal to the difference between the instalments paid for the integrated PV-BES system and the savings obtained from the electricity bill. The period during which the end user has secured this grant is ten years. The S-FIT scheme is applied to the case of the Italian Public Administration from 2011 to 2015. Consequently, the real values of temperature, irradiation, and energy consumption are measured every 15 min, and the real electricity prices over the period 2011–2015 are considered. The optimal solution returned by the optimization problem allows for a significant reduction of the electricity bill by 49.56%; moreover, the self-produced energy is equal to at least 50%, whereas the self-consumed energy is equal to at least 80%. The optimal solution that is calculated using 2011 data is applied for 2012–2015. Although the electricity prices were subject to a radical change during this

  11. Application of Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture to the Yonsei University planetary boundary layer scheme in Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Melin; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model provided operational services worldwide in many areas and has linked to our daily activity, in particular during severe weather events. The scheme of Yonsei University (YSU) is one of planetary boundary layer (PBL) models in WRF. The PBL is responsible for vertical sub-grid-scale fluxes due to eddy transports in the whole atmospheric column, determines the flux profiles within the well-mixed boundary layer and the stable layer, and thus provide atmospheric tendencies of temperature, moisture (including clouds), and horizontal momentum in the entire atmospheric column. The YSU scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. To accelerate the computation process of the YSU scheme, we employ Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture as it is a multiprocessor computer structure with merits of efficient parallelization and vectorization essentials. Our results show that the MIC-based optimization improved the performance of the first version of multi-threaded code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.4x. Furthermore, the same CPU-based optimizations improved the performance on Intel Xeon E5-2603 by a factor of 1.6x as compared to the first version of multi-threaded code.

  12. Does insurance enrolment increase healthcare utilisation among rural-dwelling older adults? Evidence from the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wielen, Nele; Channon, Andrew Amos; Falkingham, Jane

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance enrolment and the utilisation of inpatient and outpatient healthcare for older adults in rural areas in Ghana. The Ghanaian National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) aims to improve affordability and increase the utilisation of healthcare. However, the system has been criticised for not being responsive to the needs of older adults. The majority of older adults in Ghana live in rural areas with poor accessibility to healthcare. With an ageing population, a specific assessment of whether the scheme has benefitted older adults, and also if the benefit is equitable, is needed. Using the Ghanaian Living Standards Survey from 2012 to 2013, this paper uses propensity score matching to estimate the effect of enrolment within the NHIS on the utilisation of inpatient and outpatient care among older people aged 50 and over. The raw results show higher utilisation of healthcare among NHIS members, which persists after matching. NHIS members were 6% and 9% more likely to use inpatient and outpatient care, respectively, than non-members. When these increases were disaggregated for outpatient care, the non-poor and females were seen to benefit more than their poor and male counterparts. For inpatient care, the benefits of enrolment were equal by poverty status and sex. However, overall, poor older adults use health services much less than the non-poor older adults even when enrolled. The results indicate that NHIS coverage does increase healthcare utilisation among rural older adults but that inequalities remain. The poor are still at a great disadvantage in their use of health services overall and benefit less from enrolment for outpatient care. The receipt of healthcare is significantly influenced by a set of auxiliary barriers to access to healthcare even where insurance should remove the financial burden of ad hoc out of pocket payments.

  13. ANALISIS PEMAHAMAN INTEGRAL TAKTENTU BERDASARKAN TEORI APOS (ACTION, PROCESS, OBJECT, SCHEME) PADA MAHASISWA TADRIS MATEMATIKA (TMT) IAIN TULUNGAGUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Ummu Sholihah; Dziki Ari Mubarok

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe the understanding ofmathematics Tadris students of  IAIN Tulungagungabout  indefinite integral understanding of APOS theory. The subjects of research are six students. Each two have  high, average, and low abilities. The result of the research indicated that the understanding ofmathematics Tadris (TMT) students of  IAIN Tulungagung about indefinite integral understanding on actionaspect of APOS theory, high students achieve all of understanding indicators, for a...

  14. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  15. A subtraction scheme for computing QCD jet cross sections at NNLO. Integrating the iterated singly-unresolved subtraction terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzoni, Paolo [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Somogyi, Gabor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Zoltan [Debrecen Univ. (Hungary); Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research

    2010-11-15

    We perform the integration of all iterated singly-unresolved subtraction terms over the two-particle factorized phase space. We also sum over the unresolved parton flavours. The final result can be written as a convolution (in colour space) of the Born cross section and an insertion operator. We spell out the insertion operator in terms of 24 basic integrals that are defined explicitly. We compute the coefficients of the Laurent-expansion of these integrals in two different ways, with the method of Mellin-Barnes representations and sector decomposition. Finally, we present the Laurentexpansion of the full insertion operator for the specific examples of electron-positron annihilation into two and three jets. (orig.)

  16. A subtraction scheme for computing QCD jet cross sections at NNLO: integrating the iterated singly-unresolved subtraction terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzoni, Paolo; Somogyi, Gábor; Trócsányi, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    We perform the integration of all iterated singly-unresolved subtraction terms, as defined in ref. [1], over the two-particle factorized phase space. We also sum over the unresolved parton flavours. The final result can be written as a convolution (in colour space) of the Born cross section and an insertion operator. We spell out the insertion operator in terms of 24 basic integrals that are defined explicitly. We compute the coefficients of the Laurent expansion of these integrals in two different ways, with the method of Mellin-Barnes representations and sector decomposition. Finally, we present the Laurent-expansion of the full insertion operator for the specific examples of electron-positron annihilation into two and three jets.

  17. Increased demand-side flexibility: market effects and impacts on variable renewable energy integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Grytli Tveten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of increased demand-side flexibility (DSF on integration and market value of variable renewable energy sources (VRE. Using assumed potentials, system-optimal within-day shifts in demand are investigated for the Northern European power markets in 2030, applying a comprehensive partial equilibrium model with high temporal and spatial resolution. Increased DSF is found to cause only a minor (less than 3% reduction in consumers’ cost of electricity. VRE revenues are found to increase (up to 5% and 2% for wind and solar power, respectively, and total VRE curtailment decreases by up to 7.2 TWh. Increased DSF causes only limited reductions in GHG emissions. The emission reduction is, however, sensitive to underlying assumptions. We conclude that increased DSF is a promising measure for improving VRE integration. However, low consumers’ savings imply that policies stimulating DFS will be needed to fully use the potential benefits of DSF for VRE integration

  18. Channel access schemes and fiber optic configurations for integrated-services local area networks. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassehi, M. Mehdi

    1987-01-01

    Local Area Networks are in common use for data communications and have enjoyed great success. Recently, there is a growing interest in using a single network to support many applications in addition to traditional data traffic. These additional applications introduce new requirements in terms of volume of traffic and real-time delivery of data which are not met by existing networks. To satisfy these requirements, a high-bandwidth tranmission medium, such as fiber optics, and a distributed channel access scheme for the efficient sharing of the bandwidth among the various applications are needed. As far as the throughput-delay requirements of the various application are concerned, a network structure along with a distributed channel access are proposed which incorporate appropriate scheduling policies for the transmission of outstanding messages on the network. A dynamic scheduling policy was devised which outperforms all existing policies in terms of minimizing the expected cost per message. A broadcast mechanism was devised for the efficient dissemination of all relevant information. Fiber optic technology is considered for the high-bandwidth transmisison medium.

  19. Design of Servo Scheme and Drive Electronics for the Integrated Electrohydraulic Actuation System of RLV-TD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Priya C.; Gopinath, Anish; Shinoy, K. S.; Santhi, P.; Sundaramoorthy, K.; Sebastian, Baby; Jaya, B.; Namboodiripad, M. N.; Mookiah, T.

    2017-12-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) is a system which has the ability to carry a payload from the earth's surface to the outer space more than once. The control actuation forms the major component of the control system and it actuates the control surfaces of the RLV-TD based on the control commands. Eight electro hydraulic actuators were used in RLV-TD for vectoring the control surfaces about their axes. A centralised Hydraulic Power Generating Unit (HPU) was used for powering the eight actuators located in two stages. The actuation system had to work for the longest ever duration of about 850 s for an Indian launch vehicle. High bandwidth requirement from autopilot was met by the servo design using the nonlinear mathematical model. Single Control Electronics which drive four electrohydraulic actuators was developed for each stage. High power electronics with soft start scheme was realized for driving the BLDC motor which is the prime mover for hydraulic pump. Many challenges arose due to single HPU for two stages, uncertainty of aero load, higher bandwidth requirements etc. and provisions were incorporated in the design to successfully overcome them. This paper describes the servo design and control electronics architecture of control actuation system.

  20. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  1. A modified moment-fitted integration scheme for X-FEM applications with history-dependent material data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyu; Jiang, Wen; Dolbow, John E.; Spencer, Benjamin W.

    2018-01-01

    We present a strategy for the numerical integration of partial elements with the eXtended finite element method (X-FEM). The new strategy is specifically designed for problems with propagating cracks through a bulk material that exhibits inelasticity. Following a standard approach with the X-FEM, as the crack propagates new partial elements are created. We examine quadrature rules that have sufficient accuracy to calculate stiffness matrices regardless of the orientation of the crack with respect to the element. This permits the number of integration points within elements to remain constant as a crack propagates, and for state data to be easily transferred between successive discretizations. In order to maintain weights that are strictly positive, we propose an approach that blends moment-fitted weights with volume-fraction based weights. To demonstrate the efficacy of this simple approach, we present results from numerical tests and examples with both elastic and plastic material response.

  2. Effectiveness and acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing uptake of vaccinations in preschool children: systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Bateman, Belinda; Becker, Frauke; Cresswell, Tricia; Flynn, Darren; McNaughton, Rebekah; Oluboyede, Yemi; Robalino, Shannon; Ternent, Laura; Sood, Benjamin Gardner; Michie, Susan; Shucksmith, Janet; Sniehotta, Falko F; Wigham, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Uptake of preschool vaccinations is less than optimal. Financial incentives and quasi-mandatory policies (restricting access to child care or educational settings to fully vaccinated children) have been used to increase uptake internationally, but not in the UK. To provide evidence on the effectiveness, acceptability and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations. Systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment (DCE) with questionnaire. Community, health and education settings in England. Qualitative study - parents and carers of preschool children, health and educational professionals. DCE - parents and carers of preschool children identified as 'at high risk' and 'not at high risk' of incompletely vaccinating their children. Qualitative study - focus groups and individual interviews. DCE - online questionnaire. The review included studies exploring the effectiveness, acceptability or economic costs and consequences of interventions that offered contingent rewards or penalties with real material value for preschool vaccinations, or quasi-mandatory schemes that restricted access to 'universal' services, compared with usual care or no intervention. Electronic database, reference and citation searches were conducted. Systematic review - there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the interventions considered are effective. There was some evidence that the quasi-mandatory interventions were acceptable. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences. Qualitative study - there was little appetite for parental financial incentives. Quasi-mandatory schemes were more acceptable. Optimising current services was consistently preferred to the interventions proposed. DCE and questionnaire - universal parental financial incentives were preferred to quasi-mandatory interventions, which were preferred to targeted

  3. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  4. Framework methodology for increased energy efficiency and renewable feedstock integration in industrial clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Roman; Harvey, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Framework methodology for energy efficiency of process plants and total sites. • Identification of suitable biorefinery based on host site future energy systems. • Case study results show large energy savings of site wide heat integration. • Case study on refrigeration systems: 15% shaft work savings potential. • Case study on biorefinery integration: utility savings potential of up to 37%. - Abstract: Energy intensive industries, such as the bulk chemical industry, are facing major challenges and adopting strategies to face these challenges. This paper investigates options for clusters of chemical process plants to decrease their energy and emission footprints. There is a wide range of technologies and process integration opportunities available for achieving these objectives, including (i) decreasing fossil fuel and electricity demand by increasing heat integration within individual processes and across the total cluster site; (ii) replacing fossil feedstocks with renewables and biorefinery integration with the existing cluster; (iii) increasing external utilization of excess process heat wherever possible. This paper presents an overview of the use of process integration methods for development of chemical clusters. Process simulation, pinch analysis, Total Site Analysis (TSA) and exergy concepts are combined in a holistic approach to identify opportunities to improve energy efficiency and integrate renewable feedstocks within such clusters. The methodology is illustrated by application to a chemical cluster in Stenungsund on the West Coast of Sweden consisting of five different companies operating six process plants. The paper emphasizes and quantifies the gains that can be made by adopting a total site approach for targeting energy efficiency measures within the cluster and when investigating integration opportunities for advanced biorefinery concepts compared to restricting the analysis to the individual constituent plants. The

  5. Social and environmental assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios in Cali: from landfilling towards integrated recycling schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Osorio, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The environmental and social challenges of Solid Waste Management in developing countries have become an increasingly pressing issue. Disparities between the rich and poor continues to increase in many of these regions where growing urban areas often witness the worst signs of maltreatment of human labour and misallocation of waste as a resource. This thesis is a case study of the Municipality of Cali in Colombia, where city managers and the stakeholders involved are wrestling with the challe...

  6. THE PERFORMANCE OF A TIGHT INS/GNSS/PHOTOGRAMMETRIC INTEGRATION SCHEME FOR LAND BASED MMS APPLICATIONS IN GNSS DENIED ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-H. Chu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The early development of mobile mapping system (MMS was restricted to applications that permitted the determination of the elements of exterior orientation from existing ground control. Mobile mapping refers to a means of collecting geospatial data using mapping sensors that are mounted on a mobile platform. Research works concerning mobile mapping dates back to the late 1980s. This process is mainly driven by the need for highway infrastructure mapping and transportation corridor inventories. In the early nineties, advances in satellite and inertial technology made it possible to think about mobile mapping in a different way. Instead of using ground control points as references for orienting the images in space, the trajectory and attitude of the imager platform could now be determined directly. Cameras, along with navigation and positioning sensors are integrated and mounted on a land vehicle for mapping purposes. Objects of interest can be directly measured and mapped from images that have been georeferenced using navigation and positioning sensors. Direct georeferencing (DG is the determination of time-variable position and orientation parameters for a mobile digital imager. The most common technologies used for this purpose today are satellite positioning using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and inertial navigation using an Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU. Although either technology used along could in principle determine both position and orientation, they are usually integrated in such a way that the IMU is the main orientation sensor, while the GNSS receiver is the main position sensor. However, GNSS signals are obstructed due to limited number of visible satellites in GNSS denied environments such as urban canyon, foliage, tunnel and indoor that cause the GNSS gap or interfered by reflected signals that cause abnormal measurement residuals thus deteriorates the positioning accuracy in GNSS denied environments. This study aims

  7. A space-time mixed galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme for the time-domain combined field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Beghein, Yves; Cools, Kristof; Bagci, Hakan; De Zutter, Danië l

    2013-01-01

    electrically conducting bodies, is free from spurious resonances. The standard marching-on-in-time technique for discretizing the TD-CFIE uses Galerkin and collocation schemes in space and time, respectively. Unfortunately, the standard scheme is theoretically

  8. Tradable schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we present a new approach to the numerical valuation of derivative securities. The method is based on our previous work where we formulated the theory of pricing in terms of tradables. The basic idea is to fit a finite difference scheme to exact solutions of the pricing

  9. How the integration of traditional birth attendants with formal health systems can increase skilled birth attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison

    2011-11-01

    Forty years of safe motherhood programming has demonstrated that isolated interventions will not reduce maternal mortality sufficiently to achieve MDG 5. Although skilled birth attendants (SBAs) can intervene to save lives, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are often preferred by communities. Considering the value of both TBAs and SBAs, it is important to review strategies for maximizing their respective strengths. To describe mechanisms to integrate TBAs with the health system to increase skilled birth attendance and examine the components of successful integration. A systematic review of interventions linking TBAs and formal health workers, measuring outcomes of skilled birth attendance, referrals, and facility deliveries. Thirty-three articles met the selection criteria. Mechanisms used for integration included training and supervision of TBAs, collaboration skills for health workers, inclusion of TBAs at health facilities, communication systems, and clear definition of roles. Impact on skilled birth attendance depended on selection of TBAs, community participation, and addressing barriers to access. Successful approaches were context-specific. The integration of TBAs with formal health systems increases skilled birth attendance. The greatest impact is seen when TBA integration is combined with complementary actions to overcome context-specific barriers to contact among SBAs, TBAs, and women. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An integrated 2-year clinical skills peer tutoring scheme in a UK-based medical school: perceptions of tutees and peer tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Several benefits of peer tutoring in medical school teaching have been described. However, there is a lack of research on the perceptions of peer tutoring, particularly from tutees who partake in a long-term clinical skills scheme integrated into the medical school curriculum. This study evaluates the opinions of preclinical tutees at the end of a 2-year peer-tutored clinical skills program and peer tutors themselves. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a UK-based medical school that primarily utilizes peer tutoring for clinical skills teaching. A questionnaire was designed to assess the views of preclinical tutees and peer tutors. Likert scales were used to grade responses and comment boxes to collect qualitative data. Results Sixty-five questionnaires were collected (52 tutees, 13 peer tutors). Seventy-nine percent of students felt satisfied with their teaching, and 70% felt adequately prepared for clinical placements. Furthermore, 79% believed that peer tutoring is the most effective method for clinical skills teaching. When compared to faculty teaching, tutees preferred being taught by peer tutors (63%), felt more confident (73%), and were more willing to engage (77%). All peer tutors felt that teaching made them more confident in their Objective Structured Clinical Examination performance, and 91% agreed that being a tutor made them consider pursuing teaching in the future. Thematic analysis of qualitative data identified 3 themes regarding peer tutoring: a more comfortable environment (69%), a more personalized teaching approach (34%), and variation in content taught (14%). Conclusion Preclinical tutees prefer being taught clinical skills by peer tutors compared to faculty, with the peer tutors also benefitting. Studies such as this, looking at long-term schemes, further validate peer tutoring and may encourage more medical schools to adopt this method as an effective way of clinical skills teaching. PMID:29922105

  11. Increased of the capacity integral bridge with reinforced concrete beams for single span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiati, N. Retno

    2017-11-01

    Sinapeul Bridge that was built in 2012 in Sumedang is a bridge type using a full integral system. The prototype of integral bridge with reinforced concrete girder and single span 20 meters until this year had decreased capacity. The bridge was conducted monitoring of strain that occurs in the abutment in 2014. Monitoring results show that based on the data recorded, the maximum strain occurs at the abutment on the location of the integration of the girder of 10.59 x 10-6 tensile stress of 0.25 MPa (smaller than 150 x 10-6) with 3 MPa tensile stress as limit the occurrence of cracks in concrete. Sinapeul bridge abutment with integral system is still in the intact condition. Deflection of the bridge at the time of load test is 1.31 mm. But this time the bridge has decreased exceeded permission deflection (deflection occurred by 40 mm). Besides that, the slab also suffered destruction. One cause of the destruction of the bridge slab is the load factor. It is necessary for required effort to increase the capacity of the integral bridge with retrofitting. Retrofitting method also aims to restore the capacity of the bridge structure due to deterioration. Retrofitting can be done by shortening of the span or using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRC). Based on the results obtained by analysis of that method of retrofitting with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRC) is more simple and effective. Retrofitting with FRP can increase the capacity of the shear and bending moment becomes 41% of the existing bridge. Retrofitting with FRP method does not change the integral system on the bridge Sinapeul become conventional bridges.

  12. ANALISIS PEMAHAMAN INTEGRAL TAKTENTU BERDASARKAN TEORI APOS (ACTION, PROCESS, OBJECT, SCHEME PADA MAHASISWA TADRIS MATEMATIKA (TMT IAIN TULUNGAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Sholihah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the understanding ofmathematics Tadris students of  IAIN Tulungagungabout  indefinite integral understanding of APOS theory. The subjects of research are six students. Each two have  high, average, and low abilities. The result of the research indicated that the understanding ofmathematics Tadris (TMT students of  IAIN Tulungagung about indefinite integral understanding on actionaspect of APOS theory, high students achieve all of understanding indicators, for average students also achieve  all of understanding indicators, meanwhile for low students achieve one indicator of two indicators. On process aspect, high students achieve all of understanding indicators and average students achieve all of understanding indicators too. Meanwhile low students achieve one indicator of three indicators. On objectaspect,high students achieve all of understanding indicators and average students achieve one indicator of three understanding indicators. Meanwhile for low students do not achieve all of understanding indicators. On schemeaspect, high students achieve all of understanding indicators and for average students achieve two understanding indicators. Meanwhile for low students achieve only one  indicators حاولت هذه المقالة عرض فهم طلاب قسم تعليم الرياضيات في الجامعة الإسلامية الحكومية تولونج أغونج، عن التكاملات إلى أجل غير مسمّى على أساس نظرية  APOS. وللوصول إلى الأهداف، اتّبع هذا البحث المنهج الكيفي، بعرض نتائج استيعاب الفهم على أساس نظرية APOS. ومصادر البيانات لهذا البحث هي ستتة طلاب: طالبان ذكيّان، وطالبان متوسطان في الذكاء وطالبان ضعيفان. دلت نتائج البحث على أن فهم طلاب تدريس الرياضيات في الجامعة

  13. Gallic acid against hepatocellular carcinoma: An integrated scheme of the potential mechanisms of action from in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglan, Hadeer A; Ahmed, Hanaa H; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Mahmoud, Nadia S

    2017-06-01

    The global burden of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing; actually, it is estimated as 750,000 new cases annually. This study was initiated to emphasize the possibility that gallic acid could alleviate hepatocarcinogenesis in vivo. In this study, 40 rats were enrolled and distributed as follows; group 1 was set as negative control, while all of groups 2, 3, and 4 were orally received N-nitrosodiethylamine for hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Group 2 was left untreated, whereas groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with gallic acid and doxorubicin, respectively. The current data indicated that gallic acid administration in hepatocellular carcinoma bearing rats yielded significant decline in serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, glypican-3, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 along with significant enhancement in serum suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 level. Also, gallic acid-treated group displayed significant downregulation in the gene expression levels of hepatic gamma glutamyl transferase and heat shock protein gp96. Intriguingly, treatment with gallic acid remarkably ameliorated the destabilization of liver tissue architecture caused by N-nitrosodiethylamine intoxication as evidenced by histopathological investigation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the hepatocarcinogenic effect of N-nitrosodiethylamine can be abrogated by gallic acid supplementation owing to its affinity to regulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway through its outstanding bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, and antitumor effects.

  14. Does Integration Help Adapt to Climate Change? Case of Increased US Corn Yield Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Hertel, T. W.

    2012-12-01

    In absence of of new crop varieties or significant shifts in the geography of corn production, US national corn yields variation could double by the year 2040 as a result of climate change and without adaptation this could lead the variability in US corn prices to quadruple (Diffenbaugh et al. 2012). In addition to climate induced price changes, analysis of recent commodity price spikes suggests that interventionist trade policies are partly to blame. Assuming we cannot much influence the future climate outcome, what policies can we undertake to adapt better? Can we use markets to blunt this edge? Diffenbaugh et al. find that sale of corn- ethanol for use in liquid fuel, when governed by quotas such as US Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), could make US corn prices even more variable; in contrast the same food-fuel market link (we refer to it as intersectoral link) may well dampen price volatility when the sale of corn to ethanol industry is driven by higher future oil prices. The latter however comes at the cost of exposing corn prices to the greater volatility in oil markets. Similarly intervention in corn trade can make US corn prices less or more volatile by distorting international corn price transmission. A negative US corn yield shock shows that domestic corn supply falls and domestic prices to go up irrespective of whether or not markets are integrated. How much the prices go up depends on how much demand adjusts to accommodate the supply shock. Based on the forgoing analysis, one should expect that demand would adjust more readily when markets are integrated and therefore reduce the resulting price fluctuation. Simulation results confirm this response of corn markets. In terms of relative comparisons however a policy driven intersectoral integration is least effective and prices rise much more. Similarly, a positive world oil price shock makes the US oil imports expensive and with oil being used to produce gasoline blends, it increases the price of gasoline

  15. The behaviours of nurses that increase student accountability for learning in clinical practice: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christina; Henderson, Amanda; Grealish, Laurie

    2018-06-01

    To identify nurses' behaviours that promote student accountability for learning in clinical practice. Health care services are experiencing significant strain in meeting clinical education requirements of increasing numbers of nursing students enrolled in undergraduate nursing programs. Internationally, the transition to university based education for nurses has seen the emergence of issues for busy clinicians trying to manage increasing workloads with responsibility for student learning. An understanding of what types of supervisor behaviours promote student accountability for learning, may support clinicians to more effectively manage their dual roles of clinical care and student support. An integrative approach was adopted for this review. A search of the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Pubmed, Scopus and Embase was undertaken, limited to articles published between 2000 and March 2017. Whittemore and Knafls' (2005) framework for conducting integrative reviews was used to ensure a methodological and rigorous approach. Nine studies were considered. Behaviours emerged in relation to four themes including: belongingness associated with a genuine partnership; empowerment and increasing student self-efficacy; trust linked to increasing and staged independence; and balancing clinical and educational requirements. Behaviours of nurses significantly influence students' accountability for learning and accordingly, their ability to be adequately prepared for professional nursing practice. Understanding behaviours that impact on students' approach to clinical placement can guide nurses in their approach to facilitating student learning, in particular, behaviours that increase student responsibility and independence over the continuum of clinical education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing quality and managing complexity in neuroinformatics software development with continuous integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Zaytsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High quality neuroscience research requires accurate, reliable and well maintained neuroinformatics applications. As software projects become larger, offering more functionality and developing a denser web of interdependence between their component parts, we need more sophisticated methods to manage their complexity. If complexity is allowed to get out of hand, either the quality of the software or the speed of development suffer, and in many cases both. To address this issue, here we develop a scalable, low-cost and open source solution for continuous integration (CI, a technique which ensures the quality of changes to the code base during the development procedure, rather than relying on a pre-release integration phase. We demonstrate that a CI based workflow, due to rapid feedback about code integration problems and tracking of code health measures, enabled substantial increases in productivity for a major neuroinformatics project and additional benefits for three further projects. Beyond the scope of the current study, we identify multiple areas in which CI can be employed to further increase the quality of neuroinformatics projects by improving development practices and incorporating appropriate development tools. Finally, we discuss what measures can be taken to lower the barrier for developers of neuroinformatics applications to adopt this useful technique.

  17. Increase of Efficiency of Enterprise Financial Control through Application of the Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulay Ivanna O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the modern state of an enterprise as of a socio-economic system, which consists of interconnected elements. The article states that each of these elements could be an individual structural subdivision of an enterprise. Establishment and maintenance of close links between the elements ensures increase of controllability of an enterprise and, at the same time, increase of economic indicators of enterprise activity. The article justifies urgency of integration, which should be realised not only at the level of an enterprise, but also at the level of each structural subdivision. It specifies selection of methods and approaches to the process of integration and shows that it is different for each enterprise and depends on goals and tasks, which have to be achieved in the result of realisation of each individual project. The article offers to use the process of integration at an enterprise, the goal of which is achievement of the system effect through unification of financial, material, information and human capital of an enterprise.

  18. Increasing quality and managing complexity in neuroinformatics software development with continuous integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Yury V; Morrison, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    High quality neuroscience research requires accurate, reliable and well maintained neuroinformatics applications. As software projects become larger, offering more functionality and developing a denser web of interdependence between their component parts, we need more sophisticated methods to manage their complexity. If complexity is allowed to get out of hand, either the quality of the software or the speed of development suffer, and in many cases both. To address this issue, here we develop a scalable, low-cost and open source solution for continuous integration (CI), a technique which ensures the quality of changes to the code base during the development procedure, rather than relying on a pre-release integration phase. We demonstrate that a CI-based workflow, due to rapid feedback about code integration problems and tracking of code health measures, enabled substantial increases in productivity for a major neuroinformatics project and additional benefits for three further projects. Beyond the scope of the current study, we identify multiple areas in which CI can be employed to further increase the quality of neuroinformatics projects by improving development practices and incorporating appropriate development tools. Finally, we discuss what measures can be taken to lower the barrier for developers of neuroinformatics applications to adopt this useful technique.

  19. NLSEmagic: Nonlinear Schrödinger equation multi-dimensional Matlab-based GPU-accelerated integrators using compact high-order schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, R. M.

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple to use, yet powerful code package called NLSEmagic to numerically integrate the nonlinear Schrödinger equation in one, two, and three dimensions. NLSEmagic is a high-order finite-difference code package which utilizes graphic processing unit (GPU) parallel architectures. The codes running on the GPU are many times faster than their serial counterparts, and are much cheaper to run than on standard parallel clusters. The codes are developed with usability and portability in mind, and therefore are written to interface with MATLAB utilizing custom GPU-enabled C codes with the MEX-compiler interface. The packages are freely distributed, including user manuals and set-up files. Catalogue identifier: AEOJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 124453 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4728604 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C, CUDA, MATLAB. Computer: PC, MAC. Operating system: Windows, MacOS, Linux. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Number of processors used: Single CPU, number of GPU processors dependent on chosen GPU card (max is currently 3072 cores on GeForce GTX 690). Supplementary material: Setup guide, Installation guide. RAM: Highly dependent on dimensionality and grid size. For typical medium-large problem size in three dimensions, 4GB is sufficient. Keywords: Nonlinear Schröodinger Equation, GPU, high-order finite difference, Bose-Einstien condensates. Classification: 4.3, 7.7. Nature of problem: Integrate solutions of the time-dependent one-, two-, and three-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Solution method: The integrators utilize a fully-explicit fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme in time

  20. Integrated CLOS and PN Guidance for Increased Effectiveness of Surface to Air Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binte Fatima Tuz ZAHRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach has been presented to integrate command to line-of-sight (CLOS guidance and proportional navigation (PN guidance in order to reduce miss distance and to increase the effectiveness of surface to air missiles. Initially a comparison of command to line-of-sight guidance and proportional navigation has been presented. Miss distance, variation of angle-of-attack, normal and lateral accelerations and error of missile flight path from direct line-of-sight have been used as noteworthy criteria for comparison of the two guidance laws. Following this comparison a new approach has been proposed for determining the most suitable guidance gains in order to minimize miss distance and improve accuracy of the missile in delivering the warhead, while using CLOS guidance. This proposed technique is based on constrained nonlinear minimization to optimize the guidance gains. CLOS guidance has a further limitation of significant increase in normal and lateral acceleration demands during the terminal phase of missile flight. Furthermore, at large elevation angles, the required angle-of-attack during the terminal phase increases beyond design specifications. Subsequently, a missile with optical sensors only and following just the CLOS guidance has less likelihood to hit high speed targets beyond 45º in elevation plane. A novel approach has thus been proposed to overcome such limitations of CLOS-only guidance for surface to air missiles. In this approach, an integrated guidance algorithm has been proposed whereby the initial guidance law during rocket motor burnout phase remains CLOS, whereas immediately after this phase, the guidance law is automatically switched to PN guidance. This integrated approach has not only resulted in slight increase in range of the missile but also has significantly improved its likelihood to hit targets beyond 30 degrees in elevation plane, thus successfully overcoming various limitations of CLOS

  1. Integrative exercise and lifestyle intervention increases leisure-time activity in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, Soraya; Hojman, Pernille; Cubedo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been demonstrated to increase survival in breast cancer patients, but few breast cancer patients meet the general recommendations for physical activity. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if a supervised integrated counseling and group-based exercise...... program could increase leisure-time activity in women with breast cancer. METHODS: This pilot project, designed as a single-arm study with pre-post testing, consisted of 24 classes of combined aerobic and strength exercise training as well as classes on dietary and health behavior. A total of 48 women...... with breast cancer who were undergoing or had recently completed anticancer treatment completed the study. Leisure-time physical activity, grip strength, functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), and depression were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at the 12-week follow-up after intervention...

