WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrating soil conservation

  1. Integrating soil conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops: impacts on soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Martin A; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Reddy, Krishna N

    2008-04-01

    Conservation practices often associated with glyphosate-resistant crops, e.g. limited tillage and crop cover, improve soil conditions, but only limited research has evaluated their effects on soil in combination with glyphosate-resistant crops. It is assumed that conservation practices have similar benefits to soil whether or not glyphosate-resistant crops are used. This paper reviews the impact on soil of conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops, and presents data from a Mississippi field trial comparing glyphosate-resistant and non-glyphosate-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under limited tillage management. Results from the reduced-tillage study indicate differences in soil biological and chemical properties owing to glyphosate-resistant crops. Under continuous glyphosate-resistant maize, soils maintained greater soil organic carbon and nitrogen as compared with continuous non-glyphosate-resistant maize, but no differences were measured in continuous cotton or in cotton rotated with maize. Soil microbial community structure based on total fatty acid methyl ester analysis indicated a significant effect of glyphosate-resistant crop following 5 years of continuous glyphosate-resistant crop as compared with the non-glyphosate-resistant crop system. Results from this study, as well as the literature review, indicate differences attributable to the interaction of conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crop, but many are transient and benign for the soil ecosystem. Glyphosate use may result in minor effects on soil biological/chemical properties. However, enhanced organic carbon and plant residues in surface soils under conservation practices may buffer potential effects of glyphosate. Long-term field research established under various cropping systems and ecological regions is needed for critical assessment of glyphosate-resistant crop and conservation practice interactions. Copyright (c) 2008 by John Wiley & Sons

  2. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  3. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  4. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    socio-cultural, economic system constraints for the implementation and maintenance of conservation .... Purpose of natural resource conservation is therefore ... the soil and water resources through traditional and ..... “Integrated Natural.

  5. Soil conservation according the international community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, Rachele

    2015-01-01

    The land is a finite resource. Desertification, climate change, pollution, human settlements and human activities, threaten the integrity of the soil and its ability to 'nourishing the planet'. In a growing awareness, the international community is by multiplying the action to promote overall defence and soil conservation measures, starting with the fight against desertification, with the aim of arriving at a Land Degradation Neutrality to 2050. [it

  6. Soil conservation: Market failure and program performance

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Gary Wyckoff

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the economic rationale behind soil conservation programs, an assessment of the magnitude of the soil erosion problem, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of U.S. soil conservation policies.

  7. Local farmers' approach to soil conservation: Lessons from Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) approaches to soil conservation in Nigeria. It specifically identifies various indigenous/local and modern methods employed in the process of utilizing an integrated approach to soil conservation by all stakeholders (local farmers, governmental and ...

  8. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  9. Tenancy and Soil Conservation in Market Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Erik

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of equilibrium contracts between risk neutral landlords and tenants when tenants' soil exploitation is non-contractible indicates that landlords will overinvest in conservation structures. An empirical model using farm-level data provides evidence that investment in contractible soil conservation measures is greater on rental land.

  10. Soil conservation through sediment trapping: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getahun, M.M.; Keesstra, S.D.; Stroosnijder, L.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Maroulis, J.

    2015-01-01

    Preventing the off-site effects of soil erosion is an essential part of good catchment management. Most efforts are in the form of on-site soil and water conservation measures. However, sediment trapping can be an alternative (additional) measure to prevent the negative off-site effects of soil

  11. Evolving concepts and opportunities in soil conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Dumanski

    2015-03-01

    The paper discusses some of the new driving forces, new international programs, and new potential partners in soil conservation. Increasingly, international efforts to mitigate land degradation are shifting from studies of the biophysical processes to improving the global, national and local enabling policy environment, as well as mainstreaming of soil conservation into national and regional policies and programs. Also, increased emphasis is placed on economic instruments and international markets, such as carbon trading, and incorporation of non-market values in ecosystem investment, such as payment for ecosystem services, certification schemes, etc. The paper discusses some of the opportunities for soil conservation that accrue from these new driving forces.

  12. Sustainable agriculture and soil conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Preben; Dubgaard, Alex

    , sandy soils in the West, (that had not been covered by ice) from more fertile soils being mostly sandy loams and finer textured soils covering the Eastern part of the study area. Several geological features such as pitting due to dead ice formation, smaller, terminal moraines in association with melt......, separate the moraine plateau. From the plateau several, minor erosion valleys, formed at the end of the glaciation some 10,000 years ago, feed into the two valleys. Very accurate soil type information is available for the area as intensive measurements within the area has formed the basis for a new...... methodology for soil classification in Denmark. The soil survey included a detailed mapping at field level, using the electromagnetic sensor, EM38. A high-resolution digital elevation model, obtained by use of laser scanning, is available for the study area. The original scanning has a horizontal resolution...

  13. Foreign energy conservation integrated programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, Maria Luiza Viana; Bajay, Sergio Valdir

    1999-01-01

    The promotion of energy economy and efficiency is recognized as the single most cost-effective and least controversial component of any strategy of matching energy demand and supply with resource and environmental constraints. Historically such efficiency gains are not out of reach for the industrialized market economy countries, but are unlikely to be reached under present conditions by developing countries and economics in transition. The aim of the work was to analyze the main characteristics of United Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia and Denmark energy conservation integrated programs

  14. Effects of soil and water conservation practices on selected soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although different types of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) were introduced, the sustainable use of these practices is far below expectations, and soil erosion continues to be a severe problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted at Debre Yakobe Micro-Watershed (DYMW), Northwest Ethiopia ...

  15. Conservation agriculture effects on soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Abdollahi, Lotfollah

    ploughing to a depth of 20 cm (MP), harrowing to a depth of 8-10 cm (H) and direct drilling (D). Minimally disturbed core samples were taken at 4-8, 12-16 and 18-27 cm depths 11 years after experimental start. Water retention characteristics were measured for a range of matric potential ranging from -10......Conservation tillage in combination with crop rotation, residue management and cover crops are key components of conservation agriculture. A positive long-term effect of applying all components of conservation agriculture on soil structural quality is expected. However, there is a lack...... of quantitative knowledge to support this statement. This study examines the long-term effects of crop rotations, residue management and tillage on soil pore characteristics of two sandy loam soils in Denmark. Results are reported from a split plot field experiment rotation as main plot factor and tillage...

  16. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  17. Soil and Water Conservation Activities for Scouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the learning activities outlined in this booklet is to help Scouts understand some conservation principles which hopefully will lead to the development of an attitude of concern for the environment and a commitment to help with the task of using and managing soil, water, and other natural resources for long range needs as well as…

  18. Soil physical properties on Venezuelan steeplands: Applications to soil conservation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to support decision making for soil conservation on Venezuelan steeplands. The general approach is based on the evaluation of two important land qualities: soil productivity and soil erosion risk, both closely related to soil physical properties. Soil productivity can be estimated from soil characteristics such as soil air-water relationships, soil impedances and soil fertility. On the other hand, soil erosion risk depends basically on soil hydrologic properties, rainfall aggressiveness and terrain slope. Two indexes are obtained from soil and land characteristics: soil productivity index (PI) and erosion risk index (ERI), each one evaluates the respective land quality. Subsequently, a matrix with these two qualities shows different land classes as well as soil conservation priorities, conservation requirements and proposed land uses. The paper shows also some applications of the soil productivity index as an approach to evaluate soil loss tolerance for soil conservation programs on tropical steeplands. (author)

  19. Participatory GIS for Soil Conservation in Phewa Watershed of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, K. P.

    2012-07-01

    Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.

  20. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R V

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  1. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  2. Integral dose conservation in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, Adam S.; Das, Shiva K.; Curle, Charles; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment planners frequently modify beam arrangements and use IMRT to improve target dose coverage while satisfying dose constraints on normal tissues. The authors herein analyze the limitations of these strategies and quantitatively assess the extent to which dose can be redistributed within the patient volume. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that (1) the normalized integral dose is constant across concentric shells of normal tissue surrounding the target (normalized to the average integral shell dose), (2) the normalized integral shell dose is constant across plans with different numbers and orientations of beams, and (3) the normalized integral shell dose is constant across plans when reducing the dose to a critical structure. Using the images of seven patients previously irradiated for cancer of brain or prostate cancer and one idealized scenario, competing three-dimensional conformal and IMRT plans were generated using different beam configurations. Within a given plan and for competing plans with a constant mean target dose, the normalized integral doses within concentric ''shells'' of surrounding normal tissue were quantitatively compared. Within each patient, the normalized integral dose to shells of normal tissue surrounding the target was relatively constant (1). Similarly, for each clinical scenario, the normalized integral dose for a given shell was also relatively constant regardless of the number and orientation of beams (2) or degree of sparing of a critical structure (3). 3D and IMRT planning tools can redistribute, rather than eliminate dose to the surrounding normal tissues (intuitively known by planners). More specifically, dose cannot be moved between shells surrounding the target but only within a shell. This implies that there are limitations in the extent to which a critical structure can be spared based on the location and geometry of the critical structure relative to the target.

  3. Mediterranean Agricultural Soil Conservation under global Change: The MASCC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclot, Damien; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2017-04-01

    The MASCC project (2016-2019, http://mascc-project.org) aims to address mitigation and adaptation strategies to global change by assessing current and future development of Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability to erosion in relation to projected land use, agricultural practices and climate change. It targets to i) assess the similarities/dissimilarities in dominant factors affecting the current Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability by exploring a wide range of Mediterranean contexts; ii) improve the ability to evaluate the impact of extreme events on both the current and projected agricultural soil vulnerability and the sediment delivery at catchment outlet; iii) evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of agricultural production to a combination of potential changes in a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, iv) and provide guidelines on sustainable agricultural conservation strategies adapted to each specific agro-ecosystem and taking into consideration both on- and off-site erosion effects and socio-economics issues. To achieve these objectives, the MASCC project consortium gather researchers from six Mediterranean countries (France, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Spain and Portugal) which monitor mid- to long-term environmental catchments and benefit from mutual knowledge created from previous projects and network. The major assets for MASCC are: i) the availability of an unrivalled database on catchment soil erosion and innovative agricultural practices comprising a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, ii) the capacity to better evaluate the impact of extreme events on soil erosion, iii) the expert knowledge of the LANDSOIL model, a catchment-scale integrated approach of the soil-landscape system that enables to simulate both the sediment fluxes at the catchment outlet and the intra-catchment soil evolving properties and iv) the multi-disciplinarity of the involved researchers with an international reputation in the fields of soil science

  4. Social perception of soil conservation benefits in Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A soil conservation project was implemented in Tanzania for over 30 years. This study applied a socio-economic approach to examine and analyse the benefits of soil conservation in the Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania by conducting a household survey of 240 households. The study findings show that 89% and 70% of respondents consider soil conservation activities have increased vegetation and soil fertility, respectively. Decreased soil erosion was perceived by 68% of respondents, increased firewood by 98%, increased fodder by 50%, high crop yields by 56%, and food sufficiency by 68%. These are the outcomes of conservation tillage, integrated farming and use of organic fertilizers, controlled stall feeding, agroforestry, construction of cut off drains, contour bunds and contour ridges cultivation, which are the main land use practices in the area. Access to extension services, household sizes, long term land ownership, crop incomes and awareness of soil conservation project were found to determine the level of participation in soil conservation. Major challenges are the lack of sustainability of those activities because of a recent policy decision to withdraw conservation investment. Despite the challenge, this study concluded that past government efforts on soil conservation activities initiated since the early 1970s through decentralization, institutional collaboration, socioeconomic support to farmers and continuous local community participation in restoring the degraded ecosystem of Kondoa have contributed to ensure environmental and socio-economic sustainability in the area.

  5. Land under pressure: soil conservation concerns and opportunities for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the future impact of soil degradation on national food security and land occupation in Ethiopia. It applies a spatial optimization model that maximizes national agricultural revenues under alternative scenarios of soil conservation, land accessibility and technology. The

  6. Integrating technologies for scalable ecology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, D.C.; Koh, L.P.; Lynam, A.J.; Wich, S.; Davies, A.B.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Stokes, E.; Starkey, R.; Asner, G.P.

    Integration of multiple technologies greatly increases the spatial and temporal scales over which ecological patterns and processes can be studied, and threats to protected ecosystems can be identified and mitigated. A range of technology options relevant to ecologists and conservation practitioners

  7. Sustainability of three modified soil conservation methods in agriculture area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, M. A.; Sara, F. H.; Christanto, N.; Sartohadi, J.; Samodra, G.; Widicahyono, A.; Ardiana, N.; Widiyati, C. N.; Astuti, E. M.; Martha, G. K.; Malik, R. F.; Sambodo, A. P.; Rokhmaningtyas, R. P.; Swastanto, G. A.; Gomez, C.

    2018-04-01

    Recent innovations in soil conservation methods do not present any breakthrough. Providing more attractive soil conservation methods from the farmer’s perspective is however still of critical importance. Contributing to this soil research gap we attempt to evaluate the sustainable use of three modified conservation methods, namely JALAPA (Jala Sabut Kelapa - geotextile made of coconut fibres), wood sediment trap, and polybag system compared to traditional tillage without conservation method. This research provides both qualitative and quantitative analysis on the performance of each conservation measures. Therefore, in addition to the total sediment yield value and investment cost – as quantitative analysis, we also evaluate qualitatively the indicator of soil loss, installation, maintenance, and the durability of conservation medium. Those criteria define the sustainability use of each conservation method. The results show that JALAPA is the most effective method for controlling soil loss, but it also requires the most expensive cost for installation. However, our finding confirms that geotextile is sensitive to sun heating by which the coconut fibre can become dry and shrink. Wood sediment trap is the cheapest and easiest to install; however it is easily damaged by termite. Polybag method results in the highest productivity, but requires more time during the first installation. In terms of the farmer’s perspective, soil conservation using polybag system was the most accepted technique due to its high benefits; even if it is less effective at reducing soil loss compared to JALAPA.

  8. Effect of restoring soil hydrological poperties on water conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, D.; Kostka, S.J.; Boerth, T.J.; Franklin, M.A.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Stoof, C.R.; Park, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Water repellency in soil is more wide spread than previously thought ¿ and has a significant impact on irrigation efficiency and water conservation. Soil water repellency has been identified in many soil types under a wide array of climatic conditions world wide. Consequences include increased

  9. Economics of soil conservation practices among food crop farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... improvement and maintenance of short/medium term productivity of soils. The study recommends that farmers should be encouraged to invest more in structural and agronomic soil conservation practices along side soil productivity maintenance measure. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  10. The contribution of the European Society for Soil Conservation (ESSC) to scientific knowledge, education and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazzi, Carmelo; Fullen, Michael A.; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Rickson, Jane; Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Peres, Guenola; Sholten, Thomas; Kertész, Adam; Vasenev, Ivan; Dumitru, Mihail; Cornelis, Wim; Rubio, José L.

    2017-04-01

    Soil is an integral component of the global environmental system that supports the quality and diversity of terrestrial life on Earth. Therefore, it is vital to consider the processes and impacts of soil degradation on society, especially on the provision of environmental goods and services, including food security and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Scientific societies devoted to Soil Science play significant roles in promoting soil security by advancing scientific knowledge, education and environmental sustainability. The European Society for Soil Conservation (ESSC) was founded in Ghent (Belgium) on 4 November 1988 by a group of 23 researchers from several European countries. It is an interdisciplinary, non-political association with over 500 members in 56 countries. The ESSC produces and distributes a hardcopy Newsletter twice a year and maintains both a website and Facebook page: http://www.soilconservation.eu/ https://www.facebook.com/European-Society-for-Soil-Conservation-ESSC-100528363448094/ The ESSC aims to: • Support research on soil degradation, soil protection and soil and water conservation. • Provide a network for the exchange of knowledge about soil degradation processes and soil conservation research and practises. • Produce publications on major issues relating to soil degradation and soil and water conservation. • Advise regulators and policy-makers on soil issues, especially soil degradation, protection and conservation. The ESSC held its First International Congress in Silsoe (UK) in 1992. Further International Congresses were held in Munich (1996), Valencia (2000), Budapest (2004), Palermo (2007), Thessaloniki (2011) and Moscow (2015). The Eighth International Congress will be held in Lleida (Spain) in June 2017: http://www.consowalleida2017.com/ Interspersed between these international congresses, the ESSC organizes annual international conferences on specific topics. These include Imola, Italy (Biogeochemical Processes at

  11. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  12. Soil Resources Degradation and Conservation Techniques Adopted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil degradation is increasingly regarded as a major constraint to food production in the tropics. This problem is primarily caused by soil erosion, which particularly damages the soil surfaces. It is therefore the objectives of this paper to study the types of erosion in Gusau area as well as its effects on selected soil properties ...

  13. Integrating technologies for scalable ecology and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Marvin; Lian Pin Koh; Antony J. Lynam; Serge Wich; Andrew B. Davies; Ramesh Krishnamurthy; Emma Stokes; Ruth Starkey; Gregory P. Asner

    2016-01-01

    Integration of multiple technologies greatly increases the spatial and temporal scales over which ecological patterns and processes can be studied, and threats to protected ecosystems can be identified and mitigated. A range of technology options relevant to ecologists and conservation practitioners are described, including ways they can be linked to increase the dimensionality of data collection efforts. Remote sensing, ground-based, and data fusion technologies are broadly discussed in the ...

  14. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Abolanle Busari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to match food production with increasing world population through identification of sustainable land management strategies. However, the struggle to achieve food security should be carried out keeping in mind the soil where the crops are grown and the environment in which the living things survive. Conservation agriculture (CA, practising agriculture in such a way so as to cause minimum damage to the environment, is being advocated at a large scale world-wide. Conservation tillage, the most important aspect of CA, is thought to take care of the soil health, plant growth and the environment. This paper aims to review the work done on conservation tillage in different agro-ecological regions so as to understand its impact from the perspectives of the soil, the crop and the environment. Research reports have identified several benefits of conservation tillage over conventional tillage (CT with respect to soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as crop yields. Not less than 25% of the greenhouse gas effluxes to the atmosphere are attributed to agriculture. Processes of climate change mitigation and adaptation found zero tillage (ZT to be the most environmental friendly among different tillage techniques. Therefore, conservation tillage involving ZT and minimum tillage which has potential to break the surface compact zone in soil with reduced soil disturbance offers to lead to a better soil environment and crop yield with minimal impact on the environment. Keywords: Atmosphere, Greenhouse gases, Conservation tillage, Sustainable crop yield

  15. Soil carbon and soil respiration in conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A balance between food production and environmental protection is required to sustainably feed a growing population. The resource saving concept of conservation agriculture aims to achieve this balance through implementing simultaneously three conservation practices; no-till, continuous soil cover, ...

  16. Soil and Water Conservation Districts of New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD) shapefile includes forty-seven boudaries which cover each SWCD throughout the State.

  17. Comparison between the United States Soil Conservation Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-26

    Oct 26, 2005 ... The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method is used to estimate rainfall .... Precipitation is an important element in many engineering ... National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  18. Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Programs Miss Full Potential in the Fight against Soil Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-28

    Soil Loss Equation ( USLE ) and Wind Erosion Equation can be used with a reasonable degree of accuracy. It is the intention of ASCS to expand VC/SL to...HD-R37 495 AGRICULTURE’S SOIL CONSERVATION PROGRAMS MISS FULL i/i POTENTIAL IN THE FIGHT.(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC RESOURCES...GENERAL Report To The Congress OF THE UNITED STATES Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Programs Miss Full Potential In The Fight Against Soil Erosion

  19. Soil conservation practices among Arable Crop Farmers In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil conservation practices among Arable Crop Farmers In Enugu – North Agricultural Zone, Nigeria: Implications for Climate Change. ... The paper recommends concerted efforts to promote among farmers the conservation practices that aid mitigation and adaptation to climate change and at the same time enhance ...

  20. Comparison between the United States Soil Conservation Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method is used to estimate rainfall runoff from three sub-watersheds in South-Eastern Botswana. This approach uses the NASA Endeavour Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEMs, digital soil data from the Botswana Ministry of Agriculture, rainfall ...

  1. Assessing farmers’ intention to adopt soil conservation practices across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijttebier, J.; Ruysschaert, G.; Marchand, F.; Hijbeek, R.; Pronk, A.A.; Schlatter, N.; Guzmàn, G.; Syp, A.; Werner, M.; Bechini, L.; Guiffant, N.; Wauters, E.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decennia, soil conservation practices (SCPs) have been developed in order to maintain or restore soil health which is essential to the resilience of the farm. However, the adoption rate in practice is rather low. Amongst other reasons, these practices might lack onfarm compatibility,

  2. Effect of integrating straw into agricultural soils on soil infiltration and evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiansheng; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Wanjun; Guo, Yunlong

    2012-01-01

    Soil water movement is a critical consideration for crop yield in straw-integrated fields. This study used an indoor soil column experiment to determine soil infiltration and evaporation characteristics in three forms of direct straw-integrated soils (straw mulching, straw mixing and straw inter-layering). Straw mulching is covering the land surface with straw. Straw mixing is mixing straw with the top 10 cm surface soil. Then straw inter-layering is placing straw at the 20 cm soil depth. There are generally good correlations among the mulch integration methods at p soil infiltration, followed by straw mulching. Due to over-burden weight-compaction effect, straw inter-layering somehow retarded soil infiltration. In terms of soil water evaporation, straw mulching exhibited the best effect. This was followed by straw mixing and then straw inter-layering. Straw inter-layering could have a long-lasting positive effect on soil evaporation as it limited the evaporative consumption of deep soil water. The responses of the direct straw integration modes to soil infiltration and evaporation could lay the basis for developing efficient water-conservation strategies. This is especially useful for water-scarce agricultural regions such as the arid/semi-arid regions of China.

  3. Evaluation of conservation-oriented management on grayish brown soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo E. Hernández Rodríguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and improvement actions were taken to ensure the soil preservation in agricultural areas affected by erosion on a grayish brown soil of Sarduy farm in Cumanayagua, Cuba. The technology that was used included strip-till, crop rotation, live and/or dead barriers, channel terraces, contour farming and the addition of organic matter and biofertilizers. The implementation of the soil conservation-oriented management had an influence on the yield increase of 10.6% - 20.2%, on the decrease of the erosive processes with a retention of soils to 13.33 t.ha -1, on maintaining the soil pH and on the increment of the assimilable P2O5 contents and soil organic matter.

  4. SOIL CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES IN OIL PALM CULTIVATION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halus Satriawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many have been concerned with the oil palm cultivation since it may also put land resources in danger and bring about environmental damage. Poor practices in managing agricultural land very often occur due to the inadequate knowledge of soil conservation. Application of soil and water conservation is to maintain the productivity of the land and to prevent further damage by considering land capability classes. This research was aimed at obtaining soil and water conservation techniques which are the most appropriate and optimal for oil palm cultivation areas based on land capability classes which can support sustainable oil palm cultivation. Several soil conservation techniques had been treated to each different class III, IV, and VI of the studied area. These treatment had been performed by a standard plot erosion. The results showed for the land capability class III, Cover plants + Manure was able to control runoff, erosion and reduce leaching of N (LSD P≤0,05, in which soil conservation produced the lowest erosion (3,73t/ha, and N leaching (0,25%. On land capability class IV, Sediment Trap + cover plants+ manure was able to control runoff, erosion and reduce organic C and P leaching (LSD P≤0,05, in which soil conservation produced the lowest runoff (127,77 m3/ha, erosion (12,38t/ha, organic C leaching (1,14 %, and P leaching (1,28 ppm. On land capability class VI, there isn’t significant effect of soil conservation, but Bench Terrace + cover plants +manure has the lowest runoff, erosion and soil nutrient leaching.

  5. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  6. Effects of Conventional and Conservation Tillage on Soil Hydraulic Properties of a Silty-loamy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Niels Arne; Bens, O.; Buczko, U.

