WorldWideScience

Sample records for integration module built

  1. The integration of natural and built environment data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the current situation in Europe with regard to the integration of natural and built environment data, and with a focus on the experience of Denmark. The European approach is based on the EU initiative known as INSPIRE that builds the overall concept for geospatial data...... integration, The Danish approach is presented in more details with a focus on institutional arrangements, land policies, land information infrastructure, and the four land administration functions: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. It is concluded that the European approach is well...... designed for setting a standard with regard to data integration. In the case of Denmark it is concluded that the Spatial Data Infrastructure works well even if there is no official policy in this area. Also the Land Administration System (LAS) works well in the sense that it supports sustainable...

  2. US-75 ICM system as-built design : Dallas Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This As-Built document for the US-75 Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) Program has been developed as part of the US Department of Transportation Integrated Corridor Management Initiative. The basic premise behind the ICM initiative is that indepen...

  3. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  4. INTEGRATION OF DISTRIBUTED INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS BUILT AROUND FIBER-OPTIC AND MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chernodarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of airborne measuring-and-computing complexes (MCCs is characterized by the inclusion of distributed strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINSs as components of these complexes. This is associated with the necessity of the provision of navigational support not only for aircraft (Acft, but also for airborne Earth surface surveillance systems in which the SINSs are included as components. Among such systems are radar systems, video monitors, laser scanners (lidars, and other surveillance devices. At the same time, when the DSINSs are united into a single structure, new functional possibilities for such integrated navigation systems appear, namely: redundancy and mutual support of SINSs, and also an increase in MCC information reliability on this basis; mutual monitoring and mutual diagnosis of SINSs; optimization of DSINS structure for providing the required accuracy of navigation and attitude control under severe conditions of Acft operation. Such conditions are connected with Acft maneuvering, with a loss of the signals of satellite navigation systems (SNSs. The purpose of this paper is to study the capabilities of DSINS which are built around fiberoptic and micromechanical sensors when they are united into a closely connected information-measuring structure. In the solution of the problem formulated above, an object-oriented modular technology for the creation of integrated navigation systems was taken as a basis. The use of such a technology has permitted us to realize the new functional possibilities of the DSINSs, and also to take into account the following features of the construction and functioning of DSINSs as components of MCCs: need for mutual information exchange among DSINS modules via an MCC airborne top-level computing system; synchronization of measuring-and-computing procedures that are realized in the DSINS. In addition, due to restrictions on overall dimensions and weight, SINSs of surveillance systems are

  5. Orion European Service Module (ESM) Development, Integration and Qualification Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, Philippe; Over, Ann P.; Picardo, Michelle; Byers, Anthony W.

    2017-01-01

    ESA and the European Industry are supplying the European Service Module for Orion. An overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the Orion European Service Module (ESM) as designed and built for the EM-1 mission is provided as well as an outline of its development, assembly, integration and verification process performed by ESA and NASA in coordination with their respective Industrial prime contractors, Airbus Defence and Space and Lockheed Martin.

  6. Simplification of integrity constraints with aggregates and arithmetic built-ins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide

    2004-01-01

    Both aggregates and arithmetic built-ins are widely used in current database query languages: Aggregates are second-order constructs such as CNT and SUM of SQL; arithmetic built-ins include relational and other mathematical operators that apply to numbers, such as < and +. These features are also...... time, simplified versions of such integrity constraints that can be tested before the execution of any update. In this way, virtually no time is spent for optimization or rollbacks at run time. Both set and bag semantics are considered....... of interest in the context of database integrity constraints: correct and efficient integrity checking is crucial, as, without any guarantee of data consistency, the answers to queries cannot be trusted. In this paper we propose a method of practical relevance that can be used to derive, at database design...

  7. Integrated unaligned resonant modulator tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2017-10-03

    Methods and systems for tuning a resonant modulator are disclosed. One method includes receiving a carrier signal modulated by the resonant modulator with a stream of data having an approximately equal number of high and low bits, determining an average power of the modulated carrier signal, comparing the average power to a predetermined threshold, and operating a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the comparison of the average power and the predetermined threshold. One system includes an input structure, a plurality of processing elements, and a digital control element. The input structure is configured to receive, from the resonant modulator, a modulated carrier signal. The plurality of processing elements are configured to determine an average power of the modulated carrier signal. The digital control element is configured to operate a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the average power of the modulated carrier signal.

  8. Built-In Data-Flow Integration Testing in Large-Scale Component-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Éric; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Alberto; Gross, Hans-Gerhard

    Modern large-scale component-based applications and service ecosystems are built following a number of different component models and architectural styles, such as the data-flow architectural style. In this style, each building block receives data from a previous one in the flow and sends output data to other components. This organisation expresses information flows adequately, and also favours decoupling between the components, leading to easier maintenance and quicker evolution of the system. Integration testing is a major means to ensure the quality of large systems. Their size and complexity, together with the fact that they are developed and maintained by several stake holders, make Built-In Testing (BIT) an attractive approach to manage their integration testing. However, so far no technique has been proposed that combines BIT and data-flow integration testing. We have introduced the notion of a virtual component in order to realize such a combination. It permits to define the behaviour of several components assembled to process a flow of data, using BIT. Test-cases are defined in a way that they are simple to write and flexible to adapt. We present two implementations of our proposed virtual component integration testing technique, and we extend our previous proposal to detect and handle errors in the definition by the user. The evaluation of the virtual component testing approach suggests that more issues can be detected in systems with data-flows than through other integration testing approaches.

  9. Monolithically integrated 8-channel WDM reflective modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the design and characterization of a monolithically integrated photonic circuit acting as a reflective modulator for eight WDM channels is presented. The chip was designed and fabricated in a generic integration technology

  10. Variational Integration for Ideal MHD with Built-in Advection Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yao [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Burby, J. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-05

    Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal MHD in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.

  11. Variational integration for ideal magnetohydrodynamics with built-in advection equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yao; Burby, J. W.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Qin, Hong [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum-preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.

  12. Integrating Oracle Human Resources with Other Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Karl; Shope, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of implementing an enterprise-wide business system is achieving integration of the different modules to the satisfaction of diverse customers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) implementation of the Oracle application suite demonstrates the need to coordinate Oracle Human Resources Management System (HRMS) decision across the Oracle modules.

  13. Towards the integration of sustainable infrastructure into the existing built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector in the United Kingdom is dominated by small and medium size enterprises (SMEs which have less than 250 employees and usually do not have research capacities to develop a range of low carbon innovations applicable in the construction sector. Various European and national funding programmes have addressed this problem by providing funding for research collaboration between universities and SMEs. The paper provides a selection of the outputs of academic/industry research, undertaken by seven Scottish universities through the project CIC Start Online from September 2009 until February 2013, related to low carbon planning, building design, technologies, construction, refurbishment and performance. The studies either contributed to the further development of existing products or processes, or tested new products or processes, often developed for a specific project with a potential for application in future projects. Online dissemination of the project outcomes has assisted in attracting membership across Scotland, the United Kingdom and internationally. Along with the low carbon building products and technologies, new low carbon infrastructure is being planned and developed in order to provide connections and services for energy generation from renewables, energy storage and decentralised distribution, water management (harvesting, saving and reuse, waste management (reduction, reuse and to-energy, transport (electric vehicles, cycling and walking and information communication technology (ICT for monitoring and managing infrastructure systems. The second part of the paper outlines how innovations for integration of sustainable infrastructure into the existing built environment will be supported through the follow-on joint project of nine Scottish universities, named Mainstreaming Innovation.

  14. The Ocean Observatories Initiative: Data Acquisition Functions and Its Built-In Automated Python Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Vardaro, M.; Crowley, M. F.; Glenn, S. M.; Schofield, O.; Belabbassi, L.; Garzio, L. M.; Knuth, F.; Fram, J. P.; Kerfoot, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), funded by the National Science Foundation, provides users with access to long-term datasets from a variety of oceanographic sensors. The Endurance Array in the Pacific Ocean consists of two separate lines off the coasts of Oregon and Washington. The Oregon line consists of 7 moorings, two cabled benthic experiment packages and 6 underwater gliders. The Washington line comprises 6 moorings and 6 gliders. Each mooring is outfitted with a variety of instrument packages. The raw data from these instruments are sent to shore via satellite communication and in some cases, via fiber optic cable. Raw data is then sent to the cyberinfrastructure (CI) group at Rutgers where it is aggregated, parsed into thousands of different data streams, and integrated into a software package called uFrame. The OOI CI delivers the data to the general public via a web interface that outputs data into commonly used scientific data file formats such as JSON, netCDF, and CSV. The Rutgers data management team has developed a series of command-line Python tools that streamline data acquisition in order to facilitate the QA/QC review process. The first step in the process is querying the uFrame database for a list of all available platforms. From this list, a user can choose a specific platform and automatically download all available datasets from the specified platform. The downloaded dataset is plotted using a generalized Python netcdf plotting routine that utilizes a data visualization toolbox called matplotlib. This routine loads each netCDF file separately and outputs plots by each available parameter. These Python tools have been uploaded to a Github repository that is openly available to help facilitate OOI data access and visualization.

  15. Impact evaluation of green-grey infrastructure interaction on built-space integrity: an emerging perspective to urban ecosystem service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Kumar, Prashant

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the role of urban green infrastructure (GI) in maintaining integrity of built-space. The latter is considered as a lateral ecosystem function, worth including in future assessments of integrated ecosystem services. The basic tenet is that integrated green-grey infrastructures (GGIs) would have three influences on built-spaces: (i) reduced wind withering from flow deviation; (ii) reduced material corrosion/degeneration from pollution removal; and (iii) act as a biophysical buffer in altering the micro-climate. A case study is presented, combining the features of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in micro-environmental modelling with the emerging science on interactions of GGIs. The coupled seasonal dynamics of the above three effects are assessed for two building materials (limestone and steel) using the following three scenarios: (i) business as usual (BAU), (ii) summer (REGEN-S), and (iii) winter (REGEN-W). Apparently, integrated ecosystem service from green-grey interaction, as scoped in this paper, has strong seasonal dependence. Compared to BAU our results suggest that REGEN-S leads to slight increment in limestone recession (<10%), mainly from exacerbation in ozone damage, while large reduction in steel recession (up to 37%) is observed. The selection of vegetation species, especially their bVOC emission potential and seasonal foliage profile, appears to play a vital role in determining the impact GI has on the integrity of the neighbouring built-up environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Built-in future: integration, technical and market-development issues for PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.

    2005-01-01

    Although large ground-mounted multi-megawatt photovoltaic plants have become common, it is argued that integration of photovoltaics into the fabric of buildings is their optimum use. In Germany, with its well-established grid network, there is a marked imbalance in the deployment of photovoltaics and only 1% are integrated into the roofs or facades of buildings. A similar pattern is found in most other countries in central Europe and the article seeks to discover the reasons for this. The situation in Japan is different in that the relatively high cost of electricity has encouraged a robust market for domestic photovoltaics. It is argued that the market for building-integrated photovoltaics in Europe has massive potential

  17. Built Heritage Documentation and Management: AN Integrated Conservation Approach in Bagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzino, D.; Chan, L.; Santana Quintero, M.; Esponda, M.; Lee, S.; Min, A.; Pwint, M.

    2017-08-01

    Good practices in heritage conservation are based on accurate information about conditions, materials, and transformation of built heritage sites. Therefore, heritage site documentation and its analysis are essential parts for their conservation. In addition, the devastating effects of recent catastrophic events in different geographical areas have highly affected cultural heritage places. Such areas include and are not limited to South Europe, South East Asia, and Central America. Within this framework, appropriate acquisition of information can effectively provide tools for the decision-making process and management. Heritage documentation is growing in innovation, providing dynamic opportunities for effectively responding to the alarming rate of destruction by natural events, conflicts, and negligence. In line with these considerations, a multidisciplinary team - including students and faculty members from Carleton University and Yangon Technological University, as well as staff from the Department of Archaeology, National Museum and Library (DoA) and professionals from the CyArk foundation - developed a coordinated strategy to document four temples in the site of Bagan (Myanmar). On-field work included capacity-building activities to train local emerging professionals in the heritage field (graduate and undergraduate students from the Yangon Technological University) and to increase the technical knowledge of the local DoA staff in the digital documentation field. Due to the short time of the on-field activity and the need to record several monuments, a variety of documentation techniques, including image and non-image based ones, were used. Afterwards, the information acquired during the fieldwork was processed to develop a solid base for the conservation and monitoring of the four documented temples. The relevance of developing this kind of documentation in Bagan is related to the vulnerability of the site, often affected by natural seismic events and

  18. BUILT HERITAGE DOCUMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED CONSERVATION APPROACH IN BAGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mezzino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Good practices in heritage conservation are based on accurate information about conditions, materials, and transformation of built heritage sites. Therefore, heritage site documentation and its analysis are essential parts for their conservation. In addition, the devastating effects of recent catastrophic events in different geographical areas have highly affected cultural heritage places. Such areas include and are not limited to South Europe, South East Asia, and Central America. Within this framework, appropriate acquisition of information can effectively provide tools for the decision-making process and management. Heritage documentation is growing in innovation, providing dynamic opportunities for effectively responding to the alarming rate of destruction by natural events, conflicts, and negligence. In line with these considerations, a multidisciplinary team – including students and faculty members from Carleton University and Yangon Technological University, as well as staff from the Department of Archaeology, National Museum and Library (DoA and professionals from the CyArk foundation – developed a coordinated strategy to document four temples in the site of Bagan (Myanmar. On-field work included capacity-building activities to train local emerging professionals in the heritage field (graduate and undergraduate students from the Yangon Technological University and to increase the technical knowledge of the local DoA staff in the digital documentation field. Due to the short time of the on-field activity and the need to record several monuments, a variety of documentation techniques, including image and non-image based ones, were used. Afterwards, the information acquired during the fieldwork was processed to develop a solid base for the conservation and monitoring of the four documented temples. The relevance of developing this kind of documentation in Bagan is related to the vulnerability of the site, often affected by natural

  19. The UN Convention on International Watercourses and integrated water management: A bridge built

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzaki, Vasiliki-Maria

    2008-11-01

    The UN Convention on the Law of the Non Navigational Uses of International Watercourses incorporates principles regarding the management of international water resources. The most important principles are the duty of the riparian states to cooperate, not to cause significant harm, to protect the aquatic environment and to utilize the watercourses reasonably and equitably. The lack of hierarchy between these principles signifies that the necessary step for the sound management of shared natural resources is an integrated approach, which takes into account economic development, human needs and environmental protection. Moreover, the UN Convention proved to be useful for the International Court of Justice (hereinafter ICJ) in the settlement of the Gabcikovo- Nagymaros dispute between Hungary and Slovakia for the Danube River. The Court highlighted the importance of the Convention by reminding the riparian states of their obligation to abide by its principles. On the other hand, the ICJ has used the principles of the Convention in the pending case of Pulp Mills between Uruguay and Argentina. This paper is going to show that the UN Convention is an international legal framework with general guidelines in order to create regional conventions, which promotes integrated water management as a solution to the emerging challenges of international water law and potential future conflicts.

  20. The UN Convention on International Watercourses and integrated water management: A bridge built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzatzaki, Vasiliki-Maria

    2008-01-01

    The UN Convention on the Law of the Non Navigational Uses of International Watercourses incorporates principles regarding the management of international water resources. The most important principles are the duty of the riparian states to cooperate, not to cause significant harm, to protect the aquatic environment and to utilize the watercourses reasonably and equitably. The lack of hierarchy between these principles signifies that the necessary step for the sound management of shared natural resources is an integrated approach, which takes into account economic development, human needs and environmental protection. Moreover, the UN Convention proved to be useful for the International Court of Justice (hereinafter ICJ) in the settlement of the Gabcikovo- Nagymaros dispute between Hungary and Slovakia for the Danube River. The Court highlighted the importance of the Convention by reminding the riparian states of their obligation to abide by its principles. On the other hand, the ICJ has used the principles of the Convention in the pending case of Pulp Mills between Uruguay and Argentina. This paper is going to show that the UN Convention is an international legal framework with general guidelines in order to create regional conventions, which promotes integrated water management as a solution to the emerging challenges of international water law and potential future conflicts.

  1. Integrated Performance Testing Workshop, Modules 6 - 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    These modules cover performance testing of: Interior Detection Systems; Access Controls; Exterior Detection Systems; Video Assessment Systems; SNM / Contraband Detection Systems; Access Delay Elements

  2. Internal filament modulation in low-dielectric gap design for built-in selector-less resistive switching memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Lin, Chih-Yang; Huang, Hui-Chun; Kim, Sungjun; Fowler, Burt; Chang, Yao-Feng; Wu, Xiaohan; Xu, Gaobo; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2018-02-01

    Sneak path current is a severe hindrance for the application of high-density resistive random-access memory (RRAM) array designs. In this work, we demonstrate nonlinear (NL) resistive switching characteristics of a HfO x /SiO x -based stacking structure as a realization for selector-less RRAM devices. The NL characteristic was obtained and designed by optimizing the internal filament location with a low effective dielectric constant in the HfO x /SiO x structure. The stacking HfO x /SiO x -based RRAM device as the one-resistor-only memory cell is applicable without needing an additional selector device to solve the sneak path issue with a switching voltage of ~1 V, which is desirable for low-power operating in built-in nonlinearity crossbar array configurations.

  3. Performance degradation of integrated optical modulators due to electrical crosstalk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate electrical crosstalk in integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator arrays based on n-doped InP substrate and show that it can be the cause for transmitter performance degradations. In particular, a common ground return path between adjacent modulators can cause high coupling

  4. High extinction ratio integrated optical modulator for quantum telecommunication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronev, A.; Parfenov, M.; Agruzov, P.; Ilichev, I.; Shamray, A.

    2018-01-01

    A method for increasing the extinction ratio of integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on LiNbO3 via the photorefractive effect is proposed. The influence of the photorefractive effect on the X- and Y-splitters of intensity modulators is experimentally studied. An increase in the modulator extinction ratio by 17 dB (from 30 to 47 dB) is obtained. It is shown that fabricated modulators with a high extinction ratio are important for quantum key distribution systems.

  5. Functional Module Analysis for Gene Coexpression Networks with Network Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuqin; Zhao, Hongyu; Ng, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Network has been a general tool for studying the complex interactions between different genes, proteins, and other small molecules. Module as a fundamental property of many biological networks has been widely studied and many computational methods have been proposed to identify the modules in an individual network. However, in many cases, a single network is insufficient for module analysis due to the noise in the data or the tuning of parameters when building the biological network. The availability of a large amount of biological networks makes network integration study possible. By integrating such networks, more informative modules for some specific disease can be derived from the networks constructed from different tissues, and consistent factors for different diseases can be inferred. In this paper, we have developed an effective method for module identification from multiple networks under different conditions. The problem is formulated as an optimization model, which combines the module identification in each individual network and alignment of the modules from different networks together. An approximation algorithm based on eigenvector computation is proposed. Our method outperforms the existing methods, especially when the underlying modules in multiple networks are different in simulation studies. We also applied our method to two groups of gene coexpression networks for humans, which include one for three different cancers, and one for three tissues from the morbidly obese patients. We identified 13 modules with three complete subgraphs, and 11 modules with two complete subgraphs, respectively. The modules were validated through Gene Ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. We also showed that the main functions of most modules for the corresponding disease have been addressed by other researchers, which may provide the theoretical basis for further studying the modules experimentally.

  6. Attention modulates trans-saccadic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Emma E M; Schütz, Alexander C

    2018-01-01

    With every saccade, humans must reconcile the low resolution peripheral information available before a saccade, with the high resolution foveal information acquired after the saccade. While research has shown that we are able to integrate peripheral and foveal vision in a near-optimal manner, it is still unclear which mechanisms may underpin this important perceptual process. One potential mechanism that may moderate this integration process is visual attention. Pre-saccadic attention is a well documented phenomenon, whereby visual attention shifts to the location of an upcoming saccade before the saccade is executed. While it plays an important role in other peri-saccadic processes such as predictive remapping, the role of attention in the integration process is as yet unknown. This study aimed to determine whether the presentation of an attentional distractor during a saccade impaired trans-saccadic integration, and to measure the time-course of this impairment. Results showed that presenting an attentional distractor impaired integration performance both before saccade onset, and during the saccade, in selected subjects who showed integration in the absence of a distractor. This suggests that visual attention may be a mechanism that facilitates trans-saccadic integration. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Integration of Heat Exchangers with Thermoelectric Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    processes wherein the critical system components such as the TEG module and the heat exchangers are thermally coupled. The optimization techniques of the TEG systems coupled with the heat transfer through the system using a maximum efficiency-power map for waste heat recovery applications offer maximum...... thermally interdependent in the system designs. This chapter studies the effect of the heat exchangers design on system performance, and discusses the challenges through accurate analyses techniques while introducing proper cooling technologies. Proper design of a TEG system involves design optimization...

  8. An integrative approach to inferring biologically meaningful gene modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to construct biologically meaningful gene networks and modules is critical for contemporary systems biology. Though recent studies have demonstrated the power of using gene modules to shed light on the functioning of complex biological systems, most modules in these networks have shown little association with meaningful biological function. We have devised a method which directly incorporates gene ontology (GO annotation in construction of gene modules in order to gain better functional association. Results We have devised a method, Semantic Similarity-Integrated approach for Modularization (SSIM that integrates various gene-gene pairwise similarity values, including information obtained from gene expression, protein-protein interactions and GO annotations, in the construction of modules using affinity propagation clustering. We demonstrated the performance of the proposed method using data from two complex biological responses: 1. the osmotic shock response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and 2. the prion-induced pathogenic mouse model. In comparison with two previously reported algorithms, modules identified by SSIM showed significantly stronger association with biological functions. Conclusions The incorporation of semantic similarity based on GO annotation with gene expression and protein-protein interaction data can greatly enhance the functional relevance of inferred gene modules. In addition, the SSIM approach can also reveal the hierarchical structure of gene modules to gain a broader functional view of the biological system. Hence, the proposed method can facilitate comprehensive and in-depth analysis of high throughput experimental data at the gene network level.

  9. Innovative use of power integrated modules for DC power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørndrup Nielsen, Rasmus; Elkiær, Alexander; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    In this article several innovative ways of utilizing Power Integrated Modules (PIM) as switching device in a DC power supply are presented. PIM have advantages in compactness of design, cost and fast prototype due to easier PCB layout. A PIM converter topology is chosen and designed resulting...... in an experimental setup. Results from the setup are presented showing the feasibility of using a PIM module as almost all power semiconductors in a DC power supply....

  10. CLARM: An integrative approach for functional modules discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Saeed M.; Alroobi, Rami; Banitaan, Shadi; Seridi, Loqmane; Brewer, James E.; Aljarah, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Functional module discovery aims to find well-connected subnetworks which can serve as candidate protein complexes. Advances in High-throughput proteomic technologies have enabled the collection of large amount of interaction data as well as gene expression data. We propose, CLARM, a clustering algorithm that integrates gene expression profiles and protein protein interaction network for biological modules discovery. The main premise is that by enriching the interaction network by adding interactions between genes which are highly co-expressed over a wide range of biological and environmental conditions, we can improve the quality of the discovered modules. Protein protein interactions, known protein complexes, and gene expression profiles for diverse environmental conditions from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used for evaluate the biological significance of the reported modules. Our experiments show that the CLARM approach is competitive to wellestablished module discovery methods. Copyright © 2011 ACM.

  11. Excavation of attractor modules for nasopharyngeal carcinoma via integrating systemic module inference with attract method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T; Jiang, C-Y; Shu, J-H; Xu, Y-J

    2017-07-10

    The molecular mechanism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is poorly understood and effective therapeutic approaches are needed. This research aimed to excavate the attractor modules involved in the progression of NPC and provide further understanding of the underlying mechanism of NPC. Based on the gene expression data of NPC, two specific protein-protein interaction networks for NPC and control conditions were re-weighted using Pearson correlation coefficient. Then, a systematic tracking of candidate modules was conducted on the re-weighted networks via cliques algorithm, and a total of 19 and 38 modules were separately identified from NPC and control networks, respectively. Among them, 8 pairs of modules with similar gene composition were selected, and 2 attractor modules were identified via the attract method. Functional analysis indicated that these two attractor modules participate in one common bioprocess of cell division. Based on the strategy of integrating systemic module inference with the attract method, we successfully identified 2 attractor modules. These attractor modules might play important roles in the molecular pathogenesis of NPC via affecting the bioprocess of cell division in a conjunct way. Further research is needed to explore the correlations between cell division and NPC.

  12. All-optical phase modulation for integrated interferometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Stefania; Duval, Daphné; Sepúlveda, Borja; González-Guerrero, Ana Belen; Sendra, José Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M

    2012-03-26

    We present the theoretical and the experimental implementation of an all-optical phase modulation system in integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometers to solve the drawbacks related to the periodic nature of the interferometric signal. Sensor phase is tuned by modulating the emission wavelength of low-cost commercial laser diodes by changing their output power. FFT deconvolution of the signal allows for direct phase readout, immune to sensitivity variations and to light intensity fluctuations. This simple phase modulation scheme increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements in one order of magnitude, rendering in a sensor with a detection limit of 1.9·10⁻⁷ RIU. The viability of the all-optical modulation approach is demonstrated with an immunoassay detection as a biosensing proof of concept.

  13. Status of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Dunn, Jamie; Kimble, Randy A.; Lambros, Scott; Lundquist, Ray; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Van Campen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is the science instrument payload of the JWST. It is one of three system elements that comprise the JWST space vehicle. It consists of four science sensors, a fine guidance sensor, and nine other subsystems that support them. At 1.4 metric tons, it comprises approximately 20% of the JWST mass. The ISIM is currently at 100% integration and has completed 2 of 3 planned element-level space simulation tests. The ISIM is on schedule to be delivered for integration with the Optical Telescope Element during 2015. In this poster, we present an overview of the ISIM and its status.

  14. An Integrated Simulation Module for Cyber-Physical Automation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferracuti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs into Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs is an important research problem to solve in order to increase the performances, safety, reliability and usability of wireless automation systems. Due to the complexity of real CPSs, emulators and simulators are often used to replace the real control devices and physical connections during the development stage. The most widespread simulators are free, open source, expandable, flexible and fully integrated into mathematical modeling tools; however, the connection at a physical level and the direct interaction with the real process via the WSN are only marginally tackled; moreover, the simulated wireless sensor motes are not able to generate the analogue output typically required for control purposes. A new simulation module for the control of a wireless cyber-physical system is proposed in this paper. The module integrates the COntiki OS JAva Simulator (COOJA, a cross-level wireless sensor network simulator, and the LabVIEW system design software from National Instruments. The proposed software module has been called “GILOO” (Graphical Integration of Labview and cOOja. It allows one to develop and to debug control strategies over the WSN both using virtual or real hardware modules, such as the National Instruments Real-Time Module platform, the CompactRio, the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA, etc. To test the proposed solution, we decided to integrate it with one of the most popular simulators, i.e., the Contiki OS, and wireless motes, i.e., the Sky mote. As a further contribution, the Contiki Sky DAC driver and a new “Advanced Sky GUI” have been proposed and tested in the COOJA Simulator in order to provide the possibility to develop control over the WSN. To test the performances of the proposed GILOO software module, several experimental tests have been made, and interesting preliminary results are reported. The GILOO module has been

  15. An Integrated Simulation Module for Cyber-Physical Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracuti, Francesco; Freddi, Alessandro; Monteriù, Andrea; Prist, Mariorosario

    2016-05-05

    The integration of Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) into Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) is an important research problem to solve in order to increase the performances, safety, reliability and usability of wireless automation systems. Due to the complexity of real CPSs, emulators and simulators are often used to replace the real control devices and physical connections during the development stage. The most widespread simulators are free, open source, expandable, flexible and fully integrated into mathematical modeling tools; however, the connection at a physical level and the direct interaction with the real process via the WSN are only marginally tackled; moreover, the simulated wireless sensor motes are not able to generate the analogue output typically required for control purposes. A new simulation module for the control of a wireless cyber-physical system is proposed in this paper. The module integrates the COntiki OS JAva Simulator (COOJA), a cross-level wireless sensor network simulator, and the LabVIEW system design software from National Instruments. The proposed software module has been called "GILOO" (Graphical Integration of Labview and cOOja). It allows one to develop and to debug control strategies over the WSN both using virtual or real hardware modules, such as the National Instruments Real-Time Module platform, the CompactRio, the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), etc. To test the proposed solution, we decided to integrate it with one of the most popular simulators, i.e., the Contiki OS, and wireless motes, i.e., the Sky mote. As a further contribution, the Contiki Sky DAC driver and a new "Advanced Sky GUI" have been proposed and tested in the COOJA Simulator in order to provide the possibility to develop control over the WSN. To test the performances of the proposed GILOO software module, several experimental tests have been made, and interesting preliminary results are reported. The GILOO module has been applied to a smart home

  16. A high efficiency photovoltaic module integrated converter with the asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heeje; Kim, Jongrak; Shin, Dongsul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Kim, Hosung; Lee, Kyungjun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea); Kim, Jonghyun; Yoo, Dongwook [New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    A module integrated converter (MIC) for a photovoltaic (PV) cell is important part of power conditioning system (PCS). It performs maximum power point tracking of a PV cell to generate the power as much as possible from solar energy. There are several methods for connection between the PV modules and the MICs. In order to avoid partial shading effects, converter-per-module approach was proposed. The MIC that performs maximum power point tracking (MPPT), if it is low efficiency, is no use. The MIC whose output is connected to the output of PV module was proposed for high efficiency. However, there are some problems. In this study, an asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter is proposed instead of the original flyback converter with same method to solve the problems. The proposed MIC was built to verify the performance. The new topology using soft switching technique showed good performance for the efficiency. At the higher power, the efficiency of the proposed converter is higher than existing converter. (author)

  17. The IMBA suite: integrated modules for bioassay analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, A.; Jarvis, N.S.; Peace, M.S.; Riddell, A.E.; Battersby, W.P

    1998-07-01

    The increasing complexity of models representing the biokinetic behaviour of radionuclides in the body following intake poses problems for people who are required to implement these models. The problem is exacerbated by the current paucity of suitable software. In order to remedy this situation, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels, Westlakes Research Institute and the National Radiological Protection Board has started with the aim of producing a suite of modules for estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements using the new ICRP models. Each module will have a single purpose (e.g. to calculate respiratory tract deposition) and will interface with other software using data files. The elements to be implemented initially are plutonium, uranium, caesium, iodine and tritium. It is intended to make the software available to other parties under terms yet to be decided. This paper describes the proposed suite of integrated modules for bioassay analysis, IMBA. (author)

  18. High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Leonard, John T.; Pourhashemi, Arash; Oubei, Hassan M.; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Eldesouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    To date, solid-state lighting (SSL), visible light communication (VLC) and optical clock generation functionalities in the blue-green color regime have been demonstrated based on discrete devices, including light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, and transverse-transmission modulators. This work presents the first integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode (IWM-LD) at 448 nm, offering the advantages of small-footprint, high-speed, and low power-consumption. A high modulation efficiency of 2.68 dB/V, deriving from a large extinction ratio of 9.4 dB and a low operating voltage range of 3.5 V, was measured. The electroabsorption characteristics revealed that the modulation effect, as observed from the red-shifting of the absorption edge, was resulted from the external-field-induced quantum-confined-Stark-effect (QCSE). A comparative analysis of the photocurrent versus wavelength spectra in semipolar- and polar-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) confirmed that the IWM-LD based on semipolar (20¯2 ¯1) QWs was able to operate in a manner similar to other III-V materials typically used in optical telecommunications, due to the reduced piezoelectric field. Utilizing the integrated modulator, a -3dB bandwidth of ~1 GHz was measured, and a data rate of 1 Gbit/s was demonstrated using on-off keying (OOK) modulation. Our experimental investigation highlighted the advantage of implementing the IWM-LD on the same semipolar QW epitaxy in enabling a high-efficiency platform for SSL-VLC dual-functionalities.

  19. High-modulation-efficiency, integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode at 448 nm

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2016-01-25

    To date, solid-state lighting (SSL), visible light communication (VLC) and optical clock generation functionalities in the blue-green color regime have been demonstrated based on discrete devices, including light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, and transverse-transmission modulators. This work presents the first integrated waveguide modulator-laser diode (IWM-LD) at 448 nm, offering the advantages of small-footprint, high-speed, and low power-consumption. A high modulation efficiency of 2.68 dB/V, deriving from a large extinction ratio of 9.4 dB and a low operating voltage range of 3.5 V, was measured. The electroabsorption characteristics revealed that the modulation effect, as observed from the red-shifting of the absorption edge, was resulted from the external-field-induced quantum-confined-Stark-effect (QCSE). A comparative analysis of the photocurrent versus wavelength spectra in semipolar- and polar-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) confirmed that the IWM-LD based on semipolar (20¯2 ¯1) QWs was able to operate in a manner similar to other III-V materials typically used in optical telecommunications, due to the reduced piezoelectric field. Utilizing the integrated modulator, a -3dB bandwidth of ~1 GHz was measured, and a data rate of 1 Gbit/s was demonstrated using on-off keying (OOK) modulation. Our experimental investigation highlighted the advantage of implementing the IWM-LD on the same semipolar QW epitaxy in enabling a high-efficiency platform for SSL-VLC dual-functionalities.

  20. A Systems Engineering Methodology for Designing and Planning the Built Environment—Results from the Urban Research Laboratory Nuremberg and Their Integration in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Geyer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urban development requires a long-term sector-integrative approach. This paper proposes a method of system analysis and partial simulation for urban structures for this purpose. It couples a discussion-based holistic approach for systems analysis and modelling of urban structures with quantitative modelling and simulation of partial scenarios that serve to examine specific questions regarding the long-term development of urban structures. In the first part, the application in the City Lab Nuremberg West, a multidisciplinary urban research laboratory, serves to develop the methodology and its illustration. The main objective is to examine the transition of the existing underperforming quarter to a sustainable and livable urban environment. Scenario-based experiments with respect to development paths determine robustness and risks of different configurations. The second part of the paper describes the transfer of the methodology to education. The approach serves to teach students in the Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Building master course program an integrative way of planning a sustainable built environment. The definition of educational objectives concerning the students’ understanding and management of systemic interdependencies of sustainability help assess the use of the method in the classroom. The aim is to provide them with the competence to develop strategies for complex situations while planning a sustainable built environment.

  1. Diffusion of energy-saving innovations in industry and the built environment: Dutch studies as inputs for a more integrated analytical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, C.; Brand, I.; Vermeulen, W.

    2004-01-01

    The need to improve eco-efficiency is indisputable, and the way forward is through widespread application of environmental innovations. Yet research into the dissemination of such innovations in the Netherlands has been limited in scope. Most studies tend to focus on the feasibility of a particular technology. Few try to explain how technology spreads throughout society. The explanatory factors discerned in these studies are often not related to each other. In this contribution the authors try to integrate different partial explanations for the diffusion of energy-saving technologies in industry and the built environment into one conceptual framework. This integration is based on a secondary analysis of relatively well-elaborated studies dealing with the diffusion of heat pumps, combined heat and power and condensing boilers in industry and the built environment. Core of the framework is the decision-making process of the potentially adapting actor. Characteristics of the actor and the networks in which the actor participates (government, market, society) could have impact on this decision-making process. Technological and economic characteristics of the innovation and more general context factors are also relevant as factors that influence the considerations made in the decision-making process. This conceptual framework can be used both in more elaborate research projects and in brainstorming projects to improve policymaking

  2. Fluorecence modulated radiotherapy with integrated segmentation to optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, W.; Alber, M.; Nuesslin, F.

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of two clinical cases, we present fluence-modulated radiotherapy with a sequencer integrated into the optimization of our treatment-planning software HYPERION. In each case, we achieved simple relations for the dependence of the total number of segments on the complexity of the sequencing, as well as for the dependence of the dose-distribution quality on the number of segments. For both clinical cases, it was possible to obtain treatment plans that complied with the clinical demands on dose distribution and number of segments. Also, compared to the widespread concept of equidistant steps, our method of sequencing with fluence steps of variable size led to a significant reduction of the number of segments, while maintaining the quality of the dose distribution. Our findings substantiate the value of the integration of the sequencer into the optimization for the clinical efficiency of IMRT [de

  3. Attention Modulates the Neural Processes Underlying Multisensory Integration of Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tam Ho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrating emotional information from multiple sensory modalities is generally assumed to be a pre-attentive process (de Gelder et al., 1999. This assumption, however, presupposes that the integrative process occurs independent of attention. Using event-potentials (ERP the present study investigated whether the neural processes underlying the integration of dynamic facial expression and emotional prosody is indeed unaffected by attentional manipulations. To this end, participants were presented with congruent and incongruent face-voice combinations (eg, an angry face combined with a neutral voice and performed different two-choice tasks in four consecutive blocks. Three of the tasks directed the participants' attention to emotion expressions in the face, the voice or both. The fourth task required participants to attend to the synchronicity between voice and lip movements. The results show divergent modulations of early ERP components by the different attentional manipulations. For example, when attention was directed to the face (or the voice, incongruent stimuli elicited a reduced N1 as compared to congruent stimuli. This effect was absent, when attention was diverted away from the emotionality in both face and voice suggesting that the detection of emotional incongruence already requires attention. Based on these findings, we question whether multisensory integration of emotion occurs indeed pre-attentively.

  4. ATLAS ITk short-strip stave prototype module with integrated DCDC powering and control

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)397167; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During the Phase II upgrade, the ATLAS detector at the LHC will be upgraded with a new Inner Tracker (ITk) detector. The ITk prototype barrel module design has adopted an integrated low mass assembly featuring single-sided flexible circuits, with readout ASICs, glued to the silicon strip sensor. Further integration has been achieved by the attachment of module DCDC powering, a HV sensor biasing switch and autonomous monitoring and control to the sensor. This low mass integrated module approach benefits further in a reduced width stave structure to which the modules are attached. The results of preliminary electrical tests of such an integrated module are presented.

  5. Low modulation bias InGaN-based integrated EA-modulator-laser on semipolar GaN substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Leonard, John; Pourhashemi, Arash; Oubei, Hassan M.; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Ng, Tien Khee; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Eldesouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    In summary, we demonstrated the monolithic integration of electroabsorption modulator with laser diode and measured DC and AC modulation characteristics of the device, which is grown on (2021̅) plane GaN substrate. By alternating the modulation voltage at −3.5 V and 0 V, we achieve the laser output power of < 1.5 mW to > 9 mW, respectively, leading to ∼8.1 dB On/Off ratio. Our results clearly show that a low power consumption modulator can be achieved with semipolar EA-modulator compared to that of the c-plane devices.

  6. Low modulation bias InGaN-based integrated EA-modulator-laser on semipolar GaN substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2015-10-06

    In summary, we demonstrated the monolithic integration of electroabsorption modulator with laser diode and measured DC and AC modulation characteristics of the device, which is grown on (2021̅) plane GaN substrate. By alternating the modulation voltage at −3.5 V and 0 V, we achieve the laser output power of < 1.5 mW to > 9 mW, respectively, leading to ∼8.1 dB On/Off ratio. Our results clearly show that a low power consumption modulator can be achieved with semipolar EA-modulator compared to that of the c-plane devices.

  7. Greening the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Maf; Whitelegg, John; Williams, Nick J.

    1998-07-15

    The built environment incorporates our homes, our workplaces and places of leisure. Under the influence of a complex web of social and economic processes, it is where many issues of human and environmental well-being come to a head - whether of space, mobility, energy consumption, pollution, health or security. All too often, concerns such as cost are put before the things we value for a fulfilling life, including peace and quiet and health and happiness. Getting the built environment right is fundamental to a sustainable society and requires an integrated approach. This important new book, published in association with the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF-UK), provides us with a firm understanding of the interrelationships of many of the issues and problems of the built environment and describes the holistic models of development, management and planning necessary for urban sustainability. It draws attention to the major challenges and policy implications and offers analysis, approaches and vision for moving towards sustainable towns and cities that in turn will facilitate sustainable lifestyles. (Author)

  8. Effect of Built-Up Edge Formation during Stable State of Wear in AISI 304 Stainless Steel on Machining Performance and Surface Integrity of the Machined Part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yassmin Seid; Fox-Rabinovich, German; Paiva, Jose Mario; Wagg, Terry; Veldhuis, Stephen Clarence

    2017-10-25

    During machining of stainless steels at low cutting -speeds, workpiece material tends to adhere to the cutting tool at the tool-chip interface, forming built-up edge (BUE). BUE has a great importance in machining processes; it can significantly modify the phenomenon in the cutting zone, directly affecting the workpiece surface integrity, cutting tool forces, and chip formation. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 304 stainless steel has a high tendency to form an unstable BUE, leading to deterioration of the surface quality. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of the surface integrity induced during machining operations. Although many reports have been published on the effect of tool wear during machining of AISI 304 stainless steel on surface integrity, studies on the influence of the BUE phenomenon in the stable state of wear have not been investigated so far. The main goal of the present work is to investigate the close link between the BUE formation, surface integrity and cutting forces in the stable sate of wear for uncoated cutting tool during the cutting tests of AISI 304 stainless steel. The cutting parameters were chosen to induce BUE formation during machining. X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used for measuring superficial residual stresses of the machined surface through the stable state of wear in the cutting and feed directions. In addition, surface roughness of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with chip undersurface analyses. The investigated BUE formation during the stable state of wear showed that the BUE can cause a significant improvement in the surface integrity and cutting forces. Moreover, it can be used to compensate for tool wear through changing the tool geometry, leading to the protection of the cutting tool from wear.

  9. Data integrity module for data quality assurance within an e-health system in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monda, Jonathan; Keipeer, Jeremy; Were, Martin C

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring good data quality within telemedicine and e-health systems in developing countries is resource intensive. We set out to evaluate an approach where in-built functionality within an electronic record system could identify data quality and integrity problems with little human input. We developed a robust data integrity module to identify, enumerate, and facilitate correction of errors within an e-health system that is in wide use in sub-Saharan Africa. The data integrity module was successfully implemented within an electronic medical record system in Western Kenya. Queries were set to fail if one of more records did not meet defined criteria for data integrity. Only one of 14 data integrity checks implemented uncovered no errors. The other queries had errors or questionable results ranging from 51 records to 30,301 records. However, as a proportion of all patients and all observation, the identified records with likely data integrity problems only constituted a small percentage of all records (mean 0.96%, range 0-4.1%). Twelve of the 14 queries (86%) were executed inhealth system in sub-Saharan Africa. The tool potentially reduces the burden of maintaining data quality by limiting the scale of manual reviews needed to identify electronic records with errors.

  10. Characterization of modulated integrate-and-fire systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstroem, P.; Christiansen, B.; Levinsen, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    The phase locking structure in threshold modulated integrate-and-fire systems is explored. The existence of a smooth critical line where the Poincare map has an infinite slope inflection point is emphasized. At and below this line the system is related to circle map systems. Especially, this allows realization of systems with higher order scaling structures, qualitatively distinct from ordinary third order circle map structures. Hourglass patterns develop in parameter space and at small modulation amplitudes the behavior of the phase-locking regions (Arnold tongues) change dramatically. Above the critical line the Arnold tongues complete the parameter space, leaving along any line a zero-dimensional Cantor set of points associated with irrational rotation numbers. The critical line is not associated with a transition to chaos. In particular non-chaotic regions with complete phase-locking exist. In the supercritical region a gap is present in the Poincare map. The features at this gap are examined. Also local hysteresis may occur. We discuss the applicability of the local approximation. (orig.)

  11. Gait modulation in C. elegans: An integrated neuromechanical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Hylke Boyle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Equipped with its 302-cell nervous system, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its locomotion in different environments, exhibiting so-called swimming in liquids and crawling on dense gels. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the worm displays the full range of intermediate behaviors when placed in intermediate environments. The continuous nature of this transition strongly suggests that these behaviors all stem from modulation of a single underlying mechanism. Wepresent a model of C. elegans forward locomotion that includes a neuromuscular control system that relies on a sensory feedback mechanism to generate undulations and is integrated with a physical model of the body and environment. We find that the model reproduces the entire swim-crawl transition, as well as locomotion in complex and heterogeneous environments. This is achieved with no modulatory mechanism, except via the proprioceptive response to the physical environment. Manipulations of the model are used to dissect the proposed pattern generation mechanism and its modulation. The model suggests a possible role for GABAergic D-class neurons in forward locomotion and makes a number of experimentalpredictions, in particular with respect to nonlinearities in the model and to symmetry breaking between the neuromuscular systems on the ventral and dorsal sides of the body.

  12. The integrated design of building services by an equipped and eco-efficient module (MOTE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giordano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The targets set out by European Directives concerning the energy savings in the construction sector refer both to building envelope and to its services. With regard to building services it is mandatory meeting requirements related to heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation. Building services take up a variable space in the buildings that cannot be considered anymore negligible and they would always be fully integrated into buildings. Equipped and Eco-efficient Technological Module (MOTE2 is a research project aimed at implementing the integration in a unique services cupboard of some building services: heating and cooling; domestic hot water; mechanical ventilation. The project was organized according to four main phases. In phase 1 a set of rules was defined matching requirements related to the energy efficiency to environmental building design standards. During the phase 2 six building models were studied in order to size the corresponding building services according to scenario analysis set down for existing buildings. In phase 3 the project was focused on designing the assembly among services. The cupboard design is like a Tetris® game through the planning of the best combination among services shape. Based on the drawings developed a first mock-up was built up and monitored. Finally, in phase 4 the paper deals with the MOTE2’s expected performances. Outlook and some conclusions point out the future steps of the research activities.

  13. Robust integration schemes for junction-based modulators in a 200mm CMOS compatible silicon photonic platform (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelag, Bertrand; Abraham, Alexis; Brision, Stéphane; Gindre, Paul; Blampey, Benjamin; Myko, André; Olivier, Segolene; Kopp, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Silicon photonic is becoming a reality for next generation communication system addressing the increasing needs of HPC (High Performance Computing) systems and datacenters. CMOS compatible photonic platforms are developed in many foundries integrating passive and active devices. The use of existing and qualified microelectronics process guarantees cost efficient and mature photonic technologies. Meanwhile, photonic devices have their own fabrication constraints, not similar to those of cmos devices, which can affect their performances. In this paper, we are addressing the integration of PN junction Mach Zehnder modulator in a 200mm CMOS compatible photonic platform. Implantation based device characteristics are impacted by many process variations among which screening layer thickness, dopant diffusion, implantation mask overlay. CMOS devices are generally quite robust with respect to these processes thanks to dedicated design rules. For photonic devices, the situation is different since, most of the time, doped areas must be carefully located within waveguides and CMOS solutions like self-alignment to the gate cannot be applied. In this work, we present different robust integration solutions for junction-based modulators. A simulation setup has been built in order to optimize of the process conditions. It consist in a Mathlab interface coupling process and device electro-optic simulators in order to run many iterations. Illustrations of modulator characteristic variations with process parameters are done using this simulation setup. Parameters under study are, for instance, X and Y direction lithography shifts, screening oxide and slab thicknesses. A robust process and design approach leading to a pn junction Mach Zehnder modulator insensitive to lithography misalignment is then proposed. Simulation results are compared with experimental datas. Indeed, various modulators have been fabricated with different process conditions and integration schemes. Extensive

  14. Module-Integrated Power Converters Based on Universal Dock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Patrick; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2015-03-13

    Solar power installations using alternating current photovoltaic (ACPV) modules have significant cost and performance advantages over systems using conventional solar modules and string inverters. ACPV modules have improved energy harvest due to module-level power point tracking and redundancy. More importantly, ACPV modules are easier and cheaper to install, lowering the total installed cost, indirect costs, and barriers to market entry. Furthermore, ACPV modules have communications and data logging capability, yielding module-level telemetry data that is useful in site diagnostics and other data applications. The products of these efforts were threefold. First, an advanced microinverter power topology was developed, modeled, simulated, and tested. Second, new microinverter enclosure concepts were developed and tested. Third, a new ACPV module prototype was constructed, combining the power topology and the enclosure concepts. SolarBridge filed for patents in each of these areas and is transitioning the project from a concept phase to full development.

  15. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  16. Next Generation Space Telescope Integrated Science Module Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Richard G.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Jurotich, Matthew M.; Whitley, Raymond; Kalinowski, Keith J.; Love, Bruce W.; Travis, Jeffrey W.; Long, Knox S.

    1999-01-01

    The Data system for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Integrated Science Module (ISIM) is the primary data interface between the spacecraft, telescope, and science instrument systems. This poster includes block diagrams of the ISIM data system and its components derived during the pre-phase A Yardstick feasibility study. The poster details the hardware and software components used to acquire and process science data for the Yardstick instrument compliment, and depicts the baseline external interfaces to science instruments and other systems. This baseline data system is a fully redundant, high performance computing system. Each redundant computer contains three 150 MHz power PC processors. All processors execute a commercially available real time multi-tasking operating system supporting, preemptive multi-tasking, file management and network interfaces. These six processors in the system are networked together. The spacecraft interface baseline is an extension of the network, which links the six processors. The final selection for Processor busses, processor chips, network interfaces, and high-speed data interfaces will be made during mid 2002.

  17. Integrated built-in-test false and missed alarms reduction based on forward infinite impulse response & recurrent finite impulse response dynamic neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yiqian; Shi, Junyou; Wang, Zili

    2017-11-01

    Built-in tests (BITs) are widely used in mechanical systems to perform state identification, whereas the BIT false and missed alarms cause trouble to the operators or beneficiaries to make correct judgments. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are previously used for false and missed alarms identification, which has the features such as self-organizing and self-study. However, these ANN models generally do not incorporate the temporal effect of the bottom-level threshold comparison outputs and the historical temporal features are not fully considered. To improve the situation, this paper proposes a new integrated BIT design methodology by incorporating a novel type of dynamic neural networks (DNN) model. The new DNN model is termed as Forward IIR & Recurrent FIR DNN (FIRF-DNN), where its component neurons, network structures, and input/output relationships are discussed. The condition monitoring false and missed alarms reduction implementation scheme based on FIRF-DNN model is also illustrated, which is composed of three stages including model training, false and missed alarms detection, and false and missed alarms suppression. Finally, the proposed methodology is demonstrated in the application study and the experimental results are analyzed.

  18. Stress experiences in neighborhood and social environments (SENSE): a pilot study to integrate the quantified self with citizen science to improve the built environment and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W; King, Abby C

    2018-06-05

    Identifying elements of one's environment-observable and unobservable-that contribute to chronic stress including the perception of comfort and discomfort associated with different settings, presents many methodological and analytical challenges. However, it also presents an opportunity to engage the public in collecting and analyzing their own geospatial and biometric data to increase community member understanding of their local environments and activate potential environmental improvements. In this first-generation project, we developed a methodology to integrate geospatial technology with biometric sensing within a previously developed, evidence-based "citizen science" protocol, called "Our Voice." Participants used a smartphone/tablet-based application, called the Discovery Tool (DT), to collect photos and audio narratives about elements of the built environment that contributed to or detracted from their well-being. A wrist-worn sensor (Empatica E4) was used to collect time-stamped data, including 3-axis accelerometry, skin temperature, blood volume pressure, heart rate, heartbeat inter-beat interval, and electrodermal activity (EDA). Open-source R packages were employed to automatically organize, clean, geocode, and visualize the biometric data. In total, 14 adults (8 women, 6 men) were successfully recruited to participate in the investigation. Participants recorded 174 images and 124 audio files with the DT. Among captured images with a participant-determined positive or negative rating (n = 131), over half were positive (58.8%, n = 77). Within-participant positive/negative rating ratios were similar, with most participants rating 53.0% of their images as positive (SD 21.4%). Significant spatial clusters of positive and negative photos were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* local statistic, and significant associations between participant EDA and distance to DT photos, and street and land use characteristics were also observed with linear mixed

  19. GHz modulation enabled using large extinction ratio waveguide-modulator integrated with 404 nm GaN laser diode

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Lee, Changmin; Ng, Tien Khee; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Eldesouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    A 404-nm emitting InGaN-based laser diode with integrated-waveguide-modulator showing a large extinction ratio of 11.3 dB was demonstrated on semipolar (2021) plane GaN substrate. The device shows a low modulation voltage of −2.5 V and ∼ GHz −3 dB bandwidth, enabling 1.7 Gbps data transmission.

  20. GHz modulation enabled using large extinction ratio waveguide-modulator integrated with 404 nm GaN laser diode

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-01-30

    A 404-nm emitting InGaN-based laser diode with integrated-waveguide-modulator showing a large extinction ratio of 11.3 dB was demonstrated on semipolar (2021) plane GaN substrate. The device shows a low modulation voltage of −2.5 V and ∼ GHz −3 dB bandwidth, enabling 1.7 Gbps data transmission.

  1. Nuclear reactor built, being built, or planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1990. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE, from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations, from US and foreign embassies, and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly

  2. On stochastic integration for volatility modulated Brownian-driven Volterra processes via white noise analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Szozda, Benedykt

    This paper generalizes the integration theory for volatility modulated Brownian-driven Volterra processes onto the space G* of Potthoff-Timpel distributions. Sufficient conditions for integrability of generalized processes are given, regularity results and properties of the integral are discussed...

  3. On stochastic integration for volatility modulated Brownian-driven Volterra processes via white noise analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Benth, Fred Espen; Szozda, Benedykt

    This paper generalizes the integration theory for volatility modulated Brownian-driven Volterra processes onto the space G∗ of Potthoff--Timpel distributions. Sufficient conditions for integrability of generalized processes are given, regularity results and properties of the integral are discusse...

  4. Autonomy and heteronomy. Integration and sustainability of essential flows in the built environment; Autonomie en heteronomie. Integratie en verduurzaming van essentiele stromen in de gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Timmeren, A.