  2. Using an integrated automated system to optimize retention and increase frequency of blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J Garrett; Hall, Robert F

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the impact of an integrated, automated phone system to reinforce retention and increase frequency of donations among blood donors. Cultivated by incorporating data results over the past 7 years, the system uses computerized phone messaging to contact blood donors with individualized, multilevel notifications. Donors are contacted at planned intervals to acknowledge and recognize their donations, informed where their blood was sent, asked to participate in a survey, and reminded when they are eligible to donate again. The report statistically evaluates the impact of the various components of the system on donor retention and blood donations and quantifies the fiscal advantages to blood centers. By using information and support systems provided by the automated services and then incorporating the phlebotomists and recruiters to reinforce donor retention, both retention and donations will increase. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Alternative reprocessing schemes evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper reviews the parameters which determine the inaccessibility of the plutonium in reprocessing plants. Among the various parameters, the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials, the various processing schemes and the confinement are considered. The emphasis is placed on that latter parameter, and the advantages of an increased confinement in the socalled PIPEX reprocessing plant type are presented

  4. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  5. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300 were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00, and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4% and post-test (66.6% (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00. When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly

  6. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  7. Integration of motion energy from overlapping random background noise increases perceived speed of coherently moving stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jason; Ausloos, Emily C; Schwebach, Courtney A; Huang, Xin

    2016-12-01

    The perception of visual motion can be profoundly influenced by visual context. To gain insight into how the visual system represents motion speed, we investigated how a background stimulus that did not move in a net direction influenced the perceived speed of a center stimulus. Visual stimuli were two overlapping random-dot patterns. The center stimulus moved coherently in a fixed direction, whereas the background stimulus moved randomly. We found that human subjects perceived the speed of the center stimulus to be significantly faster than its veridical speed when the background contained motion noise. Interestingly, the perceived speed was tuned to the noise level of the background. When the speed of the center stimulus was low, the highest perceived speed was reached when the background had a low level of motion noise. As the center speed increased, the peak perceived speed was reached at a progressively higher background noise level. The effect of speed overestimation required the center stimulus to overlap with the background. Increasing the background size within a certain range enhanced the effect, suggesting spatial integration. The speed overestimation was significantly reduced or abolished when the center stimulus and the background stimulus had different colors, or when they were placed at different depths. When the center- and background-stimuli were perceptually separable, speed overestimation was correlated with perceptual similarity between the center- and background-stimuli. These results suggest that integration of motion energy from random motion noise has a significant impact on speed perception. Our findings put new constraints on models regarding the neural basis of speed perception. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Integrating desalination to reservoir operation to increase redundancy for more secure water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Rashi; Ng, Tze Ling

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of integrating desalination to existing reservoir systems to mitigate supply uncertainty. Desalinated seawater and wastewater are relatively reliable but expensive. Water from natural resources like reservoirs is generally cheaper but climate sensitive. We propose combining the operation of a reservoir and seawater and wastewater desalination plants for an overall system that is less vulnerable to scarcity and uncertainty, while constraining total cost. The joint system is modeled as a multiobjective optimization problem with the double objectives of minimizing risk and vulnerability, subject to a minimum limit on resilience. The joint model is applied to two cases, one based on the climate and demands of a location in India and the other of a location in California. The results for the Indian case indicate that it is possible for the joint system to reduce risk and vulnerability to zero given a budget increase of 20-120% under current climate conditions and 30-150% under projected future conditions. For the Californian case, this would require budget increases of 20-80% and 30-140% under current and future conditions, respectively. Further, our analysis shows a two-way interaction between the reservoir and desalination plants where the optimal operation of the former is just as much affected by the latter as the latter by the former. This highlights the importance of an integrated management approach. This study contributes to a greater quantitative understanding of desalination as a redundancy measure for adapting water supply infrastructures for a future of greater scarcity and uncertainty.

  9. Integrating novel chemical weapons and evolutionarily increased competitive ability in success of a tropical invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Long; Feng, Yu-Long; Zhang, Li-Kun; Callaway, Ragan M; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Luo, Du-Qiang; Liao, Zhi-Yong; Lei, Yan-Bao; Barclay, Gregor F; Silva-Pereyra, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis and the novel weapons hypothesis (NWH) are two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for exotic plant invasions, but few studies have simultaneously tested these hypotheses. Here we aimed to integrate them in the context of Chromolaena odorata invasion. We conducted two common garden experiments in order to test the EICA hypothesis, and two laboratory experiments in order to test the NWH. In common conditions, C. odorata plants from the nonnative range were better competitors but not larger than plants from the native range, either with or without the experimental manipulation of consumers. Chromolaena odorata plants from the nonnative range were more poorly defended against aboveground herbivores but better defended against soil-borne enemies. Chromolaena odorata plants from the nonnative range produced more odoratin (Eupatorium) (a unique compound of C. odorata with both allelopathic and defensive activities) and elicited stronger allelopathic effects on species native to China, the nonnative range of the invader, than on natives of Mexico, the native range of the invader. Our results suggest that invasive plants may evolve increased competitive ability after being introduced by increasing the production of novel allelochemicals, potentially in response to naïve competitors and new enemy regimes. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Integrated project for increasing the capacity of spent fuel pools at Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo Garcia, C.; Arana, S.

    1996-01-01

    The current storage capacity of the Cofrentes NPP will have reached its limit by the end of its 15th cycle, in the year 2005. The works performed by Empresarios Agrupados for IBERDROLA show that it is possible to increase this capacity in successive phases, so as to make the Power Plant self-sufficient for 16 more years (up to 2021) in the case of compact storage, or for 50 more years (2055) in the case of consolidated storage or second level storage. Optimisation of the management of high-activity wastes goes with a series of tasks which come under the group referred to as Integrated Project for Increasing the Capacity of Spent Fuel Pools. The main activities of the project can be summarised under the following three items: increase of storage capacity (feasibility study, specification for the purchase of racks, manufacture, assembly and tests), improvement of the capacity of the pool cooling system and modification of the components and accessories located inside the pools which interfere with the new racks. Another series of activities with less technical and economic impact are: modification of fuel handling machines, management of generated radwaste, licensing and modification of plant documentation (seismic analysis, radiation areas, as-built drawings and verification of the validation of purification and HVAC systems). (Author)

  11. A Novel Scheme and Evaluations on a Long-Term and Continuous Biosensor Platform Integrated with a Dental Implant Fixture and Its Prosthetic Abutment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Jung; Lu, Chih-Cheng

    2015-09-25

    A miniature intra-oral dental implant system including a built-in biosensor device is proposed in this article. The dental implant system, or platform, is replaced over maxilla and allows relatively non-invasive procedures for a novel biosensing scheme for human blood analysis. Due to placement of the implant fixture, periodontal ligaments and the pulp structure, which are regarded as the main origin of pain, are thus removed, and long-term, continuous blood analysis and management through maxillary bone marrow becomes achievable through the dental implant platform. The new pathway of biological sensing is for the first time presented to realize an accurate and painless approach without injections. The dental implant system mainly consists of an implant fixture and a prosthetic abutment, a biosensor module, a bluetooth 4.0 wireless module and a dc button cell battery. The electrochemical biosensor possesses three electrodes, including working, reference and counter ones, which are arranged to pass through the titanium implant fixture below the biosensor module. The electrodes are exposed to the blood pool inside the maxillary bone marrow and perform oxidation/reduction reactions with the coating of biosensing enzyme. To prove the proposed platform, the immobilization process of glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme and in vitro detections of glucose levels are successfully carried out, and proven sensitivity, linearity and repeatability of the glucose biosensor system are obtained. Moreover, a preliminary canine animal model adopting the new pathway shows significant consistency with the traditional method through dermal pricks for blood sugar detection. Despite the prospective results, further challenges in engineering implementation and clinical practices are addressed and discussed. In brief, the novel biosensing pathway and intra-oral biosensor platform may increasingly reveal their promising value and feasibilities in current bio-medical analysis, diagnosis, drug

  12. A Novel Scheme and Evaluations on a Long-Term and Continuous Biosensor Platform Integrated with a Dental Implant Fixture and Its Prosthetic Abutment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jung Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A miniature intra-oral dental implant system including a built-in biosensor device is proposed in this article. The dental implant system, or platform, is replaced over maxilla and allows relatively non-invasive procedures for a novel biosensing scheme for human blood analysis. Due to placement of the implant fixture, periodontal ligaments and the pulp structure, which are regarded as the main origin of pain, are thus removed, and long-term, continuous blood analysis and management through maxillary bone marrow becomes achievable through the dental implant platform. The new pathway of biological sensing is for the first time presented to realize an accurate and painless approach without injections. The dental implant system mainly consists of an implant fixture and a prosthetic abutment, a biosensor module, a bluetooth 4.0 wireless module and a dc button cell battery. The electrochemical biosensor possesses three electrodes, including working, reference and counter ones, which are arranged to pass through the titanium implant fixture below the biosensor module. The electrodes are exposed to the blood pool inside the maxillary bone marrow and perform oxidation/reduction reactions with the coating of biosensing enzyme. To prove the proposed platform, the immobilization process of glucose oxidase (GOD enzyme and in vitro detections of glucose levels are successfully carried out, and proven sensitivity, linearity and repeatability of the glucose biosensor system are obtained. Moreover, a preliminary canine animal model adopting the new pathway shows significant consistency with the traditional method through dermal pricks for blood sugar detection. Despite the prospective results, further challenges in engineering implementation and clinical practices are addressed and discussed. In brief, the novel biosensing pathway and intra-oral biosensor platform may increasingly reveal their promising value and feasibilities in current bio-medical analysis

  13. FORMING OF THE SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAINS BASED ON INCREASING OF THEIR INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHVETS V. J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Key challenges and barriers of mining machinery enterprises in the context of forming sustainable supply chains in the mining industry are specified. Methodology. The algorithm of forming the industrial relations, which are carried out by the enterprises of mining machinery in order to increase the sustainable development of a mining industry, is offered. Conclusions.. Modern supply chains are confronted with dynamic trends and developments that are hard to predict. In order to respond to these changes and remain competitive advantage, companies should be able to identify and understand new sustainability issues in their branches. It is established that in the conditions of globalization of the market and the general orientation of Ukraine’s economy to the European principles of development, for mining machinery enterprises a proof of the commitment and observance of requirements of energy efficiency, i.e. energy saving, energy safety and social energy responsibility are very important. Supply channels should increase not only energy efficiency, economic and production stability of the company, but also strengthen the stability of all participants in the production chain, as well as other stakeholders (business partners, customers, investors, local communities, etc.. Originality. The interrelation of an indicator of energy efficiency in forming sustainable supply chain in a mining industry is established. Practical value. Using the principles of sustainable development in the forming of value chains will improve energy efficiency of industry in general; provide a competitive advantage to entry into the global production chains in terms of European integration of Ukraine.

  14. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, N; Thompson, L L

    2016-01-01

    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation. (paper)

  15. Integrated equipment for increasing and maintaining coolant pressure in primary circuit of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, D.

    1986-01-01

    An open heat pump circuit is claimed connected to the primary circuit. The pump circuit consists of a steam pressurizer with a built-in steam distributor, a compressor, an expander, a reducing valve, an auxiliary pump, and of water and steam pipes. The operation is described and a block diagram is shown of integrated equipment for increasing and maintaining pressure in the nuclear power plant primary circuit. The appropriate entropy diagram is also shown. The advantage of the open pump circuit consists in reducing the electric power input and electric power consumption for the steam pressurizers, removing entropy loss in heat transfer with high temperature gradient, in the possibility of inserting, between the expander and the auxiliary pump, a primary circuit coolant treatment station, in simplified design and manufacture of the high-pressure steam pressurizer vessel, reducing the weight of the steam pressurizer by changing its shape from cylindrical to spherical, increasing the rate of pressure growth in the primary circuit. (E.S.)

  16. Increased microbial functional diversity under long-term organic and integrated fertilization in a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Long-Jun; Su, Jian-Qiang; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Jin-Shui; Wei, Wen-Xue

    2018-02-01

    Microbes play key roles in diverse biogeochemical processes including nutrient cycling. However, responses of soil microbial community and functional genes to long-term integrated fertilization (chemical combined with organic fertilization) remain unclear. Here, we used pyrosequencing and a microarray-based GeoChip to explore the shifts of microbial community and functional genes in a paddy soil which received over 21-year fertilization with various regimes, including control (no fertilizer), rice straw (R), rice straw plus chemical fertilizer nitrogen (NR), N and phosphorus (NPR), NP and potassium (NPKR), and reduced rice straw plus reduced NPK (L-NPKR). Significant shifts of the overall soil bacterial composition only occurred in the NPKR and L-NPKR treatments, with enrichment of certain groups including Bradyrhizobiaceae and Rhodospirillaceae families that benefit higher productivity. All fertilization treatments significantly altered the soil microbial functional structure with increased diversity and abundances of genes for carbon and nitrogen cycling, in which NPKR and L-NPKR exhibited the strongest effect, while R exhibited the least. Functional gene structure and abundance were significantly correlated with corresponding soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, respectively, suggesting that the structural shift of the microbial functional community under fertilization might promote soil nutrient turnover and thereby affect yield. Overall, this study indicates that the combined application of rice straw and balanced chemical fertilizers was more pronounced in shifting the bacterial composition and improving the functional diversity toward higher productivity, providing a microbial point of view on applying a cost-effective integrated fertilization regime with rice straw plus reduced chemical fertilizers for sustainable nutrient management.

  17. Oxidation of D-glucose and D-fructose with oxygen in aqueous, alkaline solutions. Part I. An integral reaction scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilt, H.G.J.; Kuster, B.F.M.

    1971-01-01

    The homogeneous oxidn. of D-glucose and D-fructose with O in aq., alk. solns. is studied, and a reaction scheme proposed to account for the obsd. reaction products. Formation of enolate anions is followed by non-oxidative reactions (involving double-bond migration and cleavage) and by oxidative

  18. Increased phase synchronization during continuous face integration measured simultaneously with EEG and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottlow, Mara; Jann, Kay; Dierks, Thomas; Koenig, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Gamma zero-lag phase synchronization has been measured in the animal brain during visual binding. Human scalp EEG studies used a phase locking factor (trial-to-trial phase-shift consistency) or gamma amplitude to measure binding but did not analyze common-phase signals so far. This study introduces a method to identify networks oscillating with near zero-lag phase synchronization in human subjects. We presented unpredictably moving face parts (NOFACE) which - during some periods - produced a complete schematic face (FACE). The amount of zero-lag phase synchronization was measured using global field synchronization (GFS). GFS provides global information on the amount of instantaneous coincidences in specific frequencies throughout the brain. Gamma GFS was increased during the FACE condition. To localize the underlying areas, we correlated gamma GFS with simultaneously recorded BOLD responses. Positive correlates comprised the bilateral middle fusiform gyrus and the left precuneus. These areas may form a network of areas transiently synchronized during face integration, including face-specific as well as binding-specific regions and regions for visual processing in general. Thus, the amount of zero-lag phase synchronization between remote regions of the human visual system can be measured with simultaneously acquired EEG/fMRI. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrating Algae with Bioenergy Carbon Capture and Storage (ABECCS) Increases Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Colin M.; Archibald, Ian; Huntley, Mark E.; Greene, Charles H.; Johnson, Zackary I.

    2018-03-01

    Bioenergy carbon capture and storage (BECCS) has been proposed to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but concerns remain about competition for arable land and freshwater. The synergistic integration of algae production, which does not require arable land or freshwater, with BECCS (called "ABECCS") can reduce CO2 emissions without competing with agriculture. This study presents a technoeconomic and life-cycle assessment for colocating a 121-ha algae facility with a 2,680-ha eucalyptus forest for BECCS. The eucalyptus biomass fuels combined heat and power (CHP) generation with subsequent amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS). A portion of the captured CO2 is used for growing algae and the remainder is sequestered. Biomass combustion supplies CO2, heat, and electricity, thus increasing the range of sites suitable for algae cultivation. Economic, energetic, and environmental impacts are considered. The system yields as much protein as soybeans while generating 61.5 TJ of electricity and sequestering 29,600 t of CO2 per year. More energy is generated than consumed and the freshwater footprint is roughly equal to that for soybeans. Financial break-even is achieved for product value combinations that include 1) algal biomass sold for 1,400/t (fishmeal replacement) with a 68/t carbon credit and 2) algal biomass sold for 600/t (soymeal replacement) with a 278/t carbon credit. Sensitivity analysis shows significant reductions to the cost of carbon sequestration are possible. The ABECCS system represents a unique technology for negative emissions without reducing protein production or increasing water demand, and should therefore be included in the suite of technologies being considered to address global sustainability.

  20. A Memory Efficient Network Encryption Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fotouh, Mohamed Abo; Diepold, Klaus

    In this paper, we studied the two widely used encryption schemes in network applications. Shortcomings have been found in both schemes, as these schemes consume either more memory to gain high throughput or low memory with low throughput. The need has aroused for a scheme that has low memory requirements and in the same time possesses high speed, as the number of the internet users increases each day. We used the SSM model [1], to construct an encryption scheme based on the AES. The proposed scheme possesses high throughput together with low memory requirements.

  1. Increasing safer sexual behavior among Lao kathoy through an integrated social marketing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although HIV prevalence has remained low in Laos thus far, there is reason to be concerned that Lao male-to-female (MtF) transgender persons (kathoy) and their partners may facilitate the spread of HIV. Little is known about how to most effectively reach kathoy with HIV prevention programming. This paper evaluates an intervention with Lao kathoy with the objective of increasing safe sex with regular and casual partners. Methods Quantitative surveys were administered in November 2004 (n = 288) and June 2006 (n = 415) using time location sampling at venues where kathoy were known to congregate. Respondents were aged 15-35 and from three urban centers in Laos. UNIANOVA tests were used to compare baseline and follow-up survey data and to evaluate the impact of PSI's kathoy-specific interventions on items that changed significantly over time. Results Exposure to the intervention was associated with higher levels of condom use at last anal sex with casual partners and greater use of water-based lubricant. Exposure was also linked to improved perceptions of product availability for condoms and water-based lubricant. Knowledge about the importance of consistent condom use improved over time as well as the need to use condoms with regular partners. Some HIV knowledge decreased over time and the intention to use condoms with casual partners when water-based lubricant is available also declined. Conclusions Study results demonstrate the feasibility of reaching kathoy with an integrated social marketing approach; combining product promotion, peer education, and other types of interpersonal communication. The approach was successful at increasing condom use with casual partners and water-based lubricant use, but the importance of using condoms along with water-based lubricant must be emphasized and modified strategies are required for improving condom use with boyfriends. Future messages should emphasize consistent condom use with all types of partners as well as

  2. Increasing safer sexual behavior among Lao kathoy through an integrated social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfield, Kim; Panyanouvong, Xouchai; Chen, Judy; Kays, Megan B

    2011-11-16

    Although HIV prevalence has remained low in Laos thus far, there is reason to be concerned that Lao male-to-female (MtF) transgender persons (kathoy) and their partners may facilitate the spread of HIV. Little is known about how to most effectively reach kathoy with HIV prevention programming. This paper evaluates an intervention with Lao kathoy with the objective of increasing safe sex with regular and casual partners. Quantitative surveys were administered in November 2004 (n = 288) and June 2006 (n = 415) using time location sampling at venues where kathoy were known to congregate. Respondents were aged 15-35 and from three urban centers in Laos. UNIANOVA tests were used to compare baseline and follow-up survey data and to evaluate the impact of PSI's kathoy-specific interventions on items that changed significantly over time. Exposure to the intervention was associated with higher levels of condom use at last anal sex with casual partners and greater use of water-based lubricant. Exposure was also linked to improved perceptions of product availability for condoms and water-based lubricant. Knowledge about the importance of consistent condom use improved over time as well as the need to use condoms with regular partners. Some HIV knowledge decreased over time and the intention to use condoms with casual partners when water-based lubricant is available also declined. Study results demonstrate the feasibility of reaching kathoy with an integrated social marketing approach; combining product promotion, peer education, and other types of interpersonal communication. The approach was successful at increasing condom use with casual partners and water-based lubricant use, but the importance of using condoms along with water-based lubricant must be emphasized and modified strategies are required for improving condom use with boyfriends. Future messages should emphasize consistent condom use with all types of partners as well as improve knowledge and correct

  3. Increasing safer sexual behavior among Lao kathoy through an integrated social marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfield Kim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although HIV prevalence has remained low in Laos thus far, there is reason to be concerned that Lao male-to-female (MtF transgender persons (kathoy and their partners may facilitate the spread of HIV. Little is known about how to most effectively reach kathoy with HIV prevention programming. This paper evaluates an intervention with Lao kathoy with the objective of increasing safe sex with regular and casual partners. Methods Quantitative surveys were administered in November 2004 (n = 288 and June 2006 (n = 415 using time location sampling at venues where kathoy were known to congregate. Respondents were aged 15-35 and from three urban centers in Laos. UNIANOVA tests were used to compare baseline and follow-up survey data and to evaluate the impact of PSI's kathoy-specific interventions on items that changed significantly over time. Results Exposure to the intervention was associated with higher levels of condom use at last anal sex with casual partners and greater use of water-based lubricant. Exposure was also linked to improved perceptions of product availability for condoms and water-based lubricant. Knowledge about the importance of consistent condom use improved over time as well as the need to use condoms with regular partners. Some HIV knowledge decreased over time and the intention to use condoms with casual partners when water-based lubricant is available also declined. Conclusions Study results demonstrate the feasibility of reaching kathoy with an integrated social marketing approach; combining product promotion, peer education, and other types of interpersonal communication. The approach was successful at increasing condom use with casual partners and water-based lubricant use, but the importance of using condoms along with water-based lubricant must be emphasized and modified strategies are required for improving condom use with boyfriends. Future messages should emphasize consistent condom use with all types

  4. What is conservation physiology? Perspectives on an increasingly integrated and essential science†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Sack, Lawren; Franklin, Craig E.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Beardall, John; Wikelski, Martin; Chown, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, ecosystems and their constituent flora and fauna face the localized and broad-scale influence of human activities. Conservation practitioners and environmental managers struggle to identify and mitigate threats, reverse species declines, restore degraded ecosystems, and manage natural resources sustainably. Scientific research and evidence are increasingly regarded as the foundation for new regulations, conservation actions, and management interventions. Conservation biologists and managers have traditionally focused on the characteristics (e.g. abundance, structure, trends) of populations, species, communities, and ecosystems, and simple indicators of the responses to environmental perturbations and other human activities. However, an understanding of the specific mechanisms underlying conservation problems is becoming increasingly important for decision-making, in part because physiological tools and knowledge are especially useful for developing cause-and-effect relationships, and for identifying the optimal range of habitats and stressor thresholds for different organisms. When physiological knowledge is incorporated into ecological models, it can improve predictions of organism responses to environmental change and provide tools to support management decisions. Without such knowledge, we may be left with simple associations. ‘Conservation physiology’ has been defined previously with a focus on vertebrates, but here we redefine the concept universally, for application to the diversity of taxa from microbes to plants, to animals, and to natural resources. We also consider ‘physiology’ in the broadest possible terms; i.e. how an organism functions, and any associated mechanisms, from development to bioenergetics, to environmental interactions, through to fitness. Moreover, we consider conservation physiology to include a wide range of applications beyond assisting imperiled populations, and include, for example, the eradication of invasive

  5. Acceptability of financial incentives or quasi-mandatory schemes to increase uptake of immunisations in preschool children in the United Kingdom: Qualitative study with parents and service delivery staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Rebekah Jayne; Adams, Jean; Shucksmith, Janet

    2016-04-27

    Since the 1990 s strenuous attempts have been made to rebuild trust in childhood immunisations. This study aimed to understand if financial incentives (FI) or quasi-mandatory schemes (QMS), e.g. mandating immunisations for entry to universal services such as day care or school, might be acceptable interventions to increase immunisations uptake for preschool children. Parents and carers of preschool children (n=91); health and other professionals (n=18); and those responsible for developing and commissioning immunisation services (n=6) took part in the study. Qualitative methods were employed to explore the acceptability of FI/QMS with stakeholders. Framework analysis was used to develop a coding framework that was applied to the whole dataset. Interpretations of the emergent themes were verified between researchers and presented to the project's Parent Reference Group to ensure coherence and relevance. (1) FI: parents and professionals felt introducing FI was inappropriate. It was acknowledged FI may encourage families living in disadvantage to prioritise immunisation, but unintended consequences could outweigh any advantage. FI essentially changes behaviour into a cash transaction which many equated to bribery that could inadvertently create inequalities. (2) QMS: parents and professionals highlighted the positives of introducing QMS, stating it felt natural, fair and less likely to create inequality. Despite QMS' potential to positively impact on uptake there were concerns about the implementation and workability of such schemes. FI for preschool immunisation may not be acceptable, within a UK context. Introducing FI could have detrimental effects on uptake if it were associated with bribery and coercion. Quasi-mandatory schemes, mandating immunisation for universal service entry, was the most acceptable option and could contribute to the normalising of immunisation. Future work would be needed to assess how this could be successfully implemented and if it did

  6. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail: katerina.chrysalidis@cern.ch; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  7. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...

  8. Integration of Professional Certification Examinations with the Financial Planning Curriculum: Increasing Efficiency, Motivation, and Professional Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Joseph W.; Zhu, Dandan; Hampton, Vickie L.; Chatterjee, Swarn; Salter, John

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical-based rationale and plan of action for educational programs to encourage and create opportunities for the integration of course study with professional exam preparation, while highlighting the complementary benefits for students, academic programs, and the financial services profession. Serving primarily as a…

  9. High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-IC) in treatment of cervical carcinoma: 5-year results and implication of increased low-grade rectal complication on initiation of an HDR-IC fractionation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chongjong; Wan Leung, Stephen; Chen Huichun; Sun Limin; Fang Fumin; Changchien Chanchao; Huang Engyen; Wu Jiaming; Chen Chuhnchih

    1997-01-01

    -fraction scheme, survival rate appeared comparable with the existing results of the low-dose-rate technique. The incidence of rectal complication with this scheme remained relatively high. The increased part of rectal complication was predominately low grade. This result suggested that therapeutic gain with this scheme may not be good enough to circumvent its biologic disadvantage. Numbers of fractions >3 must be considered in future trials

  10. Development of a multi-data assimilation scheme to integrate Bio-Argo floats data with ocean colour satellite data into the CMEMS MFC-Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossarini, Gianpiero; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Mariotti, Laura; Mignot, Alexandre; Salon, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a very promising site to develop and test the assimilation of Bio-Argo data since 1) the Bio-Argo network is one of the densest of the global ocean, and 2) a consolidate data assimilation framework of biogeochemical variables (3DVAR-BIO, presently based on assimilation of satellite-estimated surface chlorophyll data) already exists within the CMEMS biogeochemical model system for Mediterranean Sea. The MASSIMILI project, granted by the CMEMS Service Evolution initiative, is aimed to develop the assimilation of Bio-Argo Floats data into the CMEMS biogeochemical model system of the Mediterranean Sea, by means of an upgrade of the 3DVAR-BIO scheme. Specific developments of the 3DVAR-BIO scheme focus on the estimate of new operators of the variational decomposition of the background error covariance matrix and on the implementation of the new observation operator specifically for the Bio-Argo float vertical profile data. In particular, a new horizontal covariance operator for chlorophyll, nitrate and oxygen is based on 3D fields of horizontal correlation radius calculated from a long-term reanalysis simulation. A new vertical covariance operator is built on monthly and spatial varying EOF decomposition to account for the spatiotemporal variability of vertical structure of the three variables error covariance. Further, the observation error covariance is a key factor for an effective assimilation of the Bio-Argo data into the model dynamics. The sensitivities of assimilation to the different factors are estimated. First results of the implementation of the new 3DVAR-BIO scheme show the impact of Bio-Argo data on the 3D fields of chlorophyll, nitrate and oxygen. Tuning the length scale factors of horizontal covariance, analysing the sensitivity of the observation error covariance, introducing non-diagonal biogeochemical covariance operator and non-diagonal multi-platform operator (i.e. Bio-Argo and satellite) are crucial future steps for the

  11. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  12. Increasing Employability by Implementing a Work-Integrated Learning Partnership Model in South Africa--A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susanne; Govender, Cookie M.

