WorldWideScience

Sample records for integration costs separating

  1. Brain Network Analysis: Separating Cost from Topology Using Cost-Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestet, Cedric E.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Bullmore, Ed T.; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i) differences in weighted costs and (ii) differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration. PMID:21829437

  2. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric E Ginestet

    Full Text Available A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i differences in weighted costs and (ii differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  3. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  4. Separations and safeguards model integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Research and development of advanced reprocessing plant designs can greatly benefit from the development of a reprocessing plant model capable of transient solvent extraction chemistry. This type of model can be used to optimize the operations of a plant as well as the designs for safeguards, security, and safety. Previous work has integrated a transient solvent extraction simulation module, based on the Solvent Extraction Process Having Interaction Solutes (SEPHIS) code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The goal of this work was to strengthen the integration by linking more variables between the two codes. The results from this integrated model show expected operational performance through plant transients. Additionally, ORIGEN source term files were integrated into the SSPM to provide concentrations, radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and thermal power data for various spent fuels. This data was used to generate measurement blocks that can determine the radioactivity, neutron emission rate, or thermal power of any stream or vessel in the plant model. This work examined how the code could be expanded to integrate other separation steps and benchmark the results to other data. Recommendations for future work will be presented.

  5. The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.L.; Gephart, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESPIP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The ESPIP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESPIP supports applied R ampersand D leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Examples of current ESPIP-funded separations technologies are described here

  6. Cost reduction through system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsing, P.

    1994-01-01

    In resent years cost reduction has been a key issue in the petroleum industry. Several findings are not economically attractive at the current cost level, and for this and other reasons some of the major oil companies require the suppliers to have implemented a cost reduction programme to prequalify for projects. The present paper addresses cost reduction through system design and integration in both product development and working methods. This is to be obtained by the combination of contracts by reducing unnecessary coordination and allow re-use of proven interface designs, improve subsystem integration by ''top down'' system design, and improve communication and exchange of experience. 3 figs

  7. Cost, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integrated family planning and HIV services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Starley B; Kevany, Sebastian; Onono, Maricianah; Ochieng, George; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J; Blat, Cinthia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integration of family planning into HIV services. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics. A cluster-randomized trial. Twelve health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya were randomized to integrate family planning into HIV care and treatment; six health facilities were randomized to (nonintegrated) standard-of-care with separately delivered family planning and HIV services. We assessed costs, cost-efficiency (cost per additional use of more effective family planning), and cost-effectiveness (cost per pregnancy averted) associated with the first year of integration of family planning into HIV care. More effective family planning methods included oral and injectable contraceptives, subdermal implants, intrauterine device, and female and male sterilization. We collected cost data through interviews with study staff and review of financial records to determine costs of service integration. Integration of services was associated with an average marginal cost of $841 per site and $48 per female patient. Average overall and marginal costs of integration were associated with personnel costs [initial ($1003 vs. $872) and refresher ($498 vs. $330) training, mentoring ($1175 vs. $902) and supervision ($1694 vs. $1636)], with fewer resources required for other fixed ($18 vs. $0) and recurring expenses ($471 vs. $287). Integration was associated with a marginal cost of $65 for each additional use of more effective family planning and $1368 for each pregnancy averted. Integration of family planning and HIV services is feasible, inexpensive to implement, and cost-efficient in the Kenyan setting, and thus supports current Kenyan integration policy.

  8. Regional integrated system of separated collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markuskova, I.

    2008-01-01

    Since 2002 Palarikovo manages and ensures Regional integrated system of separated collection. In the present time 28 villages of the region are associated in Association of villages for sustainable treatment of municipal wastes with settlement in Palarikovo. In accordance with hierarchy of goals of national strategy in the field of treatment of municipal wastes the key aims of activity are centred on economical and sustainable treatment of municipal wastes, which consist in reduction of quantity and harmfulness of municipal wastes by destruction by unloading or combustion. The steps for achievement of this aim consist in (1) prevention of formation of wastes, (2) using of usable subjects (establishing of centre for repeated using in Regional collecting court), (3) by rigorous realisation of recycling program - by collection of separated commodities with a view to mainly material recycling as well as composting program. By starting of integrated regional system of separated collection were integrated 18 villages with 24,000 inhabitants into common separated collection. In the present time this association has 28 members (villages of the region) with total population 55,904. Operating of the Regional integrated system of separated collection in Palarikovo is reviewed

  9. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  10. A novel bio-electrochemical system with sand/activated carbon separator, Al anode and bio-anode integrated micro-electrolysis/electro-flocculation cost effectively treated high load wastewater with energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changfei; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin

    2018-02-01

    A novel bio-electrochemical system (BES) was developed by integrating micro-electrolysis/electro-flocculation from attaching a sacrificing Al anode to the bio-anode, it effectively treated high load wastewater with energy recovery (maximum power density of 365.1 mW/m 3 and a maximum cell voltage of 0.97 V), and achieving high removals of COD (>99.4%), NH 4 + -N (>98.7%) and TP (>98.6%). The anode chamber contains microbes, activated carbon (AC)/graphite granules and Al anode. It was separated from the cathode chamber containing bifunctional catalytic and filtration membrane cathode (loaded with Fe/Mn/C/F/O catalyst) by a multi-medium chamber (MMC) filled with manganese sand and activated carbon granules, which replaced expensive PEM and reduced cost. An air contact oxidation bed for aeration was still adopted before liquid entering the cathode chamber. micro-electrolysis/electro-flocculation helps in achieving high removal efficiencies and contributes to membrane fouling migration. The increase of activated carbon in the separator MMC increased power generation and reduced system electric resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  12. Development of an integrated crucible for the salt separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Pyroprocessing has been developed for the recovery of actinide elements from spent fuel due to its advantages. Electrorefining is a key step in pyroprocessing. The electrorefining process is generally composed of two recovery steps. The deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode and the recovery of the remaining uranium and TRU elements simultaneously by a liquid cadmium cathode. The solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. A physical separation process, such as distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode process sing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while non volatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system due to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in electro-refiner. Therefore, wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. In this study, the integrated salt separation system was developed to increase the throughput of the salt removal process by the separation of the liquid salt prior to the distillation of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the uranium deposits

  13. RESTRUCTURING INDONESIAN RAILWAY – INTEGRATION OR SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utut Widyanto

    2013-05-01

    The study found that the separation model is still the best approach for restructuring Indonesian railway but if looking at the Indonesian railway current condition with its problem of backlog assets it would be better that the separation approach is used in the development of railway in other islands. Keywords: Restructuration, separation, funds, operator.

  14. The Heerlen confluence : porosity, integration and separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnamurthy, Sukanya; Reijnders, Daniek; van Gorkom, Joost; van Tetering, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    Historically the river Rhine and the Meuse have acted not just as frontiers of separation between Germany to the east with Belgium and the Netherlands to the west, but over the centuries has also developed into a core-region of central Europe. The spatial, cultural and political landscape of where

  15. Application of integral-separated PID algorithm in orbit feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan, K.; Bao, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Liu, G.; Wang, J.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    The algorithm in the feedback system has important influence on the performance of the beam orbit. PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) algorithm is widely used in the beam orbit feedback system; however, the deficiency of PID algorithm is a big overshooting in strong perturbations. In order to overcome the deficiencies, the integral-separated PID algorithm is developed. When the closed orbit distortion is too large, it cancels integration action until the closed orbit distortion is lower than the separation threshold value. The implementation of integral-separated PID algorithm with MATLAB is described in this paper. The simulation results show that this algorithm can improve the control precision. (authors)

  16. Integrated acoustic and magnetic separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Jonathan; Thevoz, Patrick; Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    With a growing number of cell-based biotechnological applications, there is a need for particle separation systems capable of multiparameter separations at high purity and throughput, beyond what is presently offered by traditional methods including fluorescence activated cell sorting and column......-based magnetic separation. Toward this aim, we report on the integration of microfluidic acoustic and magnetic separation in a monolithic device for multiparameter particle separation. Using our device, we demonstrate high-purity separation of a multicomponent particle mixture at a throughput of up to 10...

  17. Peace Through Integration or Peace Through Separation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    to the different groups by creating homogeneous federal units will mediate political conflict and prevent secession by reducing discrimination of minorities. Integrationists reject this idea, claiming that integration in form of heterogeneous federal units promotes tolerance and thereby peace. This study sheds...... light on the debate by comparing India’s federal states, which differ in their levels of religious heterogeneity. The results of the quantitative analysis indicate that religiously homogeneous federal units have higher levels of interreligious tolerance than heterogeneous units, lending support...

  18. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-20

    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level.

  19. Graphene based integrated tandem supercapacitors fabricated directly on separators

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    It is of great importance to fabricate integrated supercapacitors with extended operation voltages as high energy density storage devices. In this work, we develop a novel direct electrode deposition on separator (DEDS) process to fabricate graphene

  20. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Gregory B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This research presents a systematic approach to evaluating the costs of integrating new generation and operational procedures into an existing power system, and the methodology is independent of the type of change or nature of the generation. The work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to investigate three integration cost-related questions: (1) How does the addition of new generation affect a system's operational costs, (2) How do generation mix and operating parameters and procedures affect costs, and (3) How does the amount of variable generation (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the accuracy of natural gas orders? A detailed operational analysis was performed for seven sets of experiments: variable generation, large conventional generation, generation mix, gas prices, fast-start generation, self-scheduling, and gas supply constraints. For each experiment, four components of integration costs were examined: cycling costs, non-cycling VO&M costs, fuel costs, and reserves provisioning costs. The investigation was conducted with PLEXOS production cost modeling software utilizing an updated version of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 118-bus test system overlaid with projected operating loads from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Puget Sound Energy, and Public Service Colorado in the year 2020. The test system was selected in consultation with an industry-based technical review committee to be a reasonable approximation of an interconnection yet small enough to allow the research team to investigate a large number of scenarios and sensitivity combinations. The research should prove useful to market designers, regulators, utilities, and others who want to better understand how system changes can affect production costs.

  1. Structural integration of separation and reaction systems: I. Integration of stage-wise processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural integration of separation processes, using multifunctional equipment, has been studied on four stage-wise liquid-liquid separations extraction, absorption, distillation, adsorption and on some combinations of these processes. It was shown for stage - wise processes that the ultimate aim of equipment integration is 3-way integration (by components by steps and by stages and that membrane multiphase contactors present concerning the equipment optimal solutions in many cases. First, by using partially integrated equipment and, later by developing fully integrated systems it was experimentally confirmed that structural 3-way integration produces much higher degrees of component separations and component enrichments in compact and safe equipment.

  2. Graphene based integrated tandem supercapacitors fabricated directly on separators

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2015-04-09

    It is of great importance to fabricate integrated supercapacitors with extended operation voltages as high energy density storage devices. In this work, we develop a novel direct electrode deposition on separator (DEDS) process to fabricate graphene based integrated tandem supercapacitors for the first time. The DEDS process generates compact graphene-polyaniline electrodes directly on the separators to form integrated supercapacitors. The integrated graphene-polyaniline tandem supercapacitors demonstrate ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 52.5 Wh L^(−1) at power density of 6037 W L^(−1) and excellent gravimetric energy density of 26.1 Wh kg^(−1) at power density of 3002 W kg^(−1) with outstanding electrochemical stability for over 10000 cycles. This study show great promises for the future development of integrated energy storage devices.

  3. Assessment of parameters of gas centrifuge and separation cascade basing on integral characteristics of separation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisevich, Valentin, E-mail: VDBorisevich@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Borshchevskiy, Michael, E-mail: Michael_mephi@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Andronov, Igor, E-mail: andronov@imp.kiae.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Senchenkov, Sergey, E-mail: senchenkov@imp.kiae.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed the calculation method to assess a feed flow rate into a gas centrifuge. • It is based on the knowledge of the integral characteristics of a separation plant. • Our method is verified by comparison with the results of the independent one. • The method also allows to specify other features of the separation cascade work. - Abstract: A calculation technique to assess a feed flow rate into a single GC, a total number of centrifuges in a separation cascade and to determine its likely configurations basing on the known integral characteristics of a centrifugal plant is developed. Evaluation of characteristics of the industrial gas centrifuge TC-12 and separation cascades of the NEF plant performed by two independent calculation techniques demonstrates their satisfactory agreement. This methodology would help to some extent the nuclear inspectors in evaluating and assessing the capability of an enrichment facility, and discovering any use for undeclared purposes.

  4. Total site integration of light hydrocarbons separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyev, L.; Vasilyev, M.; Maatouk, A.; Duic, Neven; Khusanovc, Alisher

    2016-01-01

    Ukraine is the largest consumer of hydrocarbons per unit of production in Europe (Ukraine policy review, 2006). The most important point is a reduction of energy consumption in chemical and metallurgical industries as a biggest consumer. This paper deals with energy savings potential of light hydrocarbons separation process. Energy consumption of light hydrocarbons separation process processes typical of Eastern European countries were analysed. Process Integration (PI) was used to perform a ...

  5. A monolithically fabricated gas chromatography separation column with an integrated high sensitivity thermal conductivity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaanta, Bradley C; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Hua

    2010-01-01

    The monolithic integration of a high sensitivity detector with a gas chromatography (GC) separation column creates many potential advantages over the discrete components of a traditional chromatography system. In miniaturized high-speed GC systems, component interconnections can cause crucial errors and loss of fidelity during detection and analysis. A monolithically integrated device would eliminate the need to create helium-tight interconnections, which are bulky and labor intensive. Additionally, batch fabrication of integrated devices that no longer require expensive and fragile detectors can decrease the cost of micro GC systems through economies of scale. We present the design, fabrication and operation of a monolithic GC separation column and detector. Our device is able to separate nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide within 30 s. This method of device integration could be applied to the existing wealth of column geometries and chemistries designed for specialized applications.

  6. Improved, low cost inorganic-organic separators for rechargeable silver-zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Several flexible, low-cost inorganic-organic separators with performance characteristics and cycle life equal to, or better than, the Lewis Research Center Astropower separator were developed. These new separators can be made on continuous-production equipment at about one-fourth the cost of the Astropower separator produced the same way. In test cells, these new separators demonstrate cycle life improvement, acceptable operating characteristics, and uniform current density. The various separator formulas, test cell construction, and data analysis are described.

  7. Salt Separation from Uranium Deposits in Integrated Crucible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Chang, J. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. A physical separation process, such as distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode processsing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while non-volatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system due to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in electro-refiner. Therefore, wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation.

  8. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used...... as carbon source and Ni was employed as catalyst. For electrokinetic separations, higher electrical field strength is usually required; therefore, the CNTs were constructed in pillar-array-form by patterning the catalyst layer. Electrical field strength of 2.0 kV/cm has been realized, which is more than one...

  9. Integral Engine Inlet Particle Separator. Volume 2. Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    herein will be used in the design of integral inlet particle separators for future Army aircraft gas turbine engines. Apprupriate technical personnel...into the comprensor at some future date. 5. A typical scavenge vane design Js; shown in Figures 85 and 86. The important features of the scavenge...service passageweys, for cooling of oil, and for directing sand and air into the scroll. Orientetion of the vanes is set by collection efficiency

  10. Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESP-IP): Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESPIP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE Complex. These wastes and environmental problems, located at more than 100 contaminated installations in 36 states and territories, are the result of half a century of nuclear processing activities by DOE and its predecessor organizations. The cost of cleaning up this legacy has been estimated to be of the order of hundreds of billions of dollars, and ESPIP's origin came with the realization that if new separations and processes can produce even a marginal reduction in cost then billions of dollars will be saved. The ultimate mission for ESPIP, as outlined in the ESPIP Strategic Plan, is: to provide Separations Technologies and Processes (STPS) to process and immobilize a wide spectrum of radioactive and hazardous defense wastes; to coordinate STP research and development efforts within DOE; to explore the potential uses of separated radionuclides; to transfer demonstrated separations and processing technologies developed by DOE to the US industrial sector, and to facilitate competitiveness of US technology and industry in the world market. Technology research and development currently under investigation by ESPIP can be divided into four broad areas: cesium and strontium removal; TRU and other HLW separations; sludge technology, and other technologies

  11. Separator-Integrated, Reversely Connectable Symmetric Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Jiren; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-02-24

    A separator-integrated, reversely connectable, symmetric lithium-ion battery is developed based on carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride-treated separators. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile solution route followed by calcination in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Sucrose solution is used as the carbon source for uniform carbon coating on the Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles. Both the carbon and the polyvinylidene fluoride treatments substantially improve the cycling life of the symmetric battery by preventing the dissolution and shuttle of the electroactive Li3V2(PO4)3. The obtained symmetric full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of ≈ 87 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability, and capacity retention of ≈ 70% after 70 cycles. In addition, this type of symmetric full cell can be operated in both forward and reverse connection modes, without any influence on the cycling of the battery. Furthermore, a new separator integration approach is demonstrated, which enables the direct deposition of electroactive materials for the battery assembly and does not affect the electrochemical performance. A 10-tandem-cell battery assembled without differentiating the electrode polarity exhibits a low thickness of ≈ 4.8 mm and a high output voltage of 20.8 V. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Cost analysis of lasers for a laser isotope separation system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mail, R.A.; Markovich, F.J.; Carr, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    To be of practical significance, laser isotope separation (LIS) for separation of 235 U from 238 U must exhibit attributes which make it preferable to expansion of the present facilities. Clearly the most attractive such attribute is the prospect of significant cost reductions, which preliminary studies at LLL suggest will amount to a factor of three and perhaps as much as ten. From these preliminary studies, it appears that the lasers themselves account for a very substantial portion of the capital cost of a LIS system, and a significant portion of the equipment replacement costs. Since the laser costs are so pivotal to the system cost, and the system cost is so pivotal to the choice of separation techniques, it is clear that a more detailed investigation of laser costs is required. Results are presented of a study performed by General Research Corporation (GRC) to assess the cost of lasers in a production laser isotope separation (LIS) plant

  13. Kinematic cross-correlation induces sensory integration across separate objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, Nienke B; Ernst, Marc O; Heuer, Herbert

    2017-12-01

    In a basic cursor-control task, the perceived positions of the hand and the cursor are biased towards each other. We recently found that this phenomenon conforms to the reliability-based weighting mechanism of optimal multisensory integration. This indicates that optimal integration is not restricted to sensory signals originating from a single source, as is the prevailing view, but that it also applies to separate objects that are connected by a kinematic relation (i.e. hand and cursor). In the current study, we examined which aspects of the kinematic relation are crucial for eliciting the sensory integration: (i) the cross-correlation between kinematic variables of the hand and cursor trajectories, and/or (ii) an internal model of the hand-cursor kinematic transformation. Participants made out-and-back movements from the centre of a semicircular workspace to its boundary, after which they judged the position where either their hand or the cursor hit the boundary. We analysed the position biases and found that the integration was strong in a condition with high kinematic correlations (a straight hand trajectory was mapped to a straight cursor trajectory), that it was significantly reduced for reduced kinematic correlations (a straight hand trajectory was transformed into a curved cursor trajectory) and that it was not affected by the inability to acquire an internal model of the kinematic transformation (i.e. by the trial-to-trial variability of the cursor curvature). These findings support the idea that correlations play a crucial role in multisensory integration irrespective of the number of sensory sources involved. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Costs of integrating economics and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arponen, Anni; Cabeza, Mar; Eklund, Johanna; Kujala, Heini; Lehtomäki, Joona

    2010-10-01

    Recent literature on systematic conservation planning has focused strongly on economics. It is a necessary component of efficient conservation planning because the question is about effective resource allocation. Nevertheless, there is an increasing tendency toward economic factors overriding biological considerations. Focusing too narrowly on economic cost may lead us back toward solutions resembling those obtained by opportunistic choice of areas, the avoidance of which was the motivation for development of systematic approaches. Moreover, there are many overlooked difficulties in incorporating economic considerations reliably into conservation planning because available economic data and the free market are complex. For instance, economies based on free markets tend to be shortsighted, whereas biodiversity conservation aims far into the future. Although economic data are necessary, they should not be relied on too heavily or considered separately from other sociopolitical factors. We suggest focusing on development of more-comprehensive ecological-economic modeling, while not forgetting the importance of purely biological analyses that are needed as a point of reference for evaluating conservation outcomes. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Low cost bipolar current collector-separator for electrochemical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.

    1980-01-01

    A bipolar current collecting, cell separating element for electrochemical cells for conducting current from the anode electrode of one cell unit to cathode electrode of the adjacent cell unit comprises: (A) a pressure mold aggregate of electrically conductive carbon/graphite particles and thermoplastic fluorocarbon polymer resin particles in a weight ratio of 2.5:1 to 16:1 whereby said molded aggregated has a bulk resistivity which is less than 4x10 -3 ohm/inch, (B) said molded aggregate having a fluid imprevious main body, at least one recessed chamber on one side of said main body and a plurality of spaced, conductive projections extending from the base of said chamber for contacting and permitting current flow between the electrode of adjacent cell unit, and (C) means communicating with said recessed chambers to permit introduction and removal of fluids

  16. WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION; A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Jerry Meldon; Xiaomei Qi

    2001-01-01

    Optimization of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction system for hydrogen production for fuel cells is of particular interest to the energy industry. To this end, it is desirable to couple the WGS reaction to hydrogen separation using a semi-permeable membrane, with both processes carried out at high temperature to improve reaction kinetics. Reduced equilibrium conversion of the WGS reaction at high temperatures is overcome by product H(sub 2) removal via the membrane. This project involves fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H(sub 2)-separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams will be examined in the project. In the first year of the project, we prepared a series of nanostructured Cu- and Fe-containing ceria catalysts by a special gelation/precipitation technique followed by air calcination at 650 C. Each sample was characterized by ICP for elemental composition analysis, BET-N2 desorption for surface area measurement, and by temperature-programmed reduction in H(sub 2) to evaluate catalyst reducibility. Screening WGS tests with catalyst powders were conducted in a flow microreactor at temperatures in the range of 200-550 C. On the basis of both activity and stability of catalysts in simulated coal gas, and in CO(sub 2)-rich gases, a Cu-CeO(sub 2) catalyst formulation was selected for further study in this project. Details from the catalyst development and testing work are given in this report. Also in this report, we present H(sub 2) permeation data collected with unsupported flat membranes of pure Pd and Pd-alloys over a wide temperature window

  17. Cesium separation using integrated electro-membrane technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fors, Patrik; Lillfors-Pintér, Christina; Widestrand, Henrik; Velin, Anna; Bengtsson, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Conventional separation technologies such as ion exchange, electro-deionisation and cross flow filtration are not always effective to eliminate nuclides, which are weekly ionised, complexed or hydrated in effluents. Specific nuclide selective absorbers perform well for the treatment of active and contaminated wastewaters but most absorbers generate additional waste while treating high volumes of contaminated water and often show limitations in operating at high flow rates. Electrochemical Ion Exchange (EIX) and EIX in combination with absorbers may offer an alternative solution that overcomes those limitations. This paper reports on the optimization and performance of the integrated technique EIX, for the treatment of low activity effluents that contain cesium and other nuclides. The three-compartment EIX system, which operates with authentic reactor coolant with enhanced nuclide content, indicates high, over 90%, elimination of cesium in a single pass operation mode. With the in-situ and instant ion exchange regeneration, the system successfully reduces the activity from an initial range of 400-2600 Bq/kg to close to detection limit at a velocity of 10-15 cm/min. The applied current density varies between 50-200 mA/cm 2 and the mass balance is close to 100%. During the process, the eliminated cesium and other nuclides are concentrated up to the limits where reverse migration from the concentrated chamber occurs. The concentrate could then be treated with specific absorbents at low flow rates. EIX in combination with cesium-selective ion exchanger CsTreat ® separates the cesium-137 efficiently, but up to now the process does not perform according to EIX principles for the treatment of low grade radioactive wastewaters it rather performs as an irreversible adsorber. The aim with the outcome of the presently ongoing long-term tests is to further support the Best Available Technique Minimizing All Nuclide (BATMAN) projects of Vattenfall NPPs. (author)

  18. Integrated analysis considered mitigation cost, damage cost and adaptation cost in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Kim, H. G.; Sung, S.; Jung, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Various studies show that raising the temperature as well as storms, cold snap, raining and drought caused by climate change. And variety disasters have had a damage to mankind. The world risk report(2012, The Nature Conservancy) and UNU-EHS (the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security) reported that more and more people are exposed to abnormal weather such as floods, drought, earthquakes, typhoons and hurricanes over the world. In particular, the case of Korea, we influenced by various pollutants which are occurred in Northeast Asian countries, China and Japan, due to geographical meteorological characteristics. These contaminants have had a significant impact on air quality with the pollutants generated in Korea. Recently, around the world continued their effort to reduce greenhouse gas and to improve air quality in conjunction with the national or regional development goals priority. China is also working on various efforts in accordance with the international flows to cope with climate change and air pollution. In the future, effect of climate change and air quality in Korea and Northeast Asia will be change greatly according to China's growth and mitigation policies. The purpose of this study is to minimize the damage caused by climate change on the Korean peninsula through an integrated approach taking into account the mitigation and adaptation plan. This study will suggest a climate change strategy at the national level by means of a comprehensive economic analysis of the impacts and mitigation of climate change. In order to quantify the impact and damage cost caused by climate change scenarios in a regional scale, it should be priority variables selected in accordance with impact assessment of climate change. The sectoral impact assessment was carried out on the basis of selected variables and through this, to derive the methodology how to estimate damage cost and adaptation cost. And then, the methodology was applied in Korea

  19. Processing bimodal stimuli: Integrality/separability of colour and orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBimler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined how two distinct stimulus features, orientation and colour, interact as contributions to global stimulus dissimilarity. Five subjects rated dissimilarity between pairs of bars (N = 30 varying in colour (four cardinal hues, plus white and orientation (six angles at 30° intervals. An exploratory analysis with individual-differences multidimensional scaling resulted in a 5D solution, with two dimensions required to accommodate the circular sequence of the angular attribute, and red-green, blue-yellow and achromatic axes for the colour attribute. Weights of the orientation subspace relative to the colour subspace varied among the subjects, from a 0.32:0.61 ratio to 0.53:0.44, emphasis shifting between colour and orientation. In addition to Euclidean metric, we modelled the interaction of colour and orientation using Minkowski power metrics across a range of Minkowski exponents p, including the city-block (p = 1, Euclidean (p = 2 and Dominance metric (p à ¥ as special cases. For averaged data, p ~ 1.3 provided the best fit, i.e. intermediate between separable and integral features. For individual subjects, however, the metric exponent varied significantly from p = 0.7 to p = 3.1, indicating a subject-specific rule for combining colour and orientation, as in Tversky and Gati’s variable-weights model. No relationship was apparent between dimensional weights and individual p exponents. Factors affecting dimensional integrality are discussed, including possible underlying neural mechanisms where the interaction of the low-level vision attributes orientation and colour might shift between uncorrelated (p =1 or correlated (p ³ 2 forms.

  20. Integrated modeling of software cost and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rone, K.Y.; Olson, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    In modeling the cost and quality of software systems, the relationship between cost and quality must be considered. This explicit relationship is dictated by the criticality of the software being developed. The balance between cost and quality is a viable software engineering trade-off throughout the life cycle. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate the cost and quality of software systems is essential to providing reliable software on time and within budget. Software cost models relate the product error rate to the percent of the project labor that is required for independent verification and validation. The criticality of the software determines which cost model is used to estimate the labor required to develop the software. Software quality models yield an expected error discovery rate based on the software size, criticality, software development environment, and the level of competence of the project and the developers with respect to the processes being employed

  1. Overview of NREL Distribution Grid Integration Cost Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ding, Fei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    This presentation was given at the 2017 NREL Workshop 'Benchmarking Distribution Grid Integration Costs Under High Distributed PV Penetrations.' It provides a brief overview of recent and ongoing NREL work on distribution system grid integration costs, as well as challenges and needs from the community.

  2. Design methodology for integrated downstream separation systems in an ethanol biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh Rohani, Navid

    and obtaining energy security. On the other hand, Process Integration (PI) as defined by Natural Resource Canada as the combination of activities which aim at improving process systems, their unit operations and their interactions in order to maximize the efficiency of using water, energy and raw materials can also help biorefineries lower their energy consumptions and improve their economics. Energy integration techniques such as pinch analysis adopted by different industries over the years have ensured using heat sources within a plant to supply the demand internally and decrease the external utility consumption. Therefore, adopting energy integration can be one of the ways biorefinery technology owners can consider in their process development as well as their business model in order to improve their overall economics. The objective of this thesis is to propose a methodology for designing integrated downstream separation in a biorefinery. This methodology is tested in an ethanol biorefinery case study. Several alternative separation techniques are evaluated in their energy consumption and economics in three different scenarios; stand-alone without energy integration, stand-alone with internal energy integration and integrated-with Kraft. The energy consumptions and capital costs of separation techniques are assessed in each scenario and the cost and benefit of integration are determined and finally the best alternative is found through techno-economic metrics. Another advantage of this methodology is the use of a graphical tool which provides insights on decreasing energy consumption by modifying the process condition. The pivot point of this work is the use of a novel energy integration method called Bridge analysis. This systematic method which originally is intended for retrofit situation is used here for integration with Kraft process. Integration potentials are identified through this method and savings are presented for each design. In stand-alone with

  3. Full cost accounting in the analysis of separated waste collection efficiency: A methodological proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onza, Giuseppe; Greco, Giulio; Allegrini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Recycling implies additional costs for separated municipal solid waste (MSW) collection. The aim of the present study is to propose and implement a management tool - the full cost accounting (FCA) method - to calculate the full collection costs of different types of waste. Our analysis aims for a better understanding of the difficulties of putting FCA into practice in the MSW sector. We propose a FCA methodology that uses standard cost and actual quantities to calculate the collection costs of separate and undifferentiated waste. Our methodology allows cost efficiency analysis and benchmarking, overcoming problems related to firm-specific accounting choices, earnings management policies and purchase policies. Our methodology allows benchmarking and variance analysis that can be used to identify the causes of off-standards performance and guide managers to deploy resources more efficiently. Our methodology can be implemented by companies lacking a sophisticated management accounting system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  5. Cost benefit analysis of power plant database integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, B.E.; Cimento, A.; Stuart, R.

    1988-01-01

    A cost benefit analysis of plant wide data integration allows utility management to evaluate integration and automation benefits from an economic perspective. With this evaluation, the utility can determine both the quantitative and qualitative savings that can be expected from data integration. The cost benefit analysis is then a planning tool which helps the utility to develop a focused long term implementation strategy that will yield significant near term benefits. This paper presents a flexible cost benefit analysis methodology which is both simple to use and yields accurate, verifiable results. Included in this paper is a list of parameters to consider, a procedure for performing the cost savings analysis, and samples of this procedure when applied to a utility. A case study is presented involving a specific utility where this procedure was applied. Their uses of the cost-benefit analysis are also described

  6. The costs and cost-effectiveness of an integrated sepsis treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmor, Daniel; Greenberg, Dan; Howell, Michael D; Lisbon, Alan; Novack, Victor; Shapiro, Nathan

    2008-04-01

    Sepsis is associated with high mortality and treatment costs. International guidelines recommend the implementation of integrated sepsis protocols; however, the true cost and cost-effectiveness of these are unknown. To assess the cost-effectiveness of an integrated sepsis protocol, as compared with conventional care. Prospective cohort study of consecutive patients presenting with septic shock and enrolled in the institution's integrated sepsis protocol. Clinical and economic outcomes were compared with a historical control cohort. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Overall, 79 patients presenting to the emergency department with septic shock in the treatment cohort and 51 patients in the control group. An integrated sepsis treatment protocol incorporating empirical antibiotics, early goal-directed therapy, intensive insulin therapy, lung-protective ventilation, and consideration for drotrecogin alfa and steroid therapy. In-hospital treatment costs were collected using the hospital's detailed accounting system. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of the healthcare system using a lifetime horizon. The primary end point for the cost-effectiveness analysis was the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Mortality in the treatment group was 20.3% vs. 29.4% in the control group (p = .23). Implementing an integrated sepsis protocol resulted in a mean increase in cost of approximately $8,800 per patient, largely driven by increased intensive care unit length of stay. Life expectancy and quality-adjusted life years were higher in the treatment group; 0.78 and 0.54, respectively. The protocol was associated with an incremental cost of $11,274 per life-year saved and a cost of $16,309 per quality-adjusted life year gained. In patients with septic shock, an integrated sepsis protocol, although not cost-saving, appears to be cost-effective and compares very favorably to other commonly delivered acute care interventions.

  7. Towards a flexible service integration through separation of business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asuncion, C.H.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2010-01-01

    Driven by dynamic market demands, enterprises are continuously exploring collaborations with others to add value to their services and seize new market opportunities. Achieving enterprise collaboration is facilitated by Enterprise Application Integration and Business-to-Business approaches that

  8. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2013-01-01

    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.

  9. Separationintegration – and now …? - An historical perspective on the relationship between German management accounting and financial accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Brandau, M.; Endenich, C.; Luther, R.; Trapp, R.

    2017-01-01

    German accounting has traditionally followed a dual ledger approach with strictly separated internal cost accounting, as the basis for management information, and external financial accounting focusing on creditor protection and based on the commercial law. However, the increased adoption of integrated accounting system implies a significant change in the relationship between financial and management accounting systems. We use Hegelian dialectic to trace the historical development of German a...

  10. Low Cost Integrated Navigation System for Unmanned Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changsong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large errors of low-cost MEMS inertial measurement unit (MIMU lead to huge navigation errors, even wrong navigation information. An integrated navigation system for unmanned vessel is proposed. It consists of a low-cost MIMU and Doppler velocity sonar (DVS. This paper presents an integrated navigation method, to improve the performance of navigation system. The integrated navigation system is tested using simulation and semi-physical simulation experiments, whose results show that attitude, velocity and position accuracy has improved awfully, giving exactly accurate navigation results. By means of the combination of low-cost MIMU and DVS, the proposed system is able to overcome fast drift problems of the low cost IMU.

  11. Continuous integration congestion cost allocation based on sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.Q.; Wang, Y.N.

    2004-01-01

    Congestion cost allocation is a very important topic in congestion management. Allocation methods based on the Aumann-Shapley value use the discrete numerical integration method, which needs to solve the incremented OPF solution many times, and as such it is not suitable for practical application to large-scale systems. The optimal solution and its sensitivity change tendency during congestion removal using a DC optimal power flow (OPF) process is analysed. A simple continuous integration method based on the sensitivity is proposed for the congestion cost allocation. The proposed sensitivity analysis method needs a smaller computation time than the method based on using the quadratic method and inner point iteration. The proposed congestion cost allocation method uses a continuous integration method rather than discrete numerical integration. The method does not need to solve the incremented OPF solutions; which allows it use in large-scale systems. The method can also be used for AC OPF congestion management. (author)

  12. Development of an integrated cost model for nuclear plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, G.; Roy, R.

    2003-01-01

    A need for an integrated cost estimating tool for nuclear decommissioning and associated waste processing and storage facilities for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) was defined during the authors recent MSc studies. In order to close the defined gap a prototype tool was developed using logically derived CER's and cost driver variables. The challenge in developing this was to be able to produce a model that could produce realistic cost estimates from the limited levels of historic cost data that was available for analysis. The model is an excel based tool supported by 3 point risk estimating output and is suitable for producing estimates for strategic or optional cost estimates (±30%) early in the conceptual stage of a decommissioning project. The model was validated using minimal numbers of case studies supported by expert opinion discussion. The model provides an enhanced approach for integrated decommissioning estimates which will be produced concurrently with strategic options analysis on a nuclear site

  13. Integrated waste management system costs in a MPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supko, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The impact on system costs of including a centralized interim storage facility as part of an integrated waste management system based on multi-purpose canister (MPC) technology was assessed in analyses by Energy Resources International, Inc. A system cost savings of $1 to $2 billion occurs if the Department of Energy begins spent fuel acceptance in 1998 at a centralized interim storage facility. That is, the savings associated with decreased utility spent fuel management costs will be greater than the cost of constructing and operating a centralized interim storage facility

  14. Integrating cost management and work management concepts for operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanditmars, C.

    1995-01-01

    Development of B C Gas Utility Limited's integrated work and cost management system was described, with emphasis on cost management without reliance on the financial systems, and standard costing and operational side benefits. The objectives of the system were identified as dynamic monitoring and control, and local empowerment. The concept underlying the two systems was explained in detail. In the case of the work management system the ability to manage all work in operations areas was stressed, along with its universal availability. Other benefits expected included improved resource utilization, improved productivity, better control of cost, improved revenue generation, superior customer service, a simplified financial system, and improved employee motivation through empowerment

  15. Minimizing Project Cost by Integrating Subcontractor Selection Decisions with Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, Sławomir; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Czarnigowska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    Subcontracting has been a worldwide practice in the construction industry. It enables the construction enterprises to focus on their core competences and, at the same time, it makes complex project possible to be delivered. Since general contractors bear full responsibility for the works carried out by their subcontractors, it is their task and their risk to select a right subcontractor for a particular work. Although subcontractor management has been admitted to significantly affect the construction project’s performance, current practices and past research deal with subcontractor management and scheduling separately. The proposed model aims to support subcontracting decisions by integrating subcontractor selection with scheduling to enable the general contractor to select the optimal combination of subcontractors and own crews for all work packages of the project. The model allows for the interactions between the subcontractors and their impacts on the overall project performance in terms of cost and, indirectly, time and quality. The model is intended to be used at the general contractor’s bid preparation stage. The authors claim that the subcontracting decisions should be taken in a two-stage process. The first stage is a prequalification - provision of a short list of capable and reliable subcontractors; this stage is not the focus of the paper. The resulting pool of available resources is divided into two subsets: subcontractors, and general contractor’s in-house crews. Once it has been defined, the next stage is to assign them to the work packages that, bound by fixed precedence constraints, form the project’s network diagram. Each package is possible to be delivered by the general contractor’s crew or some of the potential subcontractors, at a specific time and cost. Particular crews and subcontractors can be contracted more than one package, but not at the same time. Other constraints include the predefined project completion date (the project is

  16. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, S.; Putkaradze, V.; Bohr, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile as in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down...... an inclined plane we take a similar approach and derive a simple model in which the velocity profile is not restricted to a parabolic or self-similar form. Two types of solutions with large surface distortions are found: solitary, kink-like propagating fronts, obtained when the flow rate is suddenly changed......, and stationary jumps, obtained, for instance, behind a sluice gate. We then include time dependence in the model to study the stability of these waves. This allows us to distinguish between sub- and supercritical flows by calculating dispersion relations for wavelengths of the order of the width of the layer....

  17. Market Integration and Transport Costs in France 1825-1903

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    This article argues that the appropriate standard for the analysis of commodity market integration is the transport cost adjusted law of one price. A threshold error correction model that incorporates that property is developed and applied to French wheat prices in the 19th century. This type...... to equilibrium price differentials between markets. Unlike previous studies this article shows that French wheat markets were well integrated by the middle of the 19th century...... of modeling acknowledges the fact that error corrections only take place when price differentials between markets exceed transport costs. The method used produces estimates of implied transport costs, which are quite close to observed costs, and generates more accurate estimates of the adjustment speed...

  18. Integrated Lateral Flow Device for Flow Control with Blood Separation and Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Betancur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lateral flow devices are versatile and serve a wide variety of purposes, including medical, agricultural, environmental, and military applications. Yet, the most promising opportunities of these devices for diagnosis might reside in point-of-care (POC applications. Disposable paper-based lateral flow strips have been of particular interest, because they utilize low-cost materials and do not require expensive fabrication instruments. However, there are constraints on tuning flow rates and immunoassays functionalization in papers, as well as technical challenges in sensors’ integration and concentration units for low-abundant molecular detection. In the present work, we demonstrated an integrated lateral flow device that applied the capillary forces with functionalized polymer-based microfluidics as a strategy to realize a portable, simplified, and self-powered lateral flow device (LFD. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS surface was rendered hydrophilic via functionalization with different concentrations of Pluronic F127. Controlled flow is a key variable for immunoassay-based applications for providing enough time for protein binding to antibodies. The flow rate of the integrated LFD was regulated by the combination of multiple factors, including Pluronic F127 functionalized surface properties and surface treatments of microchannels, resistance of the integrated flow resistor, the dimensions of the microstructures and the spacing between them in the capillary pump, the contact angles, and viscosity of the fluids. Various plasma flow rates were regulated and achieved in the whole device. The LFD combined the ability to separate high quality plasma from human whole blood by using a highly asymmetric plasma separation membrane, and created controlled and steady fluid flow using capillary forces produced by the interfacial tensions. Biomarker immunoglobulin G (IgG detection from plasma was demonstrated with a graphene nanoelectronic sensor integrated

  19. Currency Integration under Labor Mobility: when Cost is incurred

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimi, Taiyo

    2014-01-01

    We assess whether renouncing monetary policy autonomy becomes a cost of currency integration under labor mobility in the framework of the New Open Economy Macroeconomics. Assuming Nash equilibrium among central banks of candidate countries, we find that the forfeiture of monetary policy autonomy becomes a cost when country-specific total factor productivity shocks hit them, labor input weights differ between candidate countries, and country specific shocks on marginal disutility of labor occu...

  20. Functionalized Nanocellulose-Integrated Heterolayered Nanomats toward Smart Battery Separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Gu, Minsu; Lee, Do Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Oh, Yeon-Su; Min, Sa Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Su; Lee, Sang-Young

    2016-09-14

    Alternative materials obtained from natural resources have recently garnered considerable attention as an innovative solution to bring unprecedented advances in various energy storage systems. Here, we present a new class of heterolayered nanomat-based hierarchical/asymmetric porous membrane with synergistically coupled chemical activity as a nanocellulose-mediated green material strategy to develop smart battery separator membranes far beyond their current state-of-the-art counterparts. This membrane consists of a terpyridine (TPY)-functionalized cellulose nanofibril (CNF) nanoporous thin mat as the top layer and an electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) macroporous thick mat as the support layer. The hierarchical/asymmetric porous structure of the heterolayered nanomat is rationally designed with consideration of the trade-off between leakage current and ion transport rate. The TPY (to chelate Mn(2+) ions) and PVP (to capture hydrofluoric acid)-mediated chemical functionalities bring a synergistic coupling in suppressing Mn(2+)-induced adverse effects, eventually enabling a substantial improvement in the high-temperature cycling performance of cells.

  1. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    separation, in order to establish the overall costs. Key parameters are livestock density, transport distance, price of additional land and cost of separation. The conclusion is that unless land prices or prices on slurry agreements are very high, traditional handling of animal manure has the lowest costs......The purpose of this paper is to analyse different separation concepts in order to evaluate the overall costs based on a systems approach from stable to field. When livestock are produced in livestock intensive areas the distribution of manure without creating a surplus of nutrients is often....... Decanter separation can be the cheapest if area is limited and cooperation with neighbours is possible as large volumes reduce separation costs per tonne. Flocculation is the best if much P has to be removed from the farm in the solid fraction. Separation will in the future in many cases be combined...

  2. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  3. The integration of innovative technologies into a physical-separation-based soil washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    An innovative system's approach to the treatment of soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has been proposed to effectively and cost competitively treat a significant mass of soil. The use of an integrated soil treatment system to decontaminate FEMP soils is a unique application of the soil washing technology. Due to the unfavorable soil particle size distribution and the ubiquitous distribution of uranium among these particle size fractions, conventional soil washing processes commonly used on predominantly sandy soils alone may not achieve the desirable waste minimization level without the inclusion of innovative technologies. This objective of this paper is to briefly describe the physical separation and chemical extraction process commonly used in soil washing operation and to present the baseline soil washing approach used on FEMP soils. Noting the successful and not-so-successful processes within the soil washing operation at the FEMP, a proposed innovative system's approach to treating FEMP soils will be described. This system's approach will integrate a conventional soil washing operation with proposed innovative technologies

  4. Printed energy storage devices by integration of electrodes and separators into single sheets of paper

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube thin film-based supercapacitors fabricated with printing methods, where electrodes and separators are integrated into single sheets of commercial paper. Carbon nanotube films are easily printed with Meyer rod coating or ink

  5. Novel highly integrated biodiesel production technology in a centrifugal contactor separator device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, G. N.; Schuur, B.; van Zwol, F.; van de Bovenkamp, H. H.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    The base catalyzed production of biodiesel (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCS) with integrated reaction and phase separation was studied. The effect of catalyst loading (sodium methoxide), temperature, rotational frequency and flow rates of

  6. The evolution of honest communication: integrating social and physiological costs of ornamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-01

    Much research on animal communication has addressed how costs such as social costs or physiological costs favor the accuracy of signals. Previous work has largely considered these costs separately, but we may be missing essential connections by studying costs in isolation. After all, social interactions produce rapid changes in hormone titers which can then affect individual behavior and physiology. As a result, social costs are likely to have widespread physiological consequences. Here, I present a new perspective on the factors that maintain honest signals by describing how the interplay between social costs and physiological costs may maintain an accurate link between an animal's abilities and ornament elaboration. I outline three specific mechanisms by which the interaction between social behavior and hormones could favor honest signals and present specific predictions for each of the three models. Then, I review how ornaments alter agonistic behavior, agonistic behavior influences hormones, and how these hormonal effects influence fitness. I also describe the few previous studies that have directly tested how ornaments influence hormones. Finally, opportunities for future work are discussed. Considering the interaction between social behavior and physiology may address some challenges associated with both social and physiological models of costs. Understanding the dynamic feedbacks between physiology and social costs has potential to transform our understanding of the stability of animals' communication systems. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Costing improvement of remanufacturing crankshaft by integrating Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and Activity based Costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, M. Y.; Nor, E. E. Mohd; Rahman, M. S. Abd

    2018-04-01

    Integration between quality and costing system is very crucial in order to achieve an accurate product cost and profit. Current practice by most of remanufacturers, there are still lacking on optimization during the remanufacturing process which contributed to incorrect variables consideration to the costing system. Meanwhile, traditional costing accounting being practice has distortion in the cost unit which lead to inaccurate cost of product. The aim of this work is to identify the critical and non-critical variables during remanufacturing process using Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and simultaneously estimate the cost using Activity Based Costing method. The orthogonal array was applied to indicate the contribution of variables in the factorial effect graph and the critical variables were considered with overhead costs that are actually demanding the activities. This work improved the quality inspection together with costing system to produce an accurate profitability information. As a result, the cost per unit of remanufactured crankshaft of MAN engine model with 5 critical crankpins is MYR609.50 while Detroit engine model with 4 critical crankpins is MYR1254.80. The significant of output demonstrated through promoting green by reducing re-melting process of damaged parts to ensure consistent benefit of return cores.

  8. The promise--and peril--of integrated cost systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R; Kaplan, R S

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in managerial accounting have helped executives get the information they need to make good strategic decisions. But today's enterprise resource planning systems promise even greater benefits--the chance to integrate activity-based costing, operational-control, and financial reporting systems. But managers need to approach integration very thoughtfully, or they could end up with a system that drives decision making in the wrong direction. Operational-control and ABC systems have fundamentally different purposes. Their requirements for accuracy, timeliness, and aggregation are so different that no single, fully integrated approach can be adequate for both purposes. If an integrated system used real-time cost data instead of standard rates in its ABC subsystem, for example, the result would be dangerously distorted messages about individual product profitability--and that's precisely the problem ABC systems were originally designed to address. Proper linkage and feedback between the two systems is possible, however. Through activity-based budgeting, the ABC system is linked directly to operations control: managers can determine the supply and practical capacity of resources in forthcoming periods. Linking operational control to ABC is also possible. The activity-based portion of an operational control system collects information that, while it mustn't be fed directly into the activity-based strategic cost system, can be extremely useful once it's been properly analyzed. Finally, ABC and operational control can be linked to financial reporting to generate cost of goods sold and inventory valuations--but again, with precautions.

  9. Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several production constraints have led to low yields (< 2.5 t ha-1) in maize (Zea mays L.) inUganda, among which are weeds. This study investigated the most cost-effective integrated weedmanagement (IWM) approach in maize in eastern Uganda. An experiment was conducted atIkulwe station, Mayuge in 2011 and 2012 ...

  10. Distribution Grid Integration Costs Under High PV Penetrations Workshop |

    Science.gov (United States)

    utility business model and structure: policies and regulations, revenue requirements and investment Practices Panel 3: Future Directions in Grid Integration Cost-Benefit Analysis Determining Distribution Grid into Utility Planning Notes on Future Needs All speakers were asked to include their opinions on

  11. Cost management in the internal value chain of integrated application of activity-based costing, Kaizen concept and target costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić-Tomić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is an effort to view the possibilities of integrated use of target costing, activity based costing and Kaizen concept in the internal value chain as the central link of the entire chain. The idea is to stimulate the company management to think about the costs, position they take in the structure of price cost and their influence on forming the sales price since it is very important to produce right product for the consumer, of desired quality and functionality but along with as low production costs as possible. It is therefore needed to construct the right design of a product and provide its production at the shortest possible time along with as low costs as possible which will impact the efficiency of the entire value chain.