    2006-06-23

    The main research questions in this thesis are: (1) How can sustainable types of reuse and an environment-minded supply of the essential 'flows' of energy and sanitation be established in the built-up environment?; and (2) Is there an optimum scale, and what are the consequences for the built-up environment? Background questions are: (a) To what extent are the current technical (infra)structures decisive for the possibilities and impossibilities of 'sustainable development'? (b) Can the central or decentralized solution of the essential flows generate further processes of preservation at a higher scale level?; (c) Is there an optimal scale for autonomy per flow, and, if there is, what is this optimal scale?; (d) To what extent can user participation and involvement increase by solving sustainability issues?; (e) Should the various techniques for the optimisation of the flows be combined in a 'device' and can this be done, or should they be integrated separately into existing (infra)structures or buildings?. [Dutch] De methoden en technieken die worden toegepast bij de huidige essenti infrastructuren voor de energie- en sanitatievoorziening zijn te duiden als traditioneel en centralisatie- paradigma volgend. Er is sprake van schaalvergroting. Door de globalisering in combinatie met de liberalisatie van de energie- en (in mindere mate) vaste afvalmarkt is dit zelfs structureel. Er is toenemende heteronomie van essenti voorzieningen, vooral van energie en sanitatie. Stringente regelgeving maakt dit vaak onontkoombaar. Oplossingen voor nieuwe of bestaande problemen zijn daarbij als padafhankelijk en endogeen te karakteriseren. Er wordt slechts weinig gedaan aan de onderliggende milieuproblemen. Sterker nog, ook deze nieuwe oplossingen hebben vrijwel altijd onverwachte en onbedoelde neveneffecten, en kunnen opnieuw tot problemen leiden. Het besef dat andere, meer duurzame alternatieven gevonden kunnen worden door juist af te stappen van de

  5. Development of the integrated system reliability analysis code MODULE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.H.; Yoo, K.J.; Kim, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The major components in a system reliability analysis are the determination of cut sets, importance measure, and uncertainty analysis. Various computer codes have been used for these purposes. For example, SETS and FTAP are used to determine cut sets; Importance for importance calculations; and Sample, CONINT, and MOCUP for uncertainty analysis. There have been problems when the codes run each other and the input and output are not linked, which could result in errors when preparing input for each code. The code MODULE was developed to carry out the above calculations simultaneously without linking input and outputs to other codes. MODULE can also prepare input for SETS for the case of a large fault tree that cannot be handled by MODULE. The flow diagram of the MODULE code is shown. To verify the MODULE code, two examples are selected and the results and computation times are compared with those of SETS, FTAP, CONINT, and MOCUP on both Cyber 170-875 and IBM PC/AT. Two examples are fault trees of the auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) of Korea Nuclear Units (KNU)-1 and -2, which have 54 gates and 115 events, 39 gates and 92 events, respectively. The MODULE code has the advantage that it can calculate the cut sets, importances, and uncertainties in a single run with little increase in computing time over other codes and that it can be used in personal computers

  6. Pengembangan Modul Berbasis Penemuan Terbimbing untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Matematis pada Perkuliahan Kalkulus Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Hartono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan modul berbasis penemuan terbimbing untuk meningkatkan kemampuan-kemampuan matematis pada mata kuliah kalkulus integral. Modul yang dikembangkan mencakup kompetensi menyelesaikan beberapa macam integral. Tahap perancangan dilakukan dengan memperhatikan materi-materi prasyarat dan hambatan-hambatan belajar mahasiswa terkait matakuliah kalkulus integral. Manfaat jangka panjang penelitian ini adalah untuk lebih mengembangkan proses pembelajaran ataupun bahan ajar dalam upaya meningkatkan kemampuan-kemampuan matematis mahasiswa pendidikan matematika. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan dengan menggunakan modifikasi model 4D (menjadi 3D. Tahapan yang dilakukan adalah define, design, develop. Pada tahap define dilakukan analisis silabus dan buku teks, telaah literatur, serta menganalisis materi prasyarat dan hambatan belajar mahasiswa. Pada tahap design dilakukan perancangan modul. Tahap develop terdiri atas validasi dan praktikalitas. Setelah dirancang, modul divalidasi oleh validator. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modul valid dengan nilai 3,76, artinya modul dapat digunakan dengan sedikit revisi. Penelitian ini dapat dilanjutkan dengan tahap praktikalitas dan uji efektif, sehingga modul dapat dipakai secara luas agar tahap diseminasi dapat dilakukan.   Kata Kunci. Pengembangan modul, Penemuan Terbimbing dan Kalkulus Integral.   Abstract. This study aims to develop guided discovery-based modules to improve mathematical abilities in integral calculus courses. The module covers the competence of completing several kinds of integrals. At the design stage, we observe the students' prerequisite materials and student learning barriers. The long-term benefits of this research are to develop the learning process or teaching materials. It is an effort to improving mathematical skills of mathematics education students. This research is a development research by modifying 4D model (to be 3

  7. Using the WOFOST plant growth model to built the data base of the terrestrial tritium and food chain modules in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melintescu, A.; Galeriu, D.; Marica, A.

    2003-01-01

    The European Commission Project RODOS implements a coherent methodology for a Real-time On-line Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergency across Europe. Within this system there is a special module to model the transfer of tritiated water from releases to terrestrial foods. In order to model the transfer of tritiated water from air to various plants, the conversion to organically bound tritium, and the migration to edible parts of the plant, both the mean dynamics of leaf area index and a physiological description of canopy photosynthesis are required. The WOFOST crop growth model has been selected as a basis for deriving tritium transfer dynamics to plants. Its ability to reproduce site-specific biomass growth of various plants (not only from Europe) is demonstrated in this paper, as well as its compatibility to other photosynthesis models. We have tested that this model can simulate limited fertilization situations via the adaptation of two important parameters. After adaptation of model parameters to site-specific plant growth data, multi-annual mean dynamics can be obtained using meteorological data for subsequent years. (authors)

  8. Electrical crosstalk in integrated Mach-Zehnder modulators caused by a shared ground path

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the majority of electrical crosstalk between integrated Mach-Zehnder modulators can be caused by a shared ground path and demonstrate that in its absence crosstalk and related transmission penalty is greatly reduced.

  9. Integration into Big Data: First Steps to Support Reuse of Comprehensive Toxicity Model Modules (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data surrounding the needs of human disease and toxicity modeling are largely siloed limiting the ability to extend and reuse modules across knowledge domains. Using an infrastructure that supports integration across knowledge domains (animal toxicology, high-throughput screening...

  10. Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

  11. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  12. Compact, Low-Power, and High-Speed Graphene-Based Integrated Photonic Modulator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Compact, Low-Power, and High-Speed Graphene- Based Integrated Photonic Modulator Technology The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...Graphene-Based Integrated Photonic Modulator Technology Report Term: 0-Other Email: sorger@gwu.edu Distribution Statement: 1-Approved for public release...which is an all-time record at Georgia Tech. Protocol Activity Status: Technology Transfer: Nothing to Report PARTICIPANTS: Person Months Worked

  13. p-Type MWT. Integrated cell and module technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tool, C.J.J.; Kossen, E.J.; Bennett, I.J.

    2013-10-15

    A major issue of concern in MWT solar cells is the increased leakage current at reversed bias voltage through the vias compared. At ECN we have been working on reducing this leakage current to levels comparable to H-pattern cells. In this study we present the results of this work. We further show the benefit of a combined cell and module design for MWT solar cells. At the cell level, MWT production costs per wafer are comparable with H-pattern while the cell output increases. At the module level this design results in a further increase of the power output.

  14. p-type MWT. Integrated Cell and Module Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tool, C.J.J.; Kossen, E.J.; Bennett, I.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    A major issue of concern in MWT (metal wrap-through) solar cells is the increased leakage current at reversed bias voltage through the vias compared. At ECN we have been working on reducing this leakage current to levels comparable to H-pattern cells. In this study we present the results of this work. We further show the benefit of a combined cell and module design for MWT solar cells. At the cell level, MWT production costs per wafer are comparable with H-pattern while the cell output increases. At the module level this design results in a further increase of the power output.

  15. Standard Test Methods for Determining Mechanical Integrity of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand the mechanical loads, stresses and deflections used to simulate, on an accelerated basis, high wind conditions, heavy snow and ice accumulation, and non-planar installation effects. 1.1.1 A static load test to 2400 Pa is used to simulate wind loads on both module surfaces 1.1.2 A static load test to 5400 Pa is used to simulate heavy snow and ice accumulation on the module front surface. 1.1.3 A twist test is used to simulate the non-planar mounting of a photovoltaic module by subjecting it to a twist angle of 1.2°. 1.1.4 A cyclic load test of 10 000 cycles duration and peak loading to 1440 Pa is used to simulate dynamic wind or other flexural loading. Such loading might occur during shipment or after installation at a particular location. 1.2 These test methods define photovoltaic test specimens and mounting methods, and specify parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 Any individual mech...

  16. Integration of test modules in the main blanket and vacuum vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Togami, Ikuhide; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa.

    1995-07-01

    Typical test modules for water-cooled and helium-cooled ceramic breeder blankets have been designed, and their major design parameters are summarized. Among various candidates studied in Japan at present, BOT (Breeder Out of Tube) type of blanket is exemplified here. The integration scheme of the test module into ITER basic machine is also shown. Even with other type of blanket, the integration scheme won't be affected. The composition and space requirement of cooling and tritium recovery systems for the test module have also been studied. (author)

  17. Neurocognitive capabilities modulate the integration of evidence in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eifler, Sarah; Rausch, Franziska; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Englisch, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a cognitive bias in the integration of disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) in patients with schizophrenia. This bias has been associated with delusions. So far, it is unclear how the integration of evidence is associated with neurocognitive capabilities. In the current

  18. Integration of multiwavelength lasers with fast electro-optical modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) are of key importance in Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks because of their reduced volume and packaging costs compared to discrete components. The research described in this thesis was focussed on the integration of WDM-lasers and Radio-Frequency

  19. Morphological integration of anatomical, developmental, and functional postcranial modules in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Mark A; Schroeder, Lauren; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2018-03-22

    Integration and modularity reflect the coordinated action of past evolutionary processes and, in turn, constrain or facilitate phenotypic evolvability. Here, we analyze magnitudes of integration in the macaque postcranium to test whether 20 a priori defined modules are (1) more tightly integrated than random sets of postcranial traits, and (2) are differentiated based on mode of definition, with developmental modules expected to be more integrated than functional or anatomical modules. The 3D morphometric data collected for eight limb and girdle bones for 60 macaques were collated into anatomical, developmental, and functional modules. A resampling technique was used to create random samples of integration values for each module for statistical comparison. Our results found that not all a priori defined modules were more strongly integrated than random samples of postcranial traits and that specific types of modules did not present consistent patterns of integration. Rather, girdle and joint modules were consistently less integrated than limb modules, and forelimb elements were less integrated than hindlimbs. The results suggest that morphometrically complex modules tend to be less integrated than simple limb bones, irrespective of the number of available traits. However, differences in integration of the fore- and hindlimb more likely reflects the multitude of locomotory, feeding, and social functions involved. It remains to be tested whether patterns of integration identified here are primate universals, and to what extent they vary depending on phylogenetic or functional factors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Polymer-based 2D/3D wafer level heterogeneous integration for SSL module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.; Wei, J.; Ye, H.; Koh, S.; Harianto, S.; Nieuwenhof, M.A. van den; Zhang, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a heterogeneous integration of solid state lighting (SSL) module, including light source (LED) and driver/control components. Such integration has been realized by the polymer-based reconfigured wafer level package technologies and such structure has been prototyped and

  1. Very Thin Flexible Coupled Inductors for PV Module Integrated GaN Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acanski, Milos; Ouyang, Ziwei; Popovic-Gerber, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    converter integrated directly into a low cost flexible PV module. Additional problems arise in this case, specifically in magnetics design, due to the requirements for very low profile flexible construction and limited thermal headroom. Overcoming these limitations presents a challenge, but can lead...... to a cost effective, reliable solution for PV systems with improved integration level and power density....

  2. Hermeneutics framework: integration of design rationale and optimizing software modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Malakuti Khah Olun Abadi, Somayeh

    To tackle the evolution challenges of adaptive systems, this paper argues on the necessity of hermeneutic approaches that help to avoid too early elimination of design alternatives. This visionary paper proposes the Hermeneutics Framework, which computationally integrates a design rationale

  3. Integrated systems and modules for engine cooling and vehicle air-conditioning; Integrierte Systeme und Module zur Motorkuehlung und Innenraumklimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, M.; Kern, J.; Kampf, H. [Behr GmbH (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    The high level of function and quality achieved today in modern vehicles cannot be simply increased by the isolated development of advanced single components alone. By contrast, the holistic optimization of systems opens up new potential. Modern cooling modules and integrated HVAC systems by Behr GmbH and Co. combine several components to form a single compact module whose integrated parts are perfectly matched to each other. Developing complete cockpits at such a high level of integration is another step towards advancing the system concept. Understanding a holistic system allows engineers to develop concepts for an efficient thermal management in the cooling system and to improve ecological compatibility of the vehicle air-conditioning system by using suitable simulation tools. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die gesamtheitliche Optimierung von Systemen eroeffnet neue Potentiale in der Automobilentwicklung. Moderne Kuehlmodule und integrierte Heiz-/Klimageraete der Behr GmbH and Co. fassen zahlreiche Komponenten zu einem kompakten Modul zusammen, dessen Einzelteile aufeinander abgestimmt sind. Die Entwicklung vollstaendiger Cockpits mit einem hohen Integrationsgrad fuehrt den Systemgedanken konsequent weiter. Das Verstaendnis des gesamten Systems erlaubt im Verbund mit geeigneten Simulationswerkzeugen die Entwicklung von Konzepten fuer ein effizientes Thermomanagement im Kuehlsystem und fuer die Verbesserung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit der Kaelteanlage. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of PV modules integrated with roofing materials; Kenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi module no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morizane, M.; Yagiura, T.; Nakashima, S.; Yagi, H.; Murata, K.; Uchihashi, K.; Tsuda, S.; Nakano, S. [Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Ito, M.; Kurimoto, T.; Yamakawa, H.; Fujiwara, T. [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    PV modules unified with building materials which are low in cost, easy to install and excellent in designing were developed and were evaluated in various tests. As to the basic structure of this module, seamless and unified construction with the back metal plate was adopted considering improvement in fire prevention and cost reduction. About the installation, module is easy to install by just fit connection with the frame, and easy to remove with no use of special tools. Concerning intensity and durability requested for this module, tests on reliability such as torsion strength and wind pressure resistance were conducted according to JIS standards, and it was confirmed that there were no problems. Also on the long-term durability, tests on long-term reliability were carried out by doubling test terms of the temperature/humidity cycle test, salt water resistance test, etc., and the reliability the same as that of the existing type was confirmed. In the verification test using a model house, no changes were seen in electrical characteristics and appearance, and waterproof was also favorable one and a half year after the installation. 4 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Piezoelectric strained layer semiconductor lasers and integrated modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The properties, benefits and limitations of strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum well lasers and modulators grown on (111)B GaAs have been studied. Particular interest in this material system arose from the predicted increase in critical layer thickness, which would facilitate semiconductor lasers emitting beyond 1 μm. However, the recent discovery of a new type of misfit dislocation indicates that the critical layer thickness in this system is closer to that of (001) orientated structures. Photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy presented in this study support this predicted reduction of the critical layer thickness and the resulting limitations on the emission wavelength. The absence of 3D growth in this system may however be advantageous when high reproducibility and reliable lasing operation beyond 1 μm are required. The piezoelectric field originating from strained growth on substrate orientations other than (001) was studied and its influence on transition energies and absorptive behaviour were investigated. The piezoelectric constant was found to show significant temperature dependence and, as also indicated in earlier studies, its value is smaller then the linearly interpolated value. When the effects of indium segregation on the transition energies is considered, the reduction is significantly smaller. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained using 86% of the value linearly interpolated between the binaries at room temperature and 82% at low temperature. Broad area lasers were fabricated emitting at lasing wavelengths of up to 1.08 μm with threshold current densities as low as 80 A/cm 2 at room temperature under continuous wave operation. Increasing the indium composition and strain within the limit of strain relaxation was demonstrated to improve device performance significantly. Furthermore, ridge waveguide lasers were fabricated exhibiting monomode emission at wavelengths up to 1.07 μm with a threshold current of 19 mA at

  6. Containment integrity analysis with SAMPSON/DCRA module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, Seigo; Shirakawa, Noriyuki; Naitoh, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The integrity of PWR containment under a severe accident is analyzed using the debris concrete reaction analysis code. If core fuels melt through the pressure vessel and the debris accumulates on the reactor cavity of a lower part of containment, its temperature continues to rise due to decay heat and the debris ablates the concrete floor. In case that cooling water is issued into the containment cavity and the amount of debris is limited to 30% of core fuels, our analyses showed that the debris could be cooled and frozen so that integrity of containment could hold. (author)

  7. Integration of the ATHENA mirror modules: development of indirect and x-ray direct AIT methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernani, Dervis; Blum, Steffen; Seure, Thibault; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Schaeffer, Uwe; Lièvre, Nicolas; Nazeeruddin, Adeeb; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Collon, Maximilien J.; Cibik, Levent; Krumrey, Michael; Müller, Peter; Burwitz, Vadim

    2017-08-01

    Within the ATHENA optics technology plan, activities are on-going for demonstrating the feasibility of the mirror module Assembly Integration and Testing (AIT). Each mirror module has to be accurately attached to the mirror structure by means of three isostatic mounts ensuring minimal distortion under environmental loads. This work reports on the status of one of the two parallel activities initiated by ESA to address this demanding task. In this study awarded to the industrial consortium, the integration relies on opto-mechanical metrology and direct X-ray alignment. For the first or "indirect" method the X-ray alignment results are accurately referenced, by means of a laser tracking system, to optical fiducial targets mounted on the mirror modules and finally linked to the mirror structure coordinate system. With the second or "direct" method the alignment is monitored in the X-ray domain, providing figures of merit directly comparable to the final performance. The integration being designed and here presented, foresees combining the indirect method to the X-ray direct method. The characterization of the single mirror modules is planned at PTB's X-ray Parallel Beam Facility (XPBF 2.0) at BESSY II, and the integration and testing campaign at Panter. It is foreseen to integrate and test a demonstrator with two real mirror modules manufactured by cosine.

  8. Relative Hom-Hopf modules and total integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shuangjian [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang 550025 (China); Zhang, Xiaohui [Department of Mathematics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Wang, Shengxiang, E-mail: wangsx-math@163.com [School of Mathematics and Finance, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000 (China); Department of Mathematics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Let (H, α) be a monoidal Hom-Hopf algebra and (A, β) a right (H, α)-Hom-comodule algebra. We first investigate the criterion for the existence of a total integral of (A, β) in the setting of monoidal Hom-Hopf algebras. Also, we prove that there exists a total integral ϕ : (H, α) → (A, β) if and only if any representation of the pair (H, A) is injective in a functorial way, as a corepresentation of (H, α), which generalizes Doi’s result. Finally, we define a total quantum integral γ : H → Hom(H, A) and prove the following affineness criterion: if there exists a total quantum integral γ and the canonical map ψ : A⊗{sub B}A → A ⊗ H, a⊗{sub B}b ↦ β{sup −1}(a) b{sub [0]} ⊗ α(b{sub [1]}) is surjective, then the induction functor A⊗{sub B}−:ℋ{sup ~}(ℳ{sub k}){sub B}→ℋ{sup ~}(ℳ{sub k}){sub A}{sup H} is an equivalence of categories.

  9. Module for Learning Integral Calculus with Maple: Lecturers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2012-01-01

    Engineering technology students can attain a meaningful mathematics learning if they are allowed to actively participate in hands-on activities. However, the current dissemination of knowledge in the classroom still focuses on teacher-centered paradigm of teaching. A study to explore lecturers' views regarding a newly developed integral calculus…

  10. Relative Hom-Hopf modules and total integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuangjian; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Shengxiang

    2015-01-01

    Let (H, α) be a monoidal Hom-Hopf algebra and (A, β) a right (H, α)-Hom-comodule algebra. We first investigate the criterion for the existence of a total integral of (A, β) in the setting of monoidal Hom-Hopf algebras. Also, we prove that there exists a total integral ϕ : (H, α) → (A, β) if and only if any representation of the pair (H, A) is injective in a functorial way, as a corepresentation of (H, α), which generalizes Doi’s result. Finally, we define a total quantum integral γ : H → Hom(H, A) and prove the following affineness criterion: if there exists a total quantum integral γ and the canonical map ψ : A⊗ B A → A ⊗ H, a⊗ B b ↦ β −1 (a) b [0] ⊗ α(b [1] ) is surjective, then the induction functor A⊗ B −:ℋ ~ (ℳ k ) B →ℋ ~ (ℳ k ) A H is an equivalence of categories

  11. Gigascale Silicon Photonic Transmitters Integrating HBT-based Carrier-injection Electroabsorption Modulator Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Enjin

    Demand for more bandwidth is rapidly increasing, which is driven by data intensive applications such as high-definition (HD) video streaming, cloud storage, and terascale computing applications. Next-generation high-performance computing systems require power efficient chip-to-chip and intra-chip interconnect yielding densities on the order of 1Tbps/cm2. The performance requirements of such system are the driving force behind the development of silicon integrated optical interconnect, providing a cost-effective solution for fully integrated optical interconnect systems on a single substrate. Compared to conventional electrical interconnect, optical interconnects have several advantages, including frequency independent insertion loss resulting in ultra wide bandwidth and link latency reduction. For high-speed optical transmitter modules, the optical modulator is a key component of the optical I/O channel. This thesis presents a silicon integrated optical transmitter module design based on a novel silicon HBT-based carrier injection electroabsorption modulator (EAM), which has the merits of wide optical bandwidth, high speed, low power, low drive voltage, small footprint, and high modulation efficiency. The structure, mechanism, and fabrication of the modulator structure will be discussed which is followed by the electrical modeling of the post-processed modulator device. The design and realization of a 10Gbps monolithic optical transmitter module integrating the driver circuit architecture and the HBT-based EAM device in a 130nm BiCMOS process is discussed. For high power efficiency, a 6Gbps ultra-low power driver IC implemented in a 130nm BiCMOS process is presented. The driver IC incorporates an integrated 27-1 pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) generator for reliable high-speed testing, and a driver circuit featuring digitally-tuned pre-emphasis signal strength. With outstanding drive capability, the driver module can be applied to a wide range of carrier

  12. Built environment and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasala, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, Allam Appa; Sridhar, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is influenced by built environment, which is, ‘the environments that are modified by humans, including homes, schools, workplaces, highways, urban sprawls, accessibility to amenities, leisure, and pollution.’ Built environment contributes to diabetes through access to physical activity and through stress, by affecting the sleep cycle. With globalization, there is a possibility that western environmental models may be replicated in developing countries such as India, where the underlying genetic predisposition makes them particularly susceptible to diabetes. Here we review published information on the relationship between built environment and diabetes, so that appropriate modifications can be incorporated to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. PMID:20535308

  13. Design and management of sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is believed to be a great challenge to built environment professionals in design and management. An integrated approach in delivering a sustainable built environment is desired by the built environment professional institutions. The aim of this book is to provide an advanced understanding of the key subjects required for the design and management of modern built environments to meet carbon emission reduction targets. In Design and Management of Sustainable Built Environments, an international group of experts provide comprehensive and the most up-to-date knowledge, covering sustainable urban and building design, management and assessment. The best practice case studies of the implementation of sustainable technology and management from the BRE Innovation Park are included. Design and Management of Sustainable Built Environments will be of interest to urban and building designers, environmental engineers, and building performance assessors.  It will be particularly useful as a reference book ...

  14. Modulation of C. elegans Touch Sensitivity Is Integrated at Multiple Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyin

    2014-01-01

    Sensory systems can adapt to different environmental signals. Here we identify four conditions that modulate anterior touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans after several hours and demonstrate that such sensory modulation is integrated at multiple levels to produce a single output. Prolonged vibration involving integrin signaling directly sensitizes the touch receptor neurons (TRNs). In contrast, hypoxia, the dauer state, and high salt reduce touch sensitivity by preventing the release of long-range neuroregulators, including two insulin-like proteins. Integration of these latter inputs occurs at upstream neurohormonal cells and at the insulin signaling cascade within the TRNs. These signals and those from integrin signaling converge to modulate touch sensitivity by regulating AKT kinases and DAF-16/FOXO. Thus, activation of either the integrin or insulin pathways can compensate for defects in the other pathway. This modulatory system integrates conflicting signals from different modalities, and adapts touch sensitivity to both mechanical and non-mechanical conditions. PMID:24806678

  15. Effect of Integrated Yoga Module on Selected Psychological Variables among Women with Anxiety Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S; Jaiganesh, K; Duraisamy

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of yogic practices has proven benefits in both organic and psychological diseases. Forty-five women with anxiety selected by a random sampling method were divided into three groups. Experimental group I was subjected to asanas, relaxation and pranayama while Experimental group II was subjected to an integrated yoga module. The control group did not receive any intervention. Anxiety was measured by Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. Frustration was measured through Reaction to Frustration Scale. All data were spread in an Excel sheet to be analysed with SPSS 16 software using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Selected yoga and asanas decreased anxiety and frustration scores but treatment with an integrated yoga module resulted in significant reduction of anxiety and frustration. To conclude, the practice of asanas and yoga decreased anxiety in women, and yoga as an integrated module significantly improved anxiety scores in young women with proven anxiety without any ill effects.

  16. Vertical electro-absorption modulator design and its integration in a VCSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo-Lombart, L.; Calvez, S.; Arnoult, A.; Thienpont, H.; Almuneau, G.; Panajotov, K.

    2018-04-01

    Electro-absorption modulators, either embedded in CMOS technology or integrated with a semiconductor laser, are of high interest for many applications such as optical communications, signal processing and 3D imaging. Recently, the integration of a surface-normal electro-absorption modulator into a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser has been considered. In this paper we implement a simple quantum well electro-absorption model and design and optimize an asymmetric Fabry-Pérot semiconductor modulator while considering all physical properties within figures of merit. We also extend this model to account for the impact of temperature on the different parameters involved in the calculation of the absorption, such as refractive indices and exciton transition broadening. Two types of vertical modulator structures have been fabricated and experimentally characterized by reflectivity and photocurrent measurements demonstrating a very good agreement with our model. Finally, preliminary results of an electro-absorption modulator vertically integrated with a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser device are presented, showing good modulation performances required for high speed communications.

  17. The dynamics of integrate-and-fire: mean versus variance modulations and dependence on baseline parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Joanna; Troyer, Todd W

    2011-05-01

    The leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) is the simplest neuron model that captures the essential properties of neuronal signaling. Yet common intuitions are inadequate to explain basic properties of LIF responses to sinusoidal modulations of the input. Here we examine responses to low and moderate frequency modulations of both the mean and variance of the input current and quantify how these responses depend on baseline parameters. Across parameters, responses to modulations in the mean current are low pass, approaching zero in the limit of high frequencies. For very low baseline firing rates, the response cutoff frequency matches that expected from membrane integration. However, the cutoff shows a rapid, supralinear increase with firing rate, with a steeper increase in the case of lower noise. For modulations of the input variance, the gain at high frequency remains finite. Here, we show that the low-frequency responses depend strongly on baseline parameters and derive an analytic condition specifying the parameters at which responses switch from being dominated by low versus high frequencies. Additionally, we show that the resonant responses for variance modulations have properties not expected for common oscillatory resonances: they peak at frequencies higher than the baseline firing rate and persist when oscillatory spiking is disrupted by high noise. Finally, the responses to mean and variance modulations are shown to have a complementary dependence on baseline parameters at higher frequencies, resulting in responses to modulations of Poisson input rates that are independent of baseline input statistics.

  18. Versatile Endpoint Storage Security with Trusted Integrity Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    . To counter such threats, and to remain trustworthy, personal devices should enforce storage security. State-of-the-art storage security solutions rely on hardware protected encryption. They cannot be deployed, as such, on personal devices either because they require additional hardware (e.g., NetApp’s Safe...... system and applications, that guarantee the durability, confidentiality and integrity of a configurable subset of the filesystem data and meta-data. While, we detail our design with the Linux virtual file system, we expect that our results can be applied to a range of different file systems. As Trusted...

  19. Fabricating and Characterizing the Microfluidic Solid Phase Extraction Module Coupling with Integrated ESI Emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangbin Tang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic chips coupling with mass spectrometry (MS will be of great significance to the development of relevant instruments involving chemical and bio-chemical analysis, drug detection, food and environmental applications and so on. In our previous works, we proposed two types of microfluidic electrospray ionization (ESI chip coupling with MS: the two-phase flow focusing (FF ESI microfluidic chip and the corner-integrated ESI emitter, respectively. However the pretreatment module integrated with these ESI emitters is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we concentrated on integrating the solid phase micro-extraction (SPME module with our previous proposed on-chip ESI emitters; the fabrication processes of such SPME module are fully compatible with our previous proposed ESI emitters based on the multi-layer soft lithography. We optimized the structure of the integrated chip and characterized its performance using standard samples. Furthermore, we verified its abilities of salt removal, extraction of multiple analytes and separation through on-chip elution using mimic biological urine spiked with different drugs. The results indicated that our proposed integrated module with ESI emitters is practical and effective for real biological sample pretreatment and MS detection.

  20. An integrated PRA module for fast determination of risk significance and improvement effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jyh-Der

    2004-01-01

    With the widely use of PRA technology in risk-informed applications, to predict the changes of CDF and LERF becomes a standard process for risk-informed applications. This paper describes an integrated PRA module prepared for risk-informed applications. The module contains a super risk engine, a super fault tree engine, an advanced PRA model and a tool for data base maintenance. The individual element of the module also works well for purpose other than risk-informed applications. The module has been verified and validated through a series of scrupulous benchmark tests with similar software. The results of the benchmark tests showed that the module has remarkable accuracy and speed even for an extremely large-size top-logic fault tree as well as for the case in which large amount of MCSs may be generated. The risk monitor for nuclear power plants in Taiwan is the first application to adopt the module. The results predicted by the risk monitor are now accepted by the regulatory agency. A tool to determine the risk significance according to the inspection findings will be the next application to adopt the module in the near future. This tool classified the risk significance into four different color codes according to the level of increase on CDF. Experience of application showed that the flexibility, the accuracy and speed of the module make it useful in any risk-informed applications when risk indexes must be determined by resolving a PRA model. (author)

  1. Emotional Intensity Modulates the Integration of Bimodal Angry Expressions: ERP Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Pan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration of information from face and voice plays a central role in social interactions. The present study investigated the modulation of emotional intensity on the integration of facial-vocal emotional cues by recording EEG for participants while they were performing emotion identification task on facial, vocal, and bimodal angry expressions varying in emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed the rates of anger and reaction speed increased as emotional intensity across modalities. Critically, the P2 amplitudes were larger for bimodal expressions than for the sum of facial and vocal expressions for low emotional intensity stimuli, but not for middle and high emotional intensity stimuli. These findings suggested that emotional intensity modulates the integration of facial-vocal angry expressions, following the principle of Inverse Effectiveness (IE in multimodal sensory integration.

  2. Modulation of chromatin structure by the FACT histone chaperone complex regulates HIV-1 integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Julien; Lesbats, Paul; Mauro, Eric; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lopez, Angelica P; Benleulmi, Mohamed Salah; Calmels, Christina; Andreola, Marie-Line; Ruff, Marc; Llano, Manuel; Delelis, Olivier; Lavigne, Marc; Parissi, Vincent

    2017-07-28

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodeling has been reported to affect integration efficiency. LEDGF/p75-mediated targeting of the integration complex toward RNA polymerase II (polII) transcribed regions ensures optimal access to dynamic regions that are suitable for integration. Consequently, we have investigated the involvement of polII-associated factors in the regulation of HIV-1 integration. Using a pull down approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we have selected the FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) complex as a new potential cofactor of HIV-1 integration. FACT is a histone chaperone complex associated with the polII transcription machinery and recently shown to bind LEDGF/p75. We report here that a tripartite complex can be formed between HIV-1 integrase, LEDGF/p75 and FACT in vitro and in cells. Biochemical analyzes show that FACT-dependent nucleosome disassembly promotes HIV-1 integration into chromatinized templates, and generates highly favored nucleosomal structures in vitro. This effect was found to be amplified by LEDGF/p75. Promotion of this FACT-mediated chromatin remodeling in cells both increases chromatin accessibility and stimulates HIV-1 infectivity and integration. Altogether, our data indicate that FACT regulates HIV-1 integration by inducing local nucleosomes dissociation that modulates the functional association between the incoming intasome and the targeted nucleosome.

  3. A Novel Sigma-Delta Modulator with Fractional-Order Digital Loop Integrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes using a fractional-order digital loop integrator to improve the robust stability of Sigma-Delta modulator, thus extending the integer-order Sigma-Delta modulator to a non-integer-order (fractional-order one in the Sigma-Delta ADC design field. The proposed fractional-order Sigma-Delta modulator has reasonable noise characteristics, dynamic range, and bandwidth; moreover the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is improved remarkably. In particular, a 2nd-order digital loop integrator and a digital PIλDμ controller are combined to work as the fractional-order digital loop integrator, which is realized using FPGA; this will reduce the ASIC analog circuit layout design and chip testing difficulties. The parameters of the proposed fractional-order Sigma-Delta modulator are tuned by using swarm intelligent algorithm, which offers opportunity to simplify the process of tuning parameters and further improve the noise performance. Simulation results are given and they demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed fractional-order Sigma-Delta modulator.

  4. Semantic integration to identify overlapping functional modules in protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Murali

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The systematic analysis of protein-protein interactions can enable a better understanding of cellular organization, processes and functions. Functional modules can be identified from the protein interaction networks derived from experimental data sets. However, these analyses are challenging because of the presence of unreliable interactions and the complex connectivity of the network. The integration of protein-protein interactions with the data from other sources can be leveraged for improving the effectiveness of functional module detection algorithms. Results We have developed novel metrics, called semantic similarity and semantic interactivity, which use Gene Ontology (GO annotations to measure the reliability of protein-protein interactions. The protein interaction networks can be converted into a weighted graph representation by assigning the reliability values to each interaction as a weight. We presented a flow-based modularization algorithm to efficiently identify overlapping modules in the weighted interaction networks. The experimental results show that the semantic similarity and semantic interactivity of interacting pairs were positively correlated with functional co-occurrence. The effectiveness of the algorithm for identifying modules was evaluated using functional categories from the MIPS database. We demonstrated that our algorithm had higher accuracy compared to other competing approaches. Conclusion The integration of protein interaction networks with GO annotation data and the capability of detecting overlapping modules substantially improve the accuracy of module identification.

  5. Iterated Mellin-Barnes integrals as period on the Calabi-Yau manifolds with several modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passare, M.; Tsikh, A.K.; Cheshel', A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In superstring compactification theory the representation of periods on the Calabi-Yau manifolds with several modules is given by iterated Mellin-Barnes integrals. By using this representation and multidimensional residues a method of analytic continuation for fundamental period in terms of Gorn series is developed

  6. Distributed control of PV strings with module integrated converters in presence of a central MPPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    In some cases it is unavoidable that part of the rooftop PV array is periodically shadowed by an adjacent object, greatly reducing yield. Usually, the time and amount of shadowing is known, and is considered as extra loss due to the location. Module Integrated Converter (MIC) systems are known...

  7. Integrated graphene based modulators enabled by interfacing plasmonic slot and silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    Graphene has offered a new paradigm for extremely fast and active optoelectronic devices due to its unique electronic and optical properties [1]. With the combination of high-index dielectric waveguides/resonators, several integrated graphene-based optical modulators have already been demonstrated...

  8. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Stein, J.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-07-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of inter-row shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage-ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from inter-row shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of inter-row shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  9. Interdisciplinary Integration of the CVS Module and Its Effect on Faculty and Student Satisfaction as Well as Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuob Nasra N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beyond the adoption of the principles of horizontal and vertical integration, significant planning and implementation of curriculum reform is needed. This study aimed to assess the effect of the interdisciplinary integrated Cardiovascular System (CVS module on both student satisfaction and performance and comparing them to those of the temporally coordinated CVS module that was implemented in the previous year at the faculty of Medicine of the King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Methods This interventional study used mixed method research design to assess student and faculty satisfaction with the level of integration within the CVS module. A team from the medical education department was assembled in 2010/2011 to design a plan to improve the CVS module integration level. After delivering the developed module, both student and faculty satisfaction as well as students performance were assessed and compared to those of the previous year to provide an idea about module effectiveness. Results Many challenges faced the medical education team during design and implementation of the developed CVS module e.g. resistance of faculty members to change, increasing the percentage of students directed learning hours from the total contact hour allotted to the module and shifting to integrated item writing in students assessment, spite of that the module achieved a significant increase in both teaching faculty and student satisfaction as well as in the module scores. Conclusion The fully integrated CVS has yielded encouraging results that individual teachers or other medical schools who attempt to reformulate their curriculum may find valuable.

  10. Growing functional modules from a seed protein via integration of protein interaction and gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrakopoulou Konstantina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays modern biology aims at unravelling the strands of complex biological structures such as the protein-protein interaction (PPI networks. A key concept in the organization of PPI networks is the existence of dense subnetworks (functional modules in them. In recent approaches clustering algorithms were applied at these networks and the resulting subnetworks were evaluated by estimating the coverage of well-established protein complexes they contained. However, most of these algorithms elaborate on an unweighted graph structure which in turn fails to elevate those interactions that would contribute to the construction of biologically more valid and coherent functional modules. Results In the current study, we present a method that corroborates the integration of protein interaction and microarray data via the discovery of biologically valid functional modules. Initially the gene expression information is overlaid as weights onto the PPI network and the enriched PPI graph allows us to exploit its topological aspects, while simultaneously highlights enhanced functional association in specific pairs of proteins. Then we present an algorithm that unveils the functional modules of the weighted graph by expanding a kernel protein set, which originates from a given 'seed' protein used as starting-point. Conclusion The integrated data and the concept of our approach provide reliable functional modules. We give proofs based on yeast data that our method manages to give accurate results in terms both of structural coherency, as well as functional consistency.

  11. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials (detachable plane panel); Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kenzai ittaigata module no kenkyu kaihatsu (chakudatsushiki heiban panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of technology for module structures, specifications of the horizontal muntin system module were newly determined in addition to the improved muntin system module, and the prototype pseudo-module integrated with construction material was prepared. The comparison results of the basic performance of both system modules clarified superior waterproofing and module temperature uniformity of the horizontal muntin system. Based on this specifications, integration technology of modules with back metal plates was studied. Formation of the integrated module close to final specifications was ascertained to be possible by use of passivation equipment to irregular form. (2) On development of construction and installation methods of modules, improvement of the waterproofing and workability of both system modules was studied. (3) On the study on practical use of modules, their design and ventilation/cooling structure were studied. 38 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Crystalline Silicon Interconnected Strips (XIS). Introduction to a New, Integrated Device and Module Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Roosmalen, J.; Bronsveld, P.; Mewe, A.; Janssen, G.; Stodolny, M.; Cobussen-Pool, E.; Bennett, I.; Weeber, A.; Geerligs, B. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    A new device concept for high efficiency, low cost, wafer based silicon solar cells is introduced. To significantly lower the costs of Si photovoltaics, high efficiencies and large reductions of metals and silicon costs are required. To enable this, the device architecture was adapted into low current devices by applying thin silicon strips, to which a special high efficiency back-contact heterojunction cell design was applied. Standard industrial production processes can be used for our fully integrated cell and module design, with a cost reduction potential below 0.5 euro/Wp. First devices have been realized demonstrating the principle of a series connected back contact hybrid silicon heterojunction module concept.

  13. Integrated packaging of multiple double sided cooling planar bond power modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenxian

    2018-04-10

    An integrated double sided cooled power module has one or multiple phase legs configuration including one or more planar power packages, each planar power package having an upper power switch unit and a lower power switch unit directly bonded and interconnected between two insulated power substrates, and further sandwiched between two heat exchangers via direct bonds. A segmented coolant manifold is interposed with the one or more planar power packages and creates a sealed enclosure that defines a coolant inlet, a coolant outlet and a coolant flow path between the inlet and the outlet. A coolant circulates along the flow path to remove heat and increase the power density of the power module.

  14. Thermal and Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Module with an Integrated Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hammami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is proposing and analyzing an electric energy storage system fully integrated with a photovoltaic PV module, composed by a set of lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4 flat batteries, which constitutes a generation-storage PV unit. The batteries were surface-mounted on the back side of the PV module, distant from the PV backsheet, without exceeding the PV frame size. An additional low-emissivity sheet was introduced to shield the batteries from the backsheet thermal irradiance. The challenge addressed in this paper is to evaluate the PV cell temperature increase, due to the reduced thermal exchanges on the back of the module, and to estimate the temperature of the batteries, verifying their thermal constraints. Two one-dimensional (1D thermal models, numerically implemented by using the thermal library of Simulink-Matlab accounting for all the heat exchanges, are here proposed: one related to the original PV module, the other related to the portion of the area of the PV module in correspondence of the proposed energy-storage system. Convective and radiative coefficients were then calculated in relation to different configurations and ambient conditions. The model validation has been carried out considering the PV module to be at the nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT, and by specific experimental measurements with a thermographic camera. Finally, appropriate models were used to evaluate the increasing cell batteries temperature in different environmental conditions.

  15. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  16. Integration Of The Security Sub-Modules Elements In The Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, C.; Fernandez, M.; Caires, A. S.; Canibano, E.

    2007-01-01

    This study is addressed to obtain a design methodology for integrated security sub-modules (constituting the suspension and steering modules) in the car manufacturing industry. The sub-modules are made up of a steel structure and anchorage elements (rubber-metal or plastic-metal), which undergo separate surface treatments to prevent corrosion. Afterwards, the elements are traditionally joined by means of adhesives and screws. This process involves a great number of stages, low quality union methods and generation of corrosion areas that shorten its useful life.This methodology provides automotive suppliers an additional added value and cost reduction, allowing them to increase its competitiveness in a sector that faces the transition from the traditional supply chain to a strategic value chain

  17. Integration of electro-absorption modulator in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo-Lombart, L.; Calvez, S.; Arnoult, A.; Rumeau, A.; Viallon, C.; Thienpont, H.; Panajotov, K.; Almuneau, G.

    2018-02-01

    VCSELs became dominant laser sources in many short optical link applications such as datacenter, active cables, etc. Actual standards and commercialized VCSEL are providing 25 Gb/s data rates, but new solutions are expected to settle the next device generation enabling 100 Gb/s. Directly modulated VCSEL have been extensively studied and improved to reach bandwidths in the range of 26-32 GHz [Chalmers, TU Berlin], however at the price of increased applied current and thus reduced device lifetime. Furthermore, the relaxation oscillation limit still subsists with this solution. Thus, splitting the emission and the modulation functions as done with DFB lasers is a very promising alternative [TI-Tech, TU Berlin]. Here, we study the vertical integration of an ElectroAbsorption Modulator (EAM) within a VCSEL, where the output light of the VCSEL is modulated through the EAM section. In our original design, we finely optimized the EAM design to maximize the modulation depth by implementing perturbative Quantum Confined Stark Effect (QCSE) calculations, while designing the vertical integration of the EAM without penalty on the VCSEL static performances. We will present the different fabricated vertical structures, as well as the experimental electrical and optical static measurements for those configurations demonstrating a very good agreement with the reflectivity and absorption simulations obtained for both the VCSEL and the EAM-VCSEL structures. Finally, to reach very high frequency modulation we studied the BCB electrical properties up to 110 GHz and investigated coplanar and microstrip lines access to decrease both the parasitic capacitance and the influence of the substrate.

  18. Manufacturing of highly integrated mechatronic modules by using the technology of embedding stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechtenwald, Thomas; Frick, Thomas; Schmidt, Michael

    The embedding stereolithography is an additive, hybrid process, which allows the construction of highly integrated 3D assemblies for the use in automotive applications. The flexible process of stereolithography is combined with the embedding of functional components and supplemented by the additive manufacturing of electrical or optical conductive structures. This combination of sub-processes implies a high potential regarding the obtainable integration density of mechatronical modules. This work considers basic restrictions, which limit the mechanical stability of the manufactured modules by calculating the superposition of residual and external stress using a thermo-mechanical finite element model and develops a procedure to qualify stereolithography matrix materials for the process of the embedding stereolithography.

  19. Integration of strategy experiential learning in e-module of electronic records management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sutirman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effectiveness of e-module of electronic records management integrated with experiential learning strategies to improve student achievement in the domain of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. This study is a research and development. Model research and development used is Web-Based Instructional Design (WBID developed by Davidson-Shivers and Rasmussen. The steps of research and development carried out by analysis, evaluation planning, concurrent design, implementation, and a summative evaluation. The approach used in this study consisted of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Collecting data used the Delphi technique, observation, documentation studies and tests. Research data analysis used qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Testing the effectiveness of the product used a quasi-experimental research design pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group. The results showed that the e-module of electronic records management integrated with experiential learning strategies can improve student achievement in the domain of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective.

  20. From Modules to a Generator: An Integrated Heat Exchanger Concept for Car Applications of a Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Henry

    2016-03-01

    A heat exchanger concept for a thermoelectric generator with integrated planar modules for passenger car applications is introduced. The module housings, made of deep drawn stainless steel sheet metal, are brazed onto the exhaust gas channel to achieve an optimal heat transfer on the hot side of the modules. The cooling side consists of winding fluid channels, which are mounted directly onto the cold side of the modules. Only a thin foil separates the cooling media from the modules for an almost direct heat contact on the cooling side. Thermoelectric generators with up to 20 modules made of PbTe and Bi2Te3, respectively, are manufactured and tested on a hot gas generator to investigate electrical power output and performance of the thermoelectric generator. The proof of concept of the light weight heat exchanger design made of sheet metal with integrated modules is positively accomplished.

  1. High speed gain coupled DFB laser diode integrated with MQW electroabsorption modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Gyoo; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Seong Su; Oh, Dae Kon; Lee, Hee Tae; Kim, Hong man; Pyun, Kwang Eui

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated stable modulation characteristics of the gain coupled distributed feedback(GC-DFB) laser diode integrated with butt-coupled InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW(multiple-Quantum-well) modulator for high speed optical transmission. For this purpose, we have adopted the InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW structure for the EA modulator and n-doped InGaAs absorptive grating for DFB laser. The typical threshold current and slope efficiency were about 15 mA and 0.1 mW/mA, respectively. The extinction ratio of fabricated integrated device was about 15 dB at -2 V, and the small signal bandwidth was shown to be around 17GHz. We also found that the α parameter becomes negative at below a -0.6 V bias voltage. We transmitted 10 Gbps NRZ electrical signal over 90 km of standard single mode optical fiber (SMF). A clearly opened eye diagram was observed in the modulated output

  2. High speed gain coupled DFB laser diode integrated with MQW electroabsorption modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, M G; Park, S S; Oh, D K; Lee, H T; Kim, H M; Pyun, K E

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated stable modulation characteristics of the gain coupled distributed feedback(GC-DFB) laser diode integrated with butt-coupled InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW(multiple-Quantum-well) modulator for high speed optical transmission. For this purpose, we have adopted the InGaAsP/InGaAsP strain compensated MQW structure for the EA modulator and n-doped InGaAs absorptive grating for DFB laser. The typical threshold current and slope efficiency were about 15 mA and 0.1 mW/mA, respectively. The extinction ratio of fabricated integrated device was about 15 dB at -2 V, and the small signal bandwidth was shown to be around 17GHz. We also found that the alpha parameter becomes negative at below a -0.6 V bias voltage. We transmitted 10 Gbps NRZ electrical signal over 90 km of standard single mode optical fiber (SMF). A clearly opened eye diagram was observed in the modulated output.

  3. Cryo-Vacuum Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Davila, P. S.; Drury, M. P.; Glazer, S. D.; Krom, J. R.; Lundquist, R. A.; Mann, S. D.; McGuffey, D. B.; Perry, R. L.; Ramey, D. D.

    2011-01-01

    With delivery of the science instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) expected in 2012, current plans call for the first cryo-vacuum test of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to be carried out at GSFC in early 2013. Plans are well underway for conducting this ambitious test, which will perform critical verifications of a number of optical, thermal, and operational requirements of the IS 1M hardware, at its deep cryogenic operating temperature. We describe here the facilities, goals, methods, and timeline for this important Integration & Test milestone in the JWST program.

  4. Protecting integrated circuits from excessive charge accumulation during plasma cleaning of multichip modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Girardi, Michael

    2015-04-21

    Internal nodes of a constituent integrated circuit (IC) package of a multichip module (MCM) are protected from excessive charge during plasma cleaning of the MCM. The protected nodes are coupled to an internal common node of the IC package by respectively associated discharge paths. The common node is connected to a bond pad of the IC package. During MCM assembly, and before plasma cleaning, this bond pad receives a wire bond to a ground bond pad on the MCM substrate.

  5. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez‐Solano, Alberto; Delgado‐Sánchez, José‐Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Miranda‐Muñoz, José M.; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez‐Cortezón, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one‐dimensional photonic crystals and in‐plane CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide‐area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost‐efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large‐scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in‐plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long‐term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27656090

  6. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Solano, Alberto; Delgado-Sánchez, José-Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E; Miranda-Muñoz, José M; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez-Cortezón, Emilio; Míguez, Hernán

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one-dimensional photonic crystals and in-plane CuInGaSe 2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide-area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost-efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large-scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in-plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long-term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served

  8. Experiences on the integration of thin film photovoltaic modules in a Mediterranean greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena, R.; Perez, J.; Carreno, A.; Callejon, A.J.; Vazquez, F.J. [Almeria Univ., Almeria (Spain). Dept. of Rural Engineering; Perez, M. [Almeria Univ., Almeria (Spain). CIESOL Research Center on Solar Energy

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of photovoltaic (PV) thin film modules in solar based energy generation systems in greenhouses in Spain, where feed-in tariffs for renewable energy sources serve to increase the yearly income of such agricultural exploitations. Experiments were performed at the University of Almeria, where a 1000 m{sup 2} pilot installation was built and monitored to analyze the key features of the system design and functionalities in terms of overall electricity injected into the grid as well as crop productivity. The installation involved dividing the greenhouse sections into 2 identical and contiguous sections, where one of the roof sections was equipped with a set of carefully designed thin film PV module strips. Both sections were grown under similar conditions for a period of 6 months. Continuous monitoring of the power injected to the grid showed that such a system is feasible. In terms of greenhouse crop results, this study showed that there is need for further research regarding the impact of changes in optical properties to the roof by the PV strips that reduced the available PV active radiation (PAR light) for crops.

  9. Smart built-in test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dale W.

    1990-03-01

    The work which built-in test (BIT) is asked to perform in today's electronic systems increases with every insertion of new technology or introduction of tighter performance criteria. Yet the basic purpose remains unchanged -- to determine with high confidence the operational capability of that equipment. Achievement of this level of BIT performance requires the management and assimilation of a large amount of data, both realtime and historical. Smart BIT has taken advantage of advanced techniques from the field of artificial intelligence (AI) in order to meet these demands. The Smart BIT approach enhances traditional functional BIT by utilizing AI techniques to incorporate environmental stress data, temporal BIT information and maintenance data, and realtime BIT reports into an integrated test methodology for increased BIT effectiveness and confidence levels. Future research in this area will incorporate onboard fault-logging of BIT output, stress data and Smart BIT decision criteria in support of a singular, integrated and complete test and maintenance capability. The state of this research is described along with a discussion of directions for future development.

  10. Compact electro-absorption modulator integrated with vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Ahmed, Moustafa; Bakry, Ahmed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact electro-absorption slow-light modulator laterally-integrated with an 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), which enables highly efficient millimeter-wave modulation. We found a strong leaky travelling wave in the lateral direction between the two cavities via widening the waveguide width with a taper shape. The small signal response of the fabricated device shows a large enhancement of over 55 dB in the modulation amplitude at frequencies beyond 35 GHz; thanks to the photon-photon resonance. A large group index of over 150 in a Bragg reflector waveguide enables the resonance at millimeter wave frequencies for 25 μm long compact modulator. Based on the modeling, we expect a resonant modulation at a higher frequency of 70 GHz. The resonant modulation in a compact slow-light modulator plays a significant key role for high efficient narrow-band modulation in the millimeter wave range far beyond the intrinsic modulation bandwidth of VCSELs.

  11. Psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of right uncinate fasciculus in a community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Mona; Baker, Laura; Martins, Bradford; Tuvblad, Catherine; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with psychopathy possess emotional and behavioral abnormalities. Two neural regions, involved in behavioral control and emotion regulation, are often implicated: amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Recently, in studies using adult criminal populations, reductions in microstructural integrity of the white matter connections (i.e., uncinate fasciculus (UF)) between these two neural regions have been discovered in criminals with psychopathy, supporting the notion of neural dysfunction in the amygdala-VMPFC circuit. Here, a young adult, community sample is used to assess whether psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of UF, and whether this relationship is dependent upon levels of trait anxiety, which is sometimes used to distinguish subtypes of psychopathy. Results reveal a negative association between psychopathic traits and microstructural integrity of UF, supporting previous findings. However, no moderation of the relationship by trait anxiety was discovered. Findings provide further support for the notion of altered amygdala-VMPFC connectivity in association with higher psychopathic traits.

  12. Psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of right uncinate fasciculus in a community population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychopathy possess emotional and behavioral abnormalities. Two neural regions, involved in behavioral control and emotion regulation, are often implicated: amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC. Recently, in studies using adult criminal populations, reductions in microstructural integrity of the white matter connections (i.e., uncinate fasciculus (UF between these two neural regions have been discovered in criminals with psychopathy, supporting the notion of neural dysfunction in the amygdala–VMPFC circuit. Here, a young adult, community sample is used to assess whether psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of UF, and whether this relationship is dependent upon levels of trait anxiety, which is sometimes used to distinguish subtypes of psychopathy. Results reveal a negative association between psychopathic traits and microstructural integrity of UF, supporting previous findings. However, no moderation of the relationship by trait anxiety was discovered. Findings provide further support for the notion of altered amygdala–VMPFC connectivity in association with higher psychopathic traits.

  13. Cortical hubs form a module for multisensory integration on top of the hierarchy of cortical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Zamora-López

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory stimuli entering the nervous system follow particular paths of processing, typically separated (segregated from the paths of other modal information. However, sensory perception, awareness and cognition emerge from the combination of information (integration. The corticocortical networks of cats and macaque monkeys display three prominent characteristics: (i modular organisation (facilitating the segregation, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Here, we study in detail the organisation and potential function of the cortical hubs by graph analysis and information theoretical methods. We find that the cortical hubs form a spatially delocalised, but topologically central module with the capacity to integrate multisensory information in a collaborative manner. With this, we resolve the underlying anatomical substrate that supports the simultaneous capacity of the cortex to segregate and to integrate multisensory information.

  14. The modulation of neural gain facilitates a transition between functional segregation and integration in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, James M; Aburn, Matthew J; Breakspear, Michael; Poldrack, Russell A

    2018-01-29

    Cognitive function relies on a dynamic, context-sensitive balance between functional integration and segregation in the brain. Previous work has proposed that this balance is mediated by global fluctuations in neural gain by projections from ascending neuromodulatory nuclei. To test this hypothesis in silico, we studied the effects of neural gain on network dynamics in a model of large-scale neuronal dynamics. We found that increases in neural gain directed the network through an abrupt dynamical transition, leading to an integrated network topology that was maximal in frontoparietal 'rich club' regions. This gain-mediated transition was also associated with increased topological complexity, as well as increased variability in time-resolved topological structure, further highlighting the potential computational benefits of the gain-mediated network transition. These results support the hypothesis that neural gain modulation has the computational capacity to mediate the balance between integration and segregation in the brain. © 2018, Shine et al.

  15. Osmotically and thermally isolated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (fo-md) integrated module for water treatment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    An integrated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) module and systems and methods incorporating the module is disclosed providing higher efficiencies and using less energy. The FO-MD module is osmotically and thermally isolated. The isolation can prevent mixing of FO draw solution/FO permeate and MD feed, and minimize dilution of FO draw solution and cooling of MD feed. The module provides MD feed solution and FO draw solution streams that flow in the same module but are separated by an isolation barrier. The osmotically and thermally isolated FO-MD integrated module, systems and methods offer higher driving forces of both FO and MD processes, higher recovery, and wider application than previously proposed hybrid FO- MD systems.

  16. Osmotically and thermally isolated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (fo-md) integrated module for water treatment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Francis, Lijo; Li, Zhenyu; Valladares, Rodrigo; Alsaadi, Ahmad S.; Ghdaib, Muhannad Abu; Amy, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) module and systems and methods incorporating the module is disclosed providing higher efficiencies and using less energy. The FO-MD module is osmotically and thermally isolated. The isolation can prevent mixing of FO draw solution/FO permeate and MD feed, and minimize dilution of FO draw solution and cooling of MD feed. The module provides MD feed solution and FO draw solution streams that flow in the same module but are separated by an isolation barrier. The osmotically and thermally isolated FO-MD integrated module, systems and methods offer higher driving forces of both FO and MD processes, higher recovery, and wider application than previously proposed hybrid FO- MD systems.