    2004-01-01

    Infiltration into soils is strongly correlated with macroporosity. Under agricultural land use, the properties of the macropore network are governed by the applied management and tillage system. On an experimental site with a silt loam soil partly under conventional and conservation tillage, the ......, conservation tillage could possibly offer a means to reduce surface runoff and flood generation in agricultural landscapes dominated by silty-loamy soils. d 2...

  7. Soil variability and effectiveness of soil and water conservation in the Sahel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hien, F.G.; Rietkerk, M.; Stroosnijder, L.

    1997-01-01

    Sahelian sylvopastoral lands often degrade into bare and crusted areas where regeneration of soil and vegetation is impossible in the short term unless soil and water conservation measures are implemented. Five combinations of tillage with and without mulch on three crust type/soil type combinations

  8. Soil conservation in Central America and Panama: current problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenoe, H

    1976-06-01

    Soil conservation measures in Central America go back to the Maya civilization, in which terracing was employed. After the Spanish conquest, plowing, livestock raising, and the succession of social and political changes all contributed to accelerate erosion. Through the past few decades, awareness of the need for soil conservation has again increased; El Salvador and Costa Rica began efforts in that direction in 1943. For sometime, the use of machinery and chemical fertilizers has masked the loss of topsoil, but under recent increases in population pressures, soil conservation measures are gaining in importance. Important agents of erosion in the tropics are heavy seasonal rains at high elevations, alternating with long dry seasons; wind erosion; and landslides after saturation of the soil during prolonged rains. Modern machinery often hastens soil removal, as do also overgrazing, deforestation and vertical crop rows. Under the present energy crisis, human labor is becoming again a significant element in crop production, and soil conservation becomes thereby more feasible and more important.

  9. Integrated bird conservation web site in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxanne Bogart; Chris Eberly; Elizabeth Martin

    2005-01-01

    In working towards a vision of integrated bird conservation, scientists, conservationists, land managers, and administrators are faced with a variety of scientific, managerial, administrative, and logistical challenges and complexities. The broad scope of integrated bird conservation requires organizations to work together to conserve birds across taxonomic groups,...

  10. Soil Tillage Conservation and its Effect on Soil Properties Bioremediation and Sustained Production of Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Muresan, Liliana; Andriuca, Valentina; Cojocaru, Olesea

    2017-04-01

    Soil Tillage Conservation (STC) is considered major components of agricultural technology for soil conservation strategies and part of Sustainable Agriculture (SA). Human action upon soil by tillage determines important morphological, physical-chemical and biological changes, with different intensities and evaluative directions. Nowadays, internationally is unanimous accepted the fact that global climatic changes are the results of human intervention in the bio-geo-chemical water and material cycle, and the sequestration of carbon in soil is considered an important intervention to limit these changes. STC involves reducing the number of tillage's (minimum tillage) to direct sowing (no-tillage) and plant debris remains at the soil surface in the ratio of at least 30%. Plant debris left on the soil surface or superficial incorporated contributes to increased biological activity and is an important source of carbon sequestration. STC restore soil structure and improve overall soil drainage, allowing more rapid infiltration of water into soil. The result is a soil bioremediation, more productive, better protected against wind and water erosion and requires less fuel for preparing the germinative bed. Carbon sequestration in soil is net advantageous, improving the productivity and sustainability. We present the influence of conventional plough tillage system on soil, water and organic matter conservation in comparison with an alternative minimum tillage (paraplow, chisel plow and rotary harrow) and no-tillage system. The application of STC increased the organic matter content 0.8 to 22.1% and water stabile aggregate content from 1.3 to 13.6%, in the 0-30 cm depth, as compared to the conventional system. For the organic matter content and the wet aggregate stability, the statistical analysis of the data showed, increasing positive significance of STC. While the soil fertility and the wet aggregate stability were initially low, the effect of conservation practices on the

  11. UTILIZATION OF SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTICES AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    fish are good sources of protein and are frequently used to supplement root crops and ... methods and hosts of others not mentioned either adds nutrients to the soil or .... (2.21±0.74), organic manure (2.19±0.62), crop rotation (2.16±0.48) and ...

  12. Integrated conservation planning for coral reefs: Designing conservation zones for multiple conservation objectives in spatial prioritisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Magris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers focus on representing biodiversity pattern, maintaining connectivity, and strengthening resilience to global warming when designing marine protected area (MPA systems, especially in coral reef ecosystems. The achievement of these broad conservation objectives will likely require large areas, and stretch limited funds for MPA implementation. We undertook a spatial prioritisation of Brazilian coral reefs that considered two types of conservation zones (i.e. no-take and multiple use areas and integrated multiple conservation objectives into MPA planning, while assessing the potential impact of different sets of objectives on implementation costs. We devised objectives for biodiversity, connectivity, and resilience to global warming, determined the extent to which existing MPAs achieved them, and designed complementary zoning to achieve all objectives combined in expanded MPA systems. In doing so, we explored interactions between different sets of objectives, determined whether refinements to the existing spatial arrangement of MPAs were necessary, and tested the utility of existing MPAs by comparing their cost effectiveness with an MPA system designed from scratch. We found that MPAs in Brazil protect some aspects of coral reef biodiversity pattern (e.g. threatened fauna and ecosystem types more effectively than connectivity or resilience to global warming. Expanding the existing MPA system was as cost-effective as designing one from scratch only when multiple objectives were considered and management costs were accounted for. Our approach provides a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of integrating multiple objectives in the initial stages of conservation planning, and yields insights for planners of MPAs tackling multiple objectives in other regions.

  13. Scenario Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation in Xiejia Watershed Based on Improved CSLE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieying; Yu, Ming; Wu, Yong; Huang, Yao; Nie, Yawen

    2018-01-01

    According to the existing research results and related data, use the scenario analysis method, to evaluate the effects of different soil and water conservation measures on soil erosion in a small watershed. Based on the analysis of soil erosion scenarios and model simulation budgets in the study area, it is found that all scenarios simulated soil erosion rates are lower than the present situation of soil erosion in 2013. Soil and water conservation measures are more effective in reducing soil erosion than soil and water conservation biological measures and soil and water conservation tillage measures.

  14. Remote sensing techniques for the detection of soil erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Griffin, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following paper is a summary of a number of techniques initiated under the AgRISTARS (Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing) project for the detection of soil degradation caused by water erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices for resource inventories. Discussed are methods to utilize a geographic information system to determine potential soil erosion through a USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model; application of the Kauth-Thomas Transform to detect present erosional status; and the identification of conservation practices through visual interpretation and a variety of enhancement procedures applied to digital remotely sensed data.

  15. Land degradation and adoption of soil conservation technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the causes of land degradation, and adoption of soil conservation practices using a two-stage decision making process. The data for the study were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive analysis, difference regression equation and simultaneous probit model.

  16. Implications of market access on soil and water conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market access is one of the motivating mechanisms for farmers to invest in soil and water conservation (SWC). Areas of relatively high agricultural potential but remote from major markets face numerous challenges in marketing their outputs. The objective of this study was to explore the market access determinants of farmer ...

  17. Soil Resources Degradation and Conservation Techniques Adopted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the objectives of this paper to study the types of erosion in Gusau area as well as its effects on selected ... The paper also attempts to unveil some anti-erosion measures practiced by small holder ..... environments: Integration of Spatial Scales,.

  18. Can conservation and development really be integrated? | Sayer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most biodiversity conservation projects in poor tropical countries also aspire to alleviate the poverty of local people. The results of these integrated conservation and development projects have often been disappointing. This paper argues that it would be impossible for both practical and ethical reasons for conservation

  19. Sediment yield and alternatives soil conservation practices of teak catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Mutiara Basuki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying sediment is essential to determine its sources and reduce its negative impacts. A study was conducted to quantify suspended sediments of catchments covering by teak plantation and to provide alternatives soil conservation practices. Five catchments with old teak coverages of 82; 82; 74; 70; and 53 % were chosen. At the outlet of each catchment was installed tide gauge to monitor stream water level (SWL. Water samples for sediment analyses were taken for every increament of SWL. Sediment yield was calculated based on rating curves of sediment discharge. The results showed that the sources of sediment in the streams were dryland agricultural and streambank erosion. The mean annual sediment yield during the study were 9.3; 10; 15; 53.3; and 22.5 t/ha for catchments covered by old teak plantation of 82, 82, 74, 70, and 53 %, respectively. To reduce sediment yield some soil conservation practices must be applied. Conservation of soil organic matter is important in order to stabilize soil aggregate and prevent clay dispersion which causes erosion and sedimentation. Green firebreaks or making channels are needed to prevent fire during dry season and organic matter loss. Stabilization of streambank is neccesary, either using vegetative method or civil technics.

  20. Impact of Soil Conservation Measures on Erosion Control and Soil Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    This publication summarises the lessons learnt from a FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality over a five-year period across a wide geographic area and range of environments. It demonstrates the new trends in the use of fallout radionuclide-based techniques as powerful tools to assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures. As a comprehensive reference material it will support IAEA Member States in the use of these techniques to identify practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  1. A review of soil conservation in the Sudan (1940-1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, M.S.; Badawi, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Soil Conservation in the Sudan started in the late thirties, and in 1942 a Soil Conservation Committee was set up to report on Soil Conservation Situation. Later a Soil Conservation Section was set which developed into a department taking the responsibility of drinking water points distribution and soil and water management in rural areas. In 1974 a desert encroachment project was proposed to cover most affected areas with the help of F.A.O. Soil Conservation is an important problem in Sudan and much work is needed to tackle this problem. The application of radioisotope and radio-tracer techniques are also needed for tackling this problem. (author)

  2. Rethinking soil and water conservation in a changing society : a case study in eastern Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D.

    2000-01-01

    Soil and water conservation is at the top of development agendas in Africa. Virtually every project related to agriculture or the environment has a soil and water conservation component to it and environmental protection plans are being drawn up by African governments in which soil and water conservation figures dominantly. This focus on soil and water conservation is due to its being perceived as a way to address both productivity and environmental sustainability questions. Land deg...

  3. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration. PMID:29425214

  4. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sandra Isay; Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro da

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  5. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isay Saad

    Full Text Available The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil, where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion, so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  6. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  7. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  8. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  9. 26 CFR 1.175-2 - Definition of soil and water conservation expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of soil and water conservation... (continued) § 1.175-2 Definition of soil and water conservation expenditures. (a) Expenditures treated as a... of soil or water conservation in respect of land used in farming, or for the prevention of erosion of...

  10. Soil and Water Conservation for a Better America. A Framework Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Through this framework plan, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) takes a look ahead to its soil and water conservation mission, a look at its direction and thrust in helping create a desirable America in the decades ahead. The plan attempts to define the nature of soil and water conservation efforts, to put them in perspective, and to present a…

  11. Costs of integrating economics and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arponen, Anni; Cabeza, Mar; Eklund, Johanna; Kujala, Heini; Lehtomäki, Joona

    2010-10-01

    Recent literature on systematic conservation planning has focused strongly on economics. It is a necessary component of efficient conservation planning because the question is about effective resource allocation. Nevertheless, there is an increasing tendency toward economic factors overriding biological considerations. Focusing too narrowly on economic cost may lead us back toward solutions resembling those obtained by opportunistic choice of areas, the avoidance of which was the motivation for development of systematic approaches. Moreover, there are many overlooked difficulties in incorporating economic considerations reliably into conservation planning because available economic data and the free market are complex. For instance, economies based on free markets tend to be shortsighted, whereas biodiversity conservation aims far into the future. Although economic data are necessary, they should not be relied on too heavily or considered separately from other sociopolitical factors. We suggest focusing on development of more-comprehensive ecological-economic modeling, while not forgetting the importance of purely biological analyses that are needed as a point of reference for evaluating conservation outcomes. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  13. Assessment of the effectiveness of soil and water conservation measures in reducing runoff and soil loss: establishment of a European database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetens, W.; Vanmaercke, M.; Poesen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is recognised as a major soil degradation process that requires a global approach. Large regions all over the world are in need of integrated conservation strategies that sustainable prevent and remediate soil erosion. therefore, quantitative and globally interpretable data are needed in support of models and decision making. the effects of various soil and water conservation techniques (SWCT) on runoff and soil loss in Europe have been extensively studied over the last 60 years. Runoff plots are the most widely used measurement technique to study the effects of SWCT on runoff and soil loss by water erosion. Hence, many data are available. However, the insights gained hereby remain mostly local and often qualitative whereas the full potential of the available data is not exploited yet. This is mainly due to the fragmentation of knowledge and extrapolation difficulties inherently linked with this type of data. (Author) 8 refs.

  14. Financial efficiency of major soil and water conservation measures in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Graaff, de J.; Hella, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on steep slopes of West Usambara mountains. However, the adoption by farmers of the recommended soil and water conservation measures is low and soil erosion continues to be a problem. It

  15. The effects of biological soil conservation practices and community perception toward these practices in the Lemo District of Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrat Sinore

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is the critical ecological and agricultural challenges in Ethiopia. To combat this, the government and local farmers’ have undertaken soil and water conservation measures (physical, biological and integrated across the country since 1970's. This study investigate effect of elephant grass (P. purpureum and sesbania sesban (S. sesban used as biological land rehabilitation practices on soil properties and farmers’ perception on the practices. Composite soil samples (0–30 cm were randomly collected from lands treated with sesbania, elephant grass, and adjacent degraded grazing land, and a structured questionnaire was used to assess farmers’ perceptions. Statistical results showed that elephant grass and sesbania were significantly (P < .05 improves degraded land soil bulk density, pH, CEC, OC, TN, Av.P, K, Na, Ca, Mg and clay characteristics. Moreover, there was a significant (P < .05 difference between farmers’ perception of the effectiveness of physical, biological and integration of the two practices to control soil erosion. 48% of the farmers perceived that using both biological methods and the integration of biological with physical structures was more successful for controlling erosion and improving soil fertility. Logistic regression analysis revealed strong association (R2 = 0.84 between farmers’ perception on elephant grass and sesbanias' roles in soil conservation and groups of explanatory variables. Among the variables age, education and extension service significantly (P < .05 influenced farmers’ perception on the practices. Generally, elephant grass and sesbania are effective biological practices for rehabilitating lands and improving soil properties through minimizing erosion. Keywords: Soil erosion, Soil and water conservation, Biological soil conservation, Sesbania, Elephant grass

  16. [Effects of land use changes on soil water conservation in Hainan Island, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi; Zhao, He; Liu, Lei; OuYang, Zhi Yun; Zheng, Hua; Mi, Hong Xu; Li, Yan Min

    2017-12-01

    In tropical areas, a large number of natural forests have been transformed into other plantations, which affected the water conservation function of terrestrial ecosystems. In order to clari-fy the effects of land use changes on soil water conservation function, we selected four typical land use types in the central mountainous region of Hainan Island, i.e., natural forests with stand age greater than 100 years (VF), secondary forests with stand age of 10 years (SF), areca plantations with stand age of 12 years (AF) and rubber plantations with stand age of 35 years (RF). The effects of land use change on soil water holding capacity and water conservation (presented by soil water index, SWI) were assessed. The results showed that, compared with VF, the soil water holding capacity index of other land types decreased in the top soil layer (0-10 cm). AF had the lowest soil water holding capacity in all soil layers. Soil water content and maximum water holding capacity were significantly related to canopy density, soil organic matter and soil bulk density, which indicated that canopy density, soil organic matter and compactness were important factors influencing soil water holding capacity. Compared to VF, soil water conservation of SF, AF and RF were reduced by 27.7%, 54.3% and 11.5%, respectively. The change of soil water conservation was inconsistent in different soil layers. Vegetation canopy density, soil organic matter and soil bulk density explained 83.3% of the variance of soil water conservation. It was suggested that land use conversion had significantly altered soil water holding capacity and water conservation function. RF could keep the soil water better than AF in the research area. Increasing soil organic matter and reducing soil compaction would be helpful to improve soil water holding capacity and water conservation function in land management.

  17. Identification of soil erosion risk areas for conservation planning in different states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, V N; Mandal, Debashis; Ojasvi, P R

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of soil erosion risks, especially in the developing countries, is a challenging task mainly due to non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. In this paper, the soil erosion risks have been estimated by integrating the spatial data on potential erosion rates and soil loss tolerance limits for conservation planning at state level in India. The erosion risk classes have been prioritized based upon the difference between the prevailing erosion rates and the permissible erosion limits. The analysis revealed that about 50% of total geographical area (TGA) of India, falling in five priority erosion risk classes, requires different intensity of conservation measures though about 91% area suffers from potential erosion rates varying from 40 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Statewise analysis indicated that Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan share about 75% of total area under priority Class 1 (6.4 M ha) though they account for only 19.4% of the total area (36.2 M ha) under very severe potential erosion rate category (> 40 t ha(-1)yr(-1)). It was observed that about 75% of total geographical area (TGA) in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala and Punjab does not require any specific soil conservation measure as the potential erosion rates are well within the tolerance limits. The developed methodology can be successfully employed for prioritization of erosion risk areas at watershed, region or country level.

  18. Fuel conservation integrated into airline economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel conservation efforts at most major airlines involve close scrutiny and intensive analysis in all areas - flight, maintenance and ground handling. Yet, despite the concern and attention devoted, the fundamental question of fuel saving versus time trade-offs remains unanswered. This paper introduces and defines the concept ''The value of an airplane to an airline is that airplane's earning power.

  19. Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: what can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesen, Anne Borge; Skonhoft, Anders [Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Dragvoll (Norway)

    2005-10-15

    Integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) have frequently been established in Africa to improve wildlife conservation and the welfare of local communities. However, their effectiveness has been hampered by conflicts and illegal harvesting. This paper focuses on the strategic interaction between the manager of a protected area and a group of local people. The park manager benefits from wildlife through tourism and hunting. The local people benefit through hunting, but also bear the wildlife damage. ICDPs relying on money transfers to the local people from the park manager may or may not promote wildlife conservation. In addition, the welfare of the local people are ambiguous. (author) [Wildlife; Conservation; Conflicts; Local welfare].

  20. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines

  1. An integrated GIS/remote sensing data base in North Cache soil conservation district, Utah: A pilot project for the Utah Department of Agriculture's RIMS (Resource Inventory and Monitoring System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A basic geographic information system (GIS) for the North Cache Soil Conservation District (SCD) was sought for selected resource problems. Since the resource management issues in the North Cache SCD are very complex, it is not feasible in the initial phase to generate all the physical, socioeconomic, and political baseline data needed for resolving all management issues. A selection of critical varables becomes essential. Thus, there are foud specific objectives: (1) assess resource management needs and determine which resource factors ae most fundamental for building a beginning data base; (2) evaluate the variety of data gathering and analysis techniques for the resource factors selected; (3) incorporate the resulting data into a useful and efficient digital data base; and (4) demonstrate the application of the data base to selected real world resoource management issues.

  2. Biophysical-and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin (SE-Spain): towards understanding and effective soil conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vente, J. de; Sole-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.; Romero-Diaz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Desertification and land degradation have been widely studied in the Guadalentin basin (SE Spain) through various national and international research projects. Most important identified degradation types are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. On the one hand, political and socioeconomic drivers have caused important land use and management changes, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. On the other hand, soil conservation practice were initiated by the government and by individual land users, although there is very limited knowledge on their effectiveness. the objective of this work is to provide and overview of previous studies that addressed land degradation in the Guadalentin and to present an integrated synthesis of the main biophysical and socioeconomic factors identifies in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Biophysical-and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin (SE-Spain): towards understanding and effective soil conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vente, J. de; Sole-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.; Romero-Diaz, A.

    2009-07-01

    Desertification and land degradation have been widely studied in the Guadalentin basin (SE Spain) through various national and international research projects. Most important identified degradation types are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. On the one hand, political and socioeconomic drivers have caused important land use and management changes, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. On the other hand, soil conservation practice were initiated by the government and by individual land users, although there is very limited knowledge on their effectiveness. the objective of this work is to provide and overview of previous studies that addressed land degradation in the Guadalentin and to present an integrated synthesis of the main biophysical and socioeconomic factors identifies in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. (Author) 18 refs.

  4. Poverty and soil conservation efforts among smallholder farmers in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Yirga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the influence of incidence of poverty and plot-level perception of soil degradation, on soil conservation behaviour of small subsistence farmers in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The study results confirm that poverty in assets significantly reduces the probability of soil-conservation efforts as measured by use of stone/soil bund structures in the highlands of Ethiopia. Perception of soil degradation, public assistance with sharing initial costs of constructing soil-conservation structures, improved security of land tenure and farmers’ education and access to information on soil degradation are essential for farmers making long-term investment in conserving soil resources. On the other hand, improved access to short-term credit for the purchase of inorganic fertilizers acts as a disincentive for long-term conservation practices, an important trade-off with serious policy implications that should be carefully evaluated.

  5. Rethinking soil and water conservation in a changing society : a case study in eastern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D.

    2000-01-01

    Soil and water conservation is at the top of development agendas in Africa. Virtually every project related to agriculture or the environment has a soil and water conservation component to it and environmental protection plans are being drawn up by African governments in which soil and

  6. Integrated management in calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilla, Luis A; Salive, A

    2001-01-01

    Rice growing is developed in different kinds of soils, and some of the have high bases saturation, especially calcium and magnesium, as well as medium to high carbonate contents. This causes negative effects in the development and growth of the rice plant. As a consequence, several researching actions have been under-taken, and they are aimed at becoming this problem in economically manageable. Among the strategies we have, some of them are as follows: evaluating rice varieties presenting tolerance to these soils; using inorganic fertilizers looking for a response to elements, sources, dose and application times; evaluating organic fertilizers, mainly the green ones; using amendments, and physical soil management. According to the results, we have the fertilization response with major and minor elements and with the statistical differences at a 0.05% level. A response was found with elements such as zinc, copper, boron, iron, phosphorus and potassium. However, the efficiency of these elements depends on the addition of amendments as sulfur, the use of green fertilizers and farming systems that eliminate the superficial compaction of these soils, besides the use of varieties which are more tolerant to alkalinity, just like Fedearroz-50

  7. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    -, reduction of nutrient leaching (N, Ca, K), reduction of soil erosion, improved utilisation of rainfall (water), shading of soil, aeration of soil, weed control and pest control. Crotalaria crops also provide cost reduction as a result of lower fertiliser use, improved nutrient utilisation, easier cultivation, reduced plant protection requirements. To a certain extent that this plant roots are involved in this process and green manure contribute to the biological stabilisation of soil structure following mechanical cultivation. Depending on soil type, the roots of crotalaria can extend down to 1.5-2 m according to earlier publications of autor. This result are presented that crotalaria has great advantagens in green manuring. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest and Natinal Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brazília REFERENCES Bremner, J.M., Keeney, D.R. 1966. Determination and isotope-ratio analysis of different forms of nitrogen in soils. 3. Exchangeable ammonium, nitrate and nitrite by extraction destillation methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 30:577-582. Christian, P., Kurt, G.S 1996. The role of soil fertility in sustainable agriculture with special reference to Sub-Saharan Africa. Entwicklung. 4, 3-6. Janssen., B.H. 1993. Integrated nutrient management: use of organic and mineral fertilizers. In: Reulen and Prins, 1993. Kádár, I. 1992. Principles and methods in plant nutrition. RISSAC-HAS, Budapest. Lakanen, E. and Erviö, R. 1971. A comparison of eight extractants for the determination of plant available micronutrients in soil. Acta Agr. Fenn. 123. 223-232. Lazányi, J. 1998. Use of alternative crops for forage production and soil conservation. Research Center of Debrecen Agricultural University, Debrecen. Márton, L. 1999. From a new alternative crops (Crotalaria juncea L.) production and disease. Agroforum 5, 64. Németh, T. 1996. Organic

  8. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnane, J.C.; Gill, V.R.; Lee, S.Y.; Morris, D.E.; Nickelson, M.D.; Perry, D.L.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1993-08-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP

  9. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gill, V.R. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lee, S.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Morris, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nickelson, M.D. [HAZWRAP, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perry, D.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP.