  12. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  13. Fluorescence monitoring of capillary electrophoresis separation of biomolecules with monolithically integrated optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; van Weeghel, R.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van den Vlekkert, H.H.; Pollnau, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic integration of optical waveguides in a commercial lab-on-a-chip by femtosecond-laser material processing enables arbitrary 3D geometries of optical sensing structures in combination with fluidic microchannels. Integrated fluorescence monitoring of molecular separation, as applicable in

  14. 75 FR 37860 - Aris Industries, Inc., Bene Io, Inc., Commodore Separation Technologies, Inc., Food Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ...., Commodore Separation Technologies, Inc., Food Integrated Technologies, Inc., Gap Instrument Corp., Skysat Communications Network Corp., and Vicon Fiber Optics Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 28, 2010. It... information concerning the securities of Food Integrated Technologies, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  15. Integration optimisation of elevated pressure air separation unit with gas turbine in an IGCC power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Long; Deng, Guangyi; Li, Zheng; Wang, Qinhui; Ileleji, Klein E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • IGCC thermodynamic model was setup carefully. • Simulations focus on integration between an elevated pressure ASU with gas turbine. • Different recommended solutions from those of low pressure ASUs are figured out. • Full N 2 injection and 80% air extraction was suggested as the optimum integration. - Abstract: The integration optimisation between an elevated pressure air separation unit (EP-ASU) and gas turbine is beneficial to promote net efficiency of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. This study sets up the thermodynamic model for a 400 MW plant specially coupled with an EP-ASU, aiming to examine system performances under different integrations and acquire the optimum solution. Influences of air extraction rate at conditions of without, partial and full N 2 injection, as well as the effects of N 2 injection rate when adopting separate ASU, partial and full integrated ASU were both analysed. Special attention has been paid to performance differences between utilising an EP-ASU and a low pressure unit. Results indicated that integration solution with a separate EP-ASU or without N 2 injection would not be reasonable. Among various recommended solutions for different integration conditions, N 2 injection rate increased with the growth of air extraction rate. The integration with an air extraction rate of 80% and full N 2 injection was suggested as the optimum solution. It is concluded that the optimum integration solution when adopting an EP-ASU is different from that using a low pressure one.

  16. INTEGRATED COST MODEL FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hajduova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: All processes in the company play important role in ensuring functional integrated management system. We point out the importance of need for a systematic approach to the use of quantitative, but especially statistical methods for modelling the cost of the improvement activities that are part of an integrated management system. Development of integrated management systems worldwide leads towards building of systematic procedures of implementation maintenance and improvement of all systems according to the requirements of all the sides involved.Methodology: Statistical evaluation of the economic indicators of improvement costs and the need for a systematic approach to their management in terms of integrated management systems have become a key role also in the management of processes in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. The aim of this publication is to highlight the importance of proper implementation of statistical methods in the process of improvement costs management in the integrated management system of current market conditions and document the legitimacy of a systematic approach in the area of monitoring and analysing indicators of improvement with the aim of the efficient process management of company. We provide specific example of the implementation of appropriate statistical methods in the production of copper wire in a company Cu Drôt, a.s. This publication also aims to create a model for the estimation of integrated improvement costs, which through the use of statistical methods in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. is used to support decision-making on improving efficiency.Findings: In the present publication, a method for modelling the improvement process, by an integrated manner, is proposed. It is a method in which the basic attributes of the improvement in quality, safety and environment are considered and synergistically combined in the same improvement project. The work examines the use of sophisticated quantitative, especially

  17. Integrated Cost Allocation of Transmission Usage under Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermagasantos Zein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost allocation of transmission usage on the power networks is an important issue especially in the modern electricity market mechanism. In this context, all costs that have been embedded in the transmission, embedded cost, should be covered by the transmission users. This paper follows general methods, where generators are fullyresponsible to cover the embedded cost. It proposes a method to determine the cost allocation of transmission usage based on decomposition through the superposition techinique to determine power flow contributions from an integrated base case of the results of the power flow calculations of all transactions, bilateral and nonbilateral contracts. Mathematically, the applied formulations are illustrated clearly in this paper. The proposed method has been tested with 5-bus system and the results are much different compared to a few of the published methods. This is shown by the test results on the 5 bus system. The published methods produce total power flow contributions in each line is greater than the actual. And they earn total revenues approximately 11.6% greater than the embedded cost. While on the proposed method, the power flow contribu tions are equal to the actual and the revenues are equal to the embedded cost. It shows also that the proposed method gives results as expected.

  18. Comparison of costs of integrating working level devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    For the purpose of deciding upon the method for making routine field measurements of radon and radon daughter products there are primarily two factors to be taken into consideration: how well the various methods measure the parameter of interest and how much they cost. For the purpose of measuring the annual average working level within a structure there are available basically two devices: the integrating air sampler and track etch film. The cost and manpower requirements for each of these two devices are discussed

  19. A cost-effective device for the rapid transfer of gel-separated proteins onto membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Hann W; Huang, Yu-Chen; Tam, Ming F

    2009-03-01

    We describe here the fabrication of a cost-effective semi-dry blotting apparatus for the transfer of proteins onto membranes. Graphite sheets were used as electrodes. Protein mixtures were separated on NuPAGE 4% to 12% polyacrylamide gradient gels. With a Tris-bicine buffer, we demonstrated that close to 80% of the proteins with apparent molecular mass of 80kDa or less were removed from the gels after 8min of blotting. The process is much faster than the techniques reported previously in the literature.

  20. Integration of safety engineering into a cost optimized development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A six-segment management model is presented, each segment of which represents a major area in a new product development program. The first segment of the model covers integration of specialist engineers into 'systems requirement definition' or the system engineering documentation process. The second covers preparation of five basic types of 'development program plans.' The third segment covers integration of system requirements, scheduling, and funding of specialist engineering activities into 'work breakdown structures,' 'cost accounts,' and 'work packages.' The fourth covers 'requirement communication' by line organizations. The fifth covers 'performance measurement' based on work package data. The sixth covers 'baseline requirements achievement tracking.'

  1. Low profile, low cost, new geometry integrated inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    windings with well-defined thickness. Many advantages and disadvantages are described in depth. In this work, inverse coupling and direct coupling in the new geometry integrated inductors have been analyzed. Coupling characteristic caused by a special saturation behavior has been emphasis. And also...... variable inductors caused by the special saturation behavior may be utilized in some applications. The new integrated inductors make it possible to build low-profile, low-cost, flexibility DC/DC converters, and it can be extensively designed for the low-voltage and high-current required by the modern...

  2. Highly integrated image sensors enable low-cost imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Paul K.; Lake, Don; Chalmers, David; Hurwitz, J. E. D.

    1997-09-01

    The highest barriers to wide scale implementation of vision systems have been cost. This is closely followed by the level of difficulty of putting a complete imaging system together. As anyone who has every been in the position of creating a vision system knows, the various bits and pieces supplied by the many vendors are not under any type of standardization control. In short, unless you are an expert in imaging, electrical interfacing, computers, digital signal processing, and high speed storage techniques, you will likely spend more money trying to do it yourself rather than to buy the exceedingly expensive systems available. Another alternative is making headway into the imaging market however. The growing investment in highly integrated CMOS based imagers is addressing both the cost and the system integration difficulties. This paper discusses the benefits gained from CMOS based imaging, and how these benefits are already being applied.

  3. A novel low cost polyvinyl alcohol-Nafion-borosilicate membrane separator for microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, B.R. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Noori, Md.T. [Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Ghangrekar, M.M., E-mail: ghangrekar@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2016-10-01

    Composite membranes were developed from PVA-borosilicate (MP) and PVA-Nafion-borosilicate (MPN) for application in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The membranes were characterized in terms of water uptake, PBS uptake, oxygen diffusion and proton conductivity. Proton conductivity for MPN (0.07 Scm{sup −1}) was found to be higher as compared to that of MP (0.03 Scm{sup −1}). Oxygen diffusion coefficient for MPN was 1.47 fold lower than that for MP. As a result, MFC with PVA-Nafion-borosilicate membrane exhibited maximum power density of 6.8 Wm{sup −3}, which was 151% higher than the power produced by MFC having PVA-borosilicate membrane and it was comparable with MFC using Nafion 117 (7.1 Wm{sup −3}) membrane separator. This study demonstrates that borosilicate glass membrane incorporated with PVA-Nafion matrix can be a suitable alternative to costly polymeric membrane to increase power output of MFC. Using such membranes MFC can be fabricated at around 11 fold reduced cost as compared to Nafion 117. - Highlights: • Novel membranes using PVA and borosilicate composite were fabricated. • Proton diffusion for MPN was comparable with Nafion117. • MFC-PN produced power density comparable to MFC with Nafion 117 membrane. • MPN was fabricated at almost 11 times reduced cost than Nafion 117 membranes.

  4. On controllability of an integrated bioreactor and periodically operated membrane separation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    the influence of membrane fouling. Previously, the REED and fermentation processes have been modeled and investigated separately (Prado- Rubio et al., 2011a; Boonmee, 2003). Additionally, a simple quasi-sequential strategy for integrated process design and control structure development has been proposed (Prado...... to understand the controlled operation of the integrated process, it is convenient to use a model based approach supported by experimental evidence. Recently, an integrated bioreactor and electrically driven membrane separation process (Reverse Electro- Enhanced Dialysis - REED) has been proposed as a method...... at a certain lactate concentration level. Hence, productivity can be enhanced by the in situ lactate removal from the cultivation broth during pH controlled fermentation. This can be done by means of ion exchange membranes and electrical potential gradients. The novelty of the integrated process lies...

  5. The Economics of Storage, Transmission and Drought: Integrating Variable Wind Power into Spatially Separated Electricity Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scora, H.; Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    To mitigate the high variability of wind and make it a more viable renewable energy source, observers recommend greater integration of spatially-separated electrical grids, with high transmission lines linking load centers, scattered wind farms and hydro storage sites. In this study, we examine the

  6. Fluidic separation in microstructured devices – concepts and their Integration into process flow networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vural - Gürsel, I.; Kockmann, N.; Hessel, V.

    2017-01-01

    FDA and pharmaceutical industry turn the vision of integrated end-to-end manufacturing currently into reality. Accordingly, besides the efforts to develop reactions in continuous flow, it is also essential to consider separation of reaction mixtures and purification of the desired product - and how

  7. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  8. Integration of biohydrogen fermentation and gas separation processes to recover and enrich hydrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bélafi-Bakó, K.; Búcsú, D.; Pientka, Zbyněk; Bálint, B.; Herbel, Z.; Kovács, K. L.; Wessling, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2006), s. 1490-1495 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : integrated system * gas separation * polymer membranes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.612, year: 2006

  9. Costs of head-end incineration with respect to Kr separation in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.; Boehnert, R.

    1976-07-15

    The C-incinerations and the Kr-separations during head-end incineration in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements are described. The costs for constructing an operating a head-end incineration of reprocessing capacities with 5,000 to 50,000 MW(e)-HTR power have been determined. The cost estimates are divided into investment and operating costs, further after the fraction of the N/sub 2/-content in the incineration exhaust gas, which strongly affects costs. It appears that, in the case of Kr-separation from the incineration exhaust gas, the investment costs as well as the operating costs of the head-end for N/sub 2/-containing exhaust gas are considerably greater than those for gas without N/sub 2/. The C-incineration of the graphite of the HTR fuel elements should therefore only be performed with influx gas that is free of N/sub 2/.

  10. Integrality and separability of multitouch interaction techniques in 3D manipulation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Anthony; Casiez, Géry; Grisoni, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    Multitouch displays represent a promising technology for the display and manipulation of data. While the manipulation of 2D data has been widely explored, 3D manipulation with multitouch displays remains largely unexplored. Based on an analysis of the integration and separation of degrees of freedom, we propose a taxonomy for 3D manipulation techniques with multitouch displays. Using that taxonomy, we introduce Depth-Separated Screen-Space (DS3), a new 3D manipulation technique based on the separation of translation and rotation. In a controlled experiment, we compared DS3 with Sticky Tools and Screen-Space. Results show that separating the control of translation and rotation significantly affects performance for 3D manipulation, with DS3 performing faster than the two other techniques.

  11. Dramatically improve the Safety Performance of Li ion Battery Separators and Reduce the Manufacturing Cost Using Ultraviolet Curing and High Precision Coating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Gary [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States); Arnold, John [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The objective of this project was to improve the safety of operation of Lithium ion batteries (LIB)and at the same time significantly reduce the manufacturing cost of LIB separators. The project was very successful in demonstrating the improved performance and reduced cost attributed to using UV curable binder and high speed printing technology to place a very thin and precisely controlled ceramic layer on the surface of base separators made of polyolefins such as Polyethylene, Polypropylene and combinations of the two as well as cellulosic base separators. The underlying need for this new technology is the recently identified potential of fire in large format Lithium ion batteries used in hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. The primary potential cause of battery fire is thermal runaway caused by several different electrical or mechanical mechanisms; such as, overcharge, puncture, overheating, compaction, and internal short circuit. During thermal runaway, the ideal separator prevents ion flow and continues to physically separate the anode from the cathode. If the temperature of the battery gets higher, the separator may melt and partially clog the pores and help prevent ion flows but it also can shrink which can result in physical contact of the electrodes and accelerate thermal run-away even further. Ceramic coated separators eliminate many of the problems related to the usage of traditional separators. The ceramic coating provides an electrically insulating layer that retains its physical integrity at high temperature, allows for more efficient thermal heat transfer, helps reduce thermal shrinkage, and inhibits dendrite growth that could create a potential short circuit. The use of Ultraviolet (UV) chemistry to bind fine ceramic particles on separators is a unique and innovative approach primarily because of the instant curing of the UV curable binder upon exposure to UV light. This significant reduction in drying/curing time significantly reduces the

  12. Semi-industrial experimental study on bauxite separation using a cell-column integration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning-ning; Zhou, Chang-chun; Cong, Long-fei; Cao, Wen-long; Zhou, You

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic-static micro-bubble flotation column (FCSMC) is a highly efficient mineral processing equipment. In this study, a cell-column (FCSMC) integration process was investigated for the separation of bauxite and its feasibility was analyzed on a theoretical basis. The properties of low-grade bauxite ore from Henan Province, China were analyzed. Parameters such as reagent dosage, scraping bubble time, and pressure of the circulating pump during the sorting process were investigated and optimized to improve the flotation efficiency. On the basis of these parameters, continuous separation experiments were conducted. Bauxite concentrate with an aluminum-to-silicon (A/S) mass ratio of 6.37 and a 77.63wt% recovery rate were achieved via a flow sheet consisting of "fast flotation using a flotation cell, one roughing flotation and one cleaning flotation using flotation columns". Compared with the full-flotation-cells process, the cell-column integration process resulted in an increase of the A/S ratio by 0.41 and the recovery rate by 17.58wt%. Cell-column integration separation technology represents a new approach for the separation of middle-to-low-grade bauxite ore.

  13. A Cost Model for Integrated Logistic Support Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elena Nenni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An Integrated Logistic Support (ILS service has the objective of improving a system’s efficiency and availability for the life cycle. The system constructor offers the service to the customer, and she becomes the Contractor Logistic Support (CLS. The aim of this paper is to propose an approach to support the CLS in the budget formulation. Specific goals of the model are the provision of the annual cost of ILS activities through a specific cost model and a comprehensive examination of expected benefits, costs and savings under alternative ILS strategies. A simple example derived from an industrial application is also provided to illustrate the idea. Scientific literature is lacking in the topic and documents from the military are just dealing with the issue of performance measurement. Moreover, they are obviously focused on the customer’s perspective. Other scientific papers are general and focused only on maintenance or life cycle management. The model developed in this paper approaches the problem from the perspective of the CLS, and it is specifically tailored on the main issues of an ILS service.

  14. SIR (Safe Integral Reactor) - reducing size can reduce cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional engineering economics have favoured the advantages of larger size as a means of reducing specific capital costs and hence unit generating costs. For large and small plants utilising the same concept, e.g. a small four-loop PWR vs a large four-loop PWR with the same number of components, economies of scale are well established. If, however, a smaller plant is sized to take advantage of features which are only feasible at smaller outputs, is of simpler design, with the advantage taken of the simplified design to produce the most cost-effective layout, and incorporates fewer, more easily replaceable components with minimal assembly on site, it is possible to produce a plant which is competitive with larger plant of more traditional design. When 'system' effects, such as better matching of installed capacity to the growth in demand and the fact that a smaller total capacity will be needed to meet a given demand with a specified level of confidence, are taken into account, it can be shown that a utility's overall cash-flow position can be improved with lower associated absolute financial risks. The UK/US Safe Integral Reactor (SIR) is an integral pressurized water reactor in the 300-400 MW(e) range which utilises conventional water reactor technology in a way not feasible at the very large, sizes of recent years. The SIR concept is briefly explained and its technical and economic advantages in terms of simplicity, construction, maintenance, availability, decommissioning, safety and siting described. The results of system analyses which demonstrate the overall financial advantages to a utility are presented. (author)

  15. [Maturation, separation and social integration. Some developmental psychology aspects of childhood sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Michael

    2002-04-01

    The unfolding of motorical and social experiences with one's own body is a core element of ego-development and identity in childhood and adolescence. This paper describes essential elements of this process in different age stages. Especially in adolescence, the maturational and separational development are determined by the complex interaction between integration into the peer group and separation from adults, between search for appreciation and oppositional tendencies. On the one hand sport plays an important role for many adolescents during this process. On the other hand adolescent conflicts have a great impact on practising sport. These considerations are illustrated by two case vignettes.

  16. An integrated radar model solution for mission level performance and cost trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, John; Duncan, Kerron; Zimmerman, Madeline; Drupp, Rob; Manno, Mike; Barrett, Donald; Smith, Amelia

    2017-05-01

    A fully integrated Mission-Level Radar model is in development as part of a multi-year effort under the Northrop Grumman Mission Systems (NGMS) sector's Model Based Engineering (MBE) initiative to digitally interconnect and unify previously separate performance and cost models. In 2016, an NGMS internal research and development (IR and D) funded multidisciplinary team integrated radio frequency (RF), power, control, size, weight, thermal, and cost models together using a commercial-off-the-shelf software, ModelCenter, for an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar system. Each represented model was digitally connected with standard interfaces and unified to allow end-to-end mission system optimization and trade studies. The radar model was then linked to the Air Force's own mission modeling framework (AFSIM). The team first had to identify the necessary models, and with the aid of subject matter experts (SMEs) understand and document the inputs, outputs, and behaviors of the component models. This agile development process and collaboration enabled rapid integration of disparate models and the validation of their combined system performance. This MBE framework will allow NGMS to design systems more efficiently and affordably, optimize architectures, and provide increased value to the customer. The model integrates detailed component models that validate cost and performance at the physics level with high-level models that provide visualization of a platform mission. This connectivity of component to mission models allows hardware and software design solutions to be better optimized to meet mission needs, creating cost-optimal solutions for the customer, while reducing design cycle time through risk mitigation and early validation of design decisions.

  17. The flying classroom - a cost effective integrated approach to learning and teaching flight dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, Michael A.; Belberov, Aleksandar

    2017-11-01

    In the UK, the Royal Aeronautical Society recommends the inclusion of practical flight exercises for accredited undergraduate aerospace engineering programmes to enhance learning and student experience. The majority of academic institutions teaching aerospace in the UK separate the theory and practice of flight dynamics with students attending a series of lectures supplemented by an intensive one-day flight exercise. Performance and/or handling qualities flight tests are performed in a dedicated aircraft fitted with specialist equipment for the recording and presentation of flight data. This paper describes an innovative approach to better integrate theory and practice and the use of portable Commercial-off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies to enable a range of standard, unmodified aircraft to be used. The integration of theory and practice has enriched learning and teaching, improved coursework grades and the student experience. The use of COTS and unmodified aircraft has reduced costs and enabled increased student participation.

  18. SEPHYDRO: An Integrated Multi-Filter Web-Based Tool for Baseflow Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, D.; MacQuarrie, K. T. B.; Popa, A.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of baseflow contributions to streamflow is important for understanding watershed scale hydrology, including groundwater-surface water interactions, impact of geology and landforms on baseflow, estimation of groundwater recharge rates, etc. Baseflow (or hydrograph) separation methods can be used as supporting tools in many areas of environmental research, such as the assessment of the impact of agricultural practices, urbanization and climate change on surface water and groundwater. Over the past few decades various digital filtering and graphically-based methods have been developed in an attempt to improve the assessment of the dynamics of the various sources of streamflow (e.g. groundwater, surface runoff, subsurface flow); however, these methods are not available under an integrated platform and, individually, often require significant effort for implementation. Here we introduce SEPHYDRO, an open access, customizable web-based tool, which integrates 11 algorithms allowing for separation of streamflow hydrographs. The streamlined interface incorporates a reference guide as well as additional information that allows users to import their own data, customize the algorithms, and compare, visualise and export results. The tool includes one-, two- and three-parameter digital filters as well as graphical separation methods and has been successfully applied in Atlantic Canada, in studies dealing with nutrient loading to fresh water and coastal water ecosystems. Future developments include integration of additional separation algorithms as well as incorporation of geochemical separation methods. SEPHYDRO has been developed through a collaborative research effort between the Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick (Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and Environment and Climate Change Canada and is currently available at http://canadianriversinstitute.com/tool/

  19. Venturi scrubber with integrated separating column for aerosol precipitation and gas sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.; Lehner, M.

    1992-01-01

    A concept for a novel, compact process combination in the form of a Venturi scrubber with integrated separating column was developed. The design of the system is such as to meet the boundary conditions encountered in practice. Comprehensive tests were carried through with this high-performance Venturi scrubber in a wide range of parameters, using the superfine dusts titanium dioxide and zinc oxide as test aerosols. Separating efficiency was found to be excellent, especially for multi-stage spray injection of the scrubbing fluid. Multi-stage spray injection achieves a more favourable pulse exchange between gas and fluid so that pressure losses are relatively low even though loading may be high. A provisional experimental set-up is used for further optimization of separating efficiency and pressure loss. (orig.) [de

  20. Hierarchically structured photonic crystals for integrated chemical separation and colorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qianqian; Zhu, Biting; Ge, Jianping

    2017-02-16

    A SiO 2 colloidal photonic crystal film with a hierarchical porous structure is fabricated to demonstrate an integrated separation and colorimetric detection of chemical species for the first time. This new photonic crystal based thin layer chromatography process requires no dyeing, developing and UV irradiation compared to the traditional TLC. The assembling of mesoporous SiO 2 particles via a supersaturation-induced-precipitation process forms uniform and hierarchical photonic crystals with micron-scale cracks and mesopores, which accelerate the diffusion of developers and intensify the adsorption/desorption between the analytes and silica for efficient separation. Meanwhile, the chemical substances infiltrated to the voids of photonic crystals cause an increase of the refractive index and a large contrast of structural colors towards the unloaded part, so that the sample spots can be directly recognized with the naked eye before and after separation.

  1. An integrated platform for gas-diffusion separation and electrochemical determination of ethanol on fermentation broths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, Gabriela Furlan [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Vieira, Luis Carlos Silveira; Gobbi, Angelo Luiz [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Lima, Renato Sousa [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo, E-mail: kubota@iqm.unicamp.br [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • Integrated platform was developed to determine ethanol in fermentation broths. • The designed system integrates gas diffusion separation with voltammetric detection. • Detector relied on Ni(OH){sub 2}-modified electrode stabilized by Co{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} insertion. • Separation was made by PTFE membrane separating sample from electrolyte (receptor). • Despite the sample complexity, accurate tests were achieved by direct interpolation. - Abstract: An integrated platform was developed for point-of-use determination of ethanol in sugar cane fermentation broths. Such analysis is important because ethanol reduces its fuel production efficiency by altering the alcoholic fermentation step when in excess. The custom-designed platform integrates gas diffusion separation with voltammetric detection in a single analysis module. The detector relied on a Ni(OH){sub 2}-modified electrode. It was stabilized by uniformly depositing cobalt and cadmium hydroxides as shown by XPS measurements. Such tests were in accordance with the hypothesis related to stabilization of the Ni(OH){sub 2} structure by insertion of Co{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions in this structure. The separation step, in turn, was based on a hydrophobic PTFE membrane, which separates the sample from receptor solution (electrolyte) where the electrodes were placed. Parameters of limit of detection and analytical sensitivity were estimated to be 0.2% v/v and 2.90 μA % (v/v){sup −1}, respectively. Samples of fermentation broth were analyzed by both standard addition method and direct interpolation in saline medium based-analytical curve. In this case, the saline solution exhibited ionic strength similar to those of the samples intended to surpass the tonometry colligative effect of the samples over analyte concentration data by attributing the reduction in quantity of diffused ethanol vapor majorly to the electrolyte. The approach of analytical curve provided rapid, simple and accurate

  2. Life cycle assessment for optimising the level of separated collection in integrated MSW management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, L; Grosso, M; Giugliano, M

    2009-02-01

    This life cycle assessment study analyses material and energy recovery within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems, and, in particular, the recovery of the source-separated materials (packaging and organic waste) and the energy recovery from the residual waste. The recovery of materials and energy are analysed together, with the final aim to evaluate possible optimum levels of source-separated collection that lead to the most favourable energetic and environmental results; this method allows identification of an optimum configuration of the MSW management system. The results show that the optimum level of source-separated collection is about 60%, when all the materials are recovered with high efficiency; it decreases to about 50%, when the 60% level is reached as a result of a very high recovery efficiency for organic fractions at the expense of the packaging materials, or when this implies an appreciable reduction of the quality of collected materials. The optimum MSW management system is thus characterized by source-separated collection levels as included in the above indicated range, with subsequent recycling of the separated materials and energy recovery of the residual waste in a large-scale incinerator operating in combined heat and power mode.

  3. Life cycle assessment and costing of urine source separation: Focus on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2016-11-15

    Urine source separation has the potential to reduce pharmaceutical loading to the environment, while enhancing nutrient recovery. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) was to evaluate the environmental impacts and economic costs to manage nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (i.e., diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) and nutrients in human urine. Urine source separation was compared with centralized wastewater treatment (WWT) (biological or upgraded with ozonation). The current treatment method (i.e., centralized biological WWT) was compared with hypothetical treatment scenarios (i.e., centralized biological WWT upgraded with ozonation, and urine source separation). Alternative urine source separation scenarios included varying collection and handling methods (i.e., collection by vacuum truck, vacuum sewer, or decentralized treatment), pharmaceuticals removal by ion-exchange, and struvite precipitation. Urine source separation scenarios had 90% lower environmental impact (based on the TRACI impact assessment method) compared with the centralized wastewater scenarios due to reduced potable water production for flush water, reduced electricity use at the wastewater treatment plant, and nutrient offsets from struvite precipitation. Despite the greatest reduction of pharmaceutical toxicity, centralized treatment upgraded with ozone had the greatest ecotoxicity impacts due to ozonation operation and infrastructure. Among urine source separation scenarios, decentralized treatment of urine and centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum truck had negligible cost differences compared with centralized wastewater treatment. Centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum sewer and centralized treatment with ozone cost 30% more compared with conventional wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Benefits and costs of integrating technology into undergraduate nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith; Cornelius, Frances H

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology over the last decade have resulted in increased opportunities for educators to become more innovative in classroom and clinical teaching. These innovations have allowed students and faculty to access essential clinical information at the point of care/need. By capitalizing on technologies such as personal digital assistants and course delivery shells, faculty and students have both portable and remote access to information that can guide practice and learning activities in clinical, classroom, and distance settings. For instance, a student can use a personal digital assistant to research a patient's new medication at the bedside, study course information, access references during class in response to a question, or download clinical materials from home. Although the benefits of having ready access to information seem obvious, there are costs and strategic planning activities associated with implementing these projects. Clearly, the objective of any academic nursing program is to develop skills among students so they can efficiently access information and use that information to guide their nursing practice. To do so, academic nursing administrators must have the forethought to envision how new technologies can support achieving this goal as well as the ability to put in place the infrastructure supports needed for success. This article presents a case study of how one institution developed the necessary infrastructure and garnished the appropriate resources to implement an ambitious technology initiative integrated throughout a large undergraduate nursing program. In addition, how the integration of technology, online and mobile, can enhance clinical learning will be discussed.

  5. Dissecting stimulus-response binding effects: Grouping by color separately impacts integration and retrieval processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Ruth; Frings, Christian; Moeller, Birte

    2018-04-23

    In selection tasks, target and distractor features can be encoded together with the response into the same short-lived memory trace, or event file (see Hommel, 2004), leading to bindings between stimulus and response features. The repetition of a stored target or distractor feature can lead to the retrieval of the entire episode, including the response-so-called "binding effects." Binding effects due to distractor repetition are stronger for grouped than for nongrouped target and distractor stimulus configurations. Modulation of either of two mechanisms that lead to the observed binding effects might be responsible here: Grouping may influence either stimulus-response integration or stimulus-response retrieval. In the present study we investigated the influences of grouping on both mechanisms independently. In two experiments, target and distractor letters were grouped (or nongrouped) via color (dis)similarity separately during integration and retrieval. Grouping by color similarity affected integration and retrieval mechanisms independently and in different ways. Color dissimilarity enhanced distractor-based retrieval, whereas color similarity enhanced distractor integration. We concluded that stimulus grouping is relevant for binding effects, but that the mechanisms that contribute to binding effects should be carefully separated.

  6. A microbial fuel cell–membrane bioreactor integrated system for cost-effective wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yong-Peng; Liu, Xian-Wei; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Feng; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J.; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An MFC–MBR integrated system for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. ► Stable electricity generation during 1000-h continuous operation. ► Low-cost electrode, separator and filter materials were adopted. -- Abstract: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) are both promising technologies for wastewater treatment, but both with limitations. In this study, a novel MFC–MBR integrated system, which combines the advantages of the individual systems, was proposed for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. The system favored a better utilization of the oxygen in the aeration tank of MBR by the MFC biocathode, and enabled a high effluent quality. Continuous and stable electricity generation, with the average current of 1.9 ± 0.4 mA, was achieved over a long period of about 40 days. The maximum power density reached 6.0 W m −3 . Moreover, low-cost materials were used for the reactor construction. This integrated system shows great promise for practical wastewater treatment application.

  7. Application of Decomposition Methodology to Solve Integrated Process Design and Controller Design Problems for Reactor-Separator-Recycle System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) for a reactor-separator-recycle (RSR) system and evaluates a decomposition methodology to solve the IPDC problem. Accordingly, the IPDC problem is solved by decomposing it into four hierarchical stages: (i) pre...... the design of a RSR system involving consecutive reactions, A B -> C and shown to provide effective solutions that satisfy design, control and cost criteria. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it is systematic, makes use of thermodynamic-process knowledge and provides valuable insights......-analysis, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection and verification. The methodology makes use of thermodynamic-process insights and the reverse design approach to arrive at the final process-controller design decisions. The developed methodology is illustrated through...

  8. Path integration and separation of variables in spaces of constant curvature in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.

    1993-10-01

    In this paper path integration in two- and three-dimensional spaces of constant curvature is discussed: i.e. the flat spaces R 2 and R 3 , the two- and three-dimensional sphere and the two- and three dimensional pseudosphere. The Laplace operator in these spaces admits separation of variables in various coordinate systems. In all these coordinate systems the path integral formulation will be stated, however in most of them an explicit solution in terms of the spectral expansion can be given only on a formal level. What can be stated in all cases, are the propagator and the corresponding Green function, respectively, depending on the invariant distance which is a coordinate independent quantity. This property gives rise to numerous identities connecting the corresponding path integral representations and propagators in various coordinate systems with each other. (orig.)

  9. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, Scott [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bhandari, Abhinav [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are

  10. Integration of the AVLIS [atomic vapor laser isotopic separation] process into the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, R.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Eby, R.S.; Pashley, J.H.; Norman, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    AVLIS RD and D efforts are currently proceeding toward full-scale integrated enrichment demonstrations in the late 1980's and potential plant deployment in the mid 1990's. Since AVLIS requires a uranium metal feed and produces an enriched uranium metal product, some change in current uranium processing practices are necessitated. AVLIS could operate with a UF 6 -in UF 6 -out interface with little effect to the remainder of the fuel cycle. This path, however, does not allow electric utility customers to realize the full potential of low cost AVLIS enrichment. Several alternative processing methods have been identified and evaluated which appear to provide opportunities to make substantial cost savings in the overall fuel cycle. These alternatives involve varying levels of RD and D resources, calendar time, and technical risk to implement and provide these cost reduction opportunities. Both feed conversion contracts and fuel fabricator contracts are long-term entities. Because of these factors, it is not too early to start planning and making decisions on the most advantageous options so that AVLIS can be integrated cost effectively into the fuel cycle. This should offer economic opportunity to all parties involved including DOE, utilities, feed converters, and fuel fabricators. 10 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  12. Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2 separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.

  13. Label-free single-cell separation and imaging of cancer cells using an integrated microfluidic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antfolk, Maria; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Koizumi, Saori

    2017-01-01

    , an integrated system is presented that efficiently eliminates this risk by integrating label-free separation with single cell arraying of the target cell population, enabling direct on-chip tumor cell identification and enumeration. Prostate cancer cells (DU145) spiked into a sample with whole blood...... a fully integrated system for rapid label-free separation and on-chip phenotypic characterization of circulating tumor cells from peripheral venous blood in clinical practice....

  14. Customer Focused Product Design Using Integrated Model of Target Costing, Quality Function Deployment and Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Target costing by integrating customer requirements, technical attributes and cost information into the product design phase and eliminating the non-value added functions, plays a vital role in different phases of the product life cycle. Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE are two techniques which can be used for applying target costing, successfully. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model of target costing, QFD and VE to explore the role of target costing in managing product costs while promoting quality specifications meeting customers’ needs. F indings indicate that the integration of target costing, QFD and VE is an essential technique in managing the costs of production process. Findings also imply that integration of the three techniques provides a competitive cost advantage to companies.

  15. An integrable low-cost hardware random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Lim, Daihyun; Devadas, Srinivas; Jamali, Behnam; Zhu, Zheng; Cole, Peter H.

    2005-02-01

    A hardware random number generator is different from a pseudo-random number generator; a pseudo-random number generator approximates the assumed behavior of a real hardware random number generator. Simple pseudo random number generators suffices for most applications, however for demanding situations such as the generation of cryptographic keys, requires an efficient and a cost effective source of random numbers. Arbiter-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) proposed for physical authentication of ICs exploits statistical delay variation of wires and transistors across integrated circuits, as a result of process variations, to build a secret key unique to each IC. Experimental results and theoretical studies show that a sufficient amount of variation exits across IC"s. This variation enables each IC to be identified securely. It is possible to exploit the unreliability of these PUF responses to build a physical random number generator. There exists measurement noise, which comes from the instability of an arbiter when it is in a racing condition. There exist challenges whose responses are unpredictable. Without environmental variations, the responses of these challenges are random in repeated measurements. Compared to other physical random number generators, the PUF-based random number generators can be a compact and a low-power solution since the generator need only be turned on when required. A 64-stage PUF circuit costs less than 1000 gates and the circuit can be implemented using a standard IC manufacturing processes. In this paper we have presented a fast and an efficient random number generator, and analysed the quality of random numbers produced using an array of tests used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to evaluate the randomness of random number generators designed for cryptographic applications.

  16. Integration of Semiconducting Sulfides for Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-23

    The full harvest of solar energy by semiconductors requires a material that simultaneously absorbs across the whole solar spectrum and collects photogenerated electrons and holes separately. The stepwise integration of three semiconducting sulfides, namely ZnS, CdS, and Cu2-x S, into a single nanocrystal, led to a unique ternary multi-node sheath ZnS-CdS-Cu2-x S heteronanorod for full-spectrum solar energy absorption. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the nonstoichiometric copper sulfide nanostructures enables effective NIR absorption. More significantly, the construction of pn heterojunctions between Cu2-x S and CdS leads to staggered gaps, as confirmed by first-principles simulations. This band alignment causes effective electron-hole separation in the ternary system and hence enables efficient solar energy conversion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Printed energy storage devices by integration of electrodes and separators into single sheets of paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Cui, Yi

    2010-05-01

    We report carbon nanotube thin film-based supercapacitors fabricated with printing methods, where electrodes and separators are integrated into single sheets of commercial paper. Carbon nanotube films are easily printed with Meyer rod coating or ink-jet printing onto a paper substrate due to the excellent ink absorption of paper. A specific capacity of 33 F/g at a high specific power of 250 000 W/kg is achieved with an organic electrolyte. Such a lightweight paper-based supercapacitor could be used to power paper electronics such as transistors or displays.

  18. Energy saving in multicomponent separation using an internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakabe, Koichi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Nakaiwa, Masaru; Huang, Kejin; Ohmori, Takao; Endo, Akira; Yamamoto, Takuji [Energy-Efficient Chemical Systems Group, Research Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Chemistry, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Nakanishi, Toshinari [R and D Department, Kimura Chemical Plants Co., Ltd, 2-1-2, Terajima Kuise, Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-8567 (Japan); Roesjorde, Audun [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Tronheim (Norway)

    2006-09-15

    Energy savings by an internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) for the separation of multicomponent mixtures were studied. The design and the operating variables of a HIDiC were defined for this purpose, and were systematically varied to carry out a sensitivity analysis. Benzene-toluene-p-xylene (BTX) mixture and 12-component hydrocarbons (12HC) mixture were chosen as model systems. Sensitivity analysis showed that the HIDiC is able to reduce energy consumption by about 30% for the BTX system and an even better 50% for the 12HC system. The effects on energy consumption of the design and the operating variables were also examined. (author)

  19. Printed energy storage devices by integration of electrodes and separators into single sheets of paper

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2010-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube thin film-based supercapacitors fabricated with printing methods, where electrodes and separators are integrated into single sheets of commercial paper. Carbon nanotube films are easily printed with Meyer rod coating or ink-jet printing onto a paper substrate due to the excellent ink absorption of paper. A specific capacity of 33 F/g at a high specific power of 250 000 W/kg is achieved with an organic electrolyte. Such a lightweight paper-based supercapacitor could be used to power paper electronics such as transistors or displays. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Benefits of emotional integration and costs of emotional distancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Guy; Shahar, Bat-Hen; Zohar-Shefer, Yael; Benita, Moti; Moed, Anat; Bibi, Uri; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Ryan, Richard M

    2017-12-09

    Three studies explored the consequences of the self-determination theory conception of integrative emotion regulation (IER; Ryan & Deci, 2017), which involves an interested stance toward emotions. Emotional, physiological, and cognitive consequences of IER were compared to the consequences of emotional distancing (ED), in relation to a fear-eliciting film. In Study 1, we manipulated emotion regulation by prompting students' (N = 90) IER and ED and also included a control group. Then we tested groups' defensive versus nondefensive emotional processing, coded from post-film written texts. Study 2 (N = 90) and Study 3 (N = 135) used the same emotion regulation manipulations but exposed participants to the fear-eliciting film twice, 72 hr apart, to examine each style's protection from adverse emotional, physiological, and cognitive costs at second exposure. Participants who had been prompted to practice IER were expected to benefit more than participants in the ED and control groups at second exposure, as manifested in lower arousal and better cognitive capacity. Overall, results supported our hypotheses. The current studies provide some support for the assumption that in comparison to ED, taking interest in and accepting one's negative emotions are linked with less defensive processing of negative experiences and with better functioning. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41200836X; Hoefnagels, E.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935998; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Pettersson, Karin; Faaij, André; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations

  2. Management information system for cost-schedule integration control for nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Wang Yongqing; Tian Li

    2001-01-01

    Based on the project management experience abroad and at home, a cost-schedule integration control model was developed to improve nuclear power project management. The model integrates cost data with the scheduling data by unity coding to efficiently implement cost-schedule integration control on line. The software system architecture and database is designed and implemented. The system functions include estimating and forecasting dynamically cash flow, scheduling and evaluating deviation from the cost-schedule plan, etc. The research and development of the system should improve the architecture of computer integrated management information systems for nuclear power projects in China

  3. Integration process of fermentation and liquid biphasic flotation for lipase separation from Burkholderia cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Revathy; Show, Pau Loke; Lee, Sze Ying; Yap, Yee Jiun; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Liquid Biphasic Flotation (LBF) is an advanced recovery method that has been effectively applied for biomolecules extraction. The objective of this investigation is to incorporate the fermentation and extraction process of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia using flotation system. Initial study was conducted to compare the performance of bacteria growth and lipase production using flotation and shaker system. From the results obtained, bacteria shows quicker growth and high lipase yield via flotation system. Integration process for lipase separation was investigated and the result showed high efficiency reaching 92.29% and yield of 95.73%. Upscaling of the flotation system exhibited consistent result with the lab-scale which are 89.53% efficiency and 93.82% yield. The combination of upstream and downstream processes in a single system enables the acceleration of product formation, improves the product yield and facilitates downstream processing. This integration system demonstrated its potential for biomolecules fermentation and separation that possibly open new opportunities for industrial production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and cost estimate for the SRL integrated hot off gas facility using selective adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1981-07-01

    Based on the results of an engineering-scale demonstration program, a design and cost estimate were performed for a 25-m 3 /h (15-ft 3 /min) capacity pilot plant demonstration system using selective adsorption technology for installation at the Integrated Hot Off Gas Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The design includes provisions for the destruction of NO/sub x/ and the concentration and removal of radioisotopes of ruthenium, iodine-129, tritiated water vapor, carbon-14 contaminated carbon dioxide, and krypton-85. The nobel gases are separated by the use of selective adsorption on mordenite-type zeolites. The theory of noble gas adsorption on zeolites is essentially the same as that for the adsorption of noble gases on activated charcoals. Considerable detail is provided regarding the application of the theory to adsorbent bed designs and operation. The design is based on a comprehensive material balance and appropriate heat transfer calculations. Details are provided on techniques and procedures used for heating, cooling, and desorbing the adsorbent columns. Analyses are also given regarding component and arrangement selection and includes discussions on alternative arrangements. The estimated equipment costs for the described treatment system is about $1,400,000. The cost estimate includes a detailed equipment list of all the major component items in the design. Related technical issues and estimated system performance are also discussed

  5. Design and cost estimate for the SRL integrated hot off gas facility using selective adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pence, D T; Kirstein, B E

    1981-07-01

    Based on the results of an engineering-scale demonstration program, a design and cost estimate were performed for a 25-m/sup 3//h (15-ft/sup 3//min) capacity pilot plant demonstration system using selective adsorption technology for installation at the Integrated Hot Off Gas Facility at the Savannah River Plant. The design includes provisions for the destruction of NO/sub x/ and the concentration and removal of radioisotopes of ruthenium, iodine-129, tritiated water vapor, carbon-14 contaminated carbon dioxide, and krypton-85. The nobel gases are separated by the use of selective adsorption on mordenite-type zeolites. The theory of noble gas adsorption on zeolites is essentially the same as that for the adsorption of noble gases on activated charcoals. Considerable detail is provided regarding the application of the theory to adsorbent bed designs and operation. The design is based on a comprehensive material balance and appropriate heat transfer calculations. Details are provided on techniques and procedures used for heating, cooling, and desorbing the adsorbent columns. Analyses are also given regarding component and arrangement selection and includes discussions on alternative arrangements. The estimated equipment costs for the described treatment system is about $1,400,000. The cost estimate includes a detailed equipment list of all the major component items in the design. Related technical issues and estimated system performance are also discussed.

  6. Short-term separation from groups by male Japanese macaques: costs and benefits in feeding behavior and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yosuke; Sawada, Akiko; Hanya, Goro

    2014-04-01

    To expand our understanding of fission-fusion behavior and determine its variability among primates, studies of both individual-based and group-based fission-fusion are necessary. We conducted a parallel tracking study of male and female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) during the non-mating season to clarify the general features of separate ranging by males of this species, an example of fission-fusion behavior, and to reveal its associated costs and benefits. Males frequently engaged in short-term separate ranging, leaving the company of females and ranging on their own for periods averaging 68 min in duration. However, the males did not venture outside the group's home range. When ranging separately from the group, males spent more time feeding, particularly on fruit, stayed longer in each feeding tree, and fed at a lower rate than when ranging with the group. These behavioral changes suggest that males can avoid within-group feeding competition by ranging alone. However, this behavior was also associated with higher traveling costs, and these separated males were more vulnerable to intergroup competition and had fewer opportunities for social interaction. The frequency of separate ranging was lower when highly clumped food plant species were the main food source. Lower-ranked males, who received more aggression when ranging with the group, exhibited a higher frequency of separate ranging. This behavioral flexibility with respect to group cohesion may allow males to reduce the costs of group living without completely losing the benefits. Specifically, by ranging alone, males may acquire sufficient feeding time without being disturbed by other group members. Conversely, when ranging with the group, males can access grooming partners and advantages in intergroup competition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An integrative model of auditory phantom perception: tinnitus as a unified percept of interacting separable subnetworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven; Weisz, Nathan; Londero, Alain; Schlee, Winnie; Elgoyhen, Ana Belen; Langguth, Berthold

    2014-07-01

    Tinnitus is a considered to be an auditory phantom phenomenon, a persistent conscious percept of a salient memory trace, externally attributed, in the absence of a sound source. It is perceived as a phenomenological unified coherent percept, binding multiple separable clinical characteristics, such as its loudness, the sidedness, the type (pure tone, noise), the associated distress and so on. A theoretical pathophysiological framework capable of explaining all these aspects in one model is highly needed. The model must incorporate both the deafferentation based neurophysiological models and the dysfunctional noise canceling model, and propose a 'tinnitus core' subnetwork. The tinnitus core can be defined as the minimal set of brain areas that needs to be jointly activated (=subnetwork) for tinnitus to be consciously perceived, devoid of its affective components. The brain areas involved in the other separable characteristics of tinnitus can be retrieved by studies on spontaneous resting state magnetic and electrical activity in people with tinnitus, evaluated for the specific aspect investigated and controlled for other factors. By combining these functional imaging studies with neuromodulation techniques some of the correlations are turned into causal relationships. Thereof, a heuristic pathophysiological framework is constructed, integrating the tinnitus perceptual core with the other tinnitus related aspects. This phenomenological unified percept of tinnitus can be considered an emergent property of multiple, parallel, dynamically changing and partially overlapping subnetworks, each with a specific spontaneous oscillatory pattern and functional connectivity signature. Communication between these different subnetworks is proposed to occur at hubs, brain areas that are involved in multiple subnetworks simultaneously. These hubs can take part in each separable subnetwork at different frequencies. Communication between the subnetworks is proposed to occur at

  8. On the feasibility to integrate low-cost MEMS accelerometers and GNSS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Elisa; Dermanis, Athanasios; Crespi, Mattia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of merging the benefits offered by low-cost GNSS and MEMS accelerometers technology, in order to promote the diffusion of low-cost monitoring solutions. A merging approach was set up at the level of the combination of kinematic results (velocities and displacements) coming from the two kinds of sensors, whose observations were separately processed, following to the so called loose integration, which sounds much more simple and flexible thinking about the possibility of an easy change of the combined sensors. At first, the issues related to the difference in reference systems, time systems and measurement rate and epochs for the two sensors were faced with. An approach was designed and tested to transform into unique reference and time systems the outcomes from GPS and MEMS and to interpolate the usually (much) more dense MEMS observation to common (GPS) epochs. The proposed approach was limited to time-independent (constant) orientation of the MEMS reference system with respect to the GPS one. Then, a data fusion approach based on the use of Discrete Fourier Transform and cubic splines interpolation was proposed both for velocities and displacements: MEMS and GPS derived solutions are firstly separated by a rectangular filter in spectral domain, and secondly back-transformed and combined through a cubic spline interpolation. Accuracies around 5 mm for slow and fast displacements and better than 2 mm/s for velocities were assessed. The obtained solution paves the way to a powerful and appealing use of low-cost single frequency GNSS receivers and MEMS accelerometers for structural and ground monitoring applications. Some additional remarks and prospects for future investigations complete the paper.

  9. Proposal to realize a cost breakthrough in carbon-13 production by photochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marling, J.B.

    1979-10-01

    A cost breakthrough can now be made in photochemical production of the rare stable isotope carbon-13. This cost breakthrough is achieved by CO 2 laser infrared multiple-photon dissociation of any of several halocarbons (Freon derivatives) such as CF 3 Cl, CF 3 Br, or CF 2 Cl 2 . The single-step carbon-13 enrichment factor for this process is approximately 50, yielding 30% pure C-13 in one step, or up to 97% pure C-13 in two steps. A three-fold carbon-13 cost reduction to below $20/gram is expected to be achieved in a small laboratory-scale demonstration facility capable of producing 4 to 8 kg/year of carbon-13, using presently available pulsed CO 2 TEA lasers at an average power level of 50 watts. Personnel costs dominate the attainable C-13 production costs in a small photochemical enrichment facility. A price reduction to $2/gm carbon-13 is feasible at carbon-13 production levels of 100 to 1000 kg/year, dominated by the Freon raw material costs

  10. Integrated cost estimation methodology to support high-performance building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Prasad; Greden, Lara; Eijadi, David; McDougall, Tom [The Weidt Group, Minnetonka (United States); Cole, Ray [Axiom Engineers, Monterey (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Design teams evaluating the performance of energy conservation measures (ECMs) calculate energy savings rigorously with established modelling protocols, accounting for the interaction between various measures. However, incremental cost calculations do not have a similar rigor. Often there is no recognition of cost reductions with integrated design, nor is there assessment of cost interactions amongst measures. This lack of rigor feeds the notion that high-performance buildings cost more, creating a barrier for design teams pursuing aggressive high-performance outcomes. This study proposes an alternative integrated methodology to arrive at a lower perceived incremental cost for improved energy performance. The methodology is based on the use of energy simulations as means towards integrated design and cost estimation. Various points along the spectrum of integration are identified and characterized by the amount of design effort invested, the scheduling of effort, and relative energy performance of the resultant design. It includes a study of the interactions between building system parameters as they relate to capital costs. Several cost interactions amongst energy measures are found to be significant.The value of this approach is demonstrated with alternatives in a case study that shows the differences between perceived costs for energy measures along various points on the integration spectrum. These alternatives show design tradeoffs and identify how decisions would have been different with a standard costing approach. Areas of further research to make the methodology more robust are identified. Policy measures to encourage the integrated approach and reduce the barriers towards improved energy performance are discussed.