  17. Standard Test Methods for Wet Insulation Integrity Testing of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 These test methods provide procedures to determine the insulation resistance of a photovoltaic (PV) module, i.e. the electrical resistance between the module's internal electrical components and its exposed, electrically conductive, non-current carrying parts and surfaces. 1.2 The insulation integrity procedures are a combination of wet insulation resistance and wet dielectric voltage withstand test procedures. 1.3 These procedures are similar to and reference the insulation integrity test procedures described in Test Methods E 1462, with the difference being that the photovoltaic module under test is immersed in a wetting solution during the procedures. 1.4 These test methods do not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of these test methods. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.6 There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. 1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety conce...

  18. Integration of the CAR Interface module for the RRS of Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Hoon; Baang, Dane; Park, Gee Yong; Choi, Young San; Kim, Young Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    In a research reactor, a CAR(Control Absorber Rod) interface module which receives the control information from the RRS(Reactor Regulating System) control computer and transfer control signal to a step motor in a CAR has been composed of an interface card, an indexer card and a driver card. Due to such separated interface components, the additional interface for each component was inevitable. That is, a CAR interface was more complicated and its corresponding communication ports, drivers and signal cables were unnecessarily required. To simplify this stuff, the interface card and indexer card are integrated to one module and integrated communication network including a step motor driver card can be established through backplane network. The CAR interface module has not been redundant because power operation excluding a CAR by a failure in CAR could be available thanks to remained CARs. But, actually in spite of one CAR failure, operation with remained CARs normally is likely impossible to keep track of rapid dynamics. To solve this problem, the modular redundant structure is introduced herein and this method will let us anticipate the high reliability

  19. Integration of the CAR Interface module for the RRS of Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Hoon; Baang, Dane; Park, Gee Yong; Choi, Young San; Kim, Young Ki

    2011-01-01

    In a research reactor, a CAR(Control Absorber Rod) interface module which receives the control information from the RRS(Reactor Regulating System) control computer and transfer control signal to a step motor in a CAR has been composed of an interface card, an indexer card and a driver card. Due to such separated interface components, the additional interface for each component was inevitable. That is, a CAR interface was more complicated and its corresponding communication ports, drivers and signal cables were unnecessarily required. To simplify this stuff, the interface card and indexer card are integrated to one module and integrated communication network including a step motor driver card can be established through backplane network. The CAR interface module has not been redundant because power operation excluding a CAR by a failure in CAR could be available thanks to remained CARs. But, actually in spite of one CAR failure, operation with remained CARs normally is likely impossible to keep track of rapid dynamics. To solve this problem, the modular redundant structure is introduced herein and this method will let us anticipate the high reliability

  20. Complementary responses to mean and variance modulations in the perfect integrate-and-fire model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Joanna; Troyer, Todd W

    2009-07-01

    In the perfect integrate-and-fire model (PIF), the membrane voltage is proportional to the integral of the input current since the time of the previous spike. It has been shown that the firing rate within a noise free ensemble of PIF neurons responds instantaneously to dynamic changes in the input current, whereas in the presence of white noise, model neurons preferentially pass low frequency modulations of the mean current. Here, we prove that when the input variance is perturbed while holding the mean current constant, the PIF responds preferentially to high frequency modulations. Moreover, the linear filters for mean and variance modulations are complementary, adding exactly to one. Since changes in the rate of Poisson distributed inputs lead to proportional changes in the mean and variance, these results imply that an ensemble of PIF neurons transmits a perfect replica of the time-varying input rate for Poisson distributed input. A more general argument shows that this property holds for any signal leading to proportional changes in the mean and variance of the input current.

  1. STEM-21CS Module: Fostering 21st Century Skills through Integrated STEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhaqikah Mohamad Khalil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia calls for a society that is highly knowledgeable in the field of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM and equipped with 21st century skills to provide professional workforce that can compete globally. The application of a STEM interdisciplinary approach and teaching and learning (T&L strategies such as problem-based and inquiry-based learning are proposed in development of the STEM-21CS Module in order to foster 21st century skills in the existing science curricula. A majority of real-world issues today are interdisciplinary in which they require students to comprehend the need to integrate multiple disciplines to solve them. STEM-21CS Module allows students to master scientific knowledge and subsequently master other disciplinary skills. It is aimed at improving students’ abilities to enrich their knowledge through hands-on and minds-on activities. The field of engineering requires the knowledge of product design and inventive problem solving skills. The integration of information technology in T&L is recommended in meeting the current needs of the Net Generation. Besides that, mathematics plays a vital role in providing computational tools, especially in analysing data. The STEM-21CS Module is expected to nurture 21st century skills such as digital era literacy, inventive thinking, effective communication, high productivity, and spiritual and noble values among Malaysian students.

  2. Optical integrated circuit of a 40-channel electrooptical LiNbO/sub 3/ modulator for data-processing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukreev, I.N.; Venediktov, V.V.; Gorbatovskii, M.V.; Demina, T.P.; Kashintsev, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    An optical integrated circuit for a 40-channel electrooptical phase modulator has been developed. The channel waveguides are prepared through Ti thermal diffusion into a Y-cut LiNbO/sub 3/ substrate. The half-wave voltage for each channel is 1.6 V at a modulating frequency bandwidth of 0-290 MHz. Results are presented from an experiment concerning the use of the modulator as an input device for the optical processing of radio signals.

  3. Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) Systems Integration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy; Merbitz, Jerad; Kennedy, Kriss; Tri, Terry; Toups, Larry; Howe, A. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project team constructed an analog prototype lunar surface laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a rapid prototyping approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the system integration strategies and lessons learned, that allowed the PEM to be brought from paper design to working field prototype using a multi-center team. The system integration process was based on a rapid prototyping approach. Tailored design review and test and integration processes facilitated that approach. The use of collaboration tools including electronic tools as well as documentation enabled a geographically distributed team take a paper concept to an operational prototype in approximately one year. One of the major tools used in the integration strategy was a coordinated effort to accurately model all the subsystems using computer aided design (CAD), so conflicts were identified before physical components came together. A deliberate effort was made following the deployment of the HDU PEM for field operations to collect lessons learned to facilitate process improvement and inform the design of future flight or analog versions of habitat systems. Significant items within those lessons learned were limitations with the CAD integration approach and the impact of shell design on flexibility of placing systems within the HDU shell.

  4. Integrated High-Speed Digital Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Synthetic Aperture Radars, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...

  5. Transparent dispersion compensator with built-in gain equalizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Doerr, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we describe a method to obtain a transparent or even an amplifying dispersion compensating module with built-in gain equalization functionality. The principle of operation and experimental results are illustrated.......In this work we describe a method to obtain a transparent or even an amplifying dispersion compensating module with built-in gain equalization functionality. The principle of operation and experimental results are illustrated....

  6. Integrable high order UWB pulse photonic generator based on cross phase modulation in a SOA-MZI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Vanessa; Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Muriel, Miguel A; Capmany, José

    2013-09-23

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a potentially integrable optical scheme to generate high order UWB pulses. The technique is based on exploiting the cross phase modulation generated in an InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer containing integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers, and is also adaptable to different pulse modulation formats through an optical processing unit which allows to control of the amplitude, polarity and time delay of the generated taps.

  7. 60-GHz integrated-circuit high data rate quadriphase shift keying exciter and modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, A.; Chang, K.

    1984-01-01

    An integrated-circuit quadriphase shift keying (QPSK) exciter and modulator have demonstrated excellent performance directly modulating a carrier frequency of 60 GHz with an output phase error of less than 3 degrees and maximum amplitude error of 0.5 dB. The circuit consists of a 60-GHz Gunn VCO phase-locked to a low-frequency reference source, a 4th subharmonic mixer, and a QPSK modlator packaged into a small volume of 1.8 x 2.5 x 0.35 in. The use of microstrip has the advantages of small size, light-weight, and low-cost fabrication. The unit has the potential for multigigabit data rate applications.

  8. A SQUID gradiometer module with wire-wound pickup antenna and integrated voltage feedback circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Guofeng [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory on Superconductivity and Bioelectronics, Collaboration between CAS-Shanghai and FZJ, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yi, E-mail: y.zhang@fz-juelich.de [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory on Superconductivity and Bioelectronics, Collaboration between CAS-Shanghai and FZJ, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang Shulin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Joint Research Laboratory on Superconductivity and Bioelectronics, Collaboration between CAS-Shanghai and FZJ, Shanghai 200050 (China); Krause, Hans-Joachim [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory on Superconductivity and Bioelectronics, Collaboration between CAS-Shanghai and FZJ, Shanghai 200050 (China); and others

    2012-10-15

    The performance of the direct readout schemes for dc SQUID, Additional Positive Feedback (APF), noise cancellation (NC) and SQUID bootstrap circuit (SBC), have been studied in conjunction with planar SQUID magnetometers. In this paper, we examine the NC technique applied to a niobium SQUID gradiometer module with an Nb wire-wound antenna connecting to a dual-loop SQUID chip with an integrated voltage feedback circuit for suppression of the preamplifier noise contribution. The sensitivity of the SQUID gradiometer module is measured to be about 1 fT/(cm {radical}Hz) in the white noise range in a magnetically shielded room. Using such gradiometer, both MCG and MEG signals are recorded.

  9. 3D silicon neural probe with integrated optical fibers for optogenetic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric G R; Tu, Hongen; Luo, Hao; Liu, Bin; Bao, Shaowen; Zhang, Jinsheng; Xu, Yong

    2015-07-21

    Optogenetics is a powerful modality for neural modulation that can be useful for a wide array of biomedical studies. Penetrating microelectrode arrays provide a means of recording neural signals with high spatial resolution. It is highly desirable to integrate optics with neural probes to allow for functional study of neural tissue by optogenetics. In this paper, we report the development of a novel 3D neural probe coupled simply and robustly to optical fibers using a hollow parylene tube structure. The device shanks are hollow tubes with rigid silicon tips, allowing the insertion and encasement of optical fibers within the shanks. The position of the fiber tip can be precisely controlled relative to the electrodes on the shank by inherent design features. Preliminary in vivo rat studies indicate that these devices are capable of optogenetic modulation simultaneously with 3D neural signal recording.

  10. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1989. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE, from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations, from US and foreign embassies, and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or purpose: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly facilities

  11. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1992. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. Information is presented on five parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export and Critical Assembly

  12. Integrating CAD modules in a PACS environment using a wide computing infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cuenca, Jorge J; Tilve, Amara; López, Ricardo; Ferro, Gonzalo; Quiles, Javier; Souto, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a project designed to achieve a total integration of different CAD algorithms into the PACS environment by using a wide computing infrastructure. The aim is to build a system for the entire region of Galicia, Spain, to make CAD accessible to multiple hospitals by employing different PACSs and clinical workstations. The new CAD model seeks to connect different devices (CAD systems, acquisition modalities, workstations and PACS) by means of networking based on a platform that will offer different CAD services. This paper describes some aspects related to the health services of the region where the project was developed, CAD algorithms that were either employed or selected for inclusion in the project, and several technical aspects and results. We have built a standard-based platform with which users can request a CAD service and receive the results in their local PACS. The process runs through a web interface that allows sending data to the different CAD services. A DICOM SR object is received with the results of the algorithms stored inside the original study in the proper folder with the original images. As a result, a homogeneous service to the different hospitals of the region will be offered. End users will benefit from a homogeneous workflow and a standardised integration model to request and obtain results from CAD systems in any modality, not dependant on commercial integration models. This new solution will foster the deployment of these technologies in the entire region of Galicia.

  13. Set of CAMAC modules on the base of large integrated circuits for an accelerator synchronization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glejbman, Eh.M.; Pilyar, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    Parameters of functional moduli in the CAMAC standard developed for accelerator synchronization system are presented. They comprise BZN-8K and BZ-8K digital delay circuits, timing circuit and pulse selection circuit. In every module 3 large integral circuits of KR 580 VI53 type programmed timer, circuits of the given system bus bar interface with bus bars of crate, circuits of data recording control, 2 peripheric storage devices, circuits of initial regime setting, input and output shapers, circuits of installation and removal of blocking in channels are used

  14. Building integration photovoltaic module with reference to Ghana: using triple junction amorphous silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Essah, Emmanuel Adu

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential for using building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) \\ud roof shingles made from triple-junction amorphous silicon (3a-Si) for electrification \\ud and as a roofing material in tropical countries, such as Accra, Ghana. A model roof \\ud was constructed using triple-junction amorphous (3a-Si) PV on one section and \\ud conventional roofing tiles on the other. The performance of the PV module and tiles \\ud were measured, over a range of ambient temperatures and solar...

  15. System Definition of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Ray; Aymergen, Cagatay; VanCampen, Julie; Abell, James; Smith, Miles; Driggers, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides the critical functions and the environment for the four science instruments on JWST. This complex system development across many international organizations presents unique challenges and unique solutions. Here we describe how the requirement flow has been coordinated through the documentation system, how the tools and processes are used to minimize impact to the development of the affected interfaces, how the system design has matured, how the design review process operates, and how the system implementation is managed through reporting to ensure a truly world class scientific instrument compliment is created as the final product.

  16. Optimization of Integrated Electro-Absorption Modulated Laser Structures for 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Using Electromagnetic Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Kazmierski, Christophe; Jany, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    In this paper three options for very-high bit rate integrated electro-absorption modulated laser (EML) structures are investigated using electromagnetic simulation. A physics based distributed equivalent circuit model taking the slowwave propagation characteristics of the modulation signal...... into account is proposed for the electro-absorption modulator (EAM)electrode arrangement. This model makes it possible to apply an EM/circuit co-simulation approach to estimate the electrical to optical transmission bandwidth for the integrated EML. It is shown that a transmission bandwidth of 70 GHz seems...

  17. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1993. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly

  18. Energy Saving Assessment of Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Modules Integrated into NZEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cornaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic semi-transparent materials (STPV integrated into glazing systems can offer good potential for energy saving to buildings, influencing heating loads, cooling loads, and lighting, as well as electricity production. Moreover, with the new stringent regulations issued by various European countries, following the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD, 2010/31/EC, the building envelope, including the glazing elements, needs to have high thermal performance to guarantee Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB behavior. This work presents an assessment of energy saving potential of 4 different types of STPV with respect to conventional double pane glass. Dye sensitized solar modules (DSM and thin film modules were considered in the study. Simulations based on an IEA reference office building (STD and on reference buildings prescribed by the new Italian building energy performance regulation (NZEB were carried out. All the glazing peculiarities could be simulated using only one simulation tool, namely IDA ICE 4.7.1. Dye sensitized solar modules resulted as the best performing devices for all orientations and climate zones. The work also evidenced how the requirements of NZEB seem to be too stringent for insulation properties, especially for the climate zone of Rome.

  19. Integration of Chinese medicine with Western medicine could lead to future medicine: molecular module medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Ke-ji; Lu, Ai-ping

    2016-04-01

    The development of an effective classification method for human health conditions is essential for precise diagnosis and delivery of tailored therapy to individuals. Contemporary classification of disease systems has properties that limit its information content and usability. Chinese medicine pattern classification has been incorporated with disease classification, and this integrated classification method became more precise because of the increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms. However, we are still facing the complexity of diseases and patterns in the classification of health conditions. With continuing advances in omics methodologies and instrumentation, we are proposing a new classification approach: molecular module classification, which is applying molecular modules to classifying human health status. The initiative would be precisely defining the health status, providing accurate diagnoses, optimizing the therapeutics and improving new drug discovery strategy. Therefore, there would be no current disease diagnosis, no disease pattern classification, and in the future, a new medicine based on this classification, molecular module medicine, could redefine health statuses and reshape the clinical practice.

  20. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  1. Integration of PV modules in existing Romanian buildings from rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, S.; Finta, D. [IPA SA Research Development, Engineering and Manufacturing for Automation Equipment and Systems, Bucharest (Romania); Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania); Dabija, A.M. [Univ. of Architecture and Urbanism Ion Mincu, Bucharest (Romania); Tulcan-Paulescu, E. [West Univ. of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    Romania has launched a national research project to promote the use of distributed solar architecture and the use of BIPV systems. These systems include solar tunnels and active solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on the roofs and facades of buildings in rural areas. In contrast to other EU states, Romania does not have a photovoltaic building construction branch. The number of isolated cases are insufficient to identify a starting point regarding the PV market in the building industry. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the efficiency of integrating various PV elements in buildings from rural areas, to test them and to make them known so that they can be used on a large scale. This will be accomplished by installing new products on 2 buildings in Bucharest and in 1 building in Timisoara. The PV modules will be integrated with the architecture. One of the buildings will be a historical building while the other 2 will be new buildings with different typologies. The installed power for each building will be of about 1.000 Wp, including some technologies with PV modules.

  2. Development and Assessment of Modules to Integrate Quantitative Skills in Introductory Biology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kathleen; Leupen, Sarah; Dowell, Kathy; Kephart, Kerrie; Leips, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Redesigning undergraduate biology courses to integrate quantitative reasoning and skill development is critical to prepare students for careers in modern medicine and scientific research. In this paper, we report on the development, implementation, and assessment of stand-alone modules that integrate quantitative reasoning into introductory biology courses. Modules are designed to improve skills in quantitative numeracy, interpreting data sets using visual tools, and making inferences about biological phenomena using mathematical/statistical models. We also examine demographic/background data that predict student improvement in these skills through exposure to these modules. We carried out pre/postassessment tests across four semesters and used student interviews in one semester to examine how students at different levels approached quantitative problems. We found that students improved in all skills in most semesters, although there was variation in the degree of improvement among skills from semester to semester. One demographic variable, transfer status, stood out as a major predictor of the degree to which students improved (transfer students achieved much lower gains every semester, despite the fact that pretest scores in each focus area were similar between transfer and nontransfer students). We propose that increased exposure to quantitative skill development in biology courses is effective at building competency in quantitative reasoning. © 2016 K. Hoffman, S. Leupen, et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. The selective digital integrator: A new device for modulated polarization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancic, Aljosa

    1998-12-01

    A new device, a selective digital integrator (SDI), for the acquisition of modulated polarization spectroscopy (MPS) signals is described. Special attention is given to the accurate measurement of very small (AC component of interest 50 kHz) signals at or below noise levels. Various data acquisition methods and problems associated with the collection of modulated signals are discussed. The SDI solves most of these problems and has the following advantages: it provides the average-time resolved profile of a modulated signal; it eliminates errors if the modulation is not sinusoidal; it enables separate measurements of the various phases of the signal modulation cycle; it permits simultaneous measurement of absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) spectra; it facilitates 3-D absorbance measurements; it has a wide gain-switching-free dynamic range (10 orders of magnitude or more); it offers a constant S/N ratio mode of operation; it eliminates the need for photomultiplier voltage feedback, and it has faster scanning speeds. The time-resolution, selectivity, wide dynamic range, and low-overhead on-the-fly data processing are useful for other modulated spectroscopy (MS) and non-MS experiments such as pulse height distribution and time-resolved pulse counting measurements. The advantages of the MPS-SDI method are tested on the first Rydberg electronic transitions of (+)-3- methylcyclopentanone. The experimental results validate the predicted SDI capabilities. However, they also point to two difficulties that had not been noted previously: the presence of LD in a gaseous sample and a pressure- dependence of the relative peak heights of the CD spectrum. Models for these anomalies are proposed. The presence of the oscillatory LD (but not an LD background) is explained with a sample cell model based on the observed polarization-dependent time-resolved profiles of transmitted light intensity. To obtain expressions for these intensities, a theoretical

  4. ATLAS ITk Short Strip Prototype Module with Integrated DCDC Powering and Control Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker detector at the HL - LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Greenall, Ashley; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The prototype Barrel module design, for the Phase II upgrade of the of the new Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC, has adopted an integrated low mass assembly featuring single-sided flexible circuits, with readout ASICs, glued to the silicon strip sensor. Further integration has been achieved by the attachment of module DCDC powering, HV sensor biasing switch and autonomous monitoring and control to the sensor. This low mass, integrated module approach benefits further in a reduced width stave structure to which the modules are attached. The results of preliminary electrical tests of such an integrated module will be presented.

  5. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1987. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually for Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear regulatory Commission; from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The major change in this revision involves the data related to shutdown and dismantled facilities. Because this information serves substantially different purposes, it has been accumulated in a separate section, ''Reactors and Facilities Shutdown or Dismantled.'' Cancelled reactors or reactors whose progress has been terminated at some stage before operation are included in this section

  6. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.P.

    1987-03-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1986, which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commisssion; from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; and from US embassies of foreign countries. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or purpose: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly facilities

  7. Reliability-Weighted Integration of Audiovisual Signals Can Be Modulated by Top-down Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppeney, Uta

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Behaviorally, it is well established that human observers integrate signals near-optimally weighted in proportion to their reliabilities as predicted by maximum likelihood estimation. Yet, despite abundant behavioral evidence, it is unclear how the human brain accomplishes this feat. In a spatial ventriloquist paradigm, participants were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual signals and reported the location of the auditory or the visual signal. Combining psychophysics, multivariate functional MRI (fMRI) decoding, and models of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), we characterized the computational operations underlying audiovisual integration at distinct cortical levels. We estimated observers’ behavioral weights by fitting psychometric functions to participants’ localization responses. Likewise, we estimated the neural weights by fitting neurometric functions to spatial locations decoded from regional fMRI activation patterns. Our results demonstrate that low-level auditory and visual areas encode predominantly the spatial location of the signal component of a region’s preferred auditory (or visual) modality. By contrast, intraparietal sulcus forms spatial representations by integrating auditory and visual signals weighted by their reliabilities. Critically, the neural and behavioral weights and the variance of the spatial representations depended not only on the sensory reliabilities as predicted by the MLE model but also on participants’ modality-specific attention and report (i.e., visual vs. auditory). These results suggest that audiovisual integration is not exclusively determined by bottom-up sensory reliabilities. Instead, modality-specific attention and report can flexibly modulate how intraparietal sulcus integrates sensory signals into spatial representations to guide behavioral responses (e.g., localization and orienting). PMID:29527567

  8. Cryo Testing of tbe James Webb Space Telescope's Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCampen, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope will be integrated and tested at the Environmental Test Facilities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The cryogenic thermal vacuum testing of the ISIM will be the most difficult and problematic portion of the GSFC Integration and Test flow. The test is to validate the coupled interface of the science instruments and the ISIM structure and to sufficiently stress that interface while validating image quality of the science instruments. The instruments and the structure are not made from the same materials and have different CTE. Test objectives and verification rationale are currently being evaluated in Phase B of the project plan. The test program will encounter engineering challenges and limitations, which are derived by cost and technology many of which can be mitigated by facility upgrades, creative GSE, and thorough forethought. The cryogenic testing of the ISIM will involve a number of risks such as the implementation of unique metrology techniques, mechanical, electrical and optical simulators housed within the cryogenic vacuum environment. These potential risks are investigated and possible solutions are proposed.

  9. The Integrative Method Based on the Module-Network for Identifying Driver Genes in Cancer Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in next-generation sequencing(NGS technologies, a large number of multiple types of high-throughput genomics data are available. A great challenge in exploring cancer progression is to identify the driver genes from the variant genes by analyzing and integrating multi-types genomics data. Breast cancer is known as a heterogeneous disease. The identification of subtype-specific driver genes is critical to guide the diagnosis, assessment of prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. We developed an integrated frame based on gene expression profiles and copy number variation (CNV data to identify breast cancer subtype-specific driver genes. In this frame, we employed statistical machine-learning method to select gene subsets and utilized an module-network analysis method to identify potential candidate driver genes. The final subtype-specific driver genes were acquired by paired-wise comparison in subtypes. To validate specificity of the driver genes, the gene expression data of these genes were applied to classify the patient samples with 10-fold cross validation and the enrichment analysis were also conducted on the identified driver genes. The experimental results show that the proposed integrative method can identify the potential driver genes and the classifier with these genes acquired better performance than with genes identified by other methods.

  10. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - Development of solar beam power generation and utilization systems and ancillary technologies (Research and development of building material integrated solar cell modules - high-durability roof modules); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinkenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi module no kenkyu kaihatsu (kotaikyusei yane module))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With the target set on a system with a roof array efficiency of 8.5%, and a system cost of 170 yen/W, development is being made on a large roof panel and its construction technology, which is capable of AC output by integrating into a large roof panel the compound thin film solar cells having glass/CdS/CdTe/rear air chamber/rear metal, and the inverter. In the cell constituting materials and the structure design, sealants were evaluated, the painting process was developed, and two kinds of structures were prepared. The frameless type has a lamination structure, and a prototype module of 886 times 664 mm was fabricated, and the frame type has a double sealing structure, and a prototype module 600 times 900 mm was fabricated. Prototype modules that can be fixed on a rail type fixing stand were fabricated and constructed, having demonstrated sufficient workability. In addition, a prototype small inverter with system coordination protection was operated actually, and the initial stage malfunctions were corrected. Two demonstration buildings were built, and the whole process was performed from assembly and transportation of the modules and to the installation thereof at the construction site. (NEDO)

  11. Pollutant dispersion in built environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ming, Tingzhen; Gong, Tingrui; Li, Zhengtong

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses energy transfer, fluid flow and pollution in built environments. It provides a comprehensive overview of the highly detailed fundamental theories as well as the technologies used and the application of heat and mass transfer and fluid flow in built environments, with a focus on the mathematical models and computational and experimental methods. It is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of buildings and environment, heat transfer and global warming.

  12. Exploring “Speak-O-Rama” as a Public Speaking Module: A Pilot Study in an Islamic Integrated Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Iman Ahmad Bukhari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the pilot study in implementing a public speaking module for a primary school level. The module development was structured according to ASSURE Model with the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT as the basis used in designing the module activities.  One group of Year 4 students from an Islamic integrated school was selected and the research method employed was the quasi-experimental research with pre and post-tests as well as interviews with the English teachers on the students’ performance and self-confidence.  Students were also interviewed to identify their self confidence level before and after the implementation of the public speaking module. This research project is hoped to increase students’ oral proficiency along with increasing self-confidence in public speaking at a young age, and to propose the implementation of this module as reference in primary education.

  13. Fission-product release modelling in the ASTEC integral code: the status of the ELSA module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumecocq, W.; Kissane, M.P.; Manenc, H.; Giordano, P.

    2003-01-01

    Safety assessment of water-cooled nuclear reactors encompasses potential severe accidents where, in particular, the release of fission products (FPs) and actinides into the reactor coolant system (RCS) is evaluated. The ELSA module is used in the ASTEC integral code to model all releases into the RCS. A wide variety of experiments is used for validation: small-scale CRL, ORNL and VERCORS tests; large-scale Phebus-FP tests; etc. Being a tool that covers intact fuel and degraded states, ELSA is being improved maximizing the use of information from degradation modelling. Short-term improvements will include some treatment of initial FP release due to intergranular inventories and implementing models for release of additional structural materials (Sn, Fe, etc.). (author)

  14. A Micro Polymerase Chain Reaction Module for Integrated and Portable DNA Analysis Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Morganti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design, fabrication, and thermal characterization of a disposable miniaturized Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR module that will be integrated in a portable and fast DNA analysis system. It is composed of two independent parts: a silicon substrate with embedded heater and thermometers and a PDMS (PolyDiMethylSiloxane chamber reactor as disposable element; the contact between the two parts is assured by a mechanical clamping obtained using a Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC. This PLCC is also useful, avoid the PCR mix evaporation during the thermal cycles. Finite Element Analysis was used to evaluate the thermal requirements of the device. The thermal behaviour of the device was characterized revealing that the temperature can be controlled with a precision of ±0.5°C. Different concentrations of carbon nanopowder were mixed to the PDMS curing agent in order to increase the PDMS thermal conductivity and so the temperature control accuracy.

  15. Module Integrated GaN Power Stage for High Switching Frequency Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Yasser; Knott, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    is integrated on a high glass transition temperature 0.4 mmthick FR4 substrate configured as a 70 pin ball grid arraypackage. The power stage is tested up to switching frequency of12 MHz. The power stage achieved 88.5 % peak efficiency whenconfigured as a soft switching buck converter operating at 7MHz......An increased attention has been detected todevelop smaller and lighter high voltage power converters in therange of 50 V to 400 V domains. The applications for theseconverters are mainly focused for Power over Ethernet (PoE),LED lighting and ac adapters. Design for high power density isone...... of the targets for next generation power converters. Thispaper presents an 80 V input capable multi-chip moduleintegration of enhancement mode gallium nitride (GaN) fieldeffect transistors (FETs) based power stage. The module design ispresented and validated through experimental results. The powerstage...

  16. Preliminary piping layout and integration of European test blanket modules subsystems in ITER CVCS area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarallo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.tarallo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Mozzillo, Rocco; Di Gironimo, Giuseppe [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Aiello, Antonio; Utili, Marco [ENEA UTIS, C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Ricapito, Italo [TBM& MD Project, Fusion for Energy, EU Commission, Carrer J. Pla, 2, Building B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The use of human modeling tools for piping design in view of maintenance is discussed. • A possible preliminary layout for TBM subsystems in CVCS area has been designed with CATIA. • A DHM-based method to quickly check for maintainability of piping systems is suggested. - Abstract: This paper explores a possible integration of some ancillary systems of helium-cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) test blanket modules in ITER CVCS area. Computer-aided design and ergonomics simulation tools have been fundamental not only to define suitable routes for pipes, but also to quickly check for maintainability of equipment and in-line components. In particular, accessibility of equipment and systems has been investigated from the very first stages of the design using digital human models. In some cases, the digital simulations have resulted in changes in the initial space reservations.

  17. Multichannel photonic Hilbert transformers based on complex modulated integrated Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    Multichannel photonic Hilbert transformers (MPHTs) are reported. The devices are based on single compact spiral integrated Bragg gratings on silicon with coupling coefficients precisely modulated by the phase of each grating period. MPHTs with up to nine wavelength channels and a single-channel bandwidth of up to ∼625  GHz are achieved. The potential of the devices for multichannel single-sideband signal generation is suggested. The work offers a new possibility of utilizing wavelength as an extra degree of freedom in designing radio-frequency photonic signal processors. Such multichannel processors are expected to possess improved capacities and a potential to greatly benefit current widespread wavelength division multiplexed systems.

  18. Integrating Protein Engineering and Bioorthogonal Click Conjugation for Extracellular Vesicle Modulation and Intracellular Delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wang

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small, cell-secreted vesicles that transfer proteins and genetic information between cells. This intercellular transmission regulates many physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, exosomes have emerged as novel biomarkers for disease diagnosis and as nanocarriers for drug delivery. Here, we report an easy-to-adapt and highly versatile methodology to modulate exosome composition and conjugate exosomes for intracellular delivery. Our strategy combines the metabolic labeling of newly synthesized proteins or glycan/glycoproteins of exosome-secreting cells with active azides and bioorthogonal click conjugation to modify and functionalize the exosomes. The azide-integrated can be conjugated to a variety of small molecules and proteins and can efficiently deliver conjugates into cells. The metabolic engineering of exosomes diversifies the chemistry of exosomes and expands the functions that can be introduced into exosomes, providing novel, powerful tools to study the roles of exosomes in biology and expand the biomedical potential of exosomes.

  19. A Method for testing the integrated thermal resistance of thermoelectric modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Du, Qungui; Chen, Min

    2013-11-01

    The integrated thermal resistance (ITR) of thermoelectric modules (TEMs) is an important parameter that represents the thermal-conduction of ceramic substrates, copper conducting strips, and welding material used in the TEM as well as the thermal contact resistances between different materials. In this study, an accurate and practical test method is proposed for the ITR of TEMs according to thermoelectric heat transfer theory and the equivalent characteristics of heat flux through the cold and hot sides of TEMs in an open-circuit situation. By using such measurements and comparisons, it is verified that the measured ITR value in our mode is accurate and reliable. In particular this method accurately predicts the actual operating conditions of TEMs, in which TEMs are under certain mechanical pressure. It effectively solves the problem of thermal resistance extraction from operating TEMs and is of great significance in their analysis and optimization.

  20. Integrated management data system for radioactive waste repositories (SGI3R) - development of the inventory module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fabio; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, CNEN is responsible for the intermediate and final storage of radioactive waste generated in the country. The CDTN/CNEN coordinates the RBMN Project for the implementation of the National Repository for disposal radioactive waste of low- and intermediate-level. The results of this Project should be presented so that all data being easily retrievable and useful for all institutions involved, including the regulators. To achieve this goal it was developed at the Waste Management Department - SEGRE/CDTN - a management database system, called 'Integrated Management System for the Management of Repository for Radioactive Waste' (SGI3R). The System consists of relational tables, forms and reports, preserving all available information, avoiding duplication of efforts, additional costs, and it will additionally give support to improve the management of RBMN Project. This paper presents a summary of this development with emphasis on the INVENTORY Module. The data from the inventory of disused sealed sources, which are stored in CDTN, were used to test the functionality of this module and of the SGI3R. These sources were categorized according to guidelines of the IAEA, and it was also presented how they should be safely managed over time. (author)

  1. Universal industrial sectors integrated solutions module for the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash; Jozewicz, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    The U.S. is the world's second-leading producer of pulp and paper products after China. Boilers, recovery furnaces, and lime kilns are the dominant sources of emissions from pulp and paper mills, collectively accounting for more than 99 % of the SO 2 , almost 96 % of the NO X , and more than 85 % of the particulate matter (PM) emitted to the air from this sector in the U.S. The process of developing industrial strategies for managing emissions can be made efficient, and the resulting strategies more cost-effective, through the application of modeling that accounts for relevant technical, environmental and economic factors. Accordingly, the United States Environmental Protection Agency is developing the Universal Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions module for the Pulp and Paper Industry (UISIS-PNP). It can be applied to evaluate emissions and economic performance of pulp and paper mills separately under user-defined pollution control strategies. In this paper, we discuss the UISIS-PNP module, the pulp and paper market and associated air emissions from the pulp and paper sector. After illustrating the sector-based multi-product modeling structure, a hypothetical example is presented to show the engineering and economic considerations involved in the emission-reduction modeling of the pulp and paper sector in the U.S.

  2. Alertness Modulates Conflict Adaptation and Feature Integration in an Opposite Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Huang, Xiting; Chen, Antao

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies show that the congruency sequence effect can result from both the conflict adaptation effect (CAE) and feature integration effect which can be observed as the repetition priming effect (RPE) and feature overlap effect (FOE) depending on different experimental conditions. Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that a close correlation exists between the neural mechanisms of alertness-related modulations and the congruency sequence effect. However, little is known about whether and how alertness mediates the congruency sequence effect. In Experiment 1, the Attentional Networks Test (ANT) and a modified flanker task were used to evaluate whether the alertness of the attentional functions had a correlation with the CAE and RPE. In Experimental 2, the ANT and another modified flanker task were used to investigate whether alertness of the attentional functions correlate with the CAE and FOE. In Experiment 1, through the correlative analysis, we found a significant positive correlation between alertness and the CAE, and a negative correlation between the alertness and the RPE. Moreover, a significant negative correlation existed between CAE and RPE. In Experiment 2, we found a marginally significant negative correlation between the CAE and the RPE, but the correlation between alertness and FOE, CAE and FOE was not significant. These results suggest that alertness can modulate conflict adaptation and feature integration in an opposite way. Participants at the high alerting level group may tend to use the top-down cognitive processing strategy, whereas participants at the low alerting level group tend to use the bottom-up processing strategy. PMID:24250824

  3. Alertness modulates conflict adaptation and feature integration in an opposite way.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiduo Liu

    Full Text Available Previous studies show that the congruency sequence effect can result from both the conflict adaptation effect (CAE and feature integration effect which can be observed as the repetition priming effect (RPE and feature overlap effect (FOE depending on different experimental conditions. Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that a close correlation exists between the neural mechanisms of alertness-related modulations and the congruency sequence effect. However, little is known about whether and how alertness mediates the congruency sequence effect. In Experiment 1, the Attentional Networks Test (ANT and a modified flanker task were used to evaluate whether the alertness of the attentional functions had a correlation with the CAE and RPE. In Experimental 2, the ANT and another modified flanker task were used to investigate whether alertness of the attentional functions correlate with the CAE and FOE. In Experiment 1, through the correlative analysis, we found a significant positive correlation between alertness and the CAE, and a negative correlation between the alertness and the RPE. Moreover, a significant negative correlation existed between CAE and RPE. In Experiment 2, we found a marginally significant negative correlation between the CAE and the RPE, but the correlation between alertness and FOE, CAE and FOE was not significant. These results suggest that alertness can modulate conflict adaptation and feature integration in an opposite way. Participants at the high alerting level group may tend to use the top-down cognitive processing strategy, whereas participants at the low alerting level group tend to use the bottom-up processing strategy.

  4. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huang eSu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently or upwards (incongruently to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli.

  5. Content congruency and its interplay with temporal synchrony modulate integration between rhythmic audiovisual streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Both lower-level stimulus factors (e.g., temporal proximity) and higher-level cognitive factors (e.g., content congruency) are known to influence multisensory integration. The former can direct attention in a converging manner, and the latter can indicate whether information from the two modalities belongs together. The present research investigated whether and how these two factors interacted in the perception of rhythmic, audiovisual (AV) streams derived from a human movement scenario. Congruency here was based on sensorimotor correspondence pertaining to rhythm perception. Participants attended to bimodal stimuli consisting of a humanlike figure moving regularly to a sequence of auditory beat, and detected a possible auditory temporal deviant. The figure moved either downwards (congruently) or upwards (incongruently) to the downbeat, while in both situations the movement was either synchronous with the beat, or lagging behind it. Greater cross-modal binding was expected to hinder deviant detection. Results revealed poorer detection for congruent than for incongruent streams, suggesting stronger integration in the former. False alarms increased in asynchronous stimuli only for congruent streams, indicating greater tendency for deviant report due to visual capture of asynchronous auditory events. In addition, a greater increase in perceived synchrony was associated with a greater reduction in false alarms for congruent streams, while the pattern was reversed for incongruent ones. These results demonstrate that content congruency as a top-down factor not only promotes integration, but also modulates bottom-up effects of synchrony. Results are also discussed regarding how theories of integration and attentional entrainment may be combined in the context of rhythmic multisensory stimuli.

  6. Wind energy in the built environment : Concentrator effects of buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with wind energy conversion in the built environment. It gives a description of the wind resources in the built environment that can be converted into energy by a wind turbine. With a focus on maximum energy yield of the wind turbine, it especially deals with the integration of

  7. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This publication contains unclassified information about facilities, built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1996. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters, and field offices of DOE; from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the U. S. reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from U.S. and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled

  8. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.

    1992-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1991. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is an American company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4, in each section). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5)

  9. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This publication contains unclassified information about facilities, built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1996. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters, and field offices of DOE; from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the U. S. reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from U.S. and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled.

  10. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.

    1992-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1991. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables; Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned; and Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. Sections 2 and 3 contain the following classification of reactors: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is an American company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4, in each section). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  11. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1988. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington Headquarters and field offices of DOE, from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations, from US and foreign embassies, and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book is divided into three major sections: Section 1 consists of a reactor locator map and reactor tables. Section 2 includes nuclear reactors that are operating, being built, or planned. Section 3 includes reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled

  12. E-type cyclins modulate telomere integrity in mammalian male meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterola, Marcia; Sicinski, Piotr; Wolgemuth, Debra J

    2016-06-01

    We have shown that E-type cyclins are key regulators of mammalian male meiosis. Depletion of cyclin E2 reduced fertility in male mice due to meiotic defects, involving abnormal pairing and synapsis, unrepaired DNA, and loss of telomere structure. These defects were exacerbated by additional loss of cyclin E1, and complete absence of both E-type cyclins produces a meiotic catastrophe. Here, we investigated the involvement of E-type cyclins in maintaining telomere integrity in male meiosis. Spermatocytes lacking cyclin E2 and one E1 allele (E1+/-E2-/-) displayed a high rate of telomere abnormalities but can progress to pachytene and diplotene stages. We show that their telomeres exhibited an aberrant DNA damage repair response during pachynema and that the shelterin complex proteins TRF2 and RAP2 were significantly decreased in the proximal telomeres. Moreover, the insufficient level of these proteins correlated with an increase of γ-H2AX foci in the affected telomeres and resulted in telomere associations involving TRF1 and telomere detachment in later prophase-I stages. These results suggest that E-type cyclins are key modulators of telomere integrity during meiosis by, at least in part, maintaining the balance of shelterin complex proteins, and uncover a novel role of E-type cyclins in regulating chromosome structure during male meiosis.

  13. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with Semiconductor optical amplifier for short-range optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6-7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.

  14. Semantics and the multisensory brain: how meaning modulates processes of audio-visual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrmann, Oliver; Naumer, Marcus J

    2008-11-25

    By using meaningful stimuli, multisensory research has recently started to investigate the impact of stimulus content on crossmodal integration. Variations in this respect have often been termed as "semantic". In this paper we will review work related to the question for which tasks the influence of semantic factors has been found and which cortical networks are most likely to mediate these effects. More specifically, the focus of this paper will be on processing of object stimuli presented in the auditory and visual sensory modalities. Furthermore, we will investigate which cortical regions are particularly responsive to experimental variations of content by comparing semantically matching ("congruent") and mismatching ("incongruent") experimental conditions. In this context, recent neuroimaging studies point toward a possible functional differentiation of temporal and frontal cortical regions, with the former being more responsive to semantically congruent and the latter to semantically incongruent audio-visual (AV) stimulation. To account for these differential effects, we will suggest in the final section of this paper a possible synthesis of these data on semantic modulation of AV integration with findings from neuroimaging studies and theoretical accounts of semantic memory.

  15. Integrated InP frequency discriminator for Phase-modulated microwave photonic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, J S; Doménech, J D; Muñoz, P; Capmany, J

    2013-02-11

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of an integrated frequency discriminator on InP technology for microwave photonic phase modulated links. The optical chip is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported in an active platform and the first to include the optical detectors. The discriminator, designed as a linear filter in intensity, features preliminary SFDR values the range between 67 and 79 dB.Hz(2/3) for signal frequencies in the range of 5-9 GHz limited, in principle, by the high value of the optical losses arising from the use of several free space coupling devices in our experimental setup. As discussed, these losses can be readily reduced by the use of integrated spot-size converters improving the SFDR by 17.3 dB (84-96 dB.Hz(2/3)). Further increase up to a range of (104-116 dB.Hz(2/3)) is possible by reducing the system noise eliminating the EDFA employed in the setup and using a commercially available laser source providing higher output power and lower relative intensity noise. Other paths for improvement requiring a filter redesign to be linear in the optical field are also discussed.

  16. Cascade photonic integrated circuit architecture for electro-optic in-phase quadrature/single sideband modulation or frequency conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hall, Trevor

    2015-11-01

    A photonic integrated circuit architecture for implementing frequency upconversion is proposed. The circuit consists of a 1×2 splitter and 2×1 combiner interconnected by two stages of differentially driven phase modulators having 2×2 multimode interference coupler between the stages. A transfer matrix approach is used to model the operation of the architecture. The predictions of the model are validated by simulations performed using an industry standard software tool. The intrinsic conversion efficiency of the proposed design is improved by 6 dB over the alternative functionally equivalent circuit based on dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators known in the prior art. A two-tone analysis is presented to study the linearity of the proposed circuit, and a comparison is provided over the alternative. The proposed circuit is suitable for integration in any platform that offers linear electro-optic phase modulation such as LiNbO(3), silicon, III-V, or hybrid technology.

  17. Integrated Modules Analysis to Explore the Molecular Mechanisms of Phlegm-Stasis Cementation Syndrome with Ischemic Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Ming; Yang, Kuo; Jiang, Li-Jie; Hu, Jing-Qing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been the leading cause of death for several decades globally, IHD patients usually hold the symptoms of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome (PSCS) as significant complications. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PSCS complicated with IHD have not yet been fully elucidated. Materials and Methods: Network medicine methods were utilized to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of IHD phenotypes. Firstly, high-quality IHD-associated genes from both human curated disease-gene association database and biomedical literatures were integrated. Secondly, the IHD disease modules were obtained by dissecting the protein-protein interaction (PPI) topological modules in the String V9.1 database and the mapping of IHD-associated genes to the PPI topological modules. After that, molecular functional analyses (e.g., Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses) for these IHD disease modules were conducted. Finally, the PSCS syndrome modules were identified by mapping the PSCS related symptom-genes to the IHD disease modules, which were further validated by both pharmacological and physiological evidences derived from published literatures. Results: The total of 1,056 high-quality IHD-associated genes were integrated and evaluated. In addition, eight IHD disease modules (the PPI sub-networks significantly relevant to IHD) were identified, in which two disease modules were relevant to PSCS syndrome (i.e., two PSCS syndrome modules). These two modules had enriched pathways on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway (hsa04620) and Renin-angiotensin system (hsa04614), with the molecular functions of angiotensin maturation (GO:0002003) and response to bacterium (GO:0009617), which had been validated by classical Chinese herbal formulas-related targets, IHD-related drug targets, and the phenotype features derived from human phenotype ontology (HPO) and published biomedical literatures. Conclusion: A network medicine

  18. Integrated Modules Analysis to Explore the Molecular Mechanisms of Phlegm-Stasis Cementation Syndrome with Ischemic Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD has been the leading cause of death for several decades globally, IHD patients usually hold the symptoms of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome (PSCS as significant complications. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PSCS complicated with IHD have not yet been fully elucidated.Materials and Methods: Network medicine methods were utilized to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of IHD phenotypes. Firstly, high-quality IHD-associated genes from both human curated disease-gene association database and biomedical literatures were integrated. Secondly, the IHD disease modules were obtained by dissecting the protein-protein interaction (PPI topological modules in the String V9.1 database and the mapping of IHD-associated genes to the PPI topological modules. After that, molecular functional analyses (e.g., Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses for these IHD disease modules were conducted. Finally, the PSCS syndrome modules were identified by mapping the PSCS related symptom-genes to the IHD disease modules, which were further validated by both pharmacological and physiological evidences derived from published literatures.Results: The total of 1,056 high-quality IHD-associated genes were integrated and evaluated. In addition, eight IHD disease modules (the PPI sub-networks significantly relevant to IHD were identified, in which two disease modules were relevant to PSCS syndrome (i.e., two PSCS syndrome modules. These two modules had enriched pathways on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway (hsa04620 and Renin-angiotensin system (hsa04614, with the molecular functions of angiotensin maturation (GO:0002003 and response to bacterium (GO:0009617, which had been validated by classical Chinese herbal formulas-related targets, IHD-related drug targets, and the phenotype features derived from human phenotype ontology (HPO and published biomedical literatures.Conclusion: A network medicine

  19. Integrated Modules Analysis to Explore the Molecular Mechanisms of Phlegm-Stasis Cementation Syndrome with Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Ming; Yang, Kuo; Jiang, Li-Jie; Hu, Jing-Qing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been the leading cause of death for several decades globally, IHD patients usually hold the symptoms of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome (PSCS) as significant complications. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PSCS complicated with IHD have not yet been fully elucidated. Materials and Methods: Network medicine methods were utilized to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of IHD phenotypes. Firstly, high-quality IHD-associated genes from both human curated disease-gene association database and biomedical literatures were integrated. Secondly, the IHD disease modules were obtained by dissecting the protein-protein interaction (PPI) topological modules in the String V9.1 database and the mapping of IHD-associated genes to the PPI topological modules. After that, molecular functional analyses (e.g., Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses) for these IHD disease modules were conducted. Finally, the PSCS syndrome modules were identified by mapping the PSCS related symptom-genes to the IHD disease modules, which were further validated by both pharmacological and physiological evidences derived from published literatures. Results: The total of 1,056 high-quality IHD-associated genes were integrated and evaluated. In addition, eight IHD disease modules (the PPI sub-networks significantly relevant to IHD) were identified, in which two disease modules were relevant to PSCS syndrome (i.e., two PSCS syndrome modules). These two modules had enriched pathways on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway (hsa04620) and Renin-angiotensin system (hsa04614), with the molecular functions of angiotensin maturation (GO:0002003) and response to bacterium (GO:0009617), which had been validated by classical Chinese herbal formulas-related targets, IHD-related drug targets, and the phenotype features derived from human phenotype ontology (HPO) and published biomedical literatures. Conclusion: A network medicine

  20. Integrated modulation of phorbol ester-induced Raf activation in EL4 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shujie; Meier, Kathryn E

    2009-05-01

    The EL4 murine lymphoma cell line exists in variant phenotypes that differ with respect to responses to the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA1). Previous work showed that "PMA-sensitive" cells, characterized by a high magnitude of PMA-induced Erk activation, express RasGRP, a phorbol ester receptor that directly activates Ras. In "PMA-resistant" and "intermediate" EL4 cell lines, PMA induces Erk activation to lesser extents, but with a greater response in intermediate cells. In the current study, these cell lines were used to examine mechanisms of Raf-1 modulation. Phospho-specific antibodies were utilized to define patterns and kinetics of Raf-1 phosphorylation on several sites. Further studies showed that Akt is constitutively activated to a greater extent in PMA-resistant than in PMA-sensitive cells, and also to a greater extent in resistant than intermediate cells. Akt negatively regulates Raf-1 activation (Ser259), partially explaining the difference between resistant and intermediate cells. Erk activation exerts negative feedback on Raf-1 (Ser289/296/301), thus resulting in earlier termination of the signal in cells with a higher level of Erk activation. RKIP, a Raf inhibitory protein, is expressed at higher levels in resistant cells than in sensitive or intermediate cells. Knockdown of RKIP increases Erk activation and also negative feedback. In conclusion, this study delineates Raf-1 phosphorylation events occurring in response to PMA in cell lines with different extents of Erk activation. Variations in the levels of expression and activation of multiple signaling proteins work in an integrated fashion to modulate the extent and duration of Erk activation.

  1. The Impact of an Academic Integrity Module and Turnitin® on Similarity Index Scores of Undergraduate Student Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Iva B.

    2013-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental 2 x 2 factorial design study, the impact of an academic integrity module and Turnitin® on undergraduate student similarity index scores was investigated. Similarity index scores were used to measure suggested plagiarism rates of student papers. A purposive sample consisting of 96 undergraduate education students enrolled…

  2. USO-Built Graduate School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Doevendans, C.H.; Verbeke, J.

    2003-01-01

    USO-Built is a distributed Graduate Research School under the CLUSTER (www.cluster.org) umbrella with its own aim, high-quality research and educational programs. It focuses on teaching research at the PhD and MPhil-level, concerns the technological domains of science aiming at balanced and implicit

  3. Integral test phantom for dosimetric quality assurance of image guided and intensity modulated stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, Daniel; Keller, Harald; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a dosimetric phantom quality assurance (QA) of linear accelerators capable of cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guided and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT). This phantom is to be used in an integral test to quantify in real-time both the performance of the image guidance and the dose delivery systems in terms of dose localization. The prototype IG-IMRT QA phantom consisted of a cylindrical imaging phantom (CatPhan) combined with an array of 11 radiation diodes mounted on a 10 cm diameter disk, oriented perpendicular to the phantom axis. Basic diode response characterization was performed for 6 and 18 MV photons. The diode response was compared to planning system calculations in the open and penumbrae regions of simple and complex beam arrangements. The clinical use of the QA phantom was illustrated in an integral test of an IG-IMRT treatment designed for a clinical spinal radiosurgery case. The sensitivity of the phantom to multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration and setup errors in the clinical setting was assessed by introducing errors in the IMRT plan or by displacing the phantom. The diodes offered good response linearity and long-term reproducibility for both 6 and 18 MV. Axial dosimetry of coplanar beams (in a plane containing the beam axes) was made possible with the nearly isoplanatic response of the diodes over 360 deg. of gantry (usually within ±1%). For single beam geometry, errors in phantom placement as small as 0.5 mm could be accurately detected (in gradient ≥1%/mm). In clinical setting, MLC systematic errors of 1 mm on a single MLC bank introduced in the IMRT plan were easily detectable with the QA phantom. The QA phantom demonstrated also sufficient sensitivity for the detection of setup errors as small as 1 mm for the IMRT delivery. These results demonstrated that the prototype can accurately and efficiently verify the entire IG-IMRT process. This tool, in conjunction with image guidance capabilities

  4. Visual Cycle Modulation as an Approach toward Preservation of Retinal Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Bavik

    Full Text Available Increased exposure to blue or visible light, fluctuations in oxygen tension, and the excessive accumulation of toxic retinoid byproducts places a tremendous amount of stress on the retina. Reduction of visual chromophore biosynthesis may be an effective method to reduce the impact of these stressors and preserve retinal integrity. A class of non-retinoid, small molecule compounds that target key proteins of the visual cycle have been developed. The first candidate in this class of compounds, referred to as visual cycle modulators, is emixustat hydrochloride (emixustat. Here, we describe the effects of emixustat, an inhibitor of the visual cycle isomerase (RPE65, on visual cycle function and preservation of retinal integrity in animal models. Emixustat potently inhibited isomerase activity in vitro (IC50 = 4.4 nM and was found to reduce the production of visual chromophore (11-cis retinal in wild-type mice following a single oral dose (ED50 = 0.18 mg/kg. Measure of drug effect on the retina by electroretinography revealed a dose-dependent slowing of rod photoreceptor recovery (ED50 = 0.21 mg/kg that was consistent with the pattern of visual chromophore reduction. In albino mice, emixustat was shown to be effective in preventing photoreceptor cell death caused by intense light exposure. Pre-treatment with a single dose of emixustat (0.3 mg/kg provided a ~50% protective effect against light-induced photoreceptor cell loss, while higher doses (1-3 mg/kg were nearly 100% effective. In Abca4-/- mice, an animal model of excessive lipofuscin and retinoid toxin (A2E accumulation, chronic (3 month emixustat treatment markedly reduced lipofuscin autofluorescence and reduced A2E levels by ~60% (ED50 = 0.47 mg/kg. Finally, in the retinopathy of prematurity rodent model, treatment with emixustat during the period of ischemia and reperfusion injury produced a ~30% reduction in retinal neovascularization (ED50 = 0.46mg/kg. These data demonstrate the ability of

  5. Integral test phantom for dosimetric quality assurance of image guided and intensity modulated stereotactic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Daniel; Keller, Harald; Sharpe, Michael B; Jaffray, David A

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a dosimetric phantom quality assurance (QA) of linear accelerators capable of cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guided and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT). This phantom is to be used in an integral test to quantify in real-time both the performance of the image guidance and the dose delivery systems in terms of dose localization. The prototype IG-IMRT QA phantom consisted of a cylindrical imaging phantom (CatPhan) combined with an array of 11 radiation diodes mounted on a 10 cm diameter disk, oriented perpendicular to the phantom axis. Basic diode response characterization was performed for 6 and 18 MV photons. The diode response was compared to planning system calculations in the open and penumbrae regions of simple and complex beam arrangements. The clinical use of the QA phantom was illustrated in an integral test of an IG-IMRT treatment designed for a clinical spinal radiosurgery case. The sensitivity of the phantom to multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration and setup errors in the clinical setting was assessed by introducing errors in the IMRT plan or by displacing the phantom. The diodes offered good response linearity and long-term reproducibility for both 6 and 18 MV. Axial dosimetry of coplanar beams (in a plane containing the beam axes) was made possible with the nearly isoplanatic response of the diodes over 360 degrees of gantry (usually within +/-1%). For single beam geometry, errors in phantom placement as small as 0.5 mm could be accurately detected (in gradient > or = 1% /mm). In clinical setting, MLC systematic errors of 1 mm on a single MLC bank introduced in the IMRT plan were easily detectable with the QA phantom. The QA phantom demonstrated also sufficient sensitivity for the detection of setup errors as small as 1 mm for the IMRT delivery. These results demonstrated that the prototype can accurately and efficiently verify the entire IG-IMRT process. This tool, in conjunction with image guidance

  6. Microbial fuel cells with an integrated spacer and separate anode and cathode modules

    KAUST Repository

    He, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Xiuping; Feng, Yujie; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    A new type of scalable MFC was developed based on using alternating graphite fiber brush array anode modules and dual cathode modules in order to simplify construction, operation, and maintenance of the electrodes. The modular MFC design was tested

  7. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1994. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5)

  8. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This document contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1994. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company -- working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  9. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the US for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1995. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company--working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5).