    2017-01-01

    In South Africa, 70 per cent of the population is under 35 years old. South Africa has a vision to increase youth employment by focusing on education, training and skills development that will promote employment opportunities. A work-integrated learning (WIL) partnership model was developed to provide students with work experience and to increase…

  13. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  14. Audiovisual integration increases the intentional step synchronization of side-by-side walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Dominic; Mouta, Sandra; Lamas, Joao; Basso, Daniel; Silva, Carlos; Santos, Jorge A

    2017-12-01

    When people walk side-by-side, they often synchronize their steps. To achieve this, individuals might cross-modally match audiovisual signals from the movements of the partner and kinesthetic, cutaneous, visual and auditory signals from their own movements. Because signals from different sensory systems are processed with noise and asynchronously, the challenge of the CNS is to derive the best estimate based on this conflicting information. This is currently thought to be done by a mechanism operating as a Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE). The present work investigated whether audiovisual signals from the partner are integrated according to MLE in order to synchronize steps during walking. Three experiments were conducted in which the sensory cues from a walking partner were virtually simulated. In Experiment 1 seven participants were instructed to synchronize with human-sized Point Light Walkers and/or footstep sounds. Results revealed highest synchronization performance with auditory and audiovisual cues. This was quantified by the time to achieve synchronization and by synchronization variability. However, this auditory dominance effect might have been due to artifacts of the setup. Therefore, in Experiment 2 human-sized virtual mannequins were implemented. Also, audiovisual stimuli were rendered in real-time and thus were synchronous and co-localized. All four participants synchronized best with audiovisual cues. For three of the four participants results point toward their optimal integration consistent with the MLE model. Experiment 3 yielded performance decrements for all three participants when the cues were incongruent. Overall, these findings suggest that individuals might optimally integrate audiovisual cues to synchronize steps during side-by-side walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuel through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technical Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, David [Cellana, LLC, Kailua-Kona, HI (United States)

    2016-12-31

    The proposed project built on the foundation of over several years years of intensive and ground-breaking R&D work at Cellana's Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF). Phycological and engineering solutions were provided to tackle key cultivation issues and technical barriers limiting algal biomass productivity identified through work conducted outdoors at industrial (1 acre) scale. The objectives of this project were to significantly improve algal biomass productivity and reduce operational cost in a seawater-based system, using results obtained from two top-performing algal strains as the baseline while technically advancing and more importantly, integrating the various unit operations involved in algal biomass production, processing, and refining.

  16. Does self-scheduling increase nurses' job satisfaction? An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Clare

    2014-09-25

    Flexible work schedules give nurses the freedom and control to manage the demands of work and home, allow organisations to meet their staffing needs and can improve job satisfaction. This article reports the results of an integrative review of published peer-reviewed research and personal narratives that examined nurses' perceptions of the relationship between job satisfaction and a self-scheduling system. Results suggest that self-scheduling is one of a number of factors that influence job satisfaction, but that implementing and sustaining such a system can be challenging. The review also found that self-scheduling programmes underpin more flexible work schedules and can benefit nurses and their organisations.

  17. Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Polson, Randy; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-11-01

    Photonic-integrated devices need to be adequately spaced apart to prevent signal cross-talk. This fundamentally limits their packing density. Here we report the use of nanophotonic cloaking to render neighbouring devices invisible to one another, which allows them to be placed closer together than is otherwise feasible. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrated waveguides that are spaced by a distance of ~λ0/2 and designed waveguides with centre-to-centre spacing as small as 600 nm (-2 dB and an extinction ratio >15 dB over a bandwidth larger than 60 nm. This performance can be improved with better design algorithms and industry-standard lithography. The nanophotonic cloak relies on multiple guided-mode resonances, which render such devices very robust to fabrication errors. Our devices are broadly complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible, have a minimum pitch of 200 nm and can be fabricated with a single lithography step. The nanophotonic cloaks can be generally applied to all passive integrated photonics.

  18. Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Polson, Randy; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-11-09

    Photonic-integrated devices need to be adequately spaced apart to prevent signal cross-talk. This fundamentally limits their packing density. Here we report the use of nanophotonic cloaking to render neighbouring devices invisible to one another, which allows them to be placed closer together than is otherwise feasible. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrated waveguides that are spaced by a distance of ∼λ 0 /2 and designed waveguides with centre-to-centre spacing as small as 600 nm (-2 dB and an extinction ratio >15 dB over a bandwidth larger than 60 nm. This performance can be improved with better design algorithms and industry-standard lithography. The nanophotonic cloak relies on multiple guided-mode resonances, which render such devices very robust to fabrication errors. Our devices are broadly complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible, have a minimum pitch of 200 nm and can be fabricated with a single lithography step. The nanophotonic cloaks can be generally applied to all passive integrated photonics.

  19. Quantum Secure Communication Scheme with W State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Zhang Quan; Tang Chaojng

    2007-01-01

    We present a quantum secure communication scheme using three-qubit W state. It is unnecessary for the present scheme to use alternative measurement or Bell basis measurement. Compared with the quantum secure direct communication scheme proposed by Cao et al. [H.J. Cao and H.S. Song, Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 (2006) 290], in our scheme, the detection probability for an eavesdropper's attack increases from 8.3% to 25%. We also show that our scheme is secure for a noise quantum channel.

  20. Use of potassium permanganate integrated chemical-biological treatment schemes of wastewaters from agricultural industry; Aplicacion de permanganato potasico en sistemas de tratamiento integrado quimico-biologico en las aguas residuales de la industria agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medialdea, J. M.; Arnaiz, M. C.; Isac, L.; Ruiz, C.; Valentin, R.; Martinez, M. F.; Garcia, S.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Cuenca, I.

    2000-07-01

    Present study assesses the applicability of a treatment scheme based on the combination of anaerobic biological digestion and chemical oxidation by potassium permanganate, in the purification of winery wastewaters. Biological digestion, performed using an experimental 1-liter reactor that operated discontinuously with completely mixed input and a mesophilic regime (35 degree centigree), removed 65% and 78% of water COD and BOD, and contributed 82,27% to the system global efficiency. Further chemical oxidation of effluent by Aquox -potassium permanganate eliminated 40% of residual COD, although contributed only 17,73% to global purification efficiency. However, effluent chemical oxidation at a dosage of 35 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L significantly increased effluent biodegradability. Results demonstrated the feasibility of analyzed working scheme and provide a positive valuation on the use of KMnO{sub 4} in the treatment of winery wastewaters. (Author) 24 refs.

  1. Power adaptive multi-filter carrierless amplitude and phase access scheme for visible light communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Huang, Zhitong; Li, Haoyue; Ji, Yuefeng

    2018-04-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising candidate for short-range broadband access due to its integration of advantages for both optical communication and wireless communication, whereas multi-user access is a key problem because of the intra-cell and inter-cell interferences. In addition, the non-flat channel effect results in higher losses for users in high frequency bands, which leads to unfair qualities. To solve those issues, we propose a power adaptive multi-filter carrierless amplitude and phase access (PA-MF-CAPA) scheme, and in the first step of this scheme, the MF-CAPA scheme utilizing multiple filters as different CAP dimensions is used to realize multi-user access. The character of orthogonality among the filters in different dimensions can mitigate the effect of intra-cell and inter-cell interferences. Moreover, the MF-CAPA scheme provides different channels modulated on the same frequency bands, which further increases the transmission rate. Then, the power adaptive procedure based on MF-CAPA scheme is presented to realize quality fairness. As demonstrated in our experiments, the MF-CAPA scheme yields an improved throughput compared with multi-band CAP access scheme, and the PA-MF-CAPA scheme enhances the quality fairness and further improves the throughput compared with the MF-CAPA scheme.

  2. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  3. The mechanical problems on additive manufacturing of viscoelastic solids with integral conditions on a surface increasing in the growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, D. A.; Manzhirov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Quasistatic mechanical problems on additive manufacturing aging viscoelastic solids are investigated. The processes of piecewise-continuous accretion of such solids are considered. The consideration is carried out in the framework of linear mechanics of growing solids. A theorem about commutativity of the integration over an arbitrary surface increasing in the solid growing process and the time-derived integral operator of viscoelasticity with a limit depending on the solid point is proved. This theorem provides an efficient way to construct on the basis of Saint-Venant principle solutions of nonclassical boundary-value problems for describing the mechanical behaviour of additively formed solids with integral satisfaction of boundary conditions on the surfaces expanding due to the additional material influx to the formed solid. The constructed solutions will retrace the evolution of the stress-strain state of the solids under consideration during and after the processes of their additive formation. An example of applying the proved theorem is given.

  4. Implementation of an Integrated Orthopedic Curriculum to Increase Clinical and Procedural Competency amongst Pediatric Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-05

    to Increase Clinical and Procedural Competency Amongst Pediatric Residents presented at/published to APPD Conference, Anaheim, CA, 5-8 April 2017 in...Increase Clinical and Procedural Competency amongst Pediatric Residents 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? 0 YES l8] t-’O FUNDING SOURCE 8. DO YOU NEED...and Procedural Competency amongst Pediatric Residents Sarah Nelin MD, Taneishia Jones, MD, Jason Beachler MD, Michelle Lawson MD, Bryan Lawson, MD

  5. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Zelepouga, Serguei [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gnatenko, Vitaliy [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Saveliev, Alexei [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Jangale, Vilas [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Li, Hailin [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Getz, Timothy [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Mather, Daniel [Digital Engines, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  6. Integrating quality improvement and translational research models to increase exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peggy A; Kaiser, Katherine Laux; Nailon, Regina E

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), a perinatal core measure, is associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to increase the percent of healthy term singleton newborns who were exclusively breastfed at an academic medical center in the Midwest. Implementation of skin-to-skin contact between mother and newborn immediately following birth resulted in an increase in the percent of healthy term singleton newborns who were EBF from 55% to 64%. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  7. Price regulation to remove EE-DSM disincentives and pressure for increased energy sales in monopoly segments of restructured electricity and gas markets: the multiple drivers target (MDT) tariff scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliano, L.; Alari, P.; Ruggieri, G.; Irrek, W.; Thomas, S.; Leprich, U.

    2002-01-01

    Even in restructured markets a part of the energy business remains a monopoly and should be correctly regulated. We present an analysis which reveals common structures in schemes enacted in UK, Norway, Portugal and recently (on the basis of this study) in Italy. The identified structure, which we named Multiple Driver Target (MDT) regulation is a performance-based regulation scheme, which provides incentives for greater economic efficiency, without creating biases against environmental efficiency. The method relies on a statistical analysis of the correlation of utility costs and a few 'cost drivers' (e.g. number of customers served, grid length, sold or transported energy). We discuss how MDT can be used to set price levels and price changes in the regulatory period in such a way to correctly match the evolution of costs and avoid awarding unwanted signals to utilities. At the opposite, pure Price Cap regulation provides artificial incentives to utilities to increase energy sales (even if this is not economic for the customers nor for society ) beyond the predicted levels foreseen in the price fixing Rate Cases. We show that Under MDT regulation the reduction in profits due to reduced sales as a consequence of DSM is minimised. In so doing this procedure removes the most important disincentive for utilities to implement DSM programmes since lost profits due to reduced sales can be substantially higher than direct costs of DSM programmes; once MDT regulation is in place, also these direct costs can be recovered through a small part of the tariff. We also discuss how MDT can be implemented with a moderate effort by regulatory authorities. (author)

  8. Long-Term Managed Aquifer Recharge in a Saline-Water Aquifer as a Critical Component of an Integrated Water Scheme in Southwestern Florida, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Missimer; Weixing Guo; John Woolschlager; Robert G. Maliva

    2017-01-01

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be used within the context of integrated water management to create solutions to multiple objectives. Southwestern Florida is faced with severe environmental problems associated with the wet season discharge of excessive quantities of surface water containing high concentrations of nutrients into the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and a future water supply shortage. A 150,000 m3/day MAR system is proposed as an economic solution to solve part of the en...

  9. Integrated assessment of future land use in Brazil under increasing demand for bioenergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, Judith; van der Hilst, Floortje; Karssenberg, Derek; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Environmental impacts of a future increase in demand for bioenergydepend on the magnitude, location and pattern of the direct and indirectland use change of energy cropland expansion. Here we aim at 1)projecting the spatiotemporal pattern of sugar cane expansion and theeffect on other land uses in

  10. A participatory and integrative approach to increase productivity and comfort in assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Rhijn, G. van; Tuinzaad, B.; Deursen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Manufacturers of manually assembled products are more and more forced to improve the flow of assembly orders together with a more efficient employment, in order to meet increasing demands on short delivery times, high product variety, good quality and low manufacturing costs. At the same time, the

  11. Improving customer generation by increasing website performance and integrating IT systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlall, Shalini; Sanders, David; Powell, Henry; Ndzi, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the research into the design of commercial websites. The research will lead to the identification of design elements that may have significant impact on user behaviour. The research will also investigate how these elements could be altered to provide a better browsing experience to users and ultimately increase online conversion and profit. The research focuses on the design of commercial websites. Their goal is to generate sales by selling products and services online or...

  12. Climate implications of increased wood use in the construction sector - towards an integrated modeling framework

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola; Gustavsson, Leif; Hänninen, Riitta; Kallio, Maarit; Lyhykäinen, Henna; Pingoud, Kim; Pohjola, Johanna; Sathre, Roger; Solberg, Birger; Svanaes, Jarle; Valsta, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in efficient ways to use biomass for the substitution of fossil fuels and non-biomass materials. Wood-based building material can affect the energy and carbon balances through at least four mechanisms: the relatively low fossil energy needed to manufacture wood products compared with alternative materials; the avoidance of industrial process carbon emissions; the increased availability of biofuels from biomass byproducts that can be used to replace fossil fuels; an...

  13. Integrating linear optimization with structural modeling to increase HIV neutralization breadth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Sevy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational protein design has been successful in modeling fixed backbone proteins in a single conformation. However, when modeling large ensembles of flexible proteins, current methods in protein design have been insufficient. Large barriers in the energy landscape are difficult to traverse while redesigning a protein sequence, and as a result current design methods only sample a fraction of available sequence space. We propose a new computational approach that combines traditional structure-based modeling using the Rosetta software suite with machine learning and integer linear programming to overcome limitations in the Rosetta sampling methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, which we call BROAD, by benchmarking the performance on increasing predicted breadth of anti-HIV antibodies. We use this novel method to increase predicted breadth of naturally-occurring antibody VRC23 against a panel of 180 divergent HIV viral strains and achieve 100% predicted binding against the panel. In addition, we compare the performance of this method to state-of-the-art multistate design in Rosetta and show that we can outperform the existing method significantly. We further demonstrate that sequences recovered by this method recover known binding motifs of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies. Finally, our approach is general and can be extended easily to other protein systems. Although our modeled antibodies were not tested in vitro, we predict that these variants would have greatly increased breadth compared to the wild-type antibody.

  14. Integrating linear optimization with structural modeling to increase HIV neutralization breadth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevy, Alexander M; Panda, Swetasudha; Crowe, James E; Meiler, Jens; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2018-02-01

    Computational protein design has been successful in modeling fixed backbone proteins in a single conformation. However, when modeling large ensembles of flexible proteins, current methods in protein design have been insufficient. Large barriers in the energy landscape are difficult to traverse while redesigning a protein sequence, and as a result current design methods only sample a fraction of available sequence space. We propose a new computational approach that combines traditional structure-based modeling using the Rosetta software suite with machine learning and integer linear programming to overcome limitations in the Rosetta sampling methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, which we call BROAD, by benchmarking the performance on increasing predicted breadth of anti-HIV antibodies. We use this novel method to increase predicted breadth of naturally-occurring antibody VRC23 against a panel of 180 divergent HIV viral strains and achieve 100% predicted binding against the panel. In addition, we compare the performance of this method to state-of-the-art multistate design in Rosetta and show that we can outperform the existing method significantly. We further demonstrate that sequences recovered by this method recover known binding motifs of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies. Finally, our approach is general and can be extended easily to other protein systems. Although our modeled antibodies were not tested in vitro, we predict that these variants would have greatly increased breadth compared to the wild-type antibody.

  15. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine the development of EU energy security policy, focusing on gas. ► We examine changes in European Commission competence in energy policy. ► The European Commission has gained increased competence in the internal market. ► In the external dimension of EU energy policy Member States retain competence. ► The European Commission has had qualified success as a policy entrepreneur

  16. Integration in power control systems. The answer to increasing challenges in grid operation; Integration in der Netzleittechnik. Die Antwort auf die zunehmende Aufgabenvielfalt im Netzbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Matthias [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Today, grid operators are faced with increasingly complex tasks that go well beyond the actual scope of grid control. On the one hand, these challenges arise from the permanently increasing number of decentralized power supplies in the m.v. and l.v. network and their automation, and, on the other hand, from grid expansion which has created new supply areas. Frequently, the information required for the different tasks is not available in the control system, or can only be obtained with considerable effort from other IT solutions (e.g. GIS or ERP). Therefore, it is important to provide all the required data from a variety of different systems in a user-friedly and compatible form. The following paper outlines an integrative solution for the networking of different IT systems, for increased efficiency in network operation. (orig.)

  17. Managing structural design through integrated models and obtaining increased safety and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, B.E.; Thomaz, E.C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The use of large finite element (FE) models for the design of reinforced concrete elements in nuclear power plants will be treated. For this technique a set of computer programs is necessary, since the amount of data is very large. With this design method a series of advantages is obtained such as: reduction of reinforcing steel expenditure, increase of safety through a better representation of the structures, an adequate control of the calculation due to the transparent method of design, reduction of design time due to the automatic computation and so on. (author)

  18. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  19. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  20. Evaluation of an integrated adherence program aimed to increase Medicare Part D star rating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, R Scott; Tirado, Breanne; Patel, Bimal V; Rein, Philip J

    2014-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) Plan Quality and Performance Program, or Star Ratings Program, allows Medicare beneficiaries to compare quality of care among available Medicare Advantage prescription drug (MA-PD) plans and stand-alone prescription drug plans (PDPs). Health plans have increased intervention efforts and applied existing care management infrastructure as an approach to improving member medication adherence and subsequent Part D star rating performance. Independent Care Health Plan (iCare), an MA-PD plan; MedImpact Healthcare Systems, Inc. (MedImpact), a pharmacy benefits manager; and US MED, a mail order pharmacy, partnered to engage and enroll iCare's dual-eligible special needs population in an intervention designed to improve patient medication adherence and health plan performance for 3 Part D patient safety outcome measures: Medication Adherence for Oral Diabetes Medications (ODM), Medication Adherence for Hypertension (HTN), and Medication Adherence for Cholesterol (CHOL). To (a) assess the effectiveness of a coordinated member-directed medication adherence intervention and (b) determine the overall impact of the intervention on adherence rates and CMS Part D star rating adherence measures.  Administrative pharmacy claims and health plan eligibility data from MedImpact's databases were used to identify members using 3 target medication classes. Adherence was estimated by the proportion of days covered (PDC) for all members. Those members considered at high risk for nonadherence were prioritized for care management services. Risk factors were based on members' use of more than 1 target medication class, newly started therapy, and suboptimal adherence (PDC  less than  80%) in the most recent 6-month period. Data files listing member adherence rates and contact information were formatted and loaded monthly into iCare's care management system, which triggered an alert for care coordinators to counsel members on the importance

  1. Soil Hydrological Attributes of an Integrated Crop-Livestock Agroecosystem: Increased Adaptation through Resistance to Soil Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebig, M.A; Tanaka, D.L; Kronberg, S.L; Karn, J.F; Scholljegerdes, E.J

    2011-01-01

    Integrated crop-livestock systems have been purported to have significant agronomic and environmental benefits compared to specialized, single-enterprise production systems. However, concerns exist regarding the effect of livestock in integrated systems to cause soil compaction, thereby decreasing infiltration of water into soil. Such concerns are compounded by projections of more frequent high-intensity rainfall events from anticipated climate change, which would act to increase surface runoff and soil erosion. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of residue management, frequency of hoof traffic, season, and production system (e.g., integrated annual cropping versus perennial grass) on infiltration rates from 2001 through 2008 in central North Dakota, USA. Imposed treatments had no effect on infiltration rate at three, six, and nine years after study establishment, implying that agricultural producers should not be concerned with inhibited infiltration in integrated annual cropping systems, where winter grazing is used. The use of no-till management, coupled with annual freeze/thaw and wet/dry cycles, likely conferred an inherent resistance to change in near-surface soil properties affecting soil hydrological attributes. Accordingly, caution should be exercised in applying these results to other regions or management systems.

  2. BPHZL-subtraction scheme and axial gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, M.; Rebhan, A.; Schweda, M.; Piguet, O.

    1986-03-27

    The application of the BPHZL subtraction scheme to Yang-Mills theories in axial gauges is presented. In the auxillary mass formulation we show the validity of the convergence theorems for subtracted momentum space integrals, and we give the integral formulae necessary for one-loop calculations. (orig.).

  3. INCREASED EFFICIENCY ECOLOGICAL - OBJECTIVE OF TOURISM POLICY - AN INTEGRAL PART OF NATIONAL AND WORLD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa ENEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available When we talk of economic growth must take into account the natural environment and its resources, they become in current conditions, a limiting factor in ensuring respect for raw materials, fuel and energy, and in terms of damage to the environment. Economic growth so far has relied more on non-renewable resources or unlimited capacity of the natural environment to purify. Practice has shown that human activity has exceeded the regenerative capacity of nature, entering into conflict with natural cycles favorable economic and biological lifeToday, economic growth can only increase as economic - ecological based on manyenergy manners consumption and a higher recycling of matter and energy, in which man must respect the laws of nature, to know the breeding capacity of the natural environment.Protection and conservation of environment and tourism potential is emerging as a distinct activity, with specific problems which require specialists in various fields working. This action may have a satisfactory efficiency, but in terms of ensuring an ongoing legal and administrative framework appropriate to require administrative organization, the existence of economic resources, an effective legal support and educational activities supported by citizens.

  4. Combining diffusion magnetic resonance tractography with stereology highlights increased cross-cortical integration in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Hof, Patrick R; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Van Der Kouwe, Andre J; Sherwood, Chet C; Takahashi, Emi

    2017-04-01

    The isocortex of primates is disproportionately expanded relative to many other mammals, yet little is known about what the expansion of the isocortex entails for differences in cellular composition and connectivity patterns in primates. Across the depth of the isocortex, neurons exhibit stereotypical patterns of projections. Upper-layer neurons (i.e., layers II-IV) project within and across cortical areas, whereas many lower-layer pyramidal neurons (i.e., layers V-VI) favor connections to subcortical regions. To identify evolutionary changes in connectivity patterns, we quantified upper (i.e., layers II-IV)- and lower (i.e., layers V-VI)-layer neuron numbers in primates and other mammals such as rodents and carnivores. We also used MR tractography based on high-angular resolution diffusion imaging and diffusion spectrum imaging to compare anterior-to-posterior corticocortical tracts between primates and other mammals. We found that primates possess disproportionately more upper-layer neurons as well as an expansion of anterior-to-posterior corticocortical tracts compared with other mammals. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that primates deviate from other mammals in exhibiting increased cross-cortical connectivity. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1075-1093, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Integrating a full carbon capture scheme onto a 450 MW{sub e} NGCC electric power generation hub for offshore operations: Presenting the Sevan GTW concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, Jens [SINTEF Energy Research, Kolbjorn Hejesvei 1A, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Kvamsdal, Hanne Marie; Haugen, Geir [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Major, Fredrik [Sevan Marine ASA, Arendal (Norway); Kaarstad, Vemund [SIEMENS Oil and Gas Offshore AS, Oslo (Norway); Tjellander, Goeran [SIEMENS Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    Sevan Marine and Siemens have developed a floating power plant - entitled Sevan GTW (gas-to-wire) - based on Sevan's cylindrical platform and Siemens' SCC-800 combined cycle, and SINTEF has adapted a post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture process for on board integration including compression and preconditioning of the CO{sub 2}. Main emphasis has been placed on developing an optimised conceptual design within the structural constraints, and assessing how efficient the capture unit may be operated in consideration of the dynamic behaviour induced by the sea on the absorber and desorber columns via the floating carrier. The rational behind this technology selection is the urgency in making appropriate steps for a quick start for remote power generation at sea with the inclusion of CCS to serve offshore oil and gas operations. This calls for modular power blocks made up by high efficient combined power cycles with post-combustion exhaust gas cleaning. From this point of view a system with four absorption columns and one desorber unit has been determined based on structured packing material. The capture process has been integrated with the power cycle in due consideration of the sea forces. It is shown that a permanent tilt becomes more important than periodic movements provided the harmonic periods are kept within a certain level (<20 s). Operational conditions and constraints vis-a-vis movements and trimming of the floater have been addressed and discussed with reference to available literature. This also includes the liquid hold-up and gas-liquid interfacial area in the absorption columns linked with tilting. Optimisation reveals that a reboiler duty of 3.77 GJ/ton CO{sub 2} would result in the lowest capture cost. With a energy penalty of 9%-points the Sevan GTW concept presents itself as a realistic concept deemed to be within reach today. (author)

  6. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  7. Remote Lower White Matter Integrity Increases the Risk of Long-Term Cognitive Impairment After Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; Tuladhar, Anil M; Arntz, Renate M; Franssen, Sieske; Maaijwee, Noortje A M; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Kessels, Roy P C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2016-10-01

    Poststroke cognitive impairment occurs frequently in young patients with ischemic stroke (18 through 50 years of age). Accumulating data suggest that stroke is associated with lower white matter integrity remote from the stroke impact area, which might explain why some patients have good long-term cognitive outcome and others do not. Given the life expectancy of decades in young patients, we therefore investigated remote white matter in relation to long-term cognitive function. We included all consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients, left/right hemisphere, without recurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack during follow-up, aged 18 through 50 years, admitted to our university medical center between 1980 and 2010. One hundred seventeen patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning including a T1-weighted scan, a diffusion tensor imaging scan, and completed a neuropsychological assessment. Patients were compared with a matched stroke-free control group (age, sex, and education matched). Cognitive impairment was defined as >1.5 SD below the mean cognitive index score of controls and no cognitive impairment as ≤1 SD. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to assess the white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity). About 11 years after ischemic stroke, lower remote white matter integrity was associated with a worse long-term cognitive performance. A lower remote white matter integrity, even in the contralesional hemisphere, was observed in cognitively impaired patients (n=25) compared with cognitively unimpaired patients (n=71). These findings indicate that although stroke has an acute onset, it might have long lasting effects on remote white matter integrity and thereby increases the risk of long-term cognitive impairment. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. An efficient and secure dynamic ID-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Lo, Jung-Wen; Yeh, Chang-Kuo

    2012-12-01

    The rapidly increased availability of always-on broadband telecommunication environments and lower-cost vital signs monitoring devices bring the advantages of telemedicine directly into the patient's home. Hence, the control of access to remote medical servers' resources has become a crucial challenge. A secure authentication scheme between the medical server and remote users is therefore needed to safeguard data integrity, confidentiality and to ensure availability. Recently, many authentication schemes that use low-cost mobile devices have been proposed to meet these requirements. In contrast to previous schemes, Khan et al. proposed a dynamic ID-based remote user authentication scheme that reduces computational complexity and includes features such as a provision for the revocation of lost or stolen smart cards and a time expiry check for the authentication process. However, Khan et al.'s scheme has some security drawbacks. To remedy theses, this study proposes an enhanced authentication scheme that overcomes the weaknesses inherent in Khan et al.'s scheme and demonstrated this scheme is more secure and robust for use in a telecare medical information system.

  9. An Evaluation of Indonesian Capital Market Co-integration with ASEAN 4 to Enter the ASEAN Capital Market Integration in Accordance to ASEAN Economic Community (AEC 2020 Scheme: Should Indonesia Enter or Postpone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barli Suryanta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN Economic Community (AEC 2020 has already been declared on 7 October 2003 by ASEAN Concord II in Bali, Indonesia. In general, AEC was designed to prepare ASEAN countries for ASEAN economic integration within the next 10-15 year. ASEAN Free Trade  Area (AFTA  had  actually  been  launched since 1992 though was not comprehensive enough and kept ASEAN only partially integrated. To overcome it, ASEAN proposed  inancial  integration  through  capital market  integration based on AEC commitment in order to reach comprehensive ASEAN economic integration. Indonesia is one of the  ASEAN  members  that  is  linked  by AEC  2020.  The  purpose  of  this paper is to evaluate Indonesian capital market co-integration in entering the ASEAN capital market integration compared to those of ASEAN 4. To examine the notion of the Indonesian capital  market  integration  within ASEAN  region, cointegration model  is  utilised  to  igure out co-integration between Indonesian stock market indices and ASEAN 4, i.e., Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand. In addition, Vector Auto-regression (VAR model is also utilised to examine Indonesian market returns co-movement and dynamic link with ASEAN 4.  The  conclusions  of  this  research,  i.e.  co-integration  between  Indonesian  capital  market with  Singaporean,  Malaysian,  Philippines,  and  Thailand  does  not  exist;  there  is  neither co-movement  nor  strong  dynamic  link  between  Indonesian  capital  market  with  those  of Singaporean, Malaysian, Philippines, and Thailand. This paper also recommends Indonesia to postpone the integration of its capital market into the integrated ASEAN capital market. ";} // -->activate javascript

  10. Long-Term Managed Aquifer Recharge in a Saline-Water Aquifer as a Critical Component of an Integrated Water Scheme in Southwestern Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Missimer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR systems can be used within the context of integrated water management to create solutions to multiple objectives. Southwestern Florida is faced with severe environmental problems associated with the wet season discharge of excessive quantities of surface water containing high concentrations of nutrients into the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and a future water supply shortage. A 150,000 m3/day MAR system is proposed as an economic solution to solve part of the environmental and water supply issues. Groundwater modeling has demonstrated that the injection of about 150,000 m3/day into the Avon Park High Permeable Zone will result in the creation of a 1000 m wide plume of fresh and brackish-water (due to mixing extending across the water short area over a 10-year period. The operational cost of the MAR injection system would be less than $0.106/m3 and the environmental benefits would alone more than cover this cost in the long term. In addition, the future unit water supply cost to the consumer would be reduced from $1 to $1.25/m3 to $0.45 to $0.65/m3.

  11. Poorer frontolimbic white matter integrity is associated with chronic cannabis use, FAAH genotype, and increased depressive and apathy symptoms in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyler G. Shollenbarger

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with prior findings, cannabis use was associated with reduced frontolimbic WM integrity. WM integrity was also moderated by FAAH genotype, in that cannabis-using FAAH C/C carriers and A carrying controls had reduced WM integrity compared to control C/C carriers. Observed frontolimbic white matter abnormalities were linked with increased depressive and apathy symptoms in the cannabis users.