  11. How the brain integrates costs and benefits during decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, U.; Biele, G.; Heekeren, H.R.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    When we make decisions, the benefits of an option often need to be weighed against accompanying costs. Little is known, however, about the neural systems underlying such cost-benefit computations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and choice modeling, we show that decision making based on

  12. Cost estimating issues in the Russian integrated system planning context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allentuck, J.

    1996-01-01

    An important factor in the credibility of an optimal capacity expansion plan is the accuracy of cost estimates given the uncertainty of future economic conditions. This paper examines the problems associated with estimating investment and operating costs in the Russian nuclear power context over the period 1994 to 2010

  13. Romans and Ostrogoths between integration and separation. The contribution of archeology to a historical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aimone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with issues of integration between the Roman population and new immigrants, known from the sources with the collective name of “Ostrogoths”, in the Italian kingdom of Theoderic. Earlier scholarship has focused mostly on the written sources, leading to conflicting conclusions. In this study the material evidence takes the forefront as main data to reconstruct trends of contacts and acculturation among natives and immigrants. The survey of the extant sites showing the possible presence of Ostrogothic groups around the end of the fifth century CE is here limited to modern Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta. The emerging picture is quite complex:  while it is possible to identify interrelations and exchanges between the two groups at different levels of the social life, there are also clear signs of exclusions and separation attesting to a social and economic milieu in rapid transformation.

  14. A separation-integrated cascade reaction to overcome thermodynamic limitations in rare-sugar synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nina; Bosshart, Andreas; Failmezger, Jurek; Bechtold, Matthias; Panke, Sven

    2015-03-27

    Enzyme cascades combining epimerization and isomerization steps offer an attractive route for the generic production of rare sugars starting from accessible bulk sugars but suffer from the unfavorable position of the thermodynamic equilibrium, thus reducing the yield and requiring complex work-up procedures to separate pure product from the reaction mixture. Presented herein is the integration of a multienzyme cascade reaction with continuous chromatography, realized as simulated moving bed chromatography, to overcome the intrinsic yield limitation. Efficient production of D-psicose from sucrose in a three-step cascade reaction using invertase, D-xylose isomerase, and D-tagatose epimerase, via the intermediates D-glucose and D-fructose, is described. This set-up allowed the production of pure psicose (99.9%) with very high yields (89%) and high enzyme efficiency (300 g of D-psicose per g of enzyme). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A continuous membrane microbioreactor system for development of integrated pectin modification and separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainal Alam, Muhd Nazrul Hisham Bin; Pinelo, Manuel; Samanta, Kama

    2011-01-01

    present a continuous membrane microbioreactor prototype for development of enzyme catalyzed degradation of pectin. Membrane reactors are becoming increasingly important for the novel ‘biorefining’ type of processes that either require product removal to avoid product inhibition or rest on partial...... hydrolysis of the substrate to obtain e.g. value-added oligosaccharides from complex biopolymers. The microbioreactor prototype was fabricated from poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and designed as a loop reactor (working volume approximately 190μL) integrated...... with a regenerated cellulose membrane for separation of low molecular weight products. The main technical considerations and challenges related to establishing the continuous membrane microbioreactor are discussed. The workability of the prototype was validated by comparing the process data at microscale to those...

  16. Post Separation of Plastic Waste: Better for the Environment and Lower Collection Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe European Union (EU) advocates a plastic waste recycling rate of more than 55% through home separation by households. Even for the Netherlands, which has already invested heavily in plastic recycling policies, there is still a challenge to meet this target. We show that post

  17. Cost-effectiveness optimization of a solar hot water heater with integrated storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Syahri, M.; Shahrir, A.; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2006-01-01

    Solar processes are generally characterized by high first cost and low operating costs. Therefore, the basic economic problem is one of comparing an initial known investment with estimated future operating cost. This paper present the cost-benefit ratio of solar collector with integrated storage system. Evaluation of the annual cost (AC) and the annual energy gain (AEG) of the collector are performed and the ratio of AC/AEG or the cost benefit ratio is presented for difference combination of mass flow rate, solar collector length and channel depth. Using these cost-effectiveness curves, the user can select optimum design features, which correspond to minimum AC/AEG

  18. Carbon Dioxide-Free Hydrogen Production with Integrated Hydrogen Separation and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Stefan; Müller, Michael; Jorschick, Holger; Helmin, Marta; Bösmann, Andreas; Palkovits, Regina; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-10

    An integration of CO 2 -free hydrogen generation through methane decomposition coupled with hydrogen/methane separation and chemical hydrogen storage through liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) systems is demonstrated. A potential, very interesting application is the upgrading of stranded gas, for example, gas from a remote gas field or associated gas from off-shore oil drilling. Stranded gas can be effectively converted in a catalytic process by methane decomposition into solid carbon and a hydrogen/methane mixture that can be directly fed to a hydrogenation unit to load a LOHC with hydrogen. This allows for a straight-forward separation of hydrogen from CH 4 and conversion of hydrogen to a hydrogen-rich LOHC material. Both, the hydrogen-rich LOHC material and the generated carbon on metal can easily be transported to destinations of further industrial use by established transport systems, like ships or trucks. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Lanthanide fission product separation from the transuranics in the integral fast reactor fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Mariani, R.D.; Benedict, R.W.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative reactor concept being developed by Argonne National Laboratory. This reactor uses liquid-metal cooling and metallic fuel. Its spent fuel will be reprocessed using a pyrochemical method employing molten salts and liquid metals in an electrofining operation. The lanthanide fission products are a concern during reprocessing because of heating and fuel performance issues, so they must be removed periodically from the system to lessen their impact. The actinides must first be removed form the system before the lanthanides are removed as a waste stream. This operation requires a relatively good lanthanide-actinide separation to minimize both the amount of transuranic material lost in the waste stream and the amount of lanthanides collected when the actinides are first removed. A computer code, PYRO, that models these operations using thermodynamic and empirical data was developed at Argonne and has been used to model the removal of the lanthanides from the electrorefiner after a normal operating campaign. Data from this model are presented. The results demonstrate that greater that 75% of the lanthanides can be separated from the actinides at the end of the first fuel reprocessing campaign using only the electrorefiner vessel

  20. How Is the Liberalization of Food Markets Progressing? Market Integration and Transaction Costs in Subsistence Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a modification of Baulch's parity bounds model to measure the market integration of food markets in developing countries. Instead of extrapolating a single observation of transaction costs, we estimate transaction costs. Predicted transaction costs compare well with survey data of

  1. Development of a Cost Estimation Process for Human Systems Integration Practitioners During the Analysis of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    processes. Novice estimators must often use of these complicated cost estimation tools (e.g., ACEIT , SEER-H, SEER-S, PRICE-H, PRICE-S, etc.) until...However, the thesis will leverage the processes embedded in cost estimation tools such as the Automated Cost Estimating Integration Tool ( ACEIT ) and the

  2. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdei Borbála

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS, resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and

  3. Integration Costs Revisited – An economic framework for wind and solar variability

    OpenAIRE

    Hirth, Lion (Prof. Dr.); Ueckerdt, Falko (Dr.); Edenhofer, Ottmar (Prof. Dr.)

    2015-01-01

    The integration of wind and solar generators into power systems causes “integration costs” – for grids, balancing services, more flexible operation of thermal plants, and reduced utilization of the capital stock embodied in infrastructure, among other things. This paper proposes a framework to analyze and quantify these costs. We propose a definition of integration costs based on the marginal economic value of electricity, or market value – as such a definition can be more easily used in econ...

  4. Is integrated nursing home care cheaper than traditional care? A cost comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Aggie T G; van Raak, Arno J A; Maarse, Hans J A M

    2008-12-01

    It is generally assumed that integrated care has a cost-saving potential in comparison with traditional care. However, there is little evidence on this potential with respect to integrated nursing home care. DESIGN/METHODS/SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS: Between 1999 and 2003, formal and informal caregivers of different nursing homes in the Netherlands recorded activities performed for residents with somatic or psycho-social problems. In total, 23,380 lists were analysed to determine the average costs of formal and informal care per activity, per type of resident and per nursing home care type. For formal care activities, the total personnel costs per minute (in Euro) were calculated. For informal care costs, two shadow prices were used. Compared to traditional care, integrated care had lower informal direct care costs per resident and per activity and lower average costs per direct activity (for a set of activities performed by formal caregivers). The total average costs per resident per day and the costs of formal direct care per resident, however, were higher as were the costs of delivering a set of indirect activities to residents with somatic problems. The general assumption that integrated care has a cost-saving potential (per resident or per individual activity) was only partially supported by our research. Our study also raised issues which should be investigated in future research on integrated nursing home care.

  5. One-pot integrated biofuel production using low-cost biocompatible protic ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jian; Konda, Murthy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Dutta, Tanmoy; Valiev, Marat; Xu, Feng; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2017-01-01

    The transformation of biomass into liquid fuels is of great importance. Previous work has demonstrated the capability of specific ionic liquids (ILs), such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)C(1)Im][OAc]) and cholinium lysinate ([Ch][Lys]), to be effective biomass pretreatment solvents. Using these ILs for an integrated biomass-to-biofuel configuration is still challenging due to a significant water-wash related to the high toxicity of [C(2)C(1)Im][OAc] and pH adjustment prior to saccharification for the highly basic [Ch][Lys]. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that a one-pot integrated biofuel production is enabled by a low cost (similar to$1 per kg) and biocompatible protic IL (PIL), ethanolamine acetate, without pH adjustments, water-wash and solid-liquid separations. After pretreatment, the whole slurry is directly used for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with commercial enzyme cocktails and wild type yeast strains, generating 70% of the theoretical ethanol yield (based on switchgrass). The structure-performance relationships of PILs in terms of lignin removal, net basicity, and pH value are systematically studied. A technoeconomic analysis (TEA) revealed that an integrated biorefinery concept based on this PIL process could potentially reduce the minimum ethanol selling price by more than 40% compared to scenarios that require pH adjustment prior to SSF. Improvement of the economic performance will be made by reducing the dilution and enzyme loading during SSF as identified by TEA. This study demonstrates the impact of a biocompatible IL in terms of process optimization and conversion efficiency, and opens up avenues for realizing an IL based efficiently integrated biomass conversion technology.

  6. An integrated framework for transmission cost allocation retaining efficiency concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.W. Marangon [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Gorenstin, B G; Vieira Filho, X [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chipp, H J; Alvarenga Filho, S [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hirota, M [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil); Pereira, M V.F. [Power System Research, Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating transmission costs among utilities and wheeling agents. The proposed approach is based on the extension of marginal cost theory to take into account discrete component sizes and economy of scale, while retaining desirable economic properties such as revenue reconciliation and incentives for all participants to remain in the pool. The methodology is illustrated in case studies with the Brazilian system. (author) 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Open microfluidic gel electrophoresis: Rapid and low cost separation and analysis of DNA at the nanoliter scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzweiler, Ludwig; Gleichmann, Tobias; Tanguy, Laurent; Koltay, Peter; Zengerle, Roland; Riegger, Lutz

    2017-07-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most applied and standardized tools for separation and analysis of macromolecules and their fragments in academic research and in industry. In this work we present a novel approach for conducting on-demand electrophoretic separations of DNA molecules in open microfluidic (OM) systems on planar polymer substrates. The approach combines advantages of slab gel, capillary- and chip-based methods offering low consumable costs (<0.1$) circumventing cost-intensive microfluidic chip fabrication, short process times (5 min per analysis) and high sensitivity (4 ng/μL dsDNA) combined with reasonable resolution (17 bases). The open microfluidic separation system comprises two opposing reservoirs of 2-4 μL in volume, a semi-contact written gel line acting as separation channel interconnecting the reservoirs and sample injected into the line via non-contact droplet dispensing and thus enabling the precise control of the injection plug and sample concentration. Evaporation is prevented by covering aqueous structures with PCR-grade mineral oil while maintaining surface temperature at 15°C. The liquid gel line exhibits a semi-circular cross section of adaptable width (∼200-600 μm) and height (∼30-80 μm) as well as a typical length of 15-55 mm. Layout of such liquid structures is adaptable on-demand not requiring time consuming and repetitive fabrication steps. The approach was successfully demonstrated by the separation of a standard label-free DNA ladder (100-1000 bp) at 100 V/cm via in-line staining and laser induced fluorescent end-point detection using an automated prototype. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cost-Effective Manufacturing of Damage-Tolerant Integral Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the University of Delaware (UD) have developed an enabling technology to produce a polymer matrix composite-based integral armor with improved multihit ballistic capability...

  9. Cost-Effective Manufacturing of Damage-Tolerant Integral Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    ...) technology demonstrator and Crusader self-propelled howitzer platforms. Present integral armor manufacturing processes involve adhesive bonding of a composite structure with ballistic armor tiles, spall shield, and nuisance cover...

  10. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge

  11. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A DG INTEGRATED SYSTEM: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. V. S. S. SAILAJA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Generation is capable of meeting the load of the consumers partially or completely. Depending on the type of DG involved it can be operated in interconnected mode and islanded mode. The availability of numerous alternatives present for the DG technologies and large initial investments necessitates a detailed cost benefit analysis for the implementation of DG technologies. In this work an attempt has been made to study the costs involved in implementing the DG technologies. A practical system having two kinds of distributed generation i.e., Diesel Generator and solar photovoltaic system for its back up purpose is considered. A detailed cost analysis of the two DG technologies is carried out.

  12. An Evaluation of the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools (ACEIT) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    C~4p DTIC S ELECTE fl JAN12 19 .1R ~OF S%. B -U AN EVALUATION OF THE AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) SYSTEM THESIS Caroline L...Ohio go 91 022 AFIT/GCA/LSQ/89S-5 AN EVALUATION OF THE AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) SYSTEM THESIS Caroline L. Hanson Major, USAF...Department of Defense. AFIT/GCA/LSQ/89S-5 AN EVALUATION OF THE AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) SYSTEM THESIS Presented to the

  13. Distribution Grid Integration Unit Cost Database | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    consulting companies, IEEE Some data is provided to give a sense of the order of magnitude of the lifetime , as O&M and component lifetime data is sparse, the effects of PV on device O&M and lifetimes Inverter manufacturers, PV developers The cost of advanced inverters depends on whether the capability of

  14. Practical, cost-effective method for real-time surveillance of widely-separated remote sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braley, R.E.; Olson, A.W.; Rufer, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    Effective intrusion protection for uninhabited sites scattered widely throughout a large geographic area can be a difficult and expensive proposition. When the sites are important enough to require continuous surveillance, the problem is even worse. Roving patrols are not effective, and conventional alarms don't provide enough information to allow a meaningful response. Television systems have possibilities but also disadvantages: the usual system is both costly and inflexible. This paper describes our solution to the problem: a cost effective instrusion protection system used to simultaneously protect many sites scattered over many square miles, with realtime surveillance from a central point. The system is based on a state-of-the-art FM CATV concept that is capable of providing surveillance for multiple sites, is modular in design for quick setup, flexible, and easily maintained. A electronic motion detector is incorporated for each site under surveillance, with a visual and audible alarm to alert the observer at the central control console. The observer can then bring the intruded site up on a large-screen monitor for detailed assessment. The system is relatively economical as all equipment is commercially available and all installation is straight-forward and follows usual CATV construction practices

  15. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of agri-environmental measures for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balana, Bedru B; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Dunn, Sarah

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents an application of integrated methodological approach for identifying cost-effective combinations of agri-environmental measures to achieve water quality targets. The methodological approach involves linking hydro-chemical modelling with economic costs of mitigation measures. The utility of the approach was explored for the River Dee catchment in North East Scotland, examining the cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. In-stream nitrate concentration was modelled using the STREAM-N and phosphorus using INCA-P model. Both models were first run for baseline conditions and then their effectiveness for changes in land management was simulated. Costs were based on farm income foregone, capital and operational expenditures. The costs and effects data were integrated using 'Risk Solver Platform' optimization in excel to produce the most cost-effective combination of measures by which target nutrient reductions could be attained at a minimum economic cost. The analysis identified different combination of measures as most cost-effective for the two pollutants. An important aspect of this paper is integration of model-based effectiveness estimates with economic cost of measures for cost-effectiveness analysis of land and water management options. The methodological approach developed is not limited to the two pollutants and the selected agri-environmental measures considered in the paper; the approach can be adapted to the cost-effectiveness analysis of any catchment-scale environmental management options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of an integrated cryogenic air separation unit, oxy-combustion carbon dioxide power cycle and liquefied natural gas regasification process by exergoeconomic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Zonouz, Masood Jalali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergoeconomic analyses is done on an integrated cryogenic air separation unit. • Liquefied natural gas cold energy is used in the process. • The main multi stream heat exchanger is the worst device based on the results. - Abstract: Exergoeconomic and sensitivity analyses are performed on the integrated cryogenic air separation unit, oxy-combustion Carbon dioxide power cycle and liquefied natural gas regasification process. Exergy destruction, exergy efficiency, cost rate of exergy destruction, cost rate of capital investment and operating and maintenance, exergoeconomic factor and relative cost difference have been calculated for the major components of the process. The exergy efficiency of the process is around 67.1% and after mixers, tees, tank and expansion valves the multi-stream heat exchanger H-3 have the best exergy efficiency among all process components. Total exergy destruction rate of the process is 1.93 × 10"7 kW. Results of exergoeconomic analysis demonstrates that maximum exergy destruction and capital investment operating and maintenance cost rate are related to the multi-stream heat exchanger H-1 and pump P-1 with the values of 335,144 ($/h) and 12,838 ($/h), respectively. In the sensitivity analysis section the effects of the varying economic parameters, such as interest rate and plant life time are investigated on the trend of the capital investment operating and maintenance cost rate of the major components of the process and in another cases the effect of the gas turbine isentropic efficiency on the exergy and exergoeconomic parameters are studied.

  17. Integrated safeguards and security for the INEL Special Isotope Separation Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, G.F.; Zack, N.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the safeguards and security system that was to be used for the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Production Plant. The US Department of Energy has postponed the construction of the SIS Plant that was to be built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Plant was designed to produce weapons grade plutonium from DOE owned fuel grade plutonium by converting off-spec. plutonium dioxide into metal buttons that would meet required chemical and isotopic specifications. Because this was to be a completely new facility there was a unique opportunity to provide an in-depth, ''state-of-the- art'' safeguards and security system without attempting to overlay upon an existing, older system. This facility was being designed to be in complete compliance with the new DOE Orders by integrating safeguards and security into the plant operating system and by providing graded protection to the areas of varying sensitivity within the plant

  18. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  19. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  20. Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    and Investment Plan 2011-2015 (DSIP,. 2010), whose increase in .... 11.9b. 169.6a. 16.1b. 18.4a. 4.9a. 2.7b. Pre-Atz+1hh. 253 ab. 13.3ab. 175.3a. 17.0ab. 18.2a. 0.6c ... *ROI (%) costs (U.shs ha-1) from maize sales (U.shs ha-1). (U.shs ha-1).

  1. Production of Biodiesel Using a Membrane Reactor to Minimize Separation Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, O. A.; Musonge, P.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the performance of a packed bed membrane reactor in the transesterification process of triglycerides to methyl ester using soyabean oil as feedstock. A TiO2/Al2O3 ceramic microporous membrane was selected due to its chemical inert nature and thermal stability to selectively remove the product from the reaction medium. CaO impregnated on the surface of activated carbon was packed into the membrane and acted as catalyst. The synthesized catalyst had a total loading of 40.50 % and was characterized by XRD and temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 (CO2-TPD). The crude biodiesel produced was micro-filtered by the ceramic membrane with a pore size of 0.02 μm to retain the unreacted oil and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 100 KPa. The best condition was achieved with a temperature of 65 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1 for 150 minutes, which resulted in the highest FAME yield of 94 %. Methyl ester produced met the ASTM D6751 and SANS 1935 specifications. The product obtained was mainly composed of methyl esters. Glycerol was not detected in the product stream due to the ability of the membrane to retain the glycerol and the unreacted oil in the medium, which solved the issue of glycerol separation from biodiesel.

  2. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

  3. Pure radiation in space-time models that admit integration of the eikonal equation by the separation of variables method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osetrin, Evgeny; Osetrin, Konstantin

    2017-11-01

    We consider space-time models with pure radiation, which admit integration of the eikonal equation by the method of separation of variables. For all types of these models, the equations of the energy-momentum conservation law are integrated. The resulting form of metric, energy density, and wave vectors of radiation as functions of metric for all types of spaces under consideration is presented. The solutions obtained can be used for any metric theories of gravitation.

  4. Molecular approaches to solar energy conversion: the energetic cost of charge separation from molecular-excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, James R

    2013-08-13

    This review starts with a brief overview of the technological potential of molecular-based solar cell technologies. It then goes on to focus on the core scientific challenge associated with using molecular light-absorbing materials for solar energy conversion, namely the separation of short-lived, molecular-excited states into sufficiently long-lived, energetic, separated charges capable of generating an external photocurrent. Comparisons are made between different molecular-based solar cell technologies, with particular focus on the function of dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells as well as parallels with the function of photosynthetic reaction centres. The core theme of this review is that generating charge carriers with sufficient lifetime and a high quantum yield from molecular-excited states comes at a significant energetic cost-such that the energy stored in these charge-separated states is typically substantially less than the energy of the initially generated excited state. The role of this energetic loss in limiting the efficiency of solar energy conversion by such devices is emphasized, and strategies to minimize this energy loss are compared and contrasted.

  5. Importance Role of Low-Cost Sorbent Produced from rice husk in Separation of zirconium from yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The agricultural waste, rice husk, was used as a precursor for the production of low-cost sorbent. Rice husk, a by-product of the rice milling industry, accounts for about 20 % of the whole rice. The argro-residue sorbent extracted from rice husk was employed in separation of zirconium from yttrium. The separation of Zr from the binary systems (Zr-Y) was achieved in batch and column modes. In a batch mode, the adsorption behavior was studied in deferent media, namely, hydrochloric acid, 0.1 M citrate buffer and 0.1 M acetate buffer. In addition, other factors affecting the sorption process of each metal e.g. ph-value of the medium and metal ion concentration were also studied. The breakthrough experiments were carried in the form of mini-column with different bed depths of sorbent at flow rates of 20 ml/min and 40 ml/min. These studies were performed to elucidate the valuable of use of locally, available, agro-residue for separation of Zr from Y target as a promising sorbent for purification of 88 Zr, 89 Zr from Y.

  6. Integrated emission management for cost optimal EGR-SCR balancing in diesels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Mentink, P.R.; Kupper, F.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a cost-based optimization method is experimentally demonstrated on a Euro-VI heavy-duty diesel engine. Based on the actual engine-aftertreatment state, this model-based Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy minimizes operational (fuel and AdBlue) costs within emission

  7. Using the Student Research Project to Integrate Macroeconomics and Statistics in an Advanced Cost Accounting Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahamood M.; Schwartz, Bill N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a student research project that is part of an advanced cost accounting class. The project emphasizes active learning, integrates cost accounting with macroeconomics and statistics by "learning by doing" using real world data. Students analyze sales data for a publicly listed company by focusing on the company's…

  8. Integrating Cost as an Independent Variable Analysis with Evolutionary Acquisition - A Multiattribute Design Evaluation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    within the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) software suite (version 5.x). With this capability, one can set cost targets or time...not allow the user to vary more than one decision variable. This limitation of the ACEIT approach thus hinders a holistic view when attempting to

  9. Estimating the costs of reducing CO2 emission via avoided deforestation with integrated assessment modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, K.P.; Tabeau, A.A.; Stehfest, E.; Meijl, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates for deforestation and forest degradation were shown to account for about 17% of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of REDD is suggested to provide substantial emission reductions at low costs. Proper calculation of such a costs requires integrated modeling approach involving

  10. Integration of risk analysis, land use planning, and cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajen, G.; Sanchez, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Pueblo of San Ildefonso (Pueblo), which is a sovereign Indian tribe, have often been involved in adversarial situations regarding the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Pueblo shares a common boundary with the LANL. This paper describes an on-going project that could alter the DOE and the Pueblo's relationship to one of cooperation; and unite the DOE and the Pueblo in a Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization, and Integrated Risk Analysis and Land Use Planning effort

  11. Integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, L.A.; Schafer, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) authorized studies on alternative systems for treating contact-handled DOE mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW). The on-going Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems' (ITTS) and the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems' (INTS) studies satisfy this request. EM-50 further authorized supporting studies including this technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis. This analysis identifies areas where technology development could have the greatest impact on total life cycle system costs. These areas are determined by evaluating the sensitivity of system life cycle costs relative to changes in life cycle component or phase costs, subsystem costs, contingency allowance, facility capacity, operating life, and disposal costs. For all treatment systems, the most cost sensitive life cycle phase is the operations and maintenance phase and the most cost sensitive subsystem is the receiving and inspection/preparation subsystem. These conclusions were unchanged when the sensitivity analysis was repeated on a present value basis. Opportunity exists for technology development to reduce waste receiving and inspection/preparation costs by effectively minimizing labor costs, the major cost driver, within the maintenance and operations phase of the life cycle

  12. Cultivating Perspectival Acuity: The Value and Cost of Integrating Theory, Craft, Research, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Manganelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents reflections on integrating theory, craft, research, and practice to improve the accuracy and resiliency of each. The reflections build toward a set of statements about the value and the cost of integrating theory, craft, research, and practice. Specifically, the authors offer the Privileged Work / Non-Privileged Work Framework and concept of cultivating Perspectival Acuity.

  13. Integration of carboxyl modified magnetic particles and aqueous two-phase extraction for selective separation of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Qingqing; Qu, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-07-15

    Both of the magnetic particle adsorption and aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) were simple, fast and low-cost method for protein separation. Selective proteins adsorption by carboxyl modified magnetic particles was investigated according to protein isoelectric point, solution pH and ionic strength. Aqueous two-phase system of PEG/sulphate exhibited selective separation and extraction for proteins before and after magnetic adsorption. The two combination ways, magnetic adsorption followed by ATPE and ATPE followed by magnetic adsorption, for the separation of proteins mixture of lysozyme, bovine serum albumin, trypsin, cytochrome C and myloglobin were discussed and compared. The way of magnetic adsorption followed by ATPE was also applied to human serum separation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of the interfacial area of a continuous integrated mixer/separator (CINC) using a chemical reaction method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, B.; Jansma, W. J.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Heeres, H. J.

    The effect of the liquid flow rates (18-100 mL/min) and rotor frequency (30-60 Hz) on the interfacial area of a liquid-liquid system in a CINC-V02 continuous integrated mixer/separator have been studied using a chemical reaction method. Topical specific interfacial areas were in the range of 3.2 x

  15. Distribution of costs induced by the integration of RES-E power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Ruediger; Weber, Christoph; Swider, Derk J.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the distribution of costs induced by the integration of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E). The treatment to distribute these costs on different market actors is crucial for its development. For this purpose, individual actors of electricity markets and several cost categories are identified. According to the defined cost structure, possible treatments to distribute the individual cost categories on different relevant actors are described. Finally, an evaluation of the cost distribution treatments based on an economic analysis is given. Economic efficiency recommends that clearly attributable (shallow) grid connection as well as (deep) grid costs are charged to the corresponding RES-E producer and that the RES-E producers are also charged the regulating power costs. However, deep grid integration costs should be updated to reflect evolving scarcities. Also regulating power costs should reflect actual scarcity and thus be symmetric and based on real-time prices, taking into account the overall system imbalance. Moreover, the time span between the closure of the spot market and actual delivery should be chosen as short as possible to enable accurate RES-E production forecasts

  16. Development of Low Cost Membranes (Ta, Nb & Cellulose Acetate) for H2/CO2 Separation in WGS Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetala, Naidu [Grambling State Univ., LA (United States); Siriwardane, Upali [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The main aim of this work is to synthesize low temperature bimetallic nanocatalysts for Water Gas Shift reaction (WGS) for hydrogen production from CO and steam mixture; and develop low-cost metal (Nb/Ta)/ceramic membranes for H2 separation and Cellulose Acetate membranes for CO2 separation. .

  17. An Integrated BIM and Cost Estimating Blended Learning Model--Acceptance Differences between Experts and Novice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Wen, Ming-Hui; Chen, Ching-Ming; Hsu, I-Ting

    2016-01-01

    "Building information technology" and "cost estimating" are two core skills of construction education. However, in traditional education, students learn these two important subjects in separate courses. This study proposes a blended learning environment which can provide students with support for their face-to-face learning…

  18. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  19. Tunable integration of absorption-membrane-adsorption for efficiently separating low boiling gas mixtures near normal temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huang; Pan, Yong; Liu, Bei; Sun, Changyu; Guo, Ping; Gao, Xueteng; Yang, Lanying; Ma, Qinglan; Chen, Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Separation of low boiling gas mixtures is widely concerned in process industries. Now their separations heavily rely upon energy-intensive cryogenic processes. Here, we report a pseudo-absorption process for separating low boiling gas mixtures near normal temperature. In this process, absorption-membrane-adsorption is integrated by suspending suitable porous ZIF material in suitable solvent and forming selectively permeable liquid membrane around ZIF particles. Green solvents like water and glycol were used to form ZIF-8 slurry and tune the permeability of liquid membrane surrounding ZIF-8 particles. We found glycol molecules form tighter membrane while water molecules form looser membrane because of the hydrophobicity of ZIF-8. When using mixing solvents composed of glycol and water, the permeability of liquid membrane becomes tunable. It is shown that ZIF-8/water slurry always manifests remarkable higher separation selectivity than solid ZIF-8 and it could be tuned to further enhance the capture of light hydrocarbons by adding suitable quantity of glycol to water. Because of its lower viscosity and higher sorption/desorption rate, tunable ZIF-8/water-glycol slurry could be readily used as liquid absorbent to separate different kinds of low boiling gas mixtures by applying a multistage separation process in one traditional absorption tower, especially for the capture of light hydrocarbons. PMID:26892255

  20. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  1. Designing to target cost: one approach to design/construction integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    One approach to a more integrated construction delivery process is the concept of ‘designing to target cost’ of which the first examples of application within a lean construction framework have recently been seen. This paper introduces the main principles of the design to target cost method...... and discusses the applicability of this approach to construction. The low degree of organizational and technical continuity from one construction project to the next limits the applicability of the design for target cost approach when compared to its origin in product development of mass manufactured artefacts....... It can be argued that design to target cost may also provide a frame for developing the supply chain towards better coordination and collaboration. Thus methods of design to target cost may serve to facilitate the development of a more integrated supply chain....

  2. Analyzing Integrated Cost-Schedule Risk for Complex Product Systems R&D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the research efforts in project risk management tend to assess cost risk and schedule risk independently. However, project cost and time are related in reality and the relationship between them should be analyzed directly. We propose an integrated cost and schedule risk assessment model for complex product systems R&D projects. Graphical evaluation review technique (GERT, Monte Carlo simulation, and probability distribution theory are utilized to establish the model. In addition, statistical analysis and regression analysis techniques are employed to analyze simulation outputs. Finally, a complex product systems R&D project as an example is modeled by the proposed approach and the simulation outputs are analyzed to illustrate the effectiveness of the risk assessment model. It seems that integrating cost and schedule risk assessment can provide more reliable risk estimation results.

  3. A Methodology to Integrate Security and Cost-effectiveness in ATM

    OpenAIRE

    Matarese, Francesca; Montefusco, Patrizia; Neves, José; Rocha, André

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the definition of a new methodology for carrying out security risk assessment in the air traffic management (ATM) domain so as to enhance security awareness and integrate secure and cost-effective design objectives. This process is carried out by modelling the system, identifying the assets, threats and vulnerabilities, prioritizing the threats and proposing cost-effective countermeasures for the weaknesses found. ATM security is concerned with securing ATM a...

  4. From Physical Process to Economic Cost - Integrated Approaches of Landslide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, M.; Damm, B.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of landslides is complex in many respects, with landslide hazard and impact being dependent on a variety of factors. This obviously requires an integrated assessment for fundamental understanding of landslide risk. Integrated risk assessment, according to the approach presented in this contribution, implies combining prediction of future landslide occurrence with analysis of landslide impact in the past. A critical step for assessing landslide risk in integrated perspective is to analyze what types of landslide damage affected people and property in which way and how people contributed and responded to these damage types. In integrated risk assessment, the focus is on systematic identification and monetization of landslide damage, and analytical tools that allow deriving economic costs from physical landslide processes are at the heart of this approach. The broad spectrum of landslide types and process mechanisms as well as nonlinearity between landslide magnitude, damage intensity, and direct costs are some main factors explaining recent challenges in risk assessment. The two prevailing approaches for assessing the impact of landslides in economic terms are cost survey (ex-post) and risk analysis (ex-ante). Both approaches are able to complement each other, but yet a combination of them has not been realized so far. It is common practice today to derive landslide risk without considering landslide process-based cause-effect relationships, since integrated concepts or new modeling tools expanding conventional methods are still widely missing. The approach introduced in this contribution is based on a systematic framework that combines cost survey and GIS-based tools for hazard or cost modeling with methods to assess interactions between land use practices and landslides in historical perspective. Fundamental understanding of landslide risk also requires knowledge about the economic and fiscal relevance of landslide losses, wherefore analysis of their

  5. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  6. An integrated TSP-GA with EOL cost model for selecting the best EOL option

    OpenAIRE

    Zakri Ghazalli; Atsuo Murata

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our research works on integrating design for disassembly with cost model for end-of-life (EOL) product. This paper has two objectives. The first objective is to optimize disassembly sequence of the EOL product. We integrate a traveling salesman problem approach with genetic algorithm in finding the optimal disassembly sequence for disassembling the EOL product. Based on this optimal sequence, the second objective is to identify the best EOL option. We employ EOL profits an...

  7. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated cardiometabolic risk assessment and treatment program in primary care (the INTEGRATE study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, D.; Badenbroek, I.; Hollander, M.; Nielen, M.; Schellevis, F.; Wit, N. de

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated cardiometabolic risk assessment and treatment program in primary care (the INTEGRATE study): a stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial protocol. Rationale: The increasing prevalence of cardiometabolic disease (CMD), including cardiovascular

  8. Integrated North Sea grids: The costs, the benefits and their distribution between countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantelos, Ioannis; Pudjianto, Danny; Strbac, Goran; De Decker, Jan; Joseph, Pieter; Flament, Aurore; Kreutzkamp, Paul; Genoese, Fabio; Rehfeldt, Leif; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Gerdes, Gerhard; Jafar, Muhammad; Yang, Yongtao; Tidemand, Nicolaj; Jansen, Jaap; Nieuwenhout, Frans; Welle, Adriaan van der; Veum, Karina

    2017-01-01

    A large number of offshore wind farms and interconnectors are expected to be constructed in the North Sea region over the coming decades, creating substantial opportunities for the deployment of integrated network solutions. Creating interconnected offshore grids that combine cross-border links and connections of offshore plants to shore offers multiple economic and environmental advantages for Europe's energy system. However, despite evidence that integrated solutions can be more beneficial than traditional radial connection practices, no such projects have been deployed yet. In this paper we quantify costs and benefits of integrated projects and investigate to which extent the cost-benefit sharing mechanism between participating countries can impede or encourage the development of integrated projects. Three concrete interconnection case studies in the North Sea area are analysed in detail using a national-level power system model. Model outputs are used to compute the net benefit of all involved stakeholders under different allocation schemes. Given the asymmetric distribution of costs and benefits, we recommend to consistently apply the Positive Net Benefit Differential mechanism as a starting point for negotiations on the financial closure of investments in integrated offshore infrastructure. - Highlights: • Three North Sea offshore gird case studies are analysed. • They are shown to have substantial net benefit over non-integrated network designs. • Asymmetric net benefit sharing between countries is shown to be a barrier. • Positive Net Benefit Differential method alleviates asymmetric benefits.

  9. Integration of clinical chemistry, expression, and metabolite data leads to better toxicological class separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicker, Jeppe; Brunak, Søren; Frederiksen, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    A large number of databases are currently being implemented within toxicology aiming to integrate diverse biological data, such as clinical chemistry, expression, and other types of data. However, for these endeavors to be successful, tools for integration, visualization, and interpretation...... are needed. This paper presents a method for data integration using a hierarchical model based on either principal component analysis or partial least squares discriminant analysis of clinical chemistry, expression, and nuclear magnetic resonance data using a toxicological study as case. The study includes...... the three toxicants alpha-naphthyl-isothiocyanate, dimethylnitrosamine, and N-methylformamide administered to rats. Improved predictive ability of the different classes is seen, suggesting that this approach is a suitable method for data integration and visualization of biological data. Furthermore...

  10. Together or Separate? Newspaper Coverage of Gender-Integrated Training, 1997-2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Gene

    2001-01-01

    Women and men have served in the defense of this country since the wars of the 18th century, but the concept of gender-integrated or mixed training is relatively new to the American military forces...

  11. Cost and performance analysis of concentrating solar power systems with integrated latent thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nithyanandam, K.; Pitchumani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating TES (thermal energy storage) in a CSP (concentrating solar power) plant allows for continuous operation even during times when solar irradiation is not available, thus providing a reliable output to the grid. In the present study, the cost and performance models of an EPCM-TES (encapsulated phase change material thermal energy storage) system and HP-TES (latent thermal storage system with embedded heat pipes) are integrated with a CSP power tower system model utilizing Rankine and s-CO 2 (supercritical carbon-dioxide) power conversion cycles, to investigate the dynamic TES-integrated plant performance. The influence of design parameters of the storage system on the performance of a 200 MW e capacity power tower CSP plant is studied to establish design envelopes that satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative requirements, which include a round-trip annualized exergetic efficiency greater than 95%, storage cost less than $15/kWh t and LCE (levelized cost of electricity) less than 6 ¢/kWh. From the design windows, optimum designs of the storage system based on minimum LCE, maximum exergetic efficiency, and maximum capacity factor are reported and compared with the results of two-tank molten salt storage system. Overall, the study presents the first effort to construct and analyze LTES (latent thermal energy storage) integrated CSP plant performance that can help assess the impact, cost and performance of LTES systems on power generation from molten salt power tower CSP plant. - Highlights: • Presents technoeconomic analysis of thermal energy storage integrated concentrating solar power plants. • Presents a comparison of different storage options. • Presents optimum design of thermal energy storage system for steam Rankine and supercritical carbon dioxide cycles. • Presents designs for maximizing exergetic efficiency while minimizing storage cost and levelized cost of energy

  12. Integrated Project Management: A Case Study in Integrating Cost, Schedule, Technical, and Risk Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Greg

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a case study as a model for integrated project management. The ISS Program Office (ISSPO) developed replacement fluid filtration cartridges in house for the International Space Station (ISS). The presentation includes a step-by-step procedure and organizational charts for how the fluid filtration problem was approached.

  13. Sensor Technology Integration for Efficient and Cost-Effective D and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varona, J. M.; Lagos, L. E.

    2002-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of radiologically contaminated facilities require the use of a multitude of technologies to perform characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, and waste management. Current baseline technologies do not provide adequate tools to perform this work in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Examples of such tasks that can be modified to enhance the D and D work include: floor and wall decontamination, pipe decontamination, and surveillance and monitoring. FIU-HCET's Technology Development, Integration and Deployment (TDID) group aims to enhance the D and D process by integrating sensor technology to existing decontamination and remote surveillance tools. These integrated systems have been demonstrated throughout the DOE Complex and commercial nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Finding new ways of integrating technologies utilized in the decommissioning and surveillance and monitoring process has been a goal of this group during the past several years. Current and previous integration projects include: Mobile Integrated Piping Decontamination and Characterization System, On-Line Decontamination and Characterization System, In-Situ Pipe Decontamination and Unplugging System, Remote Hazardous Environment Surveyor (RHES), and the Online Handheld grit blasting decontamination system As a result of integrating sensors with D and D tools, the resulting technologies have removed the downtime currently found in baseline processes by allowing operators and project managers to have real-time contamination data during the specified D and D process. This added component allows project managers to verify that full decontamination and surveillance has been conducted. Through successful demonstration and deployments of the TDID-developed technologies, FIU-HCET has provided tools that can impact the cost, schedule and health and safety of D and D operations in a positive way, leading to shorter downtimes and significant cost

  14. The plasma centrifuge: A compact, low cost, stable isotope separator. Phase 2 final technical report, September 15, 1991 - September 14, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, W.

    1996-01-01

    Enriched stable isotopes are required for production of radionuclides as well as for research and diagnostic uses. Science Research Laboratory (SRL) has developed a plasma centrifuge for moderate throughput of enriched stable isotopes, such as 13 C, 17 O, 18 O, and 203 Tl, for medical as well as other applications. Dwindling isotope stocks have restricted the use of enriched isotopes and their associated labeled organic molecules in medical imaging to very few research facilities because of high costs of isotope separation. With the introduction of the plasma centrifuge separator, the cost per separated gram of even rarely occurring isotopes (≤ 1% natural abundance) is potentially many times lower than with other separation technologies (cryogenic distillation and calutrons). The centrifuge is a simple, robust, pulsed electrical discharge device that has successfully demonstrated isotope separation of small (mg) quantities of 26 Mg. Based on the results of the Phase 2 program, modest enhancements to the power supplies and cooling systems, a centrifuge separator will have high repetition rate (60 pps) and high duty cycle (60%) to produce in one month kilogram quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes. The centrifuge may be used in stand-alone operation or could be used as a high-throughput pre-separation stage with calutrons providing the final separation

  15. Separable projection integrals for higher-order correlators of the cosmic microwave sky: Acceleration by factors exceeding 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, J.P., E-mail: jb914@cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pennycook, S.J. [Intel Corporation (United Kingdom); Fergusson, J.R.; Jäykkä, J.; Shellard, E.P.S. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    We present a case study describing efforts to optimise and modernise “Modal”, the simulation and analysis pipeline used by the Planck satellite experiment for constraining general non-Gaussian models of the early universe via the bispectrum (or three-point correlator) of the cosmic microwave background radiation. We focus on one particular element of the code: the projection of bispectra from the end of inflation to the spherical shell at decoupling, which defines the CMB we observe today. This code involves a three-dimensional inner product between two functions, one of which requires an integral, on a non-rectangular domain containing a sparse grid. We show that by employing separable methods this calculation can be reduced to a one-dimensional summation plus two integrations, reducing the overall dimensionality from four to three. The introduction of separable functions also solves the issue of the non-rectangular sparse grid. This separable method can become unstable in certain scenarios and so the slower non-separable integral must be calculated instead. We present a discussion of the optimisation of both approaches. We demonstrate significant speed-ups of ≈100×, arising from a combination of algorithmic improvements and architecture-aware optimisations targeted at improving thread and vectorisation behaviour. The resulting MPI/OpenMP hybrid code is capable of executing on clusters containing processors and/or coprocessors, with strong-scaling efficiency of 98.6% on up to 16 nodes. We find that a single coprocessor outperforms two processor sockets by a factor of 1.3× and that running the same code across a combination of both microarchitectures improves performance-per-node by a factor of 3.38×. By making bispectrum calculations competitive with those for the power spectrum (or two-point correlator) we are now able to consider joint analysis for cosmological science exploitation of new data.

  16. Integral cost-benefit analysis of Maglev technology under market imperfections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J. Paul; Oosterhaven, Jan; Romp, Ward E.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess a proposed new mode of guided high speed ground transportation, the magnetic levitation rail system (Maglev), and to compare the results of a partial cost-benefit analysis with those of an integral CBA. We deal with an urbanconglomeration as well as a

  17. Integrated Emission Management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of

  18. Parametric study of variable renewable energy integration in Europe: Advantages and costs of transmission grid extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaber, Katrin; Steinke, Florian; Mühlich, Pascal; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Wind and solar energy will play an important role in the decarbonization of the European electricity generation. However, high shares of these variable renewable energies (VREs) challenge the power system considerably due to their temporal fluctuations and geographical dispersion. In this paper, we systematically analyze transmission grid extensions as an integration measure for VREs in Europe. We show the effects of grid extensions for fundamental properties of the power system as a function of the penetration and mix of wind and solar energy. Backup capacity requirements and overproduction are reduced with a powerful overlay transmission grid. We determine the costs of the grid extensions in dependence of the VRE penetration and mix and find that the grid integration costs remain below 25% of the VRE investment costs for all conceivable VRE configurations. Furthermore, robust design features of future power systems in terms of grid geometry and flexibility requirements for backup technologies are identified. We apply a spatially and temporally highly resolved techno-economic model of the European power system for our analysis. - Highlights: ► Quantification of the advantages and costs of a European overlay transmission grid. ► Grid integration costs for VREs in Europe remain below 6€/MWh. ► Application of a detailed power system model to a wide parameter space.

  19. Analogical reasoning and prefrontal cortex: evidence for separable retrieval and integration mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Silvia A; Wendelken, Carter; Badre, David; Wagner, Anthony D

    2005-03-01

    The present study examined the contributions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregions to two component processes underlying verbal analogical reasoning: semantic retrieval and integration. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while subjects performed propositional analogy and semantic decision tasks. On each trial, subjects viewed a pair of words (pair 1), followed by an instructional cue and a second word pair (pair 2). On analogy trials, subjects evaluated whether pair 2 was semantically analogous to pair 1. On semantic trials, subjects indicated whether the pair 2 words were semantically related to each other. Thus, analogy--but not semantic--trials required integration across multiple retrieved relations. To identify regions involved in semantic retrieval, we manipulated the associative strength of pair 1 words in both tasks. Anterior left inferior PFC (aLIPC) was modulated by associative strength, consistent with a role in controlled semantic retrieval. Left frontopolar cortex was insensitive to associative strength, but was more sensitive to integration demands than was aLIPC, consistent with a role in integrating the products of semantic retrieval to evaluate whether distinct representations are analogous. Right dorsolateral PFC exhibited a profile consistent with a role in response selection rather than retrieval or integration. These findings indicate that verbal analogical reasoning depends on multiple, PFC-mediated computations.

  20. Integral equation theory study on the phase separation in star polymer nanocomposite melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Yi-Gui; Zhong, Chongli

    2007-10-21

    The polymer reference interaction site model theory is used to investigate phase separation in star polymer nanocomposite melts. Two kinds of spinodal curves were obtained: classic fluid phase boundary for relatively low nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength and network phase boundary for relatively high nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength. The network phase boundaries are much more sensitive with nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength than the fluid phase boundaries. The interference among the arm number, arm length, and nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength was systematically investigated. When the arm lengths are short, the network phase boundary shows a marked shift toward less miscibility with increasing arm number. When the arm lengths are long enough, the network phase boundaries show opposite trends. There exists a crossover arm number value for star polymer nanocomposite melts, below which the network phase separation is consistent with that of chain polymer nanocomposite melts. However, the network phase separation shows qualitatively different behaviors when the arm number is larger than this value.

  1. On the relationship between hurricane cost and the integrated wind profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Toumi, R.

    2016-11-01

    It is challenging to identify metrics that best capture hurricane destructive potential and costs. Although it has been found that the sea surface temperature and vertical wind shear can both make considerable changes to the hurricane destructive potential metrics, it is still unknown which plays a more important role. Here we present a new method to reconstruct the historical wind structure of hurricanes that allows us, for the first time, to calculate the correlation of damage with integrated power dissipation and integrated kinetic energy of all hurricanes at landfall since 1988. We find that those metrics, which include the horizontal wind structure, rather than just maximum intensity, are much better correlated with the hurricane cost. The vertical wind shear over the main development region of hurricanes plays a more dominant role than the sea surface temperature in controlling these metrics and therefore also ultimately the cost of hurricanes.

  2. Whatever the cost? Information integration in memory-based inferences depends on cognitive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Michalkiewicz, Martha; Castela, Marta; Pohl, Rüdiger F; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2015-05-01

    One of the most prominent models of probabilistic inferences from memory is the simple recognition heuristic (RH). The RH theory assumes that judgments are based on recognition in isolation, such that other information is ignored. However, some prior research has shown that available knowledge is not generally ignored. In line with the notion of adaptive strategy selection--and, thus, a trade-off between accuracy and effort--we hypothesized that information integration crucially depends on how easily accessible information beyond recognition is, how much confidence decision makers have in this information, and how (cognitively) costly it is to acquire it. In three experiments, we thus manipulated (a) the availability of information beyond recognition, (b) the subjective usefulness of this information, and (c) the cognitive costs associated with acquiring this information. In line with the predictions, we found that RH use decreased substantially, the more easily and confidently information beyond recognition could be integrated, and increased substantially with increasing cognitive costs.