  10. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned: 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the US for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1995. The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, US Department of Energy, gathers this information annually from Washington headquarters and field offices of DOE; from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); from the US reactor manufacturers who are the principal nuclear contractors for foreign reactor locations; from US and foreign embassies; and from foreign governmental nuclear departments. The book consists of three divisions, as follows: (1) a commercial reactor locator map and tables of the characteristic and statistical data that follow; a table of abbreviations; (2) tables of data for reactors operating, being built, or planned; and (3) tables of data for reactors that have been shut down permanently or dismantled. The reactors are subdivided into the following parts: Civilian, Production, Military, Export, and Critical Assembly. Export reactor refers to a reactor for which the principal nuclear contractor is a US company--working either independently or in cooperation with a foreign company (Part 4). Critical assembly refers to an assembly of fuel and moderator that requires an external source of neutrons to initiate and maintain fission. A critical assembly is used for experimental measurements (Part 5)

  11. Special Features of the Advanced Loans Module of the ABCD Integrated Library System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The "advanced loans" module of the relatively new library software, ABCD, is an addition to the normal loans module and it offers a "generic transaction decision-making engine" functionality. The module requires extra installation effort and parameterisation, so this article aims to explain to the many potentially interested libraries,…

  12. Sleep Disruption Medical Intervention Forecasting (SDMIF) Module for the Integrated Medical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Brooker, John; Mallis, Melissa; Hursh, Steve; Caldwell, Lynn; Myers, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) assesses the risk, including likelihood and impact of occurrence, of all credible in-flight medical conditions. Fatigue due to sleep disruption is a condition that could lead to operational errors, potentially resulting in loss of mission or crew. Pharmacological consumables are mitigation strategies used to manage the risks associated with sleep deficits. The likelihood of medical intervention due to sleep disruption was estimated with a well validated sleep model and a Monte Carlo computer simulation in an effort to optimize the quantity of consumables. METHODS: The key components of the model are the mission parameter program, the calculation of sleep intensity and the diagnosis and decision module. The mission parameter program was used to create simulated daily sleep/wake schedules for an ISS increment. The hypothetical schedules included critical events such as dockings and extravehicular activities and included actual sleep time and sleep quality. The schedules were used as inputs to the Sleep, Activity, Fatigue and Task Effectiveness (SAFTE) Model (IBR Inc., Baltimore MD), which calculated sleep intensity. Sleep data from an ISS study was used to relate calculated sleep intensity to the probability of sleep medication use, using a generalized linear model for binomial regression. A human yes/no decision process using a binomial random number was also factored into sleep medication use probability. RESULTS: These probability calculations were repeated 5000 times resulting in an estimate of the most likely amount of sleep aids used during an ISS mission and a 95% confidence interval. CONCLUSIONS: These results were transferred to the parent IMM for further weighting and integration with other medical conditions, to help inform operational decisions. This model is a potential planning tool for ensuring adequate sleep during sleep disrupted periods of a mission.

  13. High-dose simultaneously integrated breast boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy and inverse optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen W.; Meijer, Gert J.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Sangen, Maurice J. van der; Cassee, Jorien

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recently a Phase III randomized trial has started comparing a boost of 16 Gy as part of whole-breast irradiation to a high boost of 26 Gy in young women. Our main aim was to develop an efficient simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) technique for the high-dose arm of the trial. Methods and Materials: Treatment planning was performed for 5 left-sided and 5 right-sided tumors. A tangential field intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique added to a sequentially planned 3-field boost (SEQ) was compared with a simultaneously planned technique (SIB) using inverse optimization. Normalized total dose (NTD)-corrected dose volume histogram parameters were calculated and compared. Results: The intended NTD was produced by 31 fractions of 1.66 Gy to the whole breast and 2.38 Gy to the boost volume. The average volume of the PTV-breast and PTV-boost receiving more than 95% of the prescribed dose was 97% or more for both techniques. Also, the mean lung dose and mean heart dose did not differ much between the techniques, with on average 3.5 Gy and 2.6 Gy for the SEQ and 3.8 Gy and 2.6 Gy for the SIB, respectively. However, the SIB resulted in a significantly more conformal irradiation of the PTV-boost. The volume of the PTV-breast, excluding the PTV-boost, receiving a dose higher than 95% of the boost dose could be reduced considerably using the SIB as compared with the SEQ from 129 cc (range, 48-262 cc) to 58 cc (range, 30-102 cc). Conclusions: A high-dose simultaneously integrated breast boost technique has been developed. The unwanted excessive dose to the breast was significantly reduced

  14. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  15. Grapes ( Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2018-06-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes ( Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  16. Lipid raft integrity affects GABAA receptor, but not NMDA receptor modulation by psychopharmacological compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurfter, Caroline; Tanasic, Sascha; Di Benedetto, Barbara; Uhr, Manfred; Wagner, Eva-Maria; Gilling, Kate E; Parsons, Chris G; Rein, Theo; Holsboer, Florian; Rupprecht, Rainer; Rammes, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    Lipid rafts have been shown to play an important role for G-protein mediated signal transduction and the function of ligand-gated ion channels including their modulation by psychopharmacological compounds. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of the membrane distribution of NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits in relation to the accumulation of the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (DMI) and the benzodiazepine diazepam (Diaz). In the presence of Triton X-100, which allowed proper separation of the lipid raft marker proteins caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 from the transferrin receptor, all receptor subunits were shifted to the non-raft fractions. In contrast, under detergent-free conditions, NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits were detected both in raft and non-raft fractions. Diaz was enriched in non-raft fractions without Triton X-100 in contrast to DMI, which preferentially accumulated in lipid rafts. Impairment of lipid raft integrity by methyl-β-cyclodextrine (MβCD)-induced cholesterol depletion did not change the inhibitory effect of DMI at the NMDA receptor, whereas it enhanced the potentiating effect of Diaz at the GABAA receptor at non-saturating concentrations of GABA. These results support the hypothesis that the interaction of benzodiazepines with the GABAA receptor likely occurs outside of lipid rafts while the antidepressant DMI acts on ionotropic receptors both within and outside these membrane microdomains.

  17. SU-E-T-166: Evaluation of Integral Dose in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Basheer, A; Hunag, J; Kaminski, J; Dasher, B; Howington, J; Stewart, J; Martin, D; Kong, F; Jin, J [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) usually achieves higher conformity of radiation doses to targets and less delivery time than Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). We hypothesized that VMAT will increase integral dose (ID) to patients which will decrease the count of white blood count (WBC) lymphocytes, and consequently has a subsequent impact on the immune system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ID to patients undergoing IMRT and VMAT for Head and Neck cancers and its impact on the immune system. Methods: As a pilot study, 30 head and neck patients who received 9-fields IMRT or 3-arcs Radip-Arcbased VMAT were included in this study. Ten of these patients who received the VMAT plans were re-planned using IMRT with the same objectives. ID was calculated for all cases. All patients also had a baseline WBC obtained prior to treatment, and 3 sets of labs drawn during the course of radiation treatment. Results: For the 10 re-planned patients, the mean ID was 13.3 Gy/voxel (range 10.2–17.5 Gy/voxel) for the 9-fields IMRT plans, and was 15.9 Gy/voxel (range 12.4-20.9 Gy/voxel) for the 3-Arc VMAT plan (p=0.01). The integral dose was significant correlated with reducing WBC count during RT even when controlling for concurrent chemotherapy (R square =0.56, p=0.008). Conclusion: Although VMAT can deliver higher radiation dose conformality to targets, this benefit is achieved generally at the cost of greater integral doses to normal tissue outside the planning target volume (PTV). Lower WBC counts during RT were associated with higher Integral doses even when controlling for concurrent chemotherapy. This study is ongoing in our Institution to exam the impact of integral doses and WBC on overall survival.

  18. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  19. Self-aligned BCB planarization method for high-frequency signal injection in a VCSEL with an integrated modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo-Lombart, Ludovic; Doucet, Jean-Baptiste; Lecestre, Aurélie; Reig, Benjamin; Rousset, Bernard; Thienpont, Hugo; Panajotov, Krassimir; Almuneau, Guilhem

    2016-04-01

    The huge increase of datacom capacities requires lasers sources with more and more bandwidth performances. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) in direct modulation is a good candidate, already widely used for short communication links such as in datacenters. Recently several different approaches have been proposed to further extend the direct modulation bandwidth of these devices, by improving the VCSEL structure, or by combining the VCSEL with another high speed element such as lateral slow light modulator or transistor/laser based structure (TVCSEL). We propose to increase the modulation bandwidth by vertically integrating a continuous-wave VCSEL with a high-speed electro-modulator. This vertical structure implies multiple electrodes with sufficiently good electrical separation between the different input electrical signals. This high frequency modulation requires both good electrical insulation between metal electrodes and an optimized design of the coplanar lines. BenzoCyclobutene (BCB) thanks to its low dielectric constant, low losses, low moisture absorption and good thermal stability, is often used as insulating layer. Also, BCB planarization offers the advantages of simpler and more reliable technological process flow in such integrated VCSEL/modulator structures with important reliefs. As described by Burdeaux et al. a degree of planarization (DOP) of about 95% can be achieved by simple spin coating whatever the device thickness. In most of the cases, the BCB planarization process requires an additional photolithography step in order to open an access to the mesa surface, thus involving a tight mask alignment and resulting in a degraded planarization. In this paper, we propose a self-aligned process with improved BCB planarization by combining a hot isostatic pressing derived from nanoimprint techniques with a dry plasma etching step.

  20. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  1. Sequential Modulations in a Combined Horizontal and Vertical Simon Task: Is There ERP Evidence for Feature Integration Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Katharina; Küper, Kristina; Wascher, Edmund

    2017-01-01

    In the Simon task, participants respond faster when the task-irrelevant stimulus position and the response position are corresponding, for example on the same side, compared to when they have a non-corresponding relation. Interestingly, this Simon effect is reduced after non-corresponding trials. Such sequential effects can be explained in terms of a more focused processing of the relevant stimulus dimension due to increased cognitive control, which transfers from the previous non-corresponding trial (conflict adaptation effects). Alternatively, sequential modulations of the Simon effect can also be due to the degree of trial-to-trial repetitions and alternations of task features, which is confounded with the correspondence sequence (feature integration effects). In the present study, we used a spatially two-dimensional Simon task with vertical response keys to examine the contribution of adaptive cognitive control and feature integration processes to the sequential modulation of the Simon effect. The two-dimensional Simon task creates correspondences in the vertical as well as in the horizontal dimension. A trial-by-trial alternation of the spatial dimension, for example from a vertical to a horizontal stimulus presentation, generates a subset containing no complete repetitions of task features, but only complete alternations and partial repetitions, which are equally distributed over all correspondence sequences. In line with the assumed feature integration effects, we found sequential modulations of the Simon effect only when the spatial dimension repeated. At least for the horizontal dimension, this pattern was confirmed by the parietal P3b, an event-related potential that is assumed to reflect stimulus-response link processes. Contrary to conflict adaptation effects, cognitive control, measured by the fronto-central N2 component of the EEG, was not sequentially modulated. Overall, our data provide behavioral as well as electrophysiological evidence for feature

  2. 2D materials in electro-optic modulation: energy efficiency, electrostatics, mode overlap, material transfer and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhizhen; Hemnani, Rohit; Bartels, Ludwig; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sorger, Volker J.

    2018-02-01

    Here we discuss the physics of electro-optic modulators deploying 2D materials. We include a scaling laws analysis and show how energy-efficiency and speed change for three underlying cavity systems as a function of critical device length scaling. A key result is that the energy-per-bit of the modulator is proportional to the volume of the device, thus making the case for submicron-scale modulators possible deploying a plasmonic optical mode. We then show how Graphene's Pauli-blocking modulation mechanism is sensitive to the device operation temperature, whereby a reduction of the temperature enables a 10× reduction in modulator energy efficiency. Furthermore, we show how the high-index tunability of graphene is able to compensate for the small optical overlap factor of 2D-based material modulators, which is unlike classical silicon-based dispersion devices. Lastly, we demonstrate a novel method towards a 2D material printer suitable for cross-contamination free and on-demand printing. The latter paves the way to integrate 2D materials seamlessly into taped-out photonic chips.

  3. Selective and divided attention modulates auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Huijing; Jones, Jeffery A; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-01

    Speakers rapidly adjust their ongoing vocal productions to compensate for errors they hear in their auditory feedback. It is currently unclear what role attention plays in these vocal compensations. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the influence of selective and divided attention on the vocal and cortical responses to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback regarding ongoing vocalisations. During the production of a sustained vowel, participants briefly heard their vocal pitch shifted up two semitones while they actively attended to auditory or visual events (selective attention), or both auditory and visual events (divided attention), or were not told to attend to either modality (control condition). The behavioral results showed that attending to the pitch perturbations elicited larger vocal compensations than attending to the visual stimuli. Moreover, ERPs were likewise sensitive to the attentional manipulations: P2 responses to pitch perturbations were larger when participants attended to the auditory stimuli compared to when they attended to the visual stimuli, and compared to when they were not explicitly told to attend to either the visual or auditory stimuli. By contrast, dividing attention between the auditory and visual modalities caused suppressed P2 responses relative to all the other conditions and caused enhanced N1 responses relative to the control condition. These findings provide strong evidence for the influence of attention on the mechanisms underlying the auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors. In addition, selective attention and divided attention appear to modulate the neurobehavioral processing of pitch feedback errors in different ways. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy with Simultaneously Integrated Boost at University Hospital Centre Zagreb (KBC Zagreb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, L.; Bibic, J.; Grego, T.; Hrsak, H.; Kovacevic, N.

    2013-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy technique (IMRT) is state of art in modern radiotherapy for bilateral Head and Neck (H and N) malignancies. IMRT of real patients is implemented at KBC Zagreb since June 2012. Our method is inspired partly by Hull IMRT technique. It differs from standard IMRT beam layout (7 beams, gantry angles in 51° steps) and it avoids direct irradiation of OARs. We also use simultaneous integrated boost (SIB IMRT) fractionation. The aim of this paper is to present in some details the whole process of our SIB IMRT including plan quality assurance. Results for several patients together with comparison with ConPas and standard IMRT are presented. In our department, in last several years, routine method for H and N cancer RT was ConPas. During this period we (together with ConPas plans) produced standard IMRT plans with seven equidistant fields for actual patients. Our comparative analysis showed clear superiority of IMRT over ConPas for H and N radiotherapy. Since spring 2012 we have produced also non-standard IMRT plans that are based on Hull (U.K.) experience, with beam gantry angles at 0, 50, 80, 150, 210, 280 and 310 degrees. Also, in this method, direct irradiation of OARs (particularly spinal cord) is avoided by shielding as initial constraint. This approach proved to be better than standard IMRT in all analyzed cases. Having all this in mind, we decided to implement 'our' IMRT technique on real patients. Second essential point of our method is SIB fractionation. It has dosimetric, logistic and radiobiological advantages over standard fractionation. IMRT plan QA is routinely performed using Seven29 and Gamma index method. We take 3 mm/3 % Gamma index and 85 % of passed points as passing rate.(author)

  5. Limited benefit of inversely optimised intensity modulation in breast conserving radiotherapy with simultaneously integrated boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Dolsma, Wil V.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Korevaar, Erik W.; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Maduro, John H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine whether in breast-conserving radiotherapy (RT) with simultaneously integrated boost (SIB), application of inversely planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT-SIB) instead of three-dimensional RT (3D-CRT-SIB) has benefits that justify the additional costs, and to evaluate whether a potential benefit of IMRT-SIB depends on specific patient characteristics. Material and methods: 3D-CRT-SIB and various IMRT-SIB treatment plans were constructed and optimised for 30 patients with early stage left-sided breast cancer. Coverage of planning target volumes (PTVs) and dose delivered to organs at risk (OARs) were determined for each plan. Overlap between heart and breast PTV (OHB), size of breast and boost PTVs and boost location were examined in their ability to identify patients that might benefit from IMRT-SIB. Results: All plans had adequate PTV coverage. IMRT-SIB generally reduced dose levels delivered to heart, lungs, and normal breast tissue relative to 3D-CRT-SIB. However, IMRT-SIB benefit differed per patient. For many patients, comparable results were obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB, while patients with OHB > 1.4 cm and a relatively large boost PTV volume (>125 cm 3 ) gained most from the use of IMRT-SIB. Conclusions: In breast-conserving RT, results obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB and IMRT-SIB are generally comparable. Patient characteristics could be used to identify patients that are most likely to benefit from IMRT-SIB.

  6. Three-Year Outcomes of Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W.; Godette, Karen D.; Whitaker, Daisy J.; Davis, Lawrence W.; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To report our clinical experience using breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-IMRT). Methods and Materials: Retrospective review identified 354 Stage 0 to III breast cancer patients treated with SIB-IMRT after conservative surgery between 2003 and 2006. The most common fractionation (89%) simultaneously delivered 1.8 Gy to the ipsilateral breast tissue and 2.14 Gy to the resection cavity, yielding a breast dose of 45 Gy (25 fractions) and cavity dose 59.92 Gy (28 fractions), biologically equivalent for tumor control to 45 Gy to the breast with sequential 16-Gy boost (33 fractions). Results: A total of 356 breasts in 354 patients were treated: 282 with invasive breast cancer, and 74 with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). For left breast radiation, median cardiac V 15 was 2.9% and left ventricular V 15 1.7%. Median follow-up was 33 months (range, 4-73 months). Acute toxicity was Grade 1 in 57% of cases, Grade 2 in 43%, and Grade 3 in <1%. For invasive breast cancer, the 3-year overall survival was 97.6% and risk of any locoregional recurrence was 2.8%. For ductal carcinoma in situ, 3-year overall survival was 98% and risk of locoregional recurrence 1.4%. In 142 cases at a minimum of 3 years follow-up, global breast cosmesis was judged by physicians as good or excellent in 96.5% and fair in 3.5%. Conclusions: Breast SIB-IMRT reduced treatment duration by five fractions with a favorable acute toxicity profile and low cardiac dose for left breast treatment. At 3 years, locoregional control was excellent, and initial assessment suggested good or excellent cosmesis in a high percentage of evaluable patients.

  7. Validity of Basic Electronic 1 Module Integrated Character Value Based on Conceptual Change Teaching Model to Increase Students Physics Competency in STKIP PGRI West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, A.; Rahmi, A.; Yohandri; Ratnawulan

    2018-04-01

    The importance of teaching materials in accordance with the characteristics of students became the main reason for the development of basic electronics I module integrated character values based on conceptual change teaching model. The module development in this research follows the development procedure of Plomp which includes preliminary research, prototyping phase and assessment phase. In the first year of this research, the module is validated. Content validity is seen from the conformity of the module with the development theory in accordance with the demands of learning model characteristics. The validity of the construct is seen from the linkage and consistency of each module component developed with the characteristic of the integrated learning model of character values obtained through validator assessment. The average validation value assessed by the validator belongs to a very valid category. Based on the validator assessment then revised the basic electronics I module integrated character values based on conceptual change teaching model.

  8. Sustainability Instruction in High Doses: Results From Incorporation of Multiple InTeGrate Modules Into an Environmental Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Interdisciplinary Teaching about Earth for a Sustainable Future (InTeGrate) community has developed extensive courses and modules designed for broad adoption into geoscience classrooms in diverse environments. I participated in a three-semester research project designed to test the efficacy of incorporating "high doses" (minimum 3 modules or 18 class periods) of InTeGrate materials into a course, in my case, an introductory environmental science class. InTeGrate materials were developed by groups of instructors from a range of institutions across the US. These materials include an emphasis on systems thinking, interdisciplinary approaches, and sustainability, and those themes are woven throughout the modules. The three semesters included a control in which no InTeGrate materials were used, a pilot in which InTeGrate materials were tested, and a treatment semesters in which tested materials were modified as needed and fully implemented into the course. Data were collected each semester on student attitudes using the InTeGrate Attitudinal Instrument (pre and post), a subset of Geoscience Literacy Exam questions (pre and post), and a series of assessments and essay exam questions (post only). Although results suggest that learning gains were mixed, changes in attitudes pre- and post-instruction were substantial. Changes in attitudes regarding the importance of sustainable employers, the frequency of self-reported individual sustainable actions, and motivation level for creating a sustainable society were observed in the control and treatment semesters, with the treatment semester showing the greatest gains. Importantly, one of the biggest differences between the control and treatment semesters is the reported impact that the course had on influencing students' sustainable behaviors. The treatment semester course impacted students' sustainable behaviors far more than the control semester.

  9. Energetics of the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeang, K

    1974-07-01

    Energetics, the study of energy transformations within ecosystems, provide a useful framework for examining the relationships between the built environment (a manmade ecosystem) and the natural environment. Values are provided for using energy indices in modeling, comparing design alternatives, improving designed systems, conserving nonrenewable resources, comparing impacts, and studying energy utilization patterns as a whole. The accounting of the energy cost of a proposed project would provide additional criteria for evaluating the impact of human developments on the natural environment. (3 diagrams, 12 tables)

  10. A linear 180 nm SOI CMOS antenna switch module using integrated passive device filters for cellular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jie; Chen Lei; Liu Yi; Zhao Peng; Niu Xu

    2014-01-01

    A broadband monolithic linear single pole, eight throw (SP8T) switch has been fabricated in 180 nm thin film silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology with a quad-band GSM harmonic filter in integrated passive devices (IPD) technology, which is developed for cellular applications. The antenna switch module (ASM) features 1.2 dB insertion loss with filter on 2G bands and 0.4 dB insertion loss in 3G bands, less than −45 dB isolation and maximum −103 dB intermodulation distortion for mobile front ends by applying distributed architecture and adaptive supply voltage generator. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Modulation strategies of integrated HVAC systems used in residential buildings for demand-side management at different scales

    OpenAIRE

    Georges, Emeline

    2017-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources in the electricity production mix has an important impact on the management of the electricity grid, due to their intermittency. In particular, to ensure grid balancing, there is a rising need for flexibility, both on the supply and demand sides. A possible solution to help achieve grid balancing is the smart modulation of the electrical load in a "demand following supply" scheme through demand-side management. In this context, the objective of...

  12. Cost-effective, compact and high-speed integrable multi-mode interference modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, Daan; Yao, Weiming; Cardarelli, Simone; Mink, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of the modulation performance of this wave-guide device shows great potential when combined with a single-mode laser on a monolithic optical chip. On the basis of the reversed-bias electro-optic effect, modulation speeds surmounting 25 Gbit/s with 10 dB extinction ratio are

  13. Multisensory integration across exteroceptive and interoceptive domains modulates self-experience in the rubber-hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D; Seth, Anil K

    2013-11-01

    Identifying with a body is central to being a conscious self. The now classic "rubber hand illusion" demonstrates that the experience of body-ownership can be modulated by manipulating the timing of exteroceptive (visual and tactile) body-related feedback. Moreover, the strength of this modulation is related to individual differences in sensitivity to internal bodily signals (interoception). However the interaction of exteroceptive and interoceptive signals in determining the experience of body-ownership within an individual remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that this depends on the online integration of exteroceptive and interoceptive signals by implementing an innovative "cardiac rubber hand illusion" that combined computer-generated augmented-reality with feedback of interoceptive (cardiac) information. We show that both subjective and objective measures of virtual-hand ownership are enhanced by cardio-visual feedback in-time with the actual heartbeat, as compared to asynchronous feedback. We further show that these measures correlate with individual differences in interoceptive sensitivity, and are also modulated by the integration of proprioceptive signals instantiated using real-time visual remapping of finger movements to the virtual hand. Our results demonstrate that interoceptive signals directly influence the experience of body ownership via multisensory integration, and they lend support to models of conscious selfhood based on interoceptive predictive coding. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dataset on the absorption of PCDTBT:PC70BM layers and the electro-optical characteristics of air-stable, large-area PCDTBT:PC70BM-based polymer solar cell modules, deposited with a custom built slot-die coater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar I. Kutsarov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article is related to the research article entitled “Fabrication of air-stable, large-area, PCDTBT:PC70BM polymer solar cell modules using a custom built slot-die coater” (D.I. Kutsarov, E. New, F. Bausi, A. Zoladek-Lemanczyk, F.A. Castro, S.R.P. Silva, 2016 [1]. The repository name and reference number for the raw data from the abovementioned publication can be found under: https://doi.org/10.15126/surreydata.00813106. In this data in brief article, additional information about the absorption properties of PCDTBT:PC70BM layers deposited from a 12.5 mg/ml and 15 mg/ml photoactive layer dispersion are shown. Additionally, the best and average J-V curves of single cells, fabricated from the 10 and 15 mg/ml dispersions, are presented.

  15. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2004-03-15

    This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of

  16. Computational integration of homolog and pathway gene module expression reveals general stemness signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Koeva

    Full Text Available The stemness hypothesis states that all stem cells use common mechanisms to regulate self-renewal and multi-lineage potential. However, gene expression meta-analyses at the single gene level have failed to identify a significant number of genes selectively expressed by a broad range of stem cell types. We hypothesized that stemness may be regulated by modules of homologs. While the expression of any single gene within a module may vary from one stem cell type to the next, it is possible that the expression of the module as a whole is required so that the expression of different, yet functionally-synonymous, homologs is needed in different stem cells. Thus, we developed a computational method to test for stem cell-specific gene expression patterns from a comprehensive collection of 49 murine datasets covering 12 different stem cell types. We identified 40 individual genes and 224 stemness modules with reproducible and specific up-regulation across multiple stem cell types. The stemness modules included families regulating chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and Wnt signaling. Strikingly, the majority of modules represent evolutionarily related homologs. Moreover, a score based on the discovered modules could accurately distinguish stem cell-like populations from other cell types in both normal and cancer tissues. This scoring system revealed that both mouse and human metastatic populations exhibit higher stemness indices than non-metastatic populations, providing further evidence for a stem cell-driven component underlying the transformation to metastatic disease.

  17. Enhancement of the static extinction ratio by using a dual-section distributed feedback laser integrated with an electro-absorption modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chun-Hyung; Kim, Jongseong; Sung, Hyuk-Kee

    2016-09-01

    We report on the enhancement of the static extinction ratio by using a dual-section distributed feedback laser diode integrated with an electro-absorption modulator. A directly- modulated dual-section laser can provide improved modulation performance under a low bias level ( i.e., below the threshold level) compared with a standard directly-modulated laser. By combining the extinction ratio from a dual-section laser with that from an electro-absorption modulator section, a total extinction ratio of 49.6. dB are successfully achieved.

  18. Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in nasopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, Gabriela [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Peponi, Evangelia; Glanzmann, Christoph; Kunz, Guntram; Renner, Christoph; Tomuschat, Katja

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of using simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) to treat nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in a Caucasian cohort. Outcome was analyzed with respect to dose-volume histogram (DVH) values. Patients and Methods: Between 03/2002 and 01/2008, 39 NPC patients underwent SIB-IMRT (37 Caucasians; 31 males; mean age 53 years [16-78 years]). 41% presented with WHO (World Health Organization) type 1 unfavorable histology, 85% with stage III/IV disease. 19 patients had total gross tumor volume (GTV) 16-70 cm{sup 3} (mean 36 cm{sup 3}), while 16 had GTV > 70 cm{sup 3} (73-217 cm{sup 3}; mean 115 cm{sup 3}). All patients with stage II-IV disease received concomitant cisplatin. The prescribed SIB dose delivered to the planning target volume (PTV) was 70 Gy (2.00 Gy/fraction) in 17, 69.6 Gy (2.11 Gy/fraction) in 19, and 66 Gy (2.20 Gy/fraction) in three patients. Results: 3-year local relapse-free, nodal relapse-free, distant metastases-free, disease-free rates and overall survival were 86%, 89%, 85%, 72%, and 85% (median follow-up 30 months [8-71 months]). Histology was a significant prognostic factor concerning overall survival, with worst prognosis in WHO type 1 compared to type 2/3 (75% vs. 93%; p = 0.03). There was a trend in favor of WHO type 2/3 regarding local control (74% vs. 94%; p = 0.052). The PTV DVHs showed a slight left shift compared to reported series. Three patients developed grade 3 late effects (xerostomia [n=2], dysphagia [n=1], hearing loss [n=1]). Conclusion: In comparison with predominantly Asian NPC IMRT series in the literature, chemo-IMRT in the own Caucasian cohort, characterized by less radioresponsive WHO type 1, was equally effective. Treatment tolerance was excellent. (orig.)

  19. Bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system based on polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Hwan-Wei; Ho, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Ming-Te; Huang, Sheng-Jhe; Yang, Zih-Yi; Lin, Xin-Yao

    2016-07-25

    A bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-invisible laser light communication (IVLLC) integrated system that employs polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme for hybrid cable television (CATV)/microwave (MW)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission is proposed and demonstrated. To our knowledge, it is the first one that adopts a polarization-orthogonal modulation scheme in a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system with hybrid CATV/MW/MMW/BB signal. For downlink transmission, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) perform well over 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 10-m RF/50-m optical wireless transport scenarios. For uplink transmission, good BER performance is obtained over 40-km SMF and 50-m optical wireless transport scenario. Such a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC integrated system for hybrid CATV/MW/MMW/BB signal transmission will be an attractive alternative for providing broadband integrated services, including CATV, Internet, and telecommunication services. It is shown to be a prominent one to present the advancements for the convergence of fiber backbone and RF/optical wireless feeder.

  20. Integrating Organ Motion and Setup Uncertainty into Optimization of Modulated Electron Beam Treatment of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pawlicki, Todd

    2003-01-01

    ... of modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) treatment of the breast. The premise is that MERT treatments will deliver a more conformal dose to the breast while minimizing the dose to normal tissues over conventional photon techniques...

  1. Bioresearch module design definition and space shuttle vehicle integration. Volume 3: Management and funding plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of the proposed project organization, documentation and reports, project planning, direction and control, related experience and facilities, and cost estimate data and options for the implementation of the bioresearch module development program.

  2. Behavior Tracking Software Enhancement and Integration of a Feedback Module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Company is proposing to adapt a behavioral tracking program and feedback module specifically developed for the U.S. Army Special Forces for NASA human space...

  3. Modelling the heat dynamics of building integrated and ventilated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friling, N.; Jimenez, M.J.; Bloem, H.

    2009-01-01

    the heat transfer from the PV module. The experiment and data originate from a test reference module the EC-JRC Ispra. The set-up provides the opportunity of changing physical parameters, the ventilation speed and the type of air flow, and this makes it possible to determine the preferable set......, are applied in the set-up combined with high level of air flow. The improved description by the model is mainly seen in periods with high solar radiation....

  4. Advances on the semi-transparent modules based on micro solar cells: First integration in a greenhouse system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, Marco; Yano, Akira; Li, Zhi; Onoe, Mahiro; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Toshinori; Nakata, Josuke

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A semi-transparent photovoltaic module was developed for greenhouse applications. • Spherical micro-cells with 1.2 mm diameter were embedded in the module. • The module size matches the roof panel and the sunlight eclipsing level was 9.7%. • The module conversion efficiency was 0.2% over wide incident angles of sunlight. • The semi-transparent module allows the co-production of crops and energy. - Abstract: The spherical micro-cells are a semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) technology which can contribute to improve the sustainability of greenhouse systems. Previous prototypes were tested in laboratory conditions, but the size was not suitable for the greenhouse roof application. In this work, a new prototype has been developed and tested on a real greenhouse roof. The semi-transparent PV module (STM) was composed by 4800 spherical silicon micro-cells (1.2 mm diameter) sandwiched between glass plates and integrated on a greenhouse roof with 26.5° slope. The STM was 910 mm long and 610 mm wide to match the size of the greenhouse framework. The percentage of the STM area covered with micro-cells was 2.3%, reaching 9.7% considering the metallic conductors. The cell density was 2 cells cm"−"2 and the measured perpendicular light transmissivity of the semi-transparent area was 73%. The characteristics of the prototype were compared with those of a conventional planar multi-crystalline silicon module (CPM). The module conversion efficiency was steadily around 0.2% over wide incident sunlight angle. The micro-cells never completely eclipse the incident sunlight when observed from more than 1 m distance from the roof, keeping the eclipsing level at 9.7%. The yield factor of the STM was slightly higher than the CPM because of the isotropic properties of the spherical cells, which are able to use both the sky-incident and the ground-reflected irradiation for energy production, irrespective of the module slope. The prototype STM is promising for

  5. Implementation of InTeGrate Modules into Introductory Courses in the El Paso Higher Education Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Villalobos, J. I.; Henry, I. E.

    2014-12-01

    InTeGrate (Interdisciplinary Teaching about Earth for a Sustainable Future) has developed teaching modules that focus on Earth sustainability and Earth-centered societal issues. We have begun to implement modules on climate change, earth materials and freshwater into introductory geology and environmental science courses taught at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), El Paso Community College (EPCC) and local early college high schools (ECHS) for classes of 20 to 220 students. Our eventual goal is to insure students taking introductory classes at any institution will be exposed to comparable content and be similarly prepared for advanced courses. Our initial results suggest that the modules' use of case studies and analysis of authentic data sets are very appealing to our student body (over 70% Hispanic). Since many students do not speak English at home, they were challenged by vocabulary presented in some modules. Modules containing glossaries and extensive background material (such as concept maps and annotated figures) proved very helpful to these students. The use of pre-activity quizzes insured that the students had mastered basic concepts needed for in-class activities. Modifications required to teach these modules in larger classes included condensing materials and reducing the amount of color figures to save paper and printer costs, streamlining dissemination/collection of in-class group assignments, and adapting assignments such as jigsaws and gallery walks to the confines of a large lecture hall with fixed seating. Student reflections indicated students were able to make connections to societal issues and retain these ideas through the end of the courses.

  6. Comprehensive Study of Z-Cut Highly Integrated LiNbO3 Optical Modulator with Adjustable Chirp Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palodiya, Vikram; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the domain inversion is used in a simple fashion to improve the performance of a Z-cut highly integrated LiNbO3 optical modulator (LNOM). The Z-cut modulator having ≤ 3 V switching voltage and bandwidth of 15 GHz for an external modulator in which traveling-wave electrode length L_{m} imposed the modulating voltage, the product of V_π and L_{m} is fixed for a given electro-optic material (EOM). An investigation to achieve a low V_π by both magnitude of the electro-optic coefficient (EOC) for a wide variety of EOMs has been reported. The Sellmeier equation (SE) for the extraordinary index of congruent LiNbO3 is derived. The predictions related to phase matching are accurate between room temperature and 250 °C and wavelength ranging from 0.4 to 5 μm. The SE predicts more accurate refractive indices (RI) at long wavelengths. The different overlaps between the waveguides for the Z-cut structure are shown to yield a chirp parameter that can able to adjust 0-0.7. Theoretical results are perfectly verified by simulated results.

  7. The integration of audio−tactile information is modulated by multimodal social interaction with physical contact in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Tanaka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between caregivers and infants is multimodal in nature. To react interactively and smoothly to such multimodal signals, infants must integrate all these signals. However, few empirical infant studies have investigated how multimodal social interaction with physical contact facilitates multimodal integration, especially regarding audio − tactile (A-T information. By using electroencephalogram (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs, the present study investigated how neural processing involved in A-T integration is modulated by tactile interaction. Seven- to 8-months-old infants heard one pseudoword both whilst being tickled (multimodal ‘A-T’ condition, and not being tickled (unimodal ‘A’ condition. Thereafter, their EEG was measured during the perception of the same words. Compared to the A condition, the A-T condition resulted in enhanced ERPs and higher beta-band activity within the left temporal regions, indicating neural processing of A-T integration. Additionally, theta-band activity within the middle frontal region was enhanced, which may reflect enhanced attention to social information. Furthermore, differential ERPs correlated with the degree of engagement in the tickling interaction. We provide neural evidence that the integration of A-T information in infants’ brains is facilitated through tactile interaction with others. Such plastic changes in neural processing may promote harmonious social interaction and effective learning in infancy. Keywords: Electroencephalogram (EEG, Infants, Multisensory integration, Touch interaction

  8. A Pre- and Post-Evaluation of Integrating Sustainability Curriculum by Inserting Okala Modules into an Interior Design Materials and Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the integration of Okala curriculum into Interior Design coursework. Okala, as a teaching package, is utilized extensively in industrial design education. However, this study examines the expansion and insertion of Okala modules in an existing interior design curriculum. The Okala modules included…

  9. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 34: Linear Integrated Circuits. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on linear integrated circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two lessons are included in…

  10. Pyroelectric detectors with integrated operational amplifier for high modulation frequencies; Pyroelektrische Detektoren mit integriertem Operationsverstaerker fuer hohe Modulationsfrequenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, N.; Saenze, H.; Heinze, M. [InfraTec GmbH Dresden (Germany)

    2006-02-01

    In order to use the advantages of the current mode operation a pyroelectric detector family with integrated transimpedance amplifier (TIA) was developed particularly for modulation frequencies up to the kHz range with a simplified external circuitry for new application fields, e.g. absorption spectroscopy using quantum-cascade-laser. The essential advantages of the TIA arise from the small electrical time constant {tau}{sub E} and the short-circuiting of the pyroelectric element. A flat amplitude response up to some kHz was aimed at for a sufficiently high response of 7500 V/W, appr., also at high modulation frequencies. This can be achieved through a electrical time constant of 1 ms or less and a wide bandwidth of the op amp. The article describes in detail how these demands were accomplished and which compromises had to be accepted. (orig.)

  11. A new IPQAM modulator with high integrated degree for digital TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yejun; Liu, Deming; Zhu, Guangxi; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Gongxian

    2008-12-01

    As video on demand (VOD) services are deployed, cable operators will experience a fundamental shift in their business, moving from broadcast to unicast content delivery. Another significant change is the introduction of Gigabit Ethernet into their network, which is providing an unprecedented opportunity to turn the cable operator's infrastructure into a sustainable competitive advantage. However, Gigabit Ethernet is more than just transport; it's the foundation of the Next-Generation Digital Video Network. IPQAM modulator, which is a main equipment, aren't made in China so far. It is the first time that we did design IPQAM modulator and will apply it to interactive TV based on DWDM (dense wavelength-division multiplexing). This paper introduces the principle of IPQAM modulator and transmission approach. The differences between IPQAM and conventional QAM are analysed. Some key techniques such as scrambling, statistical multiplexing, Data over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.0, software defined radio as well as DVB simulcrypt are also studied.

  12. 25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Zheng, Xuezhe; Yao, Jin; Thacker, Hiren; Shubin, Ivan; Luo, Ying; Raj, Kannan; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V

    2011-10-10

    We report a high-speed ring modulator that fits many of the ideal qualities for optical interconnect in future exascale supercomputers. The device was fabricated in a 130 nm SOI CMOS process, with 7.5 μm ring radius. Its high-speed section, employing PN junction that works at carrier-depletion mode, enables 25 Gb/s modulation and an extinction ratio >5 dB with only 1V peak-to-peak driving. Its thermal tuning section allows the device to work in broad wavelength range, with a tuning efficiency of 0.19 nm/mW. Based on microwave characterization and circuit modeling, the modulation energy is estimated ~7 fJ/bit. The whole device fits in a compact 400 μm2 footprint.

  13. An integrated framework to address climate change (ESCAPE) and further developments of the global and regional climate modules (MAGICC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, M.; Raper, S.C.B.

    1995-01-01

    ESCAPE (the Evaluation of Strategies to address Climate change by Adapting to and Preventing Emissions) is an integrated climate change assessment model constructed between 1990 and 1992 for DG XI of the Commission of the European Community by a consortium of research institutes headed by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). It has been designed to enable the user to generate future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (through an energy-economic model), examine their impact on global climate and sea level (through two independent global climate models), and illustrate some of the consequences of this global climate change at a regional scale for the European Community (through a regional climate scenario generator and impact models). We provide a very brief overview of the ESCAPE model which, although innovative, suffers from a number of major limitations. Subsequent work in the CRU has concentrated on improvements to the global climate module and work has also commenced on an improved regional climate scenario generating module. These improvements will lead to a new integrated climate change assessment model, MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse gas Induced Climate Change) which can easily be incorporated into new larger integrated frameworks developed by other institutes. (Author)

  14. One-chip Integrated Module of MEMS Shock Sensor and Sensing Amplifier LSI using Pseudo-SOC Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Atsuko; Onozuka, Yutaka; Nishigaki, Michihiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Funaki, Hideyuki; Itaya, Kazuhiko

    We have been developing the pseudo-SOC technology for one-chip module integration of heterogeneous devices that realizes high electrical performance and high density of devices embodying the advantages of both SOC technology and SIP technology. Especially, this technology is available for MEMS-LSI integration. We developed a 0.2mm-thickness one-chip module integrating a MEMS shock sensor and a sensing amplifier LSI by applying this technology. The MEMS shock sensor and the sensing amplifier LSI were connected by high-rigidity epoxy resin optimized the material constants to reduce the stress and the warpage resulting from resin shrinkage due to curing. Then the planar insulating layer and the redistributed conducting layer were formed on it for the global layer. The MEMS shock sensor was preformed to be modularized with a glass cap. Electrical contacts were achieved by bonding of Au bumps on the MEMS fixed electrodes and via holes filled with Ag paste of the glass cap. Functional performance was confirmed by obtaining signal corresponding to the reference signal of the pick-up sensor. Furthermore, stress analysis was performed using the FEM model simulation considering the resin shrinkage.

  15. C.A.S.H. - a transient integrated plant model for a HTR-module power plant. User manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesenbach, R.; Lauer, A.; Struth, S.

    1997-07-01

    The computer code C.A.S.H. has been developed as an integrated plant model for the HTR-Module reactor, in order to treat safety related questions about this type of power plant which require a detailed numeric simulation of the transient behaviour of the integrated plant. The present report contains the user manual for this plant model. It consists of three parts: In the first part, the code structure and functions, the course of the simulation calculations, and important code parts are described. The second part is devoted to the practical application and explains extensively the handling of the complex code system with several sample calculations. These computing cases comprise load-follow transients and the shutdown procedure of the HTR-Module and are presented and discussed with the full input data, job patterns, and numerous computer graphics. The third part contains the input manual of C.A.S.H. and is rather extensive as it includes the complete inputs of several reactor component computer codes along with the control program of the integrated plant model. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiation therapy for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Joong-Won; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Bo Hyun; Woo, Sang Myung; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Woo Jin; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Chang-Min [National Cancer Center, Center for Liver Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 53 patients with inoperable HCC underwent SIB-IMRT using two dose-fractionation schemes, depending on the proximity of gastrointestinal structures. The 41 patients in the low dose-fractionation (LD) group, with internal target volume (ITV) < 1 cm from gastrointestinal structures, received total doses of 55 and 44 Gy in 22 fractions to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and 2 (PTV2), respectively. The 12 patients in the high dose-fractionation (HD) group, with ITV ≥ 1 cm from gastrointestinal structures, received total doses of 66 and 55 Gy in 22 fractions to the PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. Overall, treatment was well tolerated, with no grade > 3 toxicity. The LD group had larger sized tumors (median: 6 vs. 3.4 cm) and greater frequencies of vascular invasion (80.6 vs. 16.7 %) than patients in the HD group (p < 0.05 each). The median overall survival (OS) was 25.1 months and the actuarial 2-year local progression-free survival (LPFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and OS rates were 67.3, 14.7, and 54.7 %, respectively. The HD group tended to show better tumor response (100 vs. 62.2 %, p = 0.039) and 2-year LPFS (85.7 vs. 59 %, p = 0.119), RFS (38.1 vs. 7.3 %, p = 0.063), and OS (83.3 vs. 44.3 %, p = 0.037) rates than the LD group. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor response was significantly associated with OS. SIB-IMRT is feasible and safe for patients with inoperable HCC. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die klinische Wirksamkeit und die Sicherheit der intensitaetsmodulierten Radiotherapie mit simultanem integriertem Boost (SIB-IMRT) fuer Patienten mit einem inoperablen hepatozellulaeren Karzinom (HCC) zu evaluieren. Bei 53 Patienten mit inoperablem HCC wurden zwei unterschiedliche Dosierungskonzepte je nach Lagebeziehung des

  17. Integrating a health-related-quality-of-life module within electronic health records: a comparative case study assessing value added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea Christopher M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology (HIT applications that incorporate point-of-care use of health-related quality of life (HRQL assessments are believed to promote patient-centered interactions between seriously ill patients and physicians. However, it is unclear how willing primary care providers are to use such HRQL HIT applications. The specific aim of this study was to explore factors that providers consider when assessing the value added of an HRQL application for their geriatric patients. Methods Three case studies were developed using the following data sources: baseline surveys with providers and staff, observations of staff and patients, audio recordings of patient-provider interactions, and semi-structured interviews with providers and staff. Results The primary factors providers considered when assessing value added were whether the HRQL information from the module was (1 duplicative of information gathered via other means during the encounter; (2 specific enough to be useful and/or acted upon, and; (3 useful for enough patients to warrant time spent reviewing it for all geriatric patients. Secondary considerations included level of integration of the HRQL and EHR, impact on nursing workflow, and patient reluctance to provide HRQL information. Conclusions Health-related quality of life modules within electronic health record systems offer the potential benefit of improving patient centeredness and quality of care. However, the modules must provide benefits that are substantial and prominent in order for physicians to decide that they are worthwhile and sustainable. Implications of this study for future research include the identification of perceived "costs" as well as a foundation for operationalizing the concept of "usefulness" in the context of such modules. Finally, developers of these modules may need to make their products customizable for practices to account for variation in EHR capabilities and practice

  18. The integration of audio-tactile information is modulated by multimodal social interaction with physical contact in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yukari; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Myowa, Masako

    2018-04-01

    Interaction between caregivers and infants is multimodal in nature. To react interactively and smoothly to such multimodal signals, infants must integrate all these signals. However, few empirical infant studies have investigated how multimodal social interaction with physical contact facilitates multimodal integration, especially regarding audio - tactile (A-T) information. By using electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated how neural processing involved in A-T integration is modulated by tactile interaction. Seven- to 8-months-old infants heard one pseudoword both whilst being tickled (multimodal 'A-T' condition), and not being tickled (unimodal 'A' condition). Thereafter, their EEG was measured during the perception of the same words. Compared to the A condition, the A-T condition resulted in enhanced ERPs and higher beta-band activity within the left temporal regions, indicating neural processing of A-T integration. Additionally, theta-band activity within the middle frontal region was enhanced, which may reflect enhanced attention to social information. Furthermore, differential ERPs correlated with the degree of engagement in the tickling interaction. We provide neural evidence that the integration of A-T information in infants' brains is facilitated through tactile interaction with others. Such plastic changes in neural processing may promote harmonious social interaction and effective learning in infancy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Standard Test Methods for Insulation Integrity and Ground Path Continuity of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for (1) testing for current leakage between the electrical circuit of a photovoltaic module and its external components while a user-specified voltage is applied and (2) for testing for possible module insulation breakdown (dielectric voltage withstand test). 1.2 A procedure is described for measuring the insulation resistance between the electrical circuit of a photovoltaic module and its external components (insulation resistance test). 1.3 A procedure is provided for verifying that electrical continuity exists between the exposed external conductive surfaces of the module, such as the frame, structural members, or edge closures, and its grounding point (ground path continuity test). 1.4 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.5 There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if a...

  20. A driver IC for photovotaic module-integrated DC/Dc converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; Bergveld, H.J.; Büthker, D.; Castello, C.; Jong, de A.; van Otten, R.; Waal, de K.; Ansem, van T.; Dijkstra, M.; Keekstra, I.; Sneep, J.

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations suffer from a disproportional decrease in output power in case irradiance differences are present in the system. The Delta converter improves the output power in such cases by routing current differences around the shaded substring or module. This paper presents a

  1. Toward an autonomous brain machine interface: integrating sensorimotor reward modulation and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Brandi T; Tarigoppula, Venkata S Aditya; Chen, Chen; Francis, Joseph T

    2015-05-13

    For decades, neurophysiologists have worked on elucidating the function of the cortical sensorimotor control system from the standpoint of kinematics or dynamics. Recently, computational neuroscientists have developed models that can emulate changes seen in the primary motor cortex during learning. However, these simulations rely on the existence of a reward-like signal in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Reward modulation of the primary sensorimotor cortex has yet to be characterized at the level of neural units. Here we demonstrate that single units/multiunits and local field potentials in the primary motor (M1) cortex of nonhuman primates (Macaca radiata) are modulated by reward expectation during reaching movements and that this modulation is present even while subjects passively view cursor motions that are predictive of either reward or nonreward. After establishing this reward modulation, we set out to determine whether we could correctly classify rewarding versus nonrewarding trials, on a moment-to-moment basis. This reward information could then be used in collaboration with reinforcement learning principles toward an autonomous brain-machine interface. The autonomous brain-machine interface would use M1 for both decoding movement intention and extraction of reward expectation information as evaluative feedback, which would then update the decoding algorithm as necessary. In the work presented here, we show that this, in theory, is possible. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357374-14$15.00/0.

  2. Constructing conditionally integrable evolution systems in (1+1) dimensions: a generalization of invariant modules approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergyeyev, A.

    2002-01-01

    Given a generalized (Lie-Baecklund) vector field satisfying certain nondegeneracy assumptions, we explicitly describe all (1+1)-dimensional evolution systems that admit this vector field as a generalized conditional symmetry. The connection with the theory of symmetries of systems of ODEs and with the theory of invariant modules is discussed. (author)

  3. Equivalent circuit modelling of integrated traveling-wave optical modulator in InP foundry platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an electro-optical model for traveling-wave modulator devices utilizing measurement-based equivalent circuit model extraction in conjunction with microwave CAD simulation techniques. Model verification is performed with frequencydomain and time-domain characterization of an

  4. Conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation and integrated boost in the head and neck cancers: experience of the Curie Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, I.; Serre, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C.; Racadot, S.; Calais, G.; Alfonsi, M.; Giraud, P.; Graff, P.; Serre, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C.; Racadot, S.; Calais, G.; Alfonsi, M.; Giraud, P.

    2009-01-01

    The modulated intensity radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) is used in the treatment of cancers in superior aero digestive tracts to reduce the irradiation of parotids and to reduce the delayed xerostomia. This retrospective study presents the results got on the fourteen first patients according an original technique of I.M.R.T. with integrated boost. It appears that this technique is feasible and allows to reduce the xerostomia rate without modifying the local control rate. To limit the average dose to the parotids under 30 Gy seems reduce the incidence of severe xerostomia. (N.C.)

  5. A linear 180 nm SOI CMOS antenna switch module using integrated passive device filters for cellular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Cui; Lei, Chen; Peng, Zhao; Xu, Niu; Yi, Liu

    2014-06-01

    A broadband monolithic linear single pole, eight throw (SP8T) switch has been fabricated in 180 nm thin film silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology with a quad-band GSM harmonic filter in integrated passive devices (IPD) technology, which is developed for cellular applications. The antenna switch module (ASM) features 1.2 dB insertion loss with filter on 2G bands and 0.4 dB insertion loss in 3G bands, less than -45 dB isolation and maximum -103 dB intermodulation distortion for mobile front ends by applying distributed architecture and adaptive supply voltage generator.

  6. Long-lasting modulation of feature integration by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnowski, Frank; Rueter, Johannes; Jolij, Jacob; Hermens, Frouke; Kammer, Thomas; Herzog, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The human brain analyzes a visual object first by basic feature detectors. On the objects way to a conscious percept, these features are integrated in subsequent stages of the visual hierarchy. The time course of this feature integration is largely unknown. To shed light on the temporal dynamics of

  7. Long-lasting modulation of feature integration by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnowski, Frank; Rueter, Johannes; Jolij, Jacob; Hermens, Frouke; Kammer, Thomas; Herzog, Michael H.

    The human brain analyzes a visual object first by basic feature detectors. On the objects way to a conscious percept, these features are integrated in subsequent stages of the visual hierarchy. The time course of this feature integration is largely unknown. To shed light on the temporal dynamics of

  8. Comparison for younger and older adults: Stimulus temporal asynchrony modulates audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanna; Ren, Yanling; Yang, Weiping; Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Fengxia; Wu, Qiong; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ejima, Yoshimichi; Wu, Jinglong

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has shown that the magnitudes of responses to multisensory information are highly dependent on the stimulus structure. The temporal proximity of multiple signal inputs is a critical determinant for cross-modal integration. Here, we investigated the influence that temporal asynchrony has on audiovisual integration in both younger and older adults using event-related potentials (ERP). Our results showed that in the simultaneous audiovisual condition, except for the earliest integration (80-110ms), which occurred in the occipital region for older adults was absent for younger adults, early integration was similar for the younger and older groups. Additionally, late integration was delayed in older adults (280-300ms) compared to younger adults (210-240ms). In audition‑leading vision conditions, the earliest integration (80-110ms) was absent in younger adults but did occur in older adults. Additionally, after increasing the temporal disparity from 50ms to 100ms, late integration was delayed in both younger (from 230 to 290ms to 280-300ms) and older (from 210 to 240ms to 280-300ms) adults. In the audition-lagging vision conditions, integration only occurred in the A100V condition for younger adults and in the A50V condition for older adults. The current results suggested that the audiovisual temporal integration pattern differed between the audition‑leading and audition-lagging vision conditions and further revealed the varying effect of temporal asynchrony on audiovisual integration in younger and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The integration of DVH-based planning aspects into a convex intensity modulated radiation therapy optimization framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratt, Karin [Faculty of Mathematics, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Scherrer, Alexander [Department of Optimization, Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM), Kaiserslautern (Germany)], E-mail: alexander.scherrer@itwm.fraunhofer.de

    2009-06-21

    The formulation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning aspects frequently uses the dose-volume histogram (DVH), whereas plan computations often happen in the more desirable convex IMRT optimization framework. Inspired by a recent publication of Zinchenko et al (2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 3231-50), this work addresses the integration of DVH-based planning aspects into this framework from a general point of view. It first provides the basic mathematical requirements on the evaluation functions in order to support such an incorporation. Then it introduces the condition number as a description for how precisely DVH-based planning aspects can be reformulated in terms of evaluation functions. Exemplary numerical studies for the generalized equivalent uniform dose and a physical constraint function show the influence of function parameter values and DVH approximation on the condition number. The work concludes by formulating the aspects that should be taken into account for an appropriate integration of DVH-based planning aspects. (note)

  10. The integration of DVH-based planning aspects into a convex intensity modulated radiation therapy optimization framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratt, Karin; Scherrer, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The formulation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning aspects frequently uses the dose-volume histogram (DVH), whereas plan computations often happen in the more desirable convex IMRT optimization framework. Inspired by a recent publication of Zinchenko et al (2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 3231-50), this work addresses the integration of DVH-based planning aspects into this framework from a general point of view. It first provides the basic mathematical requirements on the evaluation functions in order to support such an incorporation. Then it introduces the condition number as a description for how precisely DVH-based planning aspects can be reformulated in terms of evaluation functions. Exemplary numerical studies for the generalized equivalent uniform dose and a physical constraint function show the influence of function parameter values and DVH approximation on the condition number. The work concludes by formulating the aspects that should be taken into account for an appropriate integration of DVH-based planning aspects. (note)

  11. Resveratrol modulates the inflammatory response via an estrogen receptor-signal integration network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Jerome C; Srinivasan, Sathish; Bruno, Nelson E; Parent, Alexander A; Hughes, Travis S; Pollock, Julie A; Gjyshi, Olsi; Cavett, Valerie; Nowak, Jason; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben D; Houtman, René; Griffin, Patrick R; Kojetin, Douglas J; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Conkright, Michael D; Nettles, Kendall W

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol has beneficial effects on aging, inflammation and metabolism, which are thought to result from activation of the lysine deacetylase, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the cAMP pathway, or AMP-activated protein kinase. In this study, we report that resveratrol acts as a pathway-selective estrogen receptor-α (ERα) ligand to modulate the inflammatory response but not cell proliferation. A crystal structure of the ERα ligand-binding domain (LBD) as a complex with resveratrol revealed a unique perturbation of the coactivator-binding surface, consistent with an altered coregulator recruitment profile. Gene expression analyses revealed significant overlap of TNFα genes modulated by resveratrol and estradiol. Furthermore, the ability of resveratrol to suppress interleukin-6 transcription was shown to require ERα and several ERα coregulators, suggesting that ERα functions as a primary conduit for resveratrol activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02057.001 PMID:24771768

  12. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00219560; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an R&D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 $\\mu$m thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterized with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of $5\\times 10^{15}$ \

  13. Frequency and amplitude modulation of ultra-compact terahertz quantum cascade lasers using an integrated avalanche diode oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Fabrizio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Vitiello, Miriam S

    2016-03-15

    Mode-locked comb sources operating at optical frequencies underpin applications ranging from spectroscopy and ultrafast physics, through to absolute frequency measurements and atomic clocks. Extending their operation into the terahertz frequency range would greatly benefit from the availability of compact semiconductor-based sources. However, the development of any compact mode-locked THz laser, which itself is inherently a frequency comb, has yet to be achieved without the use of an external stimulus. High-power, electrically pumped quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have recently emerged as a promising solution, owing to their octave spanning bandwidths, the ability to achieve group-velocity dispersion compensation and the possibility of obtaining active mode-locking. Here, we propose an unprecedented compact architecture to induce both frequency and amplitude self-modulation in a THz QCL. By engineering a microwave avalanche oscillator into the laser cavity, which provides a 10 GHz self-modulation of the bias current and output power, we demonstrate multimode laser emission centered around 3 THz, with distinct multiple sidebands. The resulting microwave amplitude and frequency self-modulation of THz QCLs opens up intriguing perspectives, for engineering integrated self-mode-locked THz lasers, with impact in fields such as nano- and ultrafast photonics and optical metrology.