  10. Characterizing spatial uncertainty when integrating social data in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, A M; Raymond, C M; Adams, V M; Polyakov, M; Gordon, A; Rhodes, J R; Mills, M; Stein, A; Ives, C D; Lefroy, E C

    2014-12-01

    Recent conservation planning studies have presented approaches for integrating spatially referenced social (SRS) data with a view to improving the feasibility of conservation action. We reviewed the growing conservation literature on SRS data, focusing on elicited or stated preferences derived through social survey methods such as choice experiments and public participation geographic information systems. Elicited SRS data includes the spatial distribution of willingness to sell, willingness to pay, willingness to act, and assessments of social and cultural values. We developed a typology for assessing elicited SRS data uncertainty which describes how social survey uncertainty propagates when projected spatially and the importance of accounting for spatial uncertainty such as scale effects and data quality. These uncertainties will propagate when elicited SRS data is integrated with biophysical data for conservation planning and may have important consequences for assessing the feasibility of conservation actions. To explore this issue further, we conducted a systematic review of the elicited SRS data literature. We found that social survey uncertainty was commonly tested for, but that these uncertainties were ignored when projected spatially. Based on these results we developed a framework which will help researchers and practitioners estimate social survey uncertainty and use these quantitative estimates to systematically address uncertainty within an analysis. This is important when using SRS data in conservation applications because decisions need to be made irrespective of data quality and well characterized uncertainty can be incorporated into decision theoretic approaches. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibing

    2018-01-01

    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km 2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  12. Management and conservation of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Forests of the tropics are invaluable ecosystems of global, regional and local importance, particularly in terms of protection and conservation of biodiversity and water resources. The indiscriminate conversion of tropical forests into agricultural land as a result of intense human activities - logging and modem shifting cultivation - continues to cause soil erosion and degradation. However, the acid savannahs of the world, such as the cerrado of Brazil, the Llanos in Venezuela and Colombia, the savannahs of Africa, and the largely anthropic savannahs of tropical Asia, encompass vast areas of potentially arable land. The acid soils of the savannahs are mostly considered marginal because of low inherent fertility and susceptibility to rapid degradation. These constraints for agricultural development are exacerbated by the poverty of new settlers who try to cultivate such areas after deforestation. Low- or minimum-input systems are not sustainable on these tropical acid soils but, with sufficient investment and adequate technologies, they can be highly productive. Thus, there is a need to develop management practices for sustainable agricultural production systems on such savannah acid soils. The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture strongly supports an integrated approach to soil, water and nutrient management within cropping systems. In this context, nuclear and related techniques can be used to better understand the processes and factors influencing the productivity of agricultural production systems, and improve them through the use of better soil, water and nutrient management practices. A panel of experts actively engaged in field projects on acid soils of savannah agro-ecosystems in the humid and sub-humid tropics convened in March 1999 in Vienna to review and discuss recent research progress, along the following main lines of investigation: (i) utilization of

  13. Integration of ecological-biological thresholds in conservation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommati, Georgia; Bithas, Kostas; Borsuk, Mark E; Howarth, Richard B

    2016-12-01

    In the Anthropocene, coupled human and natural systems dominate and only a few natural systems remain relatively unaffected by human influence. On the one hand, conservation criteria based on areas of minimal human impact are not relevant to much of the biosphere. On the other hand, conservation criteria based on economic factors are problematic with respect to their ability to arrive at operational indicators of well-being that can be applied in practice over multiple generations. Coupled human and natural systems are subject to economic development which, under current management structures, tends to affect natural systems and cross planetary boundaries. Hence, designing and applying conservation criteria applicable in real-world systems where human and natural systems need to interact and sustainably coexist is essential. By recognizing the criticality of satisfying basic needs as well as the great uncertainty over the needs and preferences of future generations, we sought to incorporate conservation criteria based on minimal human impact into economic evaluation. These criteria require the conservation of environmental conditions such that the opportunity for intergenerational welfare optimization is maintained. Toward this end, we propose the integration of ecological-biological thresholds into decision making and use as an example the planetary-boundaries approach. Both conservation scientists and economists must be involved in defining operational ecological-biological thresholds that can be incorporated into economic thinking and reflect the objectives of conservation, sustainability, and intergenerational welfare optimization. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method: How to mend a wrong soil moisture accounting procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Claude; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles

    2005-02-01

    This paper unveils major inconsistencies in the age-old and yet efficient Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) procedure. Our findings are based on an analysis of the continuous soil moisture accounting procedure implied by the SCS-CN equation. It is shown that several flaws plague the original SCS-CN procedure, the most important one being a confusion between intrinsic parameter and initial condition. A change of parameterization and a more complete assessment of the initial condition lead to a renewed SCS-CN procedure, while keeping the acknowledged efficiency of the original method.

  15. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % ( P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an

  16. Effects of 24 Years of Conservation Tillage Systems on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24-year study was conducted in southern Illinois (USA on land similar to that being removed from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage systems on: (1 amount and rates of soil organic carbon (SOC storage and retention, (2 the long-term corn and soybean yields, and (3 maintenance and restoration of soil productivity of previously eroded soils. The no-till (NT plots did store and retain 7.8 Mg C ha−1 more and chisel plow (CP −1.6 Mg C ha−1 less SOC in the soil than moldboard plow (MP during the 24 years. However, no SOC sequestration occurred in the sloping and eroding NT, CP, and MP plots since the SOC level of the plot area was greater at the start of the experiment than at the end. The NT plots actually lost a total of −1.2 Mg C ha−1, the CP lost −9.9 Mg C ha−1, and the MP lost −8.2 Mg C ha−1 during the 24-year study. The long-term productivity of NT compared favorably with that of MP and CP systems.

  17. Higher quantum conserved current in a new completely integrable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissimov, E.R.

    1980-06-01

    The first higher local quantum conserved current is the recently proposed new completely integrable (2esup(βphi)+esup(-2βphi)) 2 model is explicitly constructed thus proving absence of particle production and factorization of multiparticle scattering. (author)

  18. The economics of soil conservation in developing countries: the case of crop residue mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erenstein, O.C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The study contributes to the search for a methodology to assess soil conservation, particularly in developing countries. The study first assesses the economics of soil conservation in general - with special emphasis on the relationships between technology, economic analysis and policy implications.

  19. Global Format for Conservative Time Integration in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The widely used classic collocation-based time integration procedures like Newmark, Generalized-alpha etc. generally work well within a framework of linear problems, but typically may encounter problems, when used in connection with essentially nonlinear structures. These problems are overcome....... In the present paper a conservative time integration algorithm is developed in a format using only the internal forces and the associated tangent stiffness at the specific time integration points. Thus, the procedure is computationally very similar to a collocation method, consisting of a series of nonlinear...... equivalent static load steps, easily implemented in existing computer codes. The paper considers two aspects: representation of nonlinear internal forces in a form that implies energy conservation, and the option of an algorithmic damping with the purpose of extracting energy from undesirable high...

  20. Linkage of reproductive sciences: from 'quick fix' to 'integrated' conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, D E; Ellis, S; Howard, J G

    2001-01-01

    Our laboratory has experienced four phases in understanding how the reproductive sciences contribute to genuine conservation of biodiversity. The first is the 'quick fix phase' in which the erroneous assumption is made that extant knowledge and techniques are readily adaptable to an unstudied wild animal to produce offspring rapidly. The second is the 'species-specificity phase' in which it is recognized that every species has evolved unique reproductive mechanisms that must be mastered before propagation can be enhanced. The third is the 'applicability phase' in which one grasps that all the new knowledge and technology are of minimal relevance without the cooperation of wildlife managers. The final phase is 'integration', the realization that reproduction is only one component in an abundantly complex conservation puzzle that requires interweaving many scientific disciplines with elaborate biopolitical, economic and habitat variables. These phases are illustrated using 20 years of experience with wildlife species, including the cheetah, black-footed ferret and giant panda. We conclude that the foremost value of the reproductive sciences for conserving endangered species is the discipline's powerful laboratory tools for understanding species-specific reproductive mechanisms. Such scholarly information, when applied holistically, can be used to improve management by natural or, occasionally, assisted breeding. Genuine conservation is achieved only when the reproductive knowledge and technologies are integrated into multidisciplinary programmes that preserve species integrity ex situ and preferably in situ.

  1. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Hartl, Brett; Goldman, Gretchen T; Rohlf, Daniel J; Treves, Adrian; Kerr, Jeremy T; Ritchie, Euan G; Kingsford, Richard T; Gibbs, Katherine E; Maron, Martine; Watson, James E M

    2017-10-01

    Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest.

  2. Soil conservation in Burkina Faso: is international cooperation effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Grimaldi, Stefania; Vezza, Paolo; Koussubé, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Challenges related to Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) have been documented in Burkina Faso for many decades so far. The ever-growing population of this country, a landlocked desertification-prone one, is daily facing the visible impact of increasingly intense rainfall and concentrated rainy days. Agricultural soil erosion and reservoir siltation are two of the main issues affecting Burkina Faso subsistence agriculture sector, whose revenues largely contribute to people's income. From the sixties onwards locally-developed SWC techniques (e.g. permeable rock dams and gabion check dams) have been widely, though geographically variably, employed in the country. The effectiveness of these techniques in locally increasing soil moisture and reducing soil erosion is well proven, while their long term effect in decreasing the reservoir siltation is still under debate and shall be addressed with a whole-catchment approach often overlooked by international donors. This research aims to analyze the history of the use of these techniques by reviewing the results of several cooperation projects that dealt with the implementation of nearly 200 conservation works. These case studies are representative of 5 out of 12 regions of Burkina Faso and span over two decades. Local people levels of (i) awareness, (ii) technique appropriation, (iii) involvement and the degree of (iv) effectiveness and (v) maintenance of these SWC works have been taken into account. The analysis of the afore-mentioned five indicators let the authors draw a list of features that are needed for this kind of projects to be successful in the SWC domain. Moreover the differences that exist between the approach to the community-works, normally employed for SWC realizations, of different ethnical groups is highlighted. The degree of degradation of the environment also plays an important role in the involvement of the local community together with the familiarity of the population with these techniques. For

  3. An integrated moral obligation model for landowner conservation norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhananga, Amit K.; Davenport, Mae A.; Fulton, David C.; Maruyama, Geoffrey M.; Current, Dean

    2017-01-01

    This study applies an integrated moral obligation model to examine the role of environmental and cultural values, and beliefs in the activation of landowner conservation norms. Data for this study were collected through a self-administered survey of riparian landowners in two Minnesota watersheds: Sand Creek and Vermillion River watersheds. Study findings suggest that collectivistic and biospheric–altruistic values form the bases for the activation of personal norms. Further, beliefs about local responsibility and ability to act influence personal norms to protect water resources. Findings suggest that landowners’ personal norms of water conservation are more likely to be activated by conservation strategies that appeal to biospheric–altruistic and collectivistic values, emphasize adverse consequences of water pollution, highlight water resource protection as a local responsibility, and provide the resources needed to protect water resources.

  4. Uranium soils integrated demonstration, 1993 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhfer, K.

    1994-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), operated by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) for the DOE, was selected as the host site for the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration. The Uranium Soils ID was established to develop and demonstrate innovative remediation methods which address the cradle to grave elements involved in the remediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium. The participants in the ID are from FERMCO as well as over 15 other organizations from DOE, private industry and universities. Some of the organizations are technology providers while others are members of the technical support groups which were formed to provide technical reviews, recommendations and labor. The following six Technical Support Groups (TSGs) were formed to focus on the objective of the ID: Characterization, Excavation, Decontamination, Waste Treatment/Disposal, Regulatory, and Performance Assessment. This paper will discuss the technical achievements made to date in the program as well as the future program plans. The focus will be on the realtime analysis devices being developed and demonstrated, the approach used to characterize the physical/chemical properties of the uranium waste form in the soil and lab scale studies on methods to remove the uranium from the soil

  5. Social and economic factors for adoption of soil and water conservation in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Graaff, de J.; Hella, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is one of the major constraints to agricultural production in many parts of the Tanzanian highlands. Although several soil and water conservation technologies have been developed and promoted, the adoption of many recommended measures is minimal and soil erosion continues to

  6. Integration of Regional Mitigation Assessment and Conservation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Thorne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies that develop infrastructure such as roads, waterworks, and energy delivery often impact natural ecosystems, but they also have unique opportunities to contribute to the conservation of regional natural resources through compensatory mitigation. Infrastructure development requires a planning, funding, and implementation cycle that can frequently take a decade or longer, but biological mitigation is often planned and implemented late in this process, in a project-by-project piecemeal manner. By adopting early regional mitigation needs assessment and planning for habitat-level impacts from multiple infrastructure projects, agencies could secure time needed to proactively integrate these obligations into regional conservation objectives. Such practice can be financially and ecologically beneficial due to economies of scale, and because earlier mitigation implementation means potentially developable critical parcels may still be available for conservation. Here, we compare the integration of regional conservation designs, termed greenprints, with early multi-project mitigation assessment for two areas in California, USA. The expected spatial extent of habitat impacts and associated mitigation requirements from multiple projects were identified for each area. We used the reserve-selection algorithm MARXAN to identify a regional greenprint for each site and to seek mitigation solutions through parcel acquisition that would contribute to the greenprint, as well as meet agency obligations. The two areas differed in the amount of input data available, the types of conservation objectives identified, and local land-management capacity. They are representative of the range of conditions that conservation practitioners may encounter, so contrasting the two illustrates how regional advanced mitigation can be generalized for use in a wide variety of settings. Environmental organizations can benefit from this approach because it provides a

  7. Conservation Biology and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Integrating Academic Disciplines for Better Conservation Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Drew

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biology and environmental anthropology are disciplines that are both concerned with the identification and preservation of diversity, in one case biological and in the other cultural. Both conservation biology and the study of traditional ecoloigcal knowledge function at the nexus of the social and natural worlds, yet historically there have been major impediments to integrating the two. Here we identify linguistic, cultural, and epistemological barriers between the two disciplines. We argue that the two disciplines are uniquely positioned to inform each other and to provide critical insights and new perspectives on the way these sciences are practiced. We conclude by synthesizing common themes found in conservation success stories, and by making several suggestions on integration. These include cross-disciplinary publication, expanding memberships in professional societies and conducting multidisciplinary research based on similar interests in ecological process, taxonomy, or geography. Finally, we argue that extinction threats, be they biological or cultural/linguistic are imminent, and that by bringing these disciplines together we may be able to forge synergistic conservation programs capable of protecting the vivid splendor of life on Earth.

  8. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Socio-Economic Factors Assessment Affecting the Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies on Rwenzori Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabalegwa Wambede Muhamud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the role of socio-economic factors in influencing farmers’ adoption to soil conservation technologies in Bugoye Sub-county, Rwenzori Mountain. A cross sectional household survey design was used in this study, using systematic sampling to obtain 150 household samples. Qualitative analysis and chi-square tests were used to analyze these data. Results indicated that only 54% of the sampled households have adopted soil conservation, and revealed that eight of the nine factors significantly influenced farmers’ adoption, which are slope, farm size, farm distance from home, education level, family income, training, membership to NGOs, and credit accessibility. Only family size was insignificant. Other constraints are labour demands, cost of conservation work, land fragmentation, crop pests, and the limited agricultural extension services. It is recommended to perform training for farmers on designing soil conservation structures. Policies for empowering farmers with extra income are crucial to increase the adoption of soil conservation efforts.

  10. Measuring, understanding and implementing (or at least trying) soil and water conservation in agricultural areas in Mediterranean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Burguet, María; Castillo, Carlos; de Luna, Elena; Guzmán, Gema; Lora, Ángel; Lorite, Ignacio; Mora, José; Pérez, Rafael; Soriano, María A.; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    these strategies under predicted climate change scenarios in a few decades from now. The models are also used to evaluate historical erosion rates, and the long-term impact of soil erosion on olive yield due to the loss of soil profile. This is our second major line of research. Our their key line of research is the analysis of gully erosion processes, from field based observation to evaluation at regional scale, and the development of cost-effective strategies for gully control at farm scale. This includes the testing of some of these strategies with farmers. We integrate the use of vegetation in gully erosion control strategies to enhance biodiversity and landscape values; both severely degraded in many agricultural areas in the Mediterranean. The fourth, and last, major line of research is the development or improvement of technologies for soil erosion studies. Among them is the use of rainfall simulations, laboratory flumes, photoreconstruction techniques for 3D model, improved sampling devices, etc. Within this line we have improved the use of sediment tracers to understand the processes of sediment mobilization within the landscape, or at plot scale. This greatly improves our understanding of erosion processes and the actual effectiveness of erosion control strategies. The results of these lines of research are put together in the form of Good Agricultural Practices, and technical notes, software, for implementation by farmers and technicians working at the fields that are disseminated through seminars, cooperation with government and non-government agencies and other documents such as videos or web sites. In this communication we mention some of the our research in order to highlight the major problems and questions that are faced when trying to develop viable soil and water conservation techniques, specially the need for transdisciplinary research and the cooperation, form the start, with key stakeholders, specially farmers.

  11. Soil and Water Conservation Prioritization Using Geospatial Technology – a Case Study of Part of Subarnarekha Basin, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Changing patterns of land use and land cover have exploited the natural resources. Soil, water and forests are degraded, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Deforestation in recent years has led to changes in the environment and more of soil erosion and loss of potable water. In order to conserve and sustainably use soil and water, a watershed management approach is necessary. It helps in restoring water by increasing the infiltration and reducing the erosion of soil. Such measures should be propagated in rainfall deficit areas. The present study has attempted to study the upper watershed part of Subarnarekha basin in Jharkhand state of India. Remote sensing satellite data (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS 2013 was used for delineation of the land use/land cover and vegetation index maps. Several thematic layers like slope, drainage and rainfall were integrated to achieve a priority area map using spatial multicriteria decision making. It delineated high medium and low priority areas within the watershed for soil and water conservation. The high priority area was 16.63% of the total study area. Further, the causes were analysed and conservation measures proposed.

  12. Assessment of Aesthetic Quality on Soil and Water Conservation Engineering Using the Scenic Beauty Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Hsien Peng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan has rich natural landscapes, but the sensitive geology and concentrated rainfall have resulted in frequent sediment hazards. Thus, various stream control works are established in watersheds to secure midstream and downstream citizens’ lives and properties. Taking care of slope safety and natural landscapes has become a primary issue for soil and water conservation engineering. The scenic preference beauty estimation method (SBE in psychophysics, which was proposed by Daniel and Boster in 1976, is utilized herein to evaluate the scenic aesthetics of stream control engineering in watersheds. It aims to discuss various landscape factors (water body, vegetation in the aesthetic preference and differences of various artificial structures in a watershed under people’s psychology. First, pictures and images related to soil and water conservation engineering are collected, and an in-situ investigation is performed to determine the pictures and images for discussion and design of the relevant questionnaire. The scenic aesthetics evaluation results are standardized with RMRATE, a computer program for analyzing rating judgments, of the United States Department of Agriculture, and then transformed into SBE values to compare the difference of various engineering structures in scenic aesthetics. The results reveal that flowing waterscape elements and the coverage of vegetation on the surrounding artificial structure volume in images present positive effects on the public overall scenic aesthetics. This study is expected to provide engineering designers with reference for considering a design integrating engineering structure with natural landscapes.

  13. Self-Organization in Integrated Conservation and Development Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Simão Seixas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a cooking metaphor to explore key elements (i.e., ingredients for a great meal that contribute to self-organization processes in the context of successful community-based conservation (CBC or integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP. We pose two major questions: (1 What are the key factors that drive peoples' and/or organizations' willingness to take responsibilities and to act? (2 What contributes to community self-organization? In other words, how conservation-development projects originate, evolve, survive or disappear? In order to address these questions we examine trigger events and catalytic elements in several cases among the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees, from both the 2002 and 2004 awards. The Prize recognizes efforts in integrating biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. We use secondary data in our analysis, including data from several technical reports and scientific papers written about the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees. We observed common ingredients in most projects including: (1 involvement and commitment of key players (including communities, (2 funding, (3 strong leadership, (4 capacity building, (5 partnership with supportive organizations and government, and (6 economic incentives (including alternative livelihood options. We also observed that CBC and ICDP initiatives opportunistically evolve in a multi-level world, in which local communities establish linkages with people and organizations at different political levels, across different geographical scales and for different purposes. We conclude that there is no right 'recipe' to promote community self-organization but often a mix of some of these six ingredients need to come together for 'success' and that one or two ingredients are not sufficient to ensure success. Also the existence of these six ingredients does not guarantee a great meal - the 'chef's' creativity also is critical. That is

  14. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION POLICY APPROACHES IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA. (R825761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSoil and water conservation policies and programs in developed countries in North America, Europe, and Australia are examined in the context of their effectiveness for addressing environmental degradation associated with technology-intensive agricultural syste...

  15. Slow reaction of soil structure to conservation agriculture practices in Veneto silty soils (North-Easter Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Ilaria; Camarotto, Carlo; Lazzaro, Barbara; Furlan, Lorenzo; Morari, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Soil structure plays a pivotal role in soil functioning and can inform of the degradation of the soil ecosystem. Intensive and repeated tillage operations have been known to negatively affect the soil structure characteristics while conservation agriculture (CA) practices were demonstrated to improve soil structure and related ecosystem services. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of conservation agriculture practices on total porosity, pore size distribution, pore architecture and morphology on silty soils of Veneto low-lying plain (North-Eastern Italy). Experimental design was established in 2010 on 4 farms in North-Eastern Italy to compare conventional intensive tillage system "IT" versus conservation agriculture "CA" (no-tillage, cover-crop and residue retention). 96 samples were collected in 2015 at four depths down to 50 cm depth, and investigated for porosity from micro to macro by coupling mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) (0.0074-100 µm) and x-ray computed microtomography (µCT) (>26 µm). Pore morphology and architecture were studied from 3D images analysis and MIP pore size curve. Ultramicroporosity class (0.1-5 μm) positively responded to CA after 5-yr of practices adoption while no significant effects were observed in the x-ray µCT domain (> 26 µm). Silty soils of Veneto plain showed a slow reaction to conservation agriculture because of the low soil organic carbon content and poor aggregate stability. Nevertheless the positive influence of CA on ultramicroporosity, which is strictly linked to soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization, indicated that a virtuous cycle was initiated between SOC and porosity, hopefully leading to well-developed macropore systems and, in turn, enhanced soil functions and ecosystem services.

  16. Eight years of Conservation Agriculture-based cropping systems research in Eastern Africa to conserve soil and water and mitigate effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Tesfay; Nyssen, Jan; Govaerts, Bram; Lanckriet, Sil; Baudron, Frédéric; Deckers, Jozef; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    In Ethiopia, repeated plowing, complete removal of crop residues at harvest, aftermath grazing of crop fields and occurrence of repeated droughts have reduced the biomass return to the soil and aggravated cropland degradation. Conservation Agriculture (CA)-based resource conserving cropping systems may reduce runoff and soil erosion, and improve soil quality, thereby increasing crop productivity. Thus, a long-term tillage experiment has been carried out (2005 to 2012) on a Vertisol to quantify - among others - changes in runoff and soil loss for two local tillage practices, modified to integrate CA principles in semi-arid northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were (i) derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, ploughed only once at planting by refreshing the furrow from 2005 to 2012 and 30% standing crop residue retention, (ii) terwah+ (TER+) with furrows made at 1.5 m interval, plowed once at planting, 30% standing crop residue retention and fresh broad beds, and (iii) conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three plain tillage operations and complete removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plough mahresha and wheat, teff, barley and grass pea were grown. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year onwards (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weeds in CA plots. Runoff and soil loss were measured daily. Soil water content was monitored every 6 days. Significantly different (pconstitute a field rainwater and soil conservation improvement strategy that enhances crop and economic productivity and reduces siltation of reservoirs, especially under changing climate. The reduction in draught power requirement would enable a reduction in oxen density and crop residue demand for livestock feed, which would encourage smallholder

  17. Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alexander R; Badola, Hemant K; Dhyani, Pitamber P; Rana, Santosh K

    2017-03-29

    Biocultural knowledge provides valuable insight into ecological processes, and can guide conservation practitioners in local contexts. In many regions, however, such knowledge is underutilized due to its often-fragmented record in disparate sources. In this article, we review and apply ethnobiological knowledge to biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas. Using Sikkim, India as a case study, we: (i) traced the history and trends of ethnobiological documentation; (ii) identified priority species and habitat types; and, (iii) analyzed within and among community differences pertaining to species use and management. Our results revealed that Sikkim is a biocultural hotspot, where six ethnic communities and 1128 species engage in biocultural relationships. Since the mid-1800s, the number of ethnobiological publications from Sikkim has exponentially increased; however, our results also indicate that much of this knowledge is both unwritten and partitioned within an aging, gendered, and caste or ethnic group-specific stratum of society. Reviewed species were primarily wild or wild cultivated, native to subtropical and temperate forests, and pend IUCN Red List of Threatened Species assessment. Our results demonstrate the value of engaging local knowledge holders as active participants in conservation, and suggest the need for further ethnobiological research in the Eastern Himalayas. Our interdisciplinary approach, which included rank indices and geospatial modelling, can help integrate diverse datasets into evidence-based policy.