  3. Cost and quality gains from diversification and vertical integration in the electricity industry: A DEA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the degree of economies of vertical integration, diversification and scale in the electricity industry by means of Data Envelopment Analysis. We estimate the impact that alternative forms of unbundling would have on the cost and quality of supply, measured as the number and duration of supply interruptions, in a group of Spanish electric utilities. We find evidence of the existence of cost and quality gains from integrating power generation and distribution in the range of 1.1 to 4.9%, whereas diversifying the source of power generation saves between 1.3 and 4.3% of costs and quality. Finally, the scale efficiency of the largest utilities could be improved by dividing them into smaller units, provided that their current vertical scope and generation-mix are preserved. (author)

  4. Cost and quality gains from diversification and vertical integration in the electricity industry: A DEA approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arocena, Pablo [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Dpto. Gestion de Empresas, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    This paper analyzes the degree of economies of vertical integration, diversification and scale in the electricity industry by means of Data Envelopment Analysis. We estimate the impact that alternative forms of unbundling would have on the cost and quality of supply, measured as the number and duration of supply interruptions, in a group of Spanish electric utilities. We find evidence of the existence of cost and quality gains from integrating power generation and distribution in the range of 1.1 to 4.9%, whereas diversifying the source of power generation saves between 1.3 and 4.3% of costs and quality. Finally, the scale efficiency of the largest utilities could be improved by dividing them into smaller units, provided that their current vertical scope and generation-mix are preserved. (author)

  5. The Assured Storage Integrated Management System: What is it and what will it cost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.A.; Newberry, W.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Assured Storage Integrated Management System for low-level radioactive waste as an alternative to traditional disposal is attracting favorable attention from many states, regulators, processors, and low-level radioactive waste generators. open-quotes Assured storageclose quotes is defined as a management system for safely isolating waste, while preserving options for its long-term management, through: robust, accessible facilities; planned preventive maintenance; and sureties adequate to address contingencies or implement future alternatives. Following introduction of the concept in RADWASTE Magazine, the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (among several others) requested a briefing on the idea. The Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service then requested that the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory evaluate the life cycle costs of the Assured Storage Integrated Management System versus traditional disposal. Building on some of that work, this paper discusses the concept of an Assured Storage Integrated Management System for low-level radioactive waste as well as examines cost elements of the Assured Storage Integrated Management System in comparison to traditional disposal facilities. Further analyses conducted for the Connecticut study will more clearly define and quantify potential differences in life-cycle costs between the Assured Storage Integrated Management System and traditional disposal

  6. Comparison of Actual Costs to Integrate Commercial Buildings with the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Black, Doug [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-01

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This paper discusses the impact factors that contribute to the costs of automated DR systems, with a focus on OpenADR 1.0 and 2.0 systems. In addition, this report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. In summary, median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude greater or less than median. Costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total such costs.

  7. Analysing the Costs of Integrated Care: A Case on Model Selection for Chronic Care Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Carreras

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to investigate whether the algorithm proposed by Manning and Mullahy, a consolidated health economics procedure, can also be used to estimate individual costs for different groups of healthcare services in the context of integrated care. Methods: A cross-sectional study focused on the population of the Baix Empordà (Catalonia-Spain for the year 2012 (N = 92,498 individuals. A set of individual cost models as a function of sex, age and morbidity burden were adjusted and individual healthcare costs were calculated using a retrospective full-costing system. The individual morbidity burden was inferred using the Clinical Risk Groups (CRG patient classification system. Results: Depending on the characteristics of the data, and according to the algorithm criteria, the choice of model was a linear model on the log of costs or a generalized linear model with a log link. We checked for goodness of fit, accuracy, linear structure and heteroscedasticity for the models obtained. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm identified a set of suitable cost models for the distinct groups of services integrated care entails. The individual morbidity burden was found to be indispensable when allocating appropriate resources to targeted individuals.

  8. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    Separation is an option when livestock are produced in livestock intensive areas producing a surplus of nutrients. Separation of the slurry into a liquid nitrogen rich fraction and a more solid phosphorus rich fraction, which is exported away from the farm, may alleviate this problem. Separation...

  9. SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF TWO MINOR COMPOUNDS FROM RADIX ISATIDIS BY INTEGRATIVE MPLC AND HSCCC WITH PREPARATIVE HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenjie; Li, Bin; Liang, Yong; Su, Yaping; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Radix isatidis has been widely used as a Chinese traditional medicine for its anti-virus and anticancer activities where the minor components may contribute to these beneficial pharmaceutical effects. In order to enrich the target minor compounds effectively and rapidly, extraction, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (pre-HPLC) were integratively used for separation and purification of two target minor compounds indole-3-acetonitrile-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (target 1) and clemastanin B (target 2) in the present study. Radix isatidis was dried, pulverized and extracted with 50% methanol at room temperature, then concentrated and subjected to pretreatment with D-101 macroporous resin chromatography and extraction by MPLC. The first target compound was separated by MPLC at the purity raised to 70-80%, but without the second minor compounds which were irreversibly adsorbed by C18 solid support. Therefore, the second target compound in the crude extract was directly separated by HSCCC at purity of 80-90%. Finally these refined samples were further separated by pre-HPLC to obtain a high purity at 98-99%. The chemical structure identification of each target compound was carried out by IR, ESI-MS and 1 H NMR.

  10. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2013-12-01

    , costs are one of the most dominant parameters in decision-making. Modern trends in this area comprehensively perceive all costs during the life cycle of assets.In general, in the analysis of costs in the life cycle of AME there are two sets of costs: visible and invisible (hidden costs. The visible part of the costs is mainly present in decision-making and usually includes the cost of equipping units or purchase of assets. The invisible part of the costs is far more significant. Although it is larger than the visible part and covers more groups of costs, decision-makers often do not take it into account. The hidden costs include: distribution costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, training costs, inventory costs, information systems costs, the cost of disposal and write-offs, etc. The decision making problem about investment in the AME purchase and equipping is obviously of  multicriteria nature, whether an optimum combination of costs for one  technical system (AME is in question, or whether it is a choice of a system of AME among many offered. COST ANALYSIS OF A PARTICULAR  ASSET For the illustration of an integrated approach to the analysis of the cost of assets in their life-cycle, a model from the US Naval Postgraduate School, was adjusted and applied on an example of a real asset. The model is applied to the case of two  squadrons of identical aircraft based at different airports. With regard to the availability, confidentiality, and the variability of costs and reliability of the elements of AME, the calculations in the model are implemented on the basis of the estimated or orientation parameters. Essentially, the goal is to demonstrate the interdependence, mutual relations and influences of parameters and their ultimate impact on the overall cost of military assets. Applying the model to a particular example points to the fact that, in the first years of asset life, the dominant cost is that of asset procurement (cost of acquisition, cost of assets

  11. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local "soft short circuits" in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data.

  12. Survey of Integration Cost-Adoption between Digital Library Systems in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alipour-Hafezi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article was identifying cost elements in syntactic integrating digital library systems in Iran. The levels of integration are content, technical, and organizational. It is obvious we could access some sub goals such as identifying current situation of information systems from the view points of data storage, needed standard outputs, and the current situation of interoperability in Iran, and suitable integration model in Iranian digital libraries. The analytical survey method was used in this research. Research population included 11 digital library systems that were used in Iranian digital libraries. In order to gather information, a researcher made questionnaire was used because of not existing standard collecting data tool. Findings demonstrated that we should search on three levels of interoperability: content, technical, and organizational level in order to identifying cost-adoption elements in syntactic interoperability. Also, findings showed that the elements of organizational level were too important level in cost-adoption elements. Also this research demonstrated that the high cost of adoption was related to libraries and their organizations.

  13. Cost-Based Vertical Handover Decision Algorithm for WWAN/WLAN Integrated Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim LaeYoung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Next generation wireless communications are expected to rely on integrated networks consisting of multiple wireless technologies. Heterogeneous networks based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs can combine their respective advantages on coverage and data rates, offering a high Quality of Service (QoS to mobile users. In such environment, multi-interface terminals should seamlessly switch from one network to another in order to obtain improved performance or at least to maintain a continuous wireless connection. Therefore, network selection algorithm is important in providing better performance to the multi-interface terminals in the integrated networks. In this paper, we propose a cost-based vertical handover decision algorithm that triggers the Vertical Handover (VHO based on a cost function for WWAN/WLAN integrated networks. For the cost function, we focus on developing an analytical model of the expected cost of WLAN for the mobile users that enter the double-coverage area while having a connection in the WWAN. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance in terms of power consumption and throughput than typical approach where WLANs are always preferred whenever the WLAN access is available.

  14. Intervention and societal costs of residential community reintegration for patients with acquired brain injury: a cost-analysis of the Brain Integration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heugten, Caroline M; Geurtsen, Gert J; Derksen, R Elze; Martina, Juan D; Geurts, Alexander C H; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the intervention costs of a residential community reintegration programme for patients with acquired brain injury and to compare the societal costs before and after treatment. A cost-analysis was performed identifying costs of healthcare, informal care, and productivity losses. The costs in the year before the Brain Integration Programme (BIP) were compared with the costs in the year after the BIP using the following cost categories: care consumption, caregiver support, productivity losses. Dutch guidelines were used for cost valuation. Thirty-three cases participated (72% response). Mean age was 29.8 years, 59% traumatic brain injury. The BIP costs were €68,400. The informal care and productivity losses reduced significantly after BIP (p costs per patient were €48,449. After BIP these costs were €39,773; a significant reduction (p costs after the BIP advocates the allocation of resources and, from an economic perspective, favours reimbursement of the BIP costs by healthcare insurance companies. However, this cost-analysis is limited as it does not relate costs to clinical effectiveness. :

  15. Closed cycle construction: an integrated process for the separation and reuse of C&D waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Evert; de Jong, Tako P R; Feenstra, Lourens

    2007-01-01

    In The Netherlands, construction and demolition (C&D) waste is already to a large extent being reused, especially the stony fraction, which is crushed and reused as a road base material. In order to increase the percentage of reuse of the total C&D waste flow to even higher levels, a new concept has been developed. In this concept, called 'Closed Cycle Construction', the processed materials are being reused at a higher quality level and the quantity of waste that has to be disposed of is minimised. For concrete and masonry, the new concept implies that the material cycle will be completely closed, and the original constituents (clay bricks, gravel, sand, cement stone) are recovered in thermal processes. The mixed C&D waste streams are separated and decontaminated. For this purpose several dry separation techniques are being developed. The quality of the stony fraction is improved so much, that this fraction can be reused as an aggregate in concrete. The new concept has several benefits from a sustainability point of view, namely less energy consumption, less carbon dioxide emission, less waste production and less land use (for excavation and disposal sites). One of the most remarkable benefits of the new concept is that the thermal process steps are fuelled with the combustible fraction of the C&D waste itself. Economically the new process is more or less comparable with the current way of processing C&D waste. On the basis of the positive results of a feasibility study, currently a pilot and demonstration project is being carried out. The aim is to optimise the different process steps of the Closed Cycle Construction process on a laboratory scale, and then to verify them on a large scale. The results of the project are promising, so far.

  16. Integral Cost-Benefit Analysis of Maglev Rail Projects Under Market Imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paul Elhorst

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates a new mode of high speed ground transportation, the magnetic levitation rail system (Maglev. The outcomes of this evaluation provide policy information on the interregional redistribution of employment and population and the national welfare improvement of two Dutch urban-conglomeration and two Dutch core-periphery projects. This article also compares the results of an integral cost- benefit analysis with those of a conventional cost-benefit analysis and concludes that the additional economic benefits due to market imperfections vary from –1% to +38% of the direct transport benefits, depending on the type of regions connected and the general condition of the economy.

  17. The Effects Of International Integration On Cost Of Equity: Application Of Turkey’s Tourism Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Sezgin; Kaderli, Yasemin Coşkun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the cost of equities of the companies listed in the BISTTRZM index in BORSAİSTANBUL were computed by using models which are based on the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). The results of models using local data were compared with the results of models using global data. Thus the effect of Turkey’s integration of international capital market on the cost of equity was measured. Local and Global Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), Multifactor Global CAPM, Bekaert – Harvey Mixtur...

  18. Integrating socio-economical dimensions in the ICRP cost-benefit model (a theoretical approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques.

    1981-09-01

    This report aims at analysing, from a methodological point of view, the main problems associated with the integration of socio-economical dimensions in the cost-benefit model recommended by the ICRP in its publication no. 26. After recalling the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis, the elements to be retained in the objective function characterizing the analysis, and the question of the social benefit definitions are discussed. The theory of social surplus with an illustration taken from the radiological protection field is presented [fr

  19. Impact and Cost Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Integration on Medium Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin; Pineau, Ulysse

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the impact of electric vehicle (EV) integration on medium voltage (MV) distribution networks and the cost evaluation of replacing the overloaded grid components. A number of EV charging scenarios have been studied. A 10 kV grid from the Bornholm Island...... in the city area has been used to carry out case studies. The case study results show that the secondary transformers are the bottleneck of the MV distribution networks and the increase of EV penetration leads to the overloading of secondary transformers. The cost of the transformer replacement has been...

  20. Large-scale offshore wind energy. Cost analysis and integration in the Dutch electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Noord, M.

    1999-02-01

    The results of analysis of the construction and integration costs of large-scale offshore wind energy (OWE) farms in 2010 are presented. The integration of these farms (1 and 5 GW) in the Dutch electricity distribution system have been regarded against the background of a liberalised electricity market. A first step is taken for the determination of costs involved in solving integration problems. Three different types of foundations are examined: the mono-pile, the jacket and a new type of foundation: the concrete caisson pile: all single-turbine-single-support structures. For real offshore applications (>10 km offshore, at sea-depths >20 m), the concrete caisson pile is regarded as the most suitable. The price/power ratios of wind turbines are analysed. It is assumed that in 2010 turbines in the power range of 3-5 MW are available. The main calculations have been conducted for a 3 MW turbine. The main choice in electrical infrastructure is for AC or DC. Calculations show that at distances of 30 km offshore and more, the use of HVDC will result in higher initial costs but lower operating costs. The share of operating and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs in the kWh cost price is approximately 3.3%. To be able to compare the two farms, a base case is derived with a construction time of 10 years for both. The energy yield is calculated for a wind regime offshore of 9.0 m/s annual mean wind speed. Per 3 MW turbine this results in an annual energy production of approximately 12 GWh. The total farm efficiency amounts to 82%, resulting in a total farm capacity factor of 38%. With a required internal rate of return of 15%, the kWh cost price amounts to 0.24 DFl and 0.21 DFl for the 1 GW and 5 GW farms respectively in the base case. The required internal rate of return has a large effect on the kWh cost price, followed by costs of subsystems. O ampersand M costs have little effect on the cost price. Parameter studies show that a small cost reduction of 5% is possible when

  1. Low-cost sensor integrators for measuring the transmissivity of complex canopies to photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A system has been designed, tested and evaluated for measuring the transmissivities of complex canopies to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The system consists of filtered silicon photocells in cosine corrected mounts with outputs integrated by the use of chemical coulometers. The reading accumulated by the coulometers was taken electronically by the use of microcomputers. The low-cost sensor integrators, which do not require batteries, performed as expected and proved ideal for the study of agroforestry systems in remote areas. Information on the PAR transmissivity of a temperate agroforestry system in the form of an intercropped orchard is also presented. (author)

  2. Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P. A.; Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.

    2017-01-01

    Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre...... barrier to gene flow in the wild. Cyprinid fishes commonly produce fertile, viable hybrid offspring and therefore make excellent study organisms to investigate ecological costs to hybrids. We electronically tagged two freshwater cyprinid fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus and bream Abramis brama...... to directly test for a predation cost to hybrids in the wild. Hybrid individuals were found significantly more susceptible to cormorant predation than individuals from either parental species. Such ecological selection against hybrids contributes to species integrity, and can enhance species diversification....

  3. An integrated TSP-GA with EOL cost model for selecting the best EOL option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakri Ghazalli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our research works on integrating design for disassembly with cost model for end-of-life (EOL product. This paper has two objectives. The first objective is to optimize disassembly sequence of the EOL product. We integrate a traveling salesman problem approach with genetic algorithm in finding the optimal disassembly sequence for disassembling the EOL product. Based on this optimal sequence, the second objective is to identify the best EOL option. We employ EOL profits and net present value of parts and subassemblies of the EOL product to determine the best EOL option of components and parts of the EOL product. The predicted results showed that the developed cost model has reached a good correspondence with the established methods.

  4. Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryaman, Dhanus; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove a mixture of 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water (total: 100 mg L -1 , each: 25 mg L -1 ). The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was 25.8 mg h -1 , whereas by the combined photocatalytic-biological treatment was 10.5 mg h -1 . After a large portion of biodegradable 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols, biorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO 2 particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency.

  5. Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryaman, Dhanus, E-mail: dhanussuryaman@yahoo.com [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, M.H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340 (Indonesia); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Hasegawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove a mixture of 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water (total: 100 mg L{sup -1}, each: 25 mg L{sup -1}). The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was 25.8 mg h{sup -1}, whereas by the combined photocatalytic-biological treatment was 10.5 mg h{sup -1}. After a large portion of biodegradable 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols, biorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO{sub 2} particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency.

  6. Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesh Iyer; Himanshu Gupta; Danny Wong; Liang-Shih Fan

    2005-09-30

    Hydrogen production from coal gasification can be enhanced by driving the equilibrium limited Water Gas Shift reaction forward by incessantly removing the CO{sub 2} by-product via the carbonation of calcium oxide. This project aims at using the OSU patented high-reactivity mesoporous precipitated calcium carbonate sorbent for removing the CO{sub 2} product. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the show the superior performance of the PCC sorbent over other naturally occurring calcium sorbents. Gas composition analyses show the formation of 100% pure hydrogen. Novel calcination techniques could lead to smaller reactor footprint and single-stage reactors that can achieve maximum theoretical H{sub 2} production for multicyclic applications. Sub-atmospheric calcination studies reveal the effect of vacuum level, diluent gas flow rate, thermal properties of the diluent gas and the sorbent loading on the calcination kinetics which play an important role on the sorbent morphology. Steam, which can be easily separated from CO{sub 2}, is envisioned to be a potential diluent gas due to its enhanced thermal properties. Steam calcination studies at 700-850 C reveal improved sorbent morphology over regular nitrogen calcination. A mixture of 80% steam and 20% CO{sub 2} at ambient pressure was used to calcine the spent sorbent at 820 C thus lowering the calcination temperature. Regeneration of calcium sulfide to calcium carbonate was achieved by carbonating the calcium sulfide slurry by bubbling CO{sub 2} gas at room temperature.

  7. Cost Analysis of Integrative Inpatient Treatment Based on DRG Data: The Example of Anthroposophic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Jürgen; Fiori, Wolfgang; Heusser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background. Much work has been done to evaluate the outcome of integrative inpatient treatment but scarcely the costs. This paper evaluates the costs for inpatient treatment in three anthroposophic hospitals (AHs). Material and Methods. Cost and performance data from a total of 23,180 cases were analyzed and compared to national reference data. Subgroup analysis was performed between the cases with and without anthroposophic medical complex (AMC) treatment. Results. Costs and length of stay in the cases without AMC displayed no relevant differences compared to the national reference data. In contrast the inlier cases with AMC caused an average of € 1,394 more costs. However costs per diem were not higher than those in the national reference data. Hence, the delivery of AMC was associated with a prolonged length of stay. 46.6% of the cases with AMC were high outliers. Only 10.6% of the inlier cases with AMC were discharged before reaching the mean length of stay of each DRG. Discussion. Treatment in an AH is not generally associated with an increased use of resources. However, the provision of AMC leads to a prolonged length of stay and cannot be adequately reimbursed by the current G-DRG system. Due to the heterogeneity of the patient population, an additional payment should be negotiated individually. PMID:23431346

  8. Cost Analysis of Integrative Inpatient Treatment Based on DRG Data: The Example of Anthroposophic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Much work has been done to evaluate the outcome of integrative inpatient treatment but scarcely the costs. This paper evaluates the costs for inpatient treatment in three anthroposophic hospitals (AHs. Material and Methods. Cost and performance data from a total of 23,180 cases were analyzed and compared to national reference data. Subgroup analysis was performed between the cases with and without anthroposophic medical complex (AMC treatment. Results. Costs and length of stay in the cases without AMC displayed no relevant differences compared to the national reference data. In contrast the inlier cases with AMC caused an average of € 1,394 more costs. However costs per diem were not higher than those in the national reference data. Hence, the delivery of AMC was associated with a prolonged length of stay. 46.6% of the cases with AMC were high outliers. Only 10.6% of the inlier cases with AMC were discharged before reaching the mean length of stay of each DRG. Discussion. Treatment in an AH is not generally associated with an increased use of resources. However, the provision of AMC leads to a prolonged length of stay and cannot be adequately reimbursed by the current G-DRG system. Due to the heterogeneity of the patient population, an additional payment should be negotiated individually.

  9. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, Marissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olsen, Daniel J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Matson, Nance [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rose, Cody [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ma, Ookie [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of a series stemming from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study. This study is a multi-national-laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response (DR) and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable resources and to improve our understanding of associatedmarkets and institutions. This report implements DR resources in the commercial production cost model PLEXOS.

  10. Social cost considerations and legal constraints in implementing modular integrated utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lede, N. W.; Dixon, H. W.; King, O.; Hill, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Social costs associated with the design, demonstration, and implementation of the Modular Integrated Utility System are considered including the social climate of communities, leadership patterns, conflicts and cleavages, specific developmental values, MIUS utility goal assessment, and the suitability of certian alternative options for use in a program of implementation. General considerations are discussed in the field of socio-technological planning. These include guidelines for understanding the conflict and diversity; some relevant goal choices and ideas useful to planners of the MIUS facility.

  11. Integrated Cost and Schedule using Monte Carlo Simulation of a CPM Model - 12419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulett, David T. [Hulett and Associates, LLC (United States); Nosbisch, Michael R. [Project Time and Cost, Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This discussion of the recommended practice (RP) 57R-09 of AACE International defines the integrated analysis of schedule and cost risk to estimate the appropriate level of cost and schedule contingency reserve on projects. The main contribution of this RP is to include the impact of schedule risk on cost risk and hence on the need for cost contingency reserves. Additional benefits include the prioritizing of the risks to cost, some of which are risks to schedule, so that risk mitigation may be conducted in a cost-effective way, scatter diagrams of time-cost pairs for developing joint targets of time and cost, and probabilistic cash flow which shows cash flow at different levels of certainty. Integrating cost and schedule risk into one analysis based on the project schedule loaded with costed resources from the cost estimate provides both: (1) more accurate cost estimates than if the schedule risk were ignored or incorporated only partially, and (2) illustrates the importance of schedule risk to cost risk when the durations of activities using labor-type (time-dependent) resources are risky. Many activities such as detailed engineering, construction or software development are mainly conducted by people who need to be paid even if their work takes longer than scheduled. Level-of-effort resources, such as the project management team, are extreme examples of time-dependent resources, since if the project duration exceeds its planned duration the cost of these resources will increase over their budgeted amount. The integrated cost-schedule risk analysis is based on: - A high quality CPM schedule with logic tight enough so that it will provide the correct dates and critical paths during simulation automatically without manual intervention. - A contingency-free estimate of project costs that is loaded on the activities of the schedule. - Resolves inconsistencies between cost estimate and schedule that often creep into those documents as project execution proceeds

  12. Cost reduction improvement for power generation system integrating WECS using harmony search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngonkham, S. [Khonkaen Univ., Amphur Muang (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Buasri, P. [Khonkaen Univ., Amphur Muang (Thailand). Embed System Research Group

    2009-03-11

    A harmony search (HS) algorithm was used to optimize economic dispatch (ED) in a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for power system integration. The HS algorithm was based on a stochastic random search method. System costs for the WECS system were estimated in relation to average wind speeds. The HS algorithm was implemented to optimize the ED with a simple programming procedure. The study showed that the initial parameters must be carefully selected to ensure the accuracy of the HS algorithm. The algorithm demonstrated that total costs of the WECS system were higher than costs associated with energy efficiency procedures that reduced the same amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 7 refs,. 10 tabs., 16 figs.

  13. Cost benefit risk - a concept for management of integrated urban wastewater systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauger, Mikkel B.; Rauch, W.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Urban wastewater systems should be evaluated and analysed from an integrated point of view, taking all parts of the system, that is sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving waters into consideration. Risk and parameter uncertainties are aspects that hardly ever have been addressed...... in the evaluation and design of urban wastewater systems. In this paper we present and discuss a probabilistic approach for evaluation of the performance of urban wastewater systems. Risk analysis together with the traditional cost-benefit analysis is a special variant of multi-criteria analysis that seeks to find...... the most feasible improvement alternative for an urban wastewater system. The most feasible alternative in this context is the alternative that has the best performance, meaning that the alternative has the lowest sum of costs, benefits and risks. The sum is expressed as the Net Present Cost (NPC). To use...

  14. Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shwetha Ramkumar; Mahesh Iyer; Danny Wong; Himanshu Gupta; Bartev Sakadjian; Liang-Lhih Fan

    2008-09-30

    High purity hydrogen is commercially produced from syngas by the Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR) in high and low temperature shift reactors using iron oxide and copper catalysts respectively. However, the WGSR is thermodynamically limited at high temperatures towards hydrogen production necessitating excess steam addition and catalytic operation. In the calcium looping process, the equilibrium limited WGSR is driven forward by the incessant removal of CO{sub 2} by-product through the carbonation of calcium oxide. At high pressures, this process obviates the need for a catalyst and excess steam requirement, thereby removing the costs related to the procurement and deactivation of the catalyst and steam generation. Thermodynamic analysis for the combined WGS and carbonation reaction was conducted. The combined WGS and carbonation reaction was investigated at varying pressures, temperatures and S/C ratios using a bench scale reactor system. It was found that the purity of hydrogen increases with the increase in pressure and at a pressure of 300 psig, almost 100% hydrogen is produced. It was also found that at high pressures, high purity hydrogen can be produced using stoichiometric quantities of steam. On comparing the catalytic and non catalytic modes of operation in the presence of calcium oxide, it was found that there was no difference in the purity of hydrogen produced at elevated pressures. Multicyclic reaction and regeneration experiments were also conducted and it was found that the purity of hydrogen remains almost constant after a few cycles.

  15. An integrated model for estimating energy cost of a tidal current turbine farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ye; Lence, Barbara J.; Calisal, Sander M.

    2011-01-01

    A tidal current turbine is a device for harnessing energy from tidal currents and functions in a manner similar to a wind turbine. A tidal current turbine farm consists of a group of tidal current turbines distributed in a site where high-speed current is available. The accurate prediction of energy cost of a tidal current turbine farm is important to the justification of planning and constructing such a farm. However, the existing approaches used to predict energy cost of tidal current turbine farms oversimplify the hydrodynamic interactions between turbines in energy prediction and oversimplify the operation and maintenance strategies involved in cost estimation as well as related fees. In this paper, we develop a model, which integrates a marine hydrodynamic model with high accuracy for predicting energy output and a comprehensive cost-effective operation and maintenance model for estimating the cost that may be incurred in producing the energy, to predict energy cost from a tidal current turbine farm. This model is expected to be able to simulate more complicated cases and generate more accurate results than existing models. As there is no real tidal current turbine farm, we validate this model with offshore wind studies. Finally, case studies about Vancouver are conducted with a scenario-based analysis. We minimize the energy cost by minimizing the total cost and maximizing the total power output under constraints related to the local conditions (e.g., geological and labor information) and the turbine specifications. The results suggest that tidal current energy is about ready to penetrate the electricity market in some major cities in North America if learning curve for the operational and maintenance is minimum. (author)

  16. A comparative thermodynamic, economic and risk analysis concerning implementation of oxy-combustion power plants integrated with cryogenic and hybrid air separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Bartela, Łukasz; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical model of an integrated oxy-combustion power plant. • Comparison of a hybrid membrane–cryogenic oxygen generation plant with a cryogenic plant. • Thermodynamic analysis of the modeled cases of the plant. • Comparative economic analysis of the power plant with cryogenic and hybrid ASU. • Comparative risk analysis using a Monte Carlo method and sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of two types of oxy-combustion power plant that differ from each other in terms of the method of oxygen separation. For the purpose of the analysis, detailed thermodynamic models of oxy-fuel power plants with gross power of approximately 460 MW were built. In the first variant (Case 1), the plant is integrated with a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU). In the second variant (Case 2), the plant is integrated with a hybrid membrane–cryogenic installation. The models were built and optimized using the GateCycle, Aspen Plus and Aspen Custom Modeller software packages and with the use of our own computational codes. The results of the thermodynamic evaluation of the systems, which primarily uses indicators such as the auxiliary power and efficiencies of the whole system and of the individual components that constitute the unit, are presented. Better plant performance is observed for Case 2, which has a net efficiency of electricity generation that is 1.1 percentage points greater than that of Case 1. For the selected structure of the system, an economic analysis of the solutions was made. This analysis accounts for different scenarios of the functioning of the Emission Trading Scheme and includes detailed estimates of the investment costs in both cases. As an indicator of profitability, the break-even price of electricity was used primarily. The results of the analysis for the assumptions made are presented in this paper. A system with a hybrid air separation unit has slightly better economic performance. The break-even price

  17. PET/CT and contrast enhanced CT in single vs. two separate sessions: a cost analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchio, M; Mansueto, M; Crivellaro, C; Guerra, L; Marcelli, S; Arosio, M; Sironi, S; Gianolli, L; Grimaldi, A; Messa, C

    2012-06-01

    Aim of the study was to quantify the economic impact of PET/CT and contrast enhanced (c.e.) CT performed in a single session examination vs. stand-alone modalities in oncological patients. One-hundred-forty-five cancer patients referred to both PET/CT and c.e. CT, to either stage (N.=46) or re-stage (N.=99) the disease, were included. Seventy-two/145 performed both studies in a single session (innovative method) and 73/145 in two different sessions (traditional method). The cost-minimization analysis was performed by evaluating: 1) institutional costs, data obtained by hospital accountability (staff, medical materials, equipment maintenance and depreciation, departments utilities); 2) patients costs, data obtained by a specific survey provided to patients (travel, food, accommodation costs, productivity loss). Economic data analysis showed that the costs for innovative method was lower than those of traditional method, both for Institution (106 € less per test) and for patient (21 € less per patient). The loss of productivity for patient and caregivers resulted lower for the innovative method than the traditional method (3 work-hour less per person). PET/CT and c.e. CT performed in a single session is more cost-effective than stand-alone modalities, by reducing both Institutional and patients costs. These advantages are mainly due to lower Institutional cost (single procedure) and to lower cost related to travel and housing.

  18. Integration of Mahalanobis-Taguchi system and traditional cost accounting for remanufacturing crankshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, M. Y.; Norizan, N. S.; Rahman, M. S. Abd

    2018-04-01

    Remanufacturing is a sustainability strategic planning which transforming the end of life product to as new performance with their warranty is same or better than the original product. In order to quantify the advantages of this strategy, all the processes must implement the optimization to reach the ultimate goal and reduce the waste generated. The aim of this work is to evaluate the criticality of parameters on the end of life crankshaft based on Taguchi’s orthogonal array. Then, estimate the cost using traditional cost accounting by considering the critical parameters. By implementing the optimization, the remanufacturer obviously produced lower cost and waste during production with higher potential to gain the profit. Mahalanobis-Taguchi System was proven as a powerful method of optimization that revealed the criticality of parameters. When subjected the method to the MAN engine model, there was 5 out of 6 crankpins were critical which need for grinding process while no changes happened to the Caterpillar engine model. Meanwhile, the cost per unit for MAN engine model was changed from MYR1401.29 to RM1251.29 while for Caterpillar engine model have no changes due to the no changes on criticality of parameters consideration. Therefore, by integrating the optimization and costing through remanufacturing process, a better decision can be achieved after observing the potential profit will be gained. The significant of output demonstrated through promoting sustainability by reducing re-melting process of damaged parts to ensure consistent benefit of return cores.

  19. Optimum value engineering and integrated design methods for reducing the cost of R-2000 houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G. [Proskiw Engineering Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Parekh, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Opportunities exist to reduce the incremental cost of R-2000 construction by using optimum value engineering (OVE) and integrated design (ID) techniques. OVE is a construction philosophy in which components and systems are designed to meet their intended purposes without excessive or unnecessary use of resources. This paper summarized a study that was designed to identify opportunities for reducing the costs of R-2000 houses while improving their performance. These included detailed energy and cost analysis of various OVE/ID options which were then applied to a sample of 18 representative new home designs from British Columbia, Manitoba, and New Brunswick. The paper described the OVE/ID measures studied, cost analysis, measure utilization and energy analysis. It also included a detailed discussion of individual OVE/ID measures. Examples of some of these measures were the elimination of floor system cross-bridging; support of non-load bearing partition walls; engineered wood beams; drywall clips at corners; and non-load bearing partition walls. It was concluded that significant opportunities exist to reduce the incremental cost of R-2000 houses through careful application of OVE and ID practices. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. MONITOR: A computer model for estimating the costs of an integral monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.; Sevigny, N.L.; Schutz, M.E.; Heller, R.A.

    1986-12-01

    The MONITOR model is a FORTRAN 77 based computer code that provides parametric life-cycle cost estimates for a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. MONITOR is very flexible in that it can estimate the costs of an MRS facility operating under almost any conceivable nuclear waste logistics scenario. The model can also accommodate input data of varying degrees of complexity and detail (ranging from very simple to more complex) which makes it ideal for use in the MRS program, where new designs and new cost data are frequently offered for consideration. MONITOR can be run as an independent program, or it can be interfaced with the Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation (WASTES) model, a program that simulates the movement of waste through a complete nuclear waste disposal system. The WASTES model drives the MONITOR model by providing it with the annual quantities of waste that are received, stored, and shipped at the MRS facility. Three runs of MONITOR are documented in this report. Two of the runs are for Version 1 of the MONITOR code. A simulation which uses the costs developed by the Ralph M. Parsons Company in the 2A (backup) version of the MRS cost estimate. In one of these runs MONITOR was run as an independent model, and in the other run MONITOR was run using an input file generated by the WASTES model. The two runs correspond to identical cases, and the fact that they gave identical results verified that the code performed the same calculations in both modes of operation. The third run was made for Version 2 of the MONITOR code. A simulation which uses the costs developed by the Ralph M. Parsons Company in the 2B (integral) version of the MRS cost estimate. This run was made with MONITOR being run as an independent model. The results of several cases have been verified by hand calculations

  1. The clinically-integrated randomized trial: proposed novel method for conducting large trials at low cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scardino Peter T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Randomized controlled trials provide the best method of determining which of two comparable treatments is preferable. Unfortunately, contemporary randomized trials have become increasingly expensive, complex and burdened by regulation, so much so that many trials are of doubtful feasibility. Discussion Here we present a proposal for a novel, streamlined approach to randomized trials: the "clinically-integrated randomized trial". The key aspect of our methodology is that the clinical experience of the patient and doctor is virtually indistinguishable whether or not the patient is randomized, primarily because outcome data are obtained from routine clinical data, or from short, web-based questionnaires. Integration of a randomized trial into routine clinical practice also implies that there should be an attempt to randomize every patient, a corollary of which is that eligibility criteria are minimized. The similar clinical experience of patients on- and off-study also entails that the marginal cost of putting an additional patient on trial is negligible. We propose examples of how the clinically-integrated randomized trial might be applied in four distinct areas of medicine: comparisons of surgical techniques, "me too" drugs, rare diseases and lifestyle interventions. Barriers to implementing clinically-integrated randomized trials are discussed. Conclusion The proposed clinically-integrated randomized trial may allow us to enlarge dramatically the number of clinical questions that can be addressed by randomization.

  2. State-based modeling of continuous human-integrated systems: An application to air traffic separation assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, Steven J.; Lagu, Amit; Kinnari, Jouko

    2010-01-01

    A method for modeling the safety of human-integrated systems that have continuous dynamics is introduced. The method is intended to supplement more detailed reliability-based methods. Assumptions for the model are defined such that the model is demonstrably complete, enabling it to yield a set of key agent characteristics. These key characteristics identify a sufficient set of characteristics that can be used to establish the safety of particular system configurations. The method is applied for the analysis of the safety of strategic and tactical separation assurance algorithms for the next generation air transportation system. It is shown that the key characteristics for this problem include the ability of agents (human or automated) to identify configurations that can enable intense transitions from a safe to unsafe state. However, the most technologically advanced algorithm for separation assurance does not currently attempt to identify such configurations. It is also discussed how, although the model is in a form that lends itself to quantitative evaluations, such evaluations are complicated by the difficulty of accurately quantifying human error probabilities.

  3. Integration of risk aversion in the evaluation of the external cost of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeckhoudt, L.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the external costs of fuel cycles used in the production of electricity are those imposed on society and environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. Within the evaluation of the external cost of the nuclear fuel cycle, the evaluation of a nuclear accident has to be addressed. For this purpose, the basic approach consists in calculating the expected value of various occident scenarios. the main criticism of this approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the average monetary value which corresponds in principle to the compensation of the consequences for each individual of the population affected by the accident. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for the integration of risk aversion, relying on the expected utility approach, as well as a numerical application based on the French data for the external cost of a nuclear accident. Although a huge range of values has been published for the relative risk aversion coefficient, it seems reasonable to adopt a value of 2 for the specific case of nuclear accident. This leads to an estimated multiplying coefficient approximately equal to 20 to be applied to the expected external cost of a nuclear accident corresponding to a release of about 1% of the core. In this case, the external cost of the nuclear accident is estimated to 0.046 mECU/kWh (i.e. about 50% of the total external costs of the nuclear fuel cycle estimated at 0.1 mECU/kWh with a 3% discount rate), instead of 0.0023 mECU/kWh without taking into account risk aversion. (authors)

  4. Integrated approach to optimize operation and maintenance costs for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    In the context of increasingly open electricity markets and the 'unbundling' of generating companies from former utility monopolies, an area of major concern is the economic performance of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. Nuclear power, inevitably, must compete directly with other electricity generation sources. Coping with this competitive pressure is a challenge that the nuclear industry should meet if the nuclear option is to remain a viable one. This competitive environment has significant implications for nuclear plant operations, including, among others, the need for the more cost effective management of plant activities, and the greater use of analytical tools to balance the costs and benefits of proposed activities, in order to optimize operation and maintenance costs, and thus insure the economic competitiveness of existing nuclear power plants. In the framework of the activities on Nuclear Economic Performance Information System (NEPIS), the IAEA embarked in developing guidance on optimization of operation and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants. The report was prepared building on the fundamental that optimization of operation and maintenance costs of a nuclear power plant is a key component of a broader integrated business strategic planning process, having as overall result achievement of organization's business objectives. It provides advice on optimization of O and M costs in the framework of strategic business planning, with additional details on operational planning and controlling. This TECDOC was elaborated in 2004-2005 in the framework of the IAEA's programme on Nuclear Power Plant Operating Performance and Life Cycle Management, with the support of two consultants meetings and one technical meeting and based on contributions provided by participants. It can serve as a useful reference for the management and operation staff within utilities, nuclear power plant operators and regulators and other organizations involved in

  5. Comparison of community-wide, integrated mass drug administration strategies for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a cost-effectiveness modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan C; Bogoch, Isaac I; Blackburn, Brian G; Raso, Giovanna; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Coulibaly, Jean T; Becker, Sören L; Abrams, Howard B; Utzinger, Jürg; Andrews, Jason R

    2015-10-01

    More than 1·5 billion people are affected by schistosomiasis or soil-transmitted helminthiasis. WHO's recommendations for mass drug administration (MDA) against these parasitic infections emphasise treatment of school-aged children, using separate treatment guidelines for these two helminthiases groups. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of expanding integrated MDA to the entire community in four settings in Côte d'Ivoire. We extended previously published, dynamic, age-structured models of helminthiases transmission to simulate costs and disability averted with integrated MDA (of praziquantel and albendazole) for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. We calibrated the model to data for prevalence and intensity of species-specific helminth infection from surveys undertaken in four communities in Côte d'Ivoire between March, 1997, and September, 2010. We simulated a 15-year treatment programme with 75% coverage in only school-aged children; school-aged children and preschool-aged children; adults; and the entire community. Treatment costs were estimated at US$0·74 for school-aged children and $1·74 for preschool-aged children and adults. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in 2014 US dollars per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. Expanded community-wide treatment was highly cost effective compared with treatment of only school-aged children (ICER $167 per DALY averted) and WHO guidelines (ICER $127 per DALY averted), and remained highly cost effective even if treatment costs for preschool-aged children and adults were ten times greater than those for school-aged children. Community-wide treatment remained highly cost effective even when elimination of helminth infections was not achieved. These findings were robust across the four diverse communities in Côte d'Ivoire, only one of which would have received annual MDA for both schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis under the latest WHO

  6. Helping To Integrate The Visually Challenged Into Mainstream Society Through A Low-Cost Braille Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée Jordan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The visually challenged are often alienated from mainstream society because of their disabilities. This problem is even more pronounced in developing countries which often do not have the resources necessary to integrate this people group into their communities or even help them to become independent. It should therefore be the aim of governments in developing countries to provide this vulnerable people group with access to assistive technologies at a low cost. This paper describes an ongoing project that aims to provide low-cost assistive technologies to the visually challenged in Barbados. As a part of this project a study was conducted on a sample of visually challenged members of the Barbados Association for the Blind and Deaf to determine their ICT skills, knowledge of Braille and their use of assistive technologies. An analysis of the results prompted the design and creation of a low-cost Braille device prototype. The cost of this prototype was about one-half that of a commercially available device and can be used without a screen reader. This device should help create equal opportunities for the visually challenged in Barbados and other developing countries. It should also allow the visually challenged to become more independent.

  7. International lessons in new methods for grading and integrating cost effectiveness evidence into clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antioch, Kathryn M; Drummond, Michael F; Niessen, Louis W

    2017-01-01

    Economic evidence is influential in health technology assessment world-wide. Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) can enable economists to include economic information on health care provision. Application of economic evidence in CPGs, and its integration into clinical practice and national decisio......-of-life, budget impact, cost-effective ratios, net benefits and disparities in access and outcomes. Priority setting remains essential and trade-off decisions between policy criteria can be based on MCDA, both in evidence based clinical medicine and in health planning....... that scores that checklist for grading studies, when assessing economic evidence. Cost-effectiveness Analysis (CEA) thresholds, opportunity cost and willingness-to-pay (WTP) are crucial issues for decision rules in CEA generally, including end-of-life therapies. Limitations of inter-rater reliability......, logistics, innovation price, price sensitivity, substitutes and complements, WTP, absenteeism and presentism. Supply issues may include economies of scale, efficiency changes, and return on investment. Involved equity and efficiency measures may include cost-of-illness, disease burden, quality...

  8. Cost reduction in PV manufacturing. Impact on grid-connected and building-integrated markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    In the past three years there have been several key events or changes that can lead to fully economic, massive deployment to the grid-connected and central PV markets. The factors discussed in this report include: (1) significant cost reduction in single crystal and polycrystal silicon so that modules profitably priced at $3.10-$3.30 per peak watt and installed grid-connected systems with installed cost of $5.50 per watt are being offered; (2) several new thin film plants - amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium diselenide are being built for 1996, 1997 production with greatly reduced costs; (3) government subsidized volume orders for PV in grid-connected houses (Japan, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the United States) provide volume (2000+ units per year) that lead to reduced costs; (4) environmental benefits for PV are being applied in Europe and Japan permitting 'early adopters' to enter the market; and (5) government and commercial acceptance of PV building integrated products, especially in Europe, are expanding PV markets. The combination of these forces lead to the prediction that an 'accelerated' market mode could start in the year 2000

  9. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting...... was adapted to better represent the efficiency of pulp and paper production. A multi-objective model for supply mix optimization was also developed using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Water footprint accounting confirmed the importance of the production efficiency of chemical pulp, which affected...

  10. Integrated engineering and cost model for management of coal combustion byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States); Renninger, S. [US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States)

    1998-07-01

    An integrated engineering and cost model has been developed as a part of an overall research project for exploring the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of disposing coal combustion byproducts and flue gas desulfurisation products in underground coal mines in Illinois. The features of the model have been keyed in user-friendly software. In this paper, the purpose and the structure of the model are described. The capabilities of the software are illustrated through an example involving transportation of byproducts in containers from a power plant to a mine site, and subsequent placement of the byproducts in a abandoned underground coal mine using a hydraulic injection system. 3 refs.

  11. A Transmission-Cost-Based Model to Estimate the Amount of Market-Integrable Wind Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    are made to share the expenses in transmission derived from their integration, they may see the doors of electricity markets closed for not being competitive enough. This paper presents a model to decide the amount of wind resources that are economically exploitable at a given location from a transmission......In the pursuit of the large-scale integration of wind power production, it is imperative to evaluate plausible frictions among the stochastic nature of wind generation, electricity markets, and the investments in transmission required to accommodate larger amounts of wind. If wind producers......-cost perspective. This model accounts for the uncertain character of wind by using a modeling framework based on stochastic optimization, simulates market barriers by means of a bi-level structure, and considers the financial risk of investments in transmission through the conditional value-at-risk. The major...

  12. A low cost and hybrid technology for integrating silicon sensors or actuators in polymer microfluidic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, Samuel; Gué, Anne-Marie; Tasselli, Josiane; Marty, Antoine; Abgrall, Patrick; Estève, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new technology permitting a hybrid integration of silicon chips in polymer (PDMS and SU8) microfluidic structures. This two-step technology starts with transferring the silicon device onto a rigid substrate (typically PCB) and planarizing it, and then it proceeds with stacking of the polymer-made fluidic network onto the device. The technology is low cost, based on screen printing and lamination, can be applied to treat large surface areas, and is compatible with standard photolithography and vacuum based approaches. We show, as an example, the integration of a thermal sensor inside channels made of PDMS or SU8. The developed structures had no fluid leaks at the Si/polymer interfaces and the electrical circuit was perfectly tightproof. (note)

  13. Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornell, Rickard; Berntsson, Thore

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important parameter for the profitability of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw material. The yield of ethanol is generally low due to the limited amount of fermentable compounds in the raw material. Increasing energy efficiency leads to possibilities of exporting more by-products, which in turn might reduce the net production cost of ethanol. Energy efficiency is also an important issue when discussing the repurposing of kraft pulp mills to biorefineries, since the mills in question most likely will be old and inefficient. Investing in energy efficiency measures might therefore have a large effect on the economic performance. This paper discusses energy efficiency issues related to the repurposing of a kraft pulp mill into a lignocellulosic ethanol production plant. The studied process is a typical Scandinavian kraft pulp mill that has been converted to a biorefinery with ethanol as main product. A process integration study, using pinch analysis and process simulations, has been performed in order to assess alternative measures for improving the energy efficiency. The improvements found have also been related to the possibilities for by-product sales from the plant (electricity and/or lignin). In a forthcoming paper, which is the second part of this process integration study, an economic analysis based on the results from this paper will be presented. - Highlights: ► Conversion of a kraft pulp mill to ethanol production. ► Heat integration of distillation/evaporation in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant. ► Advanced pinch curves used to find new integration possibilities. ► 35–40% reduction of steam demand.