  14. Design and Analysis of Enhanced Modulation Response in Integrated Coupled Cavities DBR Lasers Using Photon-Photon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bardella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, various solutions have been proposed to increase the modulation bandwidth and, consequently, the transmission bit-rate of semiconductor lasers. In this manuscript, we discuss a design procedure for a recently proposed laser cavity realized with the monolithic integration of two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR lasers allowing one to extend the modulation bandwidth. Such an extension is obtained introducing in the dynamic response a photon-photon resonance (PPR at a frequency higher than the modulation bandwidth of the corresponding single-section laser. Design guidelines will be proposed, and dynamic small and large signal simulations results, calculated using a finite difference traveling wave (FDTW numerical simulator, will be discussed to confirm the design results. The effectiveness of the design procedure is verified in a structure with PPR frequency at 35 GHz allowing one to obtain an open eye diagram for a non-return-to-zero (NRZ digital signal up to 80 GHz . Furthermore, the investigation of the rich dynamics of this structure shows that with proper bias conditions, it is possible to obtain also a tunable self-pulsating signal in a frequency range related to the PPR design.

  15. A real time integrated environment for Motorola 680xx-based VME and FASTBUS modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.; Heinicke, P.; MacKinnon, B.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.

    1989-05-01

    The Software Components Group pSOS operating system kernel and pROBE debugger have been extended to support the Fermilab PAN-DA system for a variety of Motorola 680xx-based VME and FASTBUS modules. These extensions include: a multi-tasking, reentrant implementation of Microtec C/Pascal; a serial port driver for terminal I/O and data transfer; a message reporting facility; and enhanced debugging tools. 5 refs., 1 fig

  16. A real time integrated environment for Motorola 680chichi-based VME and FASTBUS modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.; Heinicke, P.; MacKinnon, B.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Software Components Group rhoSOS operating system kernel and rhoROBE debugger have been extended to support the Fermilab PAN-DA system for a variety of Motorola 680chichi-based VME and FASTBUS modules. These extensions include: a multi-tasking, reentrant implementation of Microtec (2) C/Pascal; a serial port driver for terminal I/O and data transfer; a message reporting facility; and enhanced debugging tools

  17. An introduction to NASA's advanced computing program: Integrated computing systems in advanced multichip modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Alkalai, Leon

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes within NASA's space exploration program favor the design, implementation, and operation of low cost, lightweight, small and micro spacecraft with multiple launches per year. In order to meet the future needs of these missions with regard to the use of spacecraft microelectronics, NASA's advanced flight computing (AFC) program is currently considering industrial cooperation and advanced packaging architectures. In relation to this, the AFC program is reviewed, considering the design and implementation of NASA's AFC multichip module.

  18. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Youn, J.S.; Park, K.Y.; Choi, W.Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche

  19. Postischemic steroid modulation : Effects on hippocampal neuronal integrity and synaptic plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krugers, HJ; Maslam, S; Van Vuuren, SM; Korf, J; Joëls, M

    1999-01-01

    Elimination of corticosteroids after ischemia, by removal of the adrenals, has been reported to preserve neuronal integrity later. To establish the therapeutic potential of this observation, the authors address two questions: first, whether clinically more relevant steroid manipulations after

  20. Dual-function photonic integrated circuit for frequency octo-tupling or single-side-band modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Hall, Trevor J

    2015-06-01

    A dual-function photonic integrated circuit for microwave photonic applications is proposed. The circuit consists of four linear electro-optic phase modulators connected optically in parallel within a generalized Mach-Zehnder interferometer architecture. The photonic circuit is arranged to have two separate output ports. A first port provides frequency up-conversion of a microwave signal from the electrical to the optical domain; equivalently single-side-band modulation. A second port provides tunable millimeter wave carriers by frequency octo-tupling of an appropriate amplitude RF carrier. The circuit exploits the intrinsic relative phases between the ports of multi-mode interference couplers to provide substantially all the static optical phases needed. The operation of the proposed dual-function photonic integrated circuit is verified by computer simulations. The performance of the frequency octo-tupling and up-conversion functions is analyzed in terms of the electrical signal to harmonic distortion ratio and the optical single side band to unwanted harmonics ratio, respectively.

  1. Microbial fuel cells with an integrated spacer and separate anode and cathode modules

    KAUST Repository

    He, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    A new type of scalable MFC was developed based on using alternating graphite fiber brush array anode modules and dual cathode modules in order to simplify construction, operation, and maintenance of the electrodes. The modular MFC design was tested with a single (two-sided) cathode module with a specific surface area of 29 m2 m−3 based on a total liquid volume (1.4 L; 20 m2 m−3 using the total reactor volume of 2 L), and two brush anode modules. Three different types of spacers were used in the cathode module to provide structural stability, and enhance air flow relative to previous cassette (combined anode–cathode) designs: a low-profile wire spacer; a rigid polycarbonate column spacer; and a flexible plastic mesh spacer. The best performance was obtained using the wire spacer that produced a maximum power density of 1100 ± 10 mW m−2 of cathode (32 ± 0.3 W m−3 based on liquid volume) with an acetate-amended wastewater (COD = 1010 ± 30 mg L−1), compared to 1010 ± 10 mW m−2 for the column and 650 ± 20 mW m−2 for the mesh spacers. Anode potentials were unaffected by the different types of spacers. Raw domestic wastewater produced a maximum of 400 ± 8 mW m−2 under fed batch conditions (wire-spacers), which is one of the highest power densities for this fuel. Over time the maximum power was reduced to 300 ± 10 mW m−2 and 275 ± 7 mW m−2 for the two anode compartments, with only slightly less power of 250 ± 20 mW m−2 obtained under continuous flow conditions. In fixed-resistance tests, the average COD removal was 57 ± 5% at a hydraulic retention time of 8 h. These results show that this modular MFC design can both simplify reactor construction and enable relatively high power generation from even relatively dilute wastewater.

  2. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test Campaign Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Calinda; Whitehouse, Paul; Lui, Yan; Banks, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    JWST Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) has completed its system-level testing program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In March 2016, ISIM was successfully delivered for integration with the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) after the successful verification of the system through a series of three cryo-vacuum (CV) tests. The first test served as a risk reduction test; the second test provided the initial verification of the fully-integrated flight instruments; and the third test verified the system in its final flight configuration. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. As JWST progressed through its CV testing campaign, deficiencies in the test configuration and support equipment were uncovered from one test to the next. Subsequent upgrades and modifications were implemented to improve the facility support capabilities required to achieve test requirements. This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) compares the overall facility performance and instrumentation results from the three ISIM CV tests, and (3) summarizes lessons learned from the ISIM testing campaign.

  3. Production of wind power in the built environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakeman, L.G.J.; Peters, D.J.; Bruessau, K.M.; Lichtenberg, R.; Cleijne, H.; Hoeve, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A state-of-the-art is given of the production of energy from wind in the built environment in the Netherlands. Also attention is paid to technical, planning, sociological and economical bottlenecks for the use of small wind turbines in the built environment. And finally, the perspectives in the light of renewable energy targets in the Netherlands for the year 2020 are discussed. Two scenario's were discussed: (1) turbines installed on or next to buildings; and (2) turbines that are integrated in the building [nl

  4. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned in the Unites States as of June 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulden, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of June 30, 1981, which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or pupose: civilian, military, production, export, and critical assembly facilities

  5. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned in the United States as of December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of December 31, 1980, which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or purpose: civilian, military, production, export, and critical assembly facilities

  6. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchiolo, A., E-mail: Anna.Macchiolo@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Andricek, L. [Semiconductor Laboratory of the Max-Planck-Society, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R. [Max-Planck-Institut for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Semiconductor Laboratory of the Max-Planck-Society, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany)

    2014-11-21

    We present an R and D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 μm thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterised with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5×10{sub 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. We will also report on the R and D activity to obtain Inter Chip Vias (ICVs) on the ATLAS read-out chip in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT. This step is meant to prove the feasibility of the signal transport to the newly created readout pads on the backside of the chips allowing for four side buttable devices without the presently used cantilever for wire bonding. The read-out chips with ICVs will be interconnected to thin pixel sensors, 75 μm and 150 μm thick, with the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technology, which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding.

  7. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  8. New integrative modules for multicolor-protein labeling and live-cell imaging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malcová, Ivana; Farkasovky, M.; Senohrábková, Lenka; Vašicová, Pavla; Hašek, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), fow027 ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/0480; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05497S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : fluorescent proteins * dominant selectable markers * Integrative cassettes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.299, year: 2016

  9. Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency shifters are essential components of many systems. In this paper, a compact integrated optical frequency shifter is designed making use of the combination of surface acoustic waves and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It has a very simple operation setup and can be fabricated...

  10. Integrated testing strategies (ITS) for bioaccumulation: hierarchical scheme of chemistrydriven modules and definition of applicability domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nendza, M.; Scheringer, M.; Strempel, S.

    2011-01-01

    The efficient assessment of the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals under REACH with integrated test strategies (ITS) requires multiple tools. Existing data have to be searched and information from chemical structures and physico-chemical properties need to be evaluated prior to considering to...

  11. Supporting the Creation and Publication of Reviewed and Tested Teaching Modules through the InTeGrate Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Birnbaum, S. J.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Fox, S.; Gosselin, D. C.; Iverson, E. A. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Steer, D. N.; Taber, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    InTeGrate is dedicated to providing robust curricular materials that increase Earth literacy among undergraduate students. As of August 2016, 14 modules that use an interdisciplinary approach to teach about Earth-related sustainability issues across the curriculum have been published, and 19 courses and modules are undergoing final revisions. Materials are designed for undergraduate courses and have been tested in a variety of disciplines including geoscience, engineering, humanities, ethics, and Spanish language courses. The materials were developed, tested, revised, and reviewed using a two-year, highly scaffolded process that involves meeting a series of checkpoints, and is supported by a team of experts who provide guidance and formative feedback throughout the process. A series of webinars also supported teams in the development process. Author teams comprise 3-6 faculty members from at least three different institutions. Authors work collaboratively in a templated webspace designed specifically for creating materials, and representatives from the InTeGrate leadership, assessment, and web teams support each group of authors. This support team provides guidance and feedback on content, pedagogy, and web layout as authors develop materials. Authors attend two face-to-face meetings, one at the beginning of the process and another after materials are piloted in authors' classes. These meetings serve to initially orient authors to the development process, including the rubric that will guide their work, and in making revisions following the piloting phase of the project. Authors report that the meetings also provide professional development experience wherein they learn about pedagogy from each other and team leaders. The bulk of the materials development occurs remotely, with teams meeting regularly via teleconference as they follow the project timeline. All materials undergo review against the Materials Design and Refinement Rubric to ensure they meet project

  12. Top-Down Modulation of Auditory-Motor Integration during Speech Production: The Role of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Wu, Xiuqin; Li, Weifeng; Jones, Jeffery A; Yan, Nan; Sheft, Stanley; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2017-10-25

    Although working memory (WM) is considered as an emergent property of the speech perception and production systems, the role of WM in sensorimotor integration during speech processing is largely unknown. We conducted two event-related potential experiments with female and male young adults to investigate the contribution of WM to the neurobehavioural processing of altered auditory feedback during vocal production. A delayed match-to-sample task that required participants to indicate whether the pitch feedback perturbations they heard during vocalizations in test and sample sequences matched, elicited significantly larger vocal compensations, larger N1 responses in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, and smaller P2 responses in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, somatosensory cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, and insula compared with a control task that did not require memory retention of the sequence of pitch perturbations. On the other hand, participants who underwent extensive auditory WM training produced suppressed vocal compensations that were correlated with improved auditory WM capacity, and enhanced P2 responses in the left middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, right inferior frontal gyrus, and insula that were predicted by pretraining auditory WM capacity. These findings indicate that WM can enhance the perception of voice auditory feedback errors while inhibiting compensatory vocal behavior to prevent voice control from being excessively influenced by auditory feedback. This study provides the first evidence that auditory-motor integration for voice control can be modulated by top-down influences arising from WM, rather than modulated exclusively by bottom-up and automatic processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT One outstanding question that remains unsolved in speech motor control is how the mismatch between predicted and actual voice auditory feedback is detected and corrected. The present study

  13. Monitoring the performance of single and triple junction amorphous silicon modules in two building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eke, Rustu; Senturk, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The first and the largest BIPV of Turkey were installed. • Single and triple junction amorphous module performances in BIPV applications are analyzed. • Total generated electricity of the BIPV system is measured as 103,702 kW h for 36 months of operation. • Annual energy rating is calculated as 856 kW h/kWp for a non-optimally oriented plant. • The PR of the system is found 0.74 and 0.81 for PV systems on towers and facade respectively. - Abstract: Mugla is located in south west Turkey at 37°13′N latitude and 28°36′E longitude with yearly sum of horizontal global irradiation exceeding 1700 kW h per square meter. Mugla has a Mediterranean Climate which is characterized by long, hot and dry summers with cool and wet winters. Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University is the largest “PV Park” in Turkey consisting of 100 kWp installed Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPSs) with different PV applications. The 40 kWp building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system which is the first and largest in Turkey was installed on the façade and the two towers of the “Staff Block of the Education Faculty’s Building” of Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University in February 2008. Triple junction amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules are used on the façade and single junction amorphous silicon PV modules are used on the East and West towers of the building. In this paper, the 40 kWp BIPV system in Mugla, Turkey is presented, and its performance is evaluated. Energy rating (kW h/kWp energy yield), efficiencies and performance ratios of both applications are also evaluated for 36 months of operation. Daily, monthly and seasonal variations in performance parameters of the BIPV system in relation to solar data and meteorological parameters and outdoor performance of two reference modules (representing the modules on façade and towers) in a summer and a winter day are also investigated

  14. Validity And Practicality of Experiment Integrated Guided Inquiry-Based Module on Topic of Colloidal Chemistry for Senior High School Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andromeda, A.; Lufri; Festiyed; Ellizar, E.; Iryani, I.; Guspatni, G.; Fitri, L.

    2018-04-01

    This Research & Development study aims to produce a valid and practical experiment integrated guided inquiry based module on topic of colloidal chemistry. 4D instructional design model was selected in this study. Limited trial of the product was conducted at SMAN 7 Padang. Instruments used were validity and practicality questionnaires. Validity and practicality data were analyzed using Kappa moment. Analysis of the data shows that Kappa moment for validity was 0.88 indicating a very high degree of validity. Kappa moments for the practicality from students and teachers were 0.89 and 0.95 respectively indicating high degree of practicality. Analysis on the module filled in by students shows that 91.37% students could correctly answer critical thinking, exercise, prelab, postlab and worksheet questions asked in the module. These findings indicate that the integrated guided inquiry based module on topic of colloidal chemistry was valid and practical for chemistry learning in senior high school.

  15. An integrative theory of the phasic and tonic modes of dopamine modulation in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Jean-Claude; Burnod, Yves

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a model of both tonic and phasic dopamine (DA) effects on maintenance of working memory representations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The central hypothesis is that DA modulates the efficacy of inputs to prefrontal pyramidal neurons to prevent interferences for active maintenance. Phasic DA release, due to DA neurons discharges, acts at a short time-scale (a few seconds), while the tonic mode of DA release, independent of DA neurons firing, acts at a long time-scale (a few minutes). The overall effect of DA modulation is modeled as a threshold restricting incoming inputs arriving on PFC neurons. Phasic DA release temporary increases this threshold while tonic DA release progressively increases the basal level of this threshold. Thus, unlike the previous gating theory of phasic DA release, proposing that it facilitates incoming inputs at the time of their arrival, the effect of phasic DA release is supposed to restrict incoming inputs during a period of time after DA neuron discharges. The model links the cellular and behavioral levels during performance of a working memory task. It allows us to understand why a critical range of DA D1 receptors stimulation is required for optimal working memory performance and how D1 receptor agonists (respectively antagonists) increase perseverations (respectively distractability). Finally, the model leads to several testable predictions, including that the PFC regulates DA neurons firing rate to adapt to the delay of the task and that increase in tonic DA release may either improve or decrease performance, depending on the level of DA receptors stimulation at the beginning of the task.

  16. Auditory-visual integration modulates location-specific repetition suppression of auditory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrem, Talia; Murray, Micah M; Deouell, Leon Y

    2017-11-01

    Space is a dimension shared by different modalities, but at what stage spatial encoding is affected by multisensory processes is unclear. Early studies observed attenuation of N1/P2 auditory evoked responses following repetition of sounds from the same location. Here, we asked whether this effect is modulated by audiovisual interactions. In two experiments, using a repetition-suppression paradigm, we presented pairs of tones in free field, where the test stimulus was a tone presented at a fixed lateral location. Experiment 1 established a neural index of auditory spatial sensitivity, by comparing the degree of attenuation of the response to test stimuli when they were preceded by an adapter sound at the same location versus 30° or 60° away. We found that the degree of attenuation at the P2 latency was inversely related to the spatial distance between the test stimulus and the adapter stimulus. In Experiment 2, the adapter stimulus was a tone presented from the same location or a more medial location than the test stimulus. The adapter stimulus was accompanied by a simultaneous flash displayed orthogonally from one of the two locations. Sound-flash incongruence reduced accuracy in a same-different location discrimination task (i.e., the ventriloquism effect) and reduced the location-specific repetition-suppression at the P2 latency. Importantly, this multisensory effect included topographic modulations, indicative of changes in the relative contribution of underlying sources across conditions. Our findings suggest that the auditory response at the P2 latency is affected by spatially selective brain activity, which is affected crossmodally by visual information. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Cholinergic modulation of epithelial integrity in the proximal colon of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Szilvia; Wessler, Ignaz; Gäbel, Gotthold; Petto, Carola; Pfannkuche, Helga

    2013-01-01

    Within the gut, acetylcholine (ACh) is synthesised by enteric neurons, as well as by 'non-neuronal' epithelial cells. In studies of non-intestinal epithelia, ACh was involved in the generation of an intact epithelial barrier. In the present study, primary cultured porcine colonocytes were used to determine whether treatment with exogenous ACh or expression of endogenous epithelium-derived ACh may modulate epithelial tightness in the gastrointestinal tract. Piglet colonocytes were cultured on filter membranes for 8 days. The tightness of the growing epithelial cell layer was evaluated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). To determine whether ACh modulates the tightness of the cell layer, cells were treated with cholinergic, muscarinic and/or nicotinic agonists and antagonists. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), cholinergic receptors and ACh were determined by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and HPLC, respectively. Application of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (10 µm) and the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (10 µM) resulted in significantly higher TEER values compared to controls. The effect was completely inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Application of atropine alone (without any agonist) led to significantly lower TEER values compared to controls. Synthesis of ACh by epithelial cells was proven by detection of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mRNAs, immunohistochemical detection of ChAT and detection of ACh by HPLC. ACh is strongly involved in the regulation of epithelial tightness in the proximal colon of pigs via muscarinic pathways. Non-neuronal ACh seems to be of particular importance for epithelial cells forming a tight barrier. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. 'When birds of a feather flock together': synesthetic correspondences modulate audiovisual integration in non-synesthetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Valerio Parise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a condition in which the stimulation of one sense elicits an additional experience, often in a different (i.e., unstimulated sense. Although only a small proportion of the population is synesthetic, there is growing evidence to suggest that neurocognitively-normal individuals also experience some form of synesthetic association between the stimuli presented to different sensory modalities (i.e., between auditory pitch and visual size, where lower frequency tones are associated with large objects and higher frequency tones with small objects. While previous research has highlighted crossmodal interactions between synesthetically corresponding dimensions, the possible role of synesthetic associations in multisensory integration has not been considered previously. METHODOLOGY: Here we investigate the effects of synesthetic associations by presenting pairs of asynchronous or spatially discrepant visual and auditory stimuli that were either synesthetically matched or mismatched. In a series of three psychophysical experiments, participants reported the relative temporal order of presentation or the relative spatial locations of the two stimuli. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The reliability of non-synesthetic participants' estimates of both audiovisual temporal asynchrony and spatial discrepancy were lower for pairs of synesthetically matched as compared to synesthetically mismatched audiovisual stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Recent studies of multisensory integration have shown that the reduced reliability of perceptual estimates regarding intersensory conflicts constitutes the marker of a stronger coupling between the unisensory signals. Our results therefore indicate a stronger coupling of synesthetically matched vs. mismatched stimuli and provide the first psychophysical evidence that synesthetic congruency can promote multisensory integration. Synesthetic crossmodal correspondences therefore appear to play a crucial (if unacknowledged

  19. Visual Cycle Modulation as an Approach toward Preservation of Retinal Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Bavik, Claes; Henry, Susan Hayes; Zhang, Yan; Mitts, Kyoko; McGinn, Tim; Budzynski, Ewa; Pashko, Andriy; Lieu, Kuo Lee; Zhong, Sheng; Blumberg, Bruce; Kuksa, Vladimir; Orme, Mark; Scott, Ian; Fawzi, Ahmad; Kubota, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Bavik et al. Increased exposure to blue or visible light, fluctuations in oxygen tension, and the excessive accumulation of toxic retinoid byproducts places a tremendous amount of stress on the retina. Reduction of visual chromophore biosynthesis may be an effective method to reduce the impact of these stressors and preserve retinal integrity. A class of non-retinoid, small molecule compounds that target key proteins of the visual cycle have been developed. The first candidate in this ...

  20. Integrated analysis of microRNA and gene expression profiles reveals a functional regulatory module associated with liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Wenshan; Yang, Aiting; Xu, Anjian; Wang, Huan; Cong, Min; Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; You, Hong

    2017-12-15

    Liver fibrosis, characterized with the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, represents the final common pathway of chronic liver inflammation. Ever-increasing evidence indicates microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation has important implications in the different stages of liver fibrosis. However, our knowledge of miRNA-gene regulation details pertaining to such disease remains unclear. The publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets of patients suffered from cirrhosis were extracted for integrated analysis. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and genes (DEGs) were identified using GEO2R web tool. Putative target gene prediction of DEMs was carried out using the intersection of five major algorithms: DIANA-microT, TargetScan, miRanda, PICTAR5 and miRWalk. Functional miRNA-gene regulatory network (FMGRN) was constructed based on the computational target predictions at the sequence level and the inverse expression relationships between DEMs and DEGs. DAVID web server was selected to perform KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Functional miRNA-gene regulatory module was generated based on the biological interpretation. Internal connections among genes in liver fibrosis-related module were determined using String database. MiRNA-gene regulatory modules related to liver fibrosis were experimentally verified in recombinant human TGFβ1 stimulated and specific miRNA inhibitor treated LX-2 cells. We totally identified 85 and 923 dysregulated miRNAs and genes in liver cirrhosis biopsy samples compared to their normal controls. All evident miRNA-gene pairs were identified and assembled into FMGRN which consisted of 990 regulations between 51 miRNAs and 275 genes, forming two big sub-networks that were defined as down-network and up-network, respectively. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that up-network was prominently involved in several KEGG pathways, in which "Focal adhesion", "PI3K-Akt signaling pathway" and "ECM

  1. Standardized evaluation of simultaneous integrated boost plans on volumetric modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wensha; Jones, Ryan; Read, Paul; Benedict, Stanley; Sheng Ke

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify the capability of the RapidArc (RA) planning system to deliver highly heterogeneous doses for simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in both a phantom and patients. A cylindrical planning target volume (PTV) with a diameter of 6 cm was created in a cylindrical phantom. A smaller boost tumor volume (BTV) in the PTV with varying diameters (0.625-2.5 cm), positions and shapes was also created. Five previously treated patients with brain tumors were included in the study. Original gross tumor volumes (average 41.8 cm 3 ) and PTVs (average 316 cm 3 ) were adopted as the BTV and the PTV in the new plans. 30 Gy was prescribed to the PTV. Doses varying from 35 to 90 Gy were prescribed to the BTV. Both SIB and sequential boost (SEQ) plans were created on RA to meet the prescription. A set of reference plans was also created on the helical tomotherapy (HT) platform. Normalized dose contrast (NDC) and the integral dose were used to evaluate the quality of plans. NDC was defined as the dose contrast between BTV and PTV-BTV, normalizing to the ideal scenario where the contrast is the ratio between prescribed doses to the BTV and PTV. NDC above 90% was observed with BTV dose less than 60 Gy. NDC was minimally affected by the size of BTV but adversely affected by the complexity of the shape of the BTV. In the phantom plans, a peak of NDC was observed with 45 Gy (150% of PTV dose) to the BTV; for BTVs at the center of the PTV, the increase in the integral dose was less than 2% and remained constant for all dose levels in the phantom plans but a linear increase in the integral dose was observed with the HT plans. In the patient plans, an 11% average increase in the integral dose was observed with SIB plans and 60 Gy to the BTV, lower than the 30% average increase in the SEQ plans by RA and 25% by HT. The study showed not only that SIB by RA can achieve superior plans compared with SEQ plans on the same platform and SIB plans on HT, but also the

  2. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  3. Community landscapes: an integrative approach to determine overlapping network module hierarchy, identify key nodes and predict network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István A Kovács

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Network communities help the functional organization and evolution of complex networks. However, the development of a method, which is both fast and accurate, provides modular overlaps and partitions of a heterogeneous network, has proven to be rather difficult. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we introduce the novel concept of ModuLand, an integrative method family determining overlapping network modules as hills of an influence function-based, centrality-type community landscape, and including several widely used modularization methods as special cases. As various adaptations of the method family, we developed several algorithms, which provide an efficient analysis of weighted and directed networks, and (1 determine persvasively overlapping modules with high resolution; (2 uncover a detailed hierarchical network structure allowing an efficient, zoom-in analysis of large networks; (3 allow the determination of key network nodes and (4 help to predict network dynamics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The concept opens a wide range of possibilities to develop new approaches and applications including network routing, classification, comparison and prediction.

  4. cisMEP: an integrated repository of genomic epigenetic profiles and cis-regulatory modules in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Chung-Ching; Hung, Po-Cheng; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), or the DNA sequences required for regulating gene expression, play the central role in biological researches on transcriptional regulation in metazoan species. Nowadays, the systematic understanding of CRMs still mainly resorts to computational methods due to the time-consuming and small-scale nature of experimental methods. But the accuracy and reliability of different CRM prediction tools are still unclear. Without comparative cross-analysis of the results and combinatorial consideration with extra experimental information, there is no easy way to assess the confidence of the predicted CRMs. This limits the genome-wide understanding of CRMs. It is known that transcription factor binding and epigenetic profiles tend to determine functions of CRMs in gene transcriptional regulation. Thus integration of the genome-wide epigenetic profiles with systematically predicted CRMs can greatly help researchers evaluate and decipher the prediction confidence and possible transcriptional regulatory functions of these potential CRMs. However, these data are still fragmentary in the literatures. Here we performed the computational genome-wide screening for potential CRMs using different prediction tools and constructed the pioneer database, cisMEP (cis-regulatory module epigenetic profile database), to integrate these computationally identified CRMs with genomic epigenetic profile data. cisMEP collects the literature-curated TFBS location data and nine genres of epigenetic data for assessing the confidence of these potential CRMs and deciphering the possible CRM functionality. cisMEP aims to provide a user-friendly interface for researchers to assess the confidence of different potential CRMs and to understand the functions of CRMs through experimentally-identified epigenetic profiles. The deposited potential CRMs and experimental epigenetic profiles for confidence assessment provide experimentally testable hypotheses for the molecular mechanisms

  5. A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beimforde, M; Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H-G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Weigell, P, E-mail: Michael.Beimforde@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The presented R and D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}cm{sup -2} have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the digitized signals from the back side of the readout chips, avoiding wire-bonding cantilevers at the edge of the devices and thus increases the active area fraction. First interconnections have been performed with wafers containing daisy chains to investigate the efficiency of SLID at wafer-to-wafer and chip-to-wafer level. In a second interconnection process the present ATLAS FE-I3 readout chips were connected to dummy sensor wafers at chip-to-wafer level. Preparations of ICV within the ATLAS readout chips for back side contacting and the future steps towards a full demonstrator module will be presented.

  6. A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beimforde, M; Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H-G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Weigell, P

    2010-01-01

    The presented R and D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 μm and 150 μm has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 10 16 n eq cm -2 have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the digitized signals from the back side of the readout chips, avoiding wire-bonding cantilevers at the edge of the devices and thus increases the active area fraction. First interconnections have been performed with wafers containing daisy chains to investigate the efficiency of SLID at wafer-to-wafer and chip-to-wafer level. In a second interconnection process the present ATLAS FE-I3 readout chips were connected to dummy sensor wafers at chip-to-wafer level. Preparations of ICV within the ATLAS readout chips for back side contacting and the future steps towards a full demonstrator module will be presented.

  7. Cell signaling heterogeneity is modulated by both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms: An integrated approach to understanding targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Kim, Jae-Young; Smith, Matthew A; Haura, Eric B; Anderson, Alexander R A

    2018-03-01

    During the last decade, our understanding of cancer cell signaling networks has significantly improved, leading to the development of various targeted therapies that have elicited profound but, unfortunately, short-lived responses. This is, in part, due to the fact that these targeted therapies ignore context and average out heterogeneity. Here, we present a mathematical framework that addresses the impact of signaling heterogeneity on targeted therapy outcomes. We employ a simplified oncogenic rat sarcoma (RAS)-driven mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathway in lung cancer as an experimental model system and develop a network model of the pathway. We measure how inhibition of the pathway modulates protein phosphorylation as well as cell viability under different microenvironmental conditions. Training the model on this data using Monte Carlo simulation results in a suite of in silico cells whose relative protein activities and cell viability match experimental observation. The calibrated model predicts distributional responses to kinase inhibitors and suggests drug resistance mechanisms that can be exploited in drug combination strategies. The suggested combination strategies are validated using in vitro experimental data. The validated in silico cells are further interrogated through an unsupervised clustering analysis and then integrated into a mathematical model of tumor growth in a homogeneous and resource-limited microenvironment. We assess posttreatment heterogeneity and predict vast differences across treatments with similar efficacy, further emphasizing that heterogeneity should modulate treatment strategies. The signaling model is also integrated into a hybrid cellular automata (HCA) model of tumor growth in a spatially heterogeneous microenvironment. As a proof of concept, we simulate tumor responses to targeted therapies in a spatially segregated tissue structure containing tumor

  8. Photonic generation of ultra-wideband signals by direct current modulation on SOA section of an SOA-integrated SGDBR laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hui; Yu, Yonglin; Shu, Tan; Huang, Dexiu; Jiang, Shan; Barry, Liam P

    2010-03-29

    Photonic ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses are generated by direct current modulation of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) section of an SOA-integrated sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector (SGDBR) laser. Modulation responses of the SOA section of the laser are first simulated with a microwave equivalent circuit model. Simulated results show a resonance behavior indicating the possibility to generate UWB signals with complex shapes in the time domain. The UWB pulse generation is then experimentally demonstrated for different selected wavelength channels with an SOA-integrated SGDBR laser.

  9. Au–Sn bonding material for the assembly of power integrated circuit module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.X.; Li, C.C. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liao, L.L.; Liu, C.K. [Electronic and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.R., E-mail: crkao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-25

    Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) chips are the key components in high-temperature power electronic modules, which have to efficiently convert electricity between direct and alternating current. In this study, the eutectic Au–Sn (20 wt.% Sn) is successfully used to assemble IGBT chips and direct-bond-copper substrates by using solid liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding. During subsequent isothermal aging at 150, 200, and 240 °C, the microstructure evolution and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds are investigated. Excellent thermal stability and mechanical strength are observed. It is concluded that the eutectic Au–Sn solder is ideal to assemble high-temperature IGBT by using the SLID process. - Highlights: • Au–20Sn serves as a promising bonding material for IGBT operating at T < 519 °C. • The Au–20Sn reacted with Ni to form (Ni,Au){sub 3}Sn{sub 2}/(Au{sub 5}Sn + AuSn)/(Ni,Au){sub 3}Sn{sub 2}. • Once the AuSn was nearly exhausted, the whole joint could withstand higher temperatures. • A cost-effective way for long-term operations at high temperature.

  10. Design of a highly integrated video acquisition module for smart video flight unit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebre, V.; Gasti, W.

    2017-11-01

    CCD and APS devices are widely used in space missions as instrument sensors and/or in Avionics units like star detectors/trackers. Therefore, various and numerous designs of video acquisition chains have been produced. Basically, a classical video acquisition chain is constituted of two main functional blocks: the Proximity Electronics (PEC), including detector drivers and the Analogue Processing Chain (APC) Electronics that embeds the ADC, a master sequencer and the host interface. Nowadays, low power technologies allow to improve the integration, radiometric performances and power budget optimisation of video units and to standardize video units design and development. To this end, ESA has initiated a development activity through a competitive process requesting the expertise of experienced actors in the field of high resolution electronics for earth observation and Scientific missions. THALES ALENIA SPACE has been granted this activity as a prime contractor through ESA contract called HIVAC that holds for Highly Integrated Video Acquisition Chain. This paper presents main objectives of the on going HIVAC project and focuses on the functionalities and performances offered by the usage of the under development HIVAC board for future optical instruments.

  11. Architecture design of a generic centralized adjudication module integrated in a web-based clinical trial management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenle; Pauls, Keith

    2016-04-01

    , 277 clinical outcome events were adjudicated by a six-step procedure and took a median of 23.84 days from outcome event case report form submission to adjudication procedure completion. A generic outcome adjudication module integrated in the clinical trial management system made the automated coordination of efficacy and safety outcome adjudication a reality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van, E-mail: ernest.vandyk@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Booysen, P. [Setsolar, P. O. Box 15934, Panorama 7506 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  13. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, B.A.; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K.; Booysen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  14. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. A.; van Dyk, E. E.; Vorster, F. J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M. K.; Booysen, P.

    2012-05-01

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  15. Inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy: CDVH treatment prescription with integral cost function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carol, M.P.; Nash, R.; Campbell, R.C.; Huber, R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Inverse planning is a required approach when dealing with the complexity of variables present in an intensity modulated plan. However, an inverse planning system is only as useful as it is 1) easy to use and 2) predictable in its result. This is especially the case when the target goals and structure limits specified by the user all cannot be achieved. We have previously developed two interfaces for specifying how such conflicts should be resolved when they occur, that, although allowing a range of results to be obtained, still require 'trial and error' on the part of the user and are case dependent. A new method is explored with goals of allowing the desired results to be specified in an intuitive manner and producing predictable results that are case independent. Materials and Methods: Target goals and structure limits are specified by entering partial volume data: goal/limit, % under/over goal/limit, minimum, maximum. This data is converted to a CDVH curve for each target/structure. During the simulated annealing process used to produce an optimized solution, the actual CDVHs are compared to the desired CDVHs after each iteration and a cost is computed for the difference between the curves. For each curve, the cost is proportional to the difference in area between the desired and actual curves. This cost is controlled by three variables: offset (amount of difference before there is any cost), scale (the range the cost can take) and shape (the shape of the curve for difference versus cost). A range of values were explored for these variables in order to determine if predictable trade-offs would be made automatically by the system. The cost function was tested against a range of cases: a highly irregularly shaped intracranial lesion, a head and neck case with three target volumes with different prescriptions, and a prostate cancer. Results: By varying the values assigned to the control variables, a variety of predictable results could be

  16. A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology

    CERN Document Server

    Beimforde, M; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Weigell, P; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12025

    2010-01-01

    The presented R&D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 μm and 150 μm has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 1016neqcm−2 have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the ...

  17. Intrinsic modulation of pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, S.; Lord, G. J.

    1997-11-01

    Intrinsic neuromodulation is observed in sensory and neuromuscular circuits and in biological central pattern generators. We model a simple neuronal circuit with a system of two pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire neurons and explore the parameter regimes for periodic firing behavior. The inclusion of biologically realistic features shows that the speed and onset of neuronal response plays a crucial role in determining the firing phase for periodic rhythms. We explore the neurophysiological function of distributed delays arising from both the synaptic transmission process and dendritic structure as well as discrete delays associated with axonal communication delays. Bifurcation and stability diagrams are constructed with a mixture of simple analysis, numerical continuation and the Kuramoto phase-reduction technique. Moreover, we show that, for asynchronous behavior, the strength of electrical synapses can control the firing rate of the system.

  18. Temporal integration: intentional sound discrimination does not modulate stimulus-driven processes in auditory event synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse; Winkler, István; Kreuzer, Judith; Saher, Marieke; Näätänen, Risto; Ritter, Walter

    2002-12-01

    Our previous study showed that the auditory context could influence whether two successive acoustic changes occurring within the temporal integration window (approximately 200ms) were pre-attentively encoded as a single auditory event or as two discrete events (Cogn Brain Res 12 (2001) 431). The aim of the current study was to assess whether top-down processes could influence the stimulus-driven processes in determining what constitutes an auditory event. Electroencepholagram (EEG) was recorded from 11 scalp electrodes to frequently occurring standard and infrequently occurring deviant sounds. Within the stimulus blocks, deviants either occurred only in pairs (successive feature changes) or both singly and in pairs. Event-related potential indices of change and target detection, the mismatch negativity (MMN) and the N2b component, respectively, were compared with the simultaneously measured performance in discriminating the deviants. Even though subjects could voluntarily distinguish the two successive auditory feature changes from each other, which was also indicated by the elicitation of the N2b target-detection response, top-down processes did not modify the event organization reflected by the MMN response. Top-down processes can extract elemental auditory information from a single integrated acoustic event, but the extraction occurs at a later processing stage than the one whose outcome is indexed by MMN. Initial processes of auditory event-formation are fully governed by the context within which the sounds occur. Perception of the deviants as two separate sound events (the top-down effects) did not change the initial neural representation of the same deviants as one event (indexed by the MMN), without a corresponding change in the stimulus-driven sound organization.

  19. FGF/FGFR Signaling Coordinates Skull Development by Modulating Magnitude of Morphological Integration: Evidence from Apert Syndrome Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Heuzé, Yann; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Aldridge, Kristina; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2011-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor and receptor system (FGF/FGFR) mediates cell communication and pattern formation in many tissue types (e.g., osseous, nervous, vascular). In those craniosynostosis syndromes caused by FGFR1-3 mutations, alteration of signaling in the FGF/FGFR system leads to dysmorphology of the skull, brain and limbs, among other organs. Since this molecular pathway is widely expressed throughout head development, we explore whether and how two specific mutations on Fgfr2 causing Apert syndrome in humans affect the pattern and level of integration between the facial skeleton and the neurocranium using inbred Apert syndrome mouse models Fgfr2+/S252W and Fgfr2+/P253R and their non-mutant littermates at P0. Skull morphological integration (MI), which can reflect developmental interactions among traits by measuring the intensity of statistical associations among them, was assessed using data from microCT images of the skull of Apert syndrome mouse models and 3D geometric morphometric methods. Our results show that mutant Apert syndrome mice share the general pattern of MI with their non-mutant littermates, but the magnitude of integration between and within the facial skeleton and the neurocranium is increased, especially in Fgfr2+/S252W mice. This indicates that although Fgfr2 mutations do not disrupt skull MI, FGF/FGFR signaling is a covariance-generating process in skull development that acts as a global factor modulating the intensity of MI. As this pathway evolved early in vertebrate evolution, it may have played a significant role in establishing the patterns of skull MI and coordinating proper skull development. PMID:22053191

  20. FGF/FGFR signaling coordinates skull development by modulating magnitude of morphological integration: evidence from Apert syndrome mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Martínez-Abadías

    Full Text Available The fibroblast growth factor and receptor system (FGF/FGFR mediates cell communication and pattern formation in many tissue types (e.g., osseous, nervous, vascular. In those craniosynostosis syndromes caused by FGFR1-3 mutations, alteration of signaling in the FGF/FGFR system leads to dysmorphology of the skull, brain and limbs, among other organs. Since this molecular pathway is widely expressed throughout head development, we explore whether and how two specific mutations on Fgfr2 causing Apert syndrome in humans affect the pattern and level of integration between the facial skeleton and the neurocranium using inbred Apert syndrome mouse models Fgfr2(+/S252W and Fgfr2(+/P253R and their non-mutant littermates at P0. Skull morphological integration (MI, which can reflect developmental interactions among traits by measuring the intensity of statistical associations among them, was assessed using data from microCT images of the skull of Apert syndrome mouse models and 3D geometric morphometric methods. Our results show that mutant Apert syndrome mice share the general pattern of MI with their non-mutant littermates, but the magnitude of integration between and within the facial skeleton and the neurocranium is increased, especially in Fgfr2(+/S252W mice. This indicates that although Fgfr2 mutations do not disrupt skull MI, FGF/FGFR signaling is a covariance-generating process in skull development that acts as a global factor modulating the intensity of MI. As this pathway evolved early in vertebrate evolution, it may have played a significant role in establishing the patterns of skull MI and coordinating proper skull development.

  1. Analysis of Hybrid-Integrated High-Speed Electro-Absorption Modulated Lasers Based on EM/Circuit Co-simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor; Kazmierski, C.

    2009-01-01

    An improved electromagnetic simulation (EM) based approach has been developed for optimization of the electrical to optical (E/O) transmission properties of integrated electro-absorption modulated lasers (EMLs) aiming at 100 Gbit/s Ethernet applications. Our approach allows for an accurate analysis...... of the EML performance in a hybrid microstrip assembly. The established EM-based approach provides a design methodology for the future hybrid integration of the EML with its driving electronics....

  2. Atg12 Maintains Skeletal Integrity by Modulating Pro-Osteoclastogenic Signals and Chondrocyte Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahimic, Candice; Bahl, Disha; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Marsh, Timothy; Schreurs, Anne-Sofie; Rael, Victoria E.; Glikbarg, Chloe; Debnath, Jayantha; Globus, Ruth K.

    2016-01-01

    Weightlessness and radiation, two unique elements of space, profoundly decreases bone mass. This bone loss is attributed to increased activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and functional changes in bone-forming osteoblasts, cells that give rise to mature osteocytes. Our long-term goal is to identify signaling pathways that may be targeted to mitigate bone loss in scenarios of space exploration, radiotherapy and accidental radiation exposure. We have previously shown that exposure of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells to simulated space radiation (56Fe) increased the expression of the pro-osteoclastogenic gene rankl and decreased protein levels of LC3B-II, a key player in autophagy. In this current study, we aimed to further elucidate the role of autophagy in maintaining structural integrity of the skeleton. We hypothesize that loss of autophagy in bone leads to an imbalance in pro-osteoclastogenic and pro-osteogenic signals, resulting in net bone loss. To test our hypothesis we performed global postnatal deletion of Atg12 using tamoxifeninducible Cre recombinase under the control of the CAG promoter. Six-week-old CAGCreERT2/ FloxAtg12 animals were treated daily with Tamoxifen or Vehicle (Control, oil only) for five days and euthanasia performed two weeks after the onset of treatment. Percent change in body weights (prior to treatment and at euthanasia) was not significantly different between treatment groups within the same gender. Compared to Vehicle (Control) groups, Tamoxifen (Atg12 iKO) groups showed decreased LC3B-I to II conversion and increased p62 protein levels, consistent with loss of autophagy. Quantitative PCR revealed increased expression of proosteoclastogenic cytokines mcp1 and rankl in bone and marrow respectively in male iKOs compared to male controls. Expression levels of these genes were not significantly altered in the Atg12 iKO females compared to females controls. Microcomputed tomography of tibiae revealed decreased cortical bone volume, cortical

  3. The role of virtual reality and 3D modelling in built environment education

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, Margaret; Thompson, Emine Mine

    2007-01-01

    This study builds upon previous research on the integration of Virtual Reality (VR) within the built environment curriculum and aims to investigate the role of Virtual Reality and three-dimensional (3D) computer modelling on learning and teaching in a school of the built environment. In order to achieve this aim a number of academic experiences were analysed to explore the applicability and viability of 3D computer modelling and Virtual Reality (VR) into built environment subject areas. Altho...

  4. CEDM Controller for a Linear Pulse Motor by using Pulse Width Modulation Method in Integral Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon-Koo; Keum, Jong-Yong; Park, Heui-Youn

    2007-01-01

    Integral Reactor SMART is under development at KAERI. The design characteristics of SMART are radically different from those employed in currently operating loop type PWR in Korea. The reliability and accuracy of Control Rod Drive Mechanism are very important to the reactor safety and the design of the Plant Protection System. The SMART CEDM designed for fine-step movement consists of a linear pulse motor, reed switch type sensor with top and bottom limit switches which also act as Control Element Assembly(CEA) Position indicator, The linear pulse motor is a four phase synchronous DC electric machine with inner stator and output stator in coolant medium inside a strong housing. The objective of this paper is to introduce and to explain the CEDM controller CEDM Controller is being developed with a new design concept and digital technology to reduce the Operating Error and improve the systems' reliability and availability. And Switched Mode Power Supply is also being developed with digital hardware technology. This paper involves the test details and result

  5. Androgen modulation of social decision making mechanisms in the brain: an integrative and embodied perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from their role in reproduction androgens also respond to social challenges and this response has been seen as a way to regulate the expression of behaviour according to the perceived social environment (Challenge hypothesis, Wingfield et al. 1990. This hypothesis implies that social decision-making mechanisms localized in the central nervous system (CNS are open to the influence of peripheral hormones that ultimately are under the control of the CNS through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore, two puzzling questions emerge at two different levels of biological analysis: (1 Why does the brain, which perceives the social environment and regulates androgen production in the gonad, need feedback information from the gonad to adjust its social decision-making processes? (2 How does the brain regulate gonadal androgen responses to social challenges and how do these feedback into the brain? In this paper, we will address these two questions using the integrative approach proposed by Niko Tinbergen, who proposed that a full understanding of behaviour requires its analysis at both proximate (physiology, ontogeny and ultimate (ecology, evolution levels.

  6. SOLUTION OF MICROECONOMICS ASSIGNMENTS BY THE MEANS OF PROGRAM MODULES ISPEZ ON THE DISTANCE PLATFORM MOODLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. М. Kobets

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In article basic aspects introduction integrated environment verification knowledge students from microeconomic are expounded. It is considered structure of Decision Environmental with the built-in program modules (mathematical and graphical editors for the decision of typical assignments from microeconomics during the current and final control of students’ knowledges of different forms of teaching.

  7. Built Environment Analysis Tool: April 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C.

    2013-05-01

    This documentation describes the tool development. It was created to evaluate the effects of built environment scenarios on transportation energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This documentation also provides guidance on how to apply the tool.

  8. Wavefront-Error Performance Characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES). In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing (also known as phase retrieval), and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) plate scale measurements made using a Pseudo-Nonredundant Mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil geometry predictions as a function of SI and field point, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse translation diversity sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a sub-aperture is translated andor rotated across the exit pupil of the system.Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also describes the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis of focus-sweep data, used to establish the

  9. CLD1/SRL1 modulates leaf rolling by affecting cell wall formation, epidermis integrity and water homeostasis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qiang; Zhang, Min-Juan; Gan, Peng-Fei; Qiao, Lei; Yang, Shuai-Qi; Miao, Hai; Wang, Gang-Feng; Zhang, Mao-Mao; Liu, Wen-Ting; Li, Hai-Feng; Shi, Chun-Hai; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rolling is considered as one of the most important agronomic traits in rice breeding. It has been previously reported that SEMI-ROLLED LEAF 1 (SRL1) modulates leaf rolling by regulating the formation of bulliform cells in rice (Oryza sativa); however, the regulatory mechanism underlying SRL1 has yet to be further elucidated. Here, we report the functional characterization of a novel leaf-rolling mutant, curled leaf and dwarf 1 (cld1), with multiple morphological defects. Map-based cloning revealed that CLD1 is allelic with SRL1, and loses function in cld1 through DNA methylation. CLD1/SRL1 encodes a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein that modulates leaf rolling and other aspects of rice growth and development. The cld1 mutant exhibits significant decreases in cellulose and lignin contents in secondary cell walls of leaves, indicating that the loss of function of CLD1/SRL1 affects cell wall formation. Furthermore, the loss of CLD1/SRL1 function leads to defective leaf epidermis such as bulliform-like epidermal cells. The defects in leaf epidermis decrease the water-retaining capacity and lead to water deficits in cld1 leaves, which contribute to the main cause of leaf rolling. As a result of the more rapid water loss and lower water content in leaves, cld1 exhibits reduced drought tolerance. Accordingly, the loss of CLD1/SRL1 function causes abnormal expression of genes and proteins associated with cell wall formation, cuticle development and water stress. Taken together, these findings suggest that the functional roles of CLD1/SRL1 in leaf-rolling regulation are closely related to the maintenance of cell wall formation, epidermal integrity and water homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Roll-to-Roll Inkjet Printing and Photonic Sintering of Electrodes for ITO Free Polymer Solar Cell Modules and Facile Product Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Small polymer solar cell modules that are manufactured without indium-tin-oxide using only roll-to-roll printing and coating techniques under ambient conditions enable facile integration into a simple demonstrator (for example a laser pointer). Semitransparent front electrode grid structures prep...

  11. INVESTIGATION OF PIPELINES INTEGRITY ASSOCIATED WITH PUMP MODULES VIBRATION FOR PUMPING STATION 9 OF ALYESKA PIPELINE SERVICE COMPANY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL

    2009-09-01

    Since the operation of PS09 SR module in 2007, it has been observed that there is vibration in various parts of the structures, on various segments of piping, and on appurtenance items. At DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) request, ORNL Subject Matter Experts support PHMSA in its review and analysis of the observed vibration phenomenon. The review and analysis consider possible effects of pipeline design features, vibration characteristics, machinery configuration, and operating practices on the structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the pipeline. Emphasis is placed on protection of welded joints and machinery against failure from cyclic loading. A series of vibration measurements were carried out by the author during the site visit to PS09, the power of the operating pump during the data collection is at about 2970KW, which is less than that of APSC's vibration data collected at 3900KW. Thus, a first order proportional factor of 4900/2970 was used to project the measured velocity data to that of APSC's measurement of the velocity data. It is also noted here that the average or the peak-hold value of the measured velocity data was used in the author's reported data, and only the maximum peak-hold data was used in APSC's reported data. Therefore, in some cases APSC's data is higher than the author's projective estimates that using the average data. In general the projected velocity data are consistent with APSC's measurements; the examples of comparison at various locations are illustrated in the Table 1. This exercise validates and confirms the report vibration data stated in APSC's summary report. After the reinforcement project for PS09 Station, a significant reduction of vibration intensity was observed for the associated pipelines at the SR Modules. EDI Co. provided a detailed vibration intensity investigation for the newly reinforced Pump Module structures and the associated

  12. Trajectory errors of different numerical integration schemes diagnosed with the MPTRAC advection module driven by ECMWF operational analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rößler, Thomas; Stein, Olaf; Heng, Yi; Baumeister, Paul; Hoffmann, Lars

    2018-02-01

    The accuracy of trajectory calculations performed by Lagrangian particle dispersion models (LPDMs) depends on various factors. The optimization of numerical integration schemes used to solve the trajectory equation helps to maximize the computational efficiency of large-scale LPDM simulations. We analyzed global truncation errors of six explicit integration schemes of the Runge-Kutta family, which we implemented in the Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) advection module. The simulations were driven by wind fields from operational analysis and forecasts of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) at T1279L137 spatial resolution and 3 h temporal sampling. We defined separate test cases for 15 distinct regions of the atmosphere, covering the polar regions, the midlatitudes, and the tropics in the free troposphere, in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region, and in the middle stratosphere. In total, more than 5000 different transport simulations were performed, covering the months of January, April, July, and October for the years 2014 and 2015. We quantified the accuracy of the trajectories by calculating transport deviations with respect to reference simulations using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme with a sufficiently fine time step. Transport deviations were assessed with respect to error limits based on turbulent diffusion. Independent of the numerical scheme, the global truncation errors vary significantly between the different regions. Horizontal transport deviations in the stratosphere are typically an order of magnitude smaller compared with the free troposphere. We found that the truncation errors of the six numerical schemes fall into three distinct groups, which mostly depend on the numerical order of the scheme. Schemes of the same order differ little in accuracy, but some methods need less computational time, which gives them an advantage in efficiency. The selection of the integration

  13. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - Development of solar beam power generation and utilization systems and ancillary technologies (Research and development of building material integrated solar cell modules - modules with new multi-layer structure); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinkenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi module no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinfukuso kozo module))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Development is being made on a panel type module that can be used together with an air bubble concrete board (ALC board), and is provided with design characteristics. The development work includes trial fabrication and evaluation of a module with new multi-layer structure, and development of a technology to unitize cells and submodules, and a systematizing method. In the trial fabrication and evaluation, flame retardant and uninflammable modules using fluororesin, and modules with as large area as 4 m{sup 2} were fabricated on a trial basis, in addition to the modules with the basic structure. These modules were given evaluations on such wall material properties as wind pressure resistance, heat and cracking resistance, and fire resistance. In a deformation resistance test considering the integrated use with the ALC board, the developed modules showed a good result. In developing the cells with design characteristics, discussions were given on the inter-cell wiring methods. Development was made on a method to establish a unit structure based on the design and size of a building. In developing the systematization method, the trial fabrication method was applied to a module with lamination structure, a module integrated with the ALC board, and a large-area hollow module to have fabricated the top-light spandrels. (NEDO)

  14. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost vs. conventional radiotherapy with sequential boost for breast cancer - A preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Hua; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Huang, Ming-Yii; Tsuei, Le-Ping; Chen, Fang-Ming; Ou-Yang, Fu; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to assess the acute dermatological adverse effect from two distinct RT techniques for breast cancer patients. We compared intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) and conventional radiotherapy followed by sequential boost (CRT-SB). The study population was composed of 126 consecutive female breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving surgery. Sixty-six patients received IMRT-SIB to 2 dose levels simultaneously. They received 50.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction to the whole breast and 60.2 Gy at 2.15 Gy per fraction to the tumor bed by integral boost. Sixty patients in the CRT-SB group received 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the whole breast followed by a boost irradiation to tumor bed in 5-7 fractions to a total dose of 60-64 Gy. Acute skin toxicities were documented in agreement with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3 (CTCAE v.3.0). Ninety-eight patients had grade 1 radiation dermatitis while 14 patients had grade 2. Among those with grade 2, there were 3 patients in IMRT-SIB group (4.5%) while 11 in CRT-SB group (18.3%). (P = 0.048) There was no patient with higher than grade 2 toxicity. Three year local control was 99.2%, 3-year disease free survival was 97.5% and 3-year overall survival was 99.2%. A significant reduction in the severity of acute radiation dermatitis from IMRT-SIB comparing with CRT-SB is demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Presence and function of dopamine transporter (DAT in stallion sperm: dopamine modulates sperm motility and acrosomal integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A Urra

    Full Text Available Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylaminostyryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+, as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909 and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility.