  18. Soil nitrogen dynamics and leaching under conservation tillage in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation tillage (CsT) involves management that reduces soil erosion by maintaining crop residue cover on farm fields. Typically, both infiltration and soil organic matter increase over time with CsT practices. We compared the impact of a commonly used CsT practice, strip tillage (ST), to conven...

  19. 26 CFR 1.175-1 - Soil and water conservation expenditures; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Soil and water conservation expenditures; in general. 1.175-1 Section 1.175-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.175-1 Soil and water conservatio...

  20. Extension of the soil conservation service rainfall-runoff methodology for ungaged watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    The estimation of direct runoff for ungaged watersheds is a common problem in : engineering hydrology. The method of the Soil Conservation Services (SCS) is widely used due to its ease of application. Runoff estimates are based upon the soil types an...

  1. A pragmatic approach to modelling soil and water conservation measures with a cathment scale erosion model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.; Tenge, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce soil erosion, soil and water conservation (SWC) methods are often used. However, no method exists to model beforehand how implementing such measures will affect erosion at catchment scale. A method was developed to simulate the effects of SWC measures with catchment scale erosion models.

  2. Factors influencing adoption of soil and water conservation measures in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodnar, F.; Graaff, de J.

    2003-01-01

    A soil and water conservation (SWC) extension programme, promoting erosion control measures and soil fertility measures, has been going on in southern Mali since 1986. Five factors that influence farmer adoption of SWC measures were analysed: land pressure, cotton-growing area, possession of

  3. Financial viability of soil and water conservation technologies in northwestern Ethiopian highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Akalu; Rolker, D.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is a major threat to food security, environmental sustainability and prospects for rural development in Ethiopia. Successive governments have promoted various soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in order to reduce the effects of land degradation, but adoption rates vary

  4. Participatory appraisal for farm-level soil and water conservation planning in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on the steep slopes of Usambara Mountains. The need for SWC has resulted in the development and promotion of several SWC measures by both governmental and non-governmental programmes.

  5. Farmers' knowledge and perceptions of soil erosion and conservation measures in the Central Highlands, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoba, B.O.; Graaff, de J.

    2005-01-01

    A lack of appreciation of Kenyan farmers' knowledge and their perceptions of soil erosion and soil conservation measures was the reason for low adoption of recommended technologies. This research was carried out to identify the criteria that farmers used to distinguish farm-types and to use these

  6. Valuing soil conservation benefits of agroforestry: contour hedgerows in the Eastern Visayas, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhrendu Patanayak; D. Evan Mercer

    1998-01-01

    Trecs can he considered as investments made by economic agents to prevent depreciation of natural assets such as stocks of top soil and water. In agroforestq systems farmers use trees in this manner by deliberately combining them with agricultural crops on the same unit of land. Although advocates of agroforestry have asserted that soil conservation is one of its...

  7. Soil management and conservation in the Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus, Surat Thani Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choengthong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analyze soil properties and to find out a suitable soil conservation method for soil management in Surat Thani campus,Prince of Songkla University.Land in the area was dividedinto plots depending on different land use. Soil samples were collected from each plot and were analyzed for soil properties. The results from soil analysis revealed that soils in Surat Thani campus had pH between 4.53- 7.62. The quantitative levels of soil total N, available P and exchangeable K were low. Also the quantitative levels of Ca, Mg and S were low. Moreover, the quantitative levels of organic matter were low between 4.6-9.9gkg-1. There was no salty effect as the electrical conductivities (EC were low between 6.8 - 26.4 μS/cm. Furthermore, the cation exchange capacities (CEC were low, between 1.65 - 2.78 cmolckg-1 . In conclusion, soil inSurat Thani campus, Prince of Songkla University, had soil nutrients lower than those needed for plant growth and development. Therefore, there is a need for application of fertilizer to obtain good plant growth.Soil conservation experiment was done by studying soil loss from a control plot (no cover crop compared with the ones growing Peuraria phaseoloides , Wedelia trilobata and Vetiveria zizanioides. The results revealed that Peuraria phaseoloides was suitable to grow as cover crop for controlling soil erosion.Peurariacould reduce soil loss up to 87% compared to those with bare soil. Wedelia trilobata(Creeping daisy and Vetiveria zizanioides could reduce soil loss about 55% and 30 % respectively. In order to reduce soilleaching that can be as high as 38 kg from an area of only 8 m2, soil protection method by growing Peuraria phaseoloides, or Weddelia trilobata on sloping and bare land are highly recommended.

  8. Effect of soil and water conservation on rehabilitation of degraded lands and crop productivity in Maego watershed, North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam Yaebiyo Dimtsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many soil and water conservation (SWC measures were undertaken to decrease land degradation in Ethiopia. However, evaluation of their performance is essential to understand their success or failure and readjusting accordingly in the future planning.  Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of SWC measures in rehabilitation of degraded watershed and increase crop productivity in Maego watershed, Ethiopia. Seventy six sample plots were randomly taken from treated and untreated sub-watersheds for woody species and soil sampling. Crops yield was measured on top side, middle zone and below side of SWC structures. There were significantly higher woody species density and diversity, total nitrogen (TN, soil organic matter (SOM and soil moisture in the treated uncultivated land than the untreated one. The highest tree and sapling species density and diversity, TN and SOM were recorded on the exclosure part of the treated sub-watershed. Landscape position affected soil fertility, but has no effect on woody species density and diversity. The highest barley and wheat yield was measured on top side of SWC structures. Therefore, physical SWC structures should be integrated with exclosure to enhance rehabilitation of degraded watersheds/landscapes. Integration of biological SWC measures that improve soil fertility are essential on the cultivated land of the watershed. Most of the existing SWC structures, especially the old ones are filled with accumulated sediment, so maintenance is needed.

  9. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape anthocyanin increased by soil conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops and no-till (mown) systems provide multiple benefits to vineyard soils such as improvements in soil organic matter and reductions in erosion and dust generation. Understanding the effects of such practices on grape attributes will contribute to the sustainability of the production system...

  10. Soil and water conservation: Our history and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remembering our past is an essential first step into the future. Building upon that philosophy, our objective is to summarize two presentations from a 2012 Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) symposium focused on soil management challenges in response to climate change in order to examine: (1) ho...

  11. An adaptive management process for forest soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Curran; Douglas G. Maynard; Ronald L. Heninger; Thomas A. Terry; Steven W. Howes; Douglas M. Stone; Thomas Niemann; Richard E. Miller; Robert F. Powers

    2005-01-01

    Soil disturbance guidelines should be based on comparable disturbance categories adapted to specific local soil conditions, validated by monitoring and research. Guidelines, standards, and practices should be continually improved based on an adaptive management process, which is presented in this paper. Core components of this process include: reliable monitoring...

  12. Evaluating the effects of agricultural practices on soil conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main crops were maize, ginger, garden pea, cabbage and mulberry. The objective of the study was to contribute a simple method to evaluate the effect of different agricultural practices on the resistance of soil to erosion. Different agricultural practices were studied on similar relief and soil, and under similar weather ...

  13. Infiltration and Soil Loss Changes during the Growing Season under Ploughing and Conservation Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Jakab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Decreased water retention and increased runoff and soil loss are of special importance concerning soil degradation of hilly crop fields. In this study, plots under ploughing (conventional tillage (PT and conservation tillage (CT; 15 years were compared. Rainfall simulation on 6 m2 plots was applied to determine infiltration and soil loss during the growing season. Results were compared with those measured from 1200 m2 plots exposed to natural rainfalls in 2016. Infiltration was always higher under CT than PT, whereas the highest infiltration was measured under the cover crop condition. Infiltration under seedbed and stubble resulted in uncertainties, which suggests that natural pore formation can be more effective at improving soil drainage potential than can temporary improvements created by soil tillage operations. Soil erodibility was higher under PT for each soil status; however, the seedbed condition triggered the highest values. For CT, soil loss volume was only a function of runoff volume at both scales. Contrarily, on PT plots, some extreme precipitation events triggered extremely high soil loss owing to linear erosion, which meant no direct connection existed between the scales. Improved soil conditions due to conservation practice are more important for decreasing soil loss than the better surface conditions.

  14. Pro-environmental analysis of farmers' concerns and behaviors towards soil conservation in central district of Sari County, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Bijani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to pro-environmentally analyze farmers' concerns and behaviors towards soil conservation. This research was a descriptive, causal, and correlational and conducted through a survey technique. The study population consisted of all farmers at the central district of Sari county, Iran (N=9621. Based on the Cochran's formula, 120 farmers were selected using stratified random sampling. The instrument employed in this study was a questionnaire with its validity being confirmed by a number of academic experts and agriculture specialists and its reliability being proved using Cronbach's alpha coefficients in a pilot study (outside the scope of the current study. (0.66≤α≤0.90. The results of the analysis regarding the effects of independent variables on the variables "soil conservation behavior" and "soil conservation concern" indicated that, among the variables affecting these two variables, the variable "attitude towards soil conservation "was the most powerful predictor of "soil conservation concerns" and the variable "social pressures on soil conservation" predicted farmers' "soil conservation behaviors" better. Furthermore, the independent variables used in this research could predict 42% of the variance in terms of soil conservation concern and 21% of the variance in terms of soil conservation behavior. These findings can be practical and appropriate for executive officials since, instead of making efforts to direct change the behavior, they can first focus on conceptual changes and persuasive changes like changing attitudes towards soil conservation.

  15. Fungal Communities in Rhizosphere Soil under Conservation Tillage Shift in Response to Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziting Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation tillage is an extensively used agricultural practice in northern China that alters soil texture and nutrient conditions, causing changes in the soil microbial community. However, how conservation tillage affects rhizosphere and bulk soil fungal communities during plant growth remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of long-term (6 years conservation (chisel plow, zero and conventional (plow tillage during wheat growth on the rhizosphere fungal community, using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene and quantitative PCR. During tillering, fungal alpha diversity in both rhizosphere and bulk soil were significantly higher under zero tillage compared to other methods. Although tillage had no significant effect during the flowering stage, fungal alpha diversity at this stage was significantly different between rhizosphere and bulk soils, with bulk soil presenting the highest diversity. This was also reflected in the phylogenetic structure of the communities, as rhizosphere soil communities underwent a greater shift from tillering to flowering compared to bulk soil communities. In general, less variation in community structure was observed under zero tillage compared to plow and chisel plow treatments. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal orders Capnodiales, Pleosporales, and Xylariales contributed the highest to the dissimilarities observed. Structural equation models revealed that the soil fungal communities under the three tillage regimes were likely influenced by the changes in soil properties associated with plant growth. This study suggested that: (1 differences in nutrient resources between rhizosphere and bulk soils can select for different types of fungi thereby increasing community variation during plant growth; (2 tillage can alter fungal communities' variability, with zero tillage promoting more stable communities. This work suggests that long-term changes in

  16. New families of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta

    OpenAIRE

    Selivanova, Elena N.

    1997-01-01

    There is a well-known example of integrable conservative system on $S^2$, the case of Kovalevskaya in the dynamics of a rigid body, possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta. Goryachev proposed a one-parameter family of examples of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta which includes the case of Kovalevskaya. In this paper we proposed new examples of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta.

  17. Prioritization of Soil Conservation Measures using Erodibility Indices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    In the present study spatial variation of susceptibility of erosion in East district of Sikkim ..... organic matter is 50% carbon, would in almost all cases be more accurate ..... temperate American soils; with special reference to indicated relations ...

  18. Soil tillage conservation and its effect on erosion control, water management and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Dr.; Gus, Dr.; Bogdan, Dr.; Moraru, Dr.; Pop, Dr.; Clapa, Dr.; Pop, Drd.

    2009-04-01

    fuel for preparing the germination bed. Presently it is necessary a change concerning the concept of conservation practices and a new approach regarding the control of erosion. The real conservation of soil must be expanded beyond the traditional understanding of soil erosion. The real soil conservation is represented by carbon management. We need to focus to another level concerning conservation by focusing on of soil quality. Carbon management is necessary for a complex of matters including soil, water management, field productivity, biological fuel and climatic change. Profound research is necessary in order to establish the carbon sequestration practices and their implementation impact.

  19. Integrating Conservation and Development in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kilbane Gockel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have critiqued integrated conservation and development projects for failing to attain either of their two major goals. This paper evaluates one such project in Peru's Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, which entailed community-based natural resource-management plans for palm and aquatic resources. We conducted semistructured interviews with reserve inhabitants (n=57 during May 2007, as well as key-informant interviews with state and non-governmental organization (NGO staff. Monitoring data and reports from NGOs were important secondary sources in this study. The intervention has improved the status of targeted species and has improved the well-being of participants. This project worked well for a number of reasons, including the long-term commitment of the implementing organization, the social capital and legitimacy provided by participation in management groups, and the fact that local knowledge was incorporated into resource-management techniques.

  20. Guidelines for Using Fallout Radionuclides to Assess Erosion and Effectiveness of Soil Conservation Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    Soil degradation currently affects 1.9 billion hectares of agricultural land worldwide, and the area of degraded land is increasing rapidly at a rate of 5 to 7 million hectares each year. Most of this degradation is caused by inappropriate and poor land management practices in agriculture and livestock production. Among all degradation processes, including soil acidification, salinization and nutrient mining, soil erosion is by far the most common type of land degradation, accounting for 84% of affected areas, with more than three quarters of the affected surface land area located in developing countries. Current concerns about the impacts of soil erosion on crop productivity and the environment, as well as the deployment of effective soil conservation measures, have generated an urgent need to obtain reliable quantitative data on the extent and actual rates of soil erosion to underpin sustainable soil conservation strategies. The quest for new approaches for assessing soil erosion to complement conventional methods has led to the development of methodologies based on the use of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) as soil erosion tracers. With increasing attention being paid to land degradation worldwide, this publication explains and demonstrates FRN based methods to trace soil movement and to assess soil erosion at different spatial and temporal scales, and to evaluate the effectiveness of soil conservation strategies to ensure sustainable land management in agricultural systems. This publication summarizes the experiences and knowledge gained since the end of the 1990s in the use of FRNs by the IAEA and by scientists from both developed and developing countries involved in IAEA research networks. This publication provides guidance in the application of FRNs to stakeholders involved in sustainable agricultural development

  1. Local soil quality assessment of north-central Namibia: integrating farmers' and technical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Prudat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Soil conservation practices can be promoted by the development of soil quality (SQ evaluation toolboxes that provide ways to evaluate soil degradation. However, such toolboxes must be adapted to local conditions to reach farmers. Based on qualitative (interviews and soil descriptions and quantitative (laboratory analyses data, we developed a set of SQ indicators relevant for our study area that integrates farmers' field experiences (FFEs and technical knowledge. We suggest using participatory mapping to delineate soil units (Oshikwanyama soil units, KwSUs based on FFEs, which highlight mostly soil properties that integrate long-term productivity and soil hydrological characteristics (i.e. internal SQ. The actual SQ evaluation of a location depends on the KwSU described and is thereafter assessed by field soil texture (i.e. chemical fertility potential and by soil colour shade (i.e. SOC status. This three-level information aims to reveal SQ improvement potential by comparing, for any location, (a estimated clay content against median clay content (specific to KwSU and (b soil organic status against calculated optimal values (depends on clay content. The combination of farmers' and technical assessment cumulates advantages of both systems of knowledge, namely the integrated long-term knowledge of the farmers and a short- and medium-term SQ status assessment. The toolbox is a suggestion for evaluating SQ and aims to help farmers, rural development planners and researchers from all fields of studies understanding SQ issues in north-central Namibia. This suggested SQ toolbox is adapted to a restricted area of north-central Namibia, but similar tools could be developed in most areas where small-scale agriculture prevails.

  2. Local soil quality assessment of north-central Namibia: integrating farmers' and technical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2018-02-01

    Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Soil conservation practices can be promoted by the development of soil quality (SQ) evaluation toolboxes that provide ways to evaluate soil degradation. However, such toolboxes must be adapted to local conditions to reach farmers. Based on qualitative (interviews and soil descriptions) and quantitative (laboratory analyses) data, we developed a set of SQ indicators relevant for our study area that integrates farmers' field experiences (FFEs) and technical knowledge. We suggest using participatory mapping to delineate soil units (Oshikwanyama soil units, KwSUs) based on FFEs, which highlight mostly soil properties that integrate long-term productivity and soil hydrological characteristics (i.e. internal SQ). The actual SQ evaluation of a location depends on the KwSU described and is thereafter assessed by field soil texture (i.e. chemical fertility potential) and by soil colour shade (i.e. SOC status). This three-level information aims to reveal SQ improvement potential by comparing, for any location, (a) estimated clay content against median clay content (specific to KwSU) and (b) soil organic status against calculated optimal values (depends on clay content). The combination of farmers' and technical assessment cumulates advantages of both systems of knowledge, namely the integrated long-term knowledge of the farmers and a short- and medium-term SQ status assessment. The toolbox is a suggestion for evaluating SQ and aims to help farmers, rural development planners and researchers from all fields of studies understanding SQ issues in north-central Namibia. This suggested SQ toolbox is adapted to a restricted area of north-central Namibia, but similar tools could be developed in most areas where small-scale agriculture prevails.

  3. Advancing the integration of history and ecology for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter; Hédl, Radim

    2011-08-01

    The important role of humans in the development of current ecosystems was recognized decades ago; however, the integration of history and ecology in order to inform conservation has been difficult. We identified four issues that hinder historical ecological research and considered possible solutions. First, differences in concepts and methods between the fields of ecology and history are thought to be large. However, most differences stem from miscommunication between ecologists and historians and are less substantial than is usually assumed. Cooperation can be achieved by focusing on the features ecology and history have in common and through understanding and acceptance of differing points of view. Second, historical ecological research is often hampered by differences in spatial and temporal scales between ecology and history. We argue that historical ecological research can only be conducted at extents for which sources in both disciplines have comparable resolutions. Researchers must begin by clearly defining the relevant scales for the given purpose. Third, periods for which quantitative historical sources are not easily accessible (before AD 1800) have been neglected in historical ecological research. Because data from periods before 1800 are as relevant to the current state of ecosystems as more recent data, we suggest that historical ecologists actively seek out data from before 1800 and apply analytic methods commonly used in ecology to these data. Fourth, humans are not usually considered an intrinsic ecological factor in current ecological research. In our view, human societies should be acknowledged as integral parts of ecosystems and societal processes should be recognized as driving forces of ecosystem change. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Integration of environmental flow assessment and freshwater conservation planning: a new era in catchment management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated water resources management offers an ideal platform for addressing the goals of freshwater conservation and climate change adaptation. Environmental flow assessment and systematic conservation planning have evolved separately...

  5. VALUING SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTICES USING CONTINGENT VALUATION TECHNIQUE: EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL RIFT VALLEY OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa H. AHMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation mainly in the form of soil and nutrient depletion is the prominent problem that the Ethiopian agriculture is facing. Due to this, farmers should be aware of this problem and the necessity of implementing conservation measures. Hence, this study assesses farm households’ willingness to participate in soil conservation practice through a Contingent Valuation method in one of the most degraded parts of the country. Double Bounded Dichotomous choice with an Open-ended follow up format was used to elicit the households’ willingness to pay using data collected from randomly selected 140 sample households. Results show that the mean willingness to participate in soil conservation practices was about 25 person days per annum and the total aggregate value of soil conservation was computed to be at 975622.73 person days (24390568.3 Birr. Moreover, the Tobit regression model results indicate that the education level of the household head, initial-bid, income, labour shortage and number of days on holiday and social ceremony were important factors influencing the willingness to participate in soil conservation practices. Hence, to improve the participation level, policy should target on supporting adult education, introducing ways to increase farm income and creating awareness on the loss associated with too many days of social ceremonies.

  6. Conservation Physiology and Conservation Pathogens: White-Nose Syndrome and Integrative Biology for Host-Pathogen Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R

    2015-10-01

    Conservation physiology aims to apply an understanding of physiological mechanisms to management of imperiled species, populations, or ecosystems. One challenge for physiologists hoping to apply their expertise to conservation is connecting the mechanisms we study, often in the laboratory, with the vital rates of populations in the wild. There is growing appreciation that infectious pathogens can threaten populations and species, and represent an important issue for conservation. Conservation physiology has much to offer in terms of addressing the threat posed to some host species by infectious pathogens. At the same time, the well-developed theoretical framework of disease ecology could provide a model to help advance the application of physiology to a range of other conservation issues. Here, I use white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating North American bats as an example of a conservation problem for which integrative physiological research has been a critical part of research and management. The response to WNS highlights the importance of a well-developed theoretical framework for the application of conservation physiology to a particular threat. I review what is known about physiological mechanisms associated with mortality from WNS and emphasize the value of combining a strong theoretical background with integrative physiological studies in order to connect physiological mechanisms with population processes and thereby maximize the potential benefits of conservation physiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  8. A Web-based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Agrillo, A.; Bonfante, A.; Buscemi, G.; Colandrea, M.; D'Antonio, A.; De Mascellis, R.; De Michele, C.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Mileti, F. A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Valentini, S.; Vingiani, S.; Basile, A.

    2015-07-01

    Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc.) as well as many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a spatial decision support system based on geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) can address all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry, and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on land management and soil conservation. The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry, and urban planning issues through the Web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the south of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project (SOILCONSWEB). The paper reports - as a case study - results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool) and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater). Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering - through a smart Web-based system - truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (www.landconsultingweb.eu). This may help bridge the last very important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  9. A web based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Agrillo, A.; Bonfante, A.; Buscemi, G.; Colandrea, M.; D'Antonio, A.; De Mascellis, R.; De Michele, C.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Mileti, F. A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Valentini, S.; Vingiani, S.; Basile, A.

    2015-02-01

    Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc.) but also many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a Spatial Decision Support System based on geospatial cyber-infrastructure (GCI) can embody all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on soil and land conservation (SOILCONSWEB-LIFE+ project). The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry and urban planning issues through the web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the South of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project. The paper reports - as a case study - results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool) and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater). Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering - through a smart web based system - truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (http://www.landconsultingweb.eu). This may help bridge the last much important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  10. Integrating agricultural expansion into conservation biogeography: conflicts and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dobrovolski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing food production without compromising biodiversity is one of the great challenges for humanity. The aims of my thesis were to define spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation and to evaluate conservation conflicts considering agricultural expansion in the 21st century. I also tested the effect of globalizing conservation efforts on both food production and biodiversity conservation. I found spatial conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion. However, incorporating agricultural expansion data into the spatial prioritization process can significantly alleviate conservation conflicts, by reducing spatial correlation between the areas under high impact of agriculture and the priority areas for conservation. Moreover, developing conservation blueprints at the global scale, instead of the usual approach based on national boundaries, can benefit both food production and biodiversity. Based on these findings I conclude that the incorporation of agricultural expansion as a key component for defining global conservation strategies should be added to the list of solutions for our cultivated planet.