  14. Emotional and Utilitarian Appraisals of Moral Dilemmas Are Encoded in Separate Areas and Integrated in Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Woodward, James; Rangel, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Moral judgment often requires making difficult tradeoffs (e.g., is it appropriate to torture to save the lives of innocents at risk?). Previous research suggests that both emotional appraisals and more deliberative utilitarian appraisals influence such judgments and that these appraisals often conflict. However, it is unclear how these different types of appraisals are represented in the brain, or how they are integrated into an overall moral judgment. We addressed these questions using an fMRI paradigm in which human subjects provide separate emotional and utilitarian appraisals for different potential actions, and then make difficult moral judgments constructed from combinations of these actions. We found that anterior cingulate, insula, and superior temporal gyrus correlated with emotional appraisals, whereas temporoparietal junction and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with utilitarian appraisals. Overall moral value judgments were represented in an anterior portion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Critically, the pattern of responses and functional interactions between these three sets of regions are consistent with a model in which emotional and utilitarian appraisals are computed independently and in parallel, and passed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex where they are integrated into an overall moral value judgment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Popular accounts of moral judgment often describe it as a battle for control between two systems, one intuitive and emotional, the other rational and utilitarian, engaged in winner-take-all inhibitory competition. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we identified distinct neural signatures of emotional and utilitarian appraisals and used them to test different models of how they compete for the control of moral behavior. Importantly, we find little support for competitive inhibition accounts. Instead, moral judgments resembled the architecture of simple economic choices: distinct regions represented emotional

  15. Emotional and Utilitarian Appraisals of Moral Dilemmas Are Encoded in Separate Areas and Integrated in Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcherson, Cendri A; Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Woodward, James; Rangel, Antonio

    2015-09-09

    Moral judgment often requires making difficult tradeoffs (e.g., is it appropriate to torture to save the lives of innocents at risk?). Previous research suggests that both emotional appraisals and more deliberative utilitarian appraisals influence such judgments and that these appraisals often conflict. However, it is unclear how these different types of appraisals are represented in the brain, or how they are integrated into an overall moral judgment. We addressed these questions using an fMRI paradigm in which human subjects provide separate emotional and utilitarian appraisals for different potential actions, and then make difficult moral judgments constructed from combinations of these actions. We found that anterior cingulate, insula, and superior temporal gyrus correlated with emotional appraisals, whereas temporoparietal junction and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with utilitarian appraisals. Overall moral value judgments were represented in an anterior portion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Critically, the pattern of responses and functional interactions between these three sets of regions are consistent with a model in which emotional and utilitarian appraisals are computed independently and in parallel, and passed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex where they are integrated into an overall moral value judgment. Significance statement: Popular accounts of moral judgment often describe it as a battle for control between two systems, one intuitive and emotional, the other rational and utilitarian, engaged in winner-take-all inhibitory competition. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we identified distinct neural signatures of emotional and utilitarian appraisals and used them to test different models of how they compete for the control of moral behavior. Importantly, we find little support for competitive inhibition accounts. Instead, moral judgments resembled the architecture of simple economic choices: distinct regions represented emotional

  16. CO2 CAPTURE PROJECT - AN INTEGRATED, COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR NEXT GENERATION CO2 SEPARATION, CAPTURE AND GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Helen Kerr

    2003-08-01

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) is a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, Eni, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (1) European Union (DG Res & DG Tren), (2) Norway (Klimatek) and (3) the U.S.A. (Department of Energy). The project objective is to develop new technologies, which could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies are to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. The project budget is approximately $24 million over 3 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: (1) Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. (2) Capture Technology, Post Combustion: technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. (3) Capture Technology, Oxyfuel: where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with high CO{sub 2} for storage. (4) Capture Technology, Pre -Combustion: in which, natural gas and petroleum coke are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. (5) Common Economic Model/Technology Screening: analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. (6) New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. (7) Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV): providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. (8) Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Technology development work dominated the past six months of the project. Numerous studies are making

  17. Fuzzy adaptive integration scheme for low-cost SINS/GPS navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammadi, Hossein; Keighobadi, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Due to weak stand-alone accuracy as well as poor run-to-run stability of micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors, special approaches are required to integrate low-cost strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) with global positioning system (GPS), particularly in long-term applications. This paper aims to enhance long-term performance of conventional SINS/GPS navigation systems using a fuzzy adaptive integration scheme. The main concept behind the proposed adaptive integration is the good performance of attitude-heading reference system (AHRS) in low-accelerated motions and its degradation in maneuvered or accelerated motions. Depending on vehicle maneuvers, gravity-based attitude angles can be intelligently utilized to improve orientation estimation in the SINS. Knowledge-based fuzzy inference system is developed for decision-making between the AHRS and the SINS according to vehicle maneuvering conditions. Inertial measurements are the main input data of the fuzzy system to determine the maneuvering level during the vehicle motions. Accordingly, appropriate weighting coefficients are produced to combine the SINS/GPS and the AHRS, efficiently. The assessment of the proposed integrated navigation system is conducted via real data in airborne tests.

  18. Integrating sequencing technologies in personal genomics: optimal low cost reconstruction of structural variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Du

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of human genome re-sequencing is obtaining an accurate assembly of an individual's genome. Recently, there has been great excitement in the development of many technologies for this (e.g. medium and short read sequencing from companies such as 454 and SOLiD, and high-density oligo-arrays from Affymetrix and NimbelGen, with even more expected to appear. The costs and sensitivities of these technologies differ considerably from each other. As an important goal of personal genomics is to reduce the cost of re-sequencing to an affordable point, it is worthwhile to consider optimally integrating technologies. Here, we build a simulation toolbox that will help us optimally combine different technologies for genome re-sequencing, especially in reconstructing large structural variants (SVs. SV reconstruction is considered the most challenging step in human genome re-sequencing. (It is sometimes even harder than de novo assembly of small genomes because of the duplications and repetitive sequences in the human genome. To this end, we formulate canonical problems that are representative of issues in reconstruction and are of small enough scale to be computationally tractable and simulatable. Using semi-realistic simulations, we show how we can combine different technologies to optimally solve the assembly at low cost. With mapability maps, our simulations efficiently handle the inhomogeneous repeat-containing structure of the human genome and the computational complexity of practical assembly algorithms. They quantitatively show how combining different read lengths is more cost-effective than using one length, how an optimal mixed sequencing strategy for reconstructing large novel SVs usually also gives accurate detection of SNPs/indels, how paired-end reads can improve reconstruction efficiency, and how adding in arrays is more efficient than just sequencing for disentangling some complex SVs. Our strategy should facilitate the sequencing of

  19. Planning and costing of agricultural adaptation in the the integrated hill farming systems of Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, Bikash; Tamang, B.B.; Lamsal, Krishna; Paudel, Pratima

    2011-09-15

    Despite an existing information gap in scientific evidence regarding the effects of future changes in climate patterns and options for the future, the community-based adaptation process should nevertheless be initiated. This requires community involvement through participatory planning in order to make use of local experiences and knowledge. The existing technologies at the community level, and among researchers supporting communities in undertaking adaptations to climate change, are currently inadequately disseminated. While the generation of additional technologies is regarded as a priority in the long term, transfer of already available technologies to the user community should be the immediate priority. The local adaptation plan of action (LAPA) is an effective means to mainstream adaptation options in national and local governmental plans, and to support local communities in planning for adaptation. Although the initial costs of defining this methodology are high, they will decrease as soon as it is evolved and scaled up. Hence, the adaptation costs and resulting benefits will also remain at the local level. The majority of the adaptation actions identified for the hill farming system in Nepal are long-term actions. In order to achieve sustainability, the adaptation actions should not be part of any project or one-time investment, but must be integrated into the regular agricultural development process. Adaptation priorities for the hill farming system of Nepal mainly incorporate improved practices for integrated soil, land, hedgerow and water management – for instance, through water harvesting and small-scale irrigation measures.

  20. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed.

  1. A cost-effective technique for integrating personal radiation dose assessment with personal gravimetric sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strydom, R.; Rolle, R.; Van der Linde, A.

    1992-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing awareness internationally of radiation levels in the mining and milling of radioactive ores, including those from non-uranium mines. A major aspect of radiation control is concerned with the measurement of radiation levels and the assessment of radiation doses incurred by individual workers. Current techniques available internationally for personnel monitoring of radiation exposures are expensive and there is a particular need to reduce the cost of personal radiation monitoring in South African gold mines because of the large labour force employed. In this regard the obvious benefits of integrating personal radiation monitoring with existing personal monitoring systems already in place in South African gold mines should be exploited. A system which can be utilized for this purpose is personal gravimetric sampling. A new cost-effective technique for personal radiation monitoring, which can be fully integrated with the personal gravimetric sampling strategy being implemented on mines, has been developed in South Africa. The basic principles of this technique and its potential in South African mines are described. 9 refs., 7 figs

  2. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlance, R.J.; Allain, C.J.; Laughton, P.J.; Henry, J.G.

    2003-07-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115 000 m{sup 3}/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Universite de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and ''cumulative effects'' as part of the overall biosolids management strategy is also discussed. (author)

  3. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

    2008-01-14

    The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

  4. Integrating cost information with health management support system: an enhanced methodology to assess health care quality drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, R; Tan, J K; Piontek, F A; Ziege, D E; Groot, H

    1999-08-01

    Changes in health care delivery, reimbursement schemes, and organizational structure have required health organizations to manage the costs of providing patient care while maintaining high levels of clinical and patient satisfaction outcomes. Today, cost information, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction results must become more fully integrated if strategic competitiveness and benefits are to be realized in health management decision making, especially in multi-entity organizational settings. Unfortunately, traditional administrative and financial systems are not well equipped to cater to such information needs. This article presents a framework for the acquisition, generation, analysis, and reporting of cost information with clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction in the context of evolving health management and decision-support system technology. More specifically, the article focuses on an enhanced costing methodology for determining and producing improved, integrated cost-outcomes information. Implementation issues and areas for future research in cost-information management and decision-support domains are also discussed.

  5. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: an integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  7. An integrated framework for cost- benefit analysis in road safety projects using AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mohamadian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost benefit analysis (CBA is a useful tool for investment decision-making from economic point of view. When the decision involves conflicting goals, the multi-attribute analysis approach is more capable; because there are some social and environmental criteria that cannot be valued or monetized by cost benefit analysis. The complex nature of decision-making in road safety normally makes it difficult to reach a single alternative solution that can satisfy all decision-making problems. Generally, the application of multi-attribute analysis in road sector is promising; however, the applications are in preliminary stage. Some multi-attribute analysis techniques, such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP have been widely used in practice. This paper presents an integrated framework with CBA and AHP methods to select proper alternative in road safety projects. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a case study of improving a road to reduce the accidents in Iran. The framework is used as an aid to cost benefit tool in road safety projects.

  8. MOCA: A Low-Power, Low-Cost Motion Capture System Based on Integrated Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Farella

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-computer interaction (HCI and virtual reality applications pose the challenge of enabling real-time interfaces for natural interaction. Gesture recognition based on body-mounted accelerometers has been proposed as a viable solution to translate patterns of movements that are associated with user commands, thus substituting point-and-click methods or other cumbersome input devices. On the other hand, cost and power constraints make the implementation of a natural and efficient interface suitable for consumer applications a critical task. Even though several gesture recognition solutions exist, their use in HCI context has been poorly characterized. For this reason, in this paper, we consider a low-cost/low-power wearable motion tracking system based on integrated accelerometers called motion capture with accelerometers (MOCA that we evaluated for navigation in virtual spaces. Recognition is based on a geometric algorithm that enables efficient and robust detection of rotational movements. Our objective is to demonstrate that such a low-cost and a low-power implementation is suitable for HCI applications. To this purpose, we characterized the system from both a quantitative point of view and a qualitative point of view. First, we performed static and dynamic assessment of movement recognition accuracy. Second, we evaluated the effectiveness of user experience using a 3D game application as a test bed.

  9. Process, cost modeling and simulations for integrated project development of biomass for fuel and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Wolff, D.M.B.; Souza Melo, H.N.

    1998-01-01

    The construction of the models for biomass project development are described. These models, first constructed using QPRO electronic spread sheet for Windows, are now being developed with the aid of visual and object oriented program as tools using DELPHI V.1 for windows and process simulator SUPERPRO, V.2.7 Intelligent Inc. These models render the process development problems with economic objectives to be solved very rapidly. The preliminary analysis of cost and investments of biomass utilisation projects which are included for this study are: steam, ammonia, carbon dioxide and alkali pretreatment process, methane gas production using anaerobic digestion process, aerobic composting, ethanol fermentation and distillation, effluent treatments using high rate algae production as well as cogeneration of energy for drying. The main project under developments are the biomass valuation projects with the elephant (Napier) grass, sugar cane bagasse and microalgae, using models for mass balance, equipment and production cost. The sensibility analyses are carried out to account for stochastic variation of the process yield, production volume, price variations, using Monte Carlo method. These models allow the identification of economical and scale up problems of the technology. The results obtained with few preliminary project development with few case studies are reported for integrated project development for fuel and protein using process and cost simulation models. (author)

  10. Integration of Kinect and Low-Cost Gnss for Outdoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaria, D.; Pinto, L.; Reguzzoni, M.; Rossi, L.

    2016-06-01

    Since its launch on the market, Microsoft Kinect sensor has represented a great revolution in the field of low cost navigation, especially for indoor robotic applications. In fact, this system is endowed with a depth camera, as well as a visual RGB camera, at a cost of about 200. The characteristics and the potentiality of the Kinect sensor have been widely studied for indoor applications. The second generation of this sensor has been announced to be capable of acquiring data even outdoors, under direct sunlight. The task of navigating passing from an indoor to an outdoor environment (and vice versa) is very demanding because the sensors that work properly in one environment are typically unsuitable in the other one. In this sense the Kinect could represent an interesting device allowing bridging the navigation solution between outdoor and indoor. In this work the accuracy and the field of application of the new generation of Kinect sensor have been tested outdoor, considering different lighting conditions and the reflective properties of the emitted ray on different materials. Moreover, an integrated system with a low cost GNSS receiver has been studied, with the aim of taking advantage of the GNSS positioning when the satellite visibility conditions are good enough. A kinematic test has been performed outdoor by using a Kinect sensor and a GNSS receiver and it is here presented.

  11. DIDEM - An integrated model for comparative health damage costs calculation of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravina, Marco; Panepinto, Deborah; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution represents a continuous hazard to human health. Administration, companies and population need efficient indicators of the possible effects given by a change in decision, strategy or habit. The monetary quantification of health effects of air pollution through the definition of external costs is increasingly recognized as a useful indicator to support decision and information at all levels. The development of modelling tools for the calculation of external costs can provide support to analysts in the development of consistent and comparable assessments. In this paper, the DIATI Dispersion and Externalities Model (DIDEM) is presented. The DIDEM model calculates the delta-external costs of air pollution comparing two alternative emission scenarios. This tool integrates CALPUFF's advanced dispersion modelling with the latest WHO recommendations on concentration-response functions. The model is based on the impact pathway method. It was designed to work with a fine spatial resolution and a local or national geographic scope. The modular structure allows users to input their own data sets. The DIDEM model was tested on a real case study, represented by a comparative analysis of the district heating system in Turin, Italy. Additional advantages and drawbacks of the tool are discussed in the paper. A comparison with other existing models worldwide is reported.

  12. INTEGRATION OF COST MODELS AND PROCESS SIMULATION TOOLS FOR OPTIMUM COMPOSITE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Seongchan [General Motors; Wilson, Daniel [General Motors; Aitharaju, Venkat [General Motors; Kia, Hamid [General Motors; Yu, Hang [ESI, Group.; Doroudian, Mark [ESI Group

    2017-09-05

    Manufacturing cost of resin transfer molded composite parts is significantly influenced by the cycle time, which is strongly related to the time for both filling and curing of the resin in the mold. The time for filling can be optimized by various injection strategies, and by suitably reducing the length of the resin flow distance during the injection. The curing time can be reduced by the usage of faster curing resins, but it requires a high pressure injection equipment, which is capital intensive. Predictive manufacturing simulation tools that are being developed recently for composite materials are able to provide various scenarios of processing conditions virtually well in advance of manufacturing the parts. In the present study, we integrate the cost models with process simulation tools to study the influence of various parameters such as injection strategies, injection pressure, compression control to minimize high pressure injection, resin curing rate, and demold time on the manufacturing cost as affected by the annual part volume. A representative automotive component was selected for the study and the results are presented in this paper

  13. The efficiency costs of separating carbon markets under the EU emissions trading scheme: A quantitative assessment for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Hoffmann, Tim; Manrique-de-Lara-Penate, Casiano

    2006-01-01

    From 1 January 2005 onwards the European Union has launched the first large-scale international carbon emissions trading program. As the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) covers only part of domestic carbon emissions, it implies a segmented environmental regulation scheme: Each EU Member State must specify additional domestic abatement policies for the sectors outside the EU-ETS in order to meet its emissions budget under the EU Burden Sharing Agreement. We highlight the generic problems of segmented carbon regulation in terms of information requirements for international carbon prices and domestic abatement costs of sectors outside the EU-ETS. Based on numerical simulations for Germany, we quantify the excess costs of segmented carbon regulation and conclude that inefficiencies can be much better explained by lobbying of influential EU-ETS sectors than by information problems. (Author)

  14. Costs and Operating Dynamics of Integrating Distributed Energy Resources in Commercial and Industrial Buildings with Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Robert Joseph

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions have increased the pressure to shift energy conversion paradigms from current forms to more sustainable methods, such as through the use of distributed energy resources (DER) at industrial and commercial buildings. This dissertation is concerned with the optimal design and dispatch of a DER system installed at an industrial or commercial building. An optimization model that accurately captures typical utility costs and the physical constraints of a combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is designed to size and operate a DER system at a building. The optimization model is then used with cooperative game theory to evaluate the financial performance of a CCHP investment. The CCHP model is then modified to include energy storage, solar powered generators, alternative fuel sources, carbon emission limits, and building interactions with public and fleet PEVs. Then, a separate plugin electric vehicle (PEV) refueling model is developed to determine the cost to operate a public Level 3 fast charging station. The CCHP design and dispatch results show the size of the building load and consistency of the thermal loads are critical to positive financial performance. While using the CCHP system to produce cooling can provide savings, heat production drives positive financial performance. When designing the DER system to reduce carbon emissions, the use of renewable fuels can allow for a gas turbine system with heat recovery to reduce carbon emissions for a large university by 67%. Further reductions require large photovoltaic installations coupled with energy storage or the ability to export electricity back to the grid if costs are to remain relatively low. When considering Level 3 fast charging equipment, demand charges at low PEV travel levels are sufficiently high to discourage adoption. Integration of the equipment can reduce demand charge costs only if the building maximum demand does not coincide

  15. III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringel, Steven [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlin, John A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Grassman, Tyler [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-04-17

    This FPACE project was motivated by the need to establish the foundational pathway to achieve concentrator solar cell efficiencies greater than 50%. At such an efficiency, DOE modeling projected that a III-V CPV module cost of $0.50/W or better could be achieved. Therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate, develop and advance a III-V/Si mulitjunction (MJ) CPV technology that can simultaneously address the primary cost barrier for III-V MJ solar cells while enabling nearly ideal MJ bandgap profiles that can yield efficiencies in excess of 50% under concentrated sunlight. The proposed methodology was based on use of our recently developed GaAsP metamorphic graded buffer as a pathway to integrate unique GaAsP and Ga-rich GaInP middle and top junctions having bandgaps that are adjustable between 1.45 – 1.65 eV and 1.9 – 2.1 eV, respectively, with an underlying, 1.1 eV active Si subcell/substrate. With this design, the Si can be an active component sub-cell due to the semi-transparent nature of the GaAsP buffer with respect to Si as well as a low-cost alternative substrate that is amenable to scaling with existing Si foundry infrastructure, providing a reduction in materials cost and a low cost path to manufacturing at scale. By backside bonding of a SiGe, a path to exceed 50% efficiency is possible. Throughout the course of this effort, an expansive range of new understanding was achieved that has stimulated worldwide efforts in III-V/Si PV R&D that spanned materials development, metamorphic device optimization, and complete III-V/Si monolithic integration. Highlights include the demonstration of the first ideal GaP/Si interfaces grown by industry-standard MOCVD processes, the first high performance metamorphic tunnel junctions designed for III-V/Si integration, record performance of specific metamorphic sub-cell designs, the first fully integrated GaInP/GaAsP/Si double (1.7 eV/1.1 eV) and triple (1.95 eV/1.5 eV/1.1 eV) junction solar cells, the first

  16. [Quality of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates prepared using automated system terumo automated centrifuge and separator integration (TACSI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, Agnieszka; Lipska, Alina; Rogowska, Anna; Bujno, Magdalena; Nedzi, Marta; Radziwon, Piotr

    2011-03-01

    Platelet recovery, and viability, and function is strongly dependent on the method of the preparation of platelet concentrate (PC). The glucose consumption, decrease of pH, release of alpha granules during storage in platelet concentrate impair their clinical effectiveness. To compare of the quality of buffy-coat-derieved platelet concentrates prepared using automatic system terumo automated centrifuge and separator integration (TACSI) and stored over 7 days. PCs were prepared from buffy coats using manual method (group I), or automatic system TACSI (group II). Fifteen PCs prepared from the 5 buffy coats each were stored over 7 days in 22-24 degrees C and tested. Samples were taken from the PCs container on days 1 and 7. The following laboratory tests were performed: number of platelets, platelets derived microparticles, CD62P expression, platelet adhesion, pH, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase activity. We have observed higher expression of CD62P in PCs prepared using manual method compared to the PCs produced automatically Platelet recovery was significantly higher in PCs prepared using automatic systems compare to manual method. Compared to manual methods, automatic system for preparation of buffy coats, is more efficient and enable production of platelets concentrates of higher quality.

  17. Integrated response and transit time distributions of watersheds by combining hydrograph separation and long-term transit time modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Roa-García

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new modeling approach analyzing and predicting the Transit Time Distribution (TTD and the Response Time Distribution (RTD from hourly to annual time scales as two distinct hydrological processes. The model integrates Isotope Hydrograph Separation (IHS and the Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH approach as a tool to provide a more realistic description of transit and response time of water in catchments. Individual event simulations and parameterizations were combined with long-term baseflow simulation and parameterizations; this provides a comprehensive picture of the catchment response for a long time span for the hydraulic and isotopic processes. The proposed method was tested in three Andean headwater catchments to compare the effects of land use on hydrological response and solute transport. Results show that the characteristics of events and antecedent conditions have a significant influence on TTD and RTD, but in general the RTD of the grassland dominated catchment is concentrated in the shorter time spans and has a higher cumulative TTD, while the forest dominated catchment has a relatively higher response distribution and lower cumulative TTD. The catchment where wetlands concentrate shows a flashier response, but wetlands also appear to prolong transit time.

  18. Environmental Assessment for the Commercial Demonstration of the Low NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Finney County, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    n/a

    2003-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Sunflower Electric Power Corporation (Sunflower), to demonstrate the commercial application of Low-NO{sub x} Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve NO{sub x} emission reduction to the level of 0.15 to 0.22 pounds per million British thermal units (lb/MM Btu). The proposed project station is Sunflower's 360 MW coal-fired generation station, Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station). The station, fueled by coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, is located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The period of performance is expected to last approximately 2 years. The Holcomb Station, Sunflower LNB/SOFA integrated system would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NO{sub x} control technologies. Once modified, the station would demonstrate that a unit equipped with an existing low-NO{sub x} burner system can be retrofitted with a new separated over-fire air (SOFA) system, coal flow measurement and control, and enhanced combustion monitoring to achieve about 45 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology alternative to Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. While SCR does generally achieve high reductions in NO{sub x} emissions (from about 0.8 lb/MM to 0.12 lb/MM Btu), it does so at higher capital and operating cost, requires the extensive use of critical construction labor, requires longer periods of unit outage for deployment, and generally requires longer periods of time to complete shakedown and full-scale operation. Cost of the proposed project technology would be on the order of 15-25 percent of that for SCR, with consequential benefits derived from reductions in construction manpower requirements and periods of power outages. This proposed technology demonstration would generally be applicable to boilers using opposed

  19. A Model of An Integration System for Operations and Cost Data Designed to Control Logistics Processes in Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Wajszczuk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model of an integration system for operations and cost data designed for the needs of process controlling in agricultural enterprises, with special emphasis on logistics processes. The proposed model constituted the basis for the development of an IT tool to be used in the identification and analysis of logistics costs in agricultural enterprises in terms of the process based approach. As a result of research and programming efforts a model was developed, which made it possible in agricultural enterprises to determine the type-based relationship of cost dynamics and structure with realized actions, operating processes (including logistics processes and products, as well as the relationship of these costs with used resources, maintained stocks, applied materials and work methods. Moreover, this model facilitates cost allocation to products and processes as well as cost centers and points, and makes it possible to determine multidimensional dependencies of the result (divided into individual products on incurred costs.

  20. International lessons in new methods for grading and integrating cost effectiveness evidence into clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioch, Kathryn M; Drummond, Michael F; Niessen, Louis W; Vondeling, Hindrik

    2017-01-01

    Economic evidence is influential in health technology assessment world-wide. Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) can enable economists to include economic information on health care provision. Application of economic evidence in CPGs, and its integration into clinical practice and national decision making is hampered by objections from professions, paucity of economic evidence or lack of policy commitment. The use of state-of-art economic methodologies will improve this. Economic evidence can be graded by 'checklists' to establish the best evidence for decision making given methodological rigor. New economic evaluation checklists, Multi-Criteria Decision Analyses (MCDA) and other decision criteria enable health economists to impact on decision making world-wide. We analyse the methodologies for integrating economic evidence into CPG agencies globally, including the Agency of Health Research and Quality (AHRQ) in the USA, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australian political reforms. The Guidelines and Economists Network International (GENI) Board members from Australia, UK, Canada and Denmark presented the findings at the conference of the International Health Economists Association (IHEA) and we report conclusions and developments since. The Consolidated Guidelines for the Reporting of Economic Evaluations (CHEERS) 24 item check list can be used by AHRQ, NHMRC, other CPG and health organisations, in conjunction with the Drummond ten-point check list and a questionnaire that scores that checklist for grading studies, when assessing economic evidence. Cost-effectiveness Analysis (CEA) thresholds, opportunity cost and willingness-to-pay (WTP) are crucial issues for decision rules in CEA generally, including end-of-life therapies. Limitations of inter-rater reliability in checklists can be addressed by including more than one assessor to reach a consensus, especially when impacting on treatment decisions. We identify priority areas to generate

  1. Integrated framework for the external cost assessment of nuclear power plant accident considering risk aversion: The Korean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the estimation of accident costs within the social costs of nuclear power plants (NPPs) has garnered substantial interest. In particular, the risk aversion behavior of the public toward an NPP accident is considered an important factor when integrating risk aversion into NPP accident cost. In this study, an integrated framework for the external cost assessment of NPP accident that measures the value of statistical life (VSL) and the relative risk aversion (RRA) coefficient for NPP accident based on an individual-level survey is proposed. To derive the willingness to pay and the RRA coefficient for NPP accident risks, a survey was conducted on a sample of 1550 individuals in Korea. The estimation obtained a mean VSL of USD 2.78 million and an RRA coefficient of 1.315. Based on the estimation results in which various cost factors were considered, a multiplication factor of 5.16 and an external cost of NPP accidents of 4.39E−03 USD-cents/kW h were estimated. This study is expected to provide insight to energy policy decision-makers on analyzing the economic validity of NPP compared to other energy sources by reflecting the estimated external cost of NPP accident into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. - Highlights: •External cost assessment framework for NPP is proposed considering risk aversion. •VSL was derived from WTP for mortality risk reduction from hypothetical NPP accident. •RRA was derived to integrate public risk aversion into external cost of NPP accident. •Individual-level survey was conducted to derive WTP and RRA for NPP accident risk. •The external cost was estimated considering the direct cost factors of NPP accident.

  2. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  3. Integrated Campaign Probabilistic Cost, Schedule, Performance, and Value for Program Office Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, David; Sasamoto, Washito; Daugherty, Kevin; Deacon, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated assessment tool developed at NASA Langley Research Center that incorporates probabilistic analysis of life cycle cost, schedule, launch performance, on-orbit performance, and value across a series of planned space-based missions, or campaign. Originally designed as an aid in planning the execution of missions to accomplish the National Research Council 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, it utilizes Monte Carlo simulation of a series of space missions for assessment of resource requirements and expected return on investment. Interactions between simulated missions are incorporated, such as competition for launch site manifest, to capture unexpected and non-linear system behaviors. A novel value model is utilized to provide an assessment of the probabilistic return on investment. A demonstration case is discussed to illustrate the tool utility.

  4. Integrated Cost-Benefit Assessment of Customer-Driven Distributed Generatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Zeljković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation (DG has the potential to bring respectable benefits to electricity customers, distribution utilities and community in general. Among the customer benefits, the most important are the electricity bill reduction, reliability improvement, use of recovered heat, and qualifying for financial incentives. In this paper, an integrated cost-benefit methodology for assessment of customer-driven DG is presented. Target customers are the industrial and commercial end-users that are critically dependent on electricity supply, due to high consumption, high power peak demand or high electricity supply reliability requirements. Stochastic inputs are represented by the appropriate probability models and then the Monte Carlo simulation is employed for each investment alternative. The obtained probability distributions for the prospective profit are used to assess the risk, compare the alternatives and make decisions.

  5. Photonic Integrated Circuits for Cost-Effective, High Port Density, and Higher Capacity Optical Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappa, Pierangelo

    Bandwidth-hungry services, such as higher speed Internet, voice over IP (VoIP), and IPTV, allow people to exchange and store huge amounts of data among worldwide locations. In the age of global communications, domestic users, companies, and organizations around the world generate new contents making bandwidth needs grow exponentially, along with the need for new services. These bandwidth and connectivity demands represent a concern for operators who require innovative technologies to be ready for scaling. To respond efficiently to these demands, Alcatel-Lucent is fast moving toward photonic integration circuits technologies as the key to address best performances at the lowest "bit per second" cost. This article describes Alcatel-Lucent's contribution in strategic directions or achievements, as well as possible new developments.

  6. Automatic monitoring of ecosystem structure and functions using integrated low-cost near surface sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.; Hwang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Near surface sensors are able to acquire more reliable and detailed information with higher temporal resolution than satellite observations. Conventional near surface sensors usually work individually, and thus they require considerable manpower from data collection through information extraction and sharing. Recent advances of Internet of Things (IoT) provides unprecedented opportunities to integrate various low-cost sensors as an intelligent near surface observation system for monitoring ecosystem structure and functions. In this study, we developed a Smart Surface Sensing System (4S), which can automatically collect, transfer, process and analyze data, and then publish time series results on public-available website. The system is composed of micro-computer Raspberry pi, micro-controller Arduino, multi-spectral spectrometers made from Light Emitting Diode (LED), visible and near infrared cameras, and Internet module. All components are connected with each other and Raspberry pi intelligently controls the automatic data production chain. We did intensive tests and calibrations in-lab. Then, we conducted in-situ observations at a rice paddy field and a deciduous broadleaf forest. During the whole growth season, 4S obtained landscape images, spectral reflectance in red, green, blue, and near infrared, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR), and leaf area index (LAI) continuously. Also We compared 4S data with other independent measurements. NDVI obtained from 4S agreed well with Jaz hyperspectrometer at both diurnal and seasonal scales (R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 0.059), and 4S derived fPAR and LAI were comparable to LAI-2200 and destructive measurements in both magnitude and seasonal trajectory. We believe that the integrated low-cost near surface sensor could help research community monitoring ecosystem structure and functions closer and easier through a network system.

  7. Life-Cycle Cost and Environmental Assessment of Decentralized Nitrogen Recovery Using Ion Exchange from Source-Separated Urine through Spatial Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvada, Olga; Tarpeh, William A; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-11-07

    Nitrogen standards for discharge of wastewater effluent into aquatic bodies are becoming more stringent, requiring some treatment plants to reduce effluent nitrogen concentrations. This study aimed to assess, from a life-cycle perspective, an innovative decentralized approach to nitrogen recovery: ion exchange of source-separated urine. We modeled an approach in which nitrogen from urine at individual buildings is sorbed onto resins, then transported by truck to regeneration and fertilizer production facilities. To provide insight into impacts from transportation, we enhanced the traditional economic and environmental assessment approach by combining spatial analysis, system-scale evaluation, and detailed last-mile logistics modeling using the city of San Francisco as an illustrative case study. The major contributor to energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was the production of sulfuric acid to regenerate resins, rather than transportation. Energy and GHG emissions were not significantly sensitive to the number of regeneration facilities. Cost, however, increased with decentralization as rental costs per unit area are higher for smaller areas. The metrics assessed (unit energy, GHG emissions, and cost) were not significantly influenced by facility location in this high-density urban area. We determined that this decentralized approach has lower cost, unit energy, and GHG emissions than centralized nitrogen management via nitrification-denitrification if fertilizer production offsets are taken into account.

  8. Screen printing as a scalable and low-cost approach for rigid and flexible thin-film transistors using separated carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuan; Chen, Haitian; Gu, Xiaofei; Liu, Bilu; Wang, Wenli; Cao, Yu; Wu, Fanqi; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-12-23

    Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes are very promising materials in printed electronics due to their excellent mechanical and electrical property, outstanding printability, and great potential for flexible electronics. Nonetheless, developing scalable and low-cost approaches for manufacturing fully printed high-performance single-wall carbon nanotube thin-film transistors remains a major challenge. Here we report that screen printing, which is a simple, scalable, and cost-effective technique, can be used to produce both rigid and flexible thin-film transistors using separated single-wall carbon nanotubes. Our fully printed top-gated nanotube thin-film transistors on rigid and flexible substrates exhibit decent performance, with mobility up to 7.67 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), on/off ratio of 10(4)∼10(5), minimal hysteresis, and low operation voltage (transistors (bent with radius of curvature down to 3 mm) and driving capability for organic light-emitting diode have been demonstrated. Given the high performance of the fully screen-printed single-wall carbon nanotube thin-film transistors, we believe screen printing stands as a low-cost, scalable, and reliable approach to manufacture high-performance nanotube thin-film transistors for application in display electronics. Moreover, this technique may be used to fabricate thin-film transistors based on other materials for large-area flexible macroelectronics, and low-cost display electronics.

  9. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF INTEGRATED SENSOR ORIENTATION WITH A LOW-COST GNSS RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs whose weight does not exceed 5 kg is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections, or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forest or agricultural fields. In these challenging scenarios, integrated sensor orientation (ISO improves effectiveness and accuracy. Furthermore, in block geometry configurations, this mode of operation allows mapping without ground control points (GCPs. Accurate camera positions are traditionally determined by carrier-phase GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System positioning. However, such mode of positioning has strong requirements on receiver’s and antenna’s performance. In this article, we present a mapping project in which we employ a single-frequency, low-cost (< $100 GNSS receiver on a MAV. The performance of the low-cost receiver is assessed by comparing its trajectory with a reference trajectory obtained by a survey-grade, multi-frequency GNSS receiver. In addition, the camera positions derived from these two trajectories are used as observations in bundle adjustment (BA projects and mapping accuracy is evaluated at check points (ChP. Several BA scenarios are considered with absolute and relative aerial position control. Additionally, the presented experiments show the possibility of BA to determine a camera-antenna spatial offset, so-called lever-arm.

  10. Stochastic integrated vendor–buyer model with unstable lead time and setup cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra K. Jaggi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vendor-buyer system where there are different objectives for both sides. The proposed method of this paper is different from the other previously published works since it considers different objectives for both sides. In this paper, the vendor’s emphasis is on the crashing of the setup cost, which not only helps him compete in the market but also provides better services to his customers; and the buyer’s aim is to reduce the lead time, which not only facilitates the buyer to fulfill the customers’ demand on time but also enables him to earn a good reputation in the market or vice versa. In the light of the above stated facts, an integrated vendor-buyer stochastic inventory model is also developed. The propsed model considers two cases for demand during lead time: Case (i Complete demand information, Case (ii Partial demand information. The proposed model jointly optimizes the buyer’s ordered quantity and lead time along with vendor’s setup cost and the number of shipments. The results are demonstrated with the help of numerical examples.

  11. An Integrated Modeling Approach to Evaluate and Optimize Data Center Sustainability, Dependability and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Callou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data centers have evolved dramatically in recent years, due to the advent of social networking services, e-commerce and cloud computing. The conflicting requirements are the high availability levels demanded against the low sustainability impact and cost values. The approaches that evaluate and optimize these requirements are essential to support designers of data center architectures. Our work aims to propose an integrated approach to estimate and optimize these issues with the support of the developed environment, Mercury. Mercury is a tool for dependability, performance and energy flow evaluation. The tool supports reliability block diagrams (RBD, stochastic Petri nets (SPNs, continuous-time Markov chains (CTMC and energy flow (EFM models. The EFM verifies the energy flow on data center architectures, taking into account the energy efficiency and power capacity that each device can provide (assuming power systems or extract (considering cooling components. The EFM also estimates the sustainability impact and cost issues of data center architectures. Additionally, a methodology is also considered to support the modeling, evaluation and optimization processes. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the adopted methodology on data center power systems.

  12. The cost of integration of parabolic trough CSP plants in isolated Mediterranean power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis; Kourtis, George

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a technical and economic analysis concerning the integration of parabolic trough concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies, with or without thermal storage capability, in an existing typical small isolated Mediterranean power generation system, in the absence of a feed-in tariff scheme, is carried out. In addition to the business as usual (BAU) scenario, five more scenarios are examined in the analysis in order to assess the electricity unit cost with the penetration of parabolic trough CSP plants of 50 MWe or 100 MWe, with or without thermal storage capability. Based on the input data and assumptions made, the simulations indicated that the scenario with the utilization of a single parabolic trough CSP plant (either 50 MWe or 100 MWe and with or without thermal storage capability) in combination with BAU will effect an insignificant change in the electricity unit cost of the generation system compared to the BAU scenario. In addition, a sensitivity analysis on natural gas price, showed that increasing fuel prices and the existence of thermal storage capability in the CSP plant make this scenario marginally more economically attractive compared to the BAU scenario. (author)

  13. The impact of clinical trial monitoring approaches on data integrity and cost--a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rasmus; Bihlet, Asger Reinstrup; Kalakou, Faidra; Andersen, Jeppe Ragnar

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring is a costly requirement when conducting clinical trials. New regulatory guidance encourages the industry to consider alternative monitoring methods to the traditional 100 % source data verification (SDV) approach. The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of publications on different monitoring methods and their impact on subject safety data, data integrity, and monitoring cost. The literature search was performed by keyword searches in MEDLINE and hand search of key journals. All publications were reviewed for details on how a monitoring approach impacted subject safety data, data integrity, or monitoring costs. Twenty-two publications were identified. Three publications showed that SDV has some value for detection of not initially reported adverse events and centralized statistical monitoring (CSM) captures atypical trends. Fourteen publications showed little objective evidence of improved data integrity with traditional monitoring such as 100 % SDV and sponsor queries as compared to reduced SDV, CSM, and remote monitoring. Eight publications proposed a potential for significant cost reductions of monitoring by reducing SDV without compromising the validity of the trial results. One hundred percent SDV is not a rational method of ensuring data integrity and subject safety based on the high cost, and this literature review indicates that reduced SDV is a viable monitoring method. Alternative methods of monitoring such as centralized monitoring utilizing statistical tests are promising alternatives but have limitations as stand-alone tools. Reduced SDV combined with a centralized, risk-based approach may be the ideal solution to reduce monitoring costs while improving essential data quality.

  14. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector.

  15. Does integrated care lead to both improved service quality and lower care cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeyer, Regina; Siegel, Achim; Daul, Gisela; Gaiser, Karin; Hildebrandt, Helmut; Köster, Ingrid; Schubert, Ingrid; Stunder, Brigitte; Stützle, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose and context ‘Gesundes Kinzigtal’ is one of the few population-based integrated care approaches in Germany, organising care across all health service sectors and indications. The management company and its contracting partners (the physicians’ network in the region and two statutory health insurers) strive to reach a higher quality of care at a lower overall cost as compared with the German standard. During its first two years of operation (2006–2007), the Kinzigtal project achieved surprisingly positive financial results compared with its reference value. To gain independent evidence on the quality aspects of the system, the management company and its partners provided a remarkable budget for its evaluation by independent scientific institutions. Case description and data sources We will present interim results of a population-based controlled cohort study. In this study, quality of care is checked by relying on health and service quality indicators that have been constructed from health insurers’ administrative data (claims data). Interim results are presented for the intervention region (Kinzigtal area) and the control region (the rest of Baden-Württemberg, i.e., Southwest Germany). Preliminary conclusions and discussion The evaluation of ‘Gesundes Kinzigtal’ is in full progress. Until now, there is no evidence that the surprisingly positive financial results of the Kinzigtal system have been achieved at the expense of care quality. Rather, Gesundes Kinzigtal Integrated Care seems to be about to increasingly realize comparative advantages regarding health service quality (in comparison to the control region).

  16. COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-01-01

    Coal-fired electric utilities are facing a serious challenge with regards to curbing their NO(sub x) emissions. At issue are the NO(sub x) contributions to the acid rain, ground level ozone, and particulate matter formation. Substantial NO(sub x) control requirements could be imposed under the proposed Ozone Transport Rule, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and New Source Performance Standards. McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Fuel Tech are teaming to provide an integrated solution for NO(sub x) control. The system will be comprised of an ultra low-NO(sub x) pulverized coal (PC) burner technology plus a urea-based, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system. This system will be capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO(sub x)/10(sup 6) Btu and target ammonia (NH3) slip level targeted below 5 ppmV for commercial units. Our approach combines the best available combustion and post-combustion NO(sub x) control technologies. More specifically, B and W's DRB-4Z TM ultra low-NO(sub x) PC burner technology will be combined with Fuel Tech's NO(sub x)OUT (SNCR) and NO(sub x)OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) systems and jointly evaluated and optimized in a state-of-the-art test facility at MTI. Although the NO(sub x)OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) system will not be tested directly in this program, its potential application for situations that require greater NO(sub x) reductions will be inferred from other measurements (i.e., SNCR NO(sub x) removal efficiency plus projected NO(sub x) reduction by the catalyst based on controlled ammonia slip). Our analysis shows that the integrated ultra low-NO(sub x) burner and SNCR system has the lowest cost when the burner emissions are 0.25 lb NO(sub x)/10(sup 6) Btu or less. At burner NO(sub x) emission level of 0.20 lb NO(sub x)/10(sup 6) Btu, the levelized cost per ton of NO(sub x) removed is 52% lower than the SCR cost

  17. Low cost, small form factor, and integration as the key features for the optical component industry takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattone, Francesco; Bonino, Stefano; Gobbi, Luigi; Groppi, Angelamaria; Marazzi, Marco; Musio, Maurizio

    2003-04-01

    In the past the optical component market has been mainly driven by performances. Today, as the number of competitors has drastically increased, the system integrators have a wide range of possible suppliers and solutions giving them the possibility to be more focused on cost and also on footprint reduction. So, if performances are still essential, low cost and Small Form Factor issues are becoming more and more crucial in selecting components. Another evolution in the market is the current request of the optical system companies to simplify the supply chain in order to reduce the assembling and testing steps at system level. This corresponds to a growing demand in providing subassemblies, modules or hybrid integrated components: that means also Integration will be an issue in which all the optical component companies will compete to gain market shares. As we can see looking several examples offered by electronic market, to combine low cost and SFF is a very challenging task but Integration can help in achieving both features. In this work we present how these issues could be approached giving examples of some advanced solutions applied to LiNbO3 modulators. In particular we describe the progress made on automation, new materials and low cost fabrication methods for the parts. We also introduce an approach in integrating optical and electrical functionality on LiNbO3 modulators including RF driver, bias control loop, attenuator and photodiode integrated in a single device.

  18. Motion estimation by integrated low cost system (vision and MEMS) for positioning of a scooter "Vespa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, A.; Milan, N.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the automotive sector, especially in these last decade, a growing number of investigations have taken into account electronic systems to check and correct the behavior of drivers, increasing road safety. The possibility to identify with high accuracy the vehicle position in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is also another topic which attracts lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate time by time the position, orientation and velocity of the system. To this aim low cost GPS and MEMS (sensors can be used. In comparison to a four wheel vehicle, the dynamics of a two wheel vehicle (e.g. a scooter) feature a higher level of complexity. Indeed more degrees of freedom must be taken into account to describe the motion of the latter. For example a scooter can twist sideways, thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well, since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion with respect to four wheel vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a motorcycle ("Vespa" scooter), which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on the integration of GPS and INS sensors. Position and orientation of the scooter are derived from MEMS data and images acquired by on-board digital camera. A Bayesian filter provides the means for integrating the data from MEMS-based orientation sensor and the GPS receiver.

  19. Assessment of environmental impacts and operational costs of the implementation of an innovative source-separated urine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igos, Elorri; Besson, Mathilde; Navarrete Gutiérrez, Tomás; Bisinella de Faria, Ana Barbara; Benetto, Enrico; Barna, Ligia; Ahmadi, Aras; Spérandio, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    Innovative treatment technologies and management methods are necessary to valorise the constituents of wastewater, in particular nutrients from urine (highly concentrated and can have significant impacts related to artificial fertilizer production). The FP7 project, ValuefromUrine, proposed a new two-step process (called VFU) based on struvite precipitation and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) to recover ammonia, which is further transformed into ammonium sulphate. The environmental and economic impacts of its prospective implementation in the Netherlands were evaluated based on life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and operational costs. In order to tackle the lack of stable data from the pilot plant and the complex effects on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), process simulation was coupled with LCA and costs assessment using the Python programming language. Additionally, particular attention was given to the propagation and analysis of inputs uncertainties. Five scenarios of VFU implementation were compared to the conventional treatment of 1 m 3 of wastewater. Inventory data were obtained from SUMO software for the WWTP operation. LCA was based on Brightway2 software (using ecoinvent database and ReCiPe method). The results, based on 500 iterations sampled from inputs distributions (foreground parameters, ecoinvent background data and market prices), showed a significant advantage of VFU technology, both at a small and decentralized scale and at a large and centralized scale (95% confidence intervals not including zero values). The benefits mainly concern the production of fertilizers, the decreased efforts at the WWTP, the water savings from toilets flushing, as well as the lower infrastructure volumes if the WWTP is redesigned (in case of significant reduction of nutrients load in wastewater). The modelling approach, which could be applied to other case studies, improves the representativeness and the interpretation of results (e.g. complex relationships

  20. Integrated distillation-membrane process for bio-ethanol and bio-butanol recovery from actual fermentation broths: Separation energy efficiency and fate of secondary fermentation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol and/or 1-butanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to convent...

  1. The integration of price/cost modelling and construction planning - the automated generation of construc­tion operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bowen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that traditional price/cost models are unrelated to the construction process renders them largely unsuited to the provision of meaningful price/cost advice. The nature and lengthiness of the construction planning process has precluded its incorporation into price/cost modelling during the pre-tender phase of the traditional building procurement process. The nub of the modelling problem has been how to integrate the complex process of construction planning into the pre-tender price/cost modelling process. In this paper the authors propose the synthesis of artificial intelligence techniques and construction planning techniques, resulting in a conceptual framework for a network-based cost modelling system for use by quantity surveyors in the cost modelling of buildings.

  2. Particle separations by electrophoretic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, N.E.; Petersen, S.L.; Ducatte, G.R.; Remcho, V.T.

    1996-03-01

    A new method for particle separations based on capillary electrophoresis has been developed and characterized. It uniquely separates particles according to their chemical nature. Separations have been demonstrated with chemically modified latex particles and with inorganic oxide and silicate particles. Separations have been shown both experimentally and theoretically to be essentially independent of particle size in the range of about 0.2 μm to 10 μm. The method has been applied to separations of U0 2 particles from environmental particulate material. For this, an integrated method was developed for capillary electrophoretic separation, collection of separated fractions, and determinations of U0 2 and environmental particles in each fraction. Experimental runs with the integrated method on mixtures of UO 2 particles and environmental particulate material demonstrated enrichment factors of 20 for UO 2 particles in respect to environmental particles in the U0 2 containing fractions. This enrichment factor reduces the costs and time for processing particulate samples by the lexan process by a factor of about 20

  3. A single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated inventory model with ordering cost reduction dependent on lead time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayashree, M.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-09-01

    Lead time is one of the major limits that affect planning at every stage of the supply chain system. In this paper, we study a continuous review inventory model. This paper investigates the ordering cost reductions are dependent on lead time. This study addressed two-echelon supply chain problem consisting of a single vendor and a single buyer. The main contribution of this study is that the integrated total cost of the single vendor and the single buyer integrated system is analyzed by adopting two different (linear and logarithmic) types ordering cost reductions act dependent on lead time. In both cases, we develop effective solution procedures for finding the optimal solution and then illustrative numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The solution procedure is to determine the optimal solutions of order quantity, ordering cost, lead time and the number of deliveries from the single vendor and the single buyer in one production run, so that the integrated total cost incurred has the minimum value. Ordering cost reduction is the main aspect of the proposed model. A numerical example is given to validate the model. Numerical example solved by using Matlab software. The mathematical model is solved analytically by minimizing the integrated total cost. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is included and the numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The results obtained in this paper are illustrated with the help of numerical examples. The sensitivity of the proposed model has been checked with respect to the various major parameters of the system. Results reveal that the proposed integrated inventory model is more applicable for the supply chain manufacturing system. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed. Finally, the graphical representation is presented to illustrate the proposed model and also include the computer flowchart in each model.

  4. The (cost-)effectiveness of preventive, integrated care for community-dwelling frail older people: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Wilhelmina Mijntje; Huijsman, Robbert; Fabbricotti, Isabelle Natalina

    2018-04-17

    Integrated care is increasingly promoted as an effective and cost-effective way to organise care for community-dwelling frail older people with complex problems but the question remains whether high expectations are justified. Our study aims to systematically review the empirical evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive, integrated care for community-dwelling frail older people and close attention is paid to the elements and levels of integration of the interventions. We searched nine databases for eligible studies until May 2016 with a comparison group and reporting at least one outcome regarding effectiveness or cost-effectiveness. We identified 2,998 unique records and, after exclusions, selected 46 studies on 29 interventions. We assessed the quality of the included studies with the Effective Practice and Organization of Care risk-of-bias tool. The interventions were described following Rainbow Model of Integrated Care framework by Valentijn. Our systematic review reveals that the majority of the reported outcomes in the studies on preventive, integrated care show no effects. In terms of health outcomes, effectiveness is demonstrated most often for seldom-reported outcomes such as well-being. Outcomes regarding informal caregivers and professionals are rarely considered and negligible. Most promising are the care process outcomes that did improve for preventive, integrated care interventions as compared to usual care. Healthcare utilisation was the most reported outcome but we found mixed results. Evidence for cost-effectiveness is limited. High expectations should be tempered given this limited and fragmented evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive, integrated care for frail older people. Future research should focus on unravelling the heterogeneity of frailty and on exploring what outcomes among frail older people may realistically be expected. © 2018 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community

  5. Cost-Benefit Study of a Project to Lower Cost and Improve Fleet Readiness through Integrating the Management of Technical Information

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This paper describes a cost-benefit analysis by the Institute for Defense Analyses of the ''Bridge Project'' that ADL (Advanced Distributed Learning) is conducting for the Office of Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (OSD(AT&L) to improve the management of Integrated Logistics Support (ILS). The Project is part of the OSD RTOC program (Reduction in Total ...