  12. Evaluation of health benefit using BenMAP-CE with an integrated scheme of model and monitor data during Guangzhou Asian Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dian; Zhu, Yun; Jang, Carey; Lin, Che-Jen; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Joshua; Gao, Jian; Deng, Shuang; Xie, Junping; Qiu, Xuezhen

    2016-04-01

    Guangzhou is the capital and largest city (land area: 7287 km(2)) of Guangdong province in South China. The air quality in Guangzhou typically worsens in November due to unfavorable meteorological conditions for pollutant dispersion. During the Guangzhou Asian Games in November 2010, the Guangzhou government carried out a number of emission control measures that significantly improved the air quality. In this paper, we estimated the acute health outcome changes related to the air quality improvement during the 2010 Guangzhou Asian Games using a next-generation, fully-integrated assessment system for air quality and health benefits. This advanced system generates air quality data by fusing model and monitoring data instead of using monitoring data alone, which provides more reliable results. The air quality estimates retain the spatial distribution of model results while calibrating the value with observations. The results show that the mean PM2.5 concentration in November 2010 decreased by 3.5 μg/m(3) compared to that in 2009 due to the emission control measures. From the analysis, we estimate that the air quality improvement avoided 106 premature deaths, 1869 cases of hospital admission, and 20,026 cases of outpatient visits. The overall cost benefit of the improved air quality is estimated to be 165 million CNY, with the avoided premature death contributing 90% of this figure. The research demonstrates that BenMAP-CE is capable of assessing the health and cost benefits of air pollution control for sound policy making. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  14. Increasing the effectiveness and integration of company marketing communications activities at Höyhentämö

    OpenAIRE

    Osondu, Justice

    2017-01-01

    This study, aimed at increasing the effectiveness and integration of the company’s marketing communications activities was conducted for the Höyhentämö (Pluckhouse) theatre organisation. The primary activities of Höyhentämö focus on producing contemporary theatre, dance and other performances. The objective of the research study is to find the most useful promotional tools for Höyhentämö that will enhance and improve awareness of their brand, thus resulting in brand recognition. The resea...

  15. Integrated rice-duck farming decreases global warming potential and increases net ecosystem economic budget in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Feng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2018-05-31

    Over the past decades, many attempts have been made to assess the effects of integrated rice-duck farming on greenhouse gas emissions, use efficient of energy, soil fertility, and economic significance. However, very few studies have been focused on the effects of the farming on net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). Here, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to comprehensively investigate the effects of ducks raised in paddy fields on CH 4 and N 2 O emissions, global warming potential (GWP), rice grain yield, and NEEB in central China. The experiment included two treatments: integrated rice-duck farming (RD) and conventional rice farming (R). The introduction of ducks into the paddy fields markedly increased the rice grain yield due to enhanced tiller number and root bleeding rate. RD treatment significantly elevated the N 2 O emissions (p < 0.05) but decreased CH 4 emissions (p < 0.05) during rice growing seasons compared with R treatment. Analysis of GWP based on CH 4 and N 2 O emissions showed that compared with R treatment, RD treatment significantly decreased the GWP by 28.1 and 28.0% and reduced the greenhouse gas intensity by 30.6 and 29.8% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In addition, RD treatment increased NEEB by 40.8 and 39.7% respectively in 2009 and 2010 relative to R treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that the integrated rice-duck farming system is an effective strategy to optimize the economic and environmental benefits of paddy fields in central China.

  16. "I Was Becoming Increasingly Uneasy about the Profession and What Was Being Asked of Me": Preserving Integrity in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Doris A.

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a model of the relationship between three dimensions of integrity in teaching: personal integrity, professional integrity, and the integrity of teaching and illustrates the model through interview excerpts from 13 experienced former teachers. I argue that experienced teachers' decisions to leave work they love can be…

  17. A Secure Watermarking Scheme for Buyer-Seller Identification and Copyright Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fawad; Sattar, Farook; Siyal, Mohammed Yakoob; Yu, Dan

    2006-12-01

    We propose a secure watermarking scheme that integrates watermarking with cryptography for addressing some important issues in copyright protection. We address three copyright protection issues—buyer-seller identification, copyright infringement, and ownership verification. By buyer-seller identification, we mean that a successful watermark extraction at the buyer's end will reveal the identities of the buyer and seller of the watermarked image. For copyright infringement, our proposed scheme enables the seller to identify the specific buyer from whom an illegal copy of the watermarked image has originated, and further prove this fact to a third party. For multiple ownership claims, our scheme enables a legal seller to claim his/her ownership in the court of law. We will show that the combination of cryptography with watermarking not only increases the security of the overall scheme, but it also enables to associate identities of buyer/seller with their respective watermarked images.

  18. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  19. [The course of inpatient rehabilitation in gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases under increasing integration of behavior and experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschmidt, S; Hänisch, S; Würthner, K

    1993-08-01

    Starting out from the thesis that behaviour and felt experience, i.e., the patient's "subjective world", have considerable influence on chronic diseases and their consequences in the gastrointestinal field, a "basic course documentation"-based comparison has been carried out of the courses of 4-week in-patient rehabilitation programmes designed to increasingly incorporate interventions directed at this area; the study population had consisted of two groups of patients (n = 688 each) without any significant differences concerning age and sex distribution admitted during the summer terms of 1990 (Group A) and 1991 (Group B), respectively. This documentation (in DBASE IV format) compiles (anonymized) patient data at an "objective" level on the one hand, i.e. basic data (such as diagnoses, age, sex), results obtained by the Edinburgh Rehabilitation Status Scale (ERSS), risk behaviour, and scope of interventions both in the organ-medical and physical therapy fields and in the area of "instruction, motivation, support, group work, and creativity" (designed to achieve integration of behaviour and felt experience); on the other hand, at "subjective level", it comprises the patient's own judgements relative to the treatment regimen and its environment, with subsequent correlational analysis of the data obtained (using the SPSSPC statistical package). As had been expected, correlations have on the one hand been stated at the "objective" level between an increased share of more "serious" conditions (ICD) in 1990 as compared to 1991 and higher ERSS scores (i.e., increased impact of disease consequences), greater organ-medical care intensity, and frequency of incapacity for work; on the other hand, at "subjective" level, strong linkages were found among the item ratings for general sense of improvement, specific and general therapy, as well as so-called "therapeutic environment". When the two levels are linked, the sense of improvement, as expected, is found to correlate

  20. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit......Purpose – The rise of CSR followed a demand for CSR standards and guidelines. In a sector already characterized by a large number of standards, the authors seek to ask what CSR schemes apply to agribusiness, and how they can be systematically compared and analysed. Design....../methodology/approach – Following a deductive-inductive approach the authors develop a model to compare and analyse CSR schemes based on existing studies and on coding qualitative data on 216 CSR schemes. Findings – The authors confirm that CSR standards and guidelines have entered agribusiness and identify a complex landscape...

  1. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  2. Integration of mental health resources in a primary care setting leads to increased provider satisfaction and patient access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Kristin S; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Hathaway, Julie C; Egginton, Jason S; Kaderlik, Angela B; Katzelnick, David J

    2013-01-01

    This evaluation assessed the opinions and experiences of primary care providers and their support staff before and after implementation of expanded on-site mental health services and related system changes in a primary care clinic. Individual semistructured interviews, which contained a combination of open-ended questions and rating scales, were used to elicit opinions about mental health services before on-site system and resource changes occurred and repeated following changes that were intended to improve access to on-site mental health care. In the first set of interviews, prior to expanding mental health services, primary care providers and support staff were generally dissatisfied with the availability and scheduling of on-site mental health care. Patients were often referred outside the primary care clinic for mental health treatment, to the detriment of communication and coordinated care. Follow-up interviews conducted after expansion of mental health services, scheduling refinements and other system changes revealed improved provider satisfaction in treatment access and coordination of care. Providers appreciated immediate and on-site social worker availability to triage mental health needs and help access care, and on-site treatment was viewed as important for remaining informed about patient care the primary care providers are not delivering directly. Expanding integrated mental health services resulted in increased staff and provider satisfaction. Our evaluation identified key components of satisfaction, including on-site collaboration and assistance triaging patient needs. The sustainability of integrated models of care requires additional study. © 2013.

  3. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Design and evaluation of sparse quantization index modulation watermarking schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Barbarien, Joeri; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2008-08-01

    In the past decade the use of digital data has increased significantly. The advantages of digital data are, amongst others, easy editing, fast, cheap and cross-platform distribution and compact storage. The most crucial disadvantages are the unauthorized copying and copyright issues, by which authors and license holders can suffer considerable financial losses. Many inexpensive methods are readily available for editing digital data and, unlike analog information, the reproduction in the digital case is simple and robust. Hence, there is great interest in developing technology that helps to protect the integrity of a digital work and the copyrights of its owners. Watermarking, which is the embedding of a signal (known as the watermark) into the original digital data, is one method that has been proposed for the protection of digital media elements such as audio, video and images. In this article, we examine watermarking schemes for still images, based on selective quantization of the coefficients of a wavelet transformed image, i.e. sparse quantization-index modulation (QIM) watermarking. Different grouping schemes for the wavelet coefficients are evaluated and experimentally verified for robustness against several attacks. Wavelet tree-based grouping schemes yield a slightly improved performance over block-based grouping schemes. Additionally, the impact of the deployment of error correction codes on the most promising configurations is examined. The utilization of BCH-codes (Bose, Ray-Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem) results in an improved robustness as long as the capacity of the error codes is not exceeded (cliff-effect).

  5. Evaluating statistical cloud schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Grützun, Verena; Quaas, Johannes; Morcrette , Cyril J.; Ament, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Statistical cloud schemes with prognostic probability distribution functions have become more important in atmospheric modeling, especially since they are in principle scale adaptive and capture cloud physics in more detail. While in theory the schemes have a great potential, their accuracy is still questionable. High-resolution three-dimensional observational data of water vapor and cloud water, which could be used for testing them, are missing. We explore the potential of ground-based re...

  6. Gamma spectrometry; level schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Bocquet, J.P.; Monnand, E.; Schussler, F.

    1977-01-01

    The research presented dealt with: a new beta emitter, isomer of 131 Sn; the 136 I levels fed through the radioactive decay of 136 Te (20.9s); the A=145 chain (β decay of Ba, La and Ce, and level schemes for 145 La, 145 Ce, 145 Pr); the A=47 chain (La and Ce, β decay, and the level schemes of 147 Ce and 147 Pr) [fr

  7. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  8. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  9. The unavoidable increase in electricity prices in France: should the effects of the European market integration be corrected?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.; Glachant, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The competitive reform will unavoidably generate a price increase for French consumers when the regulated price is removed. That increase is due to the competitive hourly rate formation system in the continental market. The system allows existing nuclear equipment of all European producers to generate a rarity income, without this triggering nuclear investment decisions due to political obstacles. The sacrifice of French consumers does not imply later price decreases failing such investments. The benefit sought by the integration of the market for European consumer benefit cannot be achieved. The rarity income from existing equipment only benefits the shareholders of companies holding existing low combustible cost equipment, including the historical French operator. This article details this nuclear rarity income analysis and reviews several compensation approaches to reconcile French consumers with the construction dynamics of a competitive European market. Such re-allotment systems need to be both simple and perceived as a compensation for potential price increase, and not alter drastically the operation of the new markets. (authors)

  10. Novel powering schemes for pixel and tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, Lutz Werner

    2013-01-01

    Future pixel and tracking systems like the ones foreseen in the upgrade programs of the LHC experiments are very demanding on the power supply systems. An increased amount of power has to be supplied to the front-end electronics at a reduced voltage, through existing cable plants. Novel powering schemes are needed to avoid excessive cable losses. The two schemes under consideration, serial powering and DC-DC conversion, are reviewed. Particular emphasis is put on system integration aspects. As an example, the new CMS pixel system, which will be powered via DC-DC conversion, is presented in more detail. This allows to discuss challenges and solutions for a concrete application while the conclusions should be relevant for other applications as well.

  11. Advanced Reactive Power Reserve Management Scheme to Enhance LVRT Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanik Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: To increase the utilization of wind power in the power system, grid integration standards have been proposed for the stable integration of large-scale wind power plants. In particular, fault-ride-through capability, especially Low-Voltage-Ride-Through (LVRT, has been emphasized, as it is related to tripping in wind farms. Therefore, this paper proposes the Wind power plant applicable-Effective Reactive power Reserve (Wa-ERPR, which combines both wind power plants and conventional generators at the Point of Interconnection (POI. The reactive power capability of the doubly-fed induction generator wind farm was considered to compute the total Wa-ERPR at the POI with reactive power capability of existing generators. By using the Wa-ERPR management algorithm, in case of a violation of the LVRT standards, the amount of reactive power compensation is computed using the Wa-ERPR management scheme. The proposed scheme calculates the Wa-ERPR and computes the required reactive power, reflecting the change of the system topology pre- and post-contingency, to satisfy the LVRT criterion when LVRT regulation is not satisfied at the POI. The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM with the capacity corresponding to calculated amount of reactive power through the Wa-ERPR management scheme is applied to the POI. Therefore, it is confirmed that the wind power plant satisfies the LVRT criteria by securing the appropriate reactive power at the POI, by applying of the proposed algorithm.

  12. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  13. From Goals to Action: The Efforts for Increasing Energy Efficiency and Integration of Renewable Sources in Eskilstuna, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Vassileva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cities’ energy usage accounts for two thirds of global primary energy consumption. Energy efficiency in urban areas is, therefore, one of the most important topics to consider when dealing with urban sustainability. This paper evaluates the goals for increasing energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources in the areas of transportation, buildings and consumers’ awareness, as stated in the Climate action plan, for the municipality of Eskilstuna, Sweden. The efforts of the municipality to successfully reach their energy efficiency goals, are described in this paper including future perspectives. The results show that although the municipality counts with the advantage of owning and working together with the local housing company and energy provider, in order to reach the established goals, additional strategies need to be considered. For an increased use of renewable energy sources, analysis of rooftops suitable for photovoltaic (PV installation should be carried out as well as the integration of goals for self-consumption. In the transport field, the city needs to prepare for large-scale electric vehicle (EV market penetration and to consider different bike or car sharing options. Finally, more specific awareness campaigns are needed to engage the citizens in reducing their energy consumption and living a more sustainable life.

  14. The complete flux scheme in cylindrical coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthonissen, M.J.H.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the complete ¿ux (CF) scheme, a ¿nite volume method (FVM) presented in [1]. CF is based on an integral representation for the ¿uxes, found by solving a local boundary value problem that includes the source term. It performs well (second order accuracy) for both diffusion and advection

  15. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    , Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project...

  16. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    , namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  17. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  18. Electromechanical modeling of a honeycomb core integrated vibration energy converter with increased specific power for energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Nataraj

    Innovation in integrated circuit technology along with improved manufacturing processes has resulted in considerable reduction in power consumption of electromechanical devices. Majority of these devices are currently powered by batteries. However, the issues posed by batteries, including the need for frequent battery recharge/replacement has resulted in a compelling need for alternate energy to achieve self-sufficient device operation or to supplement battery power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods through piezoelectric transduction provides with a promising potential towards replacing or supplementing battery power source. However, current piezoelectric energy harvesters generate low specific power (power-to-weight ratio) when compared to batteries that the harvesters seek to replace or supplement. In this study, the potential of integrating lightweight cellular honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) to achieve higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of a conventional piezoelectric bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power-to-weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. In order to maximize the electrical response of vibration based power harvesters, the natural frequency of these harvesters is designed to match the input driving frequency. The commonly used technique of adding a tip mass is employed to lower the natural frequency (to match driving frequency) of both, solid and honeycomb substrate bimorphs. At higher excitation frequency, the natural frequency of the traditional solid substrate bimorph can only be altered (to match driving frequency) through a change in global geometric design parameters, typically achieved by increasing the thickness of the harvester. As a result, the size of the harvester is increased and can be disadvantageous

  19. New analytic unitarization schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudell, J.-R.; Predazzi, E.; Selyugin, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    We consider two well-known classes of unitarization of Born amplitudes of hadron elastic scattering. The standard class, which saturates at the black-disk limit includes the standard eikonal representation, while the other class, which goes beyond the black-disk limit to reach the full unitarity circle, includes the U matrix. It is shown that the basic properties of these schemes are independent of the functional form used for the unitarization, and that U matrix and eikonal schemes can be extended to have similar properties. A common form of unitarization is proposed interpolating between both classes. The correspondence with different nonlinear equations are also briefly examined.

  20. Hilbert schemes of points and infinite dimensional Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Zhenbo

    2018-01-01

    Hilbert schemes, which parametrize subschemes in algebraic varieties, have been extensively studied in algebraic geometry for the last 50 years. The most interesting class of Hilbert schemes are schemes X^{[n]} of collections of n points (zero-dimensional subschemes) in a smooth algebraic surface X. Schemes X^{[n]} turn out to be closely related to many areas of mathematics, such as algebraic combinatorics, integrable systems, representation theory, and mathematical physics, among others. This book surveys recent developments of the theory of Hilbert schemes of points on complex surfaces and its interplay with infinite dimensional Lie algebras. It starts with the basics of Hilbert schemes of points and presents in detail an example of Hilbert schemes of points on the projective plane. Then the author turns to the study of cohomology of X^{[n]}, including the construction of the action of infinite dimensional Lie algebras on this cohomology, the ring structure of cohomology, equivariant cohomology of X^{[n]} a...

  1. A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beige, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lim, Y L [DSO National Laboratories, 20 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118230, Singapore (Singapore); Kwek, L C [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-06-15

    Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes.

  2. A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beige, A; Lim, Y L; Kwek, L C

    2007-01-01

    Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes

  3. Role of LNG in an optimized hybrid energy network : part I. Increased operational flexibility for the future energy system by integration of decentralized LNG regasification with a CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya Cardona, Juliana; de Rooij, Marietta; Dam, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The future energy system could benefit from the integration of the independent gas, heat and electricity infrastructures. In addition to an increase in exergy efficiency, such a Hybrid Energy Network (HEN) could support the increase of intermittent renewable energy sources by offering increased

  4. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  6. Contract saving schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O'Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contractual saving schemes for housing are institutionalised savings programmes normally linked to rights to loans for home purchase. They are diverse types as they have been developed differently in each national context, but normally fall into categories of open, closed, compulsory, and ‘free

  7. Introduction to association schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper gives an introduction to the theory of association schemes, following Bose-Mesner (1959), Biggs (1974), Delsarte (1973), Bannai-Ito (1984) and Brouwer-Cohen-Neumaier (1989). Apart from definitions and many examples, also several proofs and some problems are included. The paragraphs

  8. Reaction schemes of immunoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaage, M.; Barbet, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors apply a general theory for multiple equilibria to the reaction schemes of immunoanalysis, competition and sandwich. This approach allows the manufacturer to optimize the system and provide the user with interpolation functions for the standard curve and its first derivative as well, thus giving access to variance [fr

  9. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  10. Copper increases reductive dehalogenation of haloacetamides by zero-valent iron in drinking water: Reduction efficiency and integrated toxicity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Bond, Tom; Gao, Naiyun; Bin, Xu; Wang, Qiongfang; Ding, Shunke

    2016-12-15

    The haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogen-containing disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), are highly cytotoxic and genotoxic, and typically occur in treated drinking waters at low μg/L concentrations. Since many drinking distribution and storage systems contain unlined cast iron and copper pipes, reactions of HAcAms with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and metallic copper (Cu) may play a role in determining their fate. Moreover, ZVI and/or Cu are potentially effective HAcAm treatment technologies in drinking water supply and storage systems. This study reports that ZVI alone reduces trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) to sequentially form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and then monochloroacetamide (MCAcAm), whereas Cu alone does not impact HAcAm concentrations. The addition of Cu to ZVI significantly improved the removal of HAcAms, relative to ZVI alone. TCAcAm and their reduction products (DCAcAm and MCAcAm) were all decreased to below detection limits at a molar ratio of ZVI/Cu of 1:1 after 24 h reaction (ZVI/TCAcAm = 0.18 M/5.30 μM). TCAcAm reduction increased with the decreasing pH from 8.0 to 5.0, but values from an integrated toxic risk assessment were minimised at pH 7.0, due to limited removal MCAcAm under weak acid conditions (pH = 5.0 and 6.0). Higher temperatures (40 °C) promoted the reductive dehalogenation of HAcAms. Bromine was preferentially removed over chlorine, thus brominated HAcAms were more easily reduced than chlorinated HAcAms by ZVI/Cu. Although tribromoacetamide was more easily reduced than TCAcAm during ZVI/Cu reduction, treatment of tribromoacetamide resulted in a higher integrated toxicity risk than TCAcAm, due to the formation of monobromoacetamide (MBAcAm). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  12. An accurate scheme by block method for third order ordinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems of ordinary differential equations is presented in this paper. The approach of collocation approximation is adopted in the derivation of the scheme and then the scheme is applied as simultaneous integrator to special third order initial value problem of ordinary differential equations. This implementation strategy is ...

  13. Implicit and semi-implicit schemes in the Versatile Advection Code : numerical tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, G.; Keppens, R.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    1998-01-01

    We describe and evaluate various implicit and semi-implicit time integration schemes applied to the numerical simulation of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical problems. The schemes were implemented recently in the software package Versatile Advection Code, which uses modern shock capturing

  14. Amphiphilic HPMA-LMA copolymers increase the transport of Rhodamine 123 across a BBB model without harming its barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Metz, Verena V; Koynov, Kaloian; Blank, Kerstin; Postina, Rolf; Zentel, Rudolf

    2012-10-28

    The successful non-invasive treatment of diseases associated with the central nervous system (CNS) is generally limited by poor brain permeability of various developed drugs. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the passage of therapeutics to their site of action. Polymeric drug delivery systems are promising solutions to effectively transport drugs into the brain. We recently showed that amphiphilic random copolymers based on the hydrophilic p(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide), pHPMA, possessing randomly distributed hydrophobic p(laurylmethacrylate), pLMA, are able to mediate delivery of domperidone into the brain of mice in vivo. To gain further insight into structure-property relations, a library of carefully designed polymers based on p(HPMA) and p(LMA) was synthesized and tested applying an in vitro BBB model which consisted of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Our model drug Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) exhibits, like domperidone, a low brain permeability since both substances are recognized by efflux transporters at the BBB. Transport studies investigating the impact of the polymer architecture in relation to the content of hydrophobic LMA revealed that random p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) having 10mol% LMA is the most auspicious system. The copolymer significantly increased the permeability of Rh123 across the HBMEC monolayer whereas transcytosis of the polymer was very low. Further investigations on the mechanism of transport showed that integrity and barrier function of the BBB model were not harmed by the polymer. According to our results, p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) copolymers are a promising delivery system for neurological therapeutics and their application might open alternative treatment strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Third Party Logistics Providers with Advanced it to Increase Customer Satisfaction in Supply Chain Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Zaryab Sheikh; Shafaq Rana

    2012-01-01

    The main area of change in organizational strategy is the extensive use of third party logistics providers who are using advanced information technology tools and integration of supply chain to enhance customer satisfaction. By outsourcing the logistics operations, companies can focus on their core competencies and other important areas of organization which can’t be outsourced. The analysis of this paper is conducted by discussing different concepts of supply chain integration, customer sati...

  16. Additional cash incentive within a conditional cash transfer scheme: a 'controlled before and during' design evaluation study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant; Mishra, Ashok; Nandan, Deoki; Gautam, Praveen; Gupta, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) schemes have shown largely favorable changes in the health seeking behavior. This evaluation study assesses the process and performance of an Additional Cash Incentive (ACI) scheme within an ongoing CCT scheme in India, and document lessons. A controlled before and during design study was conducted in Madhya Pradesh state of India, from August 2007 to March 2008, with increased in institutional deliveries as a primary outcome. In depth interviews, focus group discussions and household surveys were done for data collection. Lack of awareness about ACI scheme amongst general population and beneficiaries, cumbersome cash disbursement procedure, intricate eligibility criteria, extensive paper work, and insufficient focus on community involvement were the major implementation challenges. There were anecdotal reports of political interference and possible scope for corruption. At the end of implementation period, overall rate of institutional deliveries had increased in both target and control populations; however, the differences were not statistically significant. No cause and effect association could be proven by this study. Poor planning and coordination, and lack of public awareness about the scheme resulted in low utilization. Thus, proper IEC and training, detailed implementation plan, orientation training for implementer, sufficient budgetary allocation, and community participation should be an integral part for successful implementation of any such scheme. The lesson learned this evaluation study may be useful in any developing country setting and may be utilized for planning and implementation of any ACI scheme in future.

  17. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  18. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  19. Asynchronous discrete event schemes for PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D.; Geiger, S.; Lord, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    A new class of asynchronous discrete-event simulation schemes for advection-diffusion-reaction equations is introduced, based on the principle of allowing quanta of mass to pass through faces of a (regular, structured) Cartesian finite volume grid. The timescales of these events are linked to the flux on the face. The resulting schemes are self-adaptive, and local in both time and space. Experiments are performed on realistic physical systems related to porous media flow applications, including a large 3D advection diffusion equation and advection diffusion reaction systems. The results are compared to highly accurate reference solutions where the temporal evolution is computed with exponential integrator schemes using the same finite volume discretisation. This allows a reliable estimation of the solution error. Our results indicate a first order convergence of the error as a control parameter is decreased, and we outline a framework for analysis.

  20. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  1. Scheme for achieving coherent perfect absorption by anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2017-02-22

    We propose a unified scheme to achieve coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves by anisotropic metamaterials. The scheme describes the condition on perfect absorption and offers an inverse design route based on effective medium theory in conjunction with retrieval method to determine practical metamaterial absorbers. The scheme is scalable to frequencies and applicable to various incident angles. Numerical simulations show that perfect absorption is achieved in the designed absorbers over a wide range of incident angles, verifying the scheme. By integrating these absorbers, we further propose an absorber to absorb energy from two coherent point sources.

  2. Nested Hilbert schemes on surfaces: Virtual fundamental class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholampour, Amin; Sheshmani, Artan; Yau, Shing-Tung

    We construct natural virtual fundamental classes for nested Hilbert schemes on a nonsingular projective surface S. This allows us to define new invariants of S that recover some of the known important cases such as Poincare invariants of Durr-Kabanov-Okonek and the stable pair invariants of Kool......-Thomas. In the case of the nested Hilbert scheme of points, we can express these invariants in terms of integrals over the products of Hilbert scheme of points on S, and relate them to the vertex operator formulas found by Carlsson-Okounkov. The virtual fundamental classes of the nested Hilbert schemes play a crucial...

  3. Evolution system study of a generalized scheme of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, Bechir.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized scheme of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics is studied with a thermodynamical differential relation proposed by Fokker; this scheme takes account of interaction between the fluid and the magnetic field. Taking account of an integrability condition of this relation, the evolution system corresponding to this scheme is identical to the one corresponding to the usual scheme; it has the same characteristics; it is non-strictly hyperbolic with the same hypothesis of compressibility and it has, with respect to the Cauchy problem, an unique solution in a Gevrey class of index α=3/2 [fr

  4. Stable schemes for dissipative particle dynamics with conserved energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltz, Gabriel, E-mail: stoltz@cermics.enpc.fr

    2017-07-01

    This article presents a new numerical scheme for the discretization of dissipative particle dynamics with conserved energy. The key idea is to reduce elementary pairwise stochastic dynamics (either fluctuation/dissipation or thermal conduction) to effective single-variable dynamics, and to approximate the solution of these dynamics with one step of a Metropolis–Hastings algorithm. This ensures by construction that no negative internal energies are encountered during the simulation, and hence allows to increase the admissible timesteps to integrate the dynamics, even for systems with small heat capacities. Stability is only limited by the Hamiltonian part of the dynamics, which suggests resorting to multiple timestep strategies where the stochastic part is integrated less frequently than the Hamiltonian one.

  5. A New Pricing Scheme for Controlling Energy Storage Devices in Future Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure is one of the main anticipated benefits of the deployment of smart grid technology. Advancement in energy storage technology and two-way communication in the electric network are indispensable components to achieve such a vision, while efficient pricing schemes and appropriate storage management are also essential. In this paper, we propose a universal pricing scheme which permits one to indirectly control the energy storage devices in the grid to achieve a more desirable aggregate demand profile that meets a particular target of the grid operator such as energy generation cost minimization and carbon emission reduction. Such a pricing scheme can potentially be applied to control the behavior of energy storage devices installed for integration of intermittent renewable energy sources that have permission to grid connection and will have broader applications as an increasing number of novel and low-cost energy storage technologies emerge.

  6. A stable computational scheme for stiff time-dependent constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.F.; Delorenzi, H.G.; Miller, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Viscoplasticity and creep type constitutive equations are increasingly being employed in finite element codes for evaluating the deformation of high temperature structural members. These constitutive equations frequently exhibit stiff regimes which makes an analytical assessment of the structure very costly. A computational scheme for handling deformation in stiff regimes is proposed in this paper. By the finite element discretization, the governing partial differential equations in the spatial (x) and time (t) variables are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations in the independent variable t. The constitutive equations are expanded in a Taylor's series about selected values of t. The resulting system of differential equations are then integrated by an implicit scheme which employs a predictor technique to initiate the Newton-Raphson procedure. To examine the stability and accuracy of the computational scheme, a series of calculations were carried out for uniaxial specimens and thick wall tubes subjected to mechanical and thermal loading. (Auth.)

  7. A hybrid pi control scheme for airship hovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, Z.; Choudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.

    2012-01-01

    Airship provides us many attractive applications in aerospace industry including transportation of heavy payloads, tourism, emergency management, communication, hover and vision based applications. Hovering control of airship has many utilizations in different engineering fields. However, it is a difficult problem to sustain the hover condition maintaining controllability. So far, different solutions have been proposed in literature but most of them are difficult in analysis and implementation. In this paper, we have presented a simple and efficient scheme to design a multi input multi output hybrid PI control scheme for airship. It can maintain stability of the plant by rejecting disturbance inputs to ensure robustness. A control scheme based on feedback theory is proposed that uses principles of optimality with integral action for hovering applications. Simulations are carried out in MTALAB for examining the proposed control scheme for hovering in different wind conditions. Comparison of the technique with an existing scheme is performed, describing the effectiveness of control scheme. (author)

  8. Integrating Leisure: The Case of an Integrated Resorts Scheme in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius, part of Southern African Development Community (SADC), is in the process of diversifying its tourism sector, which for the last two decades has attracted substantial foreign direct investment. To diversify tourism and sustain economic development achieved in the 1980s, government is encouraging

  9. Remote lower white matter integrity increases the risk of long-term cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapsmeerders, P.; Tuladhar, A.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Franssen, S.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Leeuw, H.F. de

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Poststroke cognitive impairment occurs frequently in young patients with ischemic stroke (18 through 50 years of age). Accumulating data suggest that stroke is associated with lower white matter integrity remote from the stroke impact area, which might explain why some

  10. Remote lower white matter integrity increases the risk of long-term cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapsmeerders, P.; Tuladhar, A.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Franssen, S.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poststroke cognitive impairment occurs frequently in young patients with ischemic stroke (18 through 50 years of age). Accumulating data suggest that stroke is associated with lower white matter integrity remote from the stroke impact area, which might explain why some

  11. Virtual Worlds and Gamification to Increase Integration of International Students in Higher Education: An Inclusive Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Robb, Nigel; Eyerman, Joe; Goodman, Lizbeth

    2017-01-01

    In response to the growing trend of internationalisation in education, it is important to consider approaches to help international students integrate in their new settings. One possible approach involves the use of e-Learning tools, such as virtual worlds and gamification. To maximise the potential effectiveness of such tools, it may be…

  12. ESCAP mobile training scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasas, F M

    1977-01-01

    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries.