  11. Avian Conservation Areas as a Proxy for Contaminated Soil Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Anthony, Johnathen; Ding, Tsun-Su

    2015-07-17

    Remediation prioritization frequently falls short of systematically evaluating the underlying ecological value of different sites. This study presents a novel approach to delineating sites that are both contaminated by any of eight heavy metals and have high habitat value to high-priority species. The conservation priority of each planning site herein was based on the projected distributions of eight protected bird species, simulated using 900 outputs of species distribution models (SDMs) and the subsequent application of a systematic conservation tool. The distributions of heavy metal concentrations were generated using a geostatistical joint-simulation approach. The uncertainties in the heavy metal distributions were quantified in terms of variability among 1000 realization sets. Finally, a novel remediation decision-making approach was presented for delineating contaminated sites in need of remediation based on the spatial uncertainties of multiple realizations and the priorities of conservation areas. The results thus obtained demonstrate that up to 42% of areas of high conservation priority are also contaminated by one or more of the heavy metal contaminants of interest. Moreover, as the proportion of the land for proposed remediated increased, the projected area of the pollution-free habitat also increased. Overall uncertainty, in terms of the false positive contamination rate, also increased. These results indicate that the proposed decision-making approach successfully accounted for the intrinsic trade-offs among a high number of pollution-free habitats, low false positive rates and robustness of expected decision outcomes.

  12. Avian Conservation Areas as a Proxy for Contaminated Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Remediation prioritization frequently falls short of systematically evaluating the underlying ecological value of different sites. This study presents a novel approach to delineating sites that are both contaminated by any of eight heavy metals and have high habitat value to high-priority species. The conservation priority of each planning site herein was based on the projected distributions of eight protected bird species, simulated using 900 outputs of species distribution models (SDMs and the subsequent application of a systematic conservation tool. The distributions of heavy metal concentrations were generated using a geostatistical joint-simulation approach. The uncertainties in the heavy metal distributions were quantified in terms of variability among 1000 realization sets. Finally, a novel remediation decision-making approach was presented for delineating contaminated sites in need of remediation based on the spatial uncertainties of multiple realizations and the priorities of conservation areas. The results thus obtained demonstrate that up to 42% of areas of high conservation priority are also contaminated by one or more of the heavy metal contaminants of interest. Moreover, as the proportion of the land for proposed remediated increased, the projected area of the pollution-free habitat also increased. Overall uncertainty, in terms of the false positive contamination rate, also increased. These results indicate that the proposed decision-making approach successfully accounted for the intrinsic trade-offs among a high number of pollution-free habitats, low false positive rates and robustness of expected decision outcomes.

  13. Soil loss estimation using geographic information system in enfraz watershed for soil conservation planning in highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizachew Tiruneh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated soil erosion is a worldwide problem because of its economic and environmental impacts. Enfraz watershed is one of the most erosion-prone watersheds in the highlands of Ethiopia, which received little attention. This study was, therefore, carried out to spatially predict the soil loss rate of the watershed with a Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE adapted to Ethiopian conditions was used to estimate potential soil losses by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K using soil map, vegetation cover (C using satellite images, topography (LS using Digital Elevation Model (DEM and conservation practices (P using satellite images. Based on the analysis, about 92.31% (5914.34 ha of the watershed was categorized none to slight class which under soil loss tolerance (SLT values ranging from 5 to 11 tons ha-1 year-1. The remaining 7.68% (492.21 ha of land was classified under moderate to high class about several times the maximum tolerable soil loss. The total and an average amount of soil loss estimated by RUSLE from the watershed was 30,836.41 ton year-1 and 4.81 tons ha-1year-1, respectively.

  14. Determinants of the Adoption of Physical Soil Bund Conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This study emphasizes the adoption of physical soil bund structures including the major factors influencing the adoption process. The study is based on the data collected from 120 households. Two analytical techniques, descriptive statistics and logistic regression function were employed in analyzing the data.

  15. farmers' preference for soil and water conservation practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    However, failure by research and development organisations to ... economic perspective; as a basis for enhancing adoption of the technologies in the central highlands of Ethiopia. ... country. The highest rate of soil loss occurs from cultivated lands, ranging from 50 t ha-1 yr-1 ... However, investments in land management.

  16. SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysanova, V; Wechsung, F; Arnold, J; Srinivasan, R; Williams, J

    2000-12-01

    The model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was developed in order to provide a comprehensive GIS-based tool for hydrological and water quality modelling in mesoscale and large river basins (from 100 to 10,000 km{sup 2}), which can be parameterised using regionally available information. The model was developed for the use mainly in Europe and temperate zone, though its application in other regions is possible as well. SWIM is based on two previously developed tools - SWAT and MATSALU (see more explanations in section 1.1). The model integrates hydrology, vegetation, erosion, and nutrient dynamics at the watershed scale. SWIM has a three-level disaggregation scheme 'basin - sub-basins - hydrotopes' and is coupled to the Geographic Information System GRASS (GRASS, 1993). A robust approach is suggested for the nitrogen and phosphorus modelling in mesoscale watersheds. SWIM runs under the UNIX environment. Model test and validation were performed sequentially for hydrology, crop growth, nitrogen and erosion in a number of mesoscale watersheds in the German part of the Elbe drainage basin. A comprehensive scheme of spatial disaggregation into sub-basins and hydrotopes combined with reasonable restriction on a sub-basin area allows performing the assessment of water resources and water quality with SWIM in mesoscale river basins. The modest data requirements represent an important advantage of the model. Direct connection to land use and climate data provides a possibility to use the model for analysis of climate change and land use change impacts on hydrology, agricultural production, and water quality. (orig.)

  17. Eco-hydrological Responses to Soil and Water Conservation in the Jinghe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H.; Jia, Y.; Qiu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Jinghe River Basin is one of the most serious soil erosion areas in the Loess Plateau. Many measures of soil and water conservation were applied in the basin. Terrestrial ecosystem model BIOME-BGC and distributed hydrological model WEP-L were used to build eco-hydrological model and verified by field observation and literature values. The model was applied in the Jinghe River Basin to analyze eco-hydrological responses under the scenarios of vegetation type change due to soil and water conservation polices. Four scenarios were set under the measures of conversion of cropland to forest, forestation on bare land, forestation on slope wasteland and planting grass on bare land. Analysis results show that the soil and water conservation has significant effects on runoff and the carbon cycle in the Jinghe River Basin: the average annual runoff would decrease and the average annual NPP and carbon storage would increase. Key words: soil and water conservation; conversion of cropland to forest; eco-hydrology response; the Jinghe River Basin

  18. Household Welfare, Investment in Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security: Evidence from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabubo-Mariara, J.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.; Atieno, R.; Mwabu, G.

    2006-01-01

    In Kenya, conservation and sustainable utilization of the environment and natural resources form an integral part of national planning and poverty reduction efforts. However, weak environmental management practices are a major impediment to agricultural productivity growth. This study was motivated

  19. Defining the demands and meeting the challenges of integrated bird conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. Baxter

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the demands of integration bird conservation begins with a critical assessment of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative's (NABCI) goal."Regionally-based, biologically-driven, landscape oriented partnerships delivering the full spectrum of bird conservation across the entirety of North America."

  20. Estimating soil erosion risk and evaluating erosion control measures for soil conservation planning at Koga watershed in the highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tegegne; Sisheber, Biniam

    2017-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the major factors affecting sustainability of agricultural production in Ethiopia. The objective of this paper is to estimate soil erosion using the universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) model and to evaluate soil conservation practices in a data-scarce watershed region. For this purpose, soil data, rainfall, erosion control practices, satellite images and topographic maps were collected to determine the RUSLE factors. In addition, measurements of randomly selected soil and water conservation structures were done at three sub-watersheds (Asanat, Debreyakob and Rim). This study was conducted in Koga watershed at upper part of the Blue Nile basin which is affected by high soil erosion rates. The area is characterized by undulating topography caused by intensive agricultural practices with poor soil conservation practices. The soil loss rates were determined and conservation strategies have been evaluated under different slope classes and land uses. The results showed that the watershed is affected by high soil erosion rates (on average 42 t ha-1 yr-1), greater than the maximum tolerable soil loss (18 t ha-1 yr-1). The highest soil loss (456 t ha-1 yr-1) estimated from the upper watershed occurred on cultivated lands of steep slopes. As a result, soil erosion is mainly aggravated by land-use conflicts and topographic factors and the rugged topographic land forms of the area. The study also demonstrated that the contribution of existing soil conservation structures to erosion control is very small due to incorrect design and poor management. About 35 % out of the existing structures can reduce soil loss significantly since they were constructed correctly. Most of the existing structures were demolished due to the sediment overload, vulnerability to livestock damage and intense rainfall. Therefore, appropriate and standardized soil and water conservation measures for different erosion-prone land uses and land forms need to be implemented in Koga

  1. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  2. Influence of soil and water conservation techniques on yield of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the application of soil and water conservation techniques in relation to yield of small-holder swamp rice farmers in Imo State, Nigeria in 2009. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the farmer were described, their influence on the application of the techniques examined and relationship of ...

  3. Economic benefits of combining soil and water conservation measures with nutrient management in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouédraogo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient limitation is the main cause of per capita decline in crop production in the Sahel, where water shortage also limits an efficient use of available nutrients. Combining soil and water conservation measures with locally available nutrient inputs may optimize crop production and economic

  4. Modeling the effect of three soil and water conservation practices in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Meijerink, G.W.; Mosugu, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Severe land degradation affects the livelihood of many farmers in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Various soil and water conservation practices have been proposed to reduce land degradation and to improve the quality of the natural resource base but quantitative information on their

  5. Earthworm activity and soil structural changes under conservation agriculture in central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Navarrete, A.; Rodriguez-Aragonés, C.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Kooistra, M.J.; Sayre, K.D.; Brussaard, L.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Crop residue mulching combined with zero tillage and crop rotation, known as conservation agriculture (CA), is being promoted as an alternative system to revert soil degradation in maize-based farming in the central highlands of Mexico. The goal of this paper was to determine the effects of CA vs.

  6. Conservation agriculture improves yield and reduces weeding activity in sandy soils of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive tillage in many less-developed countries, including Cambodia have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources and sustainability. With limited available data, long-term conventional tillage system (CT) and conservation agriculture system (CA) can affect changes in soil pr...

  7. Using Soil and Water Conservation Contests for Extension: Experiences from the Bolivian Mountain Valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, A.; Graaff, de J.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) contests among farmer groups were organized in five rural villages in the Bolivian mountain valleys. The contests were aimed at quickly achieving widespread sustainable results. This article analyzes the effectiveness of these contests as an extension tool. Mixed

  8. The effectiveness of soil conservation measures at a landscape scale in the West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickama, Juma; Masselink, Rens; Sterk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) technologies among small holder farmers in the East African highlands is an area which poses many challenges. When adoption occurs across a vast landscape, the locations and effectiveness of the adopted measures are often not adequately known. For

  9. Does land tenure security matter for investment in soil and water conservation? Evidence from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabubo-Mariara, J.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of tenure security and other factors on investment in soil and water conservation (SWC) in Kenya. Factor analysis, step-wise regression and reduced form model approaches are used to explain the willingness, likelihood and intensity of adoption of SWC investments.

  10. Conservation properties of numerical integration methods for systems of ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    If a system of ordinary differential equations represents a property conserving system that can be expressed linearly (e.g., conservation of mass), it is then desirable that the numerical integration method used conserve the same quantity. It is shown that both linear multistep methods and Runge-Kutta methods are 'conservative' and that Newton-type methods used to solve the implicit equations preserve the inherent conservation of the numerical method. It is further shown that a method used by several authors is not conservative.

  11. Assessment of Benefits of Conservation Agriculture on Soil Functions in Arable Production Systems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhim Bahadur Ghaley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional farming (CONV is the norm in European farming, causing adverse effects on some of the five major soil functions, viz. primary productivity, carbon sequestration and regulation, nutrient cycling and provision, water regulation and purification, and habitat for functional and intrinsic biodiversity. Conservation agriculture (CA is an alternative to enhance soil functions. However, there is no analysis of CA benefits on the five soil functions as most studies addressed individual soil functions. The objective was to compare effects of CA and CONV practices on the five soil functions in four major environmental zones (Atlantic North, Pannonian, Continental and Mediterranean North in Europe by applying expert scoring based on synthesis of existing literature. In each environmental zone, a team of experts scored the five soil functions due to CA and CONV treatments and median scores indicated the overall effects on five soil functions. Across the environmental zones, CONV had overall negative effects on soil functions with a median score of 0.50 whereas CA had overall positive effects with median score ranging from 0.80 to 0.83. The study proposes the need for field-based investigations, policies and subsidy support to benefit from CA adoption to enhance the five soil functions.

  12. Effects of terracing on soil and water conservation in China: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Die; Wei, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Terracing has long been considered a powerful strategy for soil and water conservation. However, the efficiency is limited by many factors, such as climate, soil properties, topography, land use, population and socioeconomic status. The aim of this critical review was to discuss the effects of terracing on soil and water conservation in China, using a systematic approach to select peer-reviewed articles published in English and Chinese. 46 individual studies were analyzed, involving six terracing structures (level terraces, slope-separated terraces, slope terraces, reverse-slope terraces, fanya juu terraces and half-moon terraces), a wide geographical range (Northeastern China, Southeastern hilly areas, Southwestern mountain areas and Northwestern-central China), and six land use types (forest, crop trees, cropland, shrub land, grassland and bare land) as well as a series of slope gradients ranging from 3° to 35°. Statistical meta-analysis with runoff for 593 observations and sediment for 636 observations confirmed that terracing had a significant effect on water erosion control. In terms of different terrace structures, runoff and sediment reduction were uppermost on slope-separated terraces. Land use in terraces also played a crucial role in the efficiency of conservation, and tree crops and forest were detected as the most powerful land covers in soil and water conservation due to large aboveground biomass and strong root systems below the ground, which directly reduces the pressure of terraces on rainwater redistribution. In addition, a significant positive correlation between slope gradients (3° 15° and 16° 35°) and terracing efficiency on soil and water conservation was observed. This study revealed the effectiveness and variation of terracing on water erosion control on the national scale, which can serve as a scientific basis to land managers and decision-makers.

  13. Effects of poly-γ-glutamic acid biopreparation (PGAB) on nitrogen conservation in the coastal saline soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Xu, Xianghong; Zhang, Huan; Han, Rui; Cheng, Yao; Tan, Xueyi; Chen, Xuanyu

    2017-04-01

    Water leaching is the major method to decrease soil salinity of the coastal saline soil. Conservation of soil nutrition in the soil ameliorating process is helpful to maintain soil fertility and prevent environment pollution. In the experiment, glutamic acid and poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) producing bacteria were isolated for manufacturing the PGA biopreparation (PGAB), and the effect of PGAB on the soil nitrogen (N) conservation was assayed. The glutamic acid and PGA producing bacteria were identified as Brevibacterium flavum and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. After soil leached with water for 90 days, compared to control treatment, salt concentration of 0-30cm soil with PGAB treatment was lowered by 39.93%, however the total N loss was decreased by 65.37%. Compared to control, the microbial biomass N increased by 1.19 times at 0-30 cm soil with PGAB treatment. The populations of soil total bacteria, fungi, actinomyces, nitrogen fixing bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria and biomass of soil algae were significantly increased in PGAB treatment, while anaerobic bacteria decreased (P 0.25 mm and 0.02 mm < diameter <0.25 mm were increased by 2.93 times and 26.79% respectively in PGAB treatment. The soil erosion-resistance coefficient of PGAB treatment increased by 50%. All these suggested that the PGAB conserved the soil nitrogen effectively in the process of soil water leaching and improved the coastal saline soil quality.

  14. An integral conservative gridding--algorithm using Hermitian curve interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volken, Werner; Frei, Daniel; Manser, Peter; Mini, Roberto; Born, Ernst J; Fix, Michael K

    2008-11-07

    The problem of re-sampling spatially distributed data organized into regular or irregular grids to finer or coarser resolution is a common task in data processing. This procedure is known as 'gridding' or 're-binning'. Depending on the quantity the data represents, the gridding-algorithm has to meet different requirements. For example, histogrammed physical quantities such as mass or energy have to be re-binned in order to conserve the overall integral. Moreover, if the quantity is positive definite, negative sampling values should be avoided. The gridding process requires a re-distribution of the original data set to a user-requested grid according to a distribution function. The distribution function can be determined on the basis of the given data by interpolation methods. In general, accurate interpolation with respect to multiple boundary conditions of heavily fluctuating data requires polynomial interpolation functions of second or even higher order. However, this may result in unrealistic deviations (overshoots or undershoots) of the interpolation function from the data. Accordingly, the re-sampled data may overestimate or underestimate the given data by a significant amount. The gridding-algorithm presented in this work was developed in order to overcome these problems. Instead of a straightforward interpolation of the given data using high-order polynomials, a parametrized Hermitian interpolation curve was used to approximate the integrated data set. A single parameter is determined by which the user can control the behavior of the interpolation function, i.e. the amount of overshoot and undershoot. Furthermore, it is shown how the algorithm can be extended to multidimensional grids. The algorithm was compared to commonly used gridding-algorithms using linear and cubic interpolation functions. It is shown that such interpolation functions may overestimate or underestimate the source data by about 10-20%, while the new algorithm can be tuned to

  15. An integral conservative gridding-algorithm using Hermitian curve interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volken, Werner; Frei, Daniel; Manser, Peter; Mini, Roberto; Born, Ernst J; Fix, Michael K

    2008-01-01

    The problem of re-sampling spatially distributed data organized into regular or irregular grids to finer or coarser resolution is a common task in data processing. This procedure is known as 'gridding' or 're-binning'. Depending on the quantity the data represents, the gridding-algorithm has to meet different requirements. For example, histogrammed physical quantities such as mass or energy have to be re-binned in order to conserve the overall integral. Moreover, if the quantity is positive definite, negative sampling values should be avoided. The gridding process requires a re-distribution of the original data set to a user-requested grid according to a distribution function. The distribution function can be determined on the basis of the given data by interpolation methods. In general, accurate interpolation with respect to multiple boundary conditions of heavily fluctuating data requires polynomial interpolation functions of second or even higher order. However, this may result in unrealistic deviations (overshoots or undershoots) of the interpolation function from the data. Accordingly, the re-sampled data may overestimate or underestimate the given data by a significant amount. The gridding-algorithm presented in this work was developed in order to overcome these problems. Instead of a straightforward interpolation of the given data using high-order polynomials, a parametrized Hermitian interpolation curve was used to approximate the integrated data set. A single parameter is determined by which the user can control the behavior of the interpolation function, i.e. the amount of overshoot and undershoot. Furthermore, it is shown how the algorithm can be extended to multidimensional grids. The algorithm was compared to commonly used gridding-algorithms using linear and cubic interpolation functions. It is shown that such interpolation functions may overestimate or underestimate the source data by about 10-20%, while the new algorithm can be tuned to

  16. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Residue retention and reduced tillage are both conservation agricultural management options that may enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in tropical soils. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term tillage and residue management on SOC dynamics in a Chromic Luvisol (red clay soil)

  17. An experimental method to verify soil conservation by check dams on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X Z; Zhang, H W; Wang, G Q; Chen, S C; Dang, W Q

    2009-12-01

    A successful experiment with a physical model requires necessary conditions of similarity. This study presents an experimental method with a semi-scale physical model. The model is used to monitor and verify soil conservation by check dams in a small watershed on the Loess Plateau of China. During experiments, the model-prototype ratio of geomorphic variables was kept constant under each rainfall event. Consequently, experimental data are available for verification of soil erosion processes in the field and for predicting soil loss in a model watershed with check dams. Thus, it can predict the amount of soil loss in a catchment. This study also mentions four criteria: similarities of watershed geometry, grain size and bare land, Froude number (Fr) for rainfall event, and soil erosion in downscaled models. The efficacy of the proposed method was confirmed using these criteria in two different downscaled model experiments. The B-Model, a large scale model, simulates watershed prototype. The two small scale models, D(a) and D(b), have different erosion rates, but are the same size. These two models simulate hydraulic processes in the B-Model. Experiment results show that while soil loss in the small scale models was converted by multiplying the soil loss scale number, it was very close to that of the B-Model. Obviously, with a semi-scale physical model, experiments are available to verify and predict soil loss in a small watershed area with check dam system on the Loess Plateau, China.

  18. An integrated GIS application system for soil moisture data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Shen, Runping; Huang, Xiaolong; Shi, Chunxiang

    2014-11-01

    The gaps in knowledge and existing challenges in precisely describing the land surface process make it critical to represent the massive soil moisture data visually and mine the data for further research.This article introduces a comprehensive soil moisture assimilation data analysis system, which is instructed by tools of C#, IDL, ArcSDE, Visual Studio 2008 and SQL Server 2005. The system provides integrated service, management of efficient graphics visualization and analysis of land surface data assimilation. The system is not only able to improve the efficiency of data assimilation management, but also comprehensively integrate the data processing and analysis tools into GIS development environment. So analyzing the soil moisture assimilation data and accomplishing GIS spatial analysis can be realized in the same system. This system provides basic GIS map functions, massive data process and soil moisture products analysis etc. Besides,it takes full advantage of a spatial data engine called ArcSDE to effeciently manage, retrieve and store all kinds of data. In the system, characteristics of temporal and spatial pattern of soil moiture will be plotted. By analyzing the soil moisture impact factors, it is possible to acquire the correlation coefficients between soil moisture value and its every single impact factor. Daily and monthly comparative analysis of soil moisture products among observations, simulation results and assimilations can be made in this system to display the different trends of these products. Furthermore, soil moisture map production function is realized for business application.

  19. Research as an integral part of conservation-restoration education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Larsen, René

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we focus on the necessity of conservators-restorers to be equipped with scientific research tools such as observation skills from the beginning and throughout their education. We exemplify the necessity of this with two cases from the applied conservation-restoration practice...... in parchment and wax-resin lining of paintings, respectively, and show that research tools constitute an essential precondition not only for practicing scientific research but also for the performance of a number of other activities in the professional life of a conservator-restorer....

  20. Extrapolating effects of conservation tillage on yield, soil moisture and dry spell mitigation using simulation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoga, Z. J.; Tumbo, S. D.; Kihupi, N.; Semoka, J.

    There is big effort to disseminate conservation tillage practices in Tanzania. Despite wide spread field demonstrations there has been some field experiments meant to assess and verify suitability of the tillage options in local areas. Much of the experiments are short lived and thus long term effects of the tillage options are unknown. Experiments to study long term effects of the tillage options are lacking because they are expensive and cannot be easily managed. Crop simulation models have the ability to use long term weather data and the local soil parameters to assess long term effects of the tillage practices. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) crop simulation model; was used to simulate long term production series of soil moisture and grain yield based on the soil and weather conditions in Mkoji sub-catchment of the great Ruaha river basin in Tanzania. A 24 year simulated maize yield series based on conventional tillage with ox-plough, without surface crop residues (CT) treatment was compared with similar yield series based on conservation tillage (ox-ripping, with surface crop residues (RR)). Results showed that predicted yield averages were significantly higher in conservation tillage than in conventional tillage ( P APSIM simulation model, showed that average soil moisture in the conservation tillage was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) (about 0.29 mm/mm) than in conventional tillage (0.22 mm/mm) treatment during the seasons which received rainfall between 468 and 770 mm. Similarly the conservation tillage treatment recorded significantly higher yields (4.4 t/ha) ( P < 0.01) than the conventional tillage (3.6 t/ha) treatment in the same range of seasonal rainfall. On the other hand there was no significant difference in soil moisture for the seasons which received rainfall above 770 mm. In these seasons grain yield in conservation tillage treatment was significantly lower (3.1 kg/ha) than in the conventional tillage treatment (4.8 kg

  1. Conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff using riparian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prabodh; Singh, Shipra

    2012-01-01

    Three riparian plant species viz. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Saccharum bengalensis Retz. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. were selected from the riparian zone of Kali river at Aligarh to conduct the surface runoff experiment to compare their conservation efficiencies for soil, water and nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen). Experimental plots were prepared on artificial slopes in botanical garden and on natural slopes on study site. Selected riparian plant species showed the range of conservation values for soil and water from 47.11 to 95.22% and 44.06 to 72.50%, respectively on artificial slope and from 44.53 to 95.33% and 48.36 to 73.15%, respectively on natural slope. Conservation values for phosphorus and nitrogen ranged from 40.83 to 88.89% and 59.78 to 82.22%, respectively on artificial slope and from 50.01 to 90.16% and 68.07 to 85.62%, respectively on natural slope. It was observed that Cynodon dactylon was the most efficient riparian species in conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff.