  6. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  7. Integrated Cost and Schedule Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Leveraging Strategic Advantages to Owners and EPC Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the owners expect that the cost and time for nuclear power plant construction would decrease with new entrants into the market, there will be severer competition in the nuclear industry. In order to achieve performance improvement and to attain competitive advantages under the globalized competition, practitioners and researchers in the nuclear industry have recently exerted efforts to develop an advanced and efficient management methodology for the nuclear mega-projects. Among several candidates, integrated cost and schedule control system is of great concern because it can effectively manage the three most important project performances including cost, time, and quality. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to develop a project numbering system (PNS of integrated cost and schedule control system for nuclear power plant construction. Distinct attributes of nuclear power plant construction were investigated first in order to identify influencing variables that characterize real-world implementation of advanced cost and schedule controls. A scenario was then developed and analysed to simulate a case-project. By using this case-project, proposed management requirements, management methods, measurement techniques, data structure, and data collection methods for integrated cost and schedule PNS were illustrated. Finally, findings and implications are outlined, and recommendations for further research are presented.

  8. Integrated analysis of water quality parameters for cost-effective faecal pollution management in river catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane; Ebdon, James Edward; Taylor, Huw David

    2011-03-01

    In many parts of the world, microbial contamination of surface waters used for drinking, recreation, and shellfishery remains a pervasive risk to human health, especially in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDC). However, the capacity to provide effective management strategies to break the waterborne route to human infection is often thwarted by our inability to identify the source of microbial contamination. Microbial Source Tracking (MST) has potential to improve water quality management in complex river catchments that are either routinely, or intermittently contaminated by faecal material from one or more sources, by attributing faecal loads to their human or non-human sources, and thereby supporting more rational approaches to microbial risk assessment. The River Ouse catchment in southeast England (U.K.) was used as a model with which to investigate the integration and application of a novel and simple MST approach to monitor microbial water quality over one calendar year, thereby encompassing a range of meteorological conditions. A key objective of the work was to develop simple low-cost protocols that could be easily replicated. Bacteriophages (viruses) capable of infecting a human specific strain of Bacteroides GB-124, and their correlation with presumptive Escherichia coli, were used to distinguish sources of faecal pollution. The results reported here suggest that in this river catchment the principal source of faecal pollution in most instances was non-human in origin. During storm events, presumptive E. coli and presumptive intestinal enterococci levels were 1.1-1.2 logs higher than during dry weather conditions, and levels of the faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) were closely associated with increased turbidity levels (presumptive E. coli and turbidity, r = 0.43). Spatio-temporal variation in microbial water quality parameters was accounted for by three principal components (67.6%). Cluster Analysis, reduced the fourteen monitoring sites to six

  9. The next generation of urban MACCs. Reassessing the cost-effectiveness of urban mitigation options by integrating a systemic approach and social costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saujot, Mathieu; Lefèvre, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Many cities are implementing policies and climate action plans. Yet local climate policies suffer from a lack of scientific understanding and evaluation methods able to support the definition of efficient mitigation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to build on classical approaches in the energy policy field that exist at the national and international level to propose an urban MACCs methodology able to fulfill this lack and inform local debates. The methodology is an extension of static “expert-based” MACCs; it combines a land use transport integrated model and an abatement cost methodology that integrates co-benefits, and takes into account the spatial and systemic dimensions of cities. The methodology is implemented for the transportation sector of a mid-sized European city (Grenoble, France). Our results present the cost-effectiveness and political feasibility of several proposed measures. We find that the inclusion of co-benefits can profoundly change the cost-benefit assessment of transport mitigation options. Moreover we underline the key parameters determining the cost-effectiveness ranking of mitigation options. These urban MACCs aim to serve as a bridge between urban planning and mitigation policies and can thus contribute to strengthen and align sustainable and climate change agendas at the local level. - Highlights: •Local climate policies lack scientific understanding for prioritizing mitigation actions. •We develop a method to evaluate cost-effectiveness of urban transportation actions. •This method combines urban modeling and MACCs to inform urban planning. •Abatement costs from its application to a mid-sized city are presented. •The impact of the inclusion of co-benefits is analyzed.

  10. Expected value analysis for integrated supplier selection and inventory control of multi-product inventory system with fuzzy cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Widowati, Tjahjana, R. Heru

    2017-12-01

    The future cost in many industrial problem is obviously uncertain. Then a mathematical analysis for a problem with uncertain cost is needed. In this article, we deals with the fuzzy expected value analysis to solve an integrated supplier selection and supplier selection problem with uncertain cost where the costs uncertainty is approached by a fuzzy variable. We formulate the mathematical model of the problems fuzzy expected value based quadratic optimization with total cost objective function and solve it by using expected value based fuzzy programming. From the numerical examples result performed by the authors, the supplier selection problem was solved i.e. the optimal supplier was selected for each time period where the optimal product volume of all product that should be purchased from each supplier for each time period was determined and the product stock level was controlled as decided by the authors i.e. it was followed the given reference level.

  11. A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingchao; Zhang Chun; Chi Baoyong; Wang Ziqiang; Li Fule; Wang Zhihua

    2009-01-01

    A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications is implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. The transceiver contains an OOK modulator and a power amplifier in the transmitter chain, an IQ direct-down converter, variable-gain amplifiers, channel-select filters and a 10-bit ADC in the receiver chain. The measured output P 1DB power of the transmitter is 17.6 dBm and the measured receiver sensitivity is -70 dBm. The on-chip integer N synthesizer achieves a frequency resolution of 200 kHz with a phase noise of -104 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz frequency offset and -120.83 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset. The transmitter, the receiver and the frequency synthesizer consume 201.34, 25.3 and 54 mW, respectively. The chip has a die area of 4 x 2.5 mm 2 including pads.

  12. Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal Biofuels at the National Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Fishman, Daniel; Frank, Edward D.; Johnson, Michael C.; Jones, Susanne B.; Kinchin, Christopher; Skaggs, Richard; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-04-21

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr-1 (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and inter-annual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, and economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  13. A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jingchao; Zhang Chun; Chi Baoyong; Wang Ziqiang; Li Fule; Wang Zhihua, E-mail: wangjc@gmail.co [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications is implemented in a 0.18-{mu}m CMOS process. The transceiver contains an OOK modulator and a power amplifier in the transmitter chain, an IQ direct-down converter, variable-gain amplifiers, channel-select filters and a 10-bit ADC in the receiver chain. The measured output P{sub 1DB} power of the transmitter is 17.6 dBm and the measured receiver sensitivity is -70 dBm. The on-chip integer N synthesizer achieves a frequency resolution of 200 kHz with a phase noise of -104 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz frequency offset and -120.83 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset. The transmitter, the receiver and the frequency synthesizer consume 201.34, 25.3 and 54 mW, respectively. The chip has a die area of 4 x 2.5 mm{sup 2} including pads.

  14. China's bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E

    2013-04-02

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering from the city's social costs. This paper presents evidence supporting the claim that China's bullet trains are playing this role. The bullet train is regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. Starting in 2007, China has introduced several new bullet trains that connect megacities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou with nearby cities. Through facilitating market integration, bullet trains will stimulate the development of second- and third-tier cities. By offering households and firms a larger menu of location alternatives, bullet trains help to protect the quality of life of the growing urban population. We document that this transport innovation is associated with rising real estate prices in the nearby secondary cities.

  15. A low cost, printed microwave based level sensor with integrated oscillator readout circuitry

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2017-10-24

    This paper presents an extremely low cost, tube conformable, printed T-resonator based microwave level sensor, whose resonance frequency shifts by changing the level of fluids inside the tube. Printed T-resonator forms the frequency selective element of the tunable oscillator. Unlike typical band-pass resonators, T-resonator has a band-notch characteristics because of which it has been integrated with an unstable amplifying unit having negative resistance in the desired frequency range. Magnitude and phase of input reflection coefficient of the transistor has been optimized over the desired frequency range. Phase flattening technique has been introduced to maximize the frequency shift of the oscillator. With the help of this technique, we were able to enhance the percentage tuning of the oscillator manifolds which resulted into a level sensor with higher sensitivity. The interface level of fluids (oil and water in our case) causes a relative change in oscillation frequency by more than 50% compared to maximum frequency shift of 8% reported earlier with dielectric tunable oscillators.

  16. Adaption to extreme rainfall with open urban drainage system: an integrated hydrological cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a cross-disciplinary framework for assessment of climate change adaptation to increased precipitation extremes considering pluvial flood risk as well as additional environmental services provided by some of the adaptation options. The ability of adaptation alternatives to cope with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas. The framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental amenity effects, an integration of open drainage basins in urban recreational areas is likely the best adaptation strategy, followed by pipe enlargement and local infiltration strategies. All three were improvements compared to the fourth strategy of no measures taken.

  17. A Cost Effective Security Technology Integrated with RFID Based Automated Toll Collection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiya Hossain

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crime statistics and research on criminology show that under similar circumstances,crimes are more likely to occur in developing countries than in developed countries due to their lack ofsecurity measures. Transport crimes on highways and bridges are one of the most common crimes in the developing nations. Automation of various systems like the toll collection system is being introduced in the developing countries to avoid corruption in the collection of toll, decrease cost and increase operational efficiency. The goal of this research is to find an integrated solution that enhances security along with the advantage of automated toll collection. Inspired by the availability of many security systems, this research presents a system that can block a specific vehicle or a particular type of vehicles at the toll booths based on directives from the law enforcement agencies. The heart of the system is based on RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology. In this system, by sending a text message the law enforcement agency or the authority that controls the toll booths can prevent the barrier from being liftedeven after deduction of the toll charge if the passing vehicle has a security issue. The designed system should help the effort of reducing transport crimes on highways and bridges of developing countries.

  18. Integrated evaluation of cost, emissions, and resource potential for algal biofuels at the national scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan E; Fishman, Daniel B; Frank, Edward D; Johnson, Michael C; Jones, Susanne B; Kinchin, Christopher M; Skaggs, Richard L; Venteris, Erik R; Wigmosta, Mark S

    2014-05-20

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr(-1) (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and interannual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, but economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  19. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  20. A framework and review of customer outage costs: Integration and analysis of electric utility outage cost surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Leora; Sullivan, Michael; Van Liere, Kent; Katz, Aaron; Eto, Joseph

    2003-11-01

    A clear understanding of the monetary value that customers place on reliability and the factors that give rise to higher and lower values is an essential tool in determining investment in the grid. The recent National Transmission Grid Study recognizes the need for this information as one of growing importance for both public and private decision makers. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has undertaken this study, as a first step toward addressing the current absence of consistent data needed to support better estimates of the economic value of electricity reliability. Twenty-four studies, conducted by eight electric utilities between 1989 and 2002 representing residential and commercial/industrial (small, medium and large) customer groups, were chosen for analysis. The studies cover virtually all of the Southeast, most of the western United States, including California, rural Washington and Oregon, and the Midwest south and east of Chicago. All variables were standardized to a consistent metric and dollar amounts were adjusted to the 2002 CPI. The data were then incorporated into a meta-database in which each outage scenario (e.g., the lost of electric service for one hour on a weekday summer afternoon) is treated as an independent case or record both to permit comparisons between outage characteristics and to increase the statistical power of analysis results. Unadjusted average outage costs and Tobit models that estimate customer damage functions are presented. The customer damage functions express customer outage costs for a given outage scenario and customer class as a function of location, time of day, consumption, and business type. One can use the damage functions to calculate outage costs for specific customer types. For example, using the customer damage functions, the cost experienced by an ''average'' customer resulting from a 1 hour summer afternoon outage is estimated to be approximately $3 for a residential customer, $1

  1. Improved concentration and separation of particles in a 3D dielectrophoretic chip integrating focusing, aligning and trapping

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming; Li, Shunbo; Cao, Wenbin; Li, Weihua; Wen, Weijia; Alici, Gursel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based microfluidic device with the three-dimensional (3D) microelectrode configuration for concentrating and separating particles in a continuous throughflow. The 3D electrode structure, where

  2. An integrative cross-design synthesis approach to estimate the cost of illness: an applied case to the cost of depression in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendeck, Murielle; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; García-Alonso, Carlos; Bonet, Pere; Jordà, Esther; Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Cost of illness (COI) studies are carried out under conditions of uncertainty and with incomplete information. There are concerns regarding their generalisability, accuracy and usability in evidence-informed care. A hybrid methodology is used to estimate the regional costs of depression in Catalonia (Spain) following an integrative approach. The cross-design synthesis included nominal groups and quantitative analysis of both top-down and bottom-up studies, and incorporated primary and secondary data from different sources of information in Catalonia. Sensitivity analysis used probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation modelling. A dissemination strategy was planned, including a standard form adapted from cost-effectiveness studies to summarise methods and results. The method used allows for a comprehensive estimate of the cost of depression in Catalonia. Health officers and decision-makers concluded that this methodology provided useful information and knowledge for evidence-informed planning in mental health. The mix of methods, combined with a simulation model, contributed to a reduction in data gaps and, in conditions of uncertainty, supplied more complete information on the costs of depression in Catalonia. This approach to COI should be differentiated from other COI designs to allow like-with-like comparisons. A consensus on COI typology, procedures and dissemination is needed.

  3. Functional screen printed radio frequency identification tags on flexible substrates, facilitating low-cost and integrated point-of-care diagnostics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the practical functionality of ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) tags screen printed onto various low-cost, flexible substrates. The need for integrated and automated low-cost point...

  4. The Albufera Initiative for Biodiversity: a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in coastal protected area management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riddiford, N.J.; Veraart, J.A.; Férriz, I.; Owens, N.W.; Royo, L.; Honey, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a multi-disciplinary field project, set up in 1989 at the Parc Natural de s’Albufera in Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain, as an example of a cost effective model for integrating science and volunteer participation in a coastal protected area. Outcomes include the provision

  5. Low cost Polymer Optical Fibre based transmission system for feeding integrated broadband wireless in-house LANs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'Oma, A.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Khoe, G.D.; Visser, D. Taco; Lenstra, Daan; Schouten, F. Hugo

    2002-01-01

    A bi-directional transmission system using low cost Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) to feed the required large number of radio access points in next-generation integrated broadband wireless in-house LANs is proposed. Results from simulations and experiments show that, by tuning system parameters, a

  6. TiO2 Photocatalyst Nanoparticle Separation: Flocculation in Different Matrices and Use of Powdered Activated Carbon as a Precoat in Low-Cost Fabric Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Liriano-Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Separation of photocatalyst nanoparticles is a problem impeding widespread application of photocatalytic oxidation. As sedimentation of photocatalyst particles is facilitated by their flocculation, the influence of common constituents of biologically pretreated wastewaters (NaCl, NaHCO3, and their combination with humic acid sodium salt on flocculation was tested by the pipet method. Results showed that the impact of these substances on TiO2 nanoparticle flocculation is rather complex and strongly affected by pH. When humic acid was present, TiO2 particles did not show efficient flocculation in the neutral and slightly basic pH range. As an alternative to photocatalyst separation by sedimentation, precoat vacuum filtration with powdered activated carbon (PAC over low-cost spunbond polypropylene fabrics was tested in the presence of two PAC types in aqueous NaCl and NaHCO3 solutions as well as in biologically treated greywater and in secondary municipal effluent. PAC concentrations of ≥2 g/L were required in order to achieve a retention of nearly 95% of the TiO2 nanoparticles on the fabric filter when TiO2 concentration was 1 g/L. Composition of the aqueous matrix and PAC type had a slight impact on precoat filtration. PAC precoat filtration represents a potential pretreatment for photocatalyst removal by micro- or ultrafiltration.

  7. [Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis on the integrated schistosomiasis control strategies with emphasis on infection source in Poyang Lake region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan-Dan; Zeng, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Hong-Gen; Hong, Xian-Lin; Tao, Bo; Li, Yi-Feng; Xiong, Ji-Jie; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit on the integrated schistosomiasis control strategies with emphasis on infection source, and provide scientific basis for the improvement of schistosomiasis control strategy. Aiguo and Xinhe villages in Jinxian County were selected as intervention group where the new comprehensive strategy was implemented, while Ximiao and Zuxi villages in Xinzi County served as control where routine control program was implemented. New strategy of interventions included removing cattle from snail-infested grasslands and providing farmers with farm machinery, improving sanitation by supplying tap water and building lavatories and methane gas tanks, and implementing an intensive health education program. Routine interventions were carried out in the control villages including diagnosis and treatment for human and cattle, health education, and focal mollusciciding. Data were collected from retrospective investigation and field survey for the analysis and comparison of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit between intervention and control groups. The control effect of the intervention group was better than that of the control. The cost for 1% decrease of infection rate per 100 people, 100 cattle, and 100 snails in intervention group was 480.01, 6 851.24, and 683.63 Yuan, respectively, which were about 2.70, 4.37 and 20.25 times as those in the control respectively. The total cost/benefit ratio (BCR) was lower than 1 (0.94 in intervention group and 0.08 in the control). But the total benefit of intervention group was higher than that of the control from 2005 to 2008. The forecasting analysis indicated that the total BCR in intervention group would be 1.13 at the 4th year and all cost could be recalled. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the BCR in intervention group changed in the range around 1.0 and that of the control ranged blow 0.5. The cost-benefit of intervention group was evidently higher than that of the control. The integrated

  8. The Integration of Production-Distribution on Newspapers Supply Chain for Cost Minimization using Analytic Models: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana Aqidawati, Era; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Hisjam, Muh.

    2018-03-01

    Newspapers are products with special characteristics which are perishable, have a shorter range of time between the production and distribution, zero inventory, and decreasing sales value along with increasing in time. Generally, the problem of production and distribution in the paper supply chain is the integration of production planning and distribution to minimize the total cost. The approach used in this article to solve the problem is using an analytical model. In this article, several parameters and constraints have been considered in the calculation of the total cost of the integration of production and distribution of newspapers during the determined time horizon. This model can be used by production and marketing managers as decision support in determining the optimal quantity of production and distribution in order to obtain minimum cost so that company's competitiveness level can be increased.

  9. Cost reductions on a titanium dioxide plant identified by a process integration study at Tioxide UK Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of a process integration study is to determine the minimum practical amount of energy required to operate a process and to identify the most appropriate investment strategy which will realise the maximum energy cost savings consistent with a particular company's financial and operating criteria. The process integration method involves the rigorous application of thermodynamics and cost accounting, tempered by practical plant engineering and operability considerations. Tioxide UK Ltd is part of Tioxide Group plc and operates two UK sites for the production of titanium dioxide pigment. The site in question, Greatham works near Hartlepool, produces pigment via the chloride route. The energy costs at Greatham works can amount to pound5 - 6 million/year depending on production levels. (author).

  10. Vertical integration of local fuel producers into rural district heating systems – Climate impact and production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimming, M.; Sundberg, C.; Nordberg, Å.; Hansson, P.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Farmers can use their own agricultural biomass residues for heat production in small-scale systems, enabling synergies between the district heating (DH) sector and agriculture. The barriers to entry into the Swedish heat market were extremely high as long as heat distribution were considered natural monopoly, but were recently lowered due to the introduction of a regulated third party access (TPA) system in the DH sector. This study assesses the potential impact on greenhouse gas emissions and cost-based heat price in the DH sector when farmers vertically integrate into the heat supply chain and introduce more local and agricultural crops and residues into the fuel mix. Four scenarios with various degree of farmer integration, were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and by analysis of the heat production costs. The results show that full integration of local farm and forest owners in the value chain can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower production costs/heat price, if there is an incentive to utilise local and agricultural fuels. The results imply that farmer participation in the DH sector should be encouraged by e.g. EU rural development programmes. - Highlights: • Five DH production systems based on different fuels and ownership were analysed. • Lower GHG emissions were obtained when farmers integrate fully into the DH chain. • Lower heat price was obtained by full vertical integration of farmers. • Salix and straw-based production resulted in the lowest GHG and heat price

  11. Integrated HIV testing, malaria, and diarrhea prevention campaign in Kenya: modeled health impact and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, James G; Muraguri, Nicholas; Harris, Brian; Lugada, Eric; Clasen, Thomas; Grabowsky, Mark; Mermin, Jonathan; Shariff, Shahnaaz

    2012-01-01

    Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign. We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases) and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease. Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442), at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015). Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20. A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive.

  12. Integrated HIV testing, malaria, and diarrhea prevention campaign in Kenya: modeled health impact and cost-effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Kahn

    Full Text Available Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign.We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease.Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442, at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015. Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20.A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive.

  13. Sensing properties of separative paper-based extended-gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor for cost effective pH sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Ju; Lim, Cheol-Min

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we developed a cost-effective ion-sensing field-effect transistor (FET) with an extended gate (EG) fabricated on a separative paper substrate. The pH sensing characteristics of the paper EG was compared with those of other EGs fabricated on silicon, glass, or polyimide substrates. The fabricated paper-based EGFET exhibited excellent sensitivity close to the Nernst response limit as well as to that of the other substrate-based EGFETs. In addition, we found that all EGFETs, regardless of the substrate, have similar non-ideal behavior, i.e., drift phenomenon and hysteresis width. To investigate the degradation and durability of the paper EG after prolonged use, aging-effect tests were carried out in terms of the hysteresis width and sensitivity over a course of 30 days. As a result, the paper EG maintained stable pH sensing characteristics after 30 days. Therefore, we expect that paper EGFETs can provide a cost-effective sensor platform.

  14. A Stackelberg Game Approach in an Integrated Inventory Model with Carbon-Emission and Setup Cost Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated inventory model that allows Stackelberg game policy for optimizing joint total cost of a vendor and buyer system. After receiving the lot, the buyer commences an inspection process to determine the defective items. All defective items the buyer sends to vendor during the receiving of the next lot. Due to increasing number of shipments fixed and variable transportation, as well as carbon emissions, are considered, which makes the model sustainable integrated model forever. To reduce the setup cost for the vendor, a discrete setup reduction is considered for maximization more profit. The players of the integrated model are with unequal power (as leader and follower and the Stackelberg game strategy is utilized to solve this model for obtaining global optimum solution over the finite planning horizon. An illustrative numerical example is given to understand this model clearly.

  15. Optimal Vehicle Design Using the Integrated System and Cost Modeling Tool Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Space Vehicle Costing ( ACEIT ) • New Small Sat Model Development & Production Cost O&M Cost Module  Radiation Exposure  Radiation Detector Response...Reliability OML Availability Risk l l Tools CEA, SRM Model, POST, ACEIT , Inflation Model, Rotor Blade Des, Microsoft Project, ATSV, S/1-iABP...space STK, SOAP – Specific mission • Space Vehicle Design (SMAD) • Space Vehicle Propulsion • Orbit Propagation • Space Vehicle Costing ( ACEIT ) • New

  16. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Meyer, Dirk C. [Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Leipziger Str. 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Schilm, Jochen [Fraunhofer-Institut für Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Leisegang, Tilmann [Fraunhofer-Technologiezentrum Halbleitermaterialien THM, Am St.-Niclas-Schacht 13, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ('Energiewende') was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic

  17. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2014-06-01

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ("Energiewende") was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators

  18. Comparing the Global and Merged with the Local and Separate: On a Downside to the Integration of Regions and Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Stark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the integration of regions and nations through the prism of the merger of populations (societies. The paper employs a particular index of social stress. Stylized examples of the merging of two populations suggest that with integration, the social stress index will increase. The examples form the basis for the development of new formulas for calculating the social stress of an integrated population as a function of the levels of social stress of the constituent populations when apart. The formulas reveal that the social stress of an integrated population is higher than the sum of the levels of social stress of the constituent populations when apart. This raises the distinct possibility that the merging of populations may be a social liability: integration may fail to give the populace a sense of improved wellbeing.

  19. On the Integration Role of Solvents in Process Synthesis-Design-Intensification: Application to DMC/MeOH separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    2015-01-01

    extractive distillation. In extractive distillation the solvent affects the relative volatility of the two key compounds to be separated. In other words, for a two column distillation sequence configuration, the lighter boiling compound is obtained as the top product of the first distillation column...... of the better replacements for methyl tert-butyl ether. Methanol (MeOH) is used as a common raw material in the production of DMC, for example, using phosgene with hydrochloric acid as the by-product, using carbon monoxide and oxygen with water as the by-product, using a cyclic carbonate with a glycol as the by...... the best separation system, with the focus on solvent generation, screening and verification for extractive distillation for the separation of MeOH and DMC. The three stage approach will be presented and it will be shown that existing solvent candidates found in the literature are already generated...

  20. Integrating Behavioral Health into Pediatric Primary Care: Implications for Provider Time and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Natasha; Polaha, Jodi; Rogers, Rachel; Harden, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Integrating a behavioral health consultant (BHC) into primary care is associated with improved patient outcomes, fewer medical visits, and increased provider satisfaction; however, few studies have evaluated the feasibility of this model from an operations perspective. Specifically, time and cost have been identified as barriers to implementation. Our study aimed to examine time spent, patient volume, and revenue generated during days when the on-site BHC was available compared with days when the consultant was not. Data were collected across a 10-day period when a BHC provided services and 10 days when she was not available. Data included time stamps of patient direct care; providers' direct reports of problems raised; and a review of medical and administrative records, including billing codes and reimbursement. This study took place in a rural, stand-alone private pediatric primary care practice. The participants were five pediatric primary care providers (PCPs; two doctors of medicine, 1 doctor of osteopathy, 2 nurse practitioners) and two supervised doctoral students in psychology (BHCs). Pediatric patients (N = 668) and their parents also participated. On days when a BHC was present, medical providers spent 2 fewer minutes on average for every patient seen, saw 42% more patients, and collected $1142 more revenue than on days when no consultant was present. The time savings demonstrated on days when the consultant was available point to the efficiency and potential financial viability of this model. These results have important implications for the feasibility of hiring behavioral health professionals in a fee-for-service system. They have equally useful implications for the utility of moving to a bundled system of care in which collaborative practice is valued.

  1. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, T.

    2011-01-01

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  2. The benefits of integrating cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, K.; Clarke-Whistler, K.

    1995-01-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that knowledge of risks in the absence of benefits and costs cannot dictate appropriate public policy choices. Recent evidence of this recognition includes the proposed EPA Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis Act of 1995, a number of legislative changes in Canada and the US, and the increasing demand for field studies combining measures of impacts, risks, costs and benefits. Failure to consider relative environmental and human health risks, benefits, and costs in making public policy decisions has resulted in allocating scarce resources away from areas offering the highest levels of risk reduction and improvements in health and safety. The authors discuss the implications of not taking costs and benefits into account in addressing environmental risks, drawing on examples from both Canada and the US. The authors also present the results of their recent field work demonstrating the advantages of considering costs and benefits in making public policy and site remediation decisions, including a study on the benefits and costs of prevention, remediation and monitoring techniques applied to groundwater contamination; the benefits and costs of banning the use of chlorine; and the benefits and costs of Canada's concept of disposing of high-level nuclear waste. The authors conclude that a properly conducted Cost-Benefit Analysis can provide critical input to a Risk Assessment and can ensure that risk management decisions are efficient, cost-effective and maximize improvement to environmental and human health

  3. In situ photo-immobilised pH gradient isoelectric focusing and zone electrophoresis integrated two-dimensional microfluidic chip electrophoresis for protein separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Fengmin; Yu, Shiyong; Gu, Le; Zhu, Xuetao; Wang, Jianshe; Zhu, Han; Lu, Yi; Wang, Yihua; Deng, Yulin; Geng, Lina

    2015-01-01

    A method is introduced for open-column photo-induced site-selective immobilization of pH gradients in a layer of PEG-methacrylate in a multi-dimensional microfluidic chip for use in electrophoresis. It has several attractive features: (a) mixtures of fluorescently labelled proteins carbonic anhydrase, catalase and myoglobin in their native state can be separated by pH-gradient isoelectric focusing (IEF) and zone electrophoresis (CZE) using integrated 2D chip electrophoresis; (b) compared to strip packing or monolithic photo-immobilization, it overcomes the shortcomings of free carrier ampholyte-based 2D chip electrophoresis in an easy way; (c) larger amount of sample can be loaded into the open column-mode electrophoresis (d) immobilized pH gradients can be re-used and the chip can be recycled; (e) a multilayer 3D pH gradient is established by a layer-by-layer assembly technique to further increase the separation capacity. In our perception, this strategy has a large potential in microfluidic chip-based separation schemes because of its simplicity, separation power, re-usability, and separation capacity. (author)

  4. Integrating tuberculosis and HIV services for people living with HIV: Costs of the Zambian ProTEST Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayawe Ignatius

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of the dual TB/HIV epidemic, the ProTEST Initiative was one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of providing collaborative TB/HIV care for people living with HIV (PLWH in poor settings. The ProTEST Initiative facilitated collaboration between service providers. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT acted as the entry point for services including TB screening and preventive therapy, clinical treatment for HIV-related disease, and home-based care (HBC, and a hospice. This paper estimates the costs of the ProTEST Initiative in two sites in urban Zambia, prior to the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy. Methods Annual financial and economic providers costs and output measures were collected in 2000–2001. Estimates are made of total costs for each component and average costs per: person reached by ProTEST; VCT pre-test counselled, tested and completed; isoniazid preventive therapy started and completed; clinic visit; HBC patient; and hospice admission and bednight. Results Annual core ProTEST costs were (in 2007 US dollars $84,213 in Chawama and $31,053 in Matero. The cost of coordination was 4%–5% of total site costs ($1–$6 per person reached. The largest cost component in Chawama was voluntary counselling and testing (56% and the clinic in Matero (50%, where VCT clients had higher HIV-prevalences and more advanced HIV. Average costs were lower for all components in the larger site. The cost per HBC patient was $149, and per hospice bednight was $24. Conclusion This study shows that coordinating an integrated and comprehensive package of services for PLWH is relatively inexpensive. The lessons learnt in this study are still applicable today in the era of ART, as these services must still be provided as part of the continuum of care for people living with HIV.

  5. Costs of implementing integrated community case management (iCCM) in six African countries: implications for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Besada, Donnela; Leon, Natalie; Rohde, Sarah; Sanders, David; Oliphant, Nicholas; Doherty, Tanya

    2017-06-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa still reports the highest rates of under-five mortality. Low cost, high impact interventions exist, however poor access remains a challenge. Integrated community case management (iCCM) was introduced to improve access to essential services for children 2-59 months through diagnosis, treatment and referral services by community health workers for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis of iCCM implementation in regions supported by UNICEF in six countries and assesses country-level scale-up implications. The paper focuses on costs to provider (health system and donors) to inform planning and budgeting, and does not cover cost-effectiveness. The analysis combines annualised set-up costs and 1 year implementation costs to calculate incremental economic and financial costs per treatment from a provider perspective. Affordability is assessed by calculating the per capita financial cost of the program as a percentage of the public health expenditure per capita. Time and financial implications of a 30% increase in utilization were modeled. Country scale-up is modeled for all children under 5 in rural areas. Utilization of iCCM services varied from 0.05 treatment/y/under-five in Ethiopia to over 1 in Niger. There were between 10 and 603 treatments/community health worker (CHW)/y. Consultation cost represented between 93% and 22% of economic costs per treatment influenced by the level of utilization. Weighted economic cost per treatment ranged from US$ 13 (2015 USD) in Ghana to US$ 2 in Malawi. CHWs spent from 1 to 9 hours a week on iCCM. A 30% increase in utilization would add up to 2 hours a week, but reduce cost per treatment (by 20% in countries with low utilization). Country scale up would amount to under US$ 0.8 per capita total population (US$ 0.06-US$0.74), between 0.5% and 2% of public health expenditure per capita but 8% in Niger. iCCM addresses unmet needs and impacts on under 5 mortality. An

  6. Improved concentration and separation of particles in a 3D dielectrophoretic chip integrating focusing, aligning and trapping

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming

    2012-10-18

    This article presents a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based microfluidic device with the three-dimensional (3D) microelectrode configuration for concentrating and separating particles in a continuous throughflow. The 3D electrode structure, where microelectrode array are patterned on both the top and bottom surfaces of the microchannel, is composed of three units: focusing, aligning and trapping. As particles flowing through the microfluidic channel, they are firstly focused and aligned by the funnel-shaped and parallel electrode array, respectively, before being captured at the trapping unit due to negative DEP force. For a mixture of two particle populations of different sizes or dielectric properties, with a careful selection of suspending medium and applied field, the population exhibits stronger negative DEP manipulated by the microelectrode array and, therefore, separated from the other population which is easily carried away toward the outlet due to hydrodynamic force. The functionality of the proposed microdevice was verified by concentrating different-sized polystyrene (PS) microparticles and yeast cells dynamically flowing in the microchannel. Moreover, separation based on size and dielectric properties was achieved by sorting PS microparticles, and isolating 5 μm PS particles from yeast cells, respectively. The performance of the proposed micro-concentrator and separator was also studied, including the threshold voltage at which particles begin to be trapped, variation of cell-trapping efficiency with respect to the applied voltage and flow rate, and the efficiency of separation experiments. The proposed microdevice has various advantages, including multi-functionality, improved manipulation efficiency and throughput, easy fabrication and operation, etc., which shows a great potential for biological, chemical and medical applications. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Temporal Dynamics of Sensorimotor Networks in Effort-Based Cost-Benefit Valuation: Early Emergence and Late Net Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alison; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-07-06

    Although physical effort can impose significant costs on decision-making, when and how effort cost information is incorporated into choice remains contested, reflecting a larger debate over the role of sensorimotor networks in specifying behavior. Serial information processing models, in which motor circuits simply implement the output of cognitive systems, hypothesize that effort cost factors into decisions relatively late, via integration with stimulus values into net (combined) value signals in dorsomedial frontal cortex (dmFC). In contrast, ethology-inspired approaches suggest a more active role for the dorsal sensorimotor stream, with effort cost signals emerging rapidly after stimulus onset. Here we investigated the time course of effort cost integration using event-related potentials in hungry human subjects while they made decisions about expending physical effort for appetitive foods. Consistent with the ethological perspective, we found that effort cost was represented from as early as 100-250 ms after stimulus onset, localized to dorsal sensorimotor regions including middle cingulate, somatosensory, and motor/premotor cortices. However, examining the same data time-locked to motor output revealed net value signals combining stimulus value and effort cost approximately -400 ms before response, originating from sensorimotor areas including dmFC, precuneus, and posterior parietal cortex. Granger causal connectivity analysis of the motor effector signal in the time leading to response showed interactions between these sensorimotor regions and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, a structure associated with adjusting behavior-response mappings. These results suggest that rapid activation of sensorimotor regions interacts with cognitive valuation systems, producing a net value signal reflecting both physical effort and reward contingencies. Although physical effort imposes a cost on choice, when and how effort cost influences neural correlates of decision

  8. A comprehensive economic evaluation of integrated desalination systems using fossil fuelled and nuclear energies and including their environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Benzarti, N.

    2008-01-01

    Seawater desalination is now widely accepted as an attractive alternative source of freshwater for domestic and industrial uses. Despite the considerable progress made in the relevant technologies desalination, however, remains an energy intensive process in which the energy cost is the paramount factor. This Study is a first of a kind in that we have integrated the environmental costs into the power and desalination costs. The study has focused on the seawater desalination cost evaluation of the following systems. It is supposed that they will be operating in the co-generation mode (Simultaneous production of electrical power and desalted water) in 2015: Fossil fuelled based systems such as the coal and oil fired plants and the gas turbine combined cycle plant, coupled to MED, and RO; Pressurised water reactors such as the PWR-900 and the AP-600, coupled to MED, and RO; High temperature reactors such as the GT-MHR, the PBMR, coupled to MED, with the utilisation of virtually free waste-heat provided by these reactors. The study is made in real site-specific conditions of a site In Southern Europe. Sensitivity studies for different parameters such as the fossil fuel prices, interest and discount rates, power costs etc., have also been undertaken. The results obtained are then used to evaluate the financial interest of selected integrated desalination systems in terms of a detailed cash flow analysis, providing the net present values, pay back periods and the internal rate of returns. Analysis of the results shows that among the fossil fuelled systems the power and desalination costs by circulating fluidized bed coal fired plant would be the lowest with current coal prices. Those by oil fired plants would be highest. In all cases, integrated nuclear energy systems would lead to considerably lower power and water costs than the corresponding coal based systems. When external costs for different energies are internalized in power and water costs, the relative cost

  9. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles in European countries using integrated modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seixas, J.; Simões, S.; Dias, L.; Kanudia, A.; Fortes, P.; Gargiulo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered alternatives to internal combustion engines due to their energy efficiency and contribution to CO 2 mitigation. The adoption of EVs depends on consumer preferences, including cost, social status and driving habits, although it is agreed that current and expected costs play a major role. We use a partial equilibrium model that minimizes total energy system costs to assess whether EVs can be a cost-effective option for the consumers of each EU27 member state up to 2050, focusing on the impact of different vehicle investment costs and CO 2 mitigation targets. We found that for an EU-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction cap of 40% and 70% by 2050 vis-à-vis 1990 emissions, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are cost-effective in the EU only by 2030 and only if their costs are 30% lower than currently expected. At the EU level, vehicle costs and the capability to deliver both short- and long-distance mobility are the main drivers of BEV deployment. Other drivers include each state’s national mobility patterns and the cost-effectiveness of alternative mitigation options, both in the transport sector, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) or biofuels, and in other sectors, such as renewable electricity. - Highlights: • Electric vehicles were assessed through the minimization of the total energy systems costs. • EU climate policy targets could act as a major driver for PHEV adoption. • Battery EV is an option before 2030 if costs will drop by 30% from expected costs. • EV deployment varies per country depending on each energy system configuration. • Incentives at the country level should consider specific cost-effectiveness factors

  10. Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Fishman, D.; Frank, E. D.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Aden, A.; Coleman, A. M.; Pienkos, P. T.; Skaggs, R. J.; Venteris, E. R.; Wang, M. Q.

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.

  11. Process-Based Cost Modeling of Photonics Manufacture: The Cost Competitiveness of Monolithic Integration of a 1550-nm DFB Laser and an Electroabsorptive Modulator on an InP Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Bruce, E. J.; Ram, R. J.; Kirchain, Randolph E.

    2006-08-01

    The monolithic integration of components holds promise to increase network functionality and reduce packaging expense. Integration also drives down yield due to manufacturing complexity and the compounding of failures across devices. Consensus is lacking on the economically preferred extent of integration. Previous studies on the cost feasibility of integration have used high-level estimation methods. This study instead focuses on accurate-to-industry detail, basing a process-based cost model of device manufacture on data collected from 20 firms across the optoelectronics supply chain. The model presented allows for the definition of process organization, including testing, as well as processing conditions, operational characteristics, and level of automation at each step. This study focuses on the cost implications of integration of a 1550-nm DFB laser with an electroabsorptive modulator on an InP platform. Results show the monolithically integrated design to be more cost competitive over discrete component options regardless of production scale. Dominant cost drivers are packaging, testing, and assembly. Leveraging the technical detail underlying model projections, component alignment, bonding, and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are identified as processes where technical improvements are most critical to lowering costs. Such results should encourage exploration of the cost advantages of further integration and focus cost-driven technology development.

  12. A cost-efficient expansion of renewable energy sources in the European electricity system. An integrated modelling approach with a particular emphasis on diurnal and seasonal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golling, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    This thesis determines a cost-efficient expansion of electricity generated by renewable energy sources (RES-E) in the European power generation system. It is an integrated modelling approach with a particular emphasis on diurnal and seasonal patterns of renewable energy sources (RES). An integrated modelling approach optimizes the overall European electricity system while comprising fossil, nuclear, and renewable generation as well as storage capacities. The integrated model approach corresponds to a situation in which renewable generation is subject to electricity price signals. In sensitivity scenarios cases of the integrated model approach are compared to situations in which renewable generation is granted priority feed-in and is decoupled from electricity price signals. In addition, the role of different flexibility options, which can be provided by storage capacities and grid expansion are scrutinized. The methodology of the thesis consists of two parts. First, it develops an integrative model approach by extending an existing European electricity model only comprising conventional power generating technologies. Second, an appropriate representation of intermittent RES for electricity market models is established by the determination of corresponding typedays. The typeday modelling takes the spatial correlation of RES and the correlation between wind and solar power into account. Moreover, the typeday modelling captures average dispatch-relevant, diurnal and seasonal RES characteristics such as the level, the variance, and the gradient. The scenario analysis shows that separate developments of renewable and conventional technologies imply several inefficiencies. These increase with higher RES-E penetration. Inefficiencies such as an increased wind power curtailment, an augmented capital turnover, or a higher cumulative installed power generating capacity are revealed and quantified.

  13. Fast evaluation of solid harmonic Gaussian integrals for local resolution-of-the-identity methods and range-separated hybrid functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golze, Dorothea; Benedikter, Niels; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Wilhelm, Jan; Hutter, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    An integral scheme for the efficient evaluation of two-center integrals over contracted solid harmonic Gaussian functions is presented. Integral expressions are derived for local operators that depend on the position vector of one of the two Gaussian centers. These expressions are then used to derive the formula for three-index overlap integrals where two of the three Gaussians are located at the same center. The efficient evaluation of the latter is essential for local resolution-of-the-identity techniques that employ an overlap metric. We compare the performance of our integral scheme to the widely used Cartesian Gaussian-based method of Obara and Saika (OS). Non-local interaction potentials such as standard Coulomb, modified Coulomb, and Gaussian-type operators, which occur in range-separated hybrid functionals, are also included in the performance tests. The speed-up with respect to the OS scheme is up to three orders of magnitude for both integrals and their derivatives. In particular, our method is increasingly efficient for large angular momenta and highly contracted basis sets.

  14. Alleviating inequality in climate policy costs: an integrated perspective on mitigation, damage and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cian, E.; Hof, A. F.; Marangoni, G.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.

    2016-07-01

    Equity considerations play an important role in international climate negotiations. While policy analysis has often focused on equity as it relates to mitigation costs, there are large regional differences in adaptation costs and the level of residual damage. This paper illustrates the relevance of including adaptation and residual damage in equity considerations by determining how the allocation of emission allowances would change to counteract regional differences in total climate costs, defined as the costs of mitigation, adaptation, and residual damage. We compare emission levels resulting from a global carbon tax with two allocations of emission allowances under a global cap-and-trade system: one equating mitigation costs and one equating total climate costs as share of GDP. To account for uncertainties in both mitigation and adaptation, we use a model-comparison approach employing two alternative modeling frameworks with different damage, adaptation cost, and mitigation cost estimates, and look at two different climate goals. Despite the identified model uncertainties, we derive unambiguous results on the change in emission allowance allocation that could lessen the unequal distribution of adaptation costs and residual damages through the financial transfers associated with emission trading.

  15. The cost risk implementation on design-build project of integrated public spaces child friendly in capital of Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiaman, Mubarok, Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Jakarta area of 662.33 km2 with a population of 10,075,030 inhabitants and green open spaces 9.98%. The Jakarta government built a child-friendly integrated open space as facilities for playing. Providing of facilities was hoped suitable with time, cost, quality, accountability and proper financial governance. Based on the PU ministerial regulation number 19/PRT/M/2015 on the standards and guidelines for procurement the design and construction work on the integrated build and the PU ministerial regulation No. 07/PRT/M/2011 on standards and guidelines for procurement of construction works and consulting services of public works and the ministry of housing. RPTRA development at 123 locations in Jakarta was implemented base on the contract of design and build. The design study was influenced by the cost elements; the main strength (expert), skilled personnel, support personnel, major equipment and support. The construction fee relies on; expert implementation, hardware implementation, preparation work, land, buildings, courtyards, fences, complementary and governance capabilities for human resources in completing the construction activities to minimize the cost risk. Montecarlo simulations was conducted to determine the average unit price, model and analyze systems. In the cost contract, the percentage of design work stipulated 2.5%, build 97.5%. Base on regulation the minister of public work for design work cost 2.72%, build 97.28%. Then, actual cost for design 2.67% and build 97.33%. From the three reference was shown that there are differentiation one another. The acceleration of planning able to make the cost and time more efficient that impact on the implementation margin.

  16. Human neuroimaging studies on the hippocampal CA3 region – integrating evidence for pattern separation and completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eDeuker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human functional magnetic imaging (fMRI studies have long investigated the hippocampus without differentiating between its subfields, even though theoretical models and rodent studies suggest that subfields support different and potentially even opposite functions. The CA3 region of the hippocampus has been ascribed a pivotal role both in initially forming associations during encoding and in reconstructing a memory representation based on partial cues during retrieval. These functions have been related to pattern separation and pattern completion, respectively. In recent years, studies using high-resolution fMRI in humans have begun to separate different hippocampal subregions and identify the role of the CA3 subregion relative to the other subregions. However, some of these findings have been inconsistent with theoretical models and findings from electrophysiology. In this review, we describe selected recent studies and highlight how their results might help to define different processes and functions that are presumably carried out by the CA3 region, in particular regarding the seemingly opposing functions of pattern separation and pattern completion. We also describe how these subfield-specific processes are related to behavioral, functional and structural alterations in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We conclude with discussing limitations of functional imaging and briefly outline possible future developments of the field.

  17. Integration of the AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotopic separation) process into the nuclear fuel cycle. [Effect of AVLIS feed requirements on overall fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrove, R.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Eby, R.S.; Pashley, J.H.; Norman, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    AVLIS RD and D efforts are currently proceeding toward full-scale integrated enrichment demonstrations in the late 1980's and potential plant deployment in the mid 1990's. Since AVLIS requires a uranium metal feed and produces an enriched uranium metal product, some change in current uranium processing practices are necessitated. AVLIS could operate with a UF/sub 6/-in UF/sub 6/-out interface with little effect to the remainder of the fuel cycle. This path, however, does not allow electric utility customers to realize the full potential of low cost AVLIS enrichment. Several alternative processing methods have been identified and evaluated which appear to provide opportunities to make substantial cost savings in the overall fuel cycle. These alternatives involve varying levels of RD and D resources, calendar time, and technical risk to implement and provide these cost reduction opportunities. Both feed conversion contracts and fuel fabricator contracts are long-term entities. Because of these factors, it is not too early to start planning and making decisions on the most advantageous options so that AVLIS can be integrated cost effectively into the fuel cycle. This should offer economic opportunity to all parties involved including DOE, utilities, feed converters, and fuel fabricators. 10 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A systems engineering cost analysis capability for use in assessing nuclear waste management system cost performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.

    1990-04-01

    The System Engineering Cost Analysis (SECA) capability has been developed by the System Integration Branch of the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management for use in assessing the cost performance of alternative waste management system configurations. The SECA capability is designed to provide rapid cost estimates of the waste management system for a given operational scenario and to permit aggregate or detailed cost comparisons for alternative waste system configurations. This capability may be used as an integral part of the System Integration Modeling System (SIMS) or, with appropriate input defining a scenario, as a separate cost analysis model

  19. Quality, Stability, and Safety Data of Packed Red Cells and Plasma Processed by Gravity Separation Using a New Fully Integrated Hollow-Fibre Filter Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Brune

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We developed a completely closed system based on gravity separation without centrifugation steps for separation of whole blood. With this new system we compared quality and stability of the processed blood components (PRC and plasma with respect to classical preparation. Furthermore the cost-effectiveness of this hollow fibre system was evaluated. Study Design and Methods. Whole blood collections of 15 regular blood donors were used for component preparation using the U shaped hollow fibre filter device. Results were compared to 15 whole blood preparations using centrifugation. The following parameters were evaluated: total hemoglobin, leukocyte counts, the serum concentration of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and potassium. Furthermore ATIII, vWF and F VIII were analyzed at different timepoints. Results. packed red cells: the data directly after separation and after 42 days of storage are in line with the guidelines of the council of Europe. Plasma. all plasma quality data are in line with the guidelines of the council of Europe for quality assurance of plasma, except for a low protein amount (factor 0.75. Conclusion. Separation of whole blood on a clinical scale in this new closed system is feasible, however the plasma protein content must be optimized.

  20. Hospitals' vertical integration into skilled nursing: a rational approach to controlling transaction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrman, S; Shore, K K

    1998-01-01

    Using 1985 and 1988 American Hospital Association data, this study examines 1,523 hospitals nationwide and concludes that hospitals' ownership of skilled nursing facilities helps minimize the transaction costs associated with post-acute patient transfers while productively using empty hospital beds. Unfortunately, such ownership creates complex cost, quality, and accessibility trade-offs in terms of the skilled nursing care provided.

  1. An integrated TQM-model for continuous cost, process and product improvement. Konferencebidrag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsberg, Flemming

    Paperet beskriver hvorledes de tre teknikker: kvalitetsomkostningssystemer, target costing og benchmarking kan anvendes til at skabe bedre resultater i forbindelse med TQM.......Paperet beskriver hvorledes de tre teknikker: kvalitetsomkostningssystemer, target costing og benchmarking kan anvendes til at skabe bedre resultater i forbindelse med TQM....

  2. Alleviating inequality in climate policy costs : An integrated perspective on mitigation, damage and adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Cian, E.; Hof, A. F.; Marangoni, G.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Equity considerations play an important role in international climate negotiations. While policy analysis has often focused on equity as it relates to mitigation costs, there are large regional differences in adaptation costs and the level of residual damage. This paper illustrates the relevance of

  3. The integrated business information system: using automation to monitor cost-effectiveness of park operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick Stanley; Bruce Jackson

    1995-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of park operations is often neglected because information is laborious to compile. The information, however, is critical if we are to derive maximum benefit from scarce resources. This paper describes an automated system for calculating cost-effectiveness ratios with minimum effort using data from existing data bases.