  13. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  14. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  15. Scheme of stepmotor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Karyshev, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    A 6-cycle scheme of step motor is described. The block-diagram and the basic circuit of the step motor control are presented. The step motor control comprises a pulse shaper, electronic commutator and power amplifiers. The step motor supply from 6-cycle electronic commutator provides for higher reliability and accuracy than from 3-cycle commutator. The control of step motor work is realised by the program given by the external source of control signals. Time-dependent diagrams for step motor control are presented. The specifications of the step-motor is given

  16. Applying Mass Customization Concepts to Core Courses: Increasing Student-Centered Customization and Enabling Cross-Functional Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl D.

    2011-01-01

    This conceptual paper suggests a methodology for increasing student satisfaction in core courses by applying the principle of mass customization to increase student satisfaction. It proposes that customization can be increased by increasing course flexibility along three dimensions: content flexibility, schedule flexibility, and course length…

  17. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qin; Guo Ying; Huang Duan

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of fingerprint identification technology, its security and privacy have been paid much attention. Only the security and privacy of biological information are insured, the biological technology can be better accepted and used by the public. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum bit (qbit)-based scheme to solve the security and privacy problem existing in the traditional fingerprint identification system. By exploiting the properties of quantm mechanics, our proposed scheme, cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme, can achieve the unconditional security guaranteed in an information-theoretical sense. Moreover, this novel quantum scheme can invalidate most of the attacks aimed at the fingerprint identification system. In addition, the proposed scheme is applicable to the requirement of remote communication with no need to worry about its security and privacy during the transmission. This is an absolute advantage when comparing with other traditional methods. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the communication security and the privacy of users’ information for the fingerprint identification. (paper)

  19. Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information

  20. A promising future for integrative biodiversity research: an increased role of scale-dependency and functional biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Studies into the complex interaction between an organism and changes to its biotic and abiotic environment are fundamental to understanding what regulates biodiversity. These investigations occur at many phylogenetic, temporal and spatial scales and within a variety of biological and geological disciplines but often in relative isolation. This issue focuses on what can be achieved when ecological mechanisms are integrated into analyses of deep-time biodiversity patterns through the union of fossil and extant data and methods. We expand upon this perspective to argue that, given its direct relevance to the current biodiversity crisis, greater integration is needed across biodiversity research. We focus on the need to understand scaling effects, how lower-level ecological and evolutionary processes scale up and vice versa, and the importance of incorporating functional biology. Placing function at the core of biodiversity research is fundamental, as it establishes how an organism interacts with its abiotic and biotic environment and it is functional diversity that ultimately determines important ecosystem processes. To achieve full integration, concerted and ongoing efforts are needed to build a united and interactive community of biodiversity researchers, with education and interdisciplinary training at its heart. PMID:26977068

  1. A promising future for integrative biodiversity research: an increased role of scale-dependency and functional biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, S A; Schmitz, L

    2016-04-05

    Studies into the complex interaction between an organism and changes to its biotic and abiotic environment are fundamental to understanding what regulates biodiversity. These investigations occur at many phylogenetic, temporal and spatial scales and within a variety of biological and geological disciplines but often in relative isolation. This issue focuses on what can be achieved when ecological mechanisms are integrated into analyses of deep-time biodiversity patterns through the union of fossil and extant data and methods. We expand upon this perspective to argue that, given its direct relevance to the current biodiversity crisis, greater integration is needed across biodiversity research. We focus on the need to understand scaling effects, how lower-level ecological and evolutionary processes scale up and vice versa, and the importance of incorporating functional biology. Placing function at the core of biodiversity research is fundamental, as it establishes how an organism interacts with its abiotic and biotic environment and it is functional diversity that ultimately determines important ecosystem processes. To achieve full integration, concerted and ongoing efforts are needed to build a united and interactive community of biodiversity researchers, with education and interdisciplinary training at its heart. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  3. A full quantum network scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hai-Qiang; Wei Ke-Jin; Yang Jian-Hui; Li Rui-Xue; Zhu Wu

    2014-01-01

    We present a full quantum network scheme using a modified BB84 protocol. Unlike other quantum network schemes, it allows quantum keys to be distributed between two arbitrary users with the help of an intermediary detecting user. Moreover, it has good expansibility and prevents all potential attacks using loopholes in a detector, so it is more practical to apply. Because the fiber birefringence effects are automatically compensated, the scheme is distinctly stable in principle and in experiment. The simple components for every user make our scheme easier for many applications. The experimental results demonstrate the stability and feasibility of this scheme. (general)

  4. Implications for U.S. trade and nonindigenous species risk resulting from increased economic integration of the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda M. Countryman; Travis Warziniack; Erin Grey

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates how potential changes in trade patterns resulting from increased economic integration in the Asia-Pacific region may affect the risk for nonindigenous species spread to the United States. We construct an invasion risk index utilizing the results from a global economic modeling framework in tandem with data for climate similarities between trade...

  5. Pressure correction schemes for compressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheriji, W.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of semi-implicit fractional step schemes, for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations; these schemes are part of the class of the pressure correction methods. The chosen spatial discretization is staggered: non conforming mixed finite elements (Crouzeix-Raviart or Rannacher-Turek) or the classic MA C scheme. An upwind finite volume discretization of the mass balance guarantees the positivity of the density. The positivity of the internal energy is obtained by discretizing the internal energy balance by an upwind finite volume scheme and b y coupling the discrete internal energy balance with the pressure correction step. A special finite volume discretization on dual cells is performed for the convection term in the momentum balance equation, and a renormalisation step for the pressure is added to the algorithm; this ensures the control in time of the integral of the total energy over the domain. All these a priori estimates imply the existence of a discrete solution by a topological degree argument. The application of this scheme to Euler equations raises an additional difficulty. Indeed, obtaining correct shocks requires the scheme to be consistent with the total energy balance, property which we obtain as follows. First of all, a local discrete kinetic energy balance is established; it contains source terms winch we somehow compensate in the internal energy balance. The kinetic and internal energy equations are associated with the dual and primal meshes respectively, and thus cannot be added to obtain a total energy balance; its continuous counterpart is however recovered at the limit: if we suppose that a sequence of discrete solutions converges when the space and time steps tend to 0, we indeed show, in 1D at least, that the limit satisfies a weak form of the equation. These theoretical results are comforted by numerical tests. Similar results are obtained for the baro-tropic Navier-Stokes equations. (author)

  6. The Performance-based Funding Scheme of Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha KETTUNEN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of the performance-based funding scheme of the Finnish universities that was adopted at the beginning of 2013. The political decision-makers expect that the funding scheme will create incentives for the universities to improve performance, but these funding schemes have largely failed in many other countries, primarily because public funding is only a small share of the total funding of universities. This study is interesting because Finnish universities have no tuition fees, unlike in many other countries, and the state allocates funding based on the objectives achieved. The empirical evidence of the graduation rates indicates that graduation rates increased when a new scheme was adopted, especially among male students, who have more room for improvement than female students. The new performance-based funding scheme allocates the funding according to the output-based indicators and limits the scope of strategic planning and the autonomy of the university. The performance-based funding scheme is transformed to the strategy map of the balanced scorecard. The new funding scheme steers universities in many respects but leaves the research and teaching skills to the discretion of the universities. The new scheme has also diminished the importance of the performance agreements between the university and the Ministry. The scheme increases the incentives for universities to improve the processes and structures in order to attain as much public funding as possible. It is optimal for the central administration of the university to allocate resources to faculties and other organisational units following the criteria of the performance-based funding scheme. The new funding scheme has made the universities compete with each other, because the total funding to the universities is allocated to each university according to the funding scheme. There is a tendency that the funding schemes are occasionally

  7. Increasing the effectiveness of instrumentation and control training programs using integrated training settings and a systematic approach to training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, J.F.; Rakos, N.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of plant maintenance-related tasks assigned to instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) technicians can be broken down into physical skills required to do the task; resident knowledge of how to do the task; effect of maintenance on plant operating conditions; interactions with other plant organizations such as operations, radiation protection, and quality control; and knowledge of consequences of miss-action. A technician who has learned about the task in formal classroom presentations has not had the advantage of integrating that knowledge with the requisite physical and communication skills; hence, the first time these distinct and vital parts of the task equation are put together is on the job, during initial task performance. On-the-job training provides for the integration of skills and knowledge; however, this form of training is limited by plant conditions, availability of supporting players, and training experience levels of the personnel conducting the exercise. For licensed operations personnel, most nuclear utilities use formal classroom and a full-scope control room simulator to achieve the integration of skills and knowledge in a controlled training environment. TU Electric has taken that same approach into maintenance areas by including identical plant equipment in a laboratory setting for the large portion of training received by maintenance personnel at its Comanche Peak steam electric station. The policy of determining training needs and defining the scope of training by using the systematic approach to training has been highly effective and provided training at a reasonable cost (approximately $18.00/student contact hour)

  8. Integrating Waste Heat from CO2 Removal and Coal-Fired Flue Gas to Increase Plant Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, Nick [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Kowalczyk, Joseph [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In project DE-FE0007525, Southern Company Services demonstrated heat integration methods for the capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide produced from pulverized coal combustion. A waste heat recovery technology (termed High Efficiency System) from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America was integrated into an existing 25-MW amine-based CO2 capture process (Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process®1) at Southern Company’s Plant Barry to evaluate improvements in the energy performance of the pulverized coal plant and CO2 capture process. The heat integration system consists of two primary pieces of equipment: (1) the CO2 Cooler which uses product CO2 gas from the capture process to heat boiler condensate, and (2) the Flue Gas Cooler which uses air heater outlet flue gas to further heat boiler condensate. Both pieces of equipment were included in the pilot system. The pilot CO2 Cooler used waste heat from the 25-MW CO2 capture plant (but not always from product CO2 gas, as intended). The pilot Flue Gas Cooler used heat from a slipstream of flue gas taken from downstream of Plant Barry’s air heater. The pilot also included a 0.25-MW electrostatic precipitator. The 25-MW High Efficiency System operated for approximately six weeks over a four month time period in conjunction with the 25-MW CO2 capture facility at Plant Barry. Results from the program were used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of full-scale implementation of this technology. The test program quantified energy efficiency improvements to a host power plant that could be realized due to the High Efficiency System. Through the execution of this project, the team verified the integrated operation of the High Efficiency System and Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process®. The ancillary benefits of the High Efficiency System were also quantified, including reduced water consumption

  9. Payment and economic evaluation of integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Tsiachristas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases have an increasingly negative impact on (1 population health by increasing morbidity and mortality, (2 society by increasing health inequalities and burden to informal caregivers, and (3 economy by requiring enormous financial resources and jeopardising macro-economic development (e.g. consumption, capital accumulation, labour productivity and labour supply. Integrated care is the most promising concept in redesigning care to tackle the increasing threat of chronic diseases. Several European countries have experimented with models for integrating care, most frequently in the form of disease management programmes. These models were often supported by payment schemes to provide financial incentives to health care providers for implementing integrated care. This thesis aimed to investigate these payment schemes and assess their impact, explore the variability in costs of disease management programmes, and determine the costs and effects of disease management programmes.

  10. Optimal Retrofit Scheme for Highway Network under Seismic Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxi Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many older highway bridges in the United States (US are inadequate for seismic loads and could be severely damaged or collapsed in a relatively small earthquake. According to the most recent American Society of Civil Engineers’ infrastructure report card, one-third of the bridges in the US are rated as structurally deficient and many of these structurally deficient bridges are located in seismic zones. To improve this situation, at-risk bridges must be identified and evaluated and effective retrofitting programs should be in place to reduce their seismic vulnerabilities. In this study, a new retrofit strategy decision scheme for highway bridges under seismic hazards is developed and seamlessly integrate the scenario-based seismic analysis of bridges and the traffic network into the proposed optimization modeling framework. A full spectrum of bridge retrofit strategies is considered based on explicit structural assessment for each seismic damage state. As an empirical case study, the proposed retrofit strategy decision scheme is utilized to evaluate the bridge network in one of the active seismic zones in the US, Charleston, South Carolina. The developed modeling framework, on average, will help increase network throughput traffic capacity by 45% with a cost increase of only $15million for the Mw 5.5 event and increase the capacity fourfold with a cost of only $32m for the Mw 7.0 event.

  11. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital.

  12. BossPro: a biometrics-based obfuscation scheme for software protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes to integrate biometric-based key generation into an obfuscated interpretation algorithm to protect authentication application software from illegitimate use or reverse-engineering. This is especially necessary for mCommerce because application programmes on mobile devices, such as Smartphones and Tablet-PCs are typically open for misuse by hackers. Therefore, the scheme proposed in this paper ensures that a correct interpretation / execution of the obfuscated program code of the authentication application requires a valid biometric generated key of the actual person to be authenticated, in real-time. Without this key, the real semantics of the program cannot be understood by an attacker even if he/she gains access to this application code. Furthermore, the security provided by this scheme can be a vital aspect in protecting any application running on mobile devices that are increasingly used to perform business/financial or other security related applications, but are easily lost or stolen. The scheme starts by creating a personalised copy of any application based on the biometric key generated during an enrolment process with the authenticator as well as a nuance created at the time of communication between the client and the authenticator. The obfuscated code is then shipped to the client's mobile devise and integrated with real-time biometric extracted data of the client to form the unlocking key during execution. The novelty of this scheme is achieved by the close binding of this application program to the biometric key of the client, thus making this application unusable for others. Trials and experimental results on biometric key generation, based on client's faces, and an implemented scheme prototype, based on the Android emulator, prove the concept and novelty of this proposed scheme.

  13. Impact of renewables on electricity markets – Do support schemes matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Jenny; Gaio, Alberto; Pfluger, Benjamin; Ragwitz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Rising renewable shares influence electricity markets in several ways: among others, average market prices are reduced and price volatility increases. Therefore, the “missing money problem” in energy-only electricity markets is more likely to occur in systems with high renewable shares. Nevertheless, renewables are supported in many countries due to their expected benefits. The kind of support instrument can however influence the degree to which renewables influence the market. While fixed feed-in tariffs lead to higher market impacts, more market-oriented support schemes such as market premiums, quota systems and capacity-based payments decrease the extent to which markets are affected. This paper analyzes the market impacts of different support schemes. For this purpose, a new module is added to an existing bottom-up simulation model of the electricity market. In addition, different degrees of flexibility in the electricity system are considered. A case study for Germany is used to derive policy recommendations regarding the choice of support scheme. - Highlights: •Renewable support schemes matter regarding the impact on electricity markets. •Market-oriented support schemes reduce the impact on electricity markets. •More flexible electricity systems reduce the need for market participation. •Sliding premiums combine market integration with a productive risk allocation.

  14. A Novel WLAN Roaming Decision and Selection Scheme for Mobile Data Offloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing IEEE and 3GPP standards have laid the foundation for integrating cellular and WiFi network to deliver a seamless experience for the end-users when roaming across multiple access networks. However, in recent studies, the issue of making roaming decision and intelligently selecting the most preferable Point of Service to optimize network resource and improve end user’s experience has not been considered properly. In this paper, we propose a novel cellular and WiFi roaming decision and AP selection scheme based on state of the art, 3GPP TS24.312 and IEEE 802.11u, k standards. Our proposed scheme assists the mobile nodes to decide the right timing to make roaming decision and select preferable point of service based on the operator’s policies and real-time network condition. We also introduce our simulation model of a heterogeneous network with cellular and WiFi interworking as well as 3GPP ANDSF, TS24.312. It is a complete end-to-end system model from application to physical layer with considering user’s mobility and realistic traffic model. The proposed scheme outperformed the conventional WiFi selection scheme in terms of dynamically steering mobile node’s data traffic from macrocell to available Access Points. The proposed scheme increased the utilization and balanced the traffic load of access points and improved user’s experienced throughput.

  15. Student’s scheme in solving mathematics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, Nining; Juniati, Dwi; Suwarsono

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ scheme in solving mathematics problems. Scheme are data structures for representing the concepts stored in memory. In this study, we used it in solving mathematics problems, especially ratio and proportion topics. Scheme is related to problem solving that assumes that a system is developed in the human mind by acquiring a structure in which problem solving procedures are integrated with some concepts. The data were collected by interview and students’ written works. The results of this study revealed are students’ scheme in solving the problem of ratio and proportion as follows: (1) the content scheme, where students can describe the selected components of the problem according to their prior knowledge, (2) the formal scheme, where students can explain in construct a mental model based on components that have been selected from the problem and can use existing schemes to build planning steps, create something that will be used to solve problems and (3) the language scheme, where students can identify terms, or symbols of the components of the problem.Therefore, by using the different strategies to solve the problems, the students’ scheme in solving the ratio and proportion problems will also differ.

  16. Increasing sensitivity and angle-of-view of mid-wave infrared detectors by integration with dielectric microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Kenneth W., E-mail: kenneth.allen@gtri.gatech.edu; Astratov, Vasily N., E-mail: astratov@uncc.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States); Abolmaali, Farzaneh [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Duran, Joshua M.; Ariyawansa, Gamini; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Urbas, Augustine M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2016-06-13

    We observed up to 100 times enhancement of sensitivity of mid-wave infrared photodetectors in the 2–5 μm range by using photonic jets produced by sapphire, polystyrene, and soda-lime glass microspheres with diameters in the 90–300 μm range. By finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for modeling, we gain insight into the role of the microspheres refractive index, size, and alignment with respect to the detector mesa. A combination of enhanced sensitivity with angle-of-view (AOV) up to 20° is demonstrated for individual photodetectors. It is proposed that integration with microspheres can be scaled up for large focal plane arrays, which should provide maximal light collection efficiencies with wide AOVs, a combination of properties highly attractive for imaging applications.

  17. Potential for greenhouse gas reduction in industry through increased heat recovery and/or integration of combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, H.; Harvey, S.; Aasblad, A.; Berntsson, T.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction in industry through process integration measures depends to a great extent on prevailing technical and economic conditions. A step-wise methodology developed at the author's department based on pinch technology was used to analyse how various parameters influence the cost-optimal configuration for the plant's energy system, and the opportunities for cost-effective GHG emissions reduction compared to this solution. The potential for reduction of GHG emissions from a given plant depends primarily on the design of the industrial process and its energy system (internal factors) and on the electricity-to-fuel price ratio and the specific GHG emissions from the national power generation system (external factors)

  18. A classification scheme for LWR fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.S.; Williamson, D.A.; Notz, K.J.

    1988-11-01

    With over 100 light water nuclear reactors operating nationwide, representing designs by four primary vendors, and with reload fuel manufactured by these vendors and additional suppliers, a wide variety of fuel assembly types are in existence. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, both the Systems Integration Program and the Characteristics Data Base project required a classification scheme for these fuels. This scheme can be applied to other areas and is expected to be of value to many Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management programs. To develop the classification scheme, extensive information on the fuel assemblies that have been and are being manufactured by the various nuclear fuel vendors was compiled, reviewed, and evaluated. It was determined that it is possible to characterize assemblies in a systematic manner, using a combination of physical factors. A two-stage scheme was developed consisting of 79 assembly types, which are grouped into 22 assembly classes. The assembly classes are determined by the general design of the reactor cores in which the assemblies are, or were, used. The general BWR and PWR classes are divided differently but both are based on reactor core configuration. 2 refs., 15 tabs.

  19. A classification scheme for LWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.S.; Williamson, D.A.; Notz, K.J.

    1988-11-01

    With over 100 light water nuclear reactors operating nationwide, representing designs by four primary vendors, and with reload fuel manufactured by these vendors and additional suppliers, a wide variety of fuel assembly types are in existence. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, both the Systems Integration Program and the Characteristics Data Base project required a classification scheme for these fuels. This scheme can be applied to other areas and is expected to be of value to many Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management programs. To develop the classification scheme, extensive information on the fuel assemblies that have been and are being manufactured by the various nuclear fuel vendors was compiled, reviewed, and evaluated. It was determined that it is possible to characterize assemblies in a systematic manner, using a combination of physical factors. A two-stage scheme was developed consisting of 79 assembly types, which are grouped into 22 assembly classes. The assembly classes are determined by the general design of the reactor cores in which the assemblies are, or were, used. The general BWR and PWR classes are divided differently but both are based on reactor core configuration. 2 refs., 15 tabs

  20. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for high-grade gliomas: Does IMRT increase the integral dose to normal brain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanto, Ulrich; Frija, Erik K.; Lii, MingFwu J.; Chang, Eric L.; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment increases the total integral dose of nontarget tissue relative to the conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique for high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with 3D-CRT for glioblastoma multiforme were selected for a comparative dosimetric evaluation with IMRT. Original target volumes, organs at risk (OAR), and dose-volume constraints were used for replanning with IMRT. Predicted isodose distributions, cumulative dose-volume histograms of target volumes and OAR, normal tissue integral dose, target coverage, dose conformity, and normal tissue sparing with 3D-CRT and IMRT planning were compared. Statistical analyses were performed to determine differences. Results: In all 20 patients, IMRT maintained equivalent target coverage, improved target conformity (conformity index [CI] 95% 1.52 vs. 1.38, p mean by 19.8% and D max by 10.7%), optic chiasm (D mean by 25.3% and D max by 22.6%), right optic nerve (D mean by 37.3% and D max by 28.5%), and left optic nerve (D mean by 40.6% and D max by 36.7%), p ≤ 0.01. This was achieved without increasing the total nontarget integral dose by greater than 0.5%. Overall, total integral dose was reduced by 7-10% with IMRT, p < 0.001, without significantly increasing the 0.5-5 Gy low-dose volume. Conclusions: These results indicate that IMRT treatment for high-grade gliomas allows for improved target conformity, better critical tissue sparing, and importantly does so without increasing integral dose and the volume of normal tissue exposed to low doses of radiation

  1. Integrated analysis of genetic variation and gene expression reveals novel variant for increased warfarin dose requirement in African Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, W.; Gamazon, E. R.; Aquino-Michaels, K.; Smithberger, E.; O'Brien, T. J.; Harralson, A. F.; Tuck, M.; Barbour, A.; Cavallari, L. H.; Perera, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Genetic variants controlling gene regulation have not been explored in pharmacogenomics. We tested liver expression quantitative trait loci for association with warfarin dose response. A novel predictor for increased warfarin dose response in African Americans was identified. Precision

  2. Modified Aggressive Packet Combining Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2010-06-01

    In this letter, a few schemes are presented to improve the performance of aggressive packet combining scheme (APC). To combat error in computer/data communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Several modifications to improve the performance of ARQ are suggested by recent research and are found in literature. The important modifications are majority packet combining scheme (MjPC proposed by Wicker), packet combining scheme (PC proposed by Chakraborty), modified packet combining scheme (MPC proposed by Bhunia), and packet reversed packet combining (PRPC proposed by Bhunia) scheme. These modifications are appropriate for improving throughput of conventional ARQ protocols. Leung proposed an idea of APC for error control in wireless networks with the basic objective of error control in uplink wireless data network. We suggest a few modifications of APC to improve its performance in terms of higher throughput, lower delay and higher error correction capability. (author)

  3. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  4. Zero leakage quantization scheme for biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.A.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Biometrics gain increasing interest as a solution for many security issues, but privacy risks exist in case we do not protect the stored templates well. This paper presents a new verification scheme, which protects the secrets of the enrolled users. We will show that zero leakage is achieved if

  5. New Imaging Operation Scheme at VLTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubois, Xavier

    2018-04-01

    After PIONIER and GRAVITY, MATISSE will soon complete the set of 4 telescope beam combiners at VLTI. Together with recent developments in the image reconstruction algorithms, the VLTI aims to develop its operation scheme to allow optimized and adaptive UV plane coverage. The combination of spectro-imaging instruments, optimized operation framework and image reconstruction algorithms should lead to an increase of the reliability and quantity of the interferometric images. In this contribution, I will present the status of this new scheme as well as possible synergies with other instruments.

  6. Analysis and improvement for the performance of Baptista's cryptographic scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jun; Liao Xiaofeng; Wong, K.W.; Zhou Tsing; Deng Yigui

    2006-01-01

    Based on Baptista's chaotic cryptosystem, we propose a secure and robust chaotic cryptographic scheme after investigating the problems found in this cryptosystem as well as its variants. In this proposed scheme, a subkey array generated from the key and the plaintext is adopted to enhance the security. Some methods are introduced to increase the efficiency. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme is secure and efficient for practical use

  7. Financial incentive schemes in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillam S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care

  8. Increasing age influences uterine integrity, but not ovarian function or oocyte quality, in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Comizzoli, Pierre; Baker, Tom; Davidson, Autumn; Munson, Linda; Howard, JoGayle; Marker, Laurie L; Wildt, David E

    2011-08-01

    Although the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) routinely lives for more than 12 yr in ex situ collections, females older than 8 yr reproduce infrequently. We tested the hypothesis that reproduction is compromised in older female cheetahs due to a combination of disrupted gonadal, oocyte, and uterine function/integrity. Specifically, we assessed 1) ovarian response to gonadotropins; 2) oocyte meiotic, fertilization, and developmental competence; and 3) uterine morphology in three age classes of cheetahs (young, 2-5 yr, n = 17; prime, 6-8 yr, n = 8; older, 9-15 yr, n = 9). Ovarian activity was stimulated with a combination of equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and fecal samples were collected for 45 days before gonadotropin treatment and for 30 days after oocyte recovery by laparoscopy. Twenty-six to thirty hours post-hCG, uterine morphology was examined by ultrasound, ovarian follicular size determined by laparoscopy, and aspirated oocytes assessed for nuclear status or inseminated in vitro. Although no influence of age on fecal hormone concentrations or gross uterine morphology was found (P > 0.05), older females produced fewer (P 0.05) nuclear status and ability to reach metaphase II and fertilize in vitro. A histological assessment of voucher specimens revealed an age-related influence on uterine tissue integrity, with more than 87% and more than 56% of older females experiencing endometrial hyperplasia and severe pathologies, respectively. Our collective findings reveal that lower reproductive success in older cheetahs appears to be minimally influenced by ovarian and gamete aging and subsequent dysfunction. Rather, ovaries from older females are responsive to gonadotropins, produce normative estradiol/progestogen concentrations, and develop follicles containing oocytes with the capacity to mature and be fertilized. A more likely cause of reduced fertility may be the high prevalence of uterine endometrial hyperplasia and related

  9. An Efficient V2I Authentication Scheme for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousheng Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of intelligent transportation system has a crucial impact on the traffic safety and efficiency. To cope with security issues such as spoofing attack and forgery attack, many authentication schemes for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have been developed, which are based on the hypothesis that secret keys are kept perfectly secure. However, key exposure is inevitable on account of the openness of VANET environment. To address this problem, key insulation is introduced in our proposed scheme. With a helper device, vehicles could periodically update their own secret keys. In this way, the forward and backward secrecy has been achieved. In addition, the elliptic curve operations have been integrated to improve the performance. The random oracle model is adopted to prove the security of the proposed scheme, and the experiment has been conducted to demonstrate the comparison between our scheme and the existing similar schemes.

  10. National coal utilization assessment. An integrated assessment of increased coal use in the Midwest: impacts and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, L. John

    1977-10-01

    This study was performed as a part of the Argonne National Laboratory Regional Studies program, which is sponsored by the Department of Energy. The purpose is to assess the impacts and consequences associated with alternative energy options on a regional basis, and to identify and analyze alternative mitigation and solution strategies for increasing the acceptability of these options. The National Coal Utilization Assessment is being conducted as a part of the Regional Studies Program. This particular study is focusing on impacts and constraints on increased coal utilization. In addition, a major focal point for the study is the identification and analysis of alternative solution strategies applicable to these constraints and problems.

  11. The Increase of Arthropods Biodiversity in Paddy Field Ecosystem Managed by Using Integrated Pest Management at South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samharinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the arthropods biodiversity in two paddy field ecosystems, namely, paddy field ecosystem using Integrated Pest Management (IPM system and non-IPM paddy field ecosystem. This study was conducted from April 2011 – November 2011 in three locations, that is, Pasar Kamis village and Sungai Rangas village in Banjar regency, and Guntung Payung village in Banjarbaru city, South Borneo Province. In this study, we used insect nets, yellow sticky traps, light trap and pitfall trap to get the sample or catch the arthropods in one period of planting season. The arthropods caught were then classified into some classes: pest (herbivore, natural enemy (parasitoid and predator, and other arthropods. After that, the Species Diversity Index was determined using its Shannon-Wiener Index (H’, Evenness (e, Species Richness (R, and Species Similarity Index (IS. The sum of arthropods which have the characteristic of pest and parasitoid were higher in the IPM paddy fields than in the non-IPM paddy fields, and the sum of other arthropods were the same. The highest H’ and e values were in the IPM paddy field in Pasar Kamis village. The IS value for each three locations were 77.5% in Pasar Kamis village, 93.42% in Guntung Payung village, and 78.76% in Sungai Rangas village.

  12. Fully Integrating Academic Advising with Career Coaching to Increase Student Retention, Graduation Rates and Future Job Satisfaction: An Industry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Thomas R.