  16. Single-Chip Fully Integrated Direct-Modulation CMOS RF Transmitters for Short-Range Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamal Deen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low power radio frequency (RF transceivers used in short-range application such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs require efficient, reliable and fully integrated transmitter architectures with minimal building blocks. This paper presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of single-chip, fully integrated 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz RF transmitters using direct-modulation power voltage-controlled oscillators (PVCOs in addition to a 2.0 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL based transmitter. All three RF transmitters have been fabricated in a standard mixed-signal CMOS 0.18 µm technology. Measurement results of the 2.4 GHz transmitter show an improvement in drain efficiency from 27% to 36%. The 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz transmitters deliver an output power of 8 dBm with a phase noise of −122 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 15.4 mA of current and an output power of 6.5 dBm with a phase noise of −120 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 20.8 mA of current from 1.5 V power supplies, respectively. The PLL transmitter delivers an output power of 9 mW with a locking range of 128 MHz and consumes 26 mA from 1.8 V power supply. The experimental results demonstrate that the RF transmitters can be efficiently used in low power WSN applications.

  17. Integrity and As-built capacity of bored pile group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.E.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.; Huemmer, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of statistical methods to the reliability evaluation of cast-in-place concrete piles. The difficulties associated with pile construction can lead to larger uncertainties than would be associated with normal reinforced concrete structures both due to uncertainty in concrete quality and end bearing capacity. These uncertainties can be dealt with through the use of statistical methods. A statistical model of an individual pile is formulated along with a methodology for determining necessary statistical parameters from results of concrete batch tests, core strength tests and visual logs, sonic geophysical testing methods, and proof tests. Strength models for both static vertical and seismic horizontal loadings are discussed. The overall safety of a pile foundation is dependent upon the distribution of individual pile strength as well as the additional reliability due to the use of a large number of parallel load paths provided by a pile group foundation. The paper presents a mechanical model of global pile behavior which accounts for individual pile ductility along with the possibility of redistribution of loads from weaker to stronger piles. The use of the Monte Carlo method to determine the overall reliability of the pile foundation is discussed. Numerical results for both individual pile behavior as well as overall foundation behavior are presented. (orig.)

  18. Energetic efficient and esthetic. Increasing market segment for an integration of PV modules in building facades; Energetisch effizient und aesthetisch. Steigendes Marktsegment fuer Integration von PV-Modulen in Gebaeudefassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Eric

    2012-02-15

    The GIVP facade systems provide a good combination of energy efficient land utilisation with aesthetic demands at the same time. Facade-integrated photovoltaic modules facilitate a power generation and a reduction of CO{sub 2} pollutions. Furthermore, the facade investment partially can be refinanced by the reimbursement under the Renewable Energy Law (EEG).

  19. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for thousand and original band optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed with T-band (1.0 µm waveband) and O-band (1.3 µm waveband) QD optical gain materials for Gbps-order, high-speed optical data generation. The insertion loss due to coupling between the device and the optical fiber was effectively compensated for by the SOA section. It was also confirmed that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device enabled >4.8 Gbps optical data generation with a clear eye opening in the T-band. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated error-free 4.8 Gbps optical data transmissions in each of the six wavelength channels over a 10-km-long photonic crystal fiber using the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device in multiple O-band wavelength channels, which were generated by the single QD gain chip. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device will be advantageous in ultra-broadband optical frequency systems that utilize the T+O-band for short- and medium-range optical communications.

  20. InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical modulator monolithically integrated with InGaAs driver MOSFET on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Kown; Takagi, Shinichi; Takenaka, Mitsuru

    2018-02-19

    We demonstrated the monolithic integration of a carrier-injection InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical modulator and InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) on a III-V-on-insulator (III-V-OI) wafer. A low-resistivity lateral PIN junction was formed along an InGaAsP rib waveguide by Zn diffusion and Ni-InGaAsP alloy, enabling direct driving of the InGaAsP optical modulator by the InGaAs MOSFET. A π phase shift of the InGaAsP optical modulator was obtained through the injection of a drain current from the InGaAs MOSFET with a gate voltage of approximately 1 V. This proof-of-concept demonstration of the monolithic integration of the InGaAsP optical modulator and InGaAs driver MOSFET will enable us to develop high-performance and low-power electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

  1. Transformers: Shape-Changing Space Systems Built with Robotic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Prior approaches to transformer-like robots had only very limited success. They suffer from lack of reliability, ability to integrate large surfaces, and very modest change in overall shape. Robots can now be built from two-dimensional (2D) layers of robotic fabric. These transformers, a new kind of robotic space system, are dramatically different from current systems in at least two ways. First, the entire transformer is built from a single, thin sheet; a flexible layer of a robotic fabric (ro-fabric); or robotic textile (ro-textile). Second, the ro-textile layer is foldable to small volume and self-unfolding to adapt shape and function to mission phases.

  2. National Conference on Sustainable Built Environment 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Arindam; Khare, Ajay; Sen, Joy

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive document visualizing the future of built environment from a multidisciplinary dimension, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario. The multidisciplinary focus would be helpful for the readers to cross-refer and understand others' perspectives. The text also includes case studies substantiating theoretical research. This method of composition helps the book to maintain rational balance among theory, research and its contextual application. The book comprises selected papers from the National Conference on Sustainable Built Environment. The chapters provide varied viewpoints on the core issues of urbanization and planning, especially in the economically diverse Indian market. This compilation would be of interest to students, researchers, professionals and policy makers.

  3. SU-E-T-483: In Vivo Dosimetry of Conventional and Rotational Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Using Integral Quality Monitor (IQM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L; Qian, J; Gonzales, R; Keck, J; Armour, E; Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy, sensitivity and constancy of integral quality monitor (IQM), a new system for in vivo dosimetry of conventional intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or rotational volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) Methods: A beta-version IQM system was commissioned on an Elekta Infinity LINAC equipped with 160-MLCs Agility head. The stationary and rotational dosimetric constancy of IQM was evaluated, using five-field IMRT and single-or double-arc VMAT plans for prostate and head-and-neck (H&N) patients. The plans were delivered three times over three days to assess the constancy of IQM response. Picket fence (PF) fields were used to evaluate the sensitivity of detecting MLC leaf errors. A single leaf offset was intentionally introduced during delivery of various PF fields with segment apertures of 3×1, 5×1, 10×1, and 24×1cm2. Both 2mm and 5mm decrease in the field width were used. Results: Repeated IQM measurements of prostate and H&N IMRT deliveries showed 0.4 and 0.5% average standard deviation (SD) for segment-by-segment comparison and 0.1 and 0.2% for cumulative comparison. The corresponding SDs for VMAT deliveries were 6.5, 9.4% and 0.7, 1.3%, respectively. Statistical analysis indicates that the dosimetric differences detected by IQM were significant (p < 0.05) in all PF test deliveries. The largest average IQM signal response of a 2 mm leaf error was found to be 2.1% and 5.1% by a 5mm leaf error for 3×1 cm2 field size. The same error in 24×1 cm2 generates a 0.7% and 1.4% difference in the signal. Conclusion: IQM provides an effective means for real-time dosimetric verification of IMRT/ VMAT treatment delivery. For VMAT delivery, the cumulative dosimetry of IQM needs to be used in clinical practice.

  4. Cocaine modulates HIV-1 integration in primary CD4+ T cells: implications in HIV-1 pathogenesis in drug-abusing patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Amma B.; Pandhare, Jui; Paromov, Victor; Mantri, Chinmay K.; Pratap, Siddharth; Dash, Chandravanu

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that cocaine abuse worsens HIV-1 disease progression. Increased viral load has been suggested to play a key role for the accelerated HIV disease among cocaine-abusing patients. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cocaine enhances proviral DNA integration as a mechanism to increase viral load. We infected CD4+ T cells that are the primary targets of HIV-1 in vivo and treated the cells with physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine (1 µM–100 µM). Proviral DNA integration in the host genome was measured by nested qPCR. Our results illustrated that cocaine from 1 µM through 50 µM increased HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. As integration can be modulated by several early postentry steps of HIV-1 infection, we examined the direct effects of cocaine on viral integration by in vitro integration assays by use of HIV-1 PICs. Our data illustrated that cocaine directly increases viral DNA integration. Furthermore, our MS analysis showed that cocaine is able to enter CD4+ T cells and localize to the nucleus-. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that cocaine can increase HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that increased HIV-1 integration is a novel mechanism by which cocaine enhances viral load and worsens disease progression in drug-abusing HIV-1 patients. PMID:25691383

  5. CSIR eNews: Built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR's research activities in the built environment are aimed at supporting South Africa's competitive performance and the welfare and quality of life of its people through knowledge-generation for the development of an efficient and globally...

  6. CSIR eNews: Built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR's research activities in the built environment are aimed at supporting South Africa's competitive performance and the welfare and quality of life of its people through knowledge-generation for the development of an efficient and globally...

  7. Schooling Built on the Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    This article features a school built on multiple intelligences. As the first multiple intelligences school in the world, the Key Learning Community shapes its students' days to include significant time in the musical, spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences, as well as the more traditional areas of logical-mathematical and linguistics. In…

  8. Giant dipole resonances built on excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snover, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of giant dipole resonances built on excited nuclear states are reviewed, with emphasis on recent results. Nonstatistical (p,γ) reactions in light nuclei, and statistical complex-particle reactions in light and heavy nuclei are discussed. 27 references

  9. Democratizing Authority in the Built Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael P [UC Berkeley; Kolb, John [UC Berkeley; Chen, Kaifei [UC Berkeley; Culler, David [UC Berkeley; Katz, Randy [UC Berkeley

    2017-11-08

    Operating systems and applications in the built environment have relied upon central authorization and management mechanisms which restrict their scalability, especially with respect to administrative overhead. We propose a new set of primitives encompassing syndication, security, and service execution that unifies the management of applications and services across the built environment, while enabling participants to individually delegate privilege across multiple administrative domains with no loss of security or manageability. We show how to leverage a decentralized authorization syndication platform to extend the design of building operating systems beyond the single administrative domain of a building. The authorization system leveraged is based on blockchain smart contracts to permit decentralized and democratized delegation of authorization without central trust. Upon this, a publish/subscribe syndication tier and a containerized service execution environment are constructed. Combined, these mechanisms solve problems of delegation, federation, device protection and service execution that arise throughout the built environment. We leverage a high-fidelity city-scale emulation to verify the scalability of the authorization tier, and briefly describe a prototypical democratized operating system for the built environment using this foundation.

  10. Moderate hypofractionated radiotherapy with volumetric modulated arc therapy and simultaneous integrated boost for pelvic irradiation in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzese, C; Fogliata, A; D'Agostino, G R; Di Brina, L; Comito, T; Navarria, P; Cozzi, L; Scorsetti, M

    2017-07-01

    The optimal treatment for unfavourable intermediate/high-risk prostate cancer is still debated. In the present study, the pattern of toxicity and early clinical outcome of patients with localized prostate cancer was analyzed. A cohort of 90 patients treated on pelvic lymph nodes from 2010 to 2015 was selected. All patients were treated with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), and Simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in 28 fractions; the prostate, the seminal vesicle and the pelvic lymph node received total doses of 74.2, 65.5, and 51.8 Gy, respectively. End points were the detection of acute and late toxicities graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria CTCAE version 3, evaluating the rectal, genito-urinary and gastro-intestinal toxicity. Correlation of OARs dose parameters and related toxicities was explored. Preliminary overall survival and Progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated. With a median follow-up of 25 months, no interruptions for treatment-related toxicity were recorded. Univariate analysis among dosimetric data and acute toxicities showed no correlations. Regarding late toxicity: the dose received by a rectal volume of 90 cm 3 was found to be significant for toxicity prediction (p = 0.024). PFS was 90.6% and 60.2% at 2 and 4 years, respectively. PFS correlates with age (p = 0.011) and Gleason score (p = 0.011). Stratifying the PSA nadir in quartiles, its value was significant (p = 0.016) in predicting PFS, showing a reduction of PFS of 2 months for each PSA-nadir increase of 0.1 ng/ml. HRT with VMAT and SIB on the whole pelvis in unfavourable prostate cancer patients is effective with a mild pattern of toxicity.

  11. Volatile anesthetics influence blood-brain barrier integrity by modulation of tight junction protein expression in traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge C Thal

    Full Text Available Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB results in cerebral edema formation, which is a major cause for high mortality after traumatic brain injury (TBI. As anesthetic care is mandatory in patients suffering from severe TBI it may be important to elucidate the effect of different anesthetics on cerebral edema formation. Tight junction proteins (TJ such as zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 and claudin-5 (cl5 play a central role for BBB stability. First, the influence of the volatile anesthetics sevoflurane and isoflurane on in-vitro BBB integrity was investigated by quantification of the electrical resistance (TEER in murine brain endothelial monolayers and neurovascular co-cultures of the BBB. Secondly brain edema and TJ expression of ZO-1 and cl5 were measured in-vivo after exposure towards volatile anesthetics in native mice and after controlled cortical impact (CCI. In in-vitro endothelial monocultures, both anesthetics significantly reduced TEER within 24 hours after exposure. In BBB co-cultures mimicking the neurovascular unit (NVU volatile anesthetics had no impact on TEER. In healthy mice, anesthesia did not influence brain water content and TJ expression, while 24 hours after CCI brain water content increased significantly stronger with isoflurane compared to sevoflurane. In line with the brain edema data, ZO-1 expression was significantly higher in sevoflurane compared to isoflurane exposed CCI animals. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed disruption of ZO-1 at the cerebrovascular level, while cl5 was less affected in the pericontusional area. The study demonstrates that anesthetics influence brain edema formation after experimental TBI. This effect may be attributed to modulation of BBB permeability by differential TJ protein expression. Therefore, selection of anesthetics may influence the barrier function and introduce a strong bias in experimental research on pathophysiology of BBB dysfunction. Future research is required to investigate

  12. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    This booklet contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of Apr. 30, 1984, which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or purpose: civilian, military, production, export, and critical assembly facilities

  13. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.P.

    1985-09-01

    This publication contains unclassified information about facilities built, being built, or planned in the United States for domestic use or export as of March 1985, which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Information is presented in five parts, each of which is categorized by primary function or purpose: civilian, production, military, export, and critical assembly facilities

  14. Smart built-in test for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombrozo, P.C.

    1992-03-01

    Smart built-in test (BIT) technologies are envisioned for nuclear thermal propulsion spacecraft components which undergo constant irradiation and are therefore unsafe for manual testing. Smart BIT systems of automated/remote type allow component and system tests to be conducted; failure detections are directly followed by reconfiguration of the components affected. The 'smartness' of the BIT system in question involves the reduction of sensor counts via the use of multifunction sensors, the use of components as integral sensors, and the use of system design techniques which allow the verification of system function beyond component connectivity

  15. Identification of a gene module associated with BMD through the integration of network analysis and genome-wide association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Charles R

    2010-11-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by a complex network of gene interactions; therefore, elucidating the relationships between genes and how those genes, in turn, influence BMD is critical for developing a comprehensive understanding of osteoporosis. To investigate the role of transcriptional networks in the regulation of BMD, we performed a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) using microarray expression data on monocytes from young individuals with low or high BMD. WGCNA groups genes into modules based on patterns of gene coexpression. and our analysis identified 11 gene modules. We observed that the overall expression of one module (referred to as module 9) was significantly higher in the low-BMD group (p = .03). Module 9 was highly enriched for genes belonging to the immune system-related gene ontology (GO) category "response to virus" (p = 7.6 × 10(-11)). Using publically available genome-wide association study data, we independently validated the importance of module 9 by demonstrating that highly connected module 9 hubs were more likely, relative to less highly connected genes, to be genetically associated with BMD. This study highlights the advantages of systems-level analyses to uncover coexpression modules associated with bone mass and suggests that particular monocyte expression patterns may mediate differences in BMD. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Purpose-built mosques in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Maja de; Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    form and the location of the mosques. In the paper we explore both similarities and differences in the way the material culture of the mosques are planned and received by the public. Today, three purpose-built mosques exist in the Copenhagen area, and they differ in terms of architectural form, age...... of purpose-built mosques in Copenhagen. The public visibility is a manifestation of religious differences that cannot be thought independent of the materiality of culture; namely aesthetic forms, dress codes and architectural genres. Cultural encounters are mediated through the materiality, the aesthetic...... are received in public, how this reception varies, and what lessons that can be learned from these meetings as regards possibilities/limitations for, and co-existence in, the city....

  17. Concentrated solar power in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenon, Alaric C.; Fylaktos, Nestor; Montagnino, Fabio; Paredes, Filippo; Papanicolas, Costas N.

    2017-06-01

    Solar concentration systems are usually deployed in large open spaces for electricity generation; they are rarely used to address the pressing energy needs of the built environment sector. Fresnel technology offers interesting and challenging CSP energy pathways suitable for the built environment, due to its relatively light weight (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) system of a recently constructed office & laboratory building, the Novel Technologies Laboratory (NTL). The multi-generative system will support cooling, heating and hot water production feeding the system of the NTL building, as a demonstration project, part of the STS-MED program (Small Scale Thermal Solar District Units for Mediterranean Communities) financed by the European Commission under the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), CBCMED program.

  18. Resilience engineering and the built environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    important to understand the range of conditions about why and how the system functions in the desired' mode as well as unwanted' modes. Resilience is the capacity to sustain operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. The unexpected conditions are not only threats but also opportunities.......The possible relations between resilience engineering and built environments are explored. Resilience engineering has been concerned with the safe and efficient functioning of large and small industrial systems. These may be described as built systems or artefacts. The resilience engineering...... approach argues that if the performance of systems is to be resilient, then they must be able to respond, monitor, learn and anticipate. The last ability in particular means that they must be able to consider themselves vis-a-vis their environment, i.e. be sentient and reflective systems. In practice...

  19. RED or READ: the built environment is colored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dianne

    2002-06-01

    How important is color in the design of our built environment? Prototypes and massing models for designs are often presented in white or monochromatic combinations, irrespective of the materials incorporated and the colors that may be applied in the final constructed building, interior or object. Therefore, it is of interest to identify the way color is positioned by designers in how they go about the business of making environments. The built environment is understood by the designers and design researchers generally in one of four fields - as object, as product, as communicator, or as social domain. In addition, Franz identified four conceptions of designing held by designers - the experiential conception, the structural conception, the production conception and the retail conception. Fashion and style are often associated with color in a local context and may simply be applied to the physical environment because it is in fashion, rather than because of what it communicates more broadly. It is assumed that the integration of color in the built environment is influenced by these understandings. In order to address color's position in the design process and the importance of color in relation to space, form, and the experience of place, a selection of Queensland architects and interior designers were surveyed. The study is not conclusive, however, it does identify differences and commonalities between the participants that are of interest in light of the above issues. Explorations into environmental meaning, in addition to color theory and decorative applications, are hypothesized to be important sources of information for designers involved in the coloration of the built environment.

  20. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  1. Built-Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Forsyth, T.; Sinclair, K.; Oteri, F.

    2012-11-01

    Although only a small contributor to total electricity production needs, built-environment wind turbines (BWTs) nonetheless have the potential to influence the public's consideration of renewable energy, and wind energy in particular. Higher population concentrations in urban environments offer greater opportunities for project visibility and an opportunity to acquaint large numbers of people to the advantages of wind projects on a larger scale. However, turbine failures will be equally visible and could have a negative effect on public perception of wind technology. This roadmap provides a framework for achieving the vision set forth by the attendees of the Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The BWT roadmap outlines the stakeholder actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers identified. The actions are categorized as near-term (0 - 3 years), medium-term (4 - 7 years), and both near- and medium-term (requiring immediate to medium-term effort). To accomplish these actions, a strategic approach was developed that identifies two focus areas: understanding the built-environment wind resource and developing testing and design standards. The authors summarize the expertise and resources required in these areas.

  2. Preliminary analysis of the sequential simultaneous integrated boost technique for intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ohira, Shingo; Tsujii, Katsutomo; Isono, Masaru; Masaoka, Akira; Teshima, Teruki

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three strategies for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for 20 head-and-neck cancer patients. For simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), doses were 66 and 54 Gy in 30 fractions for PTVboost and PTVelective, respectively. Two-phase IMRT delivered 50 Gy in 25 fractions to PTVelective in the First Plan, and 20 Gy in 10 fractions to PTVboost in the Second Plan. Sequential SIB (SEQ-SIB) delivered 55 Gy and 50 Gy in 25 fractions, respectively, to PTVboost and PTVelective using SIB in the First Plan and 11 Gy in 5 fractions to PTVboost in the Second Plan. Conformity indexes (CIs) (mean ± SD) for PTVboost and PTVelective were 1.09 ± 0.05 and 1.34 ± 0.12 for SIB, 1.39 ± 0.14 and 1.80 ± 0.28 for two-phase IMRT, and 1.14 ± 0.07 and 1.60 ± 0.18 for SEQ-SIB, respectively. CI was significantly highest for two-phase IMRT. Maximum doses (Dmax) to the spinal cord were 42.1 ± 1.5 Gy for SIB, 43.9 ± 1.0 Gy for two-phase IMRT and 40.3 ± 1.8 Gy for SEQ-SIB. Brainstem Dmax were 50.1 ± 2.2 Gy for SIB, 50.5 ± 4.6 Gy for two-phase IMRT and 47.4 ± 3.6 Gy for SEQ-SIB. Spinal cord Dmax for the three techniques was significantly different, and brainstem Dmax was significantly lower for SEQ-SIB. The compromised conformity of two-phase IMRT can result in higher doses to organs at risk (OARs). Lower OAR doses in SEQ-SIB made SEQ-SIB an alternative to SIB, which applies unconventional doses per fraction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. Sector Tests of a Low-NO(sub x), Lean, Direct- Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combustor Concept Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, Robert R.; Wey, Chang-Lie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    The low-emissions combustor development described is directed toward advanced high pressure aircraft gas-turbine applications. The emphasis of this research is to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high-power conditions and to maintain carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons at their current low levels at low power conditions. Low-NOx combustors can be classified into rich-burn and lean-burn concepts. Lean-burn combustors can be further classified into lean-premixed-prevaporized (LPP) and lean direct injection (LDI) concepts. In both concepts, all the combustor air, except for liner cooling flow, enters through the combustor dome so that the combustion occurs at the lowest possible flame temperature. The LPP concept has been shown to have the lowest NOx emissions, but for advanced high-pressure-ratio engines, the possibility of autoignition or flashback precludes its use. LDI differs from LPP in that the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone, and thus, it does not have the potential for autoignition or flashback and should have greater stability. However, since it is not premixed and prevaporized, good atomization is necessary and the fuel must be mixed quickly and uniformly so that flame temperatures are low and NOx formation levels are comparable to those of LPP. The LDI concept described is a multipoint fuel injection/multiburning zone concept. Each of the multiple fuel injectors has an air swirler associated with it to provide quick mixing and a small recirculation zone for burning. The multipoint fuel injection provides quick, uniform mixing and the small multiburning zones provide for reduced burning residence time, resulting in low NOx formation. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers, and fuel manifold into a single element. The multipoint concept combustor was demonstrated in a 15 sector test. The configuration tested had 36

  4. Patterns of integration in the canine skull: an inside view into the relationship of the skull modules of domestic dogs and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curth, Stefan; Fischer, Martin S; Kupczik, Kornelius

    2017-12-01

    The skull shape variation in domestic dogs exceeds that of grey wolves by far. The artificial selection of dogs has even led to breeds with mismatching upper and lower jaws and maloccluded teeth. For that reason, it has been advocated that their skulls (including the teeth) can be divided into more or less independent modules on the basis of genetics, development or function. In this study, we investigated whether the large diversity of dog skulls and the frequent occurrence of orofacial disproportions can be explained by a lower integration strength between the modules of the skull and by deviations in their covariation pattern when compared to wolves. For that purpose, we employed geometric morphometric methods on the basis of 99 3D-landmarks representing the cranium (subdivided into rostrum and braincase), the mandible (subdivided into ramus and corpus), and the upper and lower tooth rows. These were taken from CT images of 196 dog and wolf skulls. First, we calculated the shape disparity of the mandible and the cranium in dogs and wolves. Then we tested whether the integration strength (measured by RV coefficient) and the covariation pattern (as analysed by partial least squares analysis) of the modules subordinate to the cranium and the mandible can explain differing disparity results. We show, contrary to our expectations, that the higher skull shape diversity in dogs is not explained by less integrated skull modules. Also, the pattern of their covariation in the dog skull can be traced back to similar patterns in the wolf. This shows that existing differences between wolves and dogs are at the utmost a matter of degree and not absolute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The design of the frame structure used in integral hosting of the nuclear island steel lining cylinder module and problems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinian; Liu Xiao; Wang Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    The use of the steel frame in the integral hosting of nuclear island steel lining cylinder module made a breakthrough in China's nuclear power construction. The deformation of the cylinder wall is the key issue in the integral lifting process of the nuclear island steel lining. Using the frame in lifting large and thin steel cylinder, the form of frame structure and its deformation will directly affect the radial deformation of the lifted cylinder, the buckling deformation of the distal cylinder, and the cylinder's deformation surround the penetrations. The diameter of nuclear island steel liner is 44 meters. The wall of the cylinder is thin, and the total weight of the cylinder itself and its attached penetrations, walkways and lifting tools, etc. is up to 120 tons, which not only increase the difficulty of lifting, but also have some risks. To ensure the cylinder deformation within the limits, this thesis establishes the parameter structure for the lifting frame, calculates the displacement and analyzes the axial stresses, based on the ANSYS finite element analysis software. The results showed that the models and parameters for integral hosting of the steel lining cylinder modular frame structure is reasonable and feasible, and analyzing the hosting-frame data is necessary, which lay the foundation for the design of the hosting frame and the eventual implementation of the integral hosting scheme of the steel lining cylinder module. (authors)

  6. Comparing the response modulation hypothesis and the integrated emotions system theory : The role of top-down attention in psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, Jaap; Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; Little, Bethany; Kooiman, Karen; van der Burg, Erik; Theeuwes, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Objective Two major etiological theories on psychopathy propose different mechanisms as to how emotional facial expressions are processed by individuals with elevated psychopathic traits. The Response Modulation Hypothesis (RMH) proposes that psychopathic individuals show emotional deficits as a

  7. Development and application of visual support module for remote operator in 3D virtual environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Cho, Soo Jeong; Yang, Kyung Boo; Bae, Chang Hyun

    2006-02-01

    In this research, the 3D graphic environment was developed for remote operation, and included the visual support module. The real operation environment was built by employing a experiment robot, and also the identical virtual model was developed. The well-designed virtual models can be used to retrieve the necessary conditions for developing the devices and processes. The integration of 3D virtual models, the experimental operation environment, and the visual support module was used for evaluating the operation efficiency and accuracy by applying different methods such as only monitor image and with visual support module

  8. Development and application of visual support module for remote operator in 3D virtual environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Cho, Soo Jeong; Yang, Kyung Boo [Cheju Nat. Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Chang Hyun [Pusan Nat. Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    In this research, the 3D graphic environment was developed for remote operation, and included the visual support module. The real operation environment was built by employing a experiment robot, and also the identical virtual model was developed. The well-designed virtual models can be used to retrieve the necessary conditions for developing the devices and processes. The integration of 3D virtual models, the experimental operation environment, and the visual support module was used for evaluating the operation efficiency and accuracy by applying different methods such as only monitor image and with visual support module.

  9. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  10. Development, Implementation, and Assessment of Climate Curricular Materials for Introductory Undergraduates: Lessons Learned from the InTeGrate Project's Climate of Change Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, B.; Fadem, C. M.; Shellito, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    Designing climate change curricular materials suitable for wide adoption across institutions and academic disciplines (including those outside of the geosciences) requires collaboration among faculty at different types of institutions and consideration of a variety of student populations, learning styles, and course formats. The Interdisciplinary Teaching of Geoscience for a Sustainable Future (InTeGrate) project, an NSF STEP Center program, provides opportunities for faculty to develop 2-3 week teaching modules to engage students in understanding the intersections between geoscience topics and societal issues. From 2012-2014, a team of 3 faculty from a liberal arts college, comprehensive university, and community college developed, implemented, assessed, and revised a 2-3 week module for introductory undergraduates entitled "Climate of change: interactions and feedbacks between water, air, and ice". The module uses authentic atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere data from several regions to illustrate how climate impacts human societies and that the climate system has interacting components complicated by feedbacks, uncertainties, and human behavioral decisions. Students also consider past and present human adaptations to climate fluctuations. The module was piloted in introductory geology, meteorology, and oceanography courses during the 2012-2013 academic year, during which time formative and summative assessments were administered and used to modify the curricular materials. We will provide an overview of the module's content, instructional strategies involved in implementing the module, and methods of formative and summative assessment. We will also report on lessons learned during the development, piloting, revision, and publishing process, the importance of fostering partnerships between faculty from different institution types, and design approaches that promote widespread adoption of climate curricular materials.

  11. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Jae; Youn, Jin-Sung; Park, Kang-Yeob; Choi, Woo-Young

    2014-02-10

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector, which provides larger photodetection bandwidth than previously reported CMOS-compatible photodetectors. The receiver also has high-speed CMOS circuits including transimpedance amplifier, DC-balanced buffer, equalizer, and limiting amplifier. With the fabricated optical receiver, detection of 12.5-Gb/s optical data is successfully achieved at 5.8 pJ/bit. Our receiver achieves the highest data rate ever reported for 850-nm integrated CMOS optical receivers.

  12. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover...

  13. Indigenously built resonance ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razvi, M.A.N.; Jayasekharan, T.; Thankarajan, K.; Guhagarkar, M.B.; Dixit, M.N.; Bhale, G.L.

    2000-04-01

    Design, fabrication and performance testing of an indigenously built Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) is presented in this report. The instrument is totally indigenous, but for the laser components consisting of the excimer laser and tunable dye lasers. Constructional details of atomic beam source and linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are included. Finally, commissioning and performance testing of the instrument is described. Mass resolving power of 400 and a detection limit of 100 atoms has been achieved using this RIMS set-up. (author)

  14. Urban value proposition of industrial built heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Geevers

    2014-07-01

    means of an ‘enriched’ map of the factory’s industrial estate. The ‘bottom-up’ approach of the Guidelines for Building Archeological Research (2009 has been adopted for the research study into the history of Strijp-S construction and use. The origin and expansion of the spatial planning structure of the Strijp-S estate have been shown in connection with the development of the company itself. The innovative fundamental attitude that led to the diversification of production (from light bulbs to a broad range of electrical appliances in the first half of the twentieth century turned out to have been the breeding ground for an equally innovative architectural and urban-planning establishment of spatial and societal conditions in the interest of the company and the city of Eindhoven as a whole. Narrowly tracing the growth stages of the estate has brought into focus the elementary parts of the kind of spatial and programmatic structure which in the course of time have developed into typological constructs. Knowledge of Zlín and Bat’a helped to identify the factors that contributed to the success of the Philips company organization as inspired by American examples, such as Daylight Factories, Integrated Industry and Company Town. Thomas Bat’a built nearly a hundred daylight factories in and around Zlín, a city with a population of 40,000. Here the Integrated Industry did not only involve the production of shoes but also the ‘production’ of the entire city, in recent literature praised as a model company town. There was a substantial connection with Philips as appeared from the decision in the twenties to locate the Dutch branch of Bat’a in the town of Best, not far from Philips. In addition, an architectural-historical connection came to light between Zlín and Tony Garnier’s plan for a ‘Cité Industrielle’, which he had already developed in 1904, but was not published until 1917 under the title Une Cité Industrielle in reference to Lyon. Garnier

  15. A polymer chip-integrable piezoelectric micropump with low backpressure dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, A. J.; Bianchetti, A.; Veiras, F. E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a piezoelectric micropump constructed in polymers with conventional machining methods. The micropump is self-contained and can be built as an independent device or as an on-chip module within laminated microfluidic chips. We demonstrate on-chip integrability by the fabrication and tes...

  16. EDITORIAL: BUILT ENVIRONMENT PERSPECTIVES ON POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason von Meding

    2013-11-01

    It is with great pleasure that we would like to introduce this special issue of IJAR, a compilation of cutting-edge research that covers many of the key themes relevant to built environment researchers in disaster-related areas. This knowledge area is by its very nature absolutely multidisciplinary and for this reason it is difficult to quantify built environment impacts, drivers and outcomes in isolation and disaggregate them from non-built environment factors. However, regardless of certain limitations to research carried out from a built environment perspective, as would be the case from any specific disciplinary perspective, a significant body of work has emerged and is constantly growing and evolving in parallel with the research agenda. Built environment researchers around the globe are now, more than ever, exploring various problems that threaten humanity in the way of dire vulnerability and more frequent and powerful hazards. This collection of papers will look specifically at one area of disaster management, postdisaster reconstruction. Reconstruction projects primarily occur during the recovery phase of the disaster cycle, playing a key role in bringing vulnerable communities back to normalcy, integrating disaster risk reduction and preparedness measures to increase resilience to future hazard events. The special issue is broken into four thematic areas; Context and Culture, Theory, Resilience and Risk Reduction and Design. The three papers in Section 1- Context and Culture deal with the impacts of disasters on places and the people that inhabit them, investigating the extent to which reconstruction projects can address social and cultural problems. Meanwhile, the two papers in Section 2- Theory put forward new theoretical perspectives with regards to stakeholder engagement and management, representing the growth of alternative points of departure in this area. The three papers in Section 3- Resilience and Risk Reduction explore various approaches to

  17. A 1 MHz BW 34.2 fJ/step Continuous Time Delta Sigma Modulator With an Integrated Mixer for Cardiac Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaald, Rune; Eggen, Trym; Ytterdal, Trond

    2017-02-01

    Fully digitized 2D ultrasound transducer arrays require one ADC per channel with a beamforming architecture consuming low power. We give design considerations for per-channel digitization and beamforming, and present the design and measurements of a continuous time delta-sigma modulator (CTDSM) for cardiac ultrasound applications. By integrating a mixer into the modulator frontend, the phase and frequency of the input signal can be shifted, thereby enabling both improved conversion efficiency and narrowband beamforming. To minimize the power consumption, we propose an optimization methodology using a simulated annealing framework combined with a C++ simulator solving linear electrical networks. The 3rd order single-bit feedback type modulator, implemented in a 65 nm CMOS process, achieves an SNR/SNDR of 67.8/67.4 dB across 1 MHz bandwidth consuming 131 [Formula: see text] of power. The achieved figure of merit of 34.2 fJ/step is comparable with state-of-the-art feedforward type multi-bit designs. We further demonstrate the influence to the dynamic range when performing dynamic receive beamforming on recorded delta-sigma modulated bit-stream sequences.

  18. Urban wind turbines. Guidelines for small wind turbines in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cace, J.; Ter Horst, E.; Syngellakis, K.; Niel, M.; Clement, P.; Heppener, R.; Peirano, E.

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the WINEUR project (Wind Energy Integration in the Urban Environment) is to determine the deployability of small wind turbines in built environments while identifying the current significant constraints and possible solutions. The purpose of this document is to Inform the stakeholders about the state of the development of small wind turbines for the built environment; Provide practical guidelines to actors dealing with installation of small wind turbines in urban areas; and Provide recommendations for future products and for market development

  19. A small world of weak ties provides optimal global integration of self-similar modules in functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros K; Makse, Hernán A; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-02-21

    The human brain is organized in functional modules. Such an organization presents a basic conundrum: Modules ought to be sufficiently independent to guarantee functional specialization and sufficiently connected to bind multiple processors for efficient information transfer. It is commonly accepted that small-world architecture of short paths and large local clustering may solve this problem. However, there is intrinsic tension between shortcuts generating small worlds and the persistence of modularity, a global property unrelated to local clustering. Here, we present a possible solution to this puzzle. We first show that a modified percolation theory can define a set of hierarchically organized modules made of strong links in functional brain networks. These modules are "large-world" self-similar structures and, therefore, are far from being small-world. However, incorporating weaker ties to the network converts it into a small world preserving an underlying backbone of well-defined modules. Remarkably, weak ties are precisely organized as predicted by theory maximizing information transfer with minimal wiring cost. This trade-off architecture is reminiscent of the "strength of weak ties" crucial concept of social networks. Such a design suggests a natural solution to the paradox of efficient information flow in the highly modular structure of the brain.

  20. Identification of Transcriptional Modules and Key Genes in Chickens Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Pullorum Using Integrated Coexpression Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica Pullorum is one of the leading causes of mortality in poultry. Understanding the molecular response in chickens in response to the infection by S. enterica is important in revealing the mechanisms of pathogenesis and disease progress. There have been studies on identifying genes associated with Salmonella infection by differential expression analysis, but the relationships among regulated genes have not been investigated. In this study, we employed weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA and differential coexpression analysis (DCEA to identify coexpression modules by exploring microarray data derived from chicken splenic tissues in response to the S. enterica infection. A total of 19 modules from 13,538 genes were associated with the Jak-STAT signaling pathway, the extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton organization, the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, G-protein coupled receptor activity, Toll-like receptor signaling pathways, and immune system processes; among them, 14 differentially coexpressed modules (DCMs and 2,856 differentially coexpressed genes (DCGs were identified. The global expression of module genes between infected and uninfected chickens showed slight differences but considerable changes for global coexpression. Furthermore, DCGs were consistently linked to the hubs of the modules. These results will help prioritize candidate genes for future studies of Salmonella infection.

  1. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  2. A photonic circuit for complementary frequency shifting, in-phase quadrature/single sideband modulation and frequency multiplication: analysis and integration feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hu, Jianqi; Nikkhah, Hamdam; Hall, Trevor

    2017-08-01

    A novel photonic integrated circuit architecture for implementing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing by means of photonic generation of phase-correlated sub-carriers is proposed. The circuit can also be used for implementing complex modulation, frequency up-conversion of the electrical signal to the optical domain and frequency multiplication. The principles of operation of the circuit are expounded using transmission matrices and the predictions of the analysis are verified by computer simulation using an industry-standard software tool. Non-ideal scenarios that may affect the correct function of the circuit are taken into consideration and quantified. The discussion of integration feasibility is illustrated by a photonic integrated circuit that has been fabricated using 'library' components and which features most of the elements of the proposed circuit architecture. The circuit is found to be practical and may be fabricated in any material platform that offers a linear electro-optic modulator such as organic or ferroelectric thin films hybridized with silicon photonics.

  3. A linear magnetic bearing with integrated long stroke propulsion - design and realization of an IU-module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laro, D.A.H.; Ven, van de S.C.L.; Spronck, J.W.; Lebedev, A.; Lomonova, E.A.; Dag, B.

    2004-01-01

    The active magnetic bearings (AMB) and linear electrical actuators (LEA) are the important elements for high precision systems such as semiconductor equipment and machine tools. This paper concerns the initial design of a single I U-shaped electromagnetic module as a part of six degrees of freedom

  4. Integrating Anatomy Training into Radiation Oncology Residency: Considerations for Developing a Multidisciplinary, Interactive Learning Module for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labranche, Leah; Johnson, Marjorie; Palma, David; D'Souza, Leah; Jaswal, Jasbir

    2015-01-01

    Radiation oncologists require an in-depth understanding of anatomical relationships for modern clinical practice, although most do not receive formal anatomy training during residency. To fulfill the need for instruction in relevant anatomy, a series of four multidisciplinary, interactive learning modules were developed for a cohort of radiation…

  5. Doublet III beamline: as-built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, C.R.; Holland, M.M.; Parker, J.W.; Gunn, J.; Resnick, L.

    1980-03-01

    In order to fully exploit Doublet III capabilities and to study new plasma physics regimes, a Neutral Beam Injector System has been constructed. Initially, a two beamline system will supply 7 MW of heat to the plasma. The system is currently being expanded to inject approx. 20 MW of power (6 beamlines). Each beamline is equipped with two Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory type rectangular ion sources with 10 cm x 40 cm extraction grids. These sources will accelerate hydrogen ions to 80 keV, with extracted beam currents in excess of 80 A per source expected. The first completed source is currently being tested and conditioned on the High Voltage Test Stand at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This paper pictorially reviews the as-built Doublet III neutral beamline with emphasis on component relation and configuration relative to spatial and source imposed design constraints

  6. Radiation dosimeter built with plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrea, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ionization chambers, with air equivalent plastic walls, have been used as the main x-ray dosimetry system, since its response permits to give the doses in Roentgens. From the commercial availability of plastic scintillators with air equivalent atomic number we have studied its use in x-ray dosimetry. This paper devised a system with which it is possible to reduce side effects that introduce errors and obtain a response independent of energy, from 20 to 180 KeV and it is also expected to behave that way for higher energies. The system has a high efficiency and precision for a wide dose range and it is then a new alternative to measure x-ray doses. Results obtained with a prototype, built ad-hog, make it possible its use with dosimetric purposes with several advantages over conventional. (author)

  7. Built cultural heritage facing climate change risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Roger-Alexandre; Martin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The built cultural heritage would face important risks in the frame of climate change. They are well identified by the major international organizations, but only in a qualitative manner, and mainly refer on the action of water or on its absence. The most active research is supported by the European Commission. The results obtained by the European project 'Noah's Ark' are the most important at the day. Dose-Response Functions with predictive climate models are used to produce vulnerability maps at a European scale of which one example is presented. The recommendations of the Council of Europe for policy makers and researchers are developed as a conclusion. Three case studies are synthesized in annex of this article: Venice, London and Paris. (authors)

  8. Tester-assisted built in test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntheroth, Kurt

    It is noted that board makers invest considerable time and money writing extensive self-tests and that this investment can be multiplied by selecting ATE (automatic test equipment) that complements and extends the power of the self-test. The tester can diagnose boards in situations where a fault prevents the self-test from running. If the tester monitors such resources as processor, memory, and I/O, confidence in test results is improved. The tester can be used during development of the self-test and to turn on prototypes before the self-test is complete. The author argues that emulative functional testers outperform other types of ATE on boards with BIST (built-in self-test) and lists features of emulative functional testers that are most important to users of BIST.

  9. Stress Hormones mediated by the Built Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fich, Lars Brorson; Wallergård, Mattias; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-01-01

    Due to the aging society, dementia is one of the major challenges to the health care systems all over the world. The growing number of patients, the long process and intensive need for care, especially in the later stages of the disease, make the growth in human as well as socioeconomic costs huge....... The development of design strategies for nursing homes and other health care facilities such as day care centers addressing the needs of dementia patients is therefore very important. The vast majority of dementia cases is Alzheimer’s Disease, representing approximately 70% of all cases. Alzheimer’s disease...... of the hippocampus’ function in the stress system, as the lack of control of cortisol levels during stress can lead to further degradation of the hippocampus. We refer to a stress experiment suggesting that is possible through the built environment to influence the release of cortisol during stress. This again...

  10. Photocatalytic oxide films in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österlund, Lars; Topalian, Zareh

    2014-11-01

    The possibility to increase human comfort in buildings is a powerful driving force for the introduction of new technology. Among other things our sense of comfort depends on air quality, temperature, lighting level, and the possibility of having visual contact between indoors and outdoors. Indeed there is an intimate connection between energy, comfort, and health issues in the built environment, leading to a need for intelligent building materials and green architecture. Photocatalytic materials can be applied as coatings, filters, and be embedded in building materials to provide self-cleaning, antibacterial, air cleaning, deodorizing, and water cleaning functions utilizing either solar light or artificial illumination sources - either already present in buildings, or by purposefully designed luminaries. Huge improvements in indoor comfort can thus be made, and also alleviate negative health effects associated with buildings, such as the sick-house syndrome. At the same time huge cost savings can be made by reducing maintenance costs. Photocatalytic oxides can be chemically modified by changing their acid-base surface properties, which can be used to overcome deactivation problems commonly encountered for TiO2 in air cleaning applications. In addition, the wetting properties of oxides can be tailored by surface chemical modifications and thus be made e.g. oleophobic and water repellent. Here we show results of surface acid modified TiO2 coatings on various substrates by means of photo-fixation of surface sulfate species by a method invented in our group. In particular, we show that such surface treatments of photocatalytic concrete made by mixing TiO2 nanoparticles in reactive concrete powders result in concrete surfaces with beneficial self-cleaning properties. We propose that such approaches are feasible for a number of applications in the built environment, including glass, tiles, sheet metals, plastics, etc.

  11. Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum from the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Tanney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungi, especially Aspergillus species, are prevalent in the built environment. In this study, we employed a combined culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing and culture-dependent (dilution-to-extinction approach to investigate the mycobiota of indoor dust collected from 93 buildings in 12 countries worldwide. High and low water activity (aw media were used to capture mesophile and xerophile biodiversity, resulting in the isolation of approximately 9 000 strains. Among these, 340 strains representing seven putative species in Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum were isolated, mostly from lowered aw media, and tentatively identified based on colony morphology and internal transcribed spacer rDNA region (ITS barcodes. Further morphological study and phylogenetic analyses using sequences of ITS, β-tubulin (BenA, calmodulin (CaM, RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2, DNA topoisomerase 1 (TOP1, and a pre-mRNA processing protein homolog (TSR1 confirmed the isolation of seven species of subgenus Polypaecilum, including five novel species: A. baarnensis, A. keratitidis, A. kalimae sp. nov., A. noonimiae sp. nov., A. thailandensis sp. nov., A. waynelawii sp. nov., and A. whitfieldii sp. nov. Pyrosequencing detected six of the seven species isolated from house dust, as well as one additional species absent from the cultures isolated, and three clades representing potentially undescribed species. Species were typically found in house dust from subtropical and tropical climates, often in close proximity to the ocean or sea. The presence of subgenus Polypaecilum, a recently described clade of xerophilic/xerotolerant, halotolerant/halophilic, and potentially zoopathogenic species, within the built environment is noteworthy.

  12. Photocatalytic oxide films in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Österlund, Lars; Topalian, Zareh

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to increase human comfort in buildings is a powerful driving force for the introduction of new technology. Among other things our sense of comfort depends on air quality, temperature, lighting level, and the possibility of having visual contact between indoors and outdoors. Indeed there is an intimate connection between energy, comfort, and health issues in the built environment, leading to a need for intelligent building materials and green architecture. Photocatalytic materials can be applied as coatings, filters, and be embedded in building materials to provide self-cleaning, antibacterial, air cleaning, deodorizing, and water cleaning functions utilizing either solar light or artificial illumination sources – either already present in buildings, or by purposefully designed luminaries. Huge improvements in indoor comfort can thus be made, and also alleviate negative health effects associated with buildings, such as the sick-house syndrome. At the same time huge cost savings can be made by reducing maintenance costs. Photocatalytic oxides can be chemically modified by changing their acid-base surface properties, which can be used to overcome deactivation problems commonly encountered for TiO 2 in air cleaning applications. In addition, the wetting properties of oxides can be tailored by surface chemical modifications and thus be made e.g. oleophobic and water repellent. Here we show results of surface acid modified TiO 2 coatings on various substrates by means of photo-fixation of surface sulfate species by a method invented in our group. In particular, we show that such surface treatments of photocatalytic concrete made by mixing TiO 2 nanoparticles in reactive concrete powders result in concrete surfaces with beneficial self-cleaning properties. We propose that such approaches are feasible for a number of applications in the built environment, including glass, tiles, sheet metals, plastics, etc

  13. Nuclear reactors built, being built, or planned in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulden, A.M.

    1983-08-01

    This semiannual compilation provides current information about facilities for domestic use or export which are capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. Civilian, production, and military reactors are listed, as are reactors for export and critical assembly facilities. Information given includes location, owner, principal nuclear contractor, type, power rating, docket number, and start-up and shutdown dates. Nuclear Reactors Built, Being Built, or Planned is also available on standing order (PB83-903000) through a deposit account with the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161

  14. Skin dose differences between intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy and between boost and integrated treatment regimens for treating head and neck and other cancer sites in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penoncello, Gregory P.; Ding, George X.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate dose to skin between volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment techniques for target sites in the head and neck, pelvis, and brain and (2) to determine if the treatment dose and fractionation regimen affect the skin dose between traditional sequential boost and integrated boost regimens for patients with head and neck cancer. A total of 19 patients and 48 plans were evaluated. The Eclipse (v11) treatment planning system was used to plan therapy in 9 patients with head and neck cancer, 5 patients with prostate cancer, and 5 patients with brain cancer with VMAT and static-field IMRT. The mean skin dose and the maximum dose to a contiguous volume of 2 cm"3 for head and neck plans and brain plans and a contiguous volume of 5 cm"3 for pelvis plans were compared for each treatment technique. Of the 9 patients with head and neck cancer, 3 underwent an integrated boost regimen. One integrated boost plan was replanned with IMRT and VMAT using a traditional boost regimen. For target sites located in the head and neck, VMAT reduced the mean dose and contiguous hot spot most noticeably in the shoulder region by 5.6% and 5.4%, respectively. When using an integrated boost regimen, the contiguous hot spot skin dose in the shoulder was larger on average than a traditional boost pattern by 26.5% and the mean skin dose was larger by 1.7%. VMAT techniques largely decrease the contiguous hot spot in the skin in the pelvis by an average of 36% compared with IMRT. For the same target coverage, VMAT can reduce the skin dose in all the regions of the body, but more noticeably in the shoulders in patients with head and neck and pelvis cancer. We also found that using integrated boost regimens in patients with head and neck cancer leads to higher shoulder skin doses compared with traditional boost regimens.

  15. Skin dose differences between intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy and between boost and integrated treatment regimens for treating head and neck and other cancer sites in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penoncello, Gregory P; Ding, George X

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate dose to skin between volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment techniques for target sites in the head and neck, pelvis, and brain and (2) to determine if the treatment dose and fractionation regimen affect the skin dose between traditional sequential boost and integrated boost regimens for patients with head and neck cancer. A total of 19 patients and 48 plans were evaluated. The Eclipse (v11) treatment planning system was used to plan therapy in 9 patients with head and neck cancer, 5 patients with prostate cancer, and 5 patients with brain cancer with VMAT and static-field IMRT. The mean skin dose and the maximum dose to a contiguous volume of 2cm(3) for head and neck plans and brain plans and a contiguous volume of 5cm(3) for pelvis plans were compared for each treatment technique. Of the 9 patients with head and neck cancer, 3 underwent an integrated boost regimen. One integrated boost plan was replanned with IMRT and VMAT using a traditional boost regimen. For target sites located in the head and neck, VMAT reduced the mean dose and contiguous hot spot most noticeably in the shoulder region by 5.6% and 5.4%, respectively. When using an integrated boost regimen, the contiguous hot spot skin dose in the shoulder was larger on average than a traditional boost pattern by 26.5% and the mean skin dose was larger by 1.7%. VMAT techniques largely decrease the contiguous hot spot in the skin in the pelvis by an average of 36% compared with IMRT. For the same target coverage, VMAT can reduce the skin dose in all the regions of the body, but more noticeably in the shoulders in patients with head and neck and pelvis cancer. We also found that using integrated boost regimens in patients with head and neck cancer leads to higher shoulder skin doses compared with traditional boost regimens. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by

  16. Zero Energy Buildings – Design Principles and Built Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Designing a zero energy building is a complicated task, and in order to achieve good results it is necessary to include knowledge from a range of sources. Therefore, cooperation is required between different professions and between generalists and specialists from the very beginning of the process...... knowledge must be acquired, depending on the project in question. Through a cross-disciplinary approach to architecture and building design, and based on an integrated design process, this publication will: • introduce a number of design strategies and technologies which are particularly important...... for the development of zero energy houses. These strategies and technologies are illustrated through simple design principles and built examples • identify technical and architectural potentials and challenges related to design strategies of crucial importance to the development of zero energy houses • identify...

  17. Multi-layer concept for containments in an integrated construction method by using steel composite building block modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, F.

    1987-01-01

    Containments consisting of steel modules have been developed as an alternative design and solution to the double shell containments comprising two separate structures. The combination of different reinforcement layers of steel plates and round reinforcing bars in one cross section provides a high loadbearing capacity. The multiple utilization of the steel plates in the composite section as formwork in the construction state and as reinforcement and liner in the operation or damage/failure states, respectively, yields a number of advantages. The main effect is being achieved due to the high degree of prefabrication and completion (finishing) of the steel modules and the reduction of expenditure on the job site connected with same. (orig.)

  18. A 4×8-Gbps VCSEL array driver ASIC and integration with a custom array transmitter module for the LHC front-end transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Di; Liu, Chonghan; Chen, Jinghong; Chramowicz, John; Gong, Datao; He, Huiqin; Hou, Suen; Liu, Tiankuan; Prosser, Alan; Teng, Ping-Kun; Xiang, Annie C.; Xiao, Le; Ye, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and experiment results of a 4×8-Gbps Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) array driver ASIC with the adjustable active-shunt peaking technique and the novel balanced output structure under the Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process, and a custom array optical transmitter module, featuring a compact size of 10 mm×15 mm×5.3 mm. Both the array driver ASIC and the module have been fully tested after integration as a complete parallel transmitter. Optical eye diagram of each channel passes the eye mask at 8 Gbps/ch with adjacent channel working simultaneously with a power consumption of 150 mW/ch. The optical transmission of Bit-Error Rate (BER) less than 10E-12 is achieved at an aggregated data rate of 4×8-Gbps. - Highlights: • An anode-driven VCSEL Array driver ASIC with the configurable active-shunt peaking technique in pre-driving stages. • A novel full-differential balanced output structure is used to minimize the noise and crosstalk from the power. • A custom array optical transmitter module with custom low-cost reliable alignment method.

  19. A 4×8-Gbps VCSEL array driver ASIC and integration with a custom array transmitter module for the LHC front-end transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Di [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei Anhui 230026 (China); Liu, Chonghan [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Chen, Jinghong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Chramowicz, John [Real-Time Systems Engineering Department, Fermi National Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Gong, Datao [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); He, Huiqin [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Shenzhen Polytechnic, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Hou, Suen [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nangang 11529, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tiankuan [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Prosser, Alan [Real-Time Systems Engineering Department, Fermi National Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Teng, Ping-Kun [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nangang 11529, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Xiang, Annie C. [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Xiao, Le [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Department of Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Ye, Jingbo [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and experiment results of a 4×8-Gbps Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) array driver ASIC with the adjustable active-shunt peaking technique and the novel balanced output structure under the Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process, and a custom array optical transmitter module, featuring a compact size of 10 mm×15 mm×5.3 mm. Both the array driver ASIC and the module have been fully tested after integration as a complete parallel transmitter. Optical eye diagram of each channel passes the eye mask at 8 Gbps/ch with adjacent channel working simultaneously with a power consumption of 150 mW/ch. The optical transmission of Bit-Error Rate (BER) less than 10E-12 is achieved at an aggregated data rate of 4×8-Gbps. - Highlights: • An anode-driven VCSEL Array driver ASIC with the configurable active-shunt peaking technique in pre-driving stages. • A novel full-differential balanced output structure is used to minimize the noise and crosstalk from the power. • A custom array optical transmitter module with custom low-cost reliable alignment method.