  2. Development of a soil conservation standard and guidelines for OHV recreation management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, T.L.; Reynolds, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, the California State Parks (CSP) agency contracted with the California Geological Survey (CGS) to update the 1991 Soil Conservation Guide-lines/Standards for Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Recreation Management. Per state legislation, the 1991 standards were updated to establish a generic and measurable standard at least sufficient to allow restoration of OHV areas and trails. Given the rapid increase in OHV use in California, the updated Soil Conservation Standard and Guidelines for OHV Recreation Management also allowed for sustainability of trail systems and recreation opportunities. A key part of the update was interaction with stakeholders, agencies, and other interest groups through public workshops and a Consulting Agency Review Committee composed of representatives from the U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Conservation, and CSP. CGS also assessed proposed revisions in three representative OHV areas to ensure that the updated Standard and Guidelines provided sufficient flexibility to allow their application to all sites state-wide, ecosystems with multiple geology and soils types, and a variety of vehicle uses. While geology was not the only basis for the guideline revisions, it was a major factor. CGS staff also had the breadth of knowledge and experience in engineering geology, hydrogeology, road and trail construction, erosion control, and OHV riding necessary to coordinate and develop the multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder effort.

  3. The effects of forward speed and depth of conservation tillage on soil bulk density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahmoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation of tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption, and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with either primary or secondary tillage or planting operations. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Moreover, it helps easier development of root through reducing soil penetration resistance. Tillage is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save substantial amounts of fuel, time and energy consumption. Conservation tillage loosens the soil without turning, but by remaining the plant left overs, stems and roots. Bulk density reflects the soil’s ability to function for structural support, water and solute movement, and soil aeration. Bulk densities above thresholds indicate impaired function. Bulk density is also used to convert between weight and volume of soil. It is used to express soil physical, chemical and biological measurements on a volumetric basis for soil quality assessment and comparisons between management systems. This increases the validity of comparisons by removing the error associated with differences in soil density at the time of sampling. The aim of conservation tillage is to fix the soil structure. This investigation was carried out considering the advantages of conservation tillage and less scientific research works on imported conservation tillage devices and those which are made inside the country

  4. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: physic and morphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Pagliai

    2009-10-01

    , because the presence of this ploughpan strongly reduced drainage. Alternative tillage practices, like ripper subsoiling, are able to avoiding the formation of this compact layer. The soil conservation can be realised through a correct soil management and, therefore, it is essential to know this resource and to have pedological data bases of appropriate detail.

  5. Effects of soil and water conservation on crop productivity: Evidences from Anjenie watershed, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgo, Enyew; Teshome, Akalu

    2014-05-01

    Widespread soil and water conservation activities have been implemented in many parts of eastern Africa to control soil erosion by water and improve land productivity for the last few decades. Following the 1974 severe drought, soil and water conservation became more important to Ethiopia and the approach shifted to watershed based land management initiatives since the 1980s. To capture long-term impacts of these initiatives, a study was conducted in Anjenie Watershed of Ethiopia, assessing fanya juu terraces and grass strips constructed in a pilot project in 1984, and which are still functional nearly 30 years later. Data were collected from government records, field observations and questionnaire surveys administered to 60 farmers. Half of the respondents had terraced farms in the watershed former project area (with terrace technology) and the rest were outside the terraced area. The crops assessed were teff, barley and maize. Cost-benefit analyses were used to determine the economic benefits with and without terraces, including gross and net profit values, returns on labour, water productivity and impacts on poverty. The results indicated that soil and water conservation had improved crop productivity. The average yield on terraced fields was 0.95 t ha-1 for teff (control 0.49), 1.86 t ha-1 for barley (control 0.61), and 1.73 t ha-1 for maize (control 0.77). The net benefit was significantly higher on terraced fields, recording US 20.9 (US -112 control) for teff, US 185 (US -41 control) for barley and US -34.5 (US - 101 control) ha-1 yr-1 for maize. The returns on family labour were 2.33 for barley, 1.01 for teff, and 0.739 US per person-day for maize grown on terraced plots, compared to US 0.44, 0.27 and 0.16 per person-day for plots without terraces, respectively. Using a discount rate of 10%, the average net present value (NPV) of barley production with terrace was found to be about US 1542 over a period of 50 years. In addition, the average financial

  6. Long-term hydrological simulation based on the Soil Conservation Service curve number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Singh, Vijay P.

    2004-05-01

    Presenting a critical review of daily flow simulation models based on the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN), this paper introduces a more versatile model based on the modified SCS-CN method, which specializes into seven cases. The proposed model was applied to the Hemavati watershed (area = 600 km2) in India and was found to yield satisfactory results in both calibration and validation. The model conserved monthly and annual runoff volumes satisfactorily. A sensitivity analysis of the model parameters was performed, including the effect of variation in storm duration. Finally, to investigate the model components, all seven variants of the modified version were tested for their suitability.

  7. The land use patterns for soil organic carbon conservation at Endanga watershed Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leomo, S.; Ginting, S.; Sabaruddin, L.; Tufaila, M.; Muhidin

    2018-02-01

    The Endanga basin is one part of the Konaweeha watershed located in South Konawe, Southeast Sulawesi Province, covering an area of 1,353.67 hectares. The land use patterns in Endanga Watershed contained forests, shrubs, oil palm plantations, pepper fields, and cultivated fields of field rice, corn monoculture and intercropping of peanuts and corn. This watershed needs serious attention because most of its territory is on slope of 15-40%, with erosion hazard levels (EHL) varying from mild erosion to severe erosion. The loss of organic carbon (C-organic) soil is measured from the soil carried along with the surface stream and into the reservoir on various land uses. The result measurement of C-organic soil loss on forest land use is 14.02 kg ha-1, shrubs land 22.71 kg ha-1, oil palm 151.32 kg ha-1, pepper garden 93.69 kg ha-1, field rice 313.80 kg.ha-1, monoculture of maize 142.44 kg ha-1, intercropped maize and corn 51.10 kg ha-1 and open land 1,909.16 kg ha-1. The forest land and shrubs is best in conserving soil C-organic, but economically unfavorable for the community, so land use pattern for intercropping and pepper plantation can be used for soil C-organic conservation

  8. Modeling the impact of conservation agriculture on crop production and soil properties in Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussadek, Rachid; Mrabet, Rachid; Dahan, Rachid; Laghrour, Malika; Lembiad, Ibtissam; ElMourid, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    In Morocco, rainfed agriculture is practiced in the majority of agricultural land. However, the intensive land use coupled to the irregular rainfall constitutes a serious threat that affect country's food security. Conservation agriculture (CA) represents a promising alternative to produce more and sustainably. In fact, the direct seeding showed high yield in arid regions of Morocco but its extending to other more humid agro-ecological zones (rainfall > 350mm) remains scarce. In order to promote CA in Morocco, differents trials have been installed in central plateau of Morocco, to compare CA to conventional tillage (CT). The yields of the main practiced crops (wheat, lentil and checkpea) under CA and CT were analyzed and compared in the 3 soils types (Vertisol, Cambisol and Calcisol). Also, we studied the effect of CA on soil organic matter (SOM) and soil losses (SL) in the 3 different sites. The APSIM model was used to model the long term impact of CA compared to CT. The results obtained in this research have shown favorable effects of CA on crop production, SOM and soil erosion. Key words: Conservation agriculture, yield, soil properties, modeling, APSIM, Morocco.

  9. Eleven years' effect of conservation practices for temperate sandy loams: II. Soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfallah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is regarded by many as a sustainable intensification strategy. Minimal soil disturbance in combination with residue retention are important CA components. This study examined the long-term effects of crop rotation, residue retention, and tillage on soil pore characte......Conservation agriculture (CA) is regarded by many as a sustainable intensification strategy. Minimal soil disturbance in combination with residue retention are important CA components. This study examined the long-term effects of crop rotation, residue retention, and tillage on soil pore...... characteristics of two Danish sandy loams. Rotation R2 is a rotation of winter crops (mainly cereals) with residues retained, rotation R3 a mix of winter and spring crops (mainly cereals) with residues removed, and rotation R4 the same mix of winter and spring crops, but with residues retained. Each rotation...... included the tillage treatments: moldboard plowing to 20-cm depth (MP), harrowing to 8- to 10-cm depth (H) and direct drilling (D). Soil cores were taken from the topsoil (4–8, 12–16, 18–27 cm) in mid-autumn 2013 and early spring 2014. Water retention, air permeability, and gas diffusivity was determined...

  10. Runoff, Erosion and Nutrient Sedimentation due Vegetative Soil Conservation Applied on Oil Palm Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Zahrul Fuady; Halus Satriawan; Nanda Mayani

    2014-01-01

    Land cover crops play an important role in influencing erosion. Cover crops provide protection against the destruction of soil aggregates by rain and runoff. This research aims to study the effectiveness of vegetation as soil conservation in controlling erosion and runoff. This study was a field experiment on erosion plots measuring 10 m x 5 m were arranged in Split Plot design with replications as blocks, consists of a combination of two factors: the age of the oil palm and slope as the firs...

  11. Community standards for genomic resources, genetic conservation, and data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Wegrzyn; Meg Staton; Emily Grau; Richard Cronn; C. Dana Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Genetics and genomics are increasingly important in forestry management and conservation. Next generation sequencing can increase analytical power, but still relies on building on the structure of previously acquired data. Data standards and data sharing allow the community to maximize the analytical power of high throughput genomics data. The landscape of incomplete...

  12. Developing an integration tool for soil contamination assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, Maria; Zingg, Felix; Pérez-Álvarez, José Miguel; Madejón, Paula; Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades, huge soil areas have been negatively influenced or altered in multiples forms. Soils and, consequently, underground water, have been contaminated by accumulation of contaminants from agricultural activities (fertilizers and pesticides) industrial activities (harmful material dumping, sludge, flying ashes) and urban activities (hydrocarbon, metals from vehicle traffic, urban waste dumping). In the framework of the RECARE project, local partners across Europe are focusing on a wide range of soil threats, as soil contamination, and aiming to develop effective prevention, remediation and restoration measures by designing and applying targeted land management strategies (van Lynden et al., 2013). In this context, the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Southern Spain) was used as a case study, aiming to obtain soil data and new information in order to assess soil contamination. The main threat in the Guadiamar valley is soil contamination after a mine spill occurred on April 1998. About four hm3 of acid waters and two hm3 of mud, rich in heavy metals, were released into the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers affecting more than 4,600 ha of agricultural and pasture land. Main trace elements contaminating soil and water were As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Tl and Zn. The objective of the present research is to develop informatics tools that integrate soil database, models and interactive platforms for soil contamination assessment. Preliminary results were obtained related to the compilation of harmonized databases including geographical, hydro-meteorological, soil and socio-economic variables based on spatial analysis and stakeholder's consultation. Further research will be modellization and upscaling at the European level, in order to obtain a scientifically-technical predictive tool for the assessment of soil contamination.

  13. Predicting improved optical water quality in rivers resulting from soil conservation actions on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, J R; Davies-Colley, R J; Hughes, A O; Matthaei, C D

    2017-12-15

    Deforestation in New Zealand has led to increased soil erosion and sediment loads in rivers. Increased suspended fine sediment in water reduces visual clarity for humans and aquatic animals and reduces penetration of photosynthetically available radiation to aquatic plants. To mitigate fine-sediment impacts in rivers, catchment-wide approaches to reducing soil erosion are required. Targeting soil conservation for reducing sediment loads in rivers is possible through existing models; however, relationships between sediment loads and sediment-related attributes of water that affect both ecology and human uses of water are poorly understood. We present methods for relating sediment loads to sediment concentration, visual clarity, and euphotic depth. The methods require upwards of twenty concurrent samples of sediment concentration, visual clarity, and euphotic depth at a river site where discharge is measured continuously. The sediment-related attributes are related to sediment concentration through regressions. When sediment loads are reduced by soil conservation action, percentiles of sediment concentration are necessarily reduced, and the corresponding percentiles of visual clarity and euphotic depth are increased. The approach is demonstrated on the Wairua River in the Northland region of New Zealand. For this river we show that visual clarity would increase relatively by approximately 1.4 times the relative reduction of sediment load. Median visual clarity would increase from 0.75m to 1.25m (making the river more often suitable for swimming) after a sediment load reduction of 50% associated with widespread soil conservation on pastoral land. Likewise euphotic depth would increase relatively by approximately 0.7 times the relative reduction of sediment load, and the median euphotic depth would increase from 1.5m to 2.0m with a 50% sediment load reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrating population genetics and conservation biology in the era of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouborg, N Joop

    2010-02-23

    As one of the final activities of the ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, a conference entitled 'Integrating Population Genetics and Conservation Biology' was held at Trondheim, Norway, from 23 to 26 May 2009. Conference speakers and poster presenters gave a display of the state-of-the-art developments in the field of conservation genetics. Over the five-year running period of the successful ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, much progress has been made in theoretical approaches, basic research on inbreeding depression and other genetic processes associated with habitat fragmentation and conservation issues, and with applying principles of conservation genetics in the conservation of many species. Future perspectives were also discussed in the conference, and it was concluded that conservation genetics is evolving into conservation genomics, while at the same time basic and applied research on threatened species and populations from a population genetic point of view continues to be emphasized.

  15. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  16. Effects of Conservation Agriculture and Fertilization on Soil Microbial Diversity and Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Habig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities perform critical functions in ecosystem processes. These functions can be used to assess the impact of agricultural practices on sustainable crop production. In this five-year study, the effect of various agricultural practices on soil microbial diversity and activity was investigated in a summer rainfall area under South African dryland conditions. Microbial diversity and activity were measured in the 0–15 cm layer of a field trial consisting of two fertilizer levels, three cropping systems, and two tillage systems. Using the Shannon–Weaver and Evenness diversity indices, soil microbial species richness and abundance were measured. Microbial enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, phosphatase and urease, were used to evaluate ecosystem functioning. Cluster analysis revealed a shift in soil microbial community diversity and activity over time. Microbial diversity and activity were higher under no-till than conventional tillage. Fertilizer levels seemed to play a minor role in determining microbial diversity and activity, whereas the cropping systems played a more important role in determining the activity of soil microbial communities. Conservation agriculture yielded the highest soil microbial diversity and activity in diversified cropping systems under no-till.

  17. Bentuang Karimun National Park: integrated conservation and development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Soedjito, H.

    1997-01-01

    The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) has funded a project for the Bentuang Karimun National Park (BKNP) of the Department of Forestry of Indonesia [Project Bentuang Karimun PD 26/ 93 Rev. 1 (F)]. It started on November 1995 and is implemented by WWF Indonesia. The main objective is to develop a model of natural forest management through a National Park system that not only will serve conservation of species and ecosystems, but will also accommodate other purposes such as the ...

  18. Integrating microbial diversity in soil carbon dynamic models parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Benjamin; Menasseri-Aubry, Safya; Leterme, Philippe; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Viaud, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Faced with the numerous concerns about soil carbon dynamic, a large quantity of carbon dynamic models has been developed during the last century. These models are mainly in the form of deterministic compartment models with carbon fluxes between compartments represented by ordinary differential equations. Nowadays, lots of them consider the microbial biomass as a compartment of the soil organic matter (carbon quantity). But the amount of microbial carbon is rarely used in the differential equations of the models as a limiting factor. Additionally, microbial diversity and community composition are mostly missing, although last advances in soil microbial analytical methods during the two past decades have shown that these characteristics play also a significant role in soil carbon dynamic. As soil microorganisms are essential drivers of soil carbon dynamic, the question about explicitly integrating their role have become a key issue in soil carbon dynamic models development. Some interesting attempts can be found and are dominated by the incorporation of several compartments of different groups of microbial biomass in terms of functional traits and/or biogeochemical compositions to integrate microbial diversity. However, these models are basically heuristic models in the sense that they are used to test hypotheses through simulations. They have rarely been confronted to real data and thus cannot be used to predict realistic situations. The objective of this work was to empirically integrate microbial diversity in a simple model of carbon dynamic through statistical modelling of the model parameters. This work is based on available experimental results coming from a French National Research Agency program called DIMIMOS. Briefly, 13C-labelled wheat residue has been incorporated into soils with different pedological characteristics and land use history. Then, the soils have been incubated during 104 days and labelled and non-labelled CO2 fluxes have been measured at ten

  19. Impact of Soil Depth and Topography on the Effectiveness of Conservation Practices on Discharge and Soil Loss in the Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugnaw T. Akale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of degraded landscapes through the implementation of soil and water conservation practices is considered a viable option to increase agricultural production by enhancing ecosystems. However, in the humid Ethiopian highlands, little information is available on the impact of conservation practices despite wide scale implementation. The objective of this research was to document the effect of conservation practices on discharge and sediment concentration and load in watersheds that have different soil depths and topography. Precipitation, discharge, and sediment concentration were measured from 2010 to 2012 in two watersheds in close proximity and located in the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia: Tikur-Wuha and Guale watersheds. The Tikur-Wuha watershed has deep soils and a gentle slope stream channel. The Guale watershed has shallow soils and a steep slope stream channel. In early 2011, the local community installed upland conservation measures consisting of stone and soil bunds, waterways, cutoff drains, infiltration furrows, gully rehabilitation, and enclosures. The results show that conservation practices marginally decreased direct runoff in both watersheds and increased base flow in the Tikur-Wuha watershed. Average sediment concentration decreased by 81% in Tikur-Wuha and 45% in Guale. The practices intended to increase infiltration were most effective in the Tikur-Wuha watershed because the deep soil could store the infiltrated water and release it over a longer period of time after the rainy season than the steeper Guale watershed with shallow soils.

  20. Effectiveness assessment of soil conservation measures in reducing soil erosion in Baiquan County of Northeastern China by using (137)Cs techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Wen; Li, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is considered as a major land degradation process resulting in increased sediment production and sediment-associated nutrient inputs to the rivers. Over the last decade, several soil conservation programs for erosion control have been conducted throughout Northeastern China. Reliable information on soil erosion rates is an essential prerequisite to assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures. A study was carried out in Baiquan County of Northeastern China to assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures in reducing soil erosion using the (137)Cs tracer technique and related techniques. This study reports the use of (137)Cs measurements to quantify medium-term soil erosion rates in traditional slope farmland, contour cropping farmland and terrace farmland in the Dingjiagou catchment and the Xingsheng catchment of Baiquan County. The (137)Cs reference inventory of 2532 ± 670 Bq m(-2) was determined. Based on the principle of the (137)Cs tracer technique, soil erosion rates were estimated. The results showed that severe erosion on traditional slope farmland is the dominant soil erosion process in the area. The terrace measure reduced soil erosion rates by 16% for the entire slope. Typical net soil erosion rates are estimated to be 28.97 Mg per hectare per year for traditional slope farmland and 25.04 Mg per hectare per year for terrace farmland in the Dingjiagou catchment. In contrast to traditional slope farmland with a soil erosion rate of 34.65 Mg per hectare per year, contour cultivation reduced the soil erosion rate by 53% resulting in a soil erosion rate of 22.58 Mg per hectare per year in the Xingsheng catchment. These results indicated that soil losses can be controlled by changing tillage practices from the traditional slope farmland cultivation to the terrace or contour cultivation.

  1. Conservation Farming and Changing Climate: More Beneficial than Conventional Methods for Degraded Ugandan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drake N. Mubiru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent of land affected by degradation in Uganda ranges from 20% in relatively flat and vegetation-covered areas to 90% in the eastern and southwestern highlands. Land degradation has adversely affected smallholder agro-ecosystems including direct damage and loss of critical ecosystem services such as agricultural land/soil and biodiversity. This study evaluated the extent of bare grounds in Nakasongola, one of the districts in the Cattle Corridor of Uganda and the yield responses of maize (Zea mays and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to different tillage methods in the district. Bare ground was determined by a supervised multi-band satellite image classification using the Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC. Field trials on maize and bean grain yield responses to tillage practices used a randomized complete block design with three replications, evaluating conventional farmer practice (CFP; permanent planting basins (PPB; and rip lines, with or without fertilizer in maize and bean rotations. Bare ground coverage in the Nakasongola District was 187 km2 (11% of the 1741 km2 of arable land due to extreme cases of soil compaction. All practices, whether conventional or the newly introduced conservation farming practices in combination with fertilizer increased bean and maize grain yields, albeit with minimal statistical significance in some cases. The newly introduced conservation farming tillage practices increased the bean grain yield relative to conventional practices by 41% in PPBs and 43% in rip lines. In maize, the newly introduced conservation farming tillage practices increased the grain yield by 78% on average, relative to conventional practices. Apparently, conservation farming tillage methods proved beneficial relative to conventional methods on degraded soils, with the short-term benefit of increasing land productivity leading to better harvests and food security.

  2. Evaluation of soil conservation technologies from the perspective of selected physical soil properties and infiltration capacity of the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dumbrovský

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different technologies of soil cultivation (conventional and minimization in terms of physical properties and water regime of soils, where infiltration of surface water is a major component of subsurface water. Soil physical properties (the current humidity, reduced bulk density, porosity, water retention capacity of soil, pore distribution and soil aeration is determined from soil samples taken from the organic horizon according to standard methodology. To observe the infiltration characteristics of surface layers of topsoil, the drench method (double ring infiltrometers was used. For the evaluation of field measurements of infiltration, empirical and physically derived equations by Kostiakov and Philip and the three-parameter Philip-type equation were used. The Philip three-parameter equation provides physical based parameters near the theoretical values, a good estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and sorptivity C1. The parameter S of Philip’s equation describes the real value of the sorptivity of the soil. Experimental research work on the experimental plots H. Meziříčko proceeded in the years 2005–2008.

  3. Adaptation Strategies of Soil and Water Conservation in Taiwan for Extreme Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Yu; Hsieh, Ting-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Due to global climate change, the impact caused by extreme climate has become more and more compelling. In Taiwan, the total rainfall stays in the same level, but it brings along changes to rain types. The rainfall with high recurrence interval happens frequently, leading to soil loss of slope-land, and it may further result in flooding and sediment hazards. Although Taiwan is a small island, the population density is ranked at the second highest around the world. Moreover, third-fourth of Taiwan is slope-land, so the soil and water conservation is rather important. This study is based on the international trend analysis approach to review the related researches worldwide and 264 research projects in Taiwan. It indicates that under the pressure of extreme climate and social economic changes, it has higher possibility of slope-land to face the impacts from extreme rainfall events, and meanwhile, the carrying capacity of slope-land is decreasing. The experts' brainstorming meetings were held three times, and it concluded the current problems of soil and water conservation and the goal in 2025 for sustainable resources. Also, the 20-year weather data set was adopted to screen out 3 key watersheds with the potential of flooding (Puzih River Watershed), droughts (Xindian River Watershed), and sediment hazards (Chishan River Watershed) according to the moisture index, and further, to propose countermeasures in order to realize the goal in 2025, which is "regarding to climate and socioeconomic changes, it is based on multiple use to manage watershed resources for avoiding disasters and sustaining soil and water conservation." Keyword: Extreme climate, International trend analysis, Brainstorming, Key watershed

  4. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... the resulting time integrals of the inertia and stiffness terms via integration by parts. This process introduces the time derivatives of the state space variables, and these are then substituted from the original state-space differential equations. The resulting discrete form of the state-space equations...... is a direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained...