    2018-01-01

    Higher education institutions in the United States are under increasing pressure to retain and graduate more students. Traditionally, the academic advisor helps students to meet degree graduation requirements and may also do some minor career advising. A new approach is proposed, in which career coaching with industry help becomes just as…

  13. Examination of U.S. Department of Defense support of the U.S. national action plan for women, peace, and security: Can the use of U.S. military power achieve increased gender integration in Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    reconstruction to be effective . Liberia has made significant efforts to achieving increased gender integration. Consistent, combined efforts by... effective . Liberia has made significant efforts to achieving increased gender integration. Consistent, combined efforts by Liberia and international...policies and programs, gender differences and inequalities , as well as the roles of women and men. The goal of gender integration or ‘mainstreaming’ is

  14. A numerical relativity scheme for cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, David; Dirian, Yves; Mitsou, Ermis

    2017-12-01

    Cosmological simulations involving the fully covariant gravitational dynamics may prove relevant in understanding relativistic/non-linear features and, therefore, in taking better advantage of the upcoming large scale structure survey data. We propose a new 3  +  1 integration scheme for general relativity in the case where the matter sector contains a minimally-coupled perfect fluid field. The original feature is that we completely eliminate the fluid components through the constraint equations, thus remaining with a set of unconstrained evolution equations for the rest of the fields. This procedure does not constrain the lapse function and shift vector, so it holds in arbitrary gauge and also works for arbitrary equation of state. An important advantage of this scheme is that it allows one to define and pass an adaptation of the robustness test to the cosmological context, at least in the case of pressureless perfect fluid matter, which is the relevant one for late-time cosmology.

  15. Universal health coverage in Latin American countries: how to improve solidarity-based schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelman, Daniel; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Acosta, Olga Lucía

    2015-04-04

    In this Health Policy we examine the association between the financing structure of health systems and universal health coverage. Latin American health systems encompass a wide range of financial sources, which translate into different solidarity-based schemes that combine contributory (payroll taxes) and non-contributory (general taxes) sources of financing. To move towards universal health coverage, solidarity-based schemes must heavily rely on countries' capacity to increase public expenditure in health. Improvement of solidarity-based schemes will need the expansion of mandatory universal insurance systems and strengthening of the public sector including increased fiscal expenditure. These actions demand a new model to integrate different sources of health-sector financing, including general tax revenue, social security contributions, and private expenditure. The extent of integration achieved among these sources will be the main determinant of solidarity and universal health coverage. The basic challenges for improvement of universal health coverage are not only to spend more on health, but also to reduce the proportion of out-of-pocket spending, which will need increased fiscal resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Energy Decaying Scheme for Nonlinear Dynamics of Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottasso, Carlo L.; Bauchau, Olivier A.; Choi, Jou-Young; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A novel integration scheme for nonlinear dynamics of geometrically exact shells is developed based on the inextensible director assumption. The new algorithm is designed so as to imply the strict decay of the system total mechanical energy at each time step, and consequently unconditional stability is achieved in the nonlinear regime. Furthermore, the scheme features tunable high frequency numerical damping and it is therefore stiffly accurate. The method is tested for a finite element spatial formulation of shells based on mixed interpolations of strain tensorial components and on a two-parameter representation of director rotations. The robustness of the, scheme is illustrated with the help of numerical examples.

  17. Security and efficiency data sharing scheme for cloud storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ke; Li, Qingbo; Deng, Zhongliang

    2016-01-01

    With the adoption and diffusion of data sharing paradigm in cloud storage, there have been increasing demands and concerns for shared data security. Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE) is becoming a promising cryptographic solution to the security problem of shared data in cloud storage. However due to key escrow, backward security and inefficiency problems, existing CP-ABE schemes cannot be directly applied to cloud storage system. In this paper, an effective and secure access control scheme for shared data is proposed to solve those problems. The proposed scheme refines the security of existing CP-ABE based schemes. Specifically, key escrow and conclusion problem are addressed by dividing key generation center into several distributed semi-trusted parts. Moreover, secrecy revocation algorithm is proposed to address not only back secrecy but efficient problem in existing CP-ABE based scheme. Furthermore, security and performance analyses indicate that the proposed scheme is both secure and efficient for cloud storage.

  18. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    . The first example covers countries with regional power markets that also regionalise their support schemes, the second countries with separate national power markets that regionalise their support schemes. The main findings indicate that the almost ideal situation exists if the region prior to regionalising...

  19. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a new nonlinear backward differentiation schemes for the numerical solution of nonlinear initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations. The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give ...

  20. The Arnot capacity increase project - An integrated boiler and turbine retrofit by Alstom - Implementation and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Mike; Stephen, Don; Rich, Glyn; Mills, Jeff; Allen, Steve

    2010-09-15

    In cooperation with South African utility giant Eskom, Alstom has undertaken an ambitious project to upgrade the six-unit Arnot Power Station. The objective was to retrofit major plant components in a cost effective manner in order to extend plant life and increase output. This paper will consider the implementation of the project, the challenges overcome and the operational experience subsequently gained. Lessons learned will be identified. Conclusions will be drawn concerning the effectiveness of a comprehensive feasibility study prior to project implementation and the ability of modern design and manufacturing techniques to retrofit older machines, thus releasing latent potential.

  1. WENO schemes for balance laws with spatially varying flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, Senka; Crnjaric-Zic, Nelida; Sopta, Luka

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we construct numerical schemes of high order of accuracy for hyperbolic balance law systems with spatially variable flux function and a source term of the geometrical type. We start with the original finite difference characteristicwise weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) schemes and then we create new schemes by modifying the flux formulations (locally Lax-Friedrichs and Roe with entropy fix) in order to account for the spatially variable flux, and by decomposing the source term in order to obtain balance between numerical approximations of the flux gradient and of the source term. We apply so extended WENO schemes to the one-dimensional open channel flow equations and to the one-dimensional elastic wave equations. In particular, we prove that in these applications the new schemes are exactly consistent with steady-state solutions from an appropriately chosen subset. Experimentally obtained orders of accuracy of the extended and original WENO schemes are almost identical on a convergence test. Other presented test problems illustrate the improvement of the proposed schemes relative to the original WENO schemes combined with the pointwise source term evaluation. As expected, the increase in the formal order of accuracy of applied WENO reconstructions in all the tests causes visible increase in the high resolution properties of the schemes

  2. Woody lianas increase in dominance and maintain compositional integrity across an Amazonian dam-induced fragmented landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel L Jones

    Full Text Available Tropical forest fragmentation creates insular biological communities that undergo species loss and changes in community composition over time, due to area- and edge-effects. Woody lianas thrive in degraded and secondary forests, due to their competitive advantage over trees in these habitats. Lianas compete both directly and indirectly with trees, increasing tree mortality and turnover. Despite our growing understanding of liana-tree dynamics, we lack detailed knowledge of the assemblage-level responses of lianas themselves to fragmentation, particularly in evergreen tropical forests. We examine the responses of both sapling and mature liana communities to landscape-scale forest insularization induced by a mega hydroelectric dam in the Brazilian Amazon. Detailed field inventories were conducted on islands created during reservoir filling, and in nearby mainland continuous forest. We assess the relative importance of variables associated with habitat fragmentation such as area, isolation, surrounding forest cover, fire and wind disturbance, on liana community attributes including abundance, basal area, diversity, and composition. We also explore patterns of liana dominance relative to tree saplings and adults ≥10 cm diameter at breast height. We find that 1 liana community composition remains remarkably similar across mainland continuous forest and islands, regardless of extreme area- and edge- effects and the loss of vertebrate dispersers in the latter; and 2 lianas are increasing in dominance relative to trees in the sapling layer in the most degraded islands, with both the amount of forest cover surrounding islands and fire disturbance history predicting liana dominance. Our data suggest that liana communities persist intact in isolated forests, regardless of extreme area- and edge-effects; while in contrast, tree communities simultaneously show evidence of increased turnover and supressed recruitment. These processes may lead to lianas

  3. Woody lianas increase in dominance and maintain compositional integrity across an Amazonian dam-induced fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Isabel L; Peres, Carlos A; Benchimol, Maíra; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dent, Daisy H

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forest fragmentation creates insular biological communities that undergo species loss and changes in community composition over time, due to area- and edge-effects. Woody lianas thrive in degraded and secondary forests, due to their competitive advantage over trees in these habitats. Lianas compete both directly and indirectly with trees, increasing tree mortality and turnover. Despite our growing understanding of liana-tree dynamics, we lack detailed knowledge of the assemblage-level responses of lianas themselves to fragmentation, particularly in evergreen tropical forests. We examine the responses of both sapling and mature liana communities to landscape-scale forest insularization induced by a mega hydroelectric dam in the Brazilian Amazon. Detailed field inventories were conducted on islands created during reservoir filling, and in nearby mainland continuous forest. We assess the relative importance of variables associated with habitat fragmentation such as area, isolation, surrounding forest cover, fire and wind disturbance, on liana community attributes including abundance, basal area, diversity, and composition. We also explore patterns of liana dominance relative to tree saplings and adults ≥10 cm diameter at breast height. We find that 1) liana community composition remains remarkably similar across mainland continuous forest and islands, regardless of extreme area- and edge- effects and the loss of vertebrate dispersers in the latter; and 2) lianas are increasing in dominance relative to trees in the sapling layer in the most degraded islands, with both the amount of forest cover surrounding islands and fire disturbance history predicting liana dominance. Our data suggest that liana communities persist intact in isolated forests, regardless of extreme area- and edge-effects; while in contrast, tree communities simultaneously show evidence of increased turnover and supressed recruitment. These processes may lead to lianas becoming a dominant

  4. From acute care to home care: the evolution of hospital responsibility and rationale for increased vertical integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilwali, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    The responsibility of hospitals is changing. Those activities that were once confined within the walls of the medical facility have largely shifted outside them, yet the requirements for hospitals have only grown in scope. With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the development of accountable care organizations, financial incentives are focused on care coordination, and a hospital's responsibility now includes postdischarge outcomes. As a result, hospitals need to adjust their business model to accommodate their increased need to impact post-acute care settings. A home care service line can fulfill this role for hospitals, serving as an effective conduit to the postdischarge realm-serving as both a potential profit center and a risk mitigation offering. An alliance between home care agencies and hospitals can help improve clinical outcomes, provide the necessary care for communities, and establish a potentially profitable product line.

  5. Effect of national open apprenticeship scheme on youth employment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major problems of respondents in the scheme were, exclusion of some participants from resettlement benefits which accounted for 76.3% of the problem and insufficient resettlement package which accounted for 71.3% of the problem. Increasing the number of participants to benefit from the scheme's resettlement package ...

  6. Integration of morphological data sets for phylogenetic analysis of Amniota: the importance of integumentary characters and increased taxonomic sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert V

    2005-08-01

    Several mutually exclusive hypotheses have been advanced to explain the phylogenetic position of turtles among amniotes. Traditional morphology-based analyses place turtles among extinct anapsids (reptiles with a solid skull roof), whereas more recent studies of both morphological and molecular data support an origin of turtles from within Diapsida (reptiles with a doubly fenestrated skull roof). Evaluation of these conflicting hypotheses has been hampered by nonoverlapping taxonomic samples and the exclusion of significant taxa from published analyses. Furthermore, although data from soft tissues and anatomical systems such as the integument may be particularly relevant to this problem, they are often excluded from large-scale analyses of morphological systematics. Here, conflicting hypotheses of turtle relationships are tested by (1) combining published data into a supermatrix of morphological characters to address issues of character conflict and missing data; (2) increasing taxonomic sampling by more than doubling the number of operational taxonomic units to test internal relationships within suprageneric ingroup taxa; and (3) increasing character sampling by approximately 25% by adding new data on the osteology and histology of the integument, an anatomical system that has been historically underrepresented in morphological systematics. The morphological data set assembled here represents the largest yet compiled for Amniota. Reevaluation of character data from prior studies of amniote phylogeny favors the hypothesis that turtles indeed have diapsid affinities. Addition of new ingroup taxa alone leads to a decrease in overall phylogenetic resolution, indicating that existing characters used for amniote phylogeny are insufficient to explain the evolution of more highly nested taxa. Incorporation of new data from the soft and osseous components of the integument, however, helps resolve relationships among both basal and highly nested amniote taxa. Analysis of a

  7. The Slow Dynamics of Intracellular Sodium Concentration Increase the Time Window of Neuronal Integration: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i are rarely taken into account when neuronal activity is examined. As opposed to Ca2+, [Na+]i dynamics are strongly affected by longitudinal diffusion, and therefore they are governed by the morphological structure of the neurons, in addition to the localization of influx and efflux mechanisms. Here, we examined [Na+]i dynamics and their effects on neuronal computation in three multi-compartmental neuronal models, representing three distinct cell types: accessory olfactory bulb (AOB mitral cells, cortical layer V pyramidal cells, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. We added [Na+]i as a state variable to these models, and allowed it to modulate the Na+ Nernst potential, the Na+-K+ pump current, and the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger rate. Our results indicate that in most cases [Na+]i dynamics are significantly slower than [Ca2+]i dynamics, and thus may exert a prolonged influence on neuronal computation in a neuronal type specific manner. We show that [Na+]i dynamics affect neuronal activity via three main processes: reduction of EPSP amplitude in repeatedly active synapses due to reduction of the Na+ Nernst potential; activity-dependent hyperpolarization due to increased activity of the Na+-K+ pump; specific tagging of active synapses by extended Ca2+ elevation, intensified by concurrent back-propagating action potentials or complex spikes. Thus, we conclude that [Na+]i dynamics should be considered whenever synaptic plasticity, extensive synaptic input, or bursting activity are examined.

  8. An authentication scheme to healthcare security under wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tsung-Chih; Liao, Yu-Ting; Huang, Jen-Yan; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Horng, Gwo-Boa

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, Taiwan has been seeing an extension of the average life expectancy and a drop in overall fertility rate, initiating our country into an aged society. Due to this phenomenon, how to provide the elderly and patients with chronic diseases a suitable healthcare environment has become a critical issue presently. Therefore, we propose a new scheme that integrates healthcare services with wireless sensor technology in which sensor nodes are employed to measure patients' vital signs. Data collected from these sensor nodes are then transmitted to mobile devices of the medical staff and system administrator, promptly enabling them to understand the patients' condition in real time, which will significantly improve patients' healthcare quality. As per the personal data protection act, patients' vital signs can only be accessed by authorized medical staff. In order to protect patients', the system administrator will verify the medical staff's identity through the mobile device using a smart card and password mechanism. Accordingly, only the verified medical staff can obtain patients' vital signs data such as their blood pressure, pulsation, and body temperature, etc.. Besides, the scheme includes a time-bounded characteristic that allows the verified staff access to data without having to have to re-authenticate and re-login into the system within a set period of time. Consequently, the time-bounded property also increases the work efficiency of the system administrator and user.

  9. Towards the ultimate variance-conserving convection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, J.J.A.M. van; Uittenbogaard, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past various arguments have been used for applying kinetic energy-conserving advection schemes in numerical simulations of incompressible fluid flows. One argument is obeying the programmed dissipation by viscous stresses or by sub-grid stresses in Direct Numerical Simulation and Large Eddy Simulation, see e.g. [Phys. Fluids A 3 (7) (1991) 1766]. Another argument is that, according to e.g. [J. Comput. Phys. 6 (1970) 392; 1 (1966) 119], energy-conserving convection schemes are more stable i.e. by prohibiting a spurious blow-up of volume-integrated energy in a closed volume without external energy sources. In the above-mentioned references it is stated that nonlinear instability is due to spatial truncation rather than to time truncation and therefore these papers are mainly concerned with the spatial integration. In this paper we demonstrate that discretized temporal integration of a spatially variance-conserving convection scheme can induce non-energy conserving solutions. In this paper the conservation of the variance of a scalar property is taken as a simple model for the conservation of kinetic energy. In addition, the derivation and testing of a variance-conserving scheme allows for a clear definition of kinetic energy-conserving advection schemes for solving the Navier-Stokes equations. Consequently, we first derive and test a strictly variance-conserving space-time discretization for the convection term in the convection-diffusion equation. Our starting point is the variance-conserving spatial discretization of the convection operator presented by Piacsek and Williams [J. Comput. Phys. 6 (1970) 392]. In terms of its conservation properties, our variance-conserving scheme is compared to other spatially variance-conserving schemes as well as with the non-variance-conserving schemes applied in our shallow-water solver, see e.g. [Direct and Large-eddy Simulation Workshop IV, ERCOFTAC Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 409-287

  10. hybrid modulation scheme fo rid modulation scheme fo dulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    control technique is done through simulations and ex control technique .... HYBRID MODULATION SCHEME FOR CASCADED H-BRIDGE INVERTER CELLS. C. I. Odeh ..... and OR operations. Referring to ... MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  11. Epigenetic Metabolite Acetate Inhibits Class I/II Histone Deacetylases, Promotes Histone Acetylation, and Increases HIV-1 Integration in CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Jean-François; Hany, Laurent; Barat, Corinne; Ouellet, Michel; Tremblay, Michel J

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of acetate, the most concentrated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the gut and bloodstream, on the susceptibility of primary human CD4 + T cells to HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 replication is increased in CD3/CD28-costimulated CD4 + T cells upon acetate treatment. This enhancing effect correlates with increased expression of the early activation marker CD69 and impaired class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, acetate enhances acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and augments HIV-1 integration into the genome of CD4 + T cells. Thus, we propose that upon antigen presentation, acetate influences class I/II HDAC activity that transforms condensed chromatin into a more relaxed structure. This event leads to a higher level of viral integration and enhanced HIV-1 production. In line with previous studies showing reactivation of latent HIV-1 by SCFAs, we provide evidence that acetate can also increase the susceptibility of primary human CD4 + T cells to productive HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Alterations in the fecal microbiota and intestinal epithelial damage involved in the gastrointestinal disorder associated with HIV-1 infection result in microbial translocation that leads to disease progression and virus-related comorbidities. Indeed, notably via production of short-chain fatty acids, bacteria migrating from the lumen to the intestinal mucosa could influence HIV-1 replication by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, such as histone acetylation. We demonstrate that acetate enhances virus production in primary human CD4 + T cells. Moreover, we report that acetate impairs class I/II histone deacetylase activity and increases integration of HIV-1 DNA into the host genome. Therefore, it can be postulated that bacterial metabolites such as acetate modulate HIV-1-mediated disease progression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Robust and Efficient Authentication Scheme for Session Initiation Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The session initiation protocol (SIP is a powerful application-layer protocol which is used as a signaling one for establishing, modifying, and terminating sessions among participants. Authentication is becoming an increasingly crucial issue when a user asks to access SIP services. Hitherto, many authentication schemes have been proposed to enhance the security of SIP. In 2014, Arshad and Nikooghadam proposed an enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme for SIP and claimed that their scheme could withstand various attacks. However, in this paper, we show that Arshad and Nikooghadam’s authentication scheme is still susceptible to key-compromise impersonation and trace attacks and does not provide proper mutual authentication. To conquer the flaws, we propose a secure and efficient ECC-based authentication scheme for SIP. Through the informal and formal security analyses, we demonstrate that our scheme is resilient to possible known attacks including the attacks found in Arshad et al.’s scheme. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our scheme has similar or better efficiency in comparison with other existing ECC-based authentication schemes for SIP.

  13. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2013-06-01

    We propose three adaptive transmission techniques aiming to maximize the capacity of a multiple-input-single-output (MISO) secondary system under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network. In the first scheme, namely the best antenna selection (BAS) scheme, the antenna maximizing the capacity of the secondary link is used for transmission. We then propose an orthogonal space time bloc code (OSTBC) transmission scheme using the Alamouti scheme with transmit antenna selection (TAS), namely the TAS/STBC scheme. The performance improvement offered by this scheme comes at the expense of an increased complexity and delay when compared to the BAS scheme. As a compromise between these schemes, we propose a hybrid scheme using BAS when only one antenna verifies the interference condition and TAS/STBC when two or more antennas are illegible for communication. We first derive closed-form expressions of the statistics of the received signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) at the secondary receiver (SR). These results are then used to analyze the performance of the proposed techniques in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of transmit antennas, and the average bit error rate (BER). This performance is then illustrated via selected numerical examples. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Performance comparison of renewable incentive schemes using optimal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak, Neeraj; Lawson, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Many governments worldwide have instituted incentive schemes for renewable electricity producers in order to meet carbon emissions targets. These schemes aim to boost investment and hence growth in renewable energy industries. This paper examines four such schemes: premium feed-in tariffs, fixed feed-in tariffs, feed-in tariffs with contract for difference and the renewable obligations scheme. A generalised mathematical model of industry growth is presented and fitted with data from the UK onshore wind industry. The model responds to subsidy from each of the four incentive schemes. A utility or ‘fitness’ function that maximises installed capacity at some fixed time in the future while minimising total cost of subsidy is postulated. Using this function, the optimal strategy for provision and timing of subsidy for each scheme is calculated. Finally, a comparison of the performance of each scheme, given that they use their optimal control strategy, is presented. This model indicates that the premium feed-in tariff and renewable obligation scheme produce the joint best results. - Highlights: • Stochastic differential equation model of renewable energy industry growth and prices, using UK onshore wind data 1992–2010. • Cost of production reduces as cumulative installed capacity of wind energy increases, consistent with the theory of learning. • Studies the effect of subsidy using feed-in tariff schemes, and the ‘renewable obligations’ scheme. • We determine the optimal timing and quantity of subsidy required to maximise industry growth and minimise costs. • The premium feed-in tariff scheme and the renewable obligations scheme produce the best results under optimal control

  15. Doppler Shift Compensation Schemes in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nyongesa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication has received a lot of attention as it is a crucial issue in intravehicle communication as well as in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In ITS the focus is placed on integration of communication between mobile and fixed infrastructure to execute road safety as well as nonsafety information dissemination. The safety application such as emergence alerts lays emphasis on low-latency packet delivery rate (PDR, whereas multimedia and infotainment call for high data rates at low bit error rate (BER. The nonsafety information includes multimedia streaming for traffic information and infotainment applications such as playing audio content, utilizing navigation for driving, and accessing Internet. A lot of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET research has focused on specific areas including channel multiplexing, antenna diversity, and Doppler shift compensation schemes in an attempt to optimize BER performance. Despite this effort few surveys have been conducted to highlight the state-of-the-art collection on Doppler shift compensation schemes. Driven by this cause we survey some of the recent research activities in Doppler shift compensation schemes and highlight challenges and solutions as a stock-taking exercise. Moreover, we present open issues to be further investigated in order to address the challenges of Doppler shift in VANETs.

  16. Sources of funding for community schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    There is an increasing level of interest amongst community groups in the UK to become involved in the development of renewable energy schemes. Often however these community groups have only limited funds of their own, so any additional funds that can be identified to help fund their renewable energy scheme can be very useful. There are a range of funding sources available that provide grants or loans for which community groups are eligible to apply. Few of these funding sources are targeted towards renewable energy specifically, nevertheless the funds may be applicable to renewable energy schemes under appropriate circumstances. To date, however, few of these funds have been accessed by community groups for renewable energy initiatives. One of the reasons for this low take-up of funds on offer could be that the funding sources may be difficult and time-consuming to identify, especially where the energy component of the fund is not readily apparent. This directory draws together details about many of the principal funding sources available in the UK that may consider providing funds to community groups wanting to develop a renewable energy scheme. (author)

  17. Changed membrane integration and catalytic site conformation are two mechanisms behind the increased Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio by presenilin 1 familial Alzheimer-linked mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Wanngren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme complex γ-secretase generates amyloid β-peptide (Aβ, a 37–43-residue peptide associated with Alzheimer disease (AD. Mutations in presenilin 1 (PS1, the catalytical subunit of γ-secretase, result in familial AD (FAD. A unifying theme among FAD mutations is an alteration in the ratio Aβ species produced (the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, but the molecular mechanisms responsible remain elusive. In this report we have studied the impact of several different PS1 FAD mutations on the integration of selected PS1 transmembrane domains and on PS1 active site conformation, and whether any effects translate to a particular amyloid precursor protein (APP processing phenotype. Most mutations studied caused an increase in the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, but via different mechanisms. The mutations that caused a particular large increase in the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio did also display an impaired APP intracellular domain (AICD formation and a lower total Aβ production. Interestingly, seven mutations close to the catalytic site caused a severely impaired integration of proximal transmembrane/hydrophobic sequences into the membrane. This structural defect did not correlate to a particular APP processing phenotype. Six selected FAD mutations, all of which exhibited different APP processing profiles and impact on PS1 transmembrane domain integration, were found to display an altered active site conformation. Combined, our data suggest that FAD mutations affect the PS1 structure and active site differently, resulting in several complex APP processing phenotypes, where the most aggressive mutations in terms of increased Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio are associated with a decrease in total γ-secretase activity.

  18. Optimum RA reactor fuelling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.; Nikolic, V.

    1965-10-01

    Ideal reactor refueling scheme can be achieved only by continuous fuel elements movement in the core, which is not possible, and thus approximations are applied. One of the possible approximations is discontinuous movement of fuel elements groups in radial direction. This enables higher burnup especially if axial exchange is possible. Analysis of refueling schemes in the RA reactor core and schemes with mixing the fresh and used fuel elements show that 30% higher burnup can be achieved by applying mixing, and even 40% if reactivity due to decrease in experimental space is taken into account. Up to now, mean burnup of 4400 MWd/t has been achieved, and the proposed fueling scheme with reduction of experimental space could achieve mean burnup of 6300 MWd/t which means about 25 Mwd/t per fuel channel [sr

  19. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  20. Numerical schemes for explosion hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, internal or external explosions can cause confinement breaches and radioactive materials release in the environment. Hence, modeling such phenomena is crucial for safety matters. Blast waves resulting from explosions are modeled by the system of Euler equations for compressible flows, whereas Navier-Stokes equations with reactive source terms and level set techniques are used to simulate the propagation of flame front during the deflagration phase. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the creation of efficient numerical schemes to solve these complex models. The work presented here focuses on two major aspects: first, the development of consistent schemes for the Euler equations, then the buildup of reliable schemes for the front propagation. In both cases, explicit in time schemes are used, but we also introduce a pressure correction scheme for the Euler equations. Staggered discretization is used in space. It is based on the internal energy formulation of the Euler system, which insures its positivity and avoids tedious discretization of the total energy over staggered grids. A discrete kinetic energy balance is derived from the scheme and a source term is added in the discrete internal energy balance equation to preserve the exact total energy balance at the limit. High order methods of MUSCL type are used in the discrete convective operators, based solely on material velocity. They lead to positivity of density and internal energy under CFL conditions. This ensures that the total energy cannot grow and we can furthermore derive a discrete entropy inequality. Under stability assumptions of the discrete L8 and BV norms of the scheme's solutions one can prove that a sequence of converging discrete solutions necessarily converges towards the weak solution of the Euler system. Besides it satisfies a weak entropy inequality at the limit. Concerning the front propagation, we transform the flame front evolution equation (the so called

  1. A new scheme for biomonitoring heavy metal concentrations in semi-natural wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, A F; Siontorou, C G

    2008-10-30

    This work introduces a semi-natural wetland biomonitoring framework for heavy metal concentrations based on a robust dynamic integration between biological assemblages and relevant biosensors. The cooperative/synergistic scheme developed minimizes uncertainty and monitoring costs and increases reliability of pollution control and abatement. Attention is given to establishing a fully functioning and reliable network approach for monitoring inflows and achieving dose-response relations and calibration of biomonitoring species. The biomonitoring network initially consists of both, biosensors and species, as a validation phase in each wetland of the surveillance area; once the species monitoring efficiency is verified by the biosensors, the biosensor network moves to the next wetland and so on, following a circular pattern until all area wetlands have a fully functional natural monitoring scheme. By means of species recalibration with periodic revisiting of the biosensors, the scheme progressively reaches a quasi steady-state (including seasonality), thus ensuring reliability and robustness. This framework, currently pilot-tested in Voiotia, Greece, for assessing chromium levels, has been built to cover short-, medium- and long-term monitoring requirements. The results gathered so far, support the employment of the proposed scheme in heavy metal monitoring, and, further, arise the need for volunteer involvement to achieve long-term viability.

  2. Political Modernization in China's Forest Governance? Payment Schemes for Forest Ecological Services in Liaoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, D.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Payment for environmental services (PES) schemes are increasingly being introduced in developed and developing countries for the ecological conservation of forests also. Such payment schemes resemble a new mode of forest governance labelled political modernization, in which centralized and

  3. Design of 3D integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration of microsystems and subsystems has become essential to the future of semiconductor technology development. 3D integration requires a greater understanding of several interconnected systems stacked over each other. While this vertical growth profoundly increases the system functionality, it also exponentially increases the design complexity. Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems tackles all aspects of 3D integration, including 3D circuit and system design, new processes and simulation techniques, alternative communication schemes for 3D circuits and sys

  4. Applying regional planning schemes in East Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunfelder, Julien; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    landscapes. A common regional planning scheme is discussed for a while, but nothing is agreed on yet. Our objective is to apply three interesting spatial schemes to our case study region. The three planning schemes are well known for their simple and clear approach: The Fingerplan of Copenhagen urban region...... a development aligned along mass-transport corridors. In the Montpellier case, the planning scheme has the particularity of having a “sight inversion”. Thus, the landscape is presented as an integrated part of the reflection on regional development. In other words, it protects natural and agricultural areas......In the eastern part of Jutland, Denmark, a polycentric urban region is emerging. Besides Århus, the second biggest city of Denmark, several medium-sized cities are located in the area. The region is expected to experience further urbanisation which might result in urban sprawl and threaten valuable...

  5. The SS-SCR Scheme for Dynamic Spectrum Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Thumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We integrate the two models of Cognitive Radio (CR, namely, the conventional Sense-and-Scavenge (SS Model and Symbiotic Cooperative Relaying (SCR. The resultant scheme, called SS-SCR, improves the efficiency of spectrum usage and reliability of the transmission links. SS-SCR is enabled by a suitable cross-layer optimization problem in a multihop multichannel CR network. Its performance is compared for different PU activity patterns with those schemes which consider SS and SCR separately and perform disjoint resource allocation. Simulation results depict the effectiveness of the proposed SS-SCR scheme. We also indicate the usefulness of cloud computing for a practical deployment of the scheme.

  6. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alexander, E-mail: ajw36@cam.ac.uk [Hopkinson Laboratory, Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge. CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  7. Performance of the IEEE 802.3 EPON registration scheme under high load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Swapnil P.; Bartos, Radim

    2004-09-01

    The proposed standard for the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Passive Optical Network includes a random delayed transmission scheme for registration of new nodes. Although the scheme performs well on low loads, our simulation demonstrates the degraded and undesirable performance of the scheme at higher loads. We propose a simple modification to the current scheme that increases its range of operation and is compatible with the IEEE draft standard. We demonstrate the improvement in performance gained without any significant increase in registration delay.