  20. Domestic offset projects in the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W. [Joint Implementation Network, Laan Corpus den Hoorn 300, 9728JT Groningen (Netherlands); Flamos, A.; Spyridaki, N.A. [Department of Industrial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80 Str, 185 34 Piraeus (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Emission reduction activities in the European Union (EU) in- and outside the European Trading System (ETS) thus far have largely taken place separately. One possibility to combine the two is through linking Non-ETS offset project-based crediting schemes in the form of Joint Implementation or domestic offset (DO) projects with the EU ETS. Linking would allow non-ETS offset project-based CO2 credits to be traded within the ETS market. This paper discusses the merits and drawbacks of the implementation of a DO scheme in the built environment in the Netherlands. The built environment can be characterised as a sector with a great diversity and significant energy savings potential. Emphasis is paid on the modalities for estimating energy savings under DO projects. The authors discuss if next to existing EU, national or regional policies in the Netherlands, DO could spur initiatives in sub-sectors or market areas that are difficult to reach with conventional policy instruments. Thus, despite the existing policy framework in this sector, there could be still space for DO to reach the untapped energy savings potential. DO can support activities and technologies that are not covered by other policy instruments, either because they are not part of the instruments focus or are above the minimum requirements of the incumbent policy targets. It is expected that some lessons from this study in the Netherlands can be taken into account also by other countries facing similar market circumstances, which have implemented several policy instruments and are considering DO schemes as an alternative for capturing part of the untapped energy saving potential in their end use sectors. Another possible advantage of DO is that it has the potential to reduce public spending on existing policy goals, when it is considered in conjunction with existing public financing instruments. In order to tap into this potential, there are a series of hurdles in place, like additionality and the current CO2

  1. A 60-GHz energy harvesting module with on-chip antenna and switch for co-integration with ULP radios in 65-nm CMOS with fully wireless mm-wave power transfer measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Milosevic, D.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the architecture and performance of a co-integrated 60 GHz on-chip wireless energy harvester and ultra-low power (ULP) radio in 65-nm CMOS are discussed. Integration of an on-chip antenna with wireless power receiver and wireless data transfer module is the crucial next step to achieve

  2. The EOP Visualization Module Integrated into the Plasma On-Line Nuclear Power Plant Safety Monitoring and Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornaes, Arne; Hulsund, John Einar; Vegh, Janos; Major, Csaba; Horvath, Csaba; Lipcsei, Sandor; Kapocs, Gyoergy

    2001-01-01

    An ambitious project to replace the unit information systems (UISs) at the Hungarian Paks nuclear power plant was started in 1998-99. The basic aim of the reconstruction project is to install a modern, distributed UIS architecture on all four Paks VVER-440 units. The new UIS includes an on-line plant safety monitoring and assessment system (PLASMA), which contains a critical safety functions monitoring module and provides extensive operator support during the execution of the new, symptom-oriented emergency operating procedures (EOPs). PLASMA includes a comprehensive EOP visualization module, based on the COPMA-III procedure-handling software developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Halden Reactor Project. Intranet technology is applied for the presentation of the EOPs with the use of a standard hypertext markup language (HTML) browser as a visualization tool. The basic design characteristics of the system, with a detailed description of its user interface and functions of the new EOP display module, are presented

  3. IIASA's climate-vegetation-biogeochemical cycle module as a part of an integrated model for climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganopolski, A.V.; Jonas, M.; Krabec, J.; Olendrzynski, K.; Petoukhov, V.K.; Venevsky, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study is the development of a hierarchy of coupled climate biosphere models with a full description of the global biogeochemical cycles. These models are planned for use as the core of a set of integrated models of climate change and they will incorporate the main elements of the Earth system (atmosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere and biosphere) linked with each other (and eventually with the antroposphere) through the fluxes of heat, momentum, water and through the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. This set of integrated models can be considered to fill the gap between highly simplified integrated models of climate change and very sophisticated and computationally expensive coupled models, developed on the basis of general circulation models (GCMs). It is anticipated that this range of integrated models will be an effective tool for investigating the broad spectrum of problems connected with the coexistence of human society and biosphere

  4. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Compared With Conventional Radiotherapy in Patients Treated With Concurrent Carboplatin and 5-Fluorouracil for Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavel, Sebastien, E-mail: sebastien.clavel@umontreal.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen, David H.A.; Fortin, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada); Despres, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Khaouam, Nader [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada); Donath, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulieres, Denis [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guertin, Louis [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, the toxicity and efficacy of simultaneous integrated boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in patients treated with concomitant carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and December 2007, 249 patients were treated with definitive chemoradiation. One hundred patients had 70 Gy in 33 fractions using IMRT, and 149 received CRT at 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 42 months. Three-year actuarial rates for locoregional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 95.1% vs. 84.4% (p = 0.005), 85.3% vs. 69.3% (p = 0.001), and 92.1% vs. 75.2% (p < 0.001) for IMRT and CRT, respectively. The benefit of the radiotherapy regimen on outcomes was also observed with a Cox multivariate analysis. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was associated with less acute dermatitis and less xerostomia at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Conclusions: This study suggests that simultaneous integrated boost using IMRT is associated with favorable locoregional control and survival rates with less xerostomia and acute dermatitis than CRT when both are given concurrently with chemotherapy.

  5. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Compared With Conventional Radiotherapy in Patients Treated With Concurrent Carboplatin and 5-Fluorouracil for Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, Sébastien; Nguyen, David H.A.; Fortin, Bernard; Després, Philippe; Khaouam, Nader; Donath, David; Soulières, Denis; Guertin, Louis; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, the toxicity and efficacy of simultaneous integrated boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in patients treated with concomitant carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and December 2007, 249 patients were treated with definitive chemoradiation. One hundred patients had 70 Gy in 33 fractions using IMRT, and 149 received CRT at 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 42 months. Three-year actuarial rates for locoregional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 95.1% vs. 84.4% (p = 0.005), 85.3% vs. 69.3% (p = 0.001), and 92.1% vs. 75.2% (p < 0.001) for IMRT and CRT, respectively. The benefit of the radiotherapy regimen on outcomes was also observed with a Cox multivariate analysis. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was associated with less acute dermatitis and less xerostomia at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Conclusions: This study suggests that simultaneous integrated boost using IMRT is associated with favorable locoregional control and survival rates with less xerostomia and acute dermatitis than CRT when both are given concurrently with chemotherapy.

  6. Weekly Cisplatin and Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Radical Treatment of Advanced Cervical Cancer in Elderly Patients: Feasibility and Clinical Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Fiorentino, Alba; Levra, Niccolò Giaj; Fersino, Sergio; Di Paola, Gioacchino; Ruggieri, Ruggero

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical preliminary results of weekly cisplatin and volumetric-modulated arc therapy to the pelvis with simultaneous integrated boost to macroscopic disease in a cohort of elderly patients. Materials and Methods: Inclusion criteria of this prospective study were age ≥70 years, Karnofsky performance status 70 to 100, locally advanced histologically proven squamous cervical carcinoma, and patients unable to undergo brachytherapy. Radiation doses prescribed were 66 Gy to the macroscopic disease and 54 Gy to the pelvic nodes in 30 fractions. Weekly cisplatin dose was 40 mg/mq. Results: A total of 30 patients were recruited. Median follow-up was 32 months (range: 8-48 months). Median age was 72 years (range: 70-84 years). The 3-year overall survival and local control were 93% and 80%, respectively. The median time to progression was 24 months (range: 6-30 months). Analyzing clinical outcome grouping based on the stage of disease, II versus III, the 3-year overall survival was 100% and 85%, respectively. The 3-year local control was 91% for stage II and 67% for stage III. Acute and late toxicities were acceptable without severe events. Conclusion: Weekly cisplatin and volumetric-modulated arc therapy–simultaneous integrated boost for radical treatment of advanced cervical cancer in the current cohort of elderly patients were feasible. Long-term results and prospective randomized trials are advocated. PMID:27402633

  7. Deconstruction of spatial integrity in visual stimulus detected by modulation of synchronized activity in cat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiyi; Bernard, Melanie R; Bonds, A B

    2008-04-02

    Spatiotemporal relationships among contour segments can influence synchronization of neural responses in the primary visual cortex. We performed a systematic study to dissociate the impact of spatial and temporal factors in the signaling of contour integration via synchrony. In addition, we characterized the temporal evolution of this process to clarify potential underlying mechanisms. With a 10 x 10 microelectrode array, we recorded the simultaneous activity of multiple cells in the cat primary visual cortex while stimulating with drifting sine-wave gratings. We preserved temporal integrity and systematically degraded spatial integrity of the sine-wave gratings by adding spatial noise. Neural synchronization was analyzed in the time and frequency domains by conducting cross-correlation and coherence analyses. The general association between neural spike trains depends strongly on spatial integrity, with coherence in the gamma band (35-70 Hz) showing greater sensitivity to the change of spatial structure than other frequency bands. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of synchronization in both time and frequency domains suggests that spike timing synchronization is triggered nearly instantaneously by coherent structure in the stimuli, whereas frequency-specific oscillatory components develop more slowly, presumably through network interactions. Our results suggest that, whereas temporal integrity is required for the generation of synchrony, spatial integrity is critical in triggering subsequent gamma band synchronization.

  8. Use of stratigraphic models as soft information to constrain stochastic modeling of rock properties: Development of the GSLIB-Lynx integration module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cromer, M.V.; Rautman, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Rock properties in volcanic units at Yucca Mountain are controlled largely by relatively deterministic geologic processes related to the emplacement, cooling, and alteration history of the tuffaceous lithologic sequence. Differences in the lithologic character of the rocks have been used to subdivide the rock sequence into stratigraphic units, and the deterministic nature of the processes responsible for the character of the different units can be used to infer the rock material properties likely to exist in unsampled regions. This report proposes a quantitative, theoretically justified method of integrating interpretive geometric models, showing the three-dimensional distribution of different stratigraphic units, with numerical stochastic simulation techniques drawn from geostatistics. This integration of soft, constraining geologic information with hard, quantitative measurements of various material properties can produce geologically reasonable, spatially correlated models of rock properties that are free from stochastic artifacts for use in subsequent physical-process modeling, such as the numerical representation of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport. Prototype modeling conducted using the GSLIB-Lynx Integration Module computer program, known as GLINTMOD, has successfully demonstrated the proposed integration technique. The method involves the selection of stratigraphic-unit-specific material-property expected values that are then used to constrain the probability function from which a material property of interest at an unsampled location is simulated

  9. Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-08-01

    Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone.

  10. PRO40 is a scaffold protein of the cell wall integrity pathway, linking the MAP kinase module to the upstream activator protein kinase C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Teichert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are crucial signaling instruments in eukaryotes. Most ascomycetes possess three MAPK modules that are involved in key developmental processes like sexual propagation or pathogenesis. However, the regulation of these modules by adapters or scaffolds is largely unknown. Here, we studied the function of the cell wall integrity (CWI MAPK module in the model fungus Sordaria macrospora. Using a forward genetic approach, we found that sterile mutant pro30 has a mutated mik1 gene that encodes the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK of the proposed CWI pathway. We generated single deletion mutants lacking MAPKKK MIK1, MAPK kinase (MAPKK MEK1, or MAPK MAK1 and found them all to be sterile, cell fusion-deficient and highly impaired in vegetative growth and cell wall stress response. By searching for MEK1 interaction partners via tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified previously characterized developmental protein PRO40 as a MEK1 interaction partner. Although fungal PRO40 homologs have been implicated in diverse developmental processes, their molecular function is currently unknown. Extensive affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that PRO40 is able to bind MIK1, MEK1, and the upstream activator protein kinase C (PKC1. We further found that the PRO40 N-terminal disordered region and the central region encompassing a WW interaction domain are sufficient to govern interaction with MEK1. Most importantly, time- and stress-dependent phosphorylation studies showed that PRO40 is required for MAK1 activity. The sum of our results implies that PRO40 is a scaffold protein for the CWI pathway, linking the MAPK module to the upstream activator PKC1. Our data provide important insights into the mechanistic role of a protein that has been implicated in sexual and asexual development, cell fusion, symbiosis, and pathogenicity in different fungal systems.

  11. Built environment : Eindhoven University of Technology 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    In Built Environment 2013-2014 presenteert de faculteit Built Environment/Bouwkunde van de TU Eindhoven een keuze uit de beste afstudeerprojecten, becommentarieerd door deskundigen van binnen en buiten de faculteiten.

  12. Tools for estimating VMT reductions from built environment changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Built environment characteristics are associated with walking, bicycling, transit use, and vehicle : miles traveled (VMT). Developing built environments supportive of walking, bicycling, and transit use : can help meet state VMT reduction goals. But ...

  13. Book Review: Leadership and Sustainability in the Built Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Elmualim, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Leadership and Sustainability in the Built Environment Opoku, A. and Ahmed, V. (ed.), 2015. Leadership and Sustainability in the Built Environment. Routledge, London. ISBN (hbk): 978-1-13-877842-9, Hardback: $155.00.

  14. Sequestering CO2 in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    Calera’s Carbonate Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation (CMAP) technology with beneficial reuse has been called, “game-changing” by Carl Pope, Director of the Sierra Club. Calera offers a solution to the scale of the carbon problem. By capturing carbon into the built environment through carbonate mineralization, Calera provides a sound and cost-effective alternative to Geologic Sequestration and Terrestrial Sequestration. The CMAP technology permanently converts carbon dioxide into a mineral form that can be stored above ground, or used as a building material. The process produces a suite of carbonate-containing minerals of various polymorphic forms. Calera product can be substituted into blends with ordinary Portland cements and used as aggregate to produce concrete with reduced carbon, carbon neutral, or carbon negative footprints. For each ton of product produced, approximately half a ton of carbon dioxide can be sequestered using the Calera process. Coal and natural gas are composed of predominately istopically light carbon, as the carbon in the fuel is plant-derived. Thus, power plant CO2 emissions have relatively low δ13C values.The carbon species throughout the CMAP process are identified through measuring the inorganic carbon content, δ13C values of the dissolved carbonate species, and the product carbonate minerals. Measuring δ13C allows for tracking the flue gas CO2 throughout the capture process. Initial analysis of the capture of propane flue gas (δ13C ˜ -25 ‰) with seawater (δ13C ˜ -10 ‰) and industrial brucite tailings from a retired magnesium oxide plant in Moss Landing, CA (δ13C ˜ -7 ‰ from residual calcite) produced carbonate mineral products with a δ13C value of ˜ -20 ‰. This isotopically light carbon, transformed from flue gas to stable carbonate minerals, can be transferred and tracked through the capture process, and finally to the built environment. CMAP provides an economical solution to global warming by producing

  15. Biofilms in churches built in grottoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cennamo, Paola; Montuori, Naomi; Trojsi, Giorgio; Fatigati, Giancarlo; Moretti, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated microorganisms dwelling on rocks, walls and paintings in two votive chapels built in grottoes in the Region of Campania, Italy. One grotto was near the coast in an area with a Mediterranean climate, and the other grotto was inland on a mountain in an area with a cold continental climate. Color and distribution of biofilms in various areas of the grottoes were examined. Microbial components of biofilms were identified by light and electron microscopy and by molecular techniques (DNA analyses and Automatic rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis). Biofilms were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction to detect inorganic constituents deriving from rocks in the grottoes and walls of the churches and by X-ray fluorescence to detect the elements that made up the pigments of the mural paintings; optical cross sections were used to observe their relationships with substrata. Species of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and green algae were identified. Some of these species occurred in both grottoes, while others were exclusive to only one of the grottoes. The diversity of species, their common or exclusive occurrence in the grottoes, the relationships among microbial communities and the differences in color and distribution of biofilms were discussed on the basis of the different climatic factors affecting the two grottoes and the different inorganic components of substrata. - Highlights: • Biofilms concur to the degradation of cultural heritage. • Microorganisms cause esthetic and structural damage in votive churches. • Biofilm features vary on different substrata, as limestone, plaster and paintings. • Features of biofilms mainly depend on environmental conditions. • Molecular biology techniques are indispensable in the study of biodegradation.

  16. Biofilms in churches built in grottoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cennamo, Paola, E-mail: paola.cennamo@unisob.na.it [Facoltà di Lettere, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli, Via Santa Caterina da Siena 37, 80135 Naples (Italy); Montuori, Naomi [Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria 223, 80139 Naples (Italy); Trojsi, Giorgio; Fatigati, Giancarlo [Facoltà di Lettere, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli, Via Santa Caterina da Siena 37, 80135 Naples (Italy); Moretti, Aldo [Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria 223, 80139 Naples (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We investigated microorganisms dwelling on rocks, walls and paintings in two votive chapels built in grottoes in the Region of Campania, Italy. One grotto was near the coast in an area with a Mediterranean climate, and the other grotto was inland on a mountain in an area with a cold continental climate. Color and distribution of biofilms in various areas of the grottoes were examined. Microbial components of biofilms were identified by light and electron microscopy and by molecular techniques (DNA analyses and Automatic rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis). Biofilms were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction to detect inorganic constituents deriving from rocks in the grottoes and walls of the churches and by X-ray fluorescence to detect the elements that made up the pigments of the mural paintings; optical cross sections were used to observe their relationships with substrata. Species of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and green algae were identified. Some of these species occurred in both grottoes, while others were exclusive to only one of the grottoes. The diversity of species, their common or exclusive occurrence in the grottoes, the relationships among microbial communities and the differences in color and distribution of biofilms were discussed on the basis of the different climatic factors affecting the two grottoes and the different inorganic components of substrata. - Highlights: • Biofilms concur to the degradation of cultural heritage. • Microorganisms cause esthetic and structural damage in votive churches. • Biofilm features vary on different substrata, as limestone, plaster and paintings. • Features of biofilms mainly depend on environmental conditions. • Molecular biology techniques are indispensable in the study of biodegradation.

  17. Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 Modulates Epithelial Integrity, Heat Shock Protein, and Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in Intestinal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Klingspor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have shown positive effects on gastrointestinal diseases; they have barrier-modulating effects and change the inflammatory response towards pathogens in studies in vitro. The aim of this investigation has been to examine the response of intestinal epithelial cells to Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium, a probiotic positively affecting diarrhea incidence in piglets, and two pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli strains, with specific focus on the probiotic modulation of the response to the pathogenic challenge. Porcine (IPEC-J2 and human (Caco-2 intestinal cells were incubated without bacteria (control, with E. faecium, with enteropathogenic (EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC each alone or in combination with E. faecium. The ETEC strain decreased transepithelial resistance (TER and increased IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in both cell lines compared with control cells, an effect that could be prevented by pre- and coincubation with E. faecium. Similar effects were observed for the increased expression of heat shock protein 70 in Caco-2 cells. When the cells were challenged by the EPEC strain, no such pattern of changes could be observed. The reduced decrease in TER and the reduction of the proinflammatory and stress response of enterocytes following pathogenic challenge indicate the protective effect of the probiotic.

  18. How Perception Guides Action: Figure-Ground Segmentation Modulates Integration of Context Features into S-R Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Christian; Rothermund, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Perception and action are closely related. Responses are assumed to be represented in terms of their perceptual effects, allowing direct links between action and perception. In this regard, the integration of features of stimuli (S) and responses (R) into S-R bindings is a key mechanism for action control. Previous research focused on the…

  19. Chapter 4: Overview of the vegetation management treatment economic analysis module in the integrated landscape assessment project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoping Zhou; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2014-01-01

    Forest land provides various ecosystem services, including timber, biomass, and carbon sequestration. Estimating trends in these ecosystem services is essential for assessing potential outcomes of landscape management scenarios. However, the state-and transition models used in the Integrated Landscape Assessment Project for simulating landscape changes over time do not...

  20. Comparison of long-term survival and toxicity of simultaneous integrated boost vs conventional fractionation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao HM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hengmin Tao,1,2 Yumei Wei,1 Wei Huang,1 Xiujuan Gai,1,2 Baosheng Li11Department of 6th Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, People’s Republic of ChinaAim: In recent years, the intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB and intensity-modulated radiotherapy with conventional fractionation (IMRT-CF have been involved in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. However, the potential clinical effects and toxicities are still controversial.Methods: Here, 107 patients with biopsy-proven locally advanced NPC between March 2004 and January 2011 were enrolled in the retrospective study. Among them, 54 patients received IMRT-SIB, and 53 patients received IMRT-CF. Subsequently, overall survival (OS, 5-year progression-free survival (PFS, 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS, and relevant toxicities were analyzed.Results: In the present study, all patients completed the treatment, and the overall median follow-up time was 80 months (range: 8–126 months. The 5-year OS analysis revealed no significant difference between the IMRT-SIB and IMRT-CF groups (80.9% vs 80.5%, P=0.568. In addition, there were also no significant between-group differences in 5-year PFS (73.3% vs 74.4%, P=0.773 and 5-year LRFS (88.1% vs 90.8%, P=0.903. Notably, the dose to critical organs (spinal cord, brainstem, and parotid gland in patients treated by IMRT-CF was significantly lower than that in patients treated by IMRT-SIB (all P<0.05.Conclusion: Both IMRT-SIB and IMRT-CF techniques are effective in treating locally advanced NPC, with similar OS, PFS, and LRFS. However, IMRT-CF has more advantages than IMRT-SIB in protecting spinal cord, brainstem, and parotid gland from acute and late toxicities, such as xerostomia. Further prospective study is warranted to confirm our findings.Keywords: intensity-modulated

  1. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for high-grade gliomas: Does IMRT increase the integral dose to normal brain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanto, Ulrich; Frija, Erik K.; Lii, MingFwu J.; Chang, Eric L.; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment increases the total integral dose of nontarget tissue relative to the conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique for high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with 3D-CRT for glioblastoma multiforme were selected for a comparative dosimetric evaluation with IMRT. Original target volumes, organs at risk (OAR), and dose-volume constraints were used for replanning with IMRT. Predicted isodose distributions, cumulative dose-volume histograms of target volumes and OAR, normal tissue integral dose, target coverage, dose conformity, and normal tissue sparing with 3D-CRT and IMRT planning were compared. Statistical analyses were performed to determine differences. Results: In all 20 patients, IMRT maintained equivalent target coverage, improved target conformity (conformity index [CI] 95% 1.52 vs. 1.38, p mean by 19.8% and D max by 10.7%), optic chiasm (D mean by 25.3% and D max by 22.6%), right optic nerve (D mean by 37.3% and D max by 28.5%), and left optic nerve (D mean by 40.6% and D max by 36.7%), p ≤ 0.01. This was achieved without increasing the total nontarget integral dose by greater than 0.5%. Overall, total integral dose was reduced by 7-10% with IMRT, p < 0.001, without significantly increasing the 0.5-5 Gy low-dose volume. Conclusions: These results indicate that IMRT treatment for high-grade gliomas allows for improved target conformity, better critical tissue sparing, and importantly does so without increasing integral dose and the volume of normal tissue exposed to low doses of radiation

  2. ESD practice through global approach -7-year practices of developing science lessen modules and fostering integrated decision making ability-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Kosei

    2016-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) has devised and carried out overseas exchange programs on ESD issues for 7 years. These programs have been carried out as a part of a government-aided project called SSH (Super Science High School) *1. To start with, we had cooperative study program with a school in Germany in 2009, and next year with a school in Korea, and then gradually have expanded the cooperative schools. Since 2013, we have worked with schools in four countries; Korea, Thailand, Czech and Germany. Science lesson modules here refers to an assembly of a set of lessons, newly developed and improved for the project. These modules characteristically require the students to make decisions by themselves on given problems. In the course of the decision making, students learn what kind of data or facts should be presented as evidence and how they can make their decisions known to others. Among several modules we have designed, the one introduced here deals with the use of solar energy, which we carried out with a school in Korea in 2014-2015. It also includes lessons of the fuel cells using energy from hydrogen gas generated by solar cells. It aims to develop global human resources through carefully planned activities. First, the students of both schools make mixed groups and conduct experiments in physics, chemistry or biology on a given problem related to solar energy. Then they discuss in groups using data obtained from the experiments and through the Internet as evidence. After the thorough discussion, each group gives a presentation on their decision. The analysis of the presentations and the questionnaire to the students revealed the following points: 1) Students have come to have multidimensional perspectives on the utilization of solar energy. 2) Students have come to combine the results of different experiments when making decisions. 3) Students have developed flexible attitudes toward other cultures. 4) Students have developed communication skills in

  3. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  4. Monolithic Integration of Sampled Grating DBR with Electroabsorption Modulator by Combining Selective-Area-Growth MOCVD and Quantum-Well Intermixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Bo, Liu; Ling-Juan, Zhao; Jiao-Qing, Pan; Hong-Liang, Zhu; Fan, Zhou; Bao-Jun, Wang; Wei, Wang

    2008-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of a sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) laser with a quantum-well electroabsorption modulator (QW-EAM) by combining ultra-low-pressure (55mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG) metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and quantum-well intermixing (QWI) for the first time. The QW-EAM and the gain section can be grown simultaneously by using SAG MOCVD technology. Meanwhile, the QWI technology offers an abrupt band-gap change between two functional sections, which reduces internal absorption loss. The experimental results show that the threshold current Ith = 62 mA, and output power reaches 3.6mW. The wavelength tuning range covers 30nm, and all the corresponding side mode suppression ratios are over 30 dB. The extinction ratios at available wavelength channels can reach more than 14 dB with bias of -5 V

  5. VEGF production and signaling in Müller glia are critical to modulating vascular function and neuronal integrity in diabetic retinopathy and hypoxic retinal vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yun-Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Müller glia (MG) are major retinal supporting cells that participate in retinal metabolism, function, maintenance, and protection. During the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a neurovascular disease and a leading cause of blindness, MG modulate vascular function and neuronal integrity by regulating the production of angiogenic and trophic factors. In this article, I will (1) briefly summarize our work on delineating the role and mechanism of MG-modulated vascular function through the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and on investigating VEGF signaling-mediated MG viability and neural protection in diabetic animal models, (2) explore the relationship among VEGF and neurotrophins in protecting Müller cells in in vitro models of diabetes and hypoxia and its potential implication to neuroprotection in DR and hypoxic retinal diseases, and (3) discuss the relevance of our work to the effectiveness and safety of long-term anti-VEGF therapies, a widely used strategy to combat DR, diabetic macular edema, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and other hypoxic retinal vascular disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A state-of-the-art review of built environment information modelling (BeIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tah J.H.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elements that constitute the built environment are vast and so are the independent systems developed to model its various aspects. Many of these systems have been developed under various assumptions and approaches to execute functions that are distinct, complementary or sometimes similar. Furthermore, these systems are ever increasing in number and often assume similar nomenclatures and acronyms, thereby exacerbating the challenges of understanding their peculiar functions, definitions and differences. The current societal demand to improve sustainability per­formance through collaboration as well as whole-system and through-life thinking is driving the need to integrate independent systems associated with different aspects and scales of the built environment to deliver smart solutions and services that improve the well-being of citizens. The contemporary object-oriented digitization of real-world elements appears to provide a leeway for amalgamating the modelling systems of various domains in the built environment which we termed as built environment information modelling (BeIM. These domains include architecture, engineering, construction as well as urban planning and design. Applications such as building information modelling, geographic information systems and 3D city modelling systems are now being integrated for city modelling purposes. The various works directed at integrating these systems are examined, revealing that current research efforts on integration fall into three categories: (1 data/file conversion systems, (2 semantic mapping systems and (3 the hybrid of both. The review outcome suggests that good knowledge of these domains and how their respective systems operate is vital to pursuing holistic systems integration in the built environment.

  7. TF.Learn: TensorFlow's High-level Module for Distributed Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    TF.Learn is a high-level Python module for distributed machine learning inside TensorFlow. It provides an easy-to-use Scikit-learn style interface to simplify the process of creating, configuring, training, evaluating, and experimenting a machine learning model. TF.Learn integrates a wide range of state-of-art machine learning algorithms built on top of TensorFlow's low level APIs for small to large-scale supervised and unsupervised problems. This module focuses on bringing machine learning t...

  8. Lifetime Estimation of DC-link Capacitors in a Single-phase Converter with an Integrated Active Power Decoupling Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Siyuan; Wang, Haoran; Tang, Junchaojie

    2016-01-01

    In single-phase inverters, DC-link capacitors are installed at the DC-link to buffer the ripple power between the AC side and DC side. Active decoupling methods introduce additional circuits at the DC side or AC side to partially or fully supply the ripple power. So that the demanded DC-link capa......In single-phase inverters, DC-link capacitors are installed at the DC-link to buffer the ripple power between the AC side and DC side. Active decoupling methods introduce additional circuits at the DC side or AC side to partially or fully supply the ripple power. So that the demanded DC......-link capacitor capacitance can be decreased. However, few research is about the effect of DC side and AC side decoupling on the DC-link capacitor reliability considering its electro-thermal stresses. This paper presents a quantitative analysis on the lifetime of capacitors with power decoupling circuits...... at the DC side and AC side, respectively. The ripple current spectrum of the capacitors is obtained by double Fourier analysis of a H-bridge inverter with natural sampling PWM modulation. A study case is demonstrated by a 2,000 W H-bridge inverter with 400 V DC-link voltage....

  9. Integrated cannabinoid CB1 receptor transmission within the amygdala-prefrontal cortical pathway modulates neuronal plasticity and emotional memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huibing; Lauzon, Nicole M; Bishop, Stephanie F; Bechard, Melanie A; Laviolette, Steven R

    2010-06-01

    The cannabinoid CB1 receptor system is functionally involved in the processing and encoding of emotionally salient sensory information, learning and memory. The CB1 receptor is found in high concentrations in brain structures that are critical for emotional processing, including the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP) within the BLA > mPFC pathway is an established correlate of exposure to emotionally salient events. We performed a series of in vivo LTP studies by applying tetanic stimulation to the BLA combined with recordings of local field potentials within prelimbic cortical (PLC) region of the rat mPFC. Systemic pretreatment with AM-251 dose dependently blocked LTP along the BLA-PLC pathway and also the behavioral acquisition of conditioned fear memories. We next performed a series of microinfusion experiments wherein CB1 receptor transmission within the BLA > PLC circuit was pharmacologically blocked. Asymmetrical, interhemispheric blockade of CB1 receptor transmission along the BLA > PLC pathway prevented the acquisition of emotionally salient associative memory. Our results indicate that coordinated CB1 receptor transmission within the BLA > PLC pathway is critically involved in the encoding of emotional fear memories and modulates neural plasticity related to the encoding of emotionally salient associative learning.

  10. Isocentric integration of intensity-modulated radiotherapy with electron fields improves field junction dose uniformity in postmastectomy radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Pauliina; Suilamo, Sami; Lindholm, Paula; Kulmala, Jarmo

    2014-08-01

    In postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT), the dose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) with additional margins, including the chest wall, supraclavicular, interpectoral, internal mammary and axillar level I-III lymph nodes, is often compromised. Electron fields may improve the medial dose coverage while maintaining organ at risk (OAR) doses at an acceptable level, but at the cost of hot and cold spots at the electron and photon field junction. To improve PMRT dose coverage and uniformity, an isocentric technique combining tangential intensity-modulated (IM)RT fields with one medial electron field was implemented. For 10 postmastectomy patients isocentric IMRT with electron plans were created and compared with a standard electron/photon mix and a standard tangent technique. PTV dose uniformity was evaluated based on the tolerance range (TR), i.e. the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean dose, a dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the 90% isodose coverage and the hot spot volumes. OAR and contralateral breast doses were also recorded. IMRT with electrons significantly improved the PTV dose homogeneity and conformity based on the TR and DSC values when compared with the standard electron/photon and tangent technique (p < 0.02). The 90% isodose coverage improved to 86% compared with 82% and 80% for the standard techniques (p < 0.02). Compared with the standard electron/photon mix, IMRT smoothed the dose gradient in the electron and photon field junction and the volumes receiving a dose of 110% or more were reduced by a third. For all three strategies, the OAR and contralateral breast doses were within clinically tolerable limits. Based on these results two-field IMRT combined with an electron field is a suitable strategy for PMRT.

  11. Integrating medicinal chemistry, organic/combinatorial chemistry, and computational chemistry for the discovery of selective estrogen receptor modulators with Forecaster, a novel platform for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Eric; Englebienne, Pablo; Arrowsmith, Andrew G; Mendoza-Sanchez, Rodrigo; Corbeil, Christopher R; Weill, Nathanael; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Moitessier, Nicolas

    2012-01-23

    As part of a large medicinal chemistry program, we wish to develop novel selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as potential breast cancer treatments using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. However, one of the remaining difficulties nowadays is to fully integrate computational (i.e., virtual, theoretical) and medicinal (i.e., experimental, intuitive) chemistry to take advantage of the full potential of both. For this purpose, we have developed a Web-based platform, Forecaster, and a number of programs (e.g., Prepare, React, Select) with the aim of combining computational chemistry and medicinal chemistry expertise to facilitate drug discovery and development and more specifically to integrate synthesis into computer-aided drug design. In our quest for potent SERMs, this platform was used to build virtual combinatorial libraries, filter and extract a highly diverse library from the NCI database, and dock them to the estrogen receptor (ER), with all of these steps being fully automated by computational chemists for use by medicinal chemists. As a result, virtual screening of a diverse library seeded with active compounds followed by a search for analogs yielded an enrichment factor of 129, with 98% of the seeded active compounds recovered, while the screening of a designed virtual combinatorial library including known actives yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AU-ROC) of 0.78. The lead optimization proved less successful, further demonstrating the challenge to simulate structure activity relationship studies.

  12. Estimation of non-linear continuous time models for the heat exchange dynamics of building integrated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Bloem, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on a method for linear or non-linear continuous time modelling of physical systems using discrete time data. This approach facilitates a more appropriate modelling of more realistic non-linear systems. Particularly concerning advanced building components, convective and radiati...... that a description of the non-linear heat transfer is essential. The resulting model is a non-linear first order stochastic differential equation for the heat transfer of the PV component....... heat interchanges are non-linear effects and represent significant contributions in a variety of components such as photovoltaic integrated facades or roofs and those using these effects as passive cooling strategies, etc. Since models are approximations of the physical system and data is encumbered...

  13. Fully integrated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Xiaolei; Ma Jian; Jin Ge; Chen Zengbing; Zhang Jun; Pan Jianwei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu Jianhong; Wang Quan; Du Debing [Anhui Quantum Communication Technology Co., Ltd., Hefei, Anhui 230088 (China)

    2012-08-15

    InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) working in the regime of GHz clock rates are crucial components for the high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD). We have developed for the first time a compact, stable, and user-friendly tabletop InGaAs/InP single-photon detector system operating at a 1.25 GHz gate rate that fully integrates functions for controlling and optimizing SPAD performance. We characterize the key parameters of the detector system and test the long-term stability of the system for continuous operation of 75 h. The detector system can substantially enhance QKD performance and our present work paves the way for practical high-speed QKD applications.

  14. Construction of a test platform for Test Blanket Module (TBM) systems integration and maintenance in ITER Port Cell #16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vála, Ladislav, E-mail: ladislav.vala@cvrez.cz [Centrum výzkumu Řež, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic); Reungoat, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.reungoat@cvrez.cz [Centrum výzkumu Řež, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic); Vician, Martin [Centrum výzkumu Řež, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic); Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan; Panayotov, Dobromir [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A non-nuclear, full size facility – TBM platform – is under construction in CVR. • It is designed for tests, optimization and validation of TBS maintenance operations. • It will allow testing and validation of specific maintenance tools and RH equipment. • It reproduces ITER Port Cell #16, as well as the TBS interfaces and main equipment. • The TBM platform will be available for full operation in the first half of 2016. - Abstract: This paper describes a project of a non-nuclear, 1:1 scale testing platform dedicated to tests, optimization and validation of integration and maintenance operations for the European TBM systems in the ITER Port Cell #16. This TBM platform is currently under construction in Centrum výzkumu Řež, Czech Republic. The facility is realized within the scope of the SUSEN project and its full operation is foreseen in the first half of 2016.

  15. Integrating genome-wide genetic variations and monocyte expression data reveals trans-regulated gene modules in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Rotival

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One major expectation from the transcriptome in humans is to characterize the biological basis of associations identified by genome-wide association studies. So far, few cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs have been reliably related to disease susceptibility. Trans-regulating mechanisms may play a more prominent role in disease susceptibility. We analyzed 12,808 genes detected in at least 5% of circulating monocyte samples from a population-based sample of 1,490 European unrelated subjects. We applied a method of extraction of expression patterns-independent component analysis-to identify sets of co-regulated genes. These patterns were then related to 675,350 SNPs to identify major trans-acting regulators. We detected three genomic regions significantly associated with co-regulated gene modules. Association of these loci with multiple expression traits was replicated in Cardiogenics, an independent study in which expression profiles of monocytes were available in 758 subjects. The locus 12q13 (lead SNP rs11171739, previously identified as a type 1 diabetes locus, was associated with a pattern including two cis eQTLs, RPS26 and SUOX, and 5 trans eQTLs, one of which (MADCAM1 is a potential candidate for mediating T1D susceptibility. The locus 12q24 (lead SNP rs653178, which has demonstrated extensive disease pleiotropy, including type 1 diabetes, hypertension, and celiac disease, was associated to a pattern strongly correlating to blood pressure level. The strongest trans eQTL in this pattern was CRIP1, a known marker of cellular proliferation in cancer. The locus 12q15 (lead SNP rs11177644 was associated with a pattern driven by two cis eQTLs, LYZ and YEATS4, and including 34 trans eQTLs, several of them tumor-related genes. This study shows that a method exploiting the structure of co-expressions among genes can help identify genomic regions involved in trans regulation of sets of genes and can provide clues for understanding the

  16. Comparison of dosimetry distribution between three-dimension conformal and intensity modulated plan integrated with breath motion in postoperative radiation of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenjie; Zhang Zhen; Hu Weigang; Gu Weilie; Zhu Ji; Li Guichao; Cai Gang; Ma Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dose distribution of the target and normal tissues in gastric cancers between three-dimension conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan when respiratory motion factors integrated in the plan. Methods: From January 2005 to November 2006, 10 patients with post-operatively radiation of gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. Planning CT were acquired conventionally with free-breath mode and the static treatment plans of the 3DCRT and IMRT were designed respectively. Probability distribution functions (PDF) were generated and convoluted with the static dose distributions from 3DCRT and IMRT plans to obtain the integrated plans. The dose distributions of the target and normal tissues were compared between 3DCRT and IMRT integration treatment plans, such as V 45 of clinical target volume, V 40 of liver and V 15 , V 18 of left and right kidney. Results: In the respiratory integrated treatment planning, the target volume coverage and homogeneity with IMRT are superior to those with 3DCRT ((V 45 98% : 87% (t = -3.35, P =0.010), mean dose 46.81 Gy ±0.75 Gy : 45.99 Gy ± 1.12 Gy (t = -0.31, P=0.020)). The V 40 of the liver in IMRT are smaller than those in 3DCRT ( 12% : 16%; t=3.75, P=0.010). For the left kidney, the V 15 and V 18 in IMRT are smaller than those in 3DCRT ((34% : 50% (t = 2.17, P = 0.050) and 27% : 46% (t = 3.11, P = 0.020) ),but for the right kidney, V 15 and V 18 in 3DCRT are smaller than those in IMRT ((15% : 21% (t = - 2.42, P=0.040) and 11% : 15% (t= -2.71, P=0.030)). Conclusions: When respiratory motion factor integrated in the treatment plan, IMRT showed advantage both in target coverage and normal tissue sparing in the high dose region of liver and left kidney. (authors)

  17. Coupling of a distributed stakeholder-built system dynamics socio-economic model with SAHYSMOD for sustainable soil salinity management - Part 1: Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Azhar; Adamowski, Jan; Prasher, Shiv; Halbe, Johannes; Malard, Julien; Albano, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    Effective policies, leading to sustainable management solutions for land and water resources, require a full understanding of interactions between socio-economic and physical processes. However, the complex nature of these interactions, combined with limited stakeholder engagement, hinders the incorporation of socio-economic components into physical models. The present study addresses this challenge by integrating the physical Spatial Agro Hydro Salinity Model (SAHYSMOD) with a participatory group-built system dynamics model (GBSDM) that includes socio-economic factors. A stepwise process to quantify the GBSDM is presented, along with governing equations and model assumptions. Sub-modules of the GBSDM, describing agricultural, economic, water and farm management factors, are linked together with feedbacks and finally coupled with the physically based SAHYSMOD model through commonly used tools (i.e., MS Excel and a Python script). The overall integrated model (GBSDM-SAHYSMOD) can be used to help facilitate the role of stakeholders with limited expertise and resources in model and policy development and implementation. Following the development of the integrated model, a testing methodology was used to validate the structure and behavior of the integrated model. Model robustness under different operating conditions was also assessed. The model structure was able to produce anticipated real behaviours under the tested scenarios, from which it can be concluded that the formulated structures generate the right behaviour for the right reasons.

  18. Assessing the Nexus of Built, Natural, and Social Environments and Public Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, R.; Alexander, S.; Douglas, J.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates community-related environmental justice concerns and chemical and non-chemical health stressors from built, natural, and social environments in Southeast Los Angeles (SELA) County and East Oakland, California. The geographical distribution of health outcomes is related to the built and natural environments, as well as impacts from the social environment. A holistic systems view is important in assessing healthy behaviors within a community, because they do not occur in isolation. Geospatial analysis will be performed to integrate a total environment framework and explore the spatial patterns of exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors and access to health-promoting environments. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis using primary and secondary existing data will be performed to determine how social environments impact exposure to chemical health stressors and access to health-promoting built and natural environments. This project will develop a comprehensive list of health-promoting built and natural environments (e.g., parks and community gardens) and polluting sites (e.g., shipping ports and sources of pollution not included in federal regulatory databases) in East Oakland and SELA. California Department of Public Health and U.S. Decennial Census data will also be included for geospatial analysis to overlay the distribution of air pollution-related morbidities (e.g. asthma, diabetes, and cancer) and access to health-promoting built and natural environments and related community assets, exposure to polluting industries, social disorganization, and public health outcomes in the target areas. This research will help identify the spatial and temporal distribution and cumulative impacts of critical pollution hotspots causing community environmental health impacts. The research team will also map how social environments impact exposure to chemical health stressors and access to health-promoting built and natural environments. The

  19. Zika Virus Infects Human Sertoli Cells and Modulates the Integrity of the In Vitro Blood-Testis Barrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, David N; Strange, Daniel P; Maharaj, Payal N; Shi, Pei-Yong; Verma, Saguna

    2017-11-15

    Confirmed reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) in human seminal fluid for months after the clearance of viremia suggest the ability of ZIKV to establish persistent infection in the seminiferous tubules, an immune-privileged site in the testis protected by the blood-testis barrier, also called the Sertoli cell (SC) barrier (SCB). However, cellular targets of ZIKV in human testis and mechanisms by which the virus enters seminiferous tubules remain unclear. We demonstrate that primary human SCs were highly susceptible to ZIKV compared to the closely related dengue virus and induced the expression of alpha interferon (IFN-α), key cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1] and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]). Furthermore, using an in vitro SCB model, we show that ZIKV was released on the adluminal side of the SCB model with a higher efficiency than in the blood-brain barrier model. ZIKV-infected SCs exhibited enhanced adhesion of leukocytes that correlated with decreases in SCB integrity. ZIKV infection did not affect the expression of tight and adherens junction proteins such as ZO-1, claudin, and JAM-A; however, exposure of SCs to inflammatory mediators derived from ZIKV-infected macrophages led to the degradation of the ZO-1 protein, which correlated with increased SCB permeability. Taken together, our data suggest that infection of SCs may be one of the crucial steps by which ZIKV gains access to the site of spermatozoon development and identify SCs as a therapeutic target to clear testicular infections. The SCB model opens up opportunities to assess interactions of SCs with other testicular cells and to test the ability of anti-ZIKV drugs to cross the barrier. IMPORTANCE Recent outbreaks of ZIKV, a neglected mosquito-borne flavivirus, have identified sexual transmission as a new route of disease spread, which has not been reported for other flaviviruses. To be able to sexually transmit for months after the clearance of

  20. Endothelial Regulator of Calcineurin 1 Promotes Barrier Integrity and Modulates Histamine-Induced Barrier Dysfunction in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Ballesteros-Martinez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, the most serious and life-threatening allergic reaction, produces the release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells and basophils. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1 is a negative regulator of mast-cell degranulation. The action of mediators leads to vasodilation and an increase in vascular permeability, causing great loss of intravascular volume in a short time. Nevertheless, the molecular basis remains unexplored on the vascular level. We investigated Rcan1 expression induced by histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF, and epinephrine in primary human vein (HV-/artery (HA-derived endothelial cells (ECs and human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC-D. Vascular permeability was analyzed in vitro in human ECs with forced Rcan1 expression using Transwell migration assays and in vivo using Rcan1 knockout mice. Histamine, but neither PAF nor epinephrine, induced Rcan1-4 mRNA and protein expression in primary HV-ECs, HA-ECs, and HMVEC-D through histamine receptor 1 (H1R. These effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin with cyclosporine A. Moreover, intravenous histamine administration increased Rcan1 expression in lung tissues of mice undergoing experimental anaphylaxis. Functional in vitro assays showed that overexpression of Rcan1 promotes barrier integrity, suggesting a role played by this molecule in vascular permeability. Consistent with these findings, in vivo models of subcutaneous and intravenous histamine-mediated fluid extravasation showed increased response in skin, aorta, and lungs of Rcan1-deficient mice compared with wild-type animals. These findings reveal that endothelial Rcan1 is synthesized in response to histamine through a calcineurin-sensitive pathway and may reduce barrier breakdown, thus contributing to the strengthening of the endothelium and resistance to anaphylaxis. These new insights underscore its potential role as a regulator of sensitivity to anaphylaxis in humans.

  1. Evaluation of integrated assessment model hindcast experiments: a case study of the GCAM 3.0 land use module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail C.; Link, Robert P.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2017-11-01

    Hindcasting experiments (conducting a model forecast for a time period in which observational data are available) are being undertaken increasingly often by the integrated assessment model (IAM) community, across many scales of models. When they are undertaken, the results are often evaluated using global aggregates or otherwise highly aggregated skill scores that mask deficiencies. We select a set of deviation-based measures that can be applied on different spatial scales (regional versus global) to make evaluating the large number of variable-region combinations in IAMs more tractable. We also identify performance benchmarks for these measures, based on the statistics of the observational dataset, that allow a model to be evaluated in absolute terms rather than relative to the performance of other models at similar tasks. An ideal evaluation method for hindcast experiments in IAMs would feature both absolute measures for evaluation of a single experiment for a single model and relative measures to compare the results of multiple experiments for a single model or the same experiment repeated across multiple models, such as in community intercomparison studies. The performance benchmarks highlight the use of this scheme for model evaluation in absolute terms, providing information about the reasons a model may perform poorly on a given measure and therefore identifying opportunities for improvement. To demonstrate the use of and types of results possible with the evaluation method, the measures are applied to the results of a past hindcast experiment focusing on land allocation in the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. The question of how to more holistically evaluate models as complex as IAMs is an area for future research. We find quantitative evidence that global aggregates alone are not sufficient for evaluating IAMs that require global supply to equal global demand at each time period, such as GCAM. The results of this work indicate it is

  2. Report on the SCT Forward Electrical Module Program

    CERN Document Server

    Benes, J; Feld, L; Hornung, M; Joos, D; Ketterer, C; Kodys, P; Kubik, P; Ludwig, J; Modesto, P; Rieth, G; Runge, K; Smith, T; Snow, S W; Taylor, G; Webel, M

    1999-01-01

    IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ATLAS SCT FORWARD HYBRID PROGRAM, THREEELECTRICAL DETECTOR MODULES HAVE BEEN BUILT. THIS NOTE DESCRIBES THEASSEMBLY AND SUMMARISES THE MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OFTHESE MODULES. SOME COMMENTS ON THE SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF THEPRODUCTION OF A REAL MODULE AS COMPARED TO DUMMY MODULES ARE GIVEN.A LIST OF OPEN QUESTIONS ARISING FROM THIS ASSEMBLY RUN IS APPENDED.

  3. Exploring the Role of the Built and Social Neighborhood Environment in Moderating Stress and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Health researchers have explored how different aspects of neighborhood characteristics contribute to health and well-being, but current understanding of built environment factors is limited. Purpose This study explores whether the association between stress and health varies by residential neighborhood, and if yes, whether built and social neighborhood environment characteristics act as moderators. Methods This study uses multilevel modeling and variables derived from geospatial data to explore the role of neighborhood environment in moderating the association of stress with health. Individual-level data (N=4,093) were drawn from residents of 45 neighborhoods within Philadelphia County, PA, collected as part of the 2006 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Household Health Survey. Results We find that the negative influence of high stress varied by neighborhood, that residential stability and affluence (social characteristics) attenuated the association of high stress with health, and that the presence of hazardous waste facilities (built environment characteristics) moderated health by enhancing the association with stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neighborhood environment has both direct and moderating associations with health, after adjusting for individual characteristics. The use of geospatial data could broaden the scope of stress–health research and advance knowledge by untangling the intertwined relationship between built and social environments, stress, and health. In particular, future studies should integrate built environment characteristics in health-related research; these characteristics are modifiable and can facilitate health promotion policies. PMID:20300905

  4. 49 CFR 41.117 - Buildings built with Federal assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buildings built with Federal assistance. 41.117 Section 41.117 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.117 Buildings built with Federal assistance. (a) Each DOT Operating Administration assisting in the financing, through...

  5. Public Health Engineering for the Built Environment: Completing Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Koren, L.G.H.; Pernot, C.E.E.; Vliet, van A.A.M.; Rameckers, E.M.A.L.; Erkelens, P.A.; Jonge, de S.; Vliet, van A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Good health is a prerequisite for sustainable development. From ancient times on environments are built with the good of man in mind, especially to extend his vital life span. At first most building could be considered as public health engineering. Built environments, however, always posed new risks

  6. Dosimetric comparison of the related parameters between simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy and sequential boost conformal radiotherapy for postoperative malignant glioma of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Qian; Lu Jie; Li Jianbin; Sun Tao; Bai Tong; Liu Tonghai; Yin Yong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dosimetric of different parameter of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) with sequential boost conformal radiotherapy (SB-CRT) for postoperative malignant glioma of the brain. Methods: Ten patients with malignant glioma of brain were selected to study. Each patient was simulated all by CT and MRI, and the imagings of CT and MRI were all sent to Pinnacle 3 planning system. The fusion technology with MR-CT imaging was used on Pinnacle 3 planning system. The target volume was delineated and defined based on MRI. The postoperative residual lesion and resection cavity were defined as gross tumor volume (GTV) and expanded GTV some scope was defined as clinical target volume (CTV). The margins of GTV expanded 10 mm and 25 mm were defined as CTV1 and CTV2 respectively. CTV1 and CTV2 all enlarged 5 mm were defined as PTV1 and PTV2 respectively. The plans of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy and sequential boost conformal radiotherapy were respectively designed for each patient using Pinnacle 3 planning system and the dosimetric of different parameter was compared. The prescribe dose of SIB-IMRT was PTV1: 62.5 Gy/25 f, PTV2: 50.0 Gy/25 f; and SB-CRT was PTV1: 66.0 Gy/33 f, PTV2: 50.0 Gy/25 f. The dosimetries of different parameters of SIB-IMRT and SB-CRT were compared by using Paired-Samples T Test. Results: The maximum and mean dose of PTV1, PTV2, and brainstem were of significant difference (P 0.05). Conclusion: The SIB-IMRT plan is better than the SB-CRT plan. The CI and HI of SIB-IMRT are superior to SB-CRT. At the same time, it can preserve the important organs such as brainstem and reduce the mean dose of whole brain. On the other hand it can shorten the total period of therapy time. (authors)

  7. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost in Patients With Brain Oligometastases: A Phase 1 Study (ISIDE-BM-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Marica [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Chiesa, Silvia [Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Cilla, Savino [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Bertini, Federica [Radiation Oncology Center, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Frezza, Giovanni [Radiotherapy Department, Ospedale Bellaria, Bologna (Italy); Farioli, Andrea [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cammelli, Silvia [Radiation Oncology Center, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Balducci, Mario [Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Ianiro, Anna [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Angelini, Anna Lisa; Compagnone, Gaetano [Medical Physics Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the maximum tolerated dose of intensity modulated radiation therapy simultaneous integrated boost whole-brain radiation therapy for palliative treatment of patients with <5 brain metastases using a standard linear accelerator. Materials and Methods: The whole brain plus 3-mm margin was defined as the planning target volume (PTV{sub wb}), whereas each brain metastasis, defined as the contrast-enhancing tumor on MRI T1 scans, plus a 3-mm isotropic margin, was defined as metastases PTV (PTV{sub m}). Radiation therapy was delivered in 10 daily fractions (2 weeks). Only the dose to PTV{sub m} was progressively increased in the patient cohorts (35 Gy, 40 Gy, 45 Gy, 50 Gy), whereas the PTV{sub wb} was always treated with 30 Gy (3 Gy per fraction) in all patients. The dose-limiting toxicity was evaluated providing that 3 months of follow-up had occurred after the treatment of a 6-patient cohort. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled in the study (dose PTV{sub m}: 35 Gy, 8 patients; 40 Gy, 6 patients; 45 Gy, 6 patients; 50 Gy, 10 patients). The number of treated brain metastases was 1 in 18 patients, 2 in 5 patients, 3 in 6 patients, and 4 in 1 patient. Three patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity: 1 patient at dose level 2 presented grade 3 (G3) skin toxicity; 1 patient at dose level 4 presented G3 neurologic toxicity; and 1 patient at the same level showed brain hemorrhage. Most patients showed G1 to 2 acute toxicity, in most cases skin (n=19) or neurologic (n=10). Twenty-seven were evaluable for response: 6 (22%) stable disease, 18 (67%) partial response, and 3 (11%) complete response. Median survival and 1-year overall survival were 12 months and 53%, respectively. No patient showed late toxicity. Conclusions: In this first prospective trial on the use of intensity modulated radiation therapy simultaneous integrated boost delivered with a standard linear accelerator in patients with brain oligometastases, a boost dose up to 50

  8. KUJIRA, a package of integrated modules for systematic and interactive analysis of NMR data directed to high-throughput NMR structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Iwahara, Junji; Koshiba, Seizo; Tomizawa, Tadashi; Tochio, Naoya; Guentert, Peter; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-01-01

    The recent expansion of structural genomics has increased the demands for quick and accurate protein structure determination by NMR spectroscopy. The conventional strategy without an automated protocol can no longer satisfy the needs of high-throughput application to a large number of proteins, with each data set including many NMR spectra, chemical shifts, NOE assignments, and calculated structures. We have developed the new software KUJIRA, a package of integrated modules for the systematic and interactive analysis of NMR data, which is designed to reduce the tediousness of organizing and manipulating a large number of NMR data sets. In combination with CYANA, the program for automated NOE assignment and structure determination, we have established a robust and highly optimized strategy for comprehensive protein structure analysis. An application of KUJIRA in accordance with our new strategy was carried out by a non-expert in NMR structure analysis, demonstrating that the accurate assignment of the chemical shifts and a high-quality structure of a small protein can be completed in a few weeks. The high completeness of the chemical shift assignment and the NOE assignment achieved by the systematic analysis using KUJIRA and CYANA led, in practice, to increased reliability of the determined structure

  9. Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Bong Kyung; Kang, Min Kyul; Kim, Jae Chul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Young; Choi, Gyu Seog; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Soo Yeun [Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) for preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), by comparing with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Patients who were treated with PCRT for LARC from 2015 January to 2016 December were retrospectively enrolled. Total doses of 45 Gy to 50.4 Gy with 3D-CRT or SIB-IMRT were administered concomitantly with 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin or capecitabine. Surgery was performed 8 weeks after PCRT. Between PCRT and surgery, one cycle of additional chemotherapy was administered. Pathologic tumor responses were compared between SIB-IMRT and 3D-CRT groups. Acute gastrointestinal, genitourinary, hematologic, and skin toxicities were compared between the two groups based on the RTOG toxicity criteria. SIB-IMRT was used in 53 patients, and 3D-CRT in 41 patients. After PCRT, no significant differences were noted in tumor responses, pathologic complete response (9% vs. 7%; p = 1.000), pathologic tumor regression Grade 3 or higher (85% vs. 71%; p = 0.096), and R0 resection (87% vs. 85%; p = 0.843). Grade 2 genitourinary toxicities were significantly lesser in the SIB-IMRT group (8% vs. 24%; p = 0.023), but gastrointestinal toxicities were not different across the two groups. SIB-IMRT showed lower GU toxicity and similar tumor responses when compared with 3D-CRT in PCRT for LARC.