  5. Integrated remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, R.S.; Howles, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals frequently focuses on a single phase of the chemical in question. This paper describes an integrated approach to remediation involving selection of complimentary technologies designed to create a remedial system which achieves cleanup goals in affected media in the shortest possible time consistent with overall environmental protection

  6. Integrating biological and social values when prioritizing places for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Amy L; Kujala, Heini; Ives, Christopher D; Gordon, Ascelin; Lentini, Pia E; Wintle, Brendan A; Nicholson, Emily; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-08-01

    The consideration of information on social values in conjunction with biological data is critical for achieving both socially acceptable and scientifically defensible conservation planning outcomes. However, the influence of social values on spatial conservation priorities has received limited attention and is poorly understood. We present an approach that incorporates quantitative data on social values for conservation and social preferences for development into spatial conservation planning. We undertook a public participation GIS survey to spatially represent social values and development preferences and used species distribution models for 7 threatened fauna species to represent biological values. These spatially explicit data were simultaneously included in the conservation planning software Zonation to examine how conservation priorities changed with the inclusion of social data. Integrating spatially explicit information about social values and development preferences with biological data produced prioritizations that differed spatially from the solution based on only biological data. However, the integrated solutions protected a similar proportion of the species' distributions, indicating that Zonation effectively combined the biological and social data to produce socially feasible conservation solutions of approximately equivalent biological value. We were able to identify areas of the landscape where synergies and conflicts between different value sets are likely to occur. Identification of these synergies and conflicts will allow decision makers to target communication strategies to specific areas and ensure effective community engagement and positive conservation outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Improving Simulated Soil Moisture Fields Through Assimilation of AMSR-E Soil Moisture Retrievals with an Ensemble Kalman Filter and a Mass Conservation Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Toll, David; Zhan, Xiwu; Cosgrove, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Model simulated soil moisture fields are often biased due to errors in input parameters and deficiencies in model physics. Satellite derived soil moisture estimates, if retrieved appropriately, represent the spatial mean of soil moisture in a footprint area, and can be used to reduce model bias (at locations near the surface) through data assimilation techniques. While assimilating the retrievals can reduce model bias, it can also destroy the mass balance enforced by the model governing equation because water is removed from or added to the soil by the assimilation algorithm. In addition, studies have shown that assimilation of surface observations can adversely impact soil moisture estimates in the lower soil layers due to imperfect model physics, even though the bias near the surface is decreased. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with a mass conservation updating scheme was developed to assimilate the actual value of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) soil moisture retrievals to improve the mean of simulated soil moisture fields by the Noah land surface model. Assimilation results using the conventional and the mass conservation updating scheme in the Little Washita watershed of Oklahoma showed that, while both updating schemes reduced the bias in the shallow root zone, the mass conservation scheme provided better estimates in the deeper profile. The mass conservation scheme also yielded physically consistent estimates of fluxes and maintained the water budget. Impacts of model physics on the assimilation results are discussed.

  8. Can conservation agriculture improve phosphorus (P) availability in weathered soils? Effects of tillage and residue management on soil P status after 9 years in a Kenyan Oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margenot, Andrew; Paul, B.K.; Pulleman, M.M.; Parikh, Sanjai; Fonte, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    The widespread promotion of conservation agriculture (CA) in regions with weathered soils prone to phosphorus (P) deficiency merits explicit consideration of its effect on P availability. A long-term CA field trial located on an acid, weathered soil in western Kenya was evaluated for effects of

  9. Effect of conservation tillage and peat application on weed infestation on a clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amendment of soil with peat is an attempt to avoid crop yield variation in the transition to conservation tillage, as it improves seedbed conditions and crop growth in drought-sensitive clay soils. Weed infestations were compared in 1999-2000 between the original and peat-amended clay (Typic Cryaquept, very fine, illitic or mixed under different autumn tillage systems in an oats-barley rotation. In a field experiment, sphagnum peat (H = 4 had been spread (0.02 m 3 m -2 on the soil surface in August 1995. Tillage treatments included mouldboard ploughing (to 20 cm and stubble cultivations of different working depths (8 or 15 cm and intensity (once or twice. Weed biomass and density were assessed by an area of 1 m 2 per field plot in August 1999-2000 and June 2000. The 1999 season was dry, but soil moisture conditions were more favourable in 2000. Peat application tended to increase the number of volunteer oats and Chenopodium album in 1999, while decreasing Galium spurium biomass. Ploughing significantly increased the abundance of Chenopodium album and Lamium purpureum in barley (Hordeum vulgare in 1999. Weed infestation was much lower in 2000, and tillage effect on Chenopodium album was minor in oats (Avena sativa. Growth of Lamium purpureum and Fumaria officinalis was stimulated in ploughed soils both years. Intensity and working depth of stubble cultivation had no significant effect on weeds.;

  10. Geomorphic and Hydrological challenges in Africa: implications for soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Expected scenarios of climate change and population growth confront Africa with various important challenges related to food, water and energy security. Many of these challenges are closely linked to the impacts of soil erosion and other geomorphic processes, such as reduced crop yields, sedimentation of reservoirs and reduced freshwater quality. Despite the urgency and extent of many of these challenges, the causes and dynamics of these processes and their impacts remain severely understudied. This becomes apparent when the availability of e.g. soil erosion and catchment sediment export measurements for Africa is compared to that of other continents. Nonetheless, a substantial amount of geomorphic research has been conducted in Africa. Many of this work dates back from several decades ago, and were often only reported in 'gray literature' (e.g. internal reports). Here we present an overview of our current state of knowledge on soil erosion and its implications in Africa. We discuss which geomorphic process rate measurements are currently available and what can be learned from these with respect to the challenged raised above. We especially focus on our current understanding about the effectiveness of soil and water conservation techniques at various spatial and temporal scales. Based on specific case-studies (e.g. in Ethiopia and Uganda) and a meta-analysis of previous work, we highlight some research gaps, research needs and research opportunities when aiming to use Africa's soil and water resources sustainably and efficiently.

  11. THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF SOIL CONSERVATION MEASURES IN AGRICULTURAL LAND-USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article modern scientific and theoretical positions concerning determination of the effectiveness of soil protection measures on agricultural lands are investigated. It is analyzed that the protection of land from degradation is one of the most important problems of agriculture, as this process leads to a significant decrease in soil fertility and crop yields. That is why in today's conditions, when the protection of agricultural land became urgent and a priority task, the scientific substantiation of the economic assessment of the damage caused by the degradation of land to agriculture, as well as the development of methods for determining the economic efficiency of the most progressive soil protection measures, technologies and complexes based on their overall Comparative evaluation. It was established that ground protection measures are a system of various measures aimed at reducing the negative degradation effect on the soil cover and ensuring the preservation and reproduction of soil fertility and integrity, as well as increasing their productivity as a result of rational use. The economic essence of soil protection measures is the economic effect achieved by preventing damage caused by land degradation to agriculture, as well as for obtaining additional profit as a result of their action. The economic effectiveness of soil protection measures means their effectiveness, that is, the correlation between the results and the costs that they provided. The excess of the economic result over the cost of its achievement indicates the economic efficiency of soil protection measures, and the difference between the result and the expenditure characterizes the economic effect. Ecological efficiency is characterized by environmental parameters of the soil cover, namely: the weakening of degradation effects on soils; improvement of their qualitative properties; An increase in production without violation of environmental standards, etc. Economic

  12. Integration of information on climate, soil and cultivar to increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BH660 shows higher water productivity (9.46 kgmm-1 of rainfall) under 2*MMP tillage than late plantings in experimental years. About 84 % of the variability in grain yield (BH660), 88% (Bolondie), 76% (A-511) and 70% (Limat) can be explained by the available soil water in crop root zone at planting. Hence, integration of ...

  13. SOIL EROSION AND CONSERVATION IN ROMANIA - SOME FIGURES, FACTS AND ITS IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevastel Mircea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a common and finite resource, soil - as a natural and very complex ecosystem, is essential to human society. Inseveral regions of Europe, including Romania too, soil resources are degraded due to different causes, or, sometimes,irreversibly lost, mainly due to erosion, decline in organic matter or contamination. As regard to soil erosion only, inRomania, about 42% of the total agricultural lands are affected by water erosion in different forms and intensities.Soil degradation has negative impacts on other areas also, not only in-site but also off-site, areas which are alsoconsidered of common interest for the people (e.g. air and water quality, biodiversity and climate change. Costs torestore such a damages and environmental quality in general may be very high and thus preferable to be avoided.To maintain and/or improve a good quality of the soils for a long period of time, there needed to be implemented inRomania , as much as possible, some agri-environmental schemes, according to the current EU models and policies, inparticular, through the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP.The paper briefly presents and analyzes such agri-environmental schemes developed for the agricultural lands from thehilly areas in Romania that is very affected by water erosion and landslides – the Curvature zone of Sub-Carpathians.The schemes, developed within the Research Station for Soil Erosion and Conservation Aldeni-Buzau, which belongs tothe University of Agricultural Sciences in Bucharest, is based on friendly agricultural practices to be implemented onagricultural lands located on slopes. Also, the new conceptual European model, known as Driving Forces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responces (DPSIR, adapted for the soil erosion impact assesment on environment, will be herepresented, in order to be promoted and used on a large scale in Romania as well.

  14. The influence of conservation tillage methods on soil water regimes in semi-arid southern Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupangwa, W.; Twomlow, S.; Walker, S.

    Planting basins and ripper tillage practices are major components of the recently introduced conservation agriculture package that is being extensively promoted for smallholder farming in Zimbabwe. Besides preparing land for crop planting, these two technologies also help in collecting and using rainwater more efficiently in semi-arid areas. The basin tillage is being targeted for households with limited or no access to draught animals while ripping is meant for smallholder farmers with some draught animal power. Trials were established at four farms in Gwanda and Insiza in southern Zimbabwe to determine soil water contributions and runoff water losses from plots under four different tillage treatments. The tillage treatments were hand-dug planting basins, ripping, conventional spring and double ploughing using animal-drawn implements. The initial intention was to measure soil water changes and runoff losses from cropped plots under the four tillage practices. However, due to total crop failure, only soil water and runoff were measured from bare plots between December 2006 and April 2007. Runoff losses were highest under conventional ploughing. Planting basins retained most of the rainwater that fell during each rainfall event. The amount of rainfall received at each farm significantly influenced the volume of runoff water measured. Runoff water volume increased with increase in the amount of rainfall received at each farm. Soil water content was consistently higher under basin tillage than the other three tillage treatments. Significant differences in soil water content were observed across the farms according to soil types from sand to loamy sand. The basin tillage method gives a better control of water losses from the farmers’ fields. The planting basin tillage method has a greater potential for providing soil water to crops than ripper, double and single conventional ploughing practices.

  15. Assessing Soil Conservation Efficiency of Traditional Agricultural Practices by FRN Techniques: Example in the Highlands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabesiranana, Naivo; Rasolonirina, Martin; Fanantenansoa Solonjara, Asivelo; Nomenjanahary Ravoson, Heritiana; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Soil degradation induced by human activity is a major concern in Madagascar. More than 30% of the island’s total soil area, covering 184 338 km 2 , is degraded. Moreover, soil erosion and sedimentation cause not only on-site degradation of agricultural fertile soils in Madagascar, but also off-site problems such as downstream sediment deposition in floodplains, water streams and reservoirs. Therefore, there is a clear need to acquire reliable data on the pattern and magnitude of soil redistribution under various agricultural practices to promote effective conservation strategies.

  16. Surface water ponding on clayey soils managed by conventional and conservation tillage in boreal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. ALAKUKKU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface water ponding and crop hampering due to soil wetness was monitored in order to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage practices and perennial grass cover on soil infiltrability for five years in situ in gently sloping clayey fields. Thirteen experimental areas, each having three experimental fields, were established in southern Finland. The fields belonged to: autumn mouldboard ploughing (AP, conservation tillage (CT and perennial grass in the crop rotation (PG. In the third year, direct drilled (DD fields were established in five areas. Excluding PG, mainly spring cereals were grown in the fields. Location and surface area of ponded water (in the spring and autumn as well as hampered crop growth (during June-July were determined in each field by using GPS devices and GIS programs. Surface water ponding or crop hampering occurred when the amount of rainfall was clearly greater than the long-term average. The mean of the relative area of the ponded surface water, indicating the risk of surface runoff, and hampered crop growth was larger in the CT fields than in the AP fields. The differences between means were, however, not statistically significant. Complementary soil physical measurements are required to investigate the reasons for the repeated surface water ponding.;

  17. Watershed sediment losses to lakes accelerating despite agricultural soil conservation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Adam J; Filstrup, Christopher T; Downing, John A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural soil loss and deposition in aquatic ecosystems is a problem that impairs water quality worldwide and is costly to agriculture and food supplies. In the US, for example, billions of dollars have subsidized soil and water conservation practices in agricultural landscapes over the past decades. We used paleolimnological methods to reconstruct trends in sedimentation related to human-induced landscape change in 32 lakes in the intensively agricultural region of the Midwestern United States. Despite erosion control efforts, we found accelerating increases in sediment deposition from erosion; median erosion loss since 1800 has been 15.4 tons ha(-1). Sediment deposition from erosion increased >6-fold, from 149 g m(-2) yr(-1) in 1850 to 986 g m(-2) yr(-1) by 2010. Average time to accumulate one mm of sediment decreased from 631 days before European settlement (ca. 1850) to 59 days mm(-1) at present. Most of this sediment was deposited in the last 50 years and is related to agricultural intensification rather than land clearance or predominance of agricultural lands. In the face of these intensive agricultural practices, traditional soil conservation programs have not decelerated downstream losses. Despite large erosion control subsidies, erosion and declining water quality continue, thus new approaches are needed to mitigate erosion and water degradation.

  18. Determinants of adoption and continued use of stone terraces for soil and water conservation in an Ethiopian highland watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsalu, A.; Graaff, de J.

    2007-01-01

    In the Ethiopian highlands, land degradation resulting from soil erosion and nutrient depletion is a serious environmental and socio-economic problem. Although soil and water conservation techniques have extensively been introduced over the past decades, sustained use of the measures was not as

  19. Tailoring conservation agriculture technologies to West Africa semi-arid zones: Building on traditional local practices for soil restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmar, R.; Bationo, B.A.; Lamso, N.D.; Guéro, Y.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Low inherent fertility of tropical soils and degradation, nutrient deficiency and water stress are the key factors that hamper rainfed agriculture in semi-arid West Africa. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is currently promoted in the region as a technology to reduce soil degradation, mitigate the

  20. The Effect of Community-Based Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Abundance and Diversity of Soil Macroinvertebrates in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Welemariam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water conservation (SWC practices in the northern highlands of Ethiopia have important implications for land restoration and biodiversity recovery. The present study determined soil macroinvertebrate (SMI abundance and diversity in response to spatial conditions i.e., generated by different conservation practices, soil depth, and temporal seasonality with the wet and dry season. The SWC practices considered were exclosure + terrace, exclosure alone, terraces, and non-conserved grazing lands. Each SWC measure was selected in three sites that were considered as replications due to low heterogeneity in terms of human and livestock disturbances and biophysical factors. Soil macroinvertebrates were collected using a monolith according to tropical soil biology and fertility (TSBF method. The highest density (55% of SMI was found in exclosures followed by terraces 26%. Non-conserved communal grazing lands account for only 19% of the total. Shannon diversity index was significantly (P < 0.05 higher (1.21 in the exclosures supported with terraces and the lowest (0.9 was observed in the non-conserved communal grazing lands. Diversity was also significantly (P < 0.05 higher (1.26 in wet than dry season (0.70. The highest (41% Sorensen similarity index among SMI was found between exclosures with terraces and exclosures alone during the wet season. The lowest (20% Sorensen similarity index was found between terraces alone and exclosures with terraces in dry season. Soil macroinvertebrate abundance was higher in upper (0–10 cm than lower (10–20 and 20–30 cm soil depth. Soil macroinvertebrate abundance was positively and strongly correlated with soil moisture (R2 = 0.85 and soil organic carbon stock (R2 = 0.95. However, it was negatively (R2 = −0.71 correlated with bulk density. Generally, the abundance and diversity of SMI increased as exclosures and communal grazing lands are supported with terraces.

  1. Uranium removal from soils: An overview from the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Brainard, J.R.; York, D.A.; Chaiko, D.J.; Matthern, G.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated approach to remove uranium from uranium-contaminated soils is being conducted by four of the US Department of Energy national laboratories. In this approach, managed through the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, these laboratories are developing processes that selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil's physicochemical characteristics or generating waste that is difficult to manage or dispose of. These processes include traditional uranium extractions that use carbonate as well as some nontraditional extraction techniques that use citric acid and complex organic chelating agents such as naturally occurring microbial siderophores. A bench-scale engineering design for heap leaching; a process that uses carbonate leaching media shows that >90% of the uranium can be removed from the Fernald soils. Other work involves amending soils with cultures of sulfur and ferrous oxidizing microbes or cultures of fungi whose role is to generate mycorrhiza that excrete strong complexers for uranium. Aqueous biphasic extraction, a physical separation technology, is also being evaluated because of its ability to segregate fine particulate, a fundamental requirement for soils containing high levels of silt and clay. Interactions among participating scientists have produced some significant progress not only in evaluating the feasibility of uranium removal but also in understanding some important technical aspects of the task

  2. Energy conservation in Newmark based time integration algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Energy balance equations are established for the Newmark time integration algorithm, and for the derived algorithms with algorithmic damping introduced via averaging, the so-called a-methods. The energy balance equations form a sequence applicable to: Newmark integration of the undamped equations...... of motion, an extended form including structural damping, and finally the generalized form including structural as well as algorithmic damping. In all three cases the expression for energy, appearing in the balance equation, is the mechanical energy plus some additional terms generated by the discretization...

  3. Nature protection in Greece: an appraisal of the factors shaping integrative conservation and policy effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, Kostas; Vogiatzakis, Ioannis N.

    2006-01-01

    The proliferation of designated areas following the implementation of Natura 2000 in Greece has initiated changes in the protected area design and conservation policy making aiming at delivering action for biodiversity and integrative planning on a wider landscape. Following the sustainability concept, an integrative approach cannot realistically take place simply by extending the protected area and designations. The paper addresses public involvement and inter-sectoral coordination as major procedural elements of integrative management and evaluates the nature and strength of their negative or positive influences on the fulfillment of an integrative vision of nature conservation. A review of the history of protected areas and administration developments in Greece provide useful input in the research. The analysis has shown that the selected network of Natura 2000 sites has been superimposed upon the existing system and resulted in duplication of administrative effort and related legislation. As a result the overall picture of protected areas in the country appears complex, confusing and fragmented. Major failures to integrated conservation perspective can be traced to structural causes rooted in politico-economic power structures of mainstream policy and in a rather limited political commitment to conservation. It is concluded that greater realisation of integrated conservation in Greece necessitates policy reforms related mainly to sectoral legal frameworks to promote environmentalism as well as an increased effort by the managing authorities to facilitate a broader framework of public dialogue and give local communities incentives to sustainably benefit from protected areas

  4. Capacitive Sensors and Breakthrough Curves in Automated Irrigation for Water and Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy Hussein, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Shortness of water resources is the dominant criterion that dampens agricultural expansion in Egypt. Ten times population increase was recorded versus twice increase in the cultivated area during the last 100 years. Significant increase in freshwater supply is not expected in the near future. Consequently, a great deal of water-conservation is required to ameliorate water-use efficiency and to protect soils against sodicity under the prevailing arid-zone conditions. Modern irrigation (pivot, drip and sprinkling) was introduced during the last three decades in newly cultivated lands. However, this was done without automated watering. Moreover, dynamic chemical profile data is lacking in the cultivated lands. These current water conditions are behind this work. Two experimental procedures were used for a conjunctive goal of water and soil conservation. The first procedure used the resonance of analog-oscillators (relative permittivity sensors) based on capacitive Frequency Domain Reflectometry, FDR. Commercially available FDR sensors were calibrated for three soil textures, and solenoids were used to automatically turn on and off irrigation pipes in three experimental plots (via low power AC latching-valves on relay solid-state boards connected to sensors; the valve got closed when soil became sufficiently moist near saturation and opened before reaching wilting point as the relay contacts were defined by variable-resistor on board after sensor calibration). This article reports the results of sensor mV readings versus soil-moisture in the linear parts of calibration diagrams, for known moisture contents from wilting point to saturation, fitted as "power-law of dielectric mixing". The results showed close to optimum watering at soil-surface in the nursery beds when the sensors were sampled every 10 minutes to update the relays. This work is planned to extend to different sensors and drippers for soils with field crops / fruit trees to account for aspects of concern

  5. Use of nuclear techniques for developing integrated soil fertility management practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serraj, R.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The use of isotopes such as 15 N and 13 C in the CRP on 'Integrated nutrient and water management practices for agroforestry Systems' allowed us to quantify the contribution of plant litter and N from N-fixing trees either through the root system or through the above-ground parts to increase N supply to crops and enriching soil organic matter. Through a CRP for tropical acid soils, isotopic and associated techniques have assisted us and Member States to: (i) identify crop genotypes that are tolerant to aluminium toxicity and P deficiency that are common in tropical acid soils; (ii) assess the effectiveness of a range of phosphatic fertilisers in providing phosphorus for crop requirements and (iii) quantify the enhancing effect of conservation tillage on soil quality. Significant progress is also being made in the use of isotopic techniques to assess the relative performance of traditional rice-wheat (RW) system (consisting of flooded anaerobic conditions for rice and then followed by the aerobic conditions for wheat) against various alternative technologies (e.g., rice on non-puddled soils or on raised beds, direct seeding, and zero tillage for wheat after rice) in terms of grain yield, nutrient uptake and crop water requirement. The objective is to develop isotope-based methodologies that can streamline selection of crop germplasm for high nutrient use efficiency and tolerance to nutritional deficiencies through: (i) screening of large collections of cereal and legume genotypes, their wild relatives and mutant lines for adaptation to low nutrient conditions (and/or Al toxicity), (ii) development and use of isotopic tracer techniques to evaluate crop germplasm and to understand the physiological basis for plant adaptation to nutritional stress (deficiency), and (iii) on-farm research to evaluate interactive effects of plant roots, soil nutrients and their relationship to soil micro-organisms in a series of soil-plant systems

  6. Integrated use of soil physical and water isotope methods for ecohydrological characterization of desertified areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külls, Christoph; Nunes, Alice; Köbel-Batista, Melanie; Branquinho, Cristina; Bianconi, Nadja; Costantini, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Measures for monitoring desertification and soil degradation require a thorough understanding of soil physical properties and of the water balance in order to guide restoration efforts (Costantini et al. 2009). It is hypothesized that long term restoration success on degraded land depends on a series of interacting factors such as exposition, soil type, soil hydrology including lateral flow on hill-slope catenae. Recently, new soil water isotope measurement techniques have been developed (Garvelmann et al. 2012) that provide much faster and reliable stable water isotope profiles in soils. This technique yield information on groundwater recharge, soil water balance and on the origin of water available for plants, which in combination with conservative chemical tracers (chloride) can be validated. A multidisciplinary study including ecologists, soil physicists and hydrologists of the COST Action Desert Restoration Hub was carried out on four semi-arid sites in Portugal. A comparative characterization of soil physical parameters, soil water isotope and chloride profiles was performed in order to estimate pedoclimate, soil aridity, soil water balance and groundwater recharge. In combination with soil physical data a comprehensive and cross-validated characterization of pedoclimate and soil aridity was obtained. These indicators were then integrated and related to plant cover. The long-term rainfall of the four sites ranges from 512 to 638 mm, whereas air temperature is from 15.8 to 17.0°C. The De Martonne index of aridity spans from 19.3 to 24.6, pointing to semiarid to moderately arid climatic conditions. The long-term average number of days when the first 0.50 m of soil is dry ranges from 110 to 134, while the mean annual soil temperature at 0.50 m spans from 15.8 and 19.1°C. The studied profiles show different hydrological characteristics, in particular, the estimated hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.1-1 to 10-100 µm/s. Three out of four profiles show a

  7. Contribution of the Land and Water Development Division of FAO to soil and water conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, F.I.