  4. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 09: Mechanical treatment costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2005-01-01

    Although fuel reduction treatments are widespread, there is great variability and uncertainty in the cost of conducting treatments. Researchers from the Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, have developed a model for estimating the per-acre cost for mechanical fuel reduction treatments. Although these models do a good job of identifying factors that...

  5. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 08: prescribed fire costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Although the use of prescribed fire as a management tool is widespread, there is great variability and uncertainty in the treatment costs. Given specific site variables and management objectives, how much will it cost to use prescribed fire? This paper describes the FASTRACS database, a tool that has been developed to aid managers in addressing this question.

  6. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 02: log hauling cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Knowing the cost of fuel reduction treatments and associated activities, such as hauling cut trees, is essential for fire and fuels planning. This fact sheet explores the main factors that determine the cost of hauling cut trees and points the user to an interactive tool that can help plan for those and other expenses.

  7. Integrating imaging modalities: what makes sense from a workflow perspective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulthess, Gustav K. von; Burger, Cyrill

    2010-01-01

    From a workflow/cost perspective integrated imaging is not an obvious solution. An analysis of scanning costs as a function of system cost and relevant imaging times is presented. This analysis ignores potential clinical advantages of integrated imaging. An analysis comparing separate vs integrated imaging costs was performed by deriving pertinent equations and using reasonable cost numbers for imaging devices and systems, room and other variable costs. Integrated systems were divided into those sequentially and simultaneously. Sequential scanning can be done with two devices placed in a single or in two different scanning rooms. Graphs were derived which represent the cost difference between integrated imaging system options and their separate counterparts vs scanning time on one of the devices and cost ratio of an integrated system and its counterpart of separate devices. Integrated systems are favoured by the fact that patients have to be up- and downloaded only once. If imaging times become longer than patient changing times, imaging on separate devices is advantageous. An integrated imaging cost advantage is achieved if the integrated systems typically and overall cost three fourths or less of the separate systems. If PET imaging takes 15 min or less, PET/CT imaging costs less than separate PET and CT imaging, while this time is below 5 min for SPECT/CT. A two-room integrated system has the added advantage that patient download time is not cost relevant, when imaging times on the two devices differ by more than the patient download time. PET/CT scanning is a cost-effective implementation of an integrated system unlike most current SPECT/CT systems. Integration of two devices in two rooms by a shuttle seems the way how to make PET/MR cost-effective and may well also be a design option for SPECT/CT systems. (orig.)

  8. Economics of One Health: Costs and benefits of integrated West Nile virus surveillance in Emilia-Romagna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Since 2013 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, surveillance information generated in the public health and in the animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV transmission via blood transfusion. The objective of the current study was to identify and estimate the costs and benefits associated with this One Health surveillance approach, and to compare it to an approach that does not integrate animal health information in blood donations safety policy (uni-sectoral scenario. Costs of human, animal, and entomological surveillance, sharing of information, and triggered interventions were estimated. Benefits were quantified as the averted costs of potential human cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease associated to infected blood transfusion. In the 2009-2015 period, the One Health approach was estimated to represent a cost saving of €160,921 compared to the uni-sectoral scenario. Blood donation screening was the main cost for both scenarios. The One Health approach further allowed savings of €1.21 million in terms of avoided tests on blood units. Benefits of the One Health approach due to short-term costs of hospitalization and compensation for transfusion-associated disease potentially avoided, were estimated to range from €0 to €2.98 million according to the probability of developing WNV neuroinvasive disease after receiving an infected blood transfusion.

  9. Integrated and Person-Centered Care for Community-Living Older Adults: A Cost-Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uittenbroek, Ronald J; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Kremer, Hubertus P H; Wynia, Klaske; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2018-03-24

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of Embrace, an integrated primary care service for older adults. Care and support claims from health care insurers, long-term care administration, and municipalities for enrolled older adults between 2011 and 2013. A total of 1,456 older adults, listed with 15 general practitioners practices in the Netherlands, were stratified into risk profiles ("Robust," "Frail," and "Complex care needs") and randomized to Embrace or care-as-usual groups. Incremental costs were calculated per quality-adjusted life year, per day able to age in place, and per percentage point risk profile improvement. Total average costs were higher for Embrace compared to care-as-usual. Differences in health-associated outcomes were small and not statistically significant. Probabilities that Embrace is cost-effective were below 80 percent, except for "risk profile improvements" within risk profile "Complex care needs." Complete case analysis resulted in smaller differences in total average costs across conditions and differences in health-associated outcomes remained small. According to current standards, Embrace is not considered cost effective after 12 months. However, it could be considered worthwhile in terms of "risk profile improvements" for older adults with "Complex care needs," if society is willing to invest substantially. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Assessing the interaction effect of cost control systems and information technology integration on manufacturing plant financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Adam S; Nilsson, Anders; Jacobs, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The interface between management control and information technology is an under-developed research area with a knowledge gap concerning its implications for financial performance. This study contributes to bridging this gap by investigates the interaction effect of cost control systems and information technology integration on manufacturing plant financial performance. We surveyed a sample of 518 managers of U.S. manufacturing plants, approximately evenly distributed between those using activ...

  11. The application of an integrated approach to design, procurement and construction in reducing overall nuclear power plant costs. Annex 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didsbury, R.; Shalaby, B.A.; Torgerson, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    As part of its on-going efforts to reduce the cost of CANDU nuclear power plants, AECL has embarked on an integrated approach to design, procurement and construction activities associated with new CANDU 6 and CANDU 9 projects. The approach is predicated on the fact there is a vast quantity of information that needs to be managed and controlled over the life of a nuclear power plant project. Therefore, ensuring the completeness and correctness of all the information needed by all project participants, facilitating sharing of this information amongst the project's participants, and automating the various deliverable production processes offers significant potential not only for overall project cost (and schedule) savings but also for reducing operations and maintenance costs once the plant enters service. Facilitating and indeed of key importance to this approach is the use of a suite of integrated information technology-based engineering, procurement and project control tools used throughout the design, engineering, procurement and construction phases of the project. A unique and important feature of these tools is their high degree of integration both from a work process and a data perspective. Use of these tools is well underway on AECL's Qinshan Project which is realizing significant benefits in cost and schedule. This paper will describe the approach AECL is taking, along with the tools it has both put in place, and those additional items planned for the future along with the cost, schedule and quality benefits that arise from their use. Progress to date on the Qinshan project also will be discussed as well as the expected application to the plant once it has gone into service will also be discussed. (author)

  12. An unit cost adjusting heuristic algorithm for the integrated planning and scheduling of a two-stage supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The stable relationship of one-supplier-one-customer is replaced by a dynamic relationship of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market gradually, and efficient scheduling techniques are important tools of the dynamic supply chain relationship establishing process. This paper studies the optimization of the integrated planning and scheduling problem of a two-stage supply chain with multiple manufacturers and multiple retailers to obtain a minimum supply chain operating cost, whose manufacturers have different production capacities, holding and producing cost rates, transportation costs to retailers.Design/methodology/approach: As a complex task allocation and scheduling problem, this paper sets up an INLP model for it and designs a Unit Cost Adjusting (UCA heuristic algorithm that adjust the suppliers’ supplying quantity according to their unit costs step by step to solve the model.Findings: Relying on the contrasting analysis between the UCA and the Lingo solvers for optimizing many numerical experiments, results show that the INLP model and the UCA algorithm can obtain its near optimal solution of the two-stage supply chain’s planning and scheduling problem within very short CPU time.Research limitations/implications: The proposed UCA heuristic can easily help managers to optimizing the two-stage supply chain scheduling problems which doesn’t include the delivery time and batch of orders. For two-stage supply chains are the most common form of actual commercial relationships, so to make some modification and study on the UCA heuristic should be able to optimize the integrated planning and scheduling problems of a supply chain with more reality constraints.Originality/value: This research proposes an innovative UCA heuristic for optimizing the integrated planning and scheduling problem of two-stage supply chains with the constraints of suppliers’ production capacity and the orders’ delivering time, and has a great

  13. Enhancing liquid-liquid and solid-liquid phase separation by integrating alternating current electrocoagulators with processing and wastewater control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.E.; Stanczyk, T.F.

    1989-01-01

    Coal, pigments, pharmaceutical solids, ceramics, carbon, clays, metallic powders and ores are among the categorical groups of products which are wasted as suspended solids in aqueous-based wash solutions. Phase separation and recovery of these solids by conventional dewatering systems is costly and relatively inefficient. Alternating current can be used to neutralize the electrical charge on fine and ultra-fine particles in aqueous suspensions, and facilitate agglomeration and settling of these particulates without using chemicals while improving recovery efficiencies. This paper provides an overview of the technology and discusses applications and benefits in the areas of in-plant processing, industrial wastewater treatment, site remediation and water purification

  14. Low-Cost and Low-Temperature Integration Methods for System-in-Package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios Aguilera, N.B.

    2013-01-01

    Packaging has evoluted for years with the sole purpose of protecting the electronics from the environment and providing a suitable operating environment. Integration became a necessity and technologies as System-in-Package emerged and enabled the integration of components built with different

  15. Low-cost access to development and manufacturing of photonic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Generic photonic integration technology is rapidly gaining popularity. It applies the methodology that is so successful in microelectronics (CMOS technology) to the domain of photonics: providing lowcost access to highly standardized high-performance processes that support integration in a single

  16. Degradation of organic pollutants by an integrated photo-Fenton-like catalysis/immersed membrane separation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan, E-mail: jiedeng05@sina.com [School of Environment, Guang Xi University, Nanning 530004 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xiong, Ya [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Tang, Yankui; Wang, Yinghui [School of Environment, Guang Xi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► The photo-Fenton-like reaction and membrane separation was coupled. ► FeVO{sub 4} was used as catalyst in the PFM reactor. ► Dynamics simulation would direct the actual application of the reactor. -- Abstract: To resolve the continuously reuse problem of fine catalysts, a new reactor was investigated by coupling the heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like oxidation with membrane separation. The reactor consisted of a Xe lamp, a submerged membrane module and FeVO{sub 4} as catalyst with high activity. Results showed that the catalyst was successfully left in the reactor. It was proved by the kinetics study of membrane fouling that the avoidless membrane fouling was brought mainly by surface cake, at catalyst concentration of 4 g/L, it accounted for more than 90% of the total resistance. The kinetics study of catalytic degradation of AO II under sub-critical flux showed the optimal concentration of catalyst was 0.5 g/L and under this concentration the membrane fouling was negligible. For a residence time of 60 min, the degradation efficiency of AO II reached more than 99% and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was as high as 91%. The model of continuous stirred tank reactor could predict well for the degradation which was consistent with hydrodynamics study. Moreover, the PFM reactor shows a long-term behavior with both membrane and catalyst in it and merits consideration for scaled-up trials.

  17. A low cost, printed microwave based level sensor with integrated oscillator readout circuitry

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an extremely low cost, tube conformable, printed T-resonator based microwave level sensor, whose resonance frequency shifts by changing the level of fluids inside the tube. Printed T-resonator forms the frequency selective

  18. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Integrated Paratransit Systems : Volume 6. Technical Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    This last volume, includes five technical appendices which document the methodologies used in the benefit-cost analysis. They are the following: Scenario analysis methodology; Impact estimation; Example of impact estimation; Sensitivity analysis; Agg...

  19. Hydrogen Station Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Technical Status and Costs: Systems Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, G.; Boyd, R.; Cornish, J.; Remick, R.

    2014-05-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory commissioned an independent review of hydrogen compression, storage, and dispensing (CSD) for pipeline delivery of hydrogen and forecourt hydrogen production. The panel was asked to address the (1) cost calculation methodology, (2) current cost/technical status, (3) feasibility of achieving the FCTO's 2020 CSD levelized cost targets, and to (4) suggest research areas that will help the FCTO reach its targets. As the panel neared the completion of these tasks, it was also asked to evaluate CSD costs for the delivery of hydrogen by high-pressure tube trailer. This report details these findings.

  20. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    OpenAIRE

    SOKOLOVIC VLADA S.; ANDREJIC MARKO D.; LJUBOJEVIC SRDJAN D.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In a situation when government expenditures for defense are more restrictive, any investment in the acquisition of arms and military equipment (AME) is a question that does not allow errors in decisions. Accordingly, the economic analysis of the investment must be detailed and unavoidable. In the past, the initial cost of procurement of AME was often the primary, and sometimes the only one criterion in decision-making. Neglecting the analysis of costs throughout the life of asset...

  1. Implementation green and low cost on landscape design of Manggarai Integrated Station, Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, T.; Meilianti, H.

    2018-01-01

    The Manggarai Integrated Station is the transit of various transportation modes. The Integrated Station located in Manggarai Jakarta and managed by PT. KAI. The Manggarai station is integrated and have terminal nature of transit areas (switching mode of transportation). There are several problems in the site, such as the problem of the site conditions in the urban area, topography, soil, vegetation, space, visual, users on the site can provide ideas for the concepts. The data was analyzed using the quantitative descriptive methode. The purpose of this research is to design the integrated station atmosphere, not only can support of the activities station users, but can also accommodate the needs of the community. It will “Green, Low cost” at the Manggarai integrated transport transit station in Jakarta. The potential that exists in this area is the lowliest integrated from various areas of the mode of transportation that make the users to facilitate transit transportation to the other. The basic concept of this design refers to the “Green, Low Cost” which unite with theme “user friendly” land use on a more efficient and effective site. The result of this research is landscape design development of Manggarai integrated station. Its consists of landscape design in west and east area, transition area, parking area, solar panel area, and social interaction area.

  2. Separation of cadmium and lead from wastewater using supported liquid membrane integrated with in-situ electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar

    2017-01-01

    A novel process for separation of heavy metals from liquid wastes and/or industrial effluents has been developed as described in this paper wherein the technique of supported liquid membrane based extraction and stripping of heavy metals has been augmented with electroplating inside the stripping chamber of SLM. Wastewater, infested with cadmium and lead, has been subject of research in this work. The said process is employed in transporting the heavy metals from the polluted source phase (wastewater) to the sink (or strip) phase while simultaneously depositing the heavy metals in-situ on the electrode placed inside the strip phase, and thereby the strip phase is remained ever-unsaturated. This arrangement yields high gradient of chemical potential across the liquid membrane and thereby facilitates enhanced and faster recovery of said heavy metals and also yields value added component, viz. electroplated items, for suitable end use.

  3. A periodic review integrated inventory model with controllable setup cost, imperfect items, and inspection errors under service level constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, R. S.; Jauhari, W. A.; Laksono, P. W.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an integrated inventory model which consists of single vendor and buyer. The buyer managed its inventory periodically and orders products from the vendor to satisfy the end customer’s demand, where the annual demand and the ordering cost were in the fuzzy environment. The buyer used a service level constraint instead of the stock-out cost term, so that the stock-out level per cycle was bounded. Then, the vendor produced and delivered products to the buyer. The vendor had a choice to commit an investment to reduce the setup cost. However, the vendor’s production process was imperfect, thus the lot delivered contained some defective products. Moreover, the buyer’s inspection process was not error-free since the inspector could be mistaken in categorizing the product’s quality. The objective was to find the optimum value for the review period, the setup cost, and the number of deliveries in one production cycle which might minimize the joint total cost. Furthermore, the algorithm and numerical example were provided to illustrate the application of the model.

  4. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of greenhouse gas emission abatement. The case of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1999-11-01

    In Finland greenhouse gas emissions are expected to increase during the next decades due to economic growth, particularly in the energy intensive industrial sectors. The role of these industries is very central in the national economy. The emission control according to the Kyoto Protocol will therefore be quite difficult and costly. The study analyses the cost-effectiveness of different technical options for reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in Finland. The analysis is performed with the help of a comprehensive energy system model for Finland, which has been extended to cover all major sources of methane and nitrous oxide emissions in the energy sector, industry, waste management and agriculture. The focus being on technical options, no consideration is given to possible policy measures, emission trading or joint implementation in the study. Under the boundary conditions given for the development of the Finnish energy economy, cost-effective technical measures in the energy system include increases in the use of wood biomass, natural gas and wind energy, increases in the contribution of CHP to the power supply, and intensified energy conservation in all end-use sectors. Additional cost-effective measures are landfill gas recovery, utilisation of the combustible fraction of waste and catalytic conversion of N{sub 2}O in nitric acid production. With baseline assumptions, the direct annual costs of emission abatement are calculated to be about 2000 MFIM (330 M{epsilon}) in 2010. The marginal costs are estimated to be about 230 FIM (40 {epsilon}) per tonne of CO{sub 2}-equivalent in 2010. The cost curie derived from the analysis could be used in further analyses concerning emissions trading. (orig.) 109 refs. SIHTI Research Programme

  5. The integrated supplier: key to cost management and multi-franchise capitation contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuweiler, R C

    1996-05-01

    Capitation...most healthcare providers do not work under it, comprehend it, or even want it, yet supply capitation contracting seminars are popping up everywhere creating the feeling that the bandwagon is leaving, and it might be time to get on board. Not true. Supply capitation is not for all organizations. Capitation contracting is not easy and there are not many successful models to help the uninitiated. If a panacea is sought for reducing supply costs, capitation is only one component of a systematic strategy to reduce materiel costs. This article suggests a direction using the Group Health Materiel Management (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, WA) experience as a point of reference. It advocates a systematic approach that focuses on expense reduction in: cost of goods, holding cost of inventory, labor cost associated with all materiel processes, distribution cost (transportation and par stock pick, pack, and replenishment), product utilization, variation in product standards, and waste stream byproducts. At Group Health (GH) these issues are primarily addressed through the use of: information systems, supplier certification/selection processes, group purchasing compliance, supply channel management, supply capitation contracting programs, standardization, and utilization management. Because of managed care organizational structure, Group Health Cooperative supply capitation contracting, as performed at GH, is discussed not as a quick fix solution but in the spirit of sharing our experience with others who may be considering it as a cost savings tactic in the context of a broad-based materiel management strategy. This article highlights the experiences of GH beginning with materiel management's business process assumptions toward multiple-franchise supply capitation.

  6. Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somda, Zana C; Meltzer, Martin I; Perry, Helen N; Messonnier, Nancy E; Abdulmumini, Usman; Mebrahtu, Goitom; Sacko, Massambou; Touré, Kandioura; Ki, Salimata Ouédraogo; Okorosobo, Tuoyo; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Sow, Idrissa

    2009-01-08

    Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Over the period studied (2002-2005), the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines), service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR.

  7. Impact of Integrated Care Model (ICM) on Direct Medical Costs in Management of Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurska, Ewa; Damps-Konstańska, Iwona; Popowski, Piotr; Jędrzejczyk, Tadeusz; Janowiak, Piotr; Świętnicka, Katarzyna; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena; Jassem, Ewa

    2017-06-12

    BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a commonly diagnosed condition in people older than 50 years of age. In advanced stage of this disease, integrated care (IC) is recommended as an optimal approach. IC allows for holistic and patient-focused care carried out at the patient's home. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of IC on costs of care and on demand for medical services among patients included in IC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 154 patients diagnosed with advanced COPD. Costs of care (general, COPD, and exacerbations-related) were evaluated for 1 year, including 6-months before and after implementing IC. The analysis included assessment of the number of medical procedures of various types before and after entering IC and changes in medical services providers. RESULTS Direct medical costs of standard care in advanced COPD were 886.78 EUR per 6 months. Costs of care of all types decreased after introducing IC. Changes in COPD and exacerbation-related costs were statistically significant (p=0.012492 and p=0.017023, respectively). Patients less frequently used medical services for respiratory system and cardiovascular diseases. Similarly, the number of hospitalizations and visits to emergency medicine departments decreased (by 40.24% and 8.5%, respectively). The number of GP visits increased after introducing IC (by 7.14%). CONCLUSIONS The high costs of care in advanced COPD indicate the need for new forms of effective care. IC caused a decrease in costs and in the number of hospitalization, with a simultaneous increase in the number of GP visits.

  8. Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touré Kandioura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR. This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. Methods We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Results Over the period studied (2002–2005, the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines, service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR.

  9. Integrated Vibration and Acceleration Testing to Reduce Payload Mass, Cost and Mission Risk, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a capability to provide integrated acceleration, vibration, and shock testing using a state-of-the-art centrifuge, allowing for the test of...

  10. Automated Break-Out Box for use with Low Cost Spacecraft Integration and Test, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical checkout and testing is a critical part of the overall spacecraft integration and test flow. Verifying proper harness and connector signal interfaces is...

  11. Health care development: integrating transaction cost theory with social support theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajli, M Nick; Shanmugam, Mohana; Hajli, Ali; Khani, Amir Hossein; Wang, Yichuan

    2014-07-28

    The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies has already been influential in many industries, and Web 2.0 applications are now beginning to have an impact on health care. These new technologies offer a promising approach for shaping the future of modern health care, with the potential for opening up new opportunities for the health care industry as it struggles to deal with challenges including the need to cut costs, the increasing demand for health services and the increasing cost of medical technology. Social media such as social networking sites are attracting more individuals to online health communities, contributing to an increase in the productivity of modern health care and reducing transaction costs. This study therefore examines the potential effect of social technologies, particularly social media, on health care development by adopting a social support/transaction cost perspective. Viewed through the lens of Information Systems, social support and transaction cost theories indicate that social media, particularly online health communities, positively support health care development. The results show that individuals join online health communities to share and receive social support, and these social interactions provide both informational and emotional support.

  12. Estimating Implementation and Operational Costs of an Integrated Tiered CD4 Service including Laboratory and Point of Care Testing in a Remote Health District in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Schnippel, Kathryn; Glencross, Deborah K.

    2014-01-01

    Background An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM) has been proposed to provide ‘full-coverage’ of CD4 services throughout South Africa. Five tiers are described, defined by testing volumes and number of referring health-facilities. These include: (1) Tier-1/decentralized point-of-care service (POC) in a single site; Tier-2/POC-hub servicing processing 600 samples/day and serving >100 or >200 health-clinics, respectively. The objective of this study was to establish costs of existing and ITSDM-tiers 1, 2 and 3 in a remote, under-serviced district in South Africa. Methods Historical health-facility workload volumes from the Pixley-ka-Seme district, and the total volumes of CD4 tests performed by the adjacent district referral CD4 laboratories, linked to locations of all referring clinics and related laboratory-to-result turn-around time (LTR-TAT) data, were extracted from the NHLS Corporate-Data-Warehouse for the period April-2012 to March-2013. Tiers were costed separately (as a cost-per-result) including equipment, staffing, reagents and test consumable costs. A one-way sensitivity analyses provided for changes in reagent price, test volumes and personnel time. Results The lowest cost-per-result was noted for the existing laboratory-based Tiers- 4 and 5 ($6.24 and $5.37 respectively), but with related increased LTR-TAT of >24–48 hours. Full service coverage with TAT cost-per-result of $32.32 and $15.88 respectively. A single district Tier-3 laboratory also ensured ‘full service coverage’ and Implementing a single Tier-3/community laboratory to extend and improve delivery of services in Pixley-ka-Seme, with an estimated local ∼12–24-hour LTR-TAT, is ∼$2 more than existing referred services per-test, but 2–4 fold cheaper than implementing eight Tier-2/POC-hubs or providing twenty-seven Tier-1/POCT CD4 services. PMID:25517412

  13. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long......-term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new...... fixed link across the Roskilde fjord in Frederikssund (Denmark). The results are then compared with those from a standard CBA framework. The analysis shows that indirect environmental impacts represent a relevant share of the estimated costs of the project, clearly affecting the final project evaluation...

  14. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Victor Adrian Maxwell; Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2015-01-01

    Recently, questions have arisen in Denmark as to how and why public funding should be allocated to wind power producers. This is, among other reasons, due to pressure from industrial electricity consumers who want their overall energy costs lowered. Utilising existing wind power subsidies across...... conditions which could allow wind power producers to reduce their reliance on subsidies. It is found that the strategy may be effective in lowering the overall energy costs of electricity consumers. Further, it is found possible to scale up this strategy and realise benefits on a national scale....

  15. An integrated approach to health care costs: the case of American Can.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, J B; Haslinger, J

    1984-01-01

    Faced with numerous health care options, corporations are searching for plans which provide necessary benefits while containing costs. This article examines the case of the American Can Company where, since 1978, a new approach has produced mutual economic gains and employee satisfaction. American Can's efforts involved differential pricing and encouraged responsible selection by employees. The company was one of several studied by the Health Systems Management Center at Case Western Reserve University under contract with the Business Roundtable Health Initiatives Task Force. Such studies provide insight for other companies seeking ways to attack burgeoning corporate health care costs. This article is one of a series reporting the results of these studies.

  16. Integrated, multidisciplinary care for hand eczema: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boot Cécile RL

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The individual and societal burden of hand eczema is high. Literature indicates that moderate to severe hand eczema is a disease with a poor prognosis. Many patients are hampered in their daily activities, including work. High costs are related to high medical consumption, productivity loss and sick leave. Usual care is suboptimal, due to a lack of optimal instruction and coordination of care, and communication with the general practitioner/occupational physician and people involved at the workplace. Therefore, an integrated, multidisciplinary intervention involving a dermatologist, a care manager, a specialized nurse and a clinical occupational physician was developed. This paper describes the design of a study to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of integrated care for hand eczema by a multidisciplinary team, coordinated by a care manager, consisting of instruction on avoiding relevant contact factors, both in the occupational and in the private environment, optimal skin care and treatment, compared to usual, dermatologist-led care. Methods The study is a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial with an economic evaluation alongside. The study population consists of patients with chronic, moderate to severe hand eczema, who visit an outpatient clinic of one of the participating 5 (three university and two general hospitals. Integrated, multidisciplinary care, coordinated by a care manager, including allergo-dermatological evaluation by a dermatologist, occupational intervention by a clinical occupational physician, and counselling by a specialized nurse on optimizing topical treatment and skin care will be compared with usual care by a dermatologist. The primary outcome measure is the cumulative difference in reduction of the clinical severity score HECSI between the groups. Secondary outcome measures are the patient's global assessment, specific quality of life with regard to the hands, generic quality

  17. Low cost 3D-printing used in an undergraduate project: an integrating sphere for measurement of photoluminescence quantum yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomes, John J; Finlayson, Chris E

    2016-01-01

    We report upon the exploitation of the latest 3D printing technologies to provide low-cost instrumentation solutions, for use in an undergraduate level final-year project. The project addresses prescient research issues in optoelectronics, which would otherwise be inaccessible to such undergraduate student projects. The experimental use of an integrating sphere in conjunction with a desktop spectrometer presents opportunities to use easily handled, low cost materials as a means to illustrate many areas of physics such as spectroscopy, lasers, optics, simple circuits, black body radiation and data gathering. Presented here is a 3rd year undergraduate physics project which developed a low cost (£25) method to manufacture an experimentally accurate integrating sphere by 3D printing. Details are given of both a homemade internal reflectance coating formulated from readily available materials, and a robust instrument calibration method using a tungsten bulb. The instrument is demonstrated to give accurate and reproducible experimental measurements of luminescence quantum yield of various semiconducting fluorophores, in excellent agreement with literature values. (paper)

  18. Low cost 3D-printing used in an undergraduate project: an integrating sphere for measurement of photoluminescence quantum yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, John J.; Finlayson, Chris E.

    2016-09-01

    We report upon the exploitation of the latest 3D printing technologies to provide low-cost instrumentation solutions, for use in an undergraduate level final-year project. The project addresses prescient research issues in optoelectronics, which would otherwise be inaccessible to such undergraduate student projects. The experimental use of an integrating sphere in conjunction with a desktop spectrometer presents opportunities to use easily handled, low cost materials as a means to illustrate many areas of physics such as spectroscopy, lasers, optics, simple circuits, black body radiation and data gathering. Presented here is a 3rd year undergraduate physics project which developed a low cost (£25) method to manufacture an experimentally accurate integrating sphere by 3D printing. Details are given of both a homemade internal reflectance coating formulated from readily available materials, and a robust instrument calibration method using a tungsten bulb. The instrument is demonstrated to give accurate and reproducible experimental measurements of luminescence quantum yield of various semiconducting fluorophores, in excellent agreement with literature values.

  19. Integrated PC-based system for detecting and parameter monitoring at the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Yu.S.; Polyakov, A.N.; Sukhov, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    New detection system of the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) was put into operation in May 2012. It includes 32-strip position sensitive PIPS detector manufactured by CANBERRA NV, 24-strip back side PIPS detector, 8-strip V ETO P IPS detector, time-of-flight low pressure (∼1.7 Torr) pentane-filled gaseous detector, CAMAC fast ADC's with 5 μs dead time per three signals (energy, top position, bottom position), modified CC012 crate controller and PC-based C ++ Builder code for spectrometry data acquisition. New parameter monitoring system (project) is reported too together with the brief review of the present system. It is planned to put into operation with this system during 2013-2014. Examples of applications in the long-term experiments aimed at the synthesis of superheavy elements in 48 Ca induced complete fusion nuclear reactions are also presented. Namely with the DGFRS facility 45 new isotopes of superheavy nuclei were synthesized since 2001

  20. A novel gas separation integrated membrane bioreactor to evaluate the impact of self-generated biogas recycling on continuous hydrogen fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakonyi, Péter; Buitrón, Germán; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Gas Separation Membrane Bioreactor was designed to improve H_2 production. • Headspace gas after enrichment by PDMS membranes was used for reactor sparging. • Stripping the bioreactor with a CO_2-enriched gas enhanced the H_2 fermentation. - Abstract: A Gas Separation Membrane Bioreactor (GSMBR) by integrating membrane technology with a continuous biohydrogen fermenter was designed. The feasibility of this novel configuration for the improvement of hydrogen production capacity was tested by stripping the fermentation liquor with CO_2- and H_2-enriched gases, obtained directly from the bioreactor headspace. The results indicated that sparging the bioreactor with the CO_2-concentrated fraction of the membrane separation unit (consisting of two PDMS modules) enhanced the steady-state H_2 productivity (8.9–9.2 L H_2/L-d) compared to the membrane-less control CSTR to be characterized with 6.96–7.35 L H_2/L-d values. On the other hand, purging with the H_2-rich gas strongly depressed the achievable productivity (2.7–3.03 L H_2/L-d). Microbial community structure and soluble metabolic products were monitored to assess the GSMBR behavior. The study demonstrated that stripping the bioH_2 fermenter with its own, self-generated atmosphere after adjusting its composition (to higher CO_2-content) can be a promising way to intensify dark fermentative H_2 evolution.

  1. The impact of the CO_2 separation system integration with a 900 MW_e power unit on its thermodynamic and economic indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łukowicz, Henryk; Mroncz, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal cycle of a supercritical 900 MW_e condensing power plant which meets the “capture ready” requirements. The CO_2 separation method selected for the analysis is chemical absorption using MEA (monoethanolamine) or ammonia as sorbent. The indispensable scope of the turbine system upgrade necessitated by the incorporation of the carbon dioxide separation installation is proposed. The change in indices of the power unit operation after integration with the capture installation is presented for different variants of the retrofit. If MEA is used for carbon dioxide separation, the smallest drop in electric power can be observed in the case of hard coal for added stages at the intermediate pressure part outlet. In the case of lignite, the most favourable upgrade solution in terms of the smallest drop in electric power is elimination of one low pressure part and a backpressure turbine is added at the same time. If ammonia is used as sorbent, the best upgrade solution in terms of the smallest drop in electric power is the variant with more stages added at the IP part outlet, regardless of the type of fuel. An economic analysis is conducted for the proposed variants. - Highlights: • Impact of steam extraction on the turbine operation. • Adding more stages at the intermediate pressure part outlet. • Installing a backpressure turbine. • Eliminating one of the operating low pressure parts. • Economic assessment of proposed variants.

  2. Tightly coupled low cost 3D RISS/GPS integration using a mixture particle filter for vehicular navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2011-01-01

    Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D) reduced inertial sensors system (RISS) with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle's odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s) even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift, which are

  3. Tightly Coupled Low Cost 3D RISS/GPS Integration Using a Mixture Particle Filter for Vehicular Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Georgy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF. Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D reduced inertial sensors system (RISS with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle’s odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift

  4. Integrating forest growth and harvesting cost models to improve forest management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Baumgras; C.B. LeDoux

    1991-01-01

    Two methods of estimating harvesting revenue--reported stumpage prices - and delivered prices minus estimated harvesting and haul costs were compared by estimating entry cash flows and rotation net present value for three simulated even-aged forest management options that included 1 to 3 thinnings over a 90 year rotation. Revenue estimates derived from stumpage prices...

  5. Costs, tariffs and electric power conservation: integrated purpose for the solution of the distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, R.

    1992-01-01

    The relations between costs and prices theory of energy with electricity conservation are discussed, analysing the demand characteristics by electricity and the importance of their knowledge for defining a politics for conservation. The theoretic treatment of the question is considered, mentioning the paper of the clients and the distributors, and the methodology used for energy conservation. (C.G.C.)

  6. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 01: mastication treatments and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Mastication, or mulching, is a mechanical fuel treatment that changes the structure and size of fuels in the stand. This fact sheet describes the kinds of equipment available, where mastication should be used, and treatment factors affecting cost.Other publications in this...

  7. Computational Analysis of Enhanced Circulating Tumour Cell (CTC Separation in a Microfluidic System with an Integrated Dielectrophoretic-Magnetophorectic (DEP-MAP Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Shi Low

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell based cancer analysis is an important analytic method to monitor cancer progress on stages by detecting the density of circulating tumour cells (CTCs in the blood. Among the existing microfluidic techniques, dielectrophoresis (DEP, which is a label-free detection method, is favoured by researchers. However, because of the high conductivity of blood as well as the rare presence of CTCs, high separation efficiency is difficult to achieve in most DEP microdevices. Through this study, we have proposed a strategy to improve the isolation performance, as such by integrating a magnetophoretic (MAP platform into a DEP device. Several important aspects to be taken into MAP design consideration, such as permanent magnet orientation, magnetic track configuration, fluid flow parameter and separation efficiency, are discussed. The design was examined and validated by numerical simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics v4.4 software (COMSOL Inc., Burlington, MA, USA, mainly presented in three forms: surface plot, line plot, and arrow plot. From these results, we showed that the use of a single permanent magnet coupled with an inbuilt magnetic track of 250 μm significantly strengthens the magnetic field distribution within the proposed MAP stage. Besides, in order to improve dynamic pressure without compromising the uniformity of fluid flow, a wide channel inlet and a tree-like network were employed. When the cell trajectory within a finalized MAP stage is computed with a particle tracing module, a high separation efficiency of red blood cell (RBC is obtained for blood samples corresponding up to a dilution ratio of 1:7. Moreover, a substantial enhancement of the CTCs’ recovery rate was also observed in the simulation when the purposed platform was integrated with a planar DEP microdevice.

  8. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  9. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    1992-01-01

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  10. Nash and integrated solutions in a just-in-time seller-buyer supply chain with buyer's ordering cost reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    The seller frequently offers the buyer trade credit to settle the purchase amount. From the seller's prospective, granting trade credit increases not only the opportunity cost (i.e., the interest loss on the buyer's purchase amount during the credit period) but also the default risk (i.e., the rate that the buyer will be unable to pay off his/her debt obligations). On the other hand, granting trade credit increases sales volume and revenue. Consequently, trade credit is an important strategy to increase seller's profitability. In this paper, we assume that the seller uses trade credit and number of shipments in a production run as decision variables to maximise his/her profit, while the buyer determines his/her replenishment cycle time and capital investment as decision variables to reduce his/her ordering cost and achieve his/her maximum profit. We then derive non-cooperative Nash solution and cooperative integrated solution in a just-in-time inventory system, in which granting trade credit increases not only the demand but also the opportunity cost and default risk, and the relationship between the capital investment and the ordering cost reduction is logarithmic. Then, we use a software to solve and compare these two distinct solutions. Finally, we use sensitivity analysis to obtain some managerial insights.

  11. Numerical Feynman integrals with physically inspired interpolation: Faster convergence and significant reduction of computational cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikesh S. Dattani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most successful methods for calculating reduced density operator dynamics in open quantum systems, that can give numerically exact results, uses Feynman integrals. However, when simulating the dynamics for a given amount of time, the number of time steps that can realistically be used with this method is always limited, therefore one often obtains an approximation of the reduced density operator at a sparse grid of points in time. Instead of relying only on ad hoc interpolation methods (such as splines to estimate the system density operator in between these points, I propose a method that uses physical information to assist with this interpolation. This method is tested on a physically significant system, on which its use allows important qualitative features of the density operator dynamics to be captured with as little as two time steps in the Feynman integral. This method allows for an enormous reduction in the amount of memory and CPU time required for approximating density operator dynamics within a desired accuracy. Since this method does not change the way the Feynman integral itself is calculated, the value of the density operator approximation at the points in time used to discretize the Feynamn integral will be the same whether or not this method is used, but its approximation in between these points in time is considerably improved by this method. A list of ways in which this proposed method can be further improved is presented in the last section of the article.

  12. Integrating intermittent energy sources in liberalized electricity markets: from technical costs to economic penalties as a result of market rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L.

    2003-06-01

    With the aim of preventing climatic change and ensuring the security of energy supplies, the recent European Directive on renewable energy production sources is aimed at bringing about a very substantial increase in electricity production from renewable sources in Europe by the 2010 horizon. Generally speaking, production of electricity from renewable sources will be assured by biomass and wind, and to a lesser extent by micro hydro, technologies whose characteristics are very different from the point of view of their integration into the electricity system. Their inclusion in the electricity systems will cause problems because of the intermittent nature of the production, a factor that does not enter into the paradigms of producers, system operators or regulators. The problems raised by the integration of intermittent production are technical in nature (risk of non-availability in peak periods, the need for additional reserves) and will incur adjustment costs, but the way in which the electricity markets function will impose economic penalties generally more substantial than the added technical costs. In this paper are examined in succession: (i) the additional costs raised by intermittence; (ii) the economic penalties imposed by the operating rules of de-regulated electricity markets with electricity production from renewable sources included, with particular reference to the case of the British and Nordic markets; and (iii) an analysis of the options that could limit the gap between the additional cost of intermittent production for the system and the adjustment surcharges imposed by the electricity markets, with the aim of reducing the tension between the deregulation of the electricity market and promoting the development of renewable energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  13. Management of radioactive waste gases from PET radiopharmaceutical synthesis using cost effective capture systems integrated with a cyclotron safety system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, D H R; Pringle, A J; Maillet, D; King, A R; Nevin, S T; Venkatachalam, T K; Reutens, D C; Bhalla, R

    2016-09-01

    The emphasis on the reduction of gaseous radioactive effluent associated with PET radiochemistry laboratories has increased. Various radioactive gas capture strategies have been employed historically including expensive automated compression systems. We have implemented a new cost-effective strategy employing gas capture bags with electronic feedback that are integrated with the cyclotron safety system. Our strategy is suitable for multiple automated 18 F radiosynthesis modules and individual automated 11 C radiosynthesis modules. We describe novel gas capture systems that minimize the risk of human error and are routinely used in our facility.

  14. Argonne's Expedited Site Characterization: An integrated approach to cost- and time-effective remedial investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Meyer, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a methodology for remedial site investigation that has proven to be both technically superior to and more cost- and time-effective than traditional methods. This methodology is referred to as the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). Quality is the driving force within the process. The Argonne ESC process is abbreviated only in time and cost and never in terms of quality. More usable data are produced with the Argonne ESC process than with traditional site characterization methods that are based on statistical-grid sampling and multiple monitoring wells. This paper given an overview of the Argonne ESC process and compares it with traditional methods for site characterization. Two examples of implementation of the Argonne ESC process are discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the process in CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) and RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) programs

  15. Inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy: CDVH treatment prescription with integral cost function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carol, M.P.; Nash, R.; Campbell, R.C.; Huber, R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Inverse planning is a required approach when dealing with the complexity of variables present in an intensity modulated plan. However, an inverse planning system is only as useful as it is 1) easy to use and 2) predictable in its result. This is especially the case when the target goals and structure limits specified by the user all cannot be achieved. We have previously developed two interfaces for specifying how such conflicts should be resolved when they occur, that, although allowing a range of results to be obtained, still require 'trial and error' on the part of the user and are case dependent. A new method is explored with goals of allowing the desired results to be specified in an intuitive manner and producing predictable results that are case independent. Materials and Methods: Target goals and structure limits are specified by entering partial volume data: goal/limit, % under/over goal/limit, minimum, maximum. This data is converted to a CDVH curve for each target/structure. During the simulated annealing process used to produce an optimized solution, the actual CDVHs are compared to the desired CDVHs after each iteration and a cost is computed for the difference between the curves. For each curve, the cost is proportional to the difference in area between the desired and actual curves. This cost is controlled by three variables: offset (amount of difference before there is any cost), scale (the range the cost can take) and shape (the shape of the curve for difference versus cost). A range of values were explored for these variables in order to determine if predictable trade-offs would be made automatically by the system. The cost function was tested against a range of cases: a highly irregularly shaped intracranial lesion, a head and neck case with three target volumes with different prescriptions, and a prostate cancer. Results: By varying the values assigned to the control variables, a variety of predictable results could be

  16. Fresh Snack Food Channel Evaluation Model for Integrating Customers’ Perception of Transaction Costs in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to explore how food dealers develop methods that facilitate transaction efficiency and how they select the optimal food channels. This study establishes a model according to the impact of transaction cost factors on consumers’ decision-making regarding purchase of fresh snack foods. Using fresh snack foods in Taiwan as an example, this study employed a fuzzy analytic network process to solve decision-making problems with multiple criteria by comparing the interaction between each transaction cost factor to obtain the factor weightings as well as the weightings of the transaction costs at each decision stage. This study found that food safety assurance and providing sufficient nutrition information were the most essential topics; thus, the optimal choice for snack food producers is to develop retail outlets. This study construction process proposed is innovative and operational, and the results may provide a reference for snack food dealers or microfood enterprises to assist them in developing their food channels.

  17. Integrating state-of-the-science technology for a cost-effective hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhr, C.A.; Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Environmental Technology Section in Grand Junction, Colorado has performed numerous hazardous waste site characterization since 1985. One of the most costly aspects of site characterization is the installation of groundwater monitoring wells and the subsequent long-term sampling and analysis costs. By optimizing the location of monitoring wells, better information can be obtained from fewer points, resulting in considerable cost savings to the project. A number of different screening techniques can be used prior to monitoring well installation allowing optimal well and soil-boring placement. Additionally, these screening techniques can provide a large amount of data in a small area to provide insight into local heterogeneities in the subsurface. Several screening techniques have been used by ORNL to accomplish these goals including: (1) geophysical surveys (electromagnetic and magnetic) conducted with the UltraSonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS reg-sign), (2) installation of temporary monitoring wells, (3) analysis of samples in the field with a gas chromatograph (GC), and (4) use of the colloidal borescope for determining groundwater flow directions and velocities

  18. A potentiostat featuring an integrator transimpedance amplifier for the measurement of very low currents—Proof-of-principle application in microfluidic separations and voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutilellis, G. D.; Economou, A.; Efstathiou, C. E.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports the design and construction of a novel potentiostat which features an integrator transimpedance amplifier as a current-monitoring unit. The integration approach addresses the limitations of the feedback resistor approach used for current monitoring in conventional potentiostat designs. In the present design, measurement of the current is performed by a precision switched integrator transimpedance amplifier operated in the dual sampling mode which enables sub-pA resolution. The potentiostat is suitable for measuring very low currents (typical dynamic range: 5 pA-4.7 μA) with a 16 bit resolution, and it can support 2-, 3- and 4-electrode cell configurations. Its operation was assessed by using it as a detection module in a home-made capillary electrophoresis system for the separation and amperometric detection of paracetamol and p-aminophenol at a 3-electrode microfluidic chip. The potential and limitations of the proposed potentiostat to implement fast potential-scan voltammetric techniques were demonstrated for the case of cyclic voltammetry.

  19. A potentiostat featuring an integrator transimpedance amplifier for the measurement of very low currents--Proof-of-principle application in microfluidic separations and voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutilellis, G D; Economou, A; Efstathiou, C E

    2016-03-01

    This work reports the design and construction of a novel potentiostat which features an integrator transimpedance amplifier as a current-monitoring unit. The integration approach addresses the limitations of the feedback resistor approach used for current monitoring in conventional potentiostat designs. In the present design, measurement of the current is performed by a precision switched integrator transimpedance amplifier operated in the dual sampling mode which enables sub-pA resolution. The potentiostat is suitable for measuring very low currents (typical dynamic range: 5 pA-4.7 μA) with a 16 bit resolution, and it can support 2-, 3- and 4-electrode cell configurations. Its operation was assessed by using it as a detection module in a home-made capillary electrophoresis system for the separation and amperometric detection of paracetamol and p-aminophenol at a 3-electrode microfluidic chip. The potential and limitations of the proposed potentiostat to implement fast potential-scan voltammetric techniques were demonstrated for the case of cyclic voltammetry.

  20. How vertical integration affects the quantity and cost of care for Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Thomas G; Wendling, Brett W; Wilson, Nathan E

    2017-03-01

    Health systems are employing physicians in growing numbers. The implications of this trend are poorly understood and controversial. We use rich data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to examine the effects of a set of physician acquisitions by hospital systems on outpatient utilization and spending. We find that financial integration systematically produces economically large changes in the acquired physicians' behavior, but has less consistent effects at the acquiring system level. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated care program for schizophrenia: an analysis of routine data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkemeyer, Linda; Wasem, Jürgen; Neumann, Anja; Brannath, Werner; Mester, Benjamin; Timm, Jürgen; Wobrock, Thomas; Bartels, Claudia; Falkai, Peter; Biermann, Janine

    2017-08-08

    In Germany, a regional social health insurance fund provides an integrated care program for patients with schizophrenia (IVS). Based on routine data of the social health insurance, this evaluation examined the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the IVS compared to the standard care (control group, CG). The primary outcome was the reduction of psychiatric inpatient treatment (days in hospital), and secondary outcomes were schizophrenia-related inpatient treatment, readmission rates, and costs. To reduce selection bias, a propensity score matching was performed. The matched sample included 752 patients. Mean number of psychiatric and schizophrenia-related hospital days of patients receiving IVS (2.3 ± 6.5, 1.7 ± 5.0) per quarter was reduced, but did not differ statistically significantly from CG (2.7 ± 7.6, 1.9 ± 6.2; p = 0.772, p = 0.352). Statistically significant between-group differences were found in costs per quarter per person caused by outpatient treatment by office-based psychiatrists (IVS: €74.18 ± 42.30, CG: €53.20 ± 47.96; p analysis showed cost savings of €148.59 per reduced psychiatric and €305.40 per reduced schizophrenia-related hospital day. However, limitations, especially non-inclusion of costs related to management of the IVS and additional home treatment within the IVS, restrict the interpretation of the results. Therefore, the long-term impact of this IVS deserves further evaluation.

  2. Integrating Estimates of the Social and Individual Costs of Caregiving into Dementia Treatment Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of new treatments for dementia are awaiting or undergoing randomized clinical trails. These trials focus on outcomes such as changes in cognitive function, physical function, or amyloid plaques. What is quite important and is too often missing from these trials are estimates of the impact of these treatments on the social and individual costs of providing care for those facing dementia. Until outcomes such as family caregiver time and caregiver burden are included in trails of dementia treatments, the picture of how well these treatments work will be distressingly incomplete.

  3. Adaption to Extreme Rainfall with Open Urban Drainage System: An Integrated Hydrological Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-01-01

    with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas....... The framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental...

  4. A Methodology to Integrate Security and Cost-effectiveness in ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Matarese

    2014-01-01

    prioritizing the threats and proposing cost-effective countermeasures for the weaknesses found. ATM security is concerned with securing ATM assets in order to prevent threats and limit their effects on the overall aviation network. This effect limitation can be achieved by removing the vulnerability from the system and/or increasing the tolerance in case of component failures due to attacks. The security risk assessment methodology proposed is based on what is currently being done by the industry (the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO and the International Standard Organization (ISO, etc..

  5. Intervention and societal costs of residential community reintegration for patients with acquired brain injury: a cost-analysis of the Brain Integration Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Geurtsen, G.J.; Derksen, R.E.; Martina, J.D.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Evers, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the intervention costs of a residential community reintegration programme for patients with acquired brain injury and to compare the societal costs before and after treatment. METHODS: A cost-analysis was performed identifying costs of

  6. Intervention and societal costs of residential community reintegration for patients with acquired brain injury: a cost-analysis of the Brain Integration Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, Caroline M.; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Derksen, R. Elze; Martina, Juan D.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the intervention costs of a residential community reintegration programme for patients with acquired brain injury and to compare the societal costs before and after treatment. A cost-analysis was performed identifying costs of healthcare, informal care, and

  7. Integrated batch production and maintenance scheduling for multiple items processed on a deteriorating machine to minimize total production and maintenance costs with due date constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated model of batch production and maintenance scheduling on a deteriorating machine producing multiple items to be delivered at a common due date. The model describes the trade-off between total inventory cost and maintenance cost as the increase of production run length. The production run length is a time bucket between two consecutive preventive maintenance activities. The objective function of the model is to minimize total cost consisting of in process and completed part inventory costs, setup cost, preventive and corrective maintenance costs and rework cost. The problem is to determine the optimal production run length and to schedule the batches obtained from determining the production run length in order to minimize total cost.