  8. Price Signals from Electricity Markets and Subsidy Schemes for Renewable Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing share of renewable generation itself gives rise to price risks on the electricity markets. Subsidy schemes, in general, additionally distort price signals produced by economic mechanisms of otherwise free markets. In the electricity industry, subsidy schemes, once designed merely to incentivize electricity system decarbonization in its kick-off phase, seem to have grown to such a volume, that they, too, started to profoundly interfere with the whole market structure, and to distort price signals that used to govern long-term development of an adequately structured generation system. This article was made as an attempt to discuss contemporary electricity system policies in relation to RES integration. The economic relations in the sector are growingly influenced, or sometimes even hard-handedly guided, by political institutions, rather than by economic interests of the investors, which may in turn cause considerable problems in achieving ultimate policy goals due to unsustainability of such an economic arrangement.(author)

  9. China in transition: the new health insurance scheme for the urban employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D

    2000-01-01

    China has been very successful in achieving good health at a low cost, mostly through national programs for health promotion and illness prevention. However, increased prosperity in recent years has led to higher expectations for therapeutic care, and the change to a socialist market economy has created new risks and opportunities for both financing and care provision. After several years of experimentation, China committed itself in 1996 to a major reform program which includes implementation of a new method of financing of care for the urban employed population. It comprises a mix of government-operated compulsory basic insurance, individual health savings accounts, and optional private health insurance. This paper outlines the new Scheme, and notes some tactical and strategic issues. I conclude that the Chinese government is correctly choosing to balance new and old ideas, but that there are many challenges to be faced including integration of the new Scheme with the rest of the health care system.

  10. Joint efforts to harmonize sound insulation descriptors and classification schemes in Europe (COST TU0901)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Sound insulation descriptors, regulatory requirements and classification schemes in Europe represent a high degree of diversity. One implication is very little exchange of experience of housing design and construction details for different levels of sound insulation; another is trade barriers...... for building systems and products. Unfortunately, there is evidence for a development in the "wrong" direction. For example, sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in nine countries. There is no sign on increasing harmonization, rather the contrary, as more countries are preparing proposals with new......, new housing must meet the needs of the people and offer comfort. Also for existing housing, sound insulation aspects should be taken into account, when renovating housing; otherwise the renovation is not “sustainable”. A joint European Action, COST TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation...

  11. Diffusion-weighted MRI measures suggest increased white-matter integrity in Internet gaming disorder: Evidence from the comparison with recreational Internet game users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wu, Lingdan; Wang, Ziliang; Wang, Yifan; Du, Xiaoxia; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is related to altered brain white matter integrity. However, seeming inconsistencies exist and may reflect comparison groups not matched well for certain gaming characteristics. In order to address this possible concern, we recruited in the present study individuals with recreational Internet game use (RGU) comprised of individuals who spend similar amounts of time as IGD subjects playing online games without developing IGD. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected from 42 IGD and 44 RGU subjects. Whole-brain comparisons showed that IGD subjects demonstrated increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the bilateral anterior thalamic radiation, anterior limb of the internal capsule, bilateral corticospinal tract, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, corpus callosum, and bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus. In addition, Internet-addiction severity was positively correlated with FA values. Taken together, we conclude that IGD is associated with measures of increased white-matter integrity in tracts linking reward circuitry and sensory and motor control systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer’s utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, generating different purchase decisions and optimal prices across...... individuals. When a good’s fixed price is lower than a threshold fair value, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, accounting for previously unexplained field experimental evidence. An increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer’s utility...... and may further lower the purchase rate, resulting in a further increase in purchase price....

  13. Investigation of a monochromator scheme for SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, K.; Chao, A.W.

    1984-08-01

    The possibility of mono-chromatizing SPEAR for the purpose of increasing the hadronic event rate at the narrow resonances was investigated. By using two pairs of electostatic skew quads in monochromator scheme it is found that the event rate can be increased by a factor of 2 for the mini beta optics assuming the luminosity is kept unchanged. An attempt to increase this enhancement factor by major rearrangements of the ring magnets has encountered serious optical difficulties; although enhancement factor of 8 seems possible in principle, this alternative is not recommended

  14. A Novel Congestion Detection Scheme in TCP Over OBS Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han; Zhang, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel congestion detection scheme for high-bandwidth TCP flows over optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called statistical additive increase multiplicative decrease (SAIMD). SAIMD maintains and analyzes a number

  15. Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women’s Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L.; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5–7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  16. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  17. Patterns of agri-environmental scheme participation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlis, Evangelos S.; Terkenli, Theano S.; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the personal and property characteristics of landowners who use EU Rural Development agri-environmental schemes (AES), as well as their motives for participation or non-participation in such schemes. The study is based on a questionnaire survey with landowners, in selected...... areas with marginal potential for agriculture. Motives for non-participation were also found to be dependent on the level of farming engagement and on case-area landscape types.......This paper investigates the personal and property characteristics of landowners who use EU Rural Development agri-environmental schemes (AES), as well as their motives for participation or non-participation in such schemes. The study is based on a questionnaire survey with landowners, in selected...... geographical particularities and on subjective factors, farmers' individualities, different rural cultures, landscape types, EU and national policies and special needs of the study areas—all areas where agricultural production is increasingly marginalized, for different reasons. Subsidy scheme participation...

  18. A novel digitization scheme with FPGA-base TDC for beam loss monitors operating at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinyuan; Warner, Arden; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Recycling integrators are common current-to-frequency converting circuits for measurements of low current such as that produced by Fermilab's cryogenic ionization chambers. In typical digitization/readout schemes, a counter is utilized to accumulate the number of pulses generated by the recycling integrator to adequately digitize the total charge. In order to calculate current with reasonable resolution (e.g., 7-8 bits), hundreds of pulses must be accumulated which corresponds to a long sampling period, i.e., a very low sampling rate. In our new scheme, an FPGA-based Time-to-Digital Convertor (TDC) is utilized to measure the time intervals between the pulses output from the recycling integrator. Using this method, a sample point of the current can be made with good resolution (>10 bits) for each pulse. This effectively increases the sampling rates by hundreds of times for the same recycling integrator front-end electronics. This scheme provides a fast response to the beams loss and is potentially suitable for accelerator protection applications. Moreover, the method is also self-zero-suppressed, i.e., it produces more data when the beam loss is high while it produces significantly less data when the beam loss is low.

  19. Enhanced ID-Based Authentication Scheme Using OTP in Smart Grid AMI Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Soo Yeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the vulnerabilities analyses of KL scheme which is an ID-based authentication scheme for AMI network attached SCADA in smart grid and proposes a security-enhanced authentication scheme which satisfies forward secrecy as well as security requirements introduced in KL scheme and also other existing schemes. The proposed scheme uses MDMS which is the supervising system located in an electrical company as a time-synchronizing server in order to synchronize smart devices at home and conducts authentication between smart meter and smart devices using a new secret value generated by an OTP generator every session. The proposed scheme has forward secrecy, so it increases overall security, but its communication and computation overhead reduce its performance slightly, comparing the existing schemes. Nonetheless, hardware specification and communication bandwidth of smart devices will have better conditions continuously, so the proposed scheme would be a good choice for secure AMI environment.

  20. Scalable Fault-Tolerant Location Management Scheme for Mobile IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinHo Ahn

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available As the number of mobile nodes registering with a network rapidly increases in Mobile IP, multiple mobility (home of foreign agents can be allocated to a network in order to improve performance and availability. Previous fault tolerant schemes (denoted by PRT schemes to mask failures of the mobility agents use passive replication techniques. However, they result in high failure-free latency during registration process if the number of mobility agents in the same network increases, and force each mobility agent to manage bindings of all the mobile nodes registering with its network. In this paper, we present a new fault-tolerant scheme (denoted by CML scheme using checkpointing and message logging techniques. The CML scheme achieves low failure-free latency even if the number of mobility agents in a network increases, and improves scalability to a large number of mobile nodes registering with each network compared with the PRT schemes. Additionally, the CML scheme allows each failed mobility agent to recover bindings of the mobile nodes registering with the mobility agent when it is repaired even if all the other mobility agents in the same network concurrently fail.

  1. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  3. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Deflection routing scheme for GMPLS-based OBS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eid, Arafat; Mahmood, Waqar; Alomar, Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Integrating the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) framework into an Optical Burst Switching (OBS) Control Plane is a promising solution to alleviating most of OBS performance and design issues. However, implementing the already proposed OBS deflection routing schemes is not appli...

  5. Breakdown of NpNn scheme in very heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, A.K.; Singh, M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, K.K.; Gupta, D.K.

    2016-01-01

    The proton neutron interaction has been considered the key ingredient in the development of configuration mixing, collectivity and ultimately deformation in atomic nuclei for over five decades. Phenomenologically, the correlation of the integrated valance p - n interaction with the onset of collectivity and deformation has been described in terms of NpNn scheme

  6. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  7. EFFECTIVE SCHEMES OF FINANCING MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS OF INTERNATIONAL CORPORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Momot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the question of a choice of the optimum scheme of financing mergers and acquisitions (M&As in the environment of international corporations. Methods and ways of financing integration transactions are considered and key factors and system processes of realization of these transactions are defined.

  8. CERN Health Insurance Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Changes implemented on 1 January 2011 In addition to the information provided in the Official News section of the Bulletin concerning the CHIS, the following changes are in place since 1 January 2011. Benefits The list of benefits including the ceilings will remain initially unchanged while the CHIS Board prepares proposals to the Director-General, who has been authorized by the Council to take timely measures to limit the increase of the CHIS expenses, by encouraging the use of health care providers and treatments which provide the best quality-to-cost ratio. Termination of the agreement with “La Metairie” Attempts to find an agreement with the management of “La Metairie” on the conditions to continue to collaborate failed. The present agreement that CHIS, as well as the other international organisations (WHO, ILO/ITU, UNOG) had signed, therefore came to an end on 31 December 2010. As a result, the rules applicable to hospitals without an agreement will apply to &...

  9. Pension scheme in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Alikaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Driven by unfavorable demographic developments and unsustainable, outdated or fragmented systems, pension reform has been at the top of political agendas across the globe for many years now (Prinz, Stanovnik & Stropnik, 2000. Over the last two decades, almost all western European countries have been trimming their public pension systems in an effort to strengthen pension sustainability. One main target of reform was to increase the retirement age. Other measures (e.g. changing the pension calculation, broadening the assessment base, changing the adjustment mechanism were designed to lower replacement rates. The reform process in the wide range of countries addressed by this survey differs considerably from country to country. This is why Allianz first introduced the Pension Sustainability Index (PSI, which combines the various characteristics of pension systems with the factors that influence them to help track and evaluate policy changes made in different countries around the world. In addressing the sustainability of a country’s public pension system, the PSI can give an indication of a country’s need for reforms to maintain long-term financial sustainability. This can be difficult to assess given the many country-specific institutional, technical and legal parameters. The PSI is able to evaluate the long-term sustainability of national pension systems and thus the pressure on governments to reform these (International pension Papers, 1.2014. The speed of reform, however, differs between countries. Those which recently introduced major reforms were able to improve in the PSI ranking because of active steps taken, while others were lost in comparison due to their passive policymaking.

  10. Proposal of a new classification scheme for periocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Prasad Mohapatra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eyelids are important structures and play a role in protecting the globe from trauma, brightness, in maintaining the integrity of tear films and moving the tears towards the lacrimal drainage system and contribute to aesthetic appearance of the face. Ophthalmic trauma is an important cause of morbidity among individuals and has also been responsible for additional cost of healthcare. Periocular trauma involving eyelids and adjacent structures has been found to have increased recently probably due to increased pace of life and increased dependence on machinery. A comprehensive classification of periocular trauma would help in stratifying these injuries as well as study outcomes. Material and Methods: This study was carried out at our institute from June 2015 to Dec 2015. We searched multiple English language databases for existing classification systems for periocular trauma. We designed a system of classification of periocular soft tissue injuries based on clinico-anatomical presentations. This classification was applied prospectively to patients presenting with periocular soft tissue injuries to our department. Results: A comprehensive classification scheme was designed consisting of five types of periocular injuries. A total of 38 eyelid injuries in 34 patients were evaluated in this study. According to the System for Peri-Ocular Trauma (SPOT classification, Type V injuries were most common. SPOT Type II injuries were more common isolated injuries among all zones. Discussion: Classification systems are necessary in order to provide a framework in which to scientifically study the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of diseases in an orderly fashion. The SPOT classification has taken into account the periocular soft tissue injuries i.e., upper eyelid, lower eyelid, medial and lateral canthus injuries., based on observed clinico-anatomical patterns of eyelid injuries. Conclusion: The SPOT classification seems to be a reliable

  11. Development of an estuarine assessment scheme for the management of a highly urbanised catchment/estuary system, Sydney estuary, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G F; Gunns, T J; Chapman, D; Harrison, D

    2016-05-01

    As coastal populations increase, considerable pressures are exerted on estuarine environments. Recently, there has been a trend towards the development and use of estuarine assessment schemes as a decision support tool in the management of these environments. These schemes offer a method by which complex environmental data is converted into a readily understandable and communicable format for informed decision making and effective distribution of limited management resources. Reliability and effectiveness of these schemes are often limited due to a complex assessment framework, poor data management and use of ineffective environmental indicators. The current scheme aims to improve reliability in the reporting of estuarine condition by including a concise assessment framework, employing high-value indicators and, in a unique approach, employing fuzzy logic in indicator evaluation. Using Sydney estuary as a case study, each of the 15 sub-catchment/sub-estuary systems were assessed using the current scheme. Results identified that poor sediment quality was a significant issue in Blackwattle/Rozelle Bay, Iron Cove and Hen and Chicken Bay while poor water quality was of particular concern in Duck River, Homebush Bay and the Parramatta River. Overall results of the assessment scheme were used to prioritise the management of each sub-catchment/sub-estuary assessed with Blackwattle/Rozelle Bay, Homebush Bay, Iron Cove and Duck River considered to be in need of a high priority management response. A report card format, using letter grades, was employed to convey the results of the assessment in a readily understood manner to estuarine managers and members of the public. Letter grades also provide benchmarking and performance monitoring ability, allowing estuarine managers to set improvement targets and assesses the effectiveness of management strategies. The current assessment scheme provides an effective, integrated and consistent assessment of estuarine health and

  12. Universal block diagram based modeling and simulation schemes for fractional-order control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Xue, Dingyü

    2017-05-08

    Universal block diagram based schemes are proposed for modeling and simulating the fractional-order control systems in this paper. A fractional operator block in Simulink is designed to evaluate the fractional-order derivative and integral. Based on the block, the fractional-order control systems with zero initial conditions can be modeled conveniently. For modeling the system with nonzero initial conditions, the auxiliary signal is constructed in the compensation scheme. Since the compensation scheme is very complicated, therefore the integrator chain scheme is further proposed to simplify the modeling procedures. The accuracy and effectiveness of the schemes are assessed in the examples, the computation results testify the block diagram scheme is efficient for all Caputo fractional-order ordinary differential equations (FODEs) of any complexity, including the implicit Caputo FODEs. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Space-Time Transformation in Flux-form Semi-Lagrangian Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Chu Chenwu Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With a finite volume approach, a flux-form semi-Lagrangian (TFSL scheme with space-time transformation was developed to provide stable and accurate algorithm in solving the advection-diffusion equation. Different from the existing flux-form semi-Lagrangian schemes, the temporal integration of the flux from the present to the next time step is transformed into a spatial integration of the flux at the side of a grid cell (space for the present time step using the characteristic-line concept. The TFSL scheme not only keeps the good features of the semi-Lagrangian schemes (no Courant number limitation, but also has higher accuracy (of a second order in both time and space. The capability of the TFSL scheme is demonstrated by the simulation of the equatorial Rossby-soliton propagation. Computational stability and high accuracy makes this scheme useful in ocean modeling, computational fluid dynamics, and numerical weather prediction.

  14. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  15. Signal multiplexing scheme for LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujo, C.I.; Mohan, Shyam; Joshi, Gopal; Singh, S.K.; Karande, Jitendra

    2004-01-01

    For the proper operation of the LINAC some signals, RF (radio frequency) as well as LF (low frequency) have to be available at the Master Control Station (MCS). These signals are needed to control, calibrate and characterize the RF fields in the resonators. This can be achieved by proper multiplexing of various signals locally and then routing the selected signals to the MCS. A multiplexing scheme has been designed and implemented, which will allow the signals from the selected cavity to the MCS. High isolation between channels and low insertion loss for a given signal are important issues while selecting the multiplexing scheme. (author)

  16. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Alberto; Tarable, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The s...

  17. Intelligent control schemes applied to Automatic Generation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingguo Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrating ever increasing amount of renewable generating resources to interconnected power systems has created new challenges to the safety and reliability of today‟s power grids and posed new questions to be answered in the power system modeling, analysis and control. Automatic Generation Control (AGC must be extended to be able to accommodate the control of renewable generating assets. In addition, AGC is mandated to operate in accordance with the NERC‟s Control Performance Standard (CPS criteria, which represent a greater flexibility in relaxing the control of generating resources and yet assuring the stability and reliability of interconnected power systems when each balancing authority operates in full compliance. Enhancements in several aspects to the traditional AGC must be made in order to meet the aforementioned challenges. It is the intention of this paper to provide a systematic, mathematical formulation for AGC as a first attempt in the context of meeting the NERC CPS requirements and integrating renewable generating assets, which has not been seen reported in the literature to the best knowledge of the authors. Furthermore, this paper proposes neural network based predictive control schemes for AGC. The proposed controller is capable of handling complicated nonlinear dynamics in comparison with the conventional Proportional Integral (PI controller which is typically most effective to handle linear dynamics. The neural controller is designed in such a way that it has the capability of controlling the system generation in the relaxed manner so the ACE is controlled to a desired range instead of driving it to zero which would otherwise increase the control effort and cost; and most importantly the resulting system control performance meets the NERC CPS requirements and/or the NERC Balancing Authority’s ACE Limit (BAAL compliance requirements whichever are applicable.

  18. Using Intel Xeon Phi to accelerate the WRF TEMF planetary boundary layer scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen

    2014-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is designed for numerical weather prediction and atmospheric research. The WRF software infrastructure consists of several components such as dynamic solvers and physics schemes. Numerical models are used to resolve the large-scale flow. However, subgrid-scale parameterizations are for an estimation of small-scale properties (e.g., boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation). Those have a significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. For the cloudy planetary boundary layer (PBL), it is fundamental to parameterize vertical turbulent fluxes and subgrid-scale condensation in a realistic manner. A parameterization based on the Total Energy - Mass Flux (TEMF) that unifies turbulence and moist convection components produces a better result that the other PBL schemes. For that reason, the TEMF scheme is chosen as the PBL scheme we optimized for Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC), which ushers in a new era of supercomputing speed, performance, and compatibility. It allows the developers to run code at trillions of calculations per second using the familiar programming model. In this paper, we present our optimization results for TEMF planetary boundary layer scheme. The optimizations that were performed were quite generic in nature. Those optimizations included vectorization of the code to utilize vector units inside each CPU. Furthermore, memory access was improved by scalarizing some of the intermediate arrays. The results show that the optimization improved MIC performance by 14.8x. Furthermore, the optimizations increased CPU performance by 2.6x compared to the original multi-threaded code on quad core Intel Xeon E5-2603 running at 1.8 GHz. Compared to the optimized code running on a single CPU socket the optimized MIC code is 6.2x faster.

  19. Comparison of different incremental analysis update schemes in a realistic assimilation system with Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y.; Barth, A.; Beckers, J. M.; Brankart, J. M.; Brasseur, P.; Candille, G.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, three incremental analysis update schemes (IAU 0, IAU 50 and IAU 100) are compared in the same assimilation experiments with a realistic eddy permitting primitive equation model of the North Atlantic Ocean using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The difference between the three IAU schemes lies on the position of the increment update window. The relevance of each IAU scheme is evaluated through analyses on both thermohaline and dynamical variables. The validation of the assimilation results is performed according to both deterministic and probabilistic metrics against different sources of observations. For deterministic validation, the ensemble mean and the ensemble spread are compared to the observations. For probabilistic validation, the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) is used to evaluate the ensemble forecast system according to reliability and resolution. The reliability is further decomposed into bias and dispersion by the reduced centred random variable (RCRV) score. The obtained results show that 1) the IAU 50 scheme has the same performance as the IAU 100 scheme 2) the IAU 50/100 schemes outperform the IAU 0 scheme in error covariance propagation for thermohaline variables in relatively stable region, while the IAU 0 scheme outperforms the IAU 50/100 schemes in dynamical variables estimation in dynamically active region 3) in case with sufficient number of observations and good error specification, the impact of IAU schemes is negligible. The differences between the IAU 0 scheme and the IAU 50/100 schemes are mainly due to different model integration time and different instability (density inversion, large vertical velocity, etc.) induced by the increment update. The longer model integration time with the IAU 50/100 schemes, especially the free model integration, on one hand, allows for better re-establishment of the equilibrium model state, on the other hand, smooths the strong gradients in dynamically active region.

  20. Top-quark pair production in a running mass scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-11-15

    Between the Tevatron and LHC, top-quark physics is now becoming an area for precision physics. This has lead to an increase in theoretical activity to match the experimental accuracy of top anti-top production. We discuss the difficulty in properly defining the top-quark mass as measured by experiments and present results for differential distributions of top-quark pair production in a running mass scheme. The use of such a scheme shows better convergence in the perturbative expansion and improves the scale dependence as opposed to the typical on-shell scheme.

  1. Top-quark pair production in a running mass scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, M.; Moch, S.; Hamburg Univ.

    2013-11-01

    Between the Tevatron and LHC, top-quark physics is now becoming an area for precision physics. This has lead to an increase in theoretical activity to match the experimental accuracy of top anti-top production. We discuss the difficulty in properly defining the top-quark mass as measured by experiments and present results for differential distributions of top-quark pair production in a running mass scheme. The use of such a scheme shows better convergence in the perturbative expansion and improves the scale dependence as opposed to the typical on-shell scheme.

  2. Boudot's Range-Bounded Commitment Scheme Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhengjun; Liu, Lihua

    Checking whether a committed integer lies in a specific interval has many cryptographic applications. In Eurocrypt'98, Chan et al. proposed an instantiation (CFT Proof). Based on CFT, Boudot presented a popular range-bounded commitment scheme in Eurocrypt'2000. Both CFT Proof and Boudot Proof are based on the encryption E(x, r)=g^xh^r mod n, where n is an RSA modulus whose factorization is unknown by the prover. They did not use a single base as usual. Thus an increase in cost occurs. In this paper, we show that it suffices to adopt a single base. The cost of the modified Boudot Proof is about half of that of the original scheme. Moreover, the key restriction in the original scheme, i.e., both the discrete logarithm of g in base h and the discrete logarithm of h in base g are unknown by the prover, which is a potential menace to the Boudot Proof, is definitely removed.

  3. On 165Ho level scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisson, Claire; Ardisson, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A 165 Ho level scheme was constructed which led to the interpretation of sixty γ rays belonging to the decay of 165 Dy. A new 702.9keV level was identified to be the 5/2 - member of the 1/2 ) 7541{ Nilsson orbit. )] [fr

  4. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min; Ma, Guancong; Wu, Ying; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2014-01-01

    the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost

  5. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  6. New practicable Siberian Snake schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-07-01

    Siberian Snake schemes can be inserted in ring accelerators for making the spin tune almost independent of energy. Two such schemes are here suggested which lend particularly well to practical application over a wide energy range. Being composed of horizontal and vertical bending magnets, the proposed snakes are designed to have a small maximum beam excursion in one plane. By applying in this plane a bending correction that varies with energy, they can be operated at fixed geometry in the other plane where most of the bending occurs, thus avoiding complicated magnet motion or excessively large magnet apertures that would otherwise be needed for large energy variations. The first of the proposed schemes employs a pair of standard-type Siberian Snakes, i.e. of the usual 1st and 2nd kind which rotate the spin about the longitudinal and the transverse horizontal axis, respectively. The second scheme employs a pair of novel-type snakes which rotate the spin about either one of the horizontal axes that are at 45 0 to the beam direction. In obvious reference to these axes, they are called left-pointed and right-pointed snakes. (orig.)

  7. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ho Shin

    2014-01-01

    efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB and 1.74tlog2⁡m bit-per-pixel (bpp, respectively.

  8. MODEL OF PHYTOPLANKTON COMPETITION FOR LIMITING AND NONLIMITING NUTRIENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ESTUARINE AND NEARSHORE MANAGEMENT SCHEMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global increase of noxious bloom occurrences has increased the need for phytoplankton management schemes. Such schemes require the ability to predict phytoplankton succession. Equilibrium Resources Competition theory, which is popular for predicting succession in lake systems...

  9. Lightweight SIP/SDP compression scheme (LSSCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian J.; Demetrescu, Cristian

    2001-10-01

    In UMTS new IP based services with tight delay constraints will be deployed over the W-CDMA air interface such as IP multimedia and interactive services. To integrate the wireline and wireless IP services, 3GPP standard forum adopted the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) as the call control protocol for the UMTS Release 5, which will implement next generation, all IP networks for real-time QoS services. In the current form the SIP protocol is not suitable for wireless transmission due to its large message size which will need either a big radio pipe for transmission or it will take far much longer to transmit than the current GSM Call Control (CC) message sequence. In this paper we present a novel compression algorithm called Lightweight SIP/SDP Compression Scheme (LSSCS), which acts at the SIP application layer and therefore removes the information redundancy before it is sent to the network and transport layer. A binary octet-aligned header is added to the compressed SIP/SDP message before sending it to the network layer. The receiver uses this binary header as well as the pre-cached information to regenerate the original SIP/SDP message. The key features of the LSSCS compression scheme are presented in this paper along with implementation examples. It is shown that this compression algorithm makes SIP transmission efficient over the radio interface without losing the SIP generality and flexibility.

  10. On a gauge invariant subtraction scheme for massive quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Gomes, M.; Koeberle, R.

    A momentum-space subtraction scheme for massive quantum electrodynamics is proposed which respects gauge invariance, in contrast to ordinary normal product techniques. As a consequence the dependence of Green functions on the ghost mass becomes very simple and formally gauge invariant normal products of degree up to four, when subtracted according to the proposed scheme, are automatically gauge invariant. As an aplication we discuss the proof of the Adler-Bardeen theorem. Zero mass limits can be taken for Green function after the integration over intermediate states has been carried out [pt

  11. A joint asymmetric watermarking and image encryption scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boato, G.; Conotter, V.; De Natale, F. G. B.; Fontanari, C.

    2008-02-01

    Here we introduce a novel watermarking paradigm designed to be both asymmetric, i.e., involving a private key for embedding and a public key for detection, and commutative with a suitable encryption scheme, allowing both to cipher watermarked data and to mark encrypted data without interphering with the detection process. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the above principles, we present an explicit example where the watermarking part, based on elementary linear algebra, and the encryption part, exploiting a secret random permutation, are integrated in a commutative scheme.

  12. The Victorian government`s clean technology incentive scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, M.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reeve, D. [Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Over the past decade environment policies have placed increasing emphasis on waste minimization and cleaner production techniques. The Environment Protection Authority in Victoria, Australia, has sought to encourage waste minimization by establishing a Clean Technology Incentive Scheme. The Scheme was established in 1988 and since then 35 offers of loans have been made. Results to date are encouraging. In this work, case studies of three especially successful projects are presented. 2 refs.

  13. The Belgian deposit guarantee scheme in a European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. Van Nieuwenhuyze; M. D. Zachary

    2010-01-01

    During the recent financial crisis, the deposit guarantee scheme in Belgium – as in other European countries – played a role in preventing bank runs and restoring confidence : to that end, the intervention ceilings were raised substantially and the scope of the scheme was extended to include certain life insurance policies. Finally, the expansion of the system’s coverage had to be financed by a sharp increase in the contributions from financial institutions. First of all, that measure had a p...

  14. The Victorian government`s clean technology incentive scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, M A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Reeve, D [Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Over the past decade environment policies have placed increasing emphasis on waste minimization and cleaner production techniques. The Environment Protection Authority in Victoria, Australia, has sought to encourage waste minimization by establishing a Clean Technology Incentive Scheme. The Scheme was established in 1988 and since then 35 offers of loans have been made. Results to date are encouraging. In this work, case studies of three especially successful projects are presented. 2 refs.

  15. A Lean Six Sigma quality improvement project to increase discharge paperwork completeness for admission to a comprehensive integrated inpatient rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Nathan J; Hoyer, Erik H; Cabahug, Philippines; González-Fernández, Marlís; Mehta, Megha; Walker, N Colbey; Powers, Richard L; Mayer, R Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) process analysis can be used to increase completeness of discharge summary reports used as a critical communication tool when a patient transitions between levels of care. The authors used the LSS methodology as an intervention to improve systems process. Over the course of the project, 8 required elements were analyzed in the discharge paperwork. The authors analyzed the discharge paperwork of patients (42 patients preintervention and 143 patients postintervention) of a comprehensive integrated inpatient rehabilitation program (CIIRP). Prior to this LSS project, 61.8% of required discharge elements were present. The intervention improved the completeness to 94.2% of the required elements. The percentage of charts that were 100% complete increased from 11.9% to 67.8%. LSS is a well-established process improvement methodology that can be used to make significant improvements in complex health care workflow issues. Specifically, the completeness of discharge documentation required for transition of care to CIIRP can be improved.

  16. Quality Assurance in Engineering Education: Comparison of Accreditation Schemes and ISO 9001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetrovic, Stanislav; Rajamani, Divakar; Willborn, Walter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines quality assurance schemes for distance-education technologies that are based on the ISO 9000 family of international quality-assurance standards. Argues that engineering faculties can establish such systems on the basis of and integrated with accreditation schemes. Contains 34 references. (DDR)

  17. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hakjun; Lee, Donghoon; Moon, Jongho; Jung, Jaewook; Kang, Dongwoo; Kim, Hyoungshick; Won, Dongho

    2018-01-01

    With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people's lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al's scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments.