  10. Preoperative intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost in locally advanced rectal cancer: Report on late toxicity and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Benedikt; Platteaux, Nele; Van den Begin, Robbe; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; De Ridder, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The addition of chemotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy has been established as the standard of care for patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer. As an alternative strategy, we explored intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT–IGRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in a prospective phase II study. Here, we report outcome and late toxicity after a median follow-up of 54 months. Methods and materials: A total of 108 patients were treated preoperatively with IMRT–IGRT, delivering a dose of 46 Gy in fractions of 2 Gy. Patients (n = 57) displaying an anticipated circumferential resection margin (CRM) of less than 2 mm based on magnetic resonance imaging received a SIB to the tumor up to a total dose of 55.2 Gy. Results: The absolute incidence of grade ⩾3 late gastrointestinal and urinary toxicity was 9% and 4%, respectively, with a 13% rate of any grade ⩾3 late toxicity. The actuarial 5-year local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 97%, 57%, and 68%. On multivariate analysis, R1 resection and pN2 disease were associated with significantly impaired OS. Conclusions: The use of preoperative IMRT–IGRT with a SIB resulted in a high 5-year LC rate and non-negligible late toxicity

  11. Definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy concurrent with systemic therapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: Outcomes from an integrated regional Australian cancer centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbari, Reza M.; McKay, Michael; Dwyer, Patrick; Winkley, Lauren; Hill, Jacques; Last, Andrew; Tahir, Abdul R.M.; Shakespeare, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence has increased over the past two decades largely because of an increase in human papilloma virus (HPV)-related OPSCC. We report here outcomes of definitive radiation therapy for OPSCC with simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a regional Australian cancer centre. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of all patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. We included patients who received a curative intent IMRT for OPSCC (2010–2014). Of 61 patients, 80% were men, and the median age was 57 years. Ninety percent of our patients received concurrent systemic therapy, and 68% were p16 positive. The median radiotherapy dose received was 70 Gy in 35 fractions. The median follow up for surviving patients was 22 months. Twenty-four month actuarial data show that the loco-regional recurrence free, metastasis-free MFS, cancer-specific (CaSS) and overall survival percentages were 98.3%, 92.6%, 91% and 90.3%, respectively. We did not observe grades 4 or 5 acute or late toxicities, and 10 patients (16.2%) exhibited persistent grade 3 toxicity 6 months after completing the treatment. The results from curative IMRTs for OPSCC delivered in a regional cancer centre are comparable with results published by tertiary referral centres. A long-term follow up of this patient cohort will continue for further analyses and comparisons with tertiary centres.

  12. A Wheat SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE Gene Enhances Seedling Growth and Abiotic Stress Resistance by Modulating Redox Homeostasis and Maintaining Genomic Integrity[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuantao; Liu, Shuwei; Wang, Mei; Wei, Tiandi; Meng, Chen; Wang, Meng; Xia, Guangmin

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth inhibition is a common response to salinity. Under saline conditions, Shanrong No. 3 (SR3), a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) introgression line, performs better than its parent wheat variety Jinan 177 (JN177) with respect to both seedling growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Furthermore, the endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also elevated in SR3 relative to JN177. The SR3 allele of sro1, a gene encoding a poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain protein, was identified to be crucial for both aspects of its superior performance. Unlike RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 and other Arabidopsis thaliana SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE (SRO) proteins, sro1 has PARP activity. Both the overexpression of Ta-sro1 in wheat and its heterologous expression in Arabidopsis promote the accumulation of ROS, mainly by enhancing the activity of NADPH oxidase and the expression of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, in conjunction with the suppression of alternative oxidase expression. Moreover, it promotes the activity of ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes and GSH peroxidase cycle enzymes, which regulate ROS content and cellular redox homeostasis. sro1 is also found to be involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We show here that the wheat SRO has PARP activity; such activity could be manipulated to improve the growth of seedlings exposed to salinity stress by modulating redox homeostasis and maintaining genomic stability. PMID:24443520

  13. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy using simultaneous-integrated boost for definitive treatment of locally advanced mucosal head and neck cancer: outcomes from a single-institution series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Meredith; Guo, Linxin; Hanna, Catherine; Back, Michael; Guminski, Alex; Lee, Adrian; Eade, Thomas; Veivers, David; Wignall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to report outcomes for patients treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with simultaneous-integrated boost and weekly cisplatin for American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III/IV mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Records for 67 patients treated definitively with IMRT for HNSCC were reviewed. By including only those treated with weekly cisplatin, 45 patients were eligible for analysis. Treatment outcomes, effect of patient, tumour and treatment characteristics on disease recurrence were analysed. All patients completed IMRT to 7000cGy in 35 fractions, with concurrent weekly cisplatin 40mg/m 2 (median 6 cycles). Median follow-up was 28 months for living patients. Two-year loco-regional recurrence-free, metastasis-free and overall survival were 85.4, 81.0 and 87.4%, respectively. Local recurrence occurred in three patients, and distant recurrence in eight patients. Our results show efficacy of IMRT and weekly cisplatin in the treatment of stage III/IV HNSCC at our institution with respect to loco-regional control.

  14. Inverter integrated in module - a comparison of different circuit concepts regarding costs, volumes and efficiency; Modulintegrierte Wechselrichter - ein Vergleich verschiedener Schaltungskonzepte bezueglich Kosten, Volumen und Wirkungsgrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrzik, J. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany); Krieger, T.; Zacharias, P. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany); Nijs, J.; Mey, B. de [IMEC, Leuven (Belgium); O`Mathuna, S.; Meinhardt, M. [NMRC, Cork (Ireland); Held, E. de; Jantsch, M. [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Hofkens, H. [SOLTECH, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-12-01

    In the context of a project supported by the EU, a miniaturised PV inverter integrated in a module is being developed as a laboratory sample. The main aim of this project is the provision of know-how for the industry. In order to provide aids to decision-making for industrial manufacture, different lines of development are being worked out for this purpose. The systematic listing and judging of different inverter topologies has proved successful in the development of a string inverter. To determine a suitable inverter topology, a systematic procedure is shown in this article, which was carried out with the aid of different circuit calculations. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines von der EU gefoerderten Projektes wird ein modulintegrierter, miniaturisierter PV-Wechselrichter als Labormuster entwickelt. Uebergeordnetes Ziel dieses Projektes ist die Bereitstellung von Know-how fuer die Industrie. Hierzu werden verschiedene Entwicklungslinien erarbeitet, um Entscheidungshilfen fuer die industrielle Fertigung bereit zu stellen. Bereits bei der Entwicklung eines Stringwechselrichters hat sich die systematische Aufstellung und Beurteilung verschiedener Wechselrichtertopologien bewaehrt. Zur Ermittlung einer geeigneten Wechselrichtertopologie wird in diesem Beitrag eine systematische Vorgehensweise aufgezeigt, die mit der Hilfe verschiedener Schaltungskalkulationen durchgefuehrt wurde. (orig.)

  15. Intensity-modulated arc therapy with simultaneous integrated boost in the treatment of primary irresectable cervical cancer. Treatment planning, quality control, and clinical implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, Katrien; De Neve, Wilfried; De Gersem, Werner; Paelinck, Leen; Fonteyne, Valerie; De Wagter, Carlos; De Meerleer, Gert [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Ghent Univ. Hospital (Belgium); Delrue, Louke; Villeirs, Geert [Dept. of Radiology, Ghent Univ. Hospital (Belgium); Makar, Amin [Dept. of Gynecology, Ghent Univ. Hospital (Belgium)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: to report on the planning procedure, quality control, and clinical implementation of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) delivering a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in patients with primary irresectable cervix carcinoma. Patients and methods: six patients underwent PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) before treatment planning. Prescription (25 fractions) was (1) a median dose (D{sub 50}) of 62, 58 and 56 Gy to the primary tumor (GTVcervix), primary clinical target volume (CTVcervix) and its planning target volume (PTVcervix), respectively; (2) a D{sub 50} of 60 Gy to the PET-positive lymph nodes (GTVnodes); (3) a minimal dose (D{sub 98}) of 45 Gy to the planning target volume of the elective lymph nodes (PTVnodes). IMAT plans were generated using an anatomy-based exclusion tool with the aid of weight and leaf position optimization. The dosimetric delivery of IMAT was validated preclinically using radiochromic film dosimetry. Results: five to nine arcs were needed to create valid IMAT plans. Dose constraints on D{sub 50} were not met in two patients (both GTVcervix: 1 Gy and 3 Gy less). D{sub 98} for PTVnodes was not met in three patients (1 Gy each). Film dosimetry showed excellent gamma evaluation. There were no treatment interruptions. Conclusion: IMAT allows delivering an SIB to the macroscopic tumor without compromising the dose to the elective lymph nodes or the organs at risk. The clinical implementation is feasible. (orig.)

  16. Technical note: A new wedge-shaped ionization chamber component module for BEAMnrc to model the integral quality monitoring system®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderinde, Oluwaseyi Michael; du Plessis, FCP

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new component module (CM) namely IQM to accurately model the integral quality monitoring (IQM) system® to be used in the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The IQM is essentially a double wedge ionization chamber with the central electrode plate bisecting the wedge. The IQM CM allows the user to characterize the double wedge of this ionization chamber and BEAMnrc can then accurately calculate the dose in this CM including its enclosed air regions. This has been verified against measured data. The newly created CM was added into the standard BEAMnrc CMs, and it will be made available through the NRCC website. The BEAMnrc graphical user interface (GUI) and particle ray-tracing techniques were used to validate the IQM geometry. In subsequent MC simulations, the dose scored in the IQM was verified against measured data over a range of square fields ranging from 1 × 1-30 × 30 cm2. The IQM system is designed for the present day need for a device that could verify beam output in real-time during treatment. This CM is authentic, and it can serve as a basis for researchers that have an interest in real-time beam delivery checking using wedge-shaped ionization chamber based instruments like the IQM.

  17. Built environmental correlates of physical activity in China: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen

    2016-06-01

    China faces growing levels of physical inactivity and obesity, associated with increasing urbanization and changing lifestyles in recent years. China is expanding its cities to accommodate a growing urban population. This paper identifies built environment factors that are associated with physical activity in China. Findings can inform urban design and development in China to support increased physical activity. This paper is modeled on a review of built environment correlates of walking by Saelens and Handy (2008). Saelens and Handy reviewed research in developed countries. The present paper reviews 42 empirical studies that were conducted in China and were published between 2006 and 2014. Results discuss the association of built environment features and physical activity for transportation, recreation and work. Studies focus on adults and on major cities. Data on the built environment is typically self-reported. Strongest evidence was found for the positive association of physical activity with proximal non-residential locations, pedestrian infrastructure, aesthetics, and non-park physical activity facilities, and for the negative association of physical activity with urban residence. In terms of physical activity for transportation, evidence is strongest for associations between physical activity for transportation and proximal non-residential locations. More research is needed on the built environment and physical activity, especially including research on significant features of Chinese cities, such as air pollution, high density levels, traffic safety, and others. Research on associations between built environment features and physical activity should consider the specific social and built environment contexts of Chinese cities.

  18. Public spaces and urban sustainability in the tropical built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Y. M.; Kozlowski, M.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainability is an overarching sense of responsibility towards the future. On a city-wide level, urban sustainability incorporates a wide body of changes especially as they relate to the built environment, all of which intended at creating a livable place. This paper discusses existing public spaces in view of their achievement against a set of criteria for the built environment. The paper introduces performance design criteria for the tropical built environment. The key findings indicate that long-term strategies, guidance and directions for the city and region can achieve development which corresponds to local climate, synergies and provide a higher proportion of public spaces that offer something for everyone.

  19. A Prospective Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Incorporating a Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Prostate Cancer: Long-term Outcomes Compared With Standard Image Guided IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, Michael H. [Midwestern University, Glendale, Arizona (United States); Schild, Steven E., E-mail: sschild@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Wong, William W.; Vora, Sujay A.; Keole, Sameer R.; Vargas, Carlos E.; Daniels, Thomas B.; Ezzell, Gary A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Nguyen, Ba D.; Roarke, Michael C. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: This report describes the long-term outcomes of a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), integrating a {sup 111}In capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan-directed simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one patients with T1N0M0 to T4N0M0 prostate cancer were enrolled, and their ProstaScint and pelvic computed tomography scans were coregistered for treatment planning. The entire prostate received 75.6 Gy in 42 fractions with IMRT, whereas regions of increased uptake on ProstaScint scans received 82 Gy as an SIB. Patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease also received 6 months and 12 months of adjuvant hormonal therapy, respectively. Results: The study enrolled 31 low-, 30 intermediate-, and 10 high-risk patients. The median follow-up was 120 months (range, 24-150 months). The 10-year biochemical control rates were 85% for the entire cohort and 84%, 84%, and 90% for patients with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease, respectively. The 10-year survival rate of the entire cohort was 69%. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level >10 ng/mL and boost volume of >10% of the prostate volume were significantly associated with poorer biochemical control and survival. The outcomes were compared with those of a cohort of 302 patients treated similarly but without the SIB and followed up for a median of 91 months (range, 6-138 months). The 5- and 10-year biochemical control rates were 86% and 61%, respectively, in patients without the SIB compared with 94% and 85%, respectively, in patients in this trial who received the SIB (P=.02). The cohort that received an SIB did not have increased toxicity. Conclusions: The described IMRT strategy, integrating multiple imaging modalities to administer 75.6 Gy to the entire prostate with a boost dose of 82 Gy, was feasible. The addition of the SIB was associated with greater biochemical control but not toxicity. Modern

  20. The laser integration line (LIL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, A.

    2006-01-01

    The laser integration line (LIL) was originally built to validate the technological choices made for the Megajoule laser that is being built nearby. The LIL is made up of a single line composed of 8 laser beams. Each laser beam consists of 4 main modules: 1) the impulse generator that delivers a 40 mm * 40 mm square cross section infrared laser beam (λ = 1053 nm); 2) the amplification module that involves 2 steps in power amplifying, the output signal is a laser impulse of 5 ns of time duration carrying an energy of 20.10 3 Joule at a wavelength of 1053 nm; 3) the transport line that leads 4 elementary laser beams through a system of 6 mirrors; and 4) the optical block of the focusing and frequency conversion system (SCF). The purpose of SCF is twofold, first to turn the 4 infrared elementary beams into 4 ultraviolet (λ = 351 nm) beams thanks to 2 KDP (potassium di-hydrogeno-phosphate) crystals, and secondly to merge and focus the 4 elementary beams on a unique spot of the target thanks to diffraction gratings with curved slits. (A.C.)

  1. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  2. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  3. Confirmation of a second EPR to be built at Penly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French government has made public its decision to launch the construction of a second EPR in France. This EPR is planned to be built on the Penly site (northern region of France). EDF will manage this project but other investors like GDF-Suez are invited to participate. The construction works are planned to begin in 2012 for a commissioning in 2017. This reactor will be the fifth EPR being built in the world. (A.C.)

  4. Common mental disorders and the built environment in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Ricardo; Montgomery, Alan; Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Solis, Jaime; Signorelli, Andres; Lewis, Glyn

    2007-05-01

    There is growing research interest in the influence of the built environment on mental disorders. To estimate the variation in the prevalence of common mental disorders attributable to individuals and the built environment of geographical sectors where they live. A sample of 3870 adults (response rate 90%) clustered in 248 geographical sectors participated in a household cross-sectional survey in Santiago, Chile. Independently rated contextual measures of the built environment were obtained. The Clinical Interview Schedule was used to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders. There was a significant association between the quality of the built environment of small geographical sectors and the presence of common mental disorders among its residents. The better the quality of the built environment, the lower the scores for psychiatric symptoms; however, only a small proportion of the variation in common mental disorder existed at sector level, after adjusting for individual factors. Findings from our study, using a contextual assessment of the quality of the built environment and multilevel modelling in the analysis, suggest these associations may be more marked in non-Western settings with more homogeneous geographical sectors.

  5. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. energy markets for the midterm period. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to a variety of assumptions. The assumptions encompass macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, technology characteristics, and demographics. NEMS produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the U.S. energy markets on an annual basis through 2015. Baseline forecasts from NEMS are published in the Annual Energy Outlook. Analyses are also prepared in response to requests by the U.S. Congress, the DOE Office of Policy, and others. NEMS was first used for forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1994.

  6. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. energy markets for the midterm period. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to a variety of assumptions. The assumptions encompass macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, technology characteristics, and demographics. NEMS produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the U.S. energy markets on an annual basis through 2015. Baseline forecasts from NEMS are published in the Annual Energy Outlook. Analyses are also prepared in response to requests by the U.S. Congress, the DOE Office of Policy, and others. NEMS was first used for forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1994

  7. The built environment and older adults: A literature review and an applied approach to engaging older adults in built environment improvements for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, Anthony G; Banchoff, Ann W; Winter, Sandra J; King, Abby C

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature about the built environment as it impacts the health of older people. It then introduces the gerontological nurse and researcher to the Our Voice framework for engaging older people as citizen scientists in order to empower them as agents of change in improving their local built environment and ultimately advancing community health. Community-level strategies to promote successful ageing in place are critical both to optimising health outcomes and containing healthcare costs. Such strategies must take into account the influence of the built environment both on individual health behaviours and on overall community health. At the same time, the perspectives and experiences of older people themselves ought to inform policies and practices in a systematic way. Integrative literature review. A wide scan of English language articles published in the EMBASE, PubMed and CINAHL bibliographic databases was conducted. Additional articles were sourced by mining relevant reference lists (i.e., snowball sampling). Papers included were published between 2005 and 2016. Three distinct components emerged from the review: the impact of the built environment on health-in particular the health of older persons; citizen science and its applicability for older people research; and the promise of the Our Voice citizen science framework to activate changes in the built environment that improve older peoples' health. The ageing of the world's population brings with it an increased population-level risk of chronic disease and disability. We present the Our Voice framework, developed by researchers at Stanford University, as a promising strategy for engaging and empowering older people as citizen scientists, as a framework to apply to gerontological nursing and improving community health. Gerontology nurses are encouraged to: (i) Recognise the impact of the built environment and other community-level factors on the health of their patients. (ii

  8. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  9. Medical student knowledge regarding radiology before and after a radiological anatomy module: implications for vertical integration and self-directed learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; O'Connor, Owen J; Cryan, John F; Maher, Michael M

    2014-10-01

    To examine the impact that anatomy-focused radiology teaching has on non-examined knowledge regarding radiation safety and radiology as a specialty. First-year undergraduate medical students completed surveys prior to and after undertaking the first-year anatomy programme that incorporates radiological anatomy. Students were asked opinions on preferred learning methodology and tested on understanding of radiology as a specialty and radiation safety. Pre-module and post-module response rates were 93 % (157/168) and 85 % (136/160), respectively. Pre-module and post-module, self-directed learning (SDL) ranked eighth (of 11) for preferred gross-anatomy teaching formats. Correct responses regarding radiologist/radiographer roles varied from 28-94 % on 16 questions with 4/16 significantly improving post-module. Identification of modalities that utilise radiation significantly improved for five of eight modalities post-module but knowledge regarding relative amount of modality-specific radiation use was variable pre-module and post-module. SDL is not favoured as an anatomy teaching method. Exposure of students to a radiological anatomy module delivered by senior clinical radiologists improved basic knowledge regarding ionising radiation use, but there was no improvement in knowledge regarding radiation exposure relative per modality. A possible explanation is that students recall knowledge imparted in didactic lectures but do little reading around the subject when the content is not examined. • Self-directed learning is not favoured as a gross anatomy teaching format amongst medical students. • An imaging anatomy-focused module improved basic knowledge regarding ionising radiation use. • Detailed knowledge of modality-specific radiation exposure remained suboptimal post-module. • Knowledge of roles within a clinical radiology department showed little change post-module.

  10. A novel tool for assessing and summarizing the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A growing corpus of research focuses on assessing the quality of the local built environment and also examining the relationship between the built environment and health outcomes and indicators in communities. However, there is a lack of research presenting a highly resolved, systematic, and comprehensive spatial approach to assessing the built environment over a large geographic extent. In this paper, we contribute to the built environment literature by describing a tool used to assess the residential built environment at the tax parcel-level, as well as a methodology for summarizing the data into meaningful indices for linkages with health data. Methods A database containing residential built environment variables was constructed using the existing body of literature, as well as input from local community partners. During the summer of 2008, a team of trained assessors conducted an on-foot, curb-side assessment of approximately 17,000 tax parcels in Durham, North Carolina, evaluating the built environment on over 80 variables using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. The exercise was repeated again in the summer of 2011 over a larger geographic area that included roughly 30,700 tax parcels; summary data presented here are from the 2008 assessment. Results Built environment data were combined with Durham crime data and tax assessor data in order to construct seven built environment indices. These indices were aggregated to US Census blocks, as well as to primary adjacency communities (PACs) and secondary adjacency communities (SACs) which better described the larger neighborhood context experienced by local residents. Results were disseminated to community members, public health professionals, and government officials. Conclusions The assessment tool described is both easily-replicable and comprehensive in design. Furthermore, our construction of PACs and SACs introduces a novel concept to approximate varying scales of community and

  11. A novel tool for assessing and summarizing the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroeger Gretchen L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing corpus of research focuses on assessing the quality of the local built environment and also examining the relationship between the built environment and health outcomes and indicators in communities. However, there is a lack of research presenting a highly resolved, systematic, and comprehensive spatial approach to assessing the built environment over a large geographic extent. In this paper, we contribute to the built environment literature by describing a tool used to assess the residential built environment at the tax parcel-level, as well as a methodology for summarizing the data into meaningful indices for linkages with health data. Methods A database containing residential built environment variables was constructed using the existing body of literature, as well as input from local community partners. During the summer of 2008, a team of trained assessors conducted an on-foot, curb-side assessment of approximately 17,000 tax parcels in Durham, North Carolina, evaluating the built environment on over 80 variables using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS devices. The exercise was repeated again in the summer of 2011 over a larger geographic area that included roughly 30,700 tax parcels; summary data presented here are from the 2008 assessment. Results Built environment data were combined with Durham crime data and tax assessor data in order to construct seven built environment indices. These indices were aggregated to US Census blocks, as well as to primary adjacency communities (PACs and secondary adjacency communities (SACs which better described the larger neighborhood context experienced by local residents. Results were disseminated to community members, public health professionals, and government officials. Conclusions The assessment tool described is both easily-replicable and comprehensive in design. Furthermore, our construction of PACs and SACs introduces a novel concept to approximate varying

  12. The Built Environment and Child Health: An Overview of Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Vrijheid, Martine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization and the shaping of the built environment have provided a number of socioeconomic benefits, but they have also brought unwanted side effects on health. We aimed to review the current epidemiological evidence of the associations between the built environment, closely related exposures, and child health. We focused on growth and obesity, neuropsychological development, and respiratory and immune health. We used existing review articles and supplemented these with relevant work published and not included in existing reviews. The present review shows that there is good evidence for an association between air pollution and fetal growth restriction and respiratory health, whereas for other exposure and outcome combinations, further evidence is needed. Future studies should make efforts to integrate the different built environment features and to include the evaluation of environments other than home, as well as accessibility, qualitative and perception assessment of the built environment, and, if possible, with improved and standardized tools to facilitate comparability between studies. Efforts are also needed to conduct longitudinal and intervention studies and to understand potential mechanisms behind the associations observed. Finally, studies in low- and middle-income countries are needed.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF URBAN BUILT ENVIRONMENT QUALITY ON THE URBANIZED TERRITORIES: INTERREGIONAL COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovsiannikova T. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The urbanization and growth of a cities role, formation of cities as reference points of regions economic development are modern global tendencies. Cities concentrate human and investment resources on their territory, so in large part cities cause competitiveness of the regions in the global market. For preservation of competitive advantages regions need to form on the urbanized territories not only the favorable environment for business, but also for the population life. This paper deals with the problem of an assessment of urban built environment quality, due to urban built environment is a space-material basis of life quality of the population on the urbanized territories. The role of the cities in social and economic development of regions and their considerable influence on competitiveness of territories in the global competition for economic resources are proved. The method of assessment of urban built environment quality on the basis of calculation of an integrated index is proposed. Interregional comparisons on the example of regions of the Siberian and Ural Federal districts are completed. The offered method of assessment of urban built environment quality allows to range the urbanized territories on usefulness for living, to reveal most and the least developed spheres of city infrastructure.

  14. Integrated beam orientation and scanning-spot optimization in intensity-modulated proton therapy for brain and unilateral head and neck tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenbo; O'Connor, Daniel; Nguyen, Dan; Yu, Victoria Y; Ruan, Dan; Dong, Lei; Sheng, Ke

    2018-04-01

    Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) is the state-of-the-art method of delivering proton radiotherapy. Previous research has been mainly focused on optimization of scanning spots with manually selected beam angles. Due to the computational complexity, the potential benefit of simultaneously optimizing beam orientations and spot pattern could not be realized. In this study, we developed a novel integrated beam orientation optimization (BOO) and scanning-spot optimization algorithm for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). A brain chordoma and three unilateral head-and-neck patients with a maximal target size of 112.49 cm 3 were included in this study. A total number of 1162 noncoplanar candidate beams evenly distributed across 4π steradians were included in the optimization. For each candidate beam, the pencil-beam doses of all scanning spots covering the PTV and a margin were calculated. The beam angle selection and spot intensity optimization problem was formulated to include three terms: a dose fidelity term to penalize the deviation of PTV and OAR doses from ideal dose distribution; an L1-norm sparsity term to reduce the number of active spots and improve delivery efficiency; a group sparsity term to control the number of active beams between 2 and 4. For the group sparsity term, convex L2,1-norm and nonconvex L2,1/2-norm were tested. For the dose fidelity term, both quadratic function and linearized equivalent uniform dose (LEUD) cost function were implemented. The optimization problem was solved using the Fast Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm (FISTA). The IMPT BOO method was tested on three head-and-neck patients and one skull base chordoma patient. The results were compared with IMPT plans created using column generation selected beams or manually selected beams. The L2,1-norm plan selected spatially aggregated beams, indicating potential degeneracy using this norm. L2,1/2-norm was able to select spatially separated beams and achieve

  15. Assessment of the structural integrity of a prototypical instrumented IFMIF high flux test module rig by fully 3D X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiseanu, Ion [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Laboratory NILPRP, P.O. Box MG-36, R-77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail: tiseanu@infim.ro; Simon, Martin [Hans Waelischmiller GmbH (HWM), Schiessstattweg 16, D-88677 Markdorf (Germany); Craciunescu, Teddy; Mandache, Bogdan N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Laboratory NILPRP, P.O. Box MG-36, R-77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Heinzel, Volker; Stratmanns, Erwin; Simakov, Stanislaw P.; Leichtle, Dieter [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit IRS, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    An inspection procedure to assess the mechanical integrity of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) capsules and rigs during the irradiation campaign is necessary. Due to its penetration ability and contrast mechanism, the X-ray microtomography is the only known tool that could meet these requirements. In the high flux test module (HFTM) of IFMIF miniaturized specimens are densely packed in capsules. The capsules, which wear electric heaters and thermocouples, are housed in rigs. To assure a well-defined thermal contact the heater wires have to be attached to the capsules by brazing them into grooves. The examination of the quality of the braze material layer is of crucial interest in order to assure the best heat coupling of the heater wires to the capsule. A high density of the heaters is necessary to maintain the required temperature and, in addition NaK filling of narrow channels is employed for improving the 3D-heat transfer between the irradiation specimens and the capsule wall. Fully 3D tomographic inspections of a prototypical HFTM instrumented capsule, developed and manufactured at FZK, were conducted. In order to identify the optimum irradiation parameters and scanning configuration we carried out a comparative NDT analysis on two microtomography facilities: a compact, high magnification installation at NILPRP and a high-end industrial tomography facility with higher X-ray energy and intensity at HWM. At optimum inspection parameters of a directional microfocus X-ray source (U = 220 kV and I = 300 {mu}A) the geometry resolution was about 30 microns for characteristic dimension of the sample of 50 mm. Voids of 30 microns diameter and cracks of about 20 microns width can be detected. The absolute error of geometrical measurements is sufficient for the assessment of the structural integrity of the irradiation capsule and for the geometry description within the thermal-hydraulic modeling. The space resolution and the overall

  16. Assessment of the structural integrity of a prototypical instrumented IFMIF high flux test module rig by fully 3D X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiseanu, Ion; Simon, Martin; Craciunescu, Teddy; Mandache, Bogdan N.; Heinzel, Volker; Stratmanns, Erwin; Simakov, Stanislaw P.; Leichtle, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    An inspection procedure to assess the mechanical integrity of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) capsules and rigs during the irradiation campaign is necessary. Due to its penetration ability and contrast mechanism, the X-ray microtomography is the only known tool that could meet these requirements. In the high flux test module (HFTM) of IFMIF miniaturized specimens are densely packed in capsules. The capsules, which wear electric heaters and thermocouples, are housed in rigs. To assure a well-defined thermal contact the heater wires have to be attached to the capsules by brazing them into grooves. The examination of the quality of the braze material layer is of crucial interest in order to assure the best heat coupling of the heater wires to the capsule. A high density of the heaters is necessary to maintain the required temperature and, in addition NaK filling of narrow channels is employed for improving the 3D-heat transfer between the irradiation specimens and the capsule wall. Fully 3D tomographic inspections of a prototypical HFTM instrumented capsule, developed and manufactured at FZK, were conducted. In order to identify the optimum irradiation parameters and scanning configuration we carried out a comparative NDT analysis on two microtomography facilities: a compact, high magnification installation at NILPRP and a high-end industrial tomography facility with higher X-ray energy and intensity at HWM. At optimum inspection parameters of a directional microfocus X-ray source (U = 220 kV and I = 300 μA) the geometry resolution was about 30 microns for characteristic dimension of the sample of 50 mm. Voids of 30 microns diameter and cracks of about 20 microns width can be detected. The absolute error of geometrical measurements is sufficient for the assessment of the structural integrity of the irradiation capsule and for the geometry description within the thermal-hydraulic modeling. The space resolution and the overall

  17. Assessment of the Structural Integrity of a Prototypical Instrumented IFMIF High Flux Test Module Rig by Fully 3D X-Ray Microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiseanu, I.; Craciunescu, T.; Mandache, B.N.; Simon, M.; Heinzel, V.; Stratmanns, E.; Simakov, S.P.; Leichtle, D.

    2006-01-01

    An inspection procedure to asses the mechanical integrity of IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) capsules and rigs during the irradiation campaign is necessary. Due to its penetration ability and contrast mechanism, the X-ray micro-tomography is the only known tool that could meet these requirements. In the High Flux Test Module (HFTM) of IFMIF miniaturized specimens are densely packed in capsules. The capsules which wear electric heaters and thermocouples are housed in rigs. To assure a well defined thermal contact the heater wires have to be attached to the capsules by brazing them into grooves. The examination of the quality of the braze material layer is of crucial interest in order to assure the best heat coupling of the heater wires to the capsule. A high density of the heaters is necessary to maintain the required temperature and, in addition NaK filling of narrow channels is employed for improving the 3D-heat transfer between the irradiation specimens and the capsule wall. Fully 3D tomographic inspections of a prototypical HFTM instrumented capsule, developed and manufactures at FZK, were conducted. In order to identify the optimum irradiation parameters and scanning configuration we carried out a comparative NDT analysis on two micro-tomography facilities, our compact, high magnification installation at NILPRP and two high-end industrial tomography facilities with higher X-ray energy and intensity at HWM. At optimum inspection parameters of a microfocus X-ray source (U=220 kV and I=300 μA) the geometry resolution was about 30-50 microns for characteristic dimension of the sample of 50 mm. Voids of 30 microns diameter and cracks of about 20 microns width can be detected. The absolute error of geometrical measurements should be sufficient for the assessment of the structural integrity of the irradiation capsule and for the geometry description within the thermal-hydraulic modeling. Space resolution could be further improved if one

  18. Definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy concurrent with systemic therapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: Outcomes from an integrated regional Australian cancer centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud Rahbari, Reza; Winkley, Lauren; Hill, Jacques; Tahir, Abdul Rahim Mohammed; McKay, Michael; Last, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P; Dwyer, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence has increased over the past two decades largely because of an increase in human papilloma virus (HPV)-related OPSCC. We report here outcomes of definitive radiation therapy for OPSCC with simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a regional Australian cancer centre. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of all patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. We included patients who received a curative intent IMRT for OPSCC (2010-2014). Of 61 patients, 80% were men, and the median age was 57 years. Ninety percent of our patients received concurrent systemic therapy, and 68% were p16 positive. The median radiotherapy dose received was 70 Gy in 35 fractions. The median follow up for surviving patients was 22 months. Twenty-four month actuarial data show that the loco-regional recurrence free, metastasis-free MFS, cancer-specific (CaSS) and overall survival percentages were 98.3%, 92.6%, 91% and 90.3%, respectively. We did not observe grades 4 or 5 acute or late toxicities, and 10 patients (16.2%) exhibited persistent grade 3 toxicity 6 months after completing the treatment. The results from curative IMRTs for OPSCC delivered in a regional cancer centre are comparable with results published by tertiary referral centres. A long-term follow up of this patient cohort will continue for further analyses and comparisons with tertiary centres. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  19. Implementation of a module for risk of ozone impacts assessment to vegetation in the Integrated Assessment Modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula. Evaluation for wheat and Holm oak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrés, Juan Manuel de; Borge, Rafael; Paz, David de la; Lumbreras, Julio; Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2012-01-01

    A module to estimate risks of ozone damage to vegetation has been implemented in the Integrated Assessment Modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula. It was applied to compute three different indexes for wheat and Holm oak; daylight AOT40 (cumulative ozone concentration over 40 ppb), cumulative ozone exposure index according to the Directive 2008/50/EC (AOT40-D) and POD Y (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose over a given threshold of Y nmol m −2 s −1 ). The use of these indexes led to remarkable differences in spatial patterns of relative ozone risks on vegetation. Ozone critical levels were exceeded in most of the modelling domain and soil moisture content was found to have a significant impact on the results. According to the outputs of the model, daylight AOT40 constitutes a more conservative index than the AOT40-D. Additionally, flux-based estimations indicate high risk areas in Portugal for both wheat and Holm oak that are not identified by AOT-based methods. - Highlights: ► A modelling system to estimate the risk of ozone in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. ► Ozone exposure- and flux-based approaches lead to rather different conclusions. ► Available ozone critical levels were exceeded in most locations where wheat is present. ► Soil moisture content has a significant impact on the flux-based results in some areas. - Flux-based indexes are needed to provide an effective protection of the vegetation in the Iberian Peninsula; currently, available critical levels for wheat are widely exceeded.

  20. Whole Brain Radiotherapy With Hippocampal Avoidance and Simultaneous Integrated Boost for 1-3 Brain Metastases: A Feasibility Study Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Fred; Carolan, Hannah; Nichol, Alan; Cao, Fred; Nuraney, Nimet; Lee, Richard; Gete, Ermias; Wong, Frances; Schmuland, Moira; Heran, Manraj; Otto, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to deliver whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with hippocampal avoidance and a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) for one to three brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for one to three brain metastases underwent repeat planning using VMAT. The whole brain prescription dose was 32.25 Gy in 15 fractions, and SIB doses to brain metastases were 63 Gy to lesions ≥2.0 cm and 70.8 Gy to lesions 2 . Plans were optimized for conformity and target coverage while minimizing hippocampal and ocular doses. Plans were evaluated on target coverage, prescription isodose to target volume ratio, conformity number, homogeneity index, and maximum dose to prescription dose ratio. Results: Ten patients had 18 metastases. Mean values for the brain metastases were as follows: conformity number = 0.73 ± 0.10, target coverage = 0.98 ± 0.01, prescription isodose to target volume = 1.34 ± 0.19, maximum dose to prescription dose ratio = 1.09 ± 0.02, and homogeneity index = 0.07 ± 0.02. For the whole brain, the mean target coverage and homogeneity index were 0.960 ± 0.002 and 0.39 ± 0.06, respectively. The mean hippocampal dose was 5.23 ± 0.39 Gy 2 . The mean treatment delivery time was 3.6 min (range, 3.3-4.1 min). Conclusions: VMAT was able to achieve adequate whole brain coverage with conformal hippocampal avoidance and radiosurgical quality dose distributions for one to three brain metastases. The mean delivery time was under 4 min.

  1. Fully Automated Simultaneous Integrated Boosted-Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning Is Feasible for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Binbin, E-mail: binbin.wu@gunet.georgetown.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); McNutt, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zahurak, Marianna [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Simari, Patricio [Autodesk Research, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pang, Dalong [Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, Russell [Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Sanguineti, Giuseppe [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine whether overlap volume histogram (OVH)-driven, automated simultaneous integrated boosted (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning for head-and-neck cancer can be implemented in clinics. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to compare fully automated plans (APs) created by an OVH-driven, automated planning application with clinical plans (CPs) created by dosimetrists in a 3-dose-level (70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 58.1 Gy), head-and-neck SIB-IMRT planning. Because primary organ sparing (cord, brain, brainstem, mandible, and optic nerve/chiasm) always received the highest priority in clinical planning, the study aimed to show the noninferiority of APs with respect to PTV coverage and secondary organ sparing (parotid, brachial plexus, esophagus, larynx, inner ear, and oral mucosa). The sample size was determined a priori by a superiority hypothesis test that had 85% power to detect a 4% dose decrease in secondary organ sparing with a 2-sided alpha level of 0.05. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression model was used for statistical comparison. Results: Forty consecutive patients were accrued from July to December 2010. GEE analysis indicated that in APs, overall average dose to the secondary organs was reduced by 1.16 (95% CI = 0.09-2.33) with P=.04, overall average PTV coverage was increased by 0.26% (95% CI = 0.06-0.47) with P=.02 and overall average dose to the primary organs was reduced by 1.14 Gy (95% CI = 0.45-1.8) with P=.004. A physician determined that all APs could be delivered to patients, and APs were clinically superior in 27 of 40 cases. Conclusions: The application can be implemented in clinics as a fast, reliable, and consistent way of generating plans that need only minor adjustments to meet specific clinical needs.

  2. Fully Automated Simultaneous Integrated Boosted–Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning Is Feasible for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Binbin; McNutt, Todd; Zahurak, Marianna; Simari, Patricio; Pang, Dalong; Taylor, Russell; Sanguineti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine whether overlap volume histogram (OVH)–driven, automated simultaneous integrated boosted (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning for head-and-neck cancer can be implemented in clinics. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to compare fully automated plans (APs) created by an OVH-driven, automated planning application with clinical plans (CPs) created by dosimetrists in a 3-dose-level (70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 58.1 Gy), head-and-neck SIB-IMRT planning. Because primary organ sparing (cord, brain, brainstem, mandible, and optic nerve/chiasm) always received the highest priority in clinical planning, the study aimed to show the noninferiority of APs with respect to PTV coverage and secondary organ sparing (parotid, brachial plexus, esophagus, larynx, inner ear, and oral mucosa). The sample size was determined a priori by a superiority hypothesis test that had 85% power to detect a 4% dose decrease in secondary organ sparing with a 2-sided alpha level of 0.05. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression model was used for statistical comparison. Results: Forty consecutive patients were accrued from July to December 2010. GEE analysis indicated that in APs, overall average dose to the secondary organs was reduced by 1.16 (95% CI = 0.09-2.33) with P=.04, overall average PTV coverage was increased by 0.26% (95% CI = 0.06-0.47) with P=.02 and overall average dose to the primary organs was reduced by 1.14 Gy (95% CI = 0.45-1.8) with P=.004. A physician determined that all APs could be delivered to patients, and APs were clinically superior in 27 of 40 cases. Conclusions: The application can be implemented in clinics as a fast, reliable, and consistent way of generating plans that need only minor adjustments to meet specific clinical needs.

  3. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  4. Built environment change: a framework to support health-enhancing behaviour through environmental policy and health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Ethan M; Vernez-Moudon, Anne

    2014-06-01

    As research examining the effect of the built environment on health accelerates, it is critical for health and planning researchers to conduct studies and make recommendations in the context of a robust theoretical framework. We propose a framework for built environment change (BEC) related to improving health. BEC consists of elements of the built environment, how people are exposed to and interact with them perceptually and functionally, and how this exposure may affect health-related behaviours. Integrated into this framework are the legal and regulatory mechanisms and instruments that are commonly used to effect change in the built environment. This framework would be applicable to medical research as well as to issues of policy and community planning.

  5. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - Development of solar beam power generation and utilization systems and ancillary technologies (Research and development of new building material integrated solar cell modules - investigation and research on analysis of practical application); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shinkenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi module no kenkyu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to promote the research to put new building material integrated solar cell modules into practical use, the following items were investigated: (1) functions and specifications for harmonizing with buildings, (2) new module materials that can respond to building materials, (3) marketability, (4) standardization of the assessment methods, (5) consistency with relevant legislation and related institutions, (6) effects on environment as building materials, and (7) investigation on technological trends inside and outside the country. In Item (1), the significance of developing the new building material integrated solar cell modules was made clear. In Item (2), the performance requirements on the currently used module materials were put into order. In Item (3), the market size was investigated, and assignments to establishing the market were put into order, such as the distribution and construction institutions, and assistance to the system introduction. In Item (4), standardization and unification of the assessment methods were discussed, and the items to be standardized were extracted. In Item (6), LCA on the currently used modules was performed. In Item (7), participation was made to the second solar beam power generation conference and EUROSUN '98; investigations were made on trends of developing the new building material integrated solar cell modules and how the recycling related legislation is being progressed; and the achievements in the development activities were confirmed, and the assignments were investigated at the new building material integrated solar cell module subcommittee. (NEDO)

  6. Diagnosing stone decay in built heritage. Facts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodola, Stefania

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Stone and other materials used for the construction of historic buildings, memorial statues, gravestones and similar are exposed to weathering and polluting agents and, therefore, progressive decay. Such deterioration, whether physical, chemical or biological, involves mineral phases and their interrelationships (structure and texture.A review of the analytical procedures applied in scientific research on stone damage has revealed the need for appropriate tools and tests (each with a specific scope, depending on the extant damage to identify decay processes and apply the correct “therapy”, i.e. temporary and/or permanent protection (cleaning, protection, reinforcement, repair and/or replacement. A number of case histories of famous components of the Italian built heritage are discussed in the context of the use of integrated methodologies for researching decay in different kinds of stone.La piedra y otros materiales utilizados para construir edificios históricos, estatuas conmemorativas, lápidas, etc. sufren la acción de los agentes atmosféricos y contaminantes y, por tanto, a una degradación progresiva. En dicha degradación, ya sea física, química o biológica, intervienen las fases minerales de la piedra y sus correspondientes interrelaciones (estructura y textura.Un análisis de los procedimientos analíticos aplicados en la investigación científica sobre los daños en la piedra ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de herramientas y pruebas adecuadas (cada una con un objetivo concreto, según el daño existente para identificar los procesos de degradación y aplicar la «terapia» adecuada; es decir, una protección provisional o definitiva (limpieza, protección, refuerzo, reparación o sustitución.Se comentan varios casos prácticos relacionados con conocidos elementos del patrimonio construido italiano en el contexto del empleo de metodologías integradas para la investigación de la degradación en distintos tipos

  7. Research highlights in energy and eco-efficient built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, M. (ed.)

    2012-06-15

    This publication presents a compilation of VTT's recent research on energy and eco-efficient built environment. Sustainability as a dominating driver of technology development can also be seen in the R and D portfolio of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. A clear focus of our research for the building sector is sustainable construction, particularly the energy efficiency of the built environment. Buildings and the whole built environment are in a key role when societies are mitigating climate change and adapting to its consequences. Despite the temporary economic downturn, construction globally remains one of the most significant areas of human activities globally. Due to the urgency of measures related to climate change and the need to provide a proper environment for living and working, a large number of national and international measures have been agreed to guarantee the future development of sustainable built environment for all. Indirectly, this has lead to a need to develop existing and completely new technologies and processes for the built environment with a speed faster than ever and with a more holistic performance metrics than ever.

  8. Techniques for automating the process of as-built reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skruch, B.R.; Brandt, G.B.; Denes, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques are being developed for acquisition, recording, and evaluation of as-built measurements of piping systems in nuclear power plants. The goal is to improve the efficiency with which as-built dimensions and configuration can be compared to as-designed dimensions and configuration. The approach utilizes an electronic digital ''ruler'' capable of measuring distances to 100 feet with a resolution of 1/100 of a foot. This ruler interfaces to a hand held computer. This ''electronic notebook'' also accepts alpha-numeric input from a keyboard and replaces a clipboard and pencil currently used. The electronic notebook, in turn, can transfer its data directly to a host mini or mainframe computer. Once the data is resident on the larger computer it is converted to a format compatible with an existing database system used for piping analysis and design. Using accepted tolerances for as-built deviations, the as-built data is then automatically compared to as-designed data. If reanalysis is required, the as-built data is in a compatible format to utilize existing computer analysis codes. This paper discusses the operation and interfacing of the electronic ruler, the general design of the data structures in the electronic notebook, the design of mini-computer software, and the results of preliminary testing of the system

  9. Image-Based Delineation and Classification of Built Heritage Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Oses

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundación Zain is developing new built heritage assessment protocols. The goal is to objectivize and standardize the analysis and decision process that leads to determining the degree of protection of built heritage in the Basque Country. The ultimate step in this objectivization and standardization effort will be the development of an information and communication technology (ICT tool for the assessment of built heritage. This paper presents the ground work carried out to make this tool possible: the automatic, image-based delineation of stone masonry. This is a necessary first step in the development of the tool, as the built heritage that will be assessed consists of stone masonry construction, and many of the features analyzed can be characterized according to the geometry and arrangement of the stones. Much of the assessment is carried out through visual inspection. Thus, this process will be automated by applying image processing on digital images of the elements under inspection. The principal contribution of this paper is the automatic delineation the framework proposed. The other contribution is the performance evaluation of this delineation as the input to a classifier for a geometrically characterized feature of a built heritage object. The element chosen to perform this evaluation is the stone arrangement of masonry walls. The validity of the proposed framework is assessed on real images of masonry walls.

  10. Adolescents' and young adults' physical activity related to built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cocca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to analyse physical activity (PA levels of high school and university students; to estimate their perception of built environment with regard to physical PA; and to assess the relation between PA and built environment. Methods. A sociological cross-sectional study with non-experimental design was applied. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Built Environment Characteristics Questionnaire were filled in by a sample of 1.862 students from high schools and the university in Granada, Spain. Results. High school students were significantly more active than university students, the latter reaching insufficient levels of PA. Nevertheless, they consider Granada as a good context for carrying out outdoor exercise. No relations were found between PA levels and built environment. Conclusion. The discrepant outcomes for PA levels and perceived built environment suggest the need of interventions focused on making youth aware of the possibilities that an environment provides to them for exercising. Consequently, environment could have an impact on their health at the same time as youth learn to respect it.

  11. Production and characterization of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 micron thin silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H.G; Nisius, R; Richter, R.H; Terzo, S; Weigell, P

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. T...

  12. Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tunability, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at ...

  13. Measuring the food and built environments in urban centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomerleau, Joceline; Knai, Cecile; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The authors designed an instrument to measure objectively aspects of the built and food environments in urban areas, the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire, within the EU-funded project ‘Tackling the social and economic determinants of nutrition and physical activity for the prevention...... of obesity across Europe’ (EURO-PREVOB). This paper describes its development, reliability, validity, feasibility and relevance to public health and obesity research. Study design: The Community Questionnaire is designed to measure key aspects of the food and built environments in urban areas of varying...... levels of affluence or deprivation, within different countries. The questionnaire assesses (1) the food environment and (2) the built environment. Methods: Pilot tests of the EURO-PREVOB Community Questionnaire were conducted in five to 10 purposively sampled urban areas of different socio...

  14. Solder bond requirement for large, built-up, high-performance conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willig, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Some large built-up conductors fabricated for large superconducting magnets are designed to operate above the maximum recovery current. Because the stability of these conductors is sensitive to the quality of the solder bond joining the composite superconductor to the high-conductivity substrate, a minimum bond requirement is necessary. The present analysis finds that the superconductor is unstable and becomes abruptly resistive when there are temperature excursions into the current sharing region of a poorly bonded conductor. This abrupt transition, produces eddy current heating in the vicinity of the superconducting filaments and causes a sharp reduction in the minimum propagating zone (MPZ) energy. This sensitivity of the MPZ energy to the solder bond contact area is used to specify a minimum bond requirement. For the superconducting MHD magnet built for the Component Development Integration Facility (CDIF), the minimum bonded surface area is .68 cm/sup 2//cm which is 44% of the composite perimeter. 5 refs

  15. The microbiome of the built environment and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoisington, Andrew J; Brenner, Lisa A; Kinney, Kerry A; Postolache, Teodor T; Lowry, Christopher A

    2015-12-17

    The microbiome of the built environment (MoBE) is a relatively new area of study. While some knowledge has been gained regarding impacts of the MoBE on the human microbiome and disease vulnerability, there is little knowledge of the impacts of the MoBE on mental health. Depending on the specific microbial species involved, the transfer of microorganisms from the built environment to occupant's cutaneous or mucosal membranes has the potential to increase or disrupt immunoregulation and/or exaggerate or suppress inflammation. Preclinical evidence highlighting the influence of the microbiota on systemic inflammation supports the assertion that microorganisms, including those originating from the built environment, have the potential to either increase or decrease the risk of inflammation-induced psychiatric conditions and their symptom severity. With advanced understanding of both the ecology of the built environment, and its influence on the human microbiome, it may be possible to develop bioinformed strategies for management of the built environment to promote mental health. Here we present a brief summary of microbiome research in both areas and highlight two interdependencies including the following: (1) effects of the MoBE on the human microbiome and (2) potential opportunities for manipulation of the MoBE in order to improve mental health. In addition, we propose future research directions including strategies for assessment of changes in the microbiome of common areas of built environments shared by multiple human occupants, and associated cohort-level changes in the mental health of those who spend time in the buildings. Overall, our understanding of the fields of both the MoBE and influence of host-associated microorganisms on mental health are advancing at a rapid pace and, if linked, could offer considerable benefit to health and wellness.

  16. Product integration of compact roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules: methods and manufacture using flexographic printing, slot-die coating and rotary screen printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Fyenbo, Jan; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    The improvement of the performance of roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules through miniaturization of the device outline is described. The devices were prepared using full roll-to-roll processing comprising flexographic printing, slot-die coating and rotary screen printing to create ......HT:[70]PCBM. The solar cell modules were used to demonstrate the complete manufacture of a small lamp entirely using techniques of flexible electronics. The solar cell module was used to charge a polymer lithium ion battery through a blocking diode. The entire process was fully automated...

  17. Scintillation counter and wire chamber front end modules for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, Boris; DalMonte, Lou

    2011-01-01

    This document describes two front-end modules developed for the proposed MIPP upgrade (P-960) experiment at Fermilab. The scintillation counter module was developed for the Plastic Ball detector time and charge measurements. The module has eight LEMO 00 input connectors terminated with 50 ohms and accepts negative photomultiplier signals in the range 0.25...1000 pC with the maximum input voltage of 4.0 V. Each input has a passive splitter with integration and differentiation times of ∼20 ns. The integrated portion of the signal is digitized at 26.55 MHz by Analog Devices AD9229 12-bit pipelined 4-channel ADC. The differentiated signal is discriminated for time measurement and sent to one of the four TMC304 inputs. The 4-channel TMC304 chip allows high precision time measurement of rising and falling edges with ∼100 ps resolution and has internal digital pipeline. The ADC data is also pipelined which allows deadtime-less operation with trigger decision times of ∼4 (micro)s. The wire chamber module was developed for MIPP EMCal detector charge measurements. The 32-channel digitizer accepts differential analog signals from four 8-channel integrating wire amplifiers. The connection between wire amplifier and digitizer is provided via 26-wire twist-n-flat cable. The wire amplifier integrates input wire current and has sensitivity of 275 mV/pC and the noise level of ∼0.013 pC. The digitizer uses the same 12-bit AD9229 ADC chip as the scintillator counter module. The wire amplifier has a built-in test pulser with a mask register to provide testing of the individual channels. Both modules are implemented as a 6Ux220 mm VME size board with 48-pin power connector. A custom europack (VME) 21-slot crate is developed for housing these front-end modules.

  18. Feasibility of photovoltaic: thermoelectric hybrid modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules suffers from elevated temperatures. Conversion efficiency losses of up to about 25% can result, depending on the type of integration of the modules in the roof. Cooling of modules would therefore enhance annual PV performance. Instead of module

  19. Process-Based Cost Modeling of Photonics Manufacture: The Cost Competitiveness of Monolithic Integration of a 1550-nm DFB Laser and an Electroabsorptive Modulator on an InP Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Bruce, E. J.; Ram, R. J.; Kirchain, Randolph E.

    2006-08-01

    The monolithic integration of components holds promise to increase network functionality and reduce packaging expense. Integration also drives down yield due to manufacturing complexity and the compounding of failures across devices. Consensus is lacking on the economically preferred extent of integration. Previous studies on the cost feasibility of integration have used high-level estimation methods. This study instead focuses on accurate-to-industry detail, basing a process-based cost model of device manufacture on data collected from 20 firms across the optoelectronics supply chain. The model presented allows for the definition of process organization, including testing, as well as processing conditions, operational characteristics, and level of automation at each step. This study focuses on the cost implications of integration of a 1550-nm DFB laser with an electroabsorptive modulator on an InP platform. Results show the monolithically integrated design to be more cost competitive over discrete component options regardless of production scale. Dominant cost drivers are packaging, testing, and assembly. Leveraging the technical detail underlying model projections, component alignment, bonding, and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are identified as processes where technical improvements are most critical to lowering costs. Such results should encourage exploration of the cost advantages of further integration and focus cost-driven technology development.

  20. Smart use of storage potentials of electric vehicles for renewable energy generation in the built environment : A design scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Timmeren, A.; Bauer, T.C.; Silvester, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of use of electrical vehicles for energy storage (of renewable sources), their integration in the built environment and attached required power and charging systems for the Netherlands. This was done as part of the DIEMIGO project on