  8. Optimal control of greenhouse gas emissions and system cost for integrated municipal solid waste management with considering a hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Fan, Xing; Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a synergic optimization of control for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and system cost in integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management on a basis of bi-level programming. The bi-level programming is formulated by integrating minimizations of GHG emissions at the leader level and system cost at the follower level into a general MSW framework. Different from traditional single- or multi-objective approaches, the proposed bi-level programming is capable of not only addressing the tradeoffs but also dealing with the leader-follower relationship between different decision makers, who have dissimilar perspectives interests. GHG emission control is placed at the leader level could emphasize the significant environmental concern in MSW management. A bi-level decision-making process based on satisfactory degree is then suitable for solving highly nonlinear problems with computationally effectiveness. The capabilities and effectiveness of the proposed bi-level programming are illustrated by an application of a MSW management problem in Canada. Results show that the obtained optimal management strategy can bring considerable revenues, approximately from 76 to 97 million dollars. Considering control of GHG emissions, it would give priority to the development of the recycling facility throughout the whole period, especially in latter periods. In terms of capacity, the existing landfill is enough in the future 30 years without development of new landfills, while expansion to the composting and recycling facilities should be paid more attention.

  9. Cost reductions on a food processing plant identified by a process integration study at Cadbury Typhoo Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, R.W. (Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell (UK))

    1986-08-01

    The purpose of a process integration study is to determine the minimum practical amount of energy required to operate a process and to identify the minimum cost schemes to maximise savings consistent with planning and operating criteria. The British-led development of Pinch Technology provides a more systematic approach. This technique involves the rigorous application of thermodynamic principles and cost accounting whilst taking account of practical engineering and operability constraints. Cadbury Typhoo Ltd is part of the Cadbury Schweppes Group. The company produces and markets hot and cold beverage products. A process integration study was carried out at the company's Knighton manufacturing site where 'instant' powder beverage ingredients are made and packaged. The total energy bill at the site is in the region of Pound 0.5 million/year. The process energy bill is around Pound 300-350,000/year. The first significant opportunity involves changing the actual process by a different piping arrangement. For a capital expenditure of around Pound 1,000, savings worth Pound 25,000/year can be achieved with a payback of approximately two weeks. (author).

  10. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  11. Integration of quality improvement and cost-efficiency through industrial improvement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vink JP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jasper P Vink,1 Maxime T Rigaudy,1,2 Karl O Elmqvist11Imperial College Business School, Imperial College London, London, 2Hull York Medical School, York, UKIn this journal, Crema and Verbano1 discussed the importance of defining quality of health care and how quality can be improved through various industrial instruments and techniques. Quality of health care is a heavily debated topic that requires a wide scope of considerations across the many stakeholders of the health system. We acknowledge Crema and Verbano’s arguments that patient safety is a basic pillar of quality, upon which we would like to expand by highlighting the clinical effectiveness and patient-reported outcomes, which are the two further crucial components of quality. The arguments made regarding quality improvement techniques and cost efficiency in health care provision are insightful, yet appear to make a distinction between efforts to improve quality, eliminate waste from processes, and cut costs in health care provision. We would argue that in fact these achievements are all closely related and can be achieved simultaneously, if the industrial techniques of quality management are applied adequately.View the original paper by Crema and Verbano.

  12. Rapid and Low-Cost CRP Measurement by Integrating a Paper-Based Microfluidic Immunoassay with Smartphone (CRP-Chip)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Meili; Wu, Jiandong; Ma, Zimin; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Zhang, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Liu, Yong; Rigatto, Claudio; Lin, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Traditional diagnostic tests for chronic diseases are expensive and require a specialized laboratory, therefore limiting their use for point-of-care (PoC) testing. To address this gap, we developed a method for rapid and low-cost C-reactive protein (CRP) detection from blood by integrating a paper-based microfluidic immunoassay with a smartphone (CRP-Chip). We chose CRP for this initial development because it is a strong biomarker of prognosis in chronic heart and kidney disease. The microfluidic immunoassay is realized by lateral flow and gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection of the target protein. The test image signal is acquired and analyzed using a commercial smartphone with an attached microlens and a 3D-printed chip–phone interface. The CRP-Chip was validated for detecting CRP in blood samples from chronic kidney disease patients and healthy subjects. The linear detection range of the CRP-Chip is up to 2 μg/mL and the detection limit is 54 ng/mL. The CRP-Chip test result yields high reproducibility and is consistent with the standard ELISA kit. A single CRP-Chip can perform the test in triplicate on a single chip within 15 min for less than 50 US cents of material cost. This CRP-Chip with attractive features of low-cost, fast test speed, and integrated easy operation with smartphones has the potential to enable future clinical PoC chronic disease diagnosis and risk stratification by parallel measurements of a panel of protein biomarkers. PMID:28346363

  13. Design and control of an ideal heat-integrated distillation column (ideal HIDiC) system separating a close-boiling ternary mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kejin; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong; Qian Jixin

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that a stand-alone ideal heat-integrated distillation column (ideal HIDiC) can be thermodynamically efficient and operationally stable, the application of an ideal HIDiC system to separate a close-boiling multi-component mixture is still a challenging problem because of the possibility of strong interactions within/between the ideal HIDiCs involved. In this work, employment of two ideal HIDiCs to separate a close-boiling ternary mixture is studied in terms of static and dynamic performance. It is found that the ideal HIDiC system can be a competitive alternative with a substantial energy saving and comparable dynamic performance in comparison with its conventional counterpart. The direct sequence appears to be superior to the indirect sequence due to the relatively small vapor flow rates to the compressors. Controlling the bottom composition of the first ideal HIDiC with the pressure elevation from the stripping section to the rectifying section helps to suppress the disturbances from the feed to the second ideal HIDiC. Special caution should, however, be taken when the latent heat of the distillates is to be recovered within/between the ideal HIDiCs involved, because a positive feedback mechanism may be formed and give rise to additional difficulties in process operation

  14. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora; Park, Jeongim

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: → The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.→ Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.→ Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.→ Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.→ Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  15. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Yeora, E-mail: yrchae@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 290 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-Gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeongim [Department of Environmental Health Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: > The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.> Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.> Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.> Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.> Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  16. CO2 Capture Project-An Integrated, Collaborative Technology Development Project for Next Generation CO2 Separation, Capture and Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helen Kerr; Linda M. Curran

    2005-04-15

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) was a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, ENI, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (European Union [DG RES & DG TREN], the Norwegian Research Council [Klimatek Program] and the U.S. Department of Energy [NETL]). The project objective was to develop new technologies that could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies were to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. Certain promising technology areas were increased in scope and the studies extended through 2004. The project budget was approximately $26.4 million over 4 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. Capture Technology, Post Combustion: technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. Capture Technology, Oxyfuel: where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with high CO{sub 2} for storage. Capture Technology, Pre-Combustion: in which, natural gas and petroleum cokes are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. Common Economic Model/Technology Screening: analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV): providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Pre

  17. A comprehensive economic evaluation of integrated desalination systems, including environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater desalination is now widely accepted as an attractive alternative source of freshwater for domestic and industrial uses. Despite the considerable progress made in the relevant technologies desalination, however, remains an energy intensive process in which the energy cost is the paramount factor. Many papers have already been published on desalination economics but a comprehensive study, based on the exhaustive analysis of a combination of energy sources and desalination processes, using state of the art economic models and realistic assumptions, is still quite rare. The aim of this paper is to fulfil this gap with a view to provide clear choices of techno-economic options to decision makers in a wide range of countries be they from the developed regions or emerging countries

  18. A proposed framework for establishing integrated cost and performance criteria for environmental technologies: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This document presents a summary of results of a joint EPA/DOE project aimed at establishing a suite of standard cost and performance criteria for evaluating environmental cleanup technologies for DOE sites. Project findings include: (1) decisionmakers have quite different perspectives with interests and information needs varying among decisionmaker groups, (2) previous criteria development efforts may be too narrowly focused to apply to all decisionmakers, (3) criteria must include social/political/economic interests of decisionmakers as well as site-specific variations, and (4) there are 5 core questions that all decisionmakers are likely to ask when considering a technology for use at a site. The resource developed in the project offers decisionmakers a first-time comprehensive assessment of major technology evaluation issues

  19. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-10-07

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  20. Low Cost SU8 Based Above IC Process for High Q RF Power Inductors Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghannam, A.; Bourrier, D.; Viallon, Ch.; Parra, Th.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new process for integration of high-Q RF power inductors above low resistivity silicon substrates. The process uses the SU8 resin as a dielectric layer. The aim of using the SU8 is to form thick dielectric layer that can enhance the performance of the inductors. The flexibility of the process enables the possibility to realize complex shaped planar inductors with various dielectric and metal thicknesses to meet the requirements of the application. Q values of 55 at 5 GHz has been demonstrated for an inductance value of 0.8 nH using a 60 μm thick SU8 layer and 30 μm thick copper ribbons. (author)

  1. STUDY ON THE MAIN ASPECT RELATED TO COSTS, GENERATED BY INTEGRATED SYSTEMS IN THE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUSESCU AURELIAN IONUT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions in which the world for some time past threshold Internet era, many Romanian companies yet reducing management applications accounting programs to CIEL, Win a Mentor or ASCON. It is true that the statement should not be generalized, so that, however, the market Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP has evolved, but we must admit that we are still far from being connected to the reality generated by globalisation of technological markets. In other words, for developed countries in terms of technology, ERP constitute the pinnacle of development over five decades of the techniques of economic administration support beneficiary technologies of information. Main challenge consists of the economic integration of all processes and optimize available resources of a global market.. In our country, however, things are different, and about a tradition in Romanian develop IT systems we can't talk about, though without too much excitement..

  2. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

  3. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 12, January-April 1979 and proceedings of the 12th Project Integration Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This report describes progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period January through April 1979. It includes reports on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering and operations, and a discussion of the steps taken to integrate these efforts. It includes a report on, and copies of viewgraphs presented at the Project Integration Meeting held April 4-5, 1979.

  4. INTEGRATION OF POINT CLOUDS AND IMAGES ACQUIRED FROM A LOW-COST NIR CAMERA SENSOR FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kedzierski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial Laser Scanning is currently one of the most common techniques for modelling and documenting structures of cultural heritage. However, only geometric information on its own, without the addition of imagery data is insufficient when formulating a precise statement about the status of studies structure, for feature extraction or indicating the sites to be restored. Therefore, the Authors propose the integration of spatial data from terrestrial laser scanning with imaging data from low-cost cameras. The use of images from low-cost cameras makes it possible to limit the costs needed to complete such a study, and thus, increasing the possibility of intensifying the frequency of photographing and monitoring of the given structure. As a result, the analysed cultural heritage structures can be monitored more closely and in more detail, meaning that the technical documentation concerning this structure is also more precise. To supplement the laser scanning information, the Authors propose using both images taken both in the near-infrared range and in the visible range. This choice is motivated by the fact that not all important features of historical structures are always visible RGB, but they can be identified in NIR imagery, which, with the additional merging with a three-dimensional point cloud, gives full spatial information about the cultural heritage structure in question. The Authors proposed an algorithm that automates the process of integrating NIR images with a point cloud using parameters, which had been calculated during the transformation of RGB images. A number of conditions affecting the accuracy of the texturing had been studies, in particular, the impact of the geometry of the distribution of adjustment points and their amount on the accuracy of the integration process, the correlation between the intensity value and the error on specific points using images in different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum and the selection

  5. Integration of Point Clouds and Images Acquired from a Low-Cost NIR Camera Sensor for Cultural Heritage Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, M.; Walczykowski, P.; Wojtkowska, M.; Fryskowska, A.

    2017-08-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning is currently one of the most common techniques for modelling and documenting structures of cultural heritage. However, only geometric information on its own, without the addition of imagery data is insufficient when formulating a precise statement about the status of studies structure, for feature extraction or indicating the sites to be restored. Therefore, the Authors propose the integration of spatial data from terrestrial laser scanning with imaging data from low-cost cameras. The use of images from low-cost cameras makes it possible to limit the costs needed to complete such a study, and thus, increasing the possibility of intensifying the frequency of photographing and monitoring of the given structure. As a result, the analysed cultural heritage structures can be monitored more closely and in more detail, meaning that the technical documentation concerning this structure is also more precise. To supplement the laser scanning information, the Authors propose using both images taken both in the near-infrared range and in the visible range. This choice is motivated by the fact that not all important features of historical structures are always visible RGB, but they can be identified in NIR imagery, which, with the additional merging with a three-dimensional point cloud, gives full spatial information about the cultural heritage structure in question. The Authors proposed an algorithm that automates the process of integrating NIR images with a point cloud using parameters, which had been calculated during the transformation of RGB images. A number of conditions affecting the accuracy of the texturing had been studies, in particular, the impact of the geometry of the distribution of adjustment points and their amount on the accuracy of the integration process, the correlation between the intensity value and the error on specific points using images in different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum and the selection of the optimal

  6. Development of Soil Compaction Analysis Software (SCAN Integrating a Low Cost GPS Receiver and Compactometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A software for soil compaction analysis (SCAN has been developed for evaluating the compaction states using the data from the GPS as well as a compactometer attached on the roller. The SCAN is distinguished from other previous software for intelligent compaction (IC in that it can use the results from various types of GPS positioning methods, and it also has an optimal structure for remotely managing the large amounts of data gathered from numerous rollers. For this, several methods were developed: (1 improving the accuracy of low cost GPS receiver’s positioning results; (2 modeling the trajectory of a moving roller using a GPS receiver’s results and linking it with the data from the compactometer; and (3 extracting the information regarding the compaction states of the ground from the modeled trajectory, using spatial analysis methods. The SCAN was verified throughout various field compaction tests, and it has been confirmed that it can be a very effective tool in evaluating field compaction states.

  7. The metabolic cost of an integrated exercise program performed during 14 days of bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M; Hackney, Kyle; Downs, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James; Cunningham, David; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2014-06-01

    Exercise countermeasures designed to mitigate muscle atrophy during long-duration spaceflight may not be as effective if crewmembers are in negative energy balance (energy output > energy input). This study determined the energy cost of supine exercise (resistance, interval, aerobic) during the spaceflight analogue of bed rest. Nine subjects (eight men and one woman; 34.5 +/- 8.2 yr) completed 14 d of bed rest and concomitant exercise countermeasures. Body mass and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were assessed before and during bed rest. Exercise energy expenditure was measured during and immediately after [excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)] each of five different exercise protocols (30-s, 2-min, and 4-min intervals, continuous aerobic, and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. On days when resistance and continuous aerobic exercise were performed daily, energy expenditure was significantly greater (2879 +/- 280 kcal) than 2-min (2390 +/- 237 kcal), 30-s (2501 +/- 264 kcal), or 4-min (2546 +/- 264 kcal) exercise. There were no significant differences in BMR (pre-bed rest: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; week 1: 1632 +/- 174 kcal; week 2:1657 +/- 176 kcal) or body mass (pre-bed rest: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg; post-bed rest: 75.2 +/- 9.6 kg). These findings highlight the importance of energy balance for long-duration crewmembers completing a high-intensity exercise program with multiple exercise sessions daily.

  8. Cancer prevention, the need to preserve the integrity of the genome at all cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, M T; Nwagha, T U; Anusiem, C; Okoli, U A; Nubila, N I; Al-Alloosh, F; Udenyia, I J

    2018-05-01

    The entire genetic information carried by an organism makes up its genome. Genes have a diverse number of functions. They code different proteins for normal proliferation of cells. However, changes in the base sequence of genes affect their protein by-products which act as messengers for normal cellular functions such as proliferation and repairs. Salient processes for maintaining the integrity of the genome are hinged on intricate mechanisms put in place for the evolution to tackle genomic stresses. To discuss how cells sense and repair damage to their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as well as to highlight how defects in the genes involved in DNA repair contribute to cancer development. Methodology: Online searches on the following databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Biomed Central, and SciELO were done. Attempt was made to review articles with keywords such as cancer, cell cycle, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair. The cell cycle, tumor suppression genes, DNA repair mechanism, as well as their contribution to cancer development, were discussed and reviewed. Knowledge on how cells detect and repair DNA damage through an array of mechanisms should allay our anxiety as regards cancer development. More studies on DNA damage detection and repair processes are important toward a holistic approach to cancer treatment.

  9. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the 100-N Area Ancillary Facilities and Integration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1997-09-01

    This document presents the results of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) that was conducted to evaluate alternatives for addressing final disposition of contaminated buildings and structures in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). In November 1989, the 100 Area of the Hanford Site (as well as the 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. The 100 Area NPL includes the 100-N Area, which is in various stages of the remediation process. It has been determined by RL that hazardous substances in the 100-N Area ancillary facilities may present a potential threat to human health or the environment, and that a non-time critical removal action at these facilities is warranted. To help determine the most appropriate action, RL, in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the EPA, has prepared this EE/CA. The scope of the evaluation includes the inactive contaminated ancillary facilities in the 100-N Area, the facilities residing in the buffer zone, and the Hanford Generating Plant (HGP) and the solid waste management units (SWMUs) inside HGP support facilities. The 105-N Reactor and 109-N Heat Exchange facilities are excluded from this EE/CA evaluation

  10. Integrating unmanned aerial systems and LSPIV for rapid, cost-effective stream gauging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Quinn W.; Lindroth, Evan M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2018-05-01

    Quantifying flow in rivers is fundamental to assessments of water supply, water quality, ecological conditions, hydrological responses to storm events, and geomorphological processes. Image-based surface velocity measurements have shown promise in extending the range of discharge conditions that can be measured in the field. The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in image-based measurements of surface velocities has the potential to expand applications of this method. Thus far, few investigations have assessed this potential by evaluating the accuracy and repeatability of discharge measurements using surface velocities obtained from UAS. This study uses large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) derived from videos captured by cameras on a UAS and a fixed tripod to obtain discharge measurements at ten different stream locations in Illinois, USA. Discharge values are compared to reference values measured by an acoustic Doppler current profiler, a propeller meter, and established stream gauges. The results demonstrate the effects of UAS flight height, camera steadiness and leveling accuracy, video sampling frequency, and LSPIV interrogation area size on surface velocities, and show that the mean difference between fixed and UAS cameras is less than 10%. Differences between LSPIV-derived and reference discharge values are generally less than 20%, not systematically low or high, and not related to site parameters like channel width or depth, indicating that results are relatively insensitive to camera setup and image processing parameters typically required of LSPIV. The results also show that standard velocity indices (between 0.85 and 0.9) recommended for converting surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities yield reasonable discharge estimates, but are best calibrated at specific sites. The study recommends a basic methodology for LSPIV discharge measurements using UAS that is rapid, cost-efficient, and does not require major preparatory work at a

  11. Three Birds with One Fe3O4 Nanoparticle: Integration of Microwave Digestion, Solid Phase Extraction, and Magnetic Separation for Sensitive Determination of Arsenic and Antimony in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yun; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Li; Hou, Xiandeng; Yang, Lu; Zheng, Chengbin

    2015-06-16

    An environmentally friendly and fast sample treatment approach that integrates accelerated microwave digestion (MWD), solid phase extraction, and magnetic separation into a single step was developed for the determination of arsenic and antimony in fish samples by using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Compared to conventional microwave digestion, the consumption of HNO3 was reduced significantly to 12.5%, and the digestion time and temperature were substantially decreased to 6 min and 80 °C, respectively. This is largely attributed to Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles being a highly effective catalyst for rapid generation of oxidative radicals from H2O2, as well as an excellent absorber of microwave irradiation. Moreover, potential interferences from sample matrices were eliminated because the As and Sb species adsorbed on the nanoparticles were efficiently separated from the digests with a hand-held magnet prior to analysis. Limits of detection for arsenic and antimony were in the range of 0.01-0.06 μg g(-1) and 0.03-0.08 μg g(-1) by using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, respectively, and further improved to 0.002-0.005 μg g(-1) and 0.005-0.01 μg g(-1) when inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used as a detector. The precision of replicate measurements (n = 9) was better than 6% by analyzing 0.1 g test sample spiked with 1 μg g(-1) arsenic and antimony. The proposed method was validated by analysis of two certified reference materials (DORM-3 and DORM-4) with good recoveries (90%-106%).

  12. Definition, technology readiness, and development cost of the orbit transfer vehicle engine integrated control and health monitoring system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.

    1991-01-01

    An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.

  13. Air pollution policies in Europe: efficiency gains from integrating climate effects with damage costs to health and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefsen, Petter; Rypdal, Kristin; Torvanger, Asbjorn; Rive, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants cause damage to health and crops, but several air pollutants also have an effect on climate through radiative forcing. We investigate efficiency gains achieved by integrating climate impacts of air pollutants into air quality strategies for the EU region. The pollutants included in this study are SO 2 , NH 3 , VOC, CO, NO x , black carbon, organic carbon, PM 2.5 , and CH 4 . We illustrate the relative importance of climate change effects compared to damage to health and crops, as well as monetary gains of including climate change contributions. The analysis considers marginal abatement costs and compares air quality and climate damage in Euros. We optimize abatement policies with respect to both climate and health impacts, which imply implementing all measures that yield a net benefit. The efficiency gains of the integrated policy are in the order of 2.5 billion Euros, compared to optimal abatement based on health and crop damage only, justifying increased abatement efforts of close to 50%. Climate effect of methane is the single most important factor. If climate change is considered on a 20- instead of a 100-year time-scale, the efficiency gain almost doubles. Our results indicate that air pollution policies should be supplemented with climate damage considerations.

  14. A transition from using multi-step procedures to a fully integrated system for performing extracorporeal photopheresis: A comparison of costs and efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Nabih; Leblond, Veronique; Ouzegdouh, Maya; Button, Paul

    2017-12-01

    The Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital Hemobiotherapy Department, Paris, France, has been providing extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) since November 2011, and started using the Therakos ® CELLEX ® fully integrated system in 2012. This report summarizes our single-center experience of transitioning from the use of multi-step ECP procedures to the fully integrated ECP system, considering the capacity and cost implications. The total number of ECP procedures performed 2011-2015 was derived from department records. The time taken to complete a single ECP treatment using a multi-step technique and the fully integrated system at our department was assessed. Resource costs (2014€) were obtained for materials and calculated for personnel time required. Time-driven activity-based costing methods were applied to provide a cost comparison. The number of ECP treatments per year increased from 225 (2012) to 727 (2015). The single multi-step procedure took 270 min compared to 120 min for the fully integrated system. The total calculated per-session cost of performing ECP using the multi-step procedure was greater than with the CELLEX ® system (€1,429.37 and €1,264.70 per treatment, respectively). For hospitals considering a transition from multi-step procedures to fully integrated methods for ECP where cost may be a barrier, time-driven activity-based costing should be utilized to gain a more comprehensive understanding the full benefit that such a transition offers. The example from our department confirmed that there were not just cost and time savings, but that the time efficiencies gained with CELLEX ® allow for more patient treatments per year. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Clinical Apheresis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cost effective, robust, and reliable coupled separation techniques for the identification and quantification of phospholipids in complex biological matrices: Application to insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníčková, Helena; Tomčala, Aleš; Berková, Petra; Schneedorferová, Ivana; Okrouhlík, J.; Šimek, Petr; Hodková, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 15 (2014), s. 2062-2068 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S; GA ČR GAP502/10/1612; GA TA ČR TA01020969 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : insects * mass spectrometry * phospholipids Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.737, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jssc.201400113/pdf

  16. Developmental assessment of RELAP5/MOD3.1 with separate-effect and integral test experiments: model changes and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.T.

    1996-04-01

    A summary of modifications and options introduced in RELAP5/MOD3.1 (R5M3.1) is presented and it is shown that the predicting capabilities of the modified version of the code are greatly improved, while the general philosophy we followed in arriving at these modifications is also outlined. These changes which are the same ones we implemented in the past in the version 7j of the code, include 2 different heat transfer packages (one of them activated during reflooding), modification of the low mass-flux Groeneveld CHF look-up table and of the dispersed flow interfacial area (and shear) as well as of the criterion for transition into and out from this regime, almost complete elimination of the under-relaxation schemes of the interfacial closure coefficients etc. The modified R5M3.1 code is assessed against a number of separate-effect and integral test experiments and in contrast to the frozen version, is shown to result in physically sound predictions which are much closer to the measurements, while almost all the predicted variables are free of unphysical spurious oscillations. The modifications introduced solve a number of problems associated with the frozen version of the code and result in a version which can be confidently used both for SB-LOCA and LB-LOCA analyses. (author) 7 figs., 20 refs

  17. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  18. Feasibility of low-cost magnetic rail designs by integrating ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets for HTS Maglev systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R. X.; Deng, Z. G.; Gou, Y. F.; Li, Y. J.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    Permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is an indispensable part of high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev systems. Present PMGs are made of NdFeB magnets with excellent performance and cost much. As another permanent magnet material, the ferrite magnet is weak at magnetic energy product and coercive force, but inexpensive. So, it is a possible way to integrate the ferrite and NdFeB magnets for cutting down the cost of present PMGs. In the paper, the equivalent on magnetic field intensity between ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets was evaluated by finite element simulation. According to the calculation results, the magnetic field of the PMG integrating ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets can be increased remarkably comparing with the pure ferrite PMG. It indicates that low-cost PMG designs by integrating the two permanent magnet materials are feasible for the practical HTS Maglev system.

  19. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  20. Forest management units through cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tenovici

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Costs minimizing and profit maximizing make the costs adjustment seems to be a vital necessity when the activity developed within the company does not assure the maintenance and stability of the necessary relation between consuming factors and costs. In such circumstances, approaching differing sides of the production cost and improving the methods of calculation has much significance in determining the most appropriate measures necessary for its adjustment and for profit increasing. The whole informational process of costs – formation, control and analysis of costs – involves a careful use the methodological concepts known under the name of classical methods and modern or complementary methods, as well as of other proceedings. Such methods and proceedings cannot be applied separately, only conjugated and integrated in a unitary methodological system, each of these methods and proceedings participating at achieving one or more objectives. Only by their unitary action they can fulfill all the system objective.

  1. Timing growth and development of Campanula by daily light integral and supplemental light level in a cost-efficient light control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2012-01-01

    light control system (DynaLight desktop) automatically defines the most cost-efficient use of supplemental light based on predefined setpoints for daily photosynthesis integral (DPI), forecasted solar irradiance and the market price on electricity. It saves energy in high-cost periods of electricity......Two campanula species Campanula portenschlagiana (‘Blue Get Mee’) and Campanula cochlearifolia (‘Blue Wonder’) were grown in a cost-efficient light control system and the effect of supplemental light level and daily light integral (DLI) on growth and development was quantified. The alternative...... the number of flowers and buds and CLI in ‘Blue Get Mee’. The results demonstrate that DLI was the main limiting factor for prediction of growth and development when two campanula species were grown in a cost-efficient light control system where the number of daily light hours was often below the critical...

  2. Optimizing the Costs of Solid Sorbent-Based CO2 Capture Process Through Heat Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon [Ada-Es, Inc., Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)

    2016-03-18

    The focus of this project was the ADAsorb™ CO2 Capture Process, a temperature-swing adsorption process that incorporates a three-stage fluidized bed as the adsorber and a single-stage fluidized bed as the regenerator. ADAsorb™ system was designed, fabricated, and tested under DOE award DEFE0004343. Two amine-based sorbents were evaluated in conjunction with the ADAsorb™ process: “BN”, an ion-exchange resin; and “OJ”, a metal organic framework (MOF) sorbent. Two cross heat exchanger designs were evaluated for use between the adsorber and regenerator: moving bed and fluidized bed. The fluidized bed approach was rejected fairly early in the project because the additional electrical load to power blowers or fans to overcome the pressure drop required for fluidization was estimated to be nominally three times the electrical power that could be generated from the steam saved through the use of the cross heat exchanger. The Energy Research Center at Lehigh University built and utilized a process model of the ADAsorb™ capture process and integrated this model into an existing model of a supercritical PC power plant. The Lehigh models verified that, for the ADAsorb™ system, the largest contributor to parasitic power was lost electrical generation, which was primarily electric power which the host plant could not generate due to the extraction of low pressure (LP) steam for sorbent heating, followed by power for the CO2 compressor and the blower or fan power required to fluidize the adsorber and regenerator. Sorbent characteristics such as the impacts of moisture uptake, optimized adsorption and regeneration temperature, and sensitivity to changes in pressure were also included in the modeling study. Results indicate that sorbents which adsorb more than 1-2% moisture by weight are unlikely to be cost competitive unless they have an extremely high CO2 working capacity that well exceeds 15% by weight. Modeling also revealed

  3. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  4. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  5. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  6. Next-generation phage display: integrating and comparing available molecular tools to enable cost-effective high-throughput analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Dias-Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial phage display has been used in the last 20 years in the identification of protein-ligands and protein-protein interactions, uncovering relevant molecular recognition events. Rate-limiting steps of combinatorial phage display library selection are (i the counting of transducing units and (ii the sequencing of the encoded displayed ligands. Here, we adapted emerging genomic technologies to minimize such challenges.We gained efficiency by applying in tandem real-time PCR for rapid quantification to enable bacteria-free phage display library screening, and added phage DNA next-generation sequencing for large-scale ligand analysis, reporting a fully integrated set of high-throughput quantitative and analytical tools. The approach is far less labor-intensive and allows rigorous quantification; for medical applications, including selections in patients, it also represents an advance for quantitative distribution analysis and ligand identification of hundreds of thousands of targeted particles from patient-derived biopsy or autopsy in a longer timeframe post library administration. Additional advantages over current methods include increased sensitivity, less variability, enhanced linearity, scalability, and accuracy at much lower cost. Sequences obtained by qPhage plus pyrosequencing were similar to a dataset produced from conventional Sanger-sequenced transducing-units (TU, with no biases due to GC content, codon usage, and amino acid or peptide frequency. These tools allow phage display selection and ligand analysis at >1,000-fold faster rate, and reduce costs approximately 250-fold for generating 10(6 ligand sequences.Our analyses demonstrates that whereas this approach correlates with the traditional colony-counting, it is also capable of a much larger sampling, allowing a faster, less expensive, more accurate and consistent analysis of phage enrichment. Overall, qPhage plus pyrosequencing is superior to TU-counting plus Sanger

  7. Towards Cost-Effective Crystalline Silicon Based Flexible Solar Cells: Integration Strategy by Rational Design of Materials, Process, and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.

    2017-11-30

    The solar cells market has an annual growth of more than 30 percent over the past 15 years. At the same time, the cost of the solar modules diminished to meet both of the rapid global demand and the technological improvements. In particular for the crystalline silicon solar cells, the workhorse of this technology. The objective of this doctoral thesis is enhancing the efficiency of c-Si solar cells while exploring the cost reduction via innovative techniques. Contact metallization and ultra-flexible wafer based c-Si solar cells are the main areas under investigation. First, Silicon-based solar cells typically utilize screen printed Silver (Ag) metal contacts which affect the optimal electrical performance. To date, metal silicide-based ohmic contacts are occasionally used for the front contact grid lines. In this work, investigation of the microstructure and the electrical characteristics of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) ohmic contacts on the rear side of c-Si solar cells has been carried out. Significant enhancement in the fill factor leading to increasing the total power conversion efficiency is observed. Second, advanced classes of modern application require a new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience. However, silicon is a brittle material with a fracture strains <1%. Highly flexible Si-based solar cells are available in the form thin films which seem to be disadvantageous over thick Si solar cells due to the reduction of the optical absorption with less active Si material. Here, a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology based integration strategy is designed where corrugation architecture to enable an ultra-flexible solar cell module from bulk mono-crystalline silicon solar wafer with 17% efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells

  8. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  9. Integrated cost-benefit analysis of tsetse control and herd productivity to inform control programs for animal African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne; Holt, Hannah R; Oumarou, Farikou; Chilongo, Kalinga; Gilbert, William; Fauron, Albane; Mumba, Chisoni; Guitian, Javier

    2018-03-07

    Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) and its tsetse vector are responsible for annual losses estimated in billions of US dollars ($). Recent years have seen the implementation of a series of multinational interventions. However, actors of AAT control face complex resource allocation decisions due to the geographical range of AAT, diversity of ecological and livestock systems, and range of control methods available. The study presented here integrates an existing tsetse abundance model with a bio-economic herd model that captures local production characteristics as well as heterogeneities in AAT incidence and breed. These models were used to predict the impact of tsetse elimination on the net value of cattle production in the districts of Mambwe, in Zambia, and Faro et Déo in Cameroon. The net value of cattle production under the current situation was used as a baseline, and compared with alternative publicly funded control programmes. In Zambia, the current baseline is AAT control implemented privately by cattle owners (Scenario Z0). In Cameroon, the baseline (Scenario C0) is a small-scale publicly funded tsetse control programme and privately funded control at farm level. The model was run for 10 years, using a discount rate of 5%. Compared to Scenario C0, benefit-cost ratios (BCR) of 4.5 (4.4-4.7) for Scenario C1 (tsetse suppression using insecticide treatment of cattle (ITC) and traps + maintenance with ITC barrier), and 3.8 (3.6-4.0) for Scenario C2 (tsetse suppression using ITC and traps + maintenance with barrier of targets), were estimated in Cameroon. For Zambia, the benefit-cost ratio calculated for Scenarios Z1 (targets, ITC barrier), Z2 (targets, barrier traps), Z3 (aerial spraying, ITC barrier), and Z4 (aerial spraying, barrier traps) were 2.3 (1.8 - 2.7), 2.0 (1.6-2.4), 2.8 (2.3-3.3) and 2.5 (2.0-2.9), respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the profitability of the projects is relatively resistant to variations in the costs of the

  10. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 5: Cost analysis, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinton, G.; Schultz, D.; Landis, R.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivering treatment reagents have rendered existing in situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The Lasagna trademark technology is an integrated in situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly into the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis if utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report presents the results of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis of the vertically configured treatment process completed by the DuPont Company. The cost evaluation was prepared by developing a cost optimization model of the overall treatment process. This model considers various input parameters such as soil properties, depth of contamination, cost for emplacing electrodes and treatment zones, required purge water volume, time constraints to achieve cleanup, and cost of power. Several example cases were run using the cost model to provide representative cost ranges for applying the technology to clean up trichloroethene contamination in clay. These costs are estimated to range from $40 to $95 per cubic yard of soil for a 1-acre site, with cost depending on depth of contamination (cost range valid from 15 to 45 ft), method of electrode/treatment zone emplacement (cost range valid from 15 to 45 ft), method of electrode/treatment zone emplacement (cost range valid for Lasagna trademark Phase I emplacement and optimized emplacement techniques), and time available to complete remediation (cost range valid for one- and three-year timeframe)

  11. Integration of EEG lead placement templates into traditional technologist-based staffing models reduces costs in continuous video-EEG monitoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolls, Brad J; Lai, Amy H; Srinivas, Anang A; Reid, Robert R

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative cost reductions within different staffing models for continuous video-electroencephalography (cvEEG) service by introducing a template system for 10/20 lead application. We compared six staffing models using decision tree modeling based on historical service line utilization data from the cvEEG service at our center. Templates were integrated into technologist-based service lines in six different ways. The six models studied were templates for all studies, templates for intensive care unit (ICU) studies, templates for on-call studies, templates for studies of ≤ 24-hour duration, technologists for on-call studies, and technologists for all studies. Cost was linearly related to the study volume for all models with the "templates for all" model incurring the lowest cost. The "technologists for all" model carried the greatest cost. Direct cost comparison shows that any introduction of templates results in cost savings, with the templates being used for patients located in the ICU being the second most cost efficient and the most practical of the combined models to implement. Cost difference between the highest and lowest cost models under the base case produced an annual estimated savings of $267,574. Implementation of the ICU template model at our institution under base case conditions would result in a $205,230 savings over our current "technologist for all" model. Any implementation of templates into a technologist-based cvEEG service line results in cost savings, with the most significant annual savings coming from using the templates for all studies, but the most practical implementation approach with the second highest cost reduction being the template used in the ICU. The lowered costs determined in this work suggest that a template-based cvEEG service could be supported at smaller centers with significantly reduced costs and could allow for broader use of cvEEG patient monitoring.

  12. Using an Integrated Hydrologic-Economic Model to Develop Minimum Cost Water Supply Portfolios and Manage Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.; Ramsey, J.

    2004-12-01

    Water scarcity has become a reality in many areas as a result of population growth, fewer available sources, and reduced tolerance for the environmental impacts of developing the new supplies that do exist. As a result, successfully managing future water supply risk will become more dependent on coordinating the use of existing resources. Toward that end, flexible supply strategies that can rapidly respond to hydrologic variability will provide communities with increasing economic advantages, particularly if the frequency of more extreme events (e.g., drought) increases due to global climate change. Markets for established commodities (e.g., oil, gas) often provide a framework for efficiently responding to changes in supply and demand. Water markets, however, have remained relatively crude, with most transactions involving permanent transfers and long regulatory processes. Recently, interest in the use of flexible short-term transfers (e.g., leases, options) has begun to motivate consideration of more sophisticated strategies for managing supply risk, strategies similar to those used in more mature markets. In this case, communities can benefit from some of the advantages that water enjoys over other commodities, in particular, the ability to accurately characterize the stochastic nature of supply and demand through hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic-economic models are developed for two different water scarce regions supporting active water markets: Edward Aquifer and Lower Rio Grande Valley. These models are used to construct portfolios of water supply transfers (e.g., permanent transfers, options, and spot leases) that minimize the cost of meeting a probabilistic reliability constraint. Real and simulated spot price distributions allow each type of transfer to be priced in a manner consistent with financial theory (e.g., Black-Scholes). Market simulations are integrated with hydrologic models such that variability in supply and demand are linked with price behavior

  13. Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Evidence-Based Nursing Interventions to Maintain Tissue Integrity to Prevent Pressure Ulcers and Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, Pınar; Karadağ, Ayişe

    2018-02-01

    A reduction in tissue tolerance promotes the development of pressure ulcers (PUs) and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). To determine the cost-effectiveness and efficacy of evidence-based (EB) nursing interventions on increasing tissue tolerance by maintaining tissue integrity. The study involved 154 patients in two intensive care units (77 patients, control group; 77 patients, intervention group). Data were collected using the following: patient characteristics form, Braden PU risk assessment scale, tissue integrity monitoring form, PU identification form, IAD and severity scale, and a cost table of the interventions. Patients in the intervention group were cared for by nurses trained in the use of the data collection tools and in EB practices to improve tissue tolerance. Routine nursing care was given to the patients in the control group. The researcher observed all patients in terms of tissue integrity and recorded the care-related costs. Deterioration of tissue integrity was observed in 18.2% patients in the intervention group compared to 54.5% in the control group (p cost to increase tissue tolerance prevention in the intervention and control groups was X¯ = $204.34 ± 41.07 and X¯ = $138.90 ± 1.70, respectively. It is recommended that EB policies and procedures are developed to improve tissue tolerance by maintaining tissue integrity. Although the cost of EB preventive initiatives is relatively high compared to those that are not EB, the former provide a significant reduction in the prevalence of tissue integrity deterioration. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Possible application of laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delionback, L.M.

    1975-05-01

    The laser isotope separation process is described and its special economic features discussed. These features are its low cost electric power operation, capital investment costs, and the costs of process materials. (Author)

  15. MADM Technique Integrated with Grey- based Taguchi method for Selection of Alluminium alloys to minimize deburring cost during Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sreenivasulu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, burr problems had been considered unavoidable so that most efforts had been made on removal of the burr as a post process. Nowadays, a trend of manufacturing is an integration of the whole production flow from design to end product. Manufacturing problem issues are handled in various stages even from design stage. Therefore, the methods of describing the burr are getting much attention in recent years for the systematic approach to resolve the burr problem at various manufacturing stages. The main objective of this paper is to explore the basic concepts of MADM methods. In this study, five parameters namely speed, feed, drill size, drill geometry such as point angle and clearance angle were identified to influence more on burr formation during drilling. L 18 orthogonal array was selected and experiments were conducted as per Taguchi experimental plan for Aluminium alloy of 2014, 6061, 5035 and 7075 series. The experiment performed on a CNC Machining center with HSS twist drills. The burr size such as height and thickness were measured on exit of each hole. An optimal combination of process parameters was obtained to minimize the burr size via grey relational analysis. The output from grey based- taguchi method fed as input to the MADM. Apart from burr size strength and temperature are also considered as attributes. Finally, the results generated in MADM suggests the suitable alternative of  aluminium alloy, which results in less deburring cost, high strength and high resistance at elevated temperatures.

  16. A micro-grid operation analysis for cost-effective battery energy storage and RES plants integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Bonucci, F.

    2016-01-01

    Penetration of renewable energy is strongly slowed by its characteristic intermittency and fluctuating trend and by the inadequacy of electricity networks. These issues can be addressed through the development of new or improved storage technologies with higher performance, availability, durability, safety and lower costs. In the present work, micro-grids characterized by the presence of different subsections including renewable plants coupled with batteries storage solution are investigated through the development of a suitable code. Several design conditions and features, related to RES plant, storage system and users, were considered in order to realize a sensitivity analysis aimed to examine, on a yearly base and with one minute time step, interactions among the different micro-grid subsections and to identify the best solutions from both economic and energy point of views. - Highlights: • Storage systems coupling to RES plants is investigated for micro-grids. • Interactions between RES plants, storage batteries and users are analyzed. • Self-consumption increases with storage installation. • Investment pay-back analysis is performed varying plant configurations. • Pay-back reduction up to 30–40% for new RES/Storage integrated installations.

  17. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  18. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  19. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  20. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  1. Retrofit with membrane the Paraffin/Olefin separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motelica, A.; Bruinsma, O.S.L.; Kreiter, R.; Den Exter, M.J.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    Olefins, such as ethylene, propylene, and butadiene, are among the most produced intermediates in petrochemical industry. They are produced from a wide range of hydrocarbon feedstocks (ethane, propane, butane, naphtha, gas oil) via a cracking process. The last step in this process is the separation of olefins from other hydrocarbons, which is traditionally performed with distillation. As the physicochemical properties, such as volatility and boiling point, of the compounds are very similar, the purification becomes capital and energy intensive. For example, the top of an ethylene/ethane distillation column needs to be chilled to -30C and this requires large amount of electric energy consumption. The separation of butadiene from the C4-fraction is performed with the aid of an additional solvent. This solvent has to be regenerated at the cost of additional high temperature steam. To overcome these separation disadvantages of olefin/paraffin separation, different separation methods have been investigated and proposed in recent years. Suggested options are based on better heat integration of the overall process, or on novel separation systems such as Heat Integrated Distillation Columns, membrane separation, adsorption-desorption systems or on hybrid separation methods, for example, distillation combined with membrane separation.

  2. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  3. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  4. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  5. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  6. Integrated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratton, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This article offers ideas for evaluating integrated solid waste management systems through the use of a conceptual cost overview. The topics of the article include the integrated solid waste management system; making assumptions about community characteristics, waste generation rates, waste collection responsibility, integrated system components, sizing and economic life of system facilities, system implementation schedule, facility ownership, and system administration; integrated system costs; integrated system revenues; system financing; cost projections; and making decisions

  7. Study protocol for the Integra Initiative to assess the benefits and costs of integrating sexual and reproductive health and HIV services in Kenya and Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charlotte E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA there are strong arguments for the provision of integrated sexual and reproductive health (SRH and HIV services. Most HIV transmissions are sexually transmitted or associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. Many of the behaviours that prevent HIV transmission also prevent sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. There is potential for integration to increase the coverage of HIV services, as individuals who use SRH services can benefit from HIV services and vice-versa, as well as increase cost-savings. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on effective models for integrating HIV/SRH services. The need for robust evidence led a consortium of three organizations – International Planned Parenthood Federation, Population Council and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine – to design/implement the Integra Initiative. Integra seeks to generate rigorous evidence on the feasibility, effectiveness, cost and impact of different models for delivering integrated HIV/SRH services in high and medium HIV prevalence settings in SSA. Methods/design A quasi-experimental study will be conducted in government clinics in Kenya and Swaziland – assigned into intervention/comparison groups. Two models of service delivery are investigated: integrating HIV care/treatment into 1 family planning and 2 postnatal care. A full economic-costing will be used to assess the costs of different components of service provision, and the determinants of variations in unit costs across facilities/service models. Health facility assessments will be conducted at four time-periods to track changes in quality of care and utilization over time. A two-year cohort study of family planning/postnatal clients will assess the effect of integration on individual outcomes, including use of SRH services, HIV status (known/unknown and pregnancy (planned/unintended. Household surveys within some

  8. Integrating and rationalizing public healthcare services as a source of cost containment in times of economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Namazova-Baranova, Leyla; Ehrich, Jochen

    2016-02-24

    Serious concern has been raised about the sustainability of public health care systems of European Nations and ultimately about the health of European citizens, as a result of the economic crisis that has distressed Europe since 2008. The severe economic crisis of the Euro zone, which is still afflicting Europe in 2016, has in fact threatened to equally impact public health services of nations presenting either a weak or a strong domestic growth. On behalf of the European Paediatric Association, the Union of National European Societies and Associations, the authors of the Commentary debates the relationship between the effects of economic instability and health, through the report on an article recently published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics, which emphasized the importance of integrating existing public health care services, otherwise independently provided by public hospitals, and Primary Care Paediatric networks. The interconnections between the effects of economic instability and health are briefly commented, following the observation that these two factors are not yet fully understood, and that the definition of proper solutions to be applied in circumstances, where health is negatively impacted by periods of economic distress, is still open for discussion. Furthermore it is noted that the pressure to "deliver more for less" often seems to be the driving force forging the political strategic decisions in the area of pediatric healthcare, rather than social, cultural, and economic sensitivity and competences. Thus, the delivery of appropriate pediatric healthcare seems not to be related exclusively to motivations aimed to the benefit of children, but more often to other intervening factors, including economic, and political rationales. The conclusions emphasize that local European experiences suggest that positive and cost effective healthcare programs are possible, and they could serve as a model in the development of effective cross-border regional

  9. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  10. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Papadopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing policies to achieve FWCR. These policies must be socially just to avoid any social injustice phenomena. This is a very delicate task to handle, especially within the fragile economic conditions that the EU is facing today. Water losses play a crucial role for the FWC estimation. Water losses should not be neglected since they are one of the major “water uses” in any water supply network. A methodology is suggested to reduce water losses and the related Non Revenue Water (NRW index. An Expert Decision Support System is proposed to assess the FWC incorporating the Water and Carbon Footprint costs.

  11. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  12. Does integration of HIV and SRH services achieve economies of scale and scope in practice? A cost function analysis of the Integra Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Guinness, Lorna; Sweeney, Sedona; Initiative, Integra; Vassall, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Policy-makers have long argued about the potential efficiency gains and cost savings from integrating HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) services, particularly in resource-constrained settings with generalised HIV epidemics. However, until now, little empirical evidence exists on whether the hypothesised efficiency gains associated with such integration can be achieved in practice. We estimated a quadratic cost function using data obtained from 40 health facilities, over a 2-year-period, in Kenya and Swaziland. The quadratic specification enables us to determine the existence of economies of scale and scope. The empirical results reveal that at the current output levels, only HIV counselling and testing services are characterised by service-specific economies of scale. However, no overall economies of scale exist as all outputs are increased. The results also indicate cost complementarities between cervical cancer screening and HIV care; post-natal care and HIV care and family planning and sexually transmitted infection treatment combinations only. The results from this analysis reveal that contrary to expectation, efficiency gains from the integration of HIV and SRH services, if any, are likely to be modest. Efficiency gains are likely to be most achievable in settings that are currently delivering HIV and SRH services at a low scale with high levels of fixed costs. The presence of cost complementarities for only three service combinations implies that careful consideration of setting-specific clinical practices and the extent to which they can be combined should be made when deciding which services to integrate. NCT01694862. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Lessons from American-German nuclear power plant construction. Quality, safety and costs of an attempt to integrate American and German nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchwald, K.

    1979-05-01

    The 1300 MW nuclear power plant at Muelheim-Kaerlich has been under construction since the beginning of 1975. It is being equipped with a pressurised water reactor which has been adapted to the German client's requirements and German licensing practice, based on a license held by Babcock and Wilcox USA (B and W). The problems which have arisen in making this adaptation are the result of different requirements in the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany which make it very difficult to integrate the two technologies. Full integration will almost certainly be impossible, but integration to the widest possible extent is important because it might mean both greater safety and reduced costs. In this article it is intended to show where the problems of integration lie and how they might perhaps be overcome. (author)

  14. Integrating Efficiency of Industry Processes and Practices Alongside Technology Effectiveness in Space Transportation Cost Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents past and current work in dealing with indirect industry and NASA costs when providing cost estimation or analysis for NASA projects and programs. Indirect costs, when defined as those costs in a project removed from the actual hardware or software hands-on labor; makes up most of the costs of today's complex large scale NASA space/industry projects. This appears to be the case across phases from research into development into production and into the operation of the system. Space transportation is the case of interest here. Modeling and cost estimation as a process rather than a product will be emphasized. Analysis as a series of belief systems in play among decision makers and decision factors will also be emphasized to provide context.

  15. Cost analysis of magnetically controlled growing rods compared with traditional growing rods for early-onset scoliosis in the US: an integrated health care delivery system perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, David W; Ackerman, Stacey J; Schneider, Karen; Pawelek, Jeff B; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Tradit