  18. An improved anonymous authentication scheme for roaming in ubiquitous networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakjun Lee

    Full Text Available With the evolution of communication technology and the exponential increase of mobile devices, the ubiquitous networking allows people to use our data and computing resources anytime and everywhere. However, numerous security concerns and complicated requirements arise as these ubiquitous networks are deployed throughout people's lives. To meet the challenge, the user authentication schemes in ubiquitous networks should ensure the essential security properties for the preservation of the privacy with low computational cost. In 2017, Chaudhry et al. proposed a password-based authentication scheme for the roaming in ubiquitous networks to enhance the security. Unfortunately, we found that their scheme remains insecure in its protection of the user privacy. In this paper, we prove that Chaudhry et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the stolen-mobile device and user impersonation attacks, and its drawbacks comprise the absence of the incorrect login-input detection, the incorrectness of the password change phase, and the absence of the revocation provision. Moreover, we suggest a possible way to fix the security flaw in Chaudhry et al's scheme by using the biometric-based authentication for which the bio-hash is applied in the implementation of a three-factor authentication. We prove the security of the proposed scheme with the random oracle model and formally verify its security properties using a tool named ProVerif, and analyze it in terms of the computational and communication cost. The analysis result shows that the proposed scheme is suitable for resource-constrained ubiquitous environments.

  19. Third Order Reconstruction of the KP Scheme for Model of River Tinnelva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susantha Dissanayake

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saint-Venant equation/Shallow Water Equation is used to simulate flow of river, flow of liquid in an open channel, tsunami etc. The Kurganov-Petrova (KP scheme which was developed based on the local speed of discontinuity propagation, can be used to solve hyperbolic type partial differential equations (PDEs, hence can be used to solve the Saint-Venant equation. The KP scheme is semi discrete: PDEs are discretized in the spatial domain, resulting in a set of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs. In this study, the common 2nd order KP scheme is extended into 3rd order scheme while following the Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO and Central WENO (CWENO reconstruction steps. Both the 2nd order and 3rd order schemes have been used in simulation in order to check the suitability of the KP schemes to solve hyperbolic type PDEs. The simulation results indicated that the 3rd order KP scheme shows some better stability compared to the 2nd order scheme. Computational time for the 3rd order KP scheme for variable step-length ode solvers in MATLAB is less compared to the computational time of the 2nd order KP scheme. In addition, it was confirmed that the order of the time integrators essentially should be lower compared to the order of the spatial discretization. However, for computation of abrupt step changes, the 2nd order KP scheme shows a more accurate solution.

  20. Sensory testing of emissions from construction products. Integration into the Blue Angel award criteria and assessment scheme of the Committee for Health Evaluation of Building Products; Sensorische Bewertung der Emissionen aus Bauprodukten.- Integration in die Vergabegrundlagen fuer den Blauen Engel und das Bewertungsschema des Ausschusses zur gesundheitlichen Bewertung von Bauprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Birgit; Danielak, Maciej [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Panaskova, Jana [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. for Energy Efficient Buildings and Indoor Climate; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Mueller, Dirk [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. for Energy Efficient Buildings and Indoor Climate

    2011-06-15

    Emissions from construction products impact the quality of indoor air considerably. The AgBB scheme is employed to evaluate the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from construction products. The hygienic evaluation according to the AgBB scheme requires product-specific measuring procedures. These exist for a range of products. They have been validated in co-operation with several research and testing institutes and have been included in the criteria for awarding the eco-label Blue Angel. The evaluation is, however, stricter and generally has lower limits. VOC emissions and odours can cause health problems so sensory testing is an important element in the evaluation of construction products and has - for reasons of precaution - been set down in the AgBB scheme. The main goal of the project is to derive a method of sensory evaluation and limits for awarding the Blue Angel and for the AgBB scheme. Based on the research conducted (see Chapter 5 Results and Discussion), perceived intensity and hedonics are suggested for the evaluation method. The derivation of limits for the sensory evaluation on the 28th day was effected in the present study through the additional questioning of the test subjects on the reasonability of a sample. For the Blue Angel, there could be different limits of perceived intensity and hedonic for each group of products. A preliminary suggestion for possible limits - here for all product groups - is a perceived intensity of 7 pi (5 pi + 2 pi as confidence coefficient, Chapter 5.1.5. ''Minimum Requirements for the Size of Test Groups'') and -1 (0{+-}0.8, rounded to -1) for the hedonic value (see Figure 6-1). (orig.)

  1. Classification schemes for knowledge translation interventions: a practical resource for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Zimmermann, Gabrielle L; Nuspl, Megan; Hanson, Heather M; Albrecht, Lauren; Esmail, Rosmin; Sauro, Khara; Newton, Amanda S; Donald, Maoliosa; Dyson, Michele P; Thomson, Denise; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-12-06

    As implementation science advances, the number of interventions to promote the translation of evidence into healthcare, health systems, or health policy is growing. Accordingly, classification schemes for these knowledge translation (KT) interventions have emerged. A recent scoping review identified 51 classification schemes of KT interventions to integrate evidence into healthcare practice; however, the review did not evaluate the quality of the classification schemes or provide detailed information to assist researchers in selecting a scheme for their context and purpose. This study aimed to further examine and assess the quality of these classification schemes of KT interventions, and provide information to aid researchers when selecting a classification scheme. We abstracted the following information from each of the original 51 classification scheme articles: authors' objectives; purpose of the scheme and field of application; socioecologic level (individual, organizational, community, system); adaptability (broad versus specific); target group (patients, providers, policy-makers), intent (policy, education, practice), and purpose (dissemination versus implementation). Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the development of each classification scheme using an adapted version of the AGREE II tool. Based on these assessments, two independent reviewers reached consensus about whether to recommend each scheme for researcher use, or not. Of the 51 original classification schemes, we excluded seven that were not specific classification schemes, not accessible or duplicates. Of the remaining 44 classification schemes, nine were not recommended. Of the 35 recommended classification schemes, ten focused on behaviour change and six focused on population health. Many schemes (n = 29) addressed practice considerations. Fewer schemes addressed educational or policy objectives. Twenty-five classification schemes had broad applicability

  2. Secure Biometric E-Voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Taha Kh.; Aborizka, Mohamed

    The implementation of the e-voting becomes more substantial with the rapid increase of e-government development. The recent growth in communications and cryptographic techniques facilitate the implementation of e-voting. Many countries introduced e-voting systems; unfortunately most of these systems are not fully functional. In this paper we will present an e-voting scheme that covers most of the e-voting requirements, smart card and biometric recognition technology were implemented to guarantee voter's privacy and authentication.

  3. Addressing Longevity’ Heterogeneity in Pension Scheme Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuso, Mercedes; Bravo, Jorge Miguel; Holzmann, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Ayuso, M., Bravo, J. M., & Holzmann, R. (2017). Addressing Longevity’ Heterogeneity in Pension Scheme Design. Journal of Finance and Economics, 6(1), 1-21. DOI: 10.12735/jfe.v6n1p1 This paper demonstrates that the link between heterogeneity in longevity and lifetime income across countries is mostly high and often increasing; that it translates into an implicit tax/subsidy, with rates reaching 20 percent and higher in some countries; that such rates risk perverting redistributive objective...

  4. New Financing Schemes of Public Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de la Riva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public works procurements and concessions are traditional legal techniques used to shape the financing of public infrastructure. Fiscal constraints faced by public administrations at the end of the 20th century, and the subsequent increase of private participation in the provision of public goods and services, encouraged the development of new legal schemes allowing a higher degree of private investment in public infrastructure; such as Public Private Partnerships, project finance, securitizations, the shadow toll, turn-key agreements, public leasing and public trusts.

  5. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order

  6. [PICS: pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morénas, J

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme (PICS) is a structure containing 34 participating authorities located worldwide (October 2008). It has been created in 1995 on the basis of the pharmaceutical inspection convention (PIC) settled by the European free trade association (EFTA) in1970. This scheme has different goals as to be an international recognised body in the field of good manufacturing practices (GMP), for training inspectors (by the way of an annual seminar and experts circles related notably to active pharmaceutical ingredients [API], quality risk management, computerized systems, useful for the writing of inspection's aide-memoires). PICS is also leading to high standards for GMP inspectorates (through regular crossed audits) and being a room for exchanges on technical matters between inspectors but also between inspectors and pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  8. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular...

  9. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  10. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...... effects remained largely implicit. The requirements classification contributed to constraining the requirements-engineering process by supporting the software engineers in maintaining some level of control over the process. This way, the requirements classification provided the software engineers...

  11. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Biomass. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, H.; Tuerk, A.; Arasto, A.; Vehlow, J.; Kautto, N.; Sijm, J.; Hunder, M.; Brammer, J.

    2009-02-01

    Within its Energy and Climate Package, adopted by the European Parliament in December 2008, the European commission set a 10% minimum for the market share of renewables in the transport sector in 2020. To find the appropriate instruments to reach this target and the instrument mix with which biomass use in general could be best stimulated are the main questions of this project. An important instrument of the European Climate Policy is the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), which started operation in 2005. Previous work done within Bioenergy NoE showed that only a high share of auctioning of allowances and a high CO2 price provide necessary incentives for a higher biomass use. According to the Energy and Climate Package, all allowances will be auctioned in the energy sector from 2013 on, with exceptions for a few CEE countries. Based on work done within the project, a model has been developed to analyse at which CO2 price biomass becomes competitive in case of 100 per cent auctioning or at a lower level. The European Commission furthermore decided not to include the road transport sector into the EU-ETS until 2020. Whether the inclusion of the road transport sector in the EU-ETS, could help introducing biofuels, a separate trading scheme for biofuels should be set up, or biofuels should be addressed with other policy instruments, was another main question of this project. The first result shows that an integrated scheme would hardly have any effects on the use of liquid biofuels in the transportation sector, but might cause higher CO2 prices for the energy and industry sector. A separate trading scheme has been implemented in the UK in 2008, California is planning such as scheme in addition to include the road transport sector into the future ETS. Within this project the design of such as system has been elaborated based on the comparison of several policy instruments to increase the use of liquid biofuels in the transportation sector. Policy interaction

  12. International proposal for an acoustic classification scheme for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic classification schemes specify different quality levels for acoustic conditions. Regulations and classification schemes for dwellings typically include criteria for airborne and impact sound insulation, façade sound insulation and service equipment noise. However, although important...... classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme would be useful, and the European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", running 2009-2013 with members from 32 countries, including three overseas...... for quality of life, information about acoustic conditions is rarely available, neither for new or existing housing. Regulatory acoustic requirements will, if enforced, ensure a corresponding quality for new dwellings, but satisfactory conditions for occupants are not guaranteed. Consequently, several...

  13. New schemes for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Y.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors propose new schemes for realizing the v/sub p/xB accelerator, by using no plasma system for producing the strong longitudinal waves. The first method is to use a grating for obtaining extended interaction of an electron beam moving along the grating surface with light beam incident also along the surface. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely to the grating grooves for producing strong electric field, and the electron beam propagates in parallel to the light beam. The static magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the grating surface. In the present system, the beam interacts synchronously with the p-polarized wave which has the electric field be parallel to the grating surface. Another conventional scheme is to use a delay circuit. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely between a pair of array of conductor fins or slots. The phase velocity of the spatial harmonics in the y-direction (right angle to the array of slots) is slower than the speed of light. With the aid of powerful laser light or microwave source, it should be possible to miniaturise linacs by using the v/sub p/xB effect and schemes proposed here

  14. Optimized Explicit Runge--Kutta Schemes for the Spectral Difference Method Applied to Wave Propagation Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo

    2013-04-10

    Explicit Runge--Kutta schemes with large stable step sizes are developed for integration of high-order spectral difference spatial discretizations on quadrilateral grids. The new schemes permit an effective time step that is substantially larger than the maximum admissible time step of standard explicit Runge--Kutta schemes available in the literature. Furthermore, they have a small principal error norm and admit a low-storage implementation. The advantages of the new schemes are demonstrated through application to the Euler equations and the linearized Euler equations.

  15. Optimized Explicit Runge--Kutta Schemes for the Spectral Difference Method Applied to Wave Propagation Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo; Ketcheson, David I.; Deconinck, W.

    2013-01-01

    Explicit Runge--Kutta schemes with large stable step sizes are developed for integration of high-order spectral difference spatial discretizations on quadrilateral grids. The new schemes permit an effective time step that is substantially larger than the maximum admissible time step of standard explicit Runge--Kutta schemes available in the literature. Furthermore, they have a small principal error norm and admit a low-storage implementation. The advantages of the new schemes are demonstrated through application to the Euler equations and the linearized Euler equations.

  16. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui-Ran; Luo Ming-Xing; Peng Dai-Yuan; Wang Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks . (paper)

  17. Increase of the Integration Degree of Wind Power Plants into the Energy System Using Wind Forecasting and Power Consumption Predictor Models by Transmission System Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manusov V.Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plants’ (WPPs high penetration into the power system leads to various inconveniences in the work of system operators. This fact is associated with the unpredictable nature of wind speed and generated power, respectively. Due to these factors, such source of electricity must be connected to the power system to avoid detrimental effects on the stability and quality of electricity. The power generated by the WPPs is not regulated by the system operator. Accurate forecasting of wind speed and power, as well as power load can solve this problem, thereby making a significant contribution to improving the power supply systems reliability. The article presents a mathematical model for the wind speed prediction, which is based on autoregression and fuzzy logic derivation of Takagi-Sugeno. The new model of wavelet transform has been developed, which makes it possible to include unnecessary noise from the model, as well as to reveal the cycling of the processes and their trend. It has been proved, that the proposed combination of methods can be used simultaneously to predict the power consumption and the wind power plant potential power at any time interval, depending on the planning horizon. The proposed models support a new scientific concept for the predictive control system of wind power stations and increase their degree integration into the electric power system.

  18. Impacts of Rotation Schemes on Ground-Dwelling Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2016-10-01

    Crop rotation alters agroecosystem diversity temporally, and increasing the number of crops in rotation schemes can increase crop yields and reduce reliance on pesticides. We hypothesized that increasing the number of crops in annual rotation schemes would positively affect ground-dwelling beneficial arthropod communities. During 2012 and 2013, pitfall traps were used to measure activity-density and diversity of ground-dwelling communities within three previously established, long-term crop rotation studies located in Wisconsin and Illinois. Rotation schemes sampled included continuous corn, a 2-yr annual rotation of corn and soybean, and a 3-yr annual rotation of corn, soybean, and wheat. Insects captured were identified to family, and non-insect arthropods were identified to class, order, or family, depending upon the taxa. Beneficial arthropods captured included natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. The beneficial community from continuous corn plots was significantly more diverse compared with the community in the 2-yr rotation, whereas the community in the 3-yr rotation did not differ from either rotation scheme. The activity-density of the total community and any individual taxa did not differ among rotation schemes in either corn or soybean. Crop species within all three rotation schemes were annual crops, and are associated with agricultural practices that make infield habitat subject to anthropogenic disturbances and temporally unstable. Habitat instability and disturbance can limit the effectiveness and retention of beneficial arthropods, including natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. Increasing non-crop and perennial species within landscapes in conjunction with more diverse rotation schemes may increase the effect of biological control of pests by natural enemies. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Oxygen/glucose deprivation increases the integration of recombinant P2X7 receptors into the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milius, Doreen; Groeger-Arndt, Helke; Stanchev, Doychin; Lange-Dohna, Christine; Rossner, Steffen; Sperlagh, Beata; Wirkner, Kerstin; Illes, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant human P2X 7 receptors, C-terminally labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (P2X 7 -EGFP), were transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. Activation of these receptors by their preferential agonist 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) induced inward currents and propidium ion uptake indicating the opening of cationic channels and of large pores permeable for dye molecules, respectively. Two mutants of P2X 7 receptors (P2X 7 -EGFP-I568N, -E496A) representing polymorphisms in the P2X 7 gene known to interfere with normal receptor-trafficking and with optimal assembly of its subunits, responded with much lower current amplitudes to BzATP than their wild-type counterpart. Similarly, the normal propidium ion uptake induced by BzATP at the wild-type P2X 7 receptor was abolished by the two mutants. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that in vitro ischemia of 12 h duration increased the integration of P2X 7 -EGFP, but not of its two mutants, into the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells. Further, this ischemic stimulus facilitated the current response to BzATP in HEK293 cells permanently transfected with P2X 7 receptors. Finally, the fluorescence intensity per cell measured by flow cytometry and P2X 7 antibodies directed against an extracellular, but not an intracellular epitope of the receptor, were also increased. In conclusion, P2X 7 receptors may alter their trafficking properties during ischemia and thereby contribute to the ATP-induced damage of various cell-types including neurons

  20. Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS). Case study on nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Thandra, Prasanth Kumar; Rajan, J.; Satyamurthy, S.A.V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam (India). Computer Div.; Aghila, G. [National Institute of Technology, Karaikal (India). Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering

    2015-05-15

    In recent years, due to the sophistication offered by the Internet, strategic organizations like nuclear power plants are linked to the outside world communication through the Internet. The entry of outside world communication into strategic organization (nuclear power plant) increases the hacker's attempts to crack its security and to trace any information which is being sent among the top level officials. Information security system in nuclear power plant is very crucial as even small loophole in the security system will lead to a major disaster. Recent cyber attacks in nuclear power plant provoked information security professionals to look deeply into the information security aspects of strategic organizations (nuclear power plant). In these lines, Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS) is proposed in the paper which provides enhanced security by providing dynamic access structure for each node in different hierarchies. The SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to any strategic organizations with hierarchical structures. In this paper the possible scenarios where SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to nuclear power plant is explained as a case study. The proposed SSSDAS scheme identifies the wrong shares, if any, used for reconstruction of the secret. The SSSDAS scheme also address the three major security parameters namely confidentiality, authentication and integrity.

  1. Lightning-produced NOx in an explicit electrical scheme: a STERAO case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, C.; Pinty, J.; Mari, C.

    2006-12-01

    An explicit lightning-produced nitrogen oxide scheme has been implemented in the French mesoscale model Meso-NH. The electrical scheme simulates explicitly the whole electric charge life cycle: charge separation, transfer, transport and neutralization by lightning flashes. The frequency and the 3D morphology of the lightning flashes are reproduced realistically. Therefore, fresh nitrogen oxide molecules can be added along the complex flash path as a function of the pressure, as suggested by results from laboratory experiments. No integral constraint on the total LNOx production at the cloud scale is added. The scheme is tested on the 10 July 1996, STERAO (Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiment-Radiation, Aerosols, and Ozone) storm. The model reproduces many features of the observed increase of electrical activity and LNOx flux through the anvil between the multicell and supercell stages. A large amount of LNOx is selectively produced in the upper part of the cells close to the updraft cores. Instantaneous peak concentrations exceed a few ppbv, as observed. The computed flux of NOx across the anvil compares favorably with the observations. The NOx production is estimated to 36 moles per lightning flash.

  2. Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS). Case study on nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Thandra, Prasanth Kumar; Rajan, J.; Satyamurthy, S.A.V.; Aghila, G.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, due to the sophistication offered by the Internet, strategic organizations like nuclear power plants are linked to the outside world communication through the Internet. The entry of outside world communication into strategic organization (nuclear power plant) increases the hacker's attempts to crack its security and to trace any information which is being sent among the top level officials. Information security system in nuclear power plant is very crucial as even small loophole in the security system will lead to a major disaster. Recent cyber attacks in nuclear power plant provoked information security professionals to look deeply into the information security aspects of strategic organizations (nuclear power plant). In these lines, Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS) is proposed in the paper which provides enhanced security by providing dynamic access structure for each node in different hierarchies. The SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to any strategic organizations with hierarchical structures. In this paper the possible scenarios where SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to nuclear power plant is explained as a case study. The proposed SSSDAS scheme identifies the wrong shares, if any, used for reconstruction of the secret. The SSSDAS scheme also address the three major security parameters namely confidentiality, authentication and integrity.

  3. An Overview of Demand Side Management Control Schemes for Buildings in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing share of distributed energy resources and renewable energy in power systems results in a highly variable and less controllable energy production. Therefore, in order to ensure stability and to reduce the infrastructure and operation cost of the power grid, flexible and controllable...... of the power sector in mind and thus can differ significantly in their architecture, their integration into the various markets, their integration into distribution network operation and several other aspects. This paper proposes a classification of load control policies for demand side management in smart...... buildings, based on external behavior: direct, indirect, transactional and autonomous control; internal operation: decision support system scope, control strategy, failure handling and architecture. This classification assists in providing an overview of the control schemes as well as different ways...

  4. PHACK: An Efficient Scheme for Selective Forwarding Attack Detection in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Per-Hop Acknowledgement (PHACK-based scheme is proposed for each packet transmission to detect selective forwarding attacks. In our scheme, the sink and each node along the forwarding path generate an acknowledgement (ACK message for each received packet to confirm the normal packet transmission. The scheme, in which each ACK is returned to the source node along a different routing path, can significantly increase the resilience against attacks because it prevents an attacker from compromising nodes in the return routing path, which can otherwise interrupt the return of nodes’ ACK packets. For this case, the PHACK scheme also has better potential to detect abnormal packet loss and identify suspect nodes as well as better resilience against attacks. Another pivotal issue is the network lifetime of the PHACK scheme, as it generates more acknowledgements than previous ACK-based schemes. We demonstrate that the network lifetime of the PHACK scheme is not lower than that of other ACK-based schemes because the scheme just increases the energy consumption in non-hotspot areas and does not increase the energy consumption in hotspot areas. Moreover, the PHACK scheme greatly simplifies the protocol and is easy to implement. Both theoretical and simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of high detection probability and the ability to identify suspect nodes.

  5. Sparse grid techniques for particle-in-cell schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketson, L. F.; Cerfon, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    We propose the use of sparse grids to accelerate particle-in-cell (PIC) schemes. By using the so-called ‘combination technique’ from the sparse grids literature, we are able to dramatically increase the size of the spatial cells in multi-dimensional PIC schemes while paying only a slight penalty in grid-based error. The resulting increase in cell size allows us to reduce the statistical noise in the simulation without increasing total particle number. We present initial proof-of-principle results from test cases in two and three dimensions that demonstrate the new scheme’s efficiency, both in terms of computation time and memory usage.

  6. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    this threshold, however, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, in line with previously unexplained evidence from field experiments. Moreover, an increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer's utility and may further lower the purchase rate......Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular in a wide range of industries. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer's utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, which generates different purchase...... decisions and optimal prices across individuals. When a good is sold at a fixed price higher than a threshold value, a price that the individual thinks is fair, the adoption of PWYW increases his utility and hence results in a weakly higher purchase rate. When a good is sold at a fixed price lower than...

  7. A New Proxy Electronic Voting Scheme Achieved by Six-Particle Entangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Ding, Li-Yuan; Jiang, Xiu-Li; Li, Peng-Fei

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we use quantum proxy signature to construct a new secret electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, six particles entangled states function as quantum channels. The voter Alice, the Vote Management Center Bob, the scrutineer Charlie only perform two particles measurements on the Bell bases to realize the electronic voting process. So the scheme reduces the technical difficulty and increases operation efficiency. We use quantum key distribution and one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security. The significant advantage of our scheme is that transmitted information capacity is twice as much as the capacity of other schemes.

  8. An early separation scheme for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sterbini, G

    2010-01-01

    The present document is organized in five chapters. In the first chapter the framework of the study is described, developing the motivations, the goals and the requirements for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade. We analyze the need for the crossing angle and its impact on the peak luminosity of the collider. After having introduced the Early Separation Scheme, we explain how it may overcome some limitations of the present machine. We compare the nominal LHC crossing scheme with the proposed one underlining its potential in terms of performance and its issues with respect to the integration in the detectors. An analysis of the integrated magnetic field required is given. In the second chapter we introduce one of the most powerful aspect of the scheme: the luminosity leveling. After the description of the physical model adopted, we compare the results of its analytical and numerical solutions. All the potential improvement due to the Early Separation Scheme are shown on the luminosity plane (peak luminosity versus int...

  9. Identity based Encryption and Biometric Authentication Scheme for Secure Data Access in Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongbing; Rong, Chunming; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing will be a main information infrastructure in the future; it consists of many large datacenters which are usually geographically distributed and heterogeneous. How to design a secure data access for cloud computing platform is a big challenge. In this paper, we propose a secure data...... access scheme based on identity-based encryption and biometric authentication for cloud computing. Firstly, we describe the security concern of cloud computing and then propose an integrated data access scheme for cloud computing, the procedure of the proposed scheme include parameter setup, key...... distribution, feature template creation, cloud data processing and secure data access control. Finally, we compare the proposed scheme with other schemes through comprehensive analysis and simulation. The results show that the proposed data access scheme is feasible and secure for cloud computing....

  10. BVS: A Lightweight Forward and Backward Secure Scheme for PMU Communications in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart grid, phaser measurement units (PMUs can upload readings to utility centers via supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA or energy management system (EMS to enable intelligent controlling and scheduling. It is critical to maintain the secrecy of readings so as to protect customers' privacy, together with integrity and source authentication for the reliability and stability of power scheduling. In particular, appealing security scheme needs to perform well in PMUs that usually have computational resource constraints, thus designed security protocols have to remain lightweight in terms of computation and storage. In this paper, we propose a family of schemes to solve this problem. They are public key based scheme (PKS, password based scheme (PWS and billed value-based scheme (BVS. BVS can achieve forward and backward security and only relies on hash functions. Security analysis justifies that the proposed schemes, especially BVS, can attain the security goals with low computation and storage cost.

  11. Decoupling schemes for the SSC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-05-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  12. Renormalization scheme-invariant perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, A.

    1983-01-01

    A complete solution to the problem of the renormalization scheme dependence of perturbative approximants to physical quantities is presented. An equation is derived which determines any physical quantity implicitly as a function of only scheme independent variables. (orig.)

  13. Wireless Broadband Access and Accounting Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two wireless broadband access and accounting schemes. In both schemes, the accounting system adopts RADIUS protocol, but the access system adopts SSH and SSL protocols respectively.

  14. Building capacity in local government for integrated planning to increase physical activity: evaluation of the VicHealth MetroACTIVE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M M; Hodge, W; Smith, B J

    2009-12-01

    Integrated planning is a holistic approach to addressing the needs of local communities built on partnerships between those responsible for development, environmental quality and service provision. This study investigated the extent and key influences on the use of integrated planning to promote physical activity among six metropolitan councils in Melbourne Australia, which took part in the MetroACTIVE Project funded by the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation from 2005 to 2007. The evaluation entailed interviews conducted at the mid-term (N = 67) and completion (N = 50) of the project, and the review of relevant documents. Respondents included elected councillors, chief executive officers, officers from different council divisions and the project staff employed in each council. Three councils showed evidence of integrated planning for physical activity, whereas the remainder focused on the delivery of community participation programs. Leadership from senior management and an organizational culture that supported collaboration across council departments were prerequisites for integrated planning. Employment of a dedicated project officer with skills for engaging management and building partnerships within the organization was important. Barriers to integrated planning were a complex organization structure, high demands on the council due to a growing residential population and a poor climate among staff. Overall, integrated planning was found to be a viable approach for developing a coordinated approach to this issue involving the range of council services and functions. Ongoing strategies are needed to facilitate senior management commitment and organizational capacity for integrated planning, with leadership provided by departments responsible for infrastructure or corporate planning.

  15. Tightly Secure Signatures From Lossy Identification Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla , Michel; Fouque , Pierre-Alain; Lyubashevsky , Vadim; Tibouchi , Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present three digital signature schemes with tight security reductions in the random oracle model. Our first signature scheme is a particularly efficient version of the short exponent discrete log-based scheme of Girault et al. (J Cryptol 19(4):463–487, 2006). Our scheme has a tight reduction to the decisional short discrete logarithm problem, while still maintaining the non-tight reduction to the computational version of the problem upon which the or...

  16. Comparative study of numerical schemes of TVD3, UNO3-ACM and optimized compact scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck-Joo; Hwang, Chang-Jeon; Ko, Duck-Kon; Kim, Jae-Wook

    1995-01-01

    Three different schemes are employed to solve the benchmark problem. The first one is a conventional TVD-MUSCL (Monotone Upwind Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme. The second scheme is a UNO3-ACM (Uniformly Non-Oscillatory Artificial Compression Method) scheme. The third scheme is an optimized compact finite difference scheme modified by us: the 4th order Runge Kutta time stepping, the 4th order pentadiagonal compact spatial discretization with the maximum resolution characteristics. The problems of category 1 are solved by using the second (UNO3-ACM) and third (Optimized Compact) schemes. The problems of category 2 are solved by using the first (TVD3) and second (UNO3-ACM) schemes. The problem of category 5 is solved by using the first (TVD3) scheme. It can be concluded from the present calculations that the Optimized Compact scheme and the UN03-ACM show good resolutions for category 1 and category 2 respectively.

  17. Optimal Sales Schemes for Network Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parakhonyak, Alexei; Vikander, Nick

    consumers simultaneously, serve them all sequentially, or employ any intermediate scheme. We show that the optimal sales scheme is purely sequential, where each consumer observes all previous sales before choosing whether to buy himself. A sequential scheme maximizes the amount of information available...

  18. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    ABSTRACT. Various Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) schemes have been used to combat errors that befall in- formation transmitted in digital communication systems. Such schemes include simple ARQ, mixed mode ARQ and Hybrid ARQ (HARQ). In this study we introduce extended ARQ schemes and derive.

  19. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission

  20. A unified thermostat scheme for efficient configurational sampling for classical/quantum canonical ensembles via molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Liu, Xinzijian; Chen, Zifei; Zheng, Haifeng; Yan, Kangyu; Liu, Jian

    2017-07-01

    We show a unified second-order scheme for constructing simple, robust, and accurate algorithms for typical thermostats for configurational sampling for the canonical ensemble. When Langevin dynamics is used, the scheme leads to the BAOAB algorithm that has been recently investigated. We show that the scheme is also useful for other types of thermostats, such as the Andersen thermostat and Nosé-Hoover chain, regardless of whether the thermostat is deterministic or stochastic. In addition to analytical analysis, two 1-dimensional models and three typical real molecular systems that range from the gas phase, clusters, to the condensed phase are used in numerical examples for demonstration. Accuracy may be increased by an order of magnitude for estimating coordinate-dependent properties in molecular dynamics (when the same time interval is used), irrespective of which type of thermostat is applied. The scheme is especially useful for path integral molecular dynamics because it consistently improves the efficiency for evaluating all thermodynamic properties for any type of thermostat.