    1980-01-01

    The Land and Water Development Division of FAO has played an active role in promoting soil conservation measures. It has provided advice and expert assistance to many countries and is involved in more than fifty field programmes related to soil conservation. It conducts seminars, workshops, and training courses and provides fellowships for individuals. Technical and education material has been published. Maps have been developed showing the present degradation and risk of degradation in Africa and methodology used in assessment of soil degradation is outlined. (author)

  8. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  9. Effectiveness of conservation agriculture practices on soil erosion processes in semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwari, Emmanuel; Mhaka, Luke; Gwandu, Tariro; Chipangura, Tafadzwa; Misi Manyanga, Amos; Sabastian Matsenyengwa, Nyasha; Rabesiranana, Naivo; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) in soil erosion and redistribution studies has gained popularity since the late 1980s. In Zimbabwe, soil erosion research was mostly based on conventional methods which included the use of erosion plots for quantitative measurements and erosion models for predicting soil losses. Only limited investigation to explore the possibility of using Caesium-137 (Cs-137) has been reported in the early 1990s for undisturbed and cultivated lands in Zimbabwe. In this study, the Cs-137 technique was applied to assess the impact of soil conservation practices on soil losses and to develop strategies and support effective policies that help farmers in Zimbabwe for sustainable land management. The study was carried out at the Makoholi research station 30 km north of the Masvingo region which is located 260 km south of Harare. The area is semi-arid and the study site comprises coarse loamy sands, gleyic lixisols. The conservation agriculture (CA) practices used within the area since 1988 include (i) direct seeding (DS) with mulch, (ii) CA basins with mulch, and (iii) 18 years direct seeding, left fallow for seven years and turned into conventional tillage since 2012 (DS/F/C). The Cs-137 reference inventory was established at 214 ± 16 Bq/m2. The mean inventories for DS, CA basins and DS/F/C were 195, 190 and 214 Bq/m2 respectively. Using the conversion Mass Balance Model 2 on the Cs-137 data obtained along transects for each of the practices, gross erosion rates were found to be 7.5, 7.3 and 2.6 t/ha/yr for direct seeding, CA basins and the DS/F/C while the net erosion rates were found to be 3.8, 4.6 and 0 t/ha/yr respectively. Sediment delivery ratios were 50%, 63% and 2% in the respective order. These preliminary results showed the effectiveness of DS over CA basins in erosion control. The efficiency of fallowing in controlling excessive soil loss was significant in the plot that started as DS for 18 years but left fallow for 7

  10. Integrated demonstration for the removal of uranium substances from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhfer, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    This document presents management plans and status for the Integrated Demonstration (ID) for the removal of uranium substances from soils to be conducted over approximately a three year time period at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The emphasis of the paper will be on the management, objectives, achievements, direction and goals. The principal objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of the technology components combined into systems for the removal of various uranium substances from soils, specifically soils of a high clay silt content. Secondary waste generation reduction, cost optimization, and risk reduction are important elements in this ID. The ID will be broken into six principal tasks. These tasks are characterization, excavation, soil decontamination, waste streams disposal, regulations, and performance assessment. The ID involves representatives from multiple DOE sites to provide a broader picture of soil remediation obstacles faced by DOE, a larger realm of technical inputs, and a greater potential that treatment technologies demonstrated will be adaptable to other sites. Technology integration activities are important to ensure the transfer of technologies to the private sector and the infusion of new technologies into the DOE system. The Uranium Soils ID will be managed by the DOE Fernald Site Office (FSO), FEMP Technical Program Manager (TPM), DOE Oak Ridge Technical Program Officer (TPO), the Integrated Demonstration Coordinator (IDC), a Planning Review Group, and a Core Group. The Planning Review Group win be comprised of the DOE Oak Ridge TPO, DOE FSO representative, DOE Headquarters EM-55 representative, DOE Headquarters EM-54 representative, DOE Headquarters EM-40 representative and a representative from the EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory

  11. How effective are soil conservation techniques in reducing plot runoff and soil loss in Europe and the Mediterranean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCTs) on annual runoff (Ra), runoff coefficients (RCa) and annual soil loss (SLa) at the plot scale have been extensively tested on field runoff plots in Europe and the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of these effects and the factors controlling the effectiveness of SWCTs is lacking. Especially the effectiveness of SWCT in reducing Ra is poorly understood. Therefore, an extensive literature review is presented that compiles the results of 101 earlier studies. In each of these studies, Ra and SLa was measured on field runoff plots where various SWCTs were tested. In total, 353 runoff plots (corresponding to 2093 plot-years of data) for 103 plot-measuring stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean were considered. SWCTs include (1) crop and vegetation management (i.e. cover crops, mulching, grass buffer strips, strip cropping and exclosure), (2) soil management (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage, contour tillage, deep tillage, drainage and soil amendment) and (3) mechanical methods (i.e. terraces, contour bunds and geotextiles). Comparison of the frequency distributions of SLa rates on cropland without and with the application of SWCTs shows that the exceedance probability of tolerable SLa rates is ca. 20% lower when SWCT are applied. However, no notable effect of SWCTs on the frequency distribution of RCa is observed. For 224 runoff plots (corresponding to 1567 plot-year data), SWCT effectiveness in reducing Ra and/or SLa could be directly calculated by comparing measured Ra and/or SLa with values measured on a reference plot with conventional management. Crop and vegetation management techniques (i.e. buffer strips, mulching and cover crops) and mechanical techniques (i.e. geotextiles, contour bunds and terraces) are generally more effective than soil management techniques (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage and contour tillage). Despite being generally less effective, no

  12. The assessment of soil conservation technologies for sustainable agricultural production. Report of the FAO/IAEA consultants meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The assessment of soil conservation technologies for sustainable agricultural production' was held in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from May 28-30, 2001. The consultants' presentations reviewed recent advances in the use of fallout radionuclides to measure soil erosion as well as approaches and technologies applied for soil conservation worldwide. Also, activities and experiences of FAO and UNEP in the field of land degradation, soil conservation and related issues were presented. Based on the information provided by the Scientific Secretary, a full project proposal was prepared during the second part of the Consultants' Meeting. The consultants also provided recommendations on the formulation and implementation of a future CRP on the subject

  13. Natural activity and element content of soil and plant in Sungkai Wildlife Conservation Centre, Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiatutadawiah Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    The study has been carried out to determined the natural radioactivity concentration and the elemental content of soil and plant in Sungkai Wildlife Conservation Centre, Perak. For the determination of radioactivity concentration samples were filled into the counting bottle according to the height of the standard samples. Samples were then kept for 30 days to reach the secular equilibrium. After 30 days samples were counted directly using gamma spectrometry. For the determination of the elemental content samples were digested using acidic solution until the solution became clear. Samples were then diluted to 100 ml using distilled water and 10 ml aliquots were introduce to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that the radioactivity concentration of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226 and K-40 in soil were in the range of 40.02 ± 12.50 Bq/ kg - 184.8± 11.40 Bq/ kg, 31.76 ± 1.84 Bq/ kg - 66.12 ± 4.30 Bq/ kg, 11.0 ± 0.48 Bq/ kg - 29.71 ± 1.64 Bq/ kg and 27.53 ± 6.93 Bq/ kg - 184.01 ± 8.64 Bq/ kg respectively. In this study 20 elements were found both in soil and plant. Iron showed the highest concentration in soil (22178.92 ± 8826.77 mg/ kg) while Potassium showed the highest concentration in plants (64052.33 ± 14958.16 mg/ kg). (author)

  14. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of transuranic contaminated soils for uranium soil integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1994-10-01

    DOE has initiated the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) project. The objective of the USID project is to develop a remediation strategy that can be adopted for use at other DOE sites requiring remediation. Four major task groups within the USID project were formed, namely the Characterization Task Group (CTG), the Treatability Task Group (TTG), the Secondary Waste Treatment and Disposal Task Group (SWTDTG), and the Risk and Performance Assessment Task Group (RPATG). The CTG is responsible for determining the nature of the uranium contamination in both untreated and treated soil. The TTG is responsible for the selective removal of uranium from these soils in such a manner that the leaching does not seriously degrade the soil's physicochemical characteristics or generate a secondary waste form that is difficult to manage and/or dispose. The SWTDTG is responsible for developing strategies for the removal of uranium from all wastewaters generated by the TTGs. Finally the RPATG is responsible for developing the human health and environmental risk assessment of the untreated and treated soils. Because of the enormity of the work required to successfully remediate uranium-contaminated soils, an integrated approach was designed to avoid needless repetition of activities among the various participants in the USID project. Researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were assigned characterization and/or treatability duties in their areas of specialization. All tasks groups are involved in the integrated approach; however, the thrust of this report concentrates on the utility of the integrated approach among the various members of the CTG. This report illustrates the use of the integrated approach for the overall CTG and to provide the results generated specifically by the CTG or ORNL from FY1993 to the present

  15. Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunink, J E; Droogers, P; Kauffman, S; Mwaniki, B M; Bouma, J

    2012-11-30

    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to encourage upstream farmers to invest in soil and water conservation practices which will positively effect upstream and downstream water availability. Quantitative information on water and sediment fluxes is crucial as a basis for such financial schemes. A pilot design project in the large and strategically important Upper-Tana Basin in Kenya has the objective to develop a methodological framework for this purpose. The essence of the methodology is the integration and use of a collection of public domain tools and datasets: the so-called Green water and Blue water Assessment Toolkit (GBAT). This toolkit was applied in order to study different options to implement GWC in agricultural rainfed land for the pilot study. Impact of vegetative contour strips, mulching, and tied ridges were determined for: (i) three upstream key indicators: soil loss, crop transpiration and soil evaporation, and (ii) two downstream indicators: sediment inflow in reservoirs and groundwater recharge. All effects were compared with a baseline scenario of average conditions. Thus, not only actual land management was considered but also potential benefits of changed land use practices. Results of the simulations indicate that especially applying contour strips or tied ridges significantly reduces soil losses and increases groundwater recharge in the catchment. The model was used to build spatial expressions of the proposed management practices in order to assess their effectiveness. The developed procedure allows exploring the effects of soil conservation measures in a catchment to support the implementation of GWC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, David C; Lukacs, Paul M; Blakesley, Jennifer A; Skorkowsky, Robert C; Klute, David S; Hahn, Beth A; Dreitz, Victoria J; George, T Luke; Hanni, David J

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1) coordination across organizations and regions, 2) meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3) rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17). We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri) in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1) determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2) estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous statistical

  17. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Pavlacky

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1 coordination across organizations and regions, 2 meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3 rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17. We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1 determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2 estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous

  18. Soil and water conservation on Central American hillsides: if more technologies is the answer, what is the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hellin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to lead to increased water scarcity in the coming decades and to changes in patterns of precipitation. The result will be more short-term crop failures and long-term production declines. Improved soil management is key to climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts. There is growing interest in the promotion of climate smart agricultural practices. Many of these are the same practices that were promoted in the 1980s and 1990s under the guise of soil and water conservation. Farmer non-adoption of soil conservation technologies was rife and suggests that different approaches are needed today. Much can be learnt from these past endeavors to ensure that current efforts are better designed and implemented. We use the example of Central America to highlight some of these lessons and suggest alternative ways forward. Technology per se is not the limiting factor; many suitable technologies and practices are extant. What is required is a more nuanced approach to soil conservation efforts. There is a need to focus less on capturing soil once it has been eroded, via the use of cross-slope soil conservation practices, and more on improving soil quality of the soil that remains through improved soil cover. It is also critical to understand farming systems as a whole i.e. the full range of interlinked activities and the multiplicity of goals that farm households pursue. Furthermore, it is important to engage farmers as active players in conservation efforts rather than passive adopters of technologies, and to adopt a board value chain approach and engage a plethora of value chain actors (researchers, extension agents, equipment manufacturers, input suppliers, farmers, traders, and processors in an agricultural innovation system.

  19. Development of a landscape integrity model framework to support regional conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Leroy J; Hartmann, Heidi M

    2018-01-01

    Land managers increasingly rely upon landscape assessments to understand the status of natural resources and identify conservation priorities. Many of these landscape planning efforts rely on geospatial models that characterize the ecological integrity of the landscape. These general models utilize measures of habitat disturbance and human activity to map indices of ecological integrity. We built upon these modeling frameworks by developing a Landscape Integrity Index (LII) model using geospatial datasets of the human footprint, as well as incorporation of other indicators of ecological integrity such as biodiversity and vegetation departure. Our LII model serves as a general indicator of ecological integrity in a regional context of human activity, biodiversity, and change in habitat composition. We also discuss the application of the LII framework in two related coarse-filter landscape conservation approaches to expand the size and connectedness of protected areas as regional mitigation for anticipated land-use changes.

  20. Biochar effect on maize yield and soil characteristics in five conservation farming sites in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Martinsen, Vegard; Shitumbanuma, Victor; Alling, Vanja; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Sparrevik, Magnus; Hale, Sarah E.; Obia, Alfred; Mulder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06) and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1) of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site) with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2) and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2) of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC), no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2). In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an

  1. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Obia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination

  2. Biochar effect on maize yield and soil characteristics in five conservation farming sites in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Martinsen, Vegard; Shitumbanuma, Victor; Alling, Vanja; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Sparrevik, Magnus; Hale, Sarah E.; Obia, Alfred; Mulder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06) and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1) of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site) with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2) and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2) of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC), no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2). In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an

  3. [Diversity of soil fauna in corn fields in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China under effects of conservation tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang-Gen; Zhu, An-Ning; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Huan-Chao; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Cong-Zhi

    2009-10-01

    An investigation was made on the abundance and diversity of soil fauna in the corn fields under conventional and conservation tillage in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. The abundance and diversity of soil fauna were higher at corn maturing (September) than at its jointing stage (July), and higher at jointing stage under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. Soil fauna mainly distributed in surface soil layer (0-10 cm), but still had a larger number in 10-20 cm layer under conservation tillage. The individuals of acari, diptera, diplura, and microdrile oligochaetes, especially those of acari, were higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage. At maturing stage, an obvious effect of straw-returning under conservation tillage was observed, i. e., the more the straw returned, the higher the abundance of soil fauna, among which, the individuals of collembola, acari, coleopteran, and psocoptera, especially those of collembolan, increased significantly. The abundance of collembola at both jointing and maturing stages was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of straw returned, suggesting that collembola played an important role in straw decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  4. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary, March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    A recent Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study identified 59 waste sites at 14 DOE facilities across the nation that exhibit radionuclide contamination in excess of established limits. The rapid and efficient characterization of these sites, and the potentially contaminated regions that surround them represents a technological challenge with no existing solution. In particular, the past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of surface and subsurface soils. Such contamination commonly occurs within waste burial sites, cribs, pond bottom sediments and soils surrounding waste tanks or uranium scrap, ore, tailings, and slag heaps. The objective of the Uranium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop optimal remediation methods for soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium (U), at DOE sites. It is examining all phases involved in an actual cleanup, including all regulatory and permitting requirements, to expedite selection and implementation of the best technologies that show immediate and long-term effectiveness specific to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and applicable to other radionuclide contaminated DOE sites. The demonstration provides for technical performance evaluations and comparisons of different developmental technologies at FEMP sites, based on cost-effectiveness, risk-reduction effectiveness, technology effectiveness, and regulatory and public acceptability. Technology groups being evaluated include physical and chemical contaminant separations, in situ remediation, real-time characterization and monitoring, precise excavation, site restoration, secondary waste treatment, and soil waste stabilization

  5. Practical improvements in soil redox potential (Eh) measurement for characterisation of soil properties. Application for comparison of conventional and conservation agriculture cropping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husson, Olivier, E-mail: Olivier.husson@cirad.fr [CIRAD/PERSYST/UPR 115 AIDA and AfricaRice Centre, 01 BP 2031 Cotonou (Benin); Husson, Benoit, E-mail: bhusson@ideeaquaculture.com [IDEEAQUACULTURE, Parc Euromédecine 2, 39 Rue Jean Giroux, 34080 Montpellier (France); Brunet, Alexandre, E-mail: brunet.alexandre@outlook.com [CIRAD/US 49 Analyse, Avenue Agropolis, TA B-49/01, 34398 Montpellier Cedex (France); Babre, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.babre@cirad.fr [CIRAD/US 49 Analyse, Avenue Agropolis, TA B-49/01, 34398 Montpellier Cedex (France); Alary, Karine, E-mail: Karine.alary@cirad.fr [CIRAD/US 49 Analyse, Avenue Agropolis, TA B-49/01, 34398 Montpellier Cedex (France); Sarthou, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: sarthou@ensat.fr [ENSAT/INRA/INP UMR AGIR. BP 52627, Chemin de Borde Rouge, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex (France); Charpentier, Hubert, E-mail: Charpentier.hub@wanadoo.fr [La Boisfarderie, Brives 36100 (France); Durand, Michel, E-mail: earldeslacs@orange.fr [Le Cazals, Castanet 81 150 (France); Benada, Jaroslav, E-mail: benada@vukrom.cz [Agrotest fyto, Kromeriz Institute, Havlíckova 2787, 76701 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Henry, Marc, E-mail: henry@unistra.fr [UMR CNRS/UdS 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Institut Le Bel, 4, rue Blaise Pascal, CS 90032, Strasbourg 67081 (France)

    2016-02-04

    The soil redox potential (Eh) can provide essential information to characterise soil conditions. In practice, however, numerous problems may arise regarding: (i) Eh determination in soils, especially aerobic soils, e.g. variations in the instrumentation and methodology for Eh measurement, high spatial and temporal Eh variability in soils, irreversibility of the redox reaction at the surface electrode, chemical disequilibrium; and (ii) measurement interpretation. This study aimed at developing a standardised method for redox potential measurement in soils, in order to use Eh as a soil quality indicator. This paper presents practical improvements in soil Eh measurement, especially regarding the control of electromagnetic perturbations, electrode choice and preparation, soil sample preparation (drying procedure) and soil:water extraction rate. The repeatability and reproducibility of the measurement method developed are highlighted. The use of Eh corrected at pH7, pe+pH or rH{sub 2}, which are equivalent notions, is proposed to facilitate interpretation of the results. The application of this Eh measurement method allows characterisation of soil conditions with sufficient repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy to demonstrate that conservation agriculture systems positively alter the protonic and electronic balance of soil as compared to conventional systems. - Highlights: • Electromagnetic fields can dramatically perturb soil Eh measurement. • Our method overcomes the main difficulties in soil Eh measurement. • Accurate and reproducible measurement of mean soil Eh are achieved. • Eh{sub pH7}, pe+pH and rH{sub 2} are equivalent notions characterising electron activity. • Agricultural practices alter soil protonic and electronic characteristics.

  6. Fixed capital investments for the uranium soils integrated demonstration soil treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stewart, R.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the United States required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was formed to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium contaminated soils. The USID Program has five major tasks in developing and demonstrating these technologies. Each must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies developed by the USID Program. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  7. Fixed capital investments for the uranium soils integrated demonstration soil treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the United States required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was formed to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium contaminated soils. The USID Program has five major tasks in developing and demonstrating these technologies. Each must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies developed by the USID Program. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives

  8. Multi-symplectic integrators: numerical schemes for Hamiltonian PDEs that conserve symplecticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Thomas J.; Reich, Sebastian

    2001-06-01

    The symplectic numerical integration of finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems is a well established subject and has led to a deeper understanding of existing methods as well as to the development of new very efficient and accurate schemes, e.g., for rigid body, constrained, and molecular dynamics. The numerical integration of infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems or Hamiltonian PDEs is much less explored. In this Letter, we suggest a new theoretical framework for generalizing symplectic numerical integrators for ODEs to Hamiltonian PDEs in R2: time plus one space dimension. The central idea is that symplecticity for Hamiltonian PDEs is directional: the symplectic structure of the PDE is decomposed into distinct components representing space and time independently. In this setting PDE integrators can be constructed by concatenating uni-directional ODE symplectic integrators. This suggests a natural definition of multi-symplectic integrator as a discretization that conserves a discrete version of the conservation of symplecticity for Hamiltonian PDEs. We show that this approach leads to a general framework for geometric numerical schemes for Hamiltonian PDEs, which have remarkable energy and momentum conservation properties. Generalizations, including development of higher-order methods, application to the Euler equations in fluid mechanics, application to perturbed systems, and extension to more than one space dimension are also discussed.

  9. Conserving Our Environment. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P9 SIS unit focuses on: (1) basic ecological and conservation concepts; (2) problems and complexities of…

  10. Conserving Our Health. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P9 SIS unit deals with conserving health, focusing on such body processes as breathing, digestion, excretion,…

  11. A conservative quaternion-based time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    A conservative time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations is presented in a purely algebraic form in terms of the four quaternions components and the four conjugate momentum variables via Hamilton’s equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric set of eight...

  12. Evaluating indirect and direct effects of eco-restoration policy on soil conservation service in Yangtze River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingqiao; Zheng, Hua; Rao, Enming; Xiao, Yi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Cong

    2018-08-01

    The conservation impacts of policies that promote large-scale ecological restoration of ecosystem services and socio-economic development are well documented around the world. However, the effect of socio-economic development resulting from such policies on ecosystem services is rarely analysed, although it is important to do so if these policies are to be sustainable. We analysed the socio-economic impacts of soil conservation services from 2000 to 2015 in the Yangtze River Basin under the Grain to Green Programme (GTGP). Also we assessed the driving forces behind the programme: conservation policies, urbanization, agricultural development, and population growth. Our results show that during 2000-2015, cultivated area decreased by 7.5%, urban area increased by 67.5%, forest area increased by 2.1%, and soil erosion was reduced by 19.5%. The programme not only contributed significantly to an improvement in soil conservation services but also enhanced them significantly through faster urbanization. Furthermore, vegetation cover and crop yields increased synergistically, mainly due to high-efficiency agriculture that reduced the negative effect of the GTGP on agricultural production. Overall determining the indirect and direct effects of the GTGP on soil conservation and agricultural production are important for furthering our understanding of the long-term effects of ecological restoration policies, and the present study offers practical insights for ecological restoration of other watersheds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil and water conservation strategies and impact on sustainable livelihood in Cape Verde - Case study of Ribeira Seca watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, I.; Ferreira, A. D.; Tavares, J.; Querido, A. L. E.; Reis, A. E. A.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.; Varela, A.

    2012-04-01

    Cape Verde, located off the coast of Senegal in western Africa, is a volcanic archipelago where a combination of human, climatic, geomorphologic and pedologic factors has led to extensive degradation of the soils. Like other Sahelian countries, Cape Verde has suffered the effects of desertification through the years, threatening the livelihood of the islands population and its fragile environment. In fact, the steep slopes in the ore agricultural islands, together with semi-arid and arid environments, characterized by an irregular and poorly distributed rainy season, with high intensity rainfall events, make dryland production a challenge. To survive in these fragile conditions, the stabilization of the farming systems and the maintenance of sustainable yields have become absolute priorities, making the islands an erosion control laboratory. Soil and water conservation strategies have been a centerpiece of the government's agricultural policies for the last half century. Aiming to maintain the soil in place and the water inside the soil, the successive governments of Cape Verde have implemented a number of soil and water conservation techniques, the most common ones being terraces, half moons, live barriers, contour rock walls, contour furrows and microcatchments, check dams and reforestation with drought resistant species. The soil and water conservation techniques implemented have contributed to the improvement of the economical and environmental conditions of the treated landscape, making crop production possible, consequently, improving the livelihood of the people living on the islands. In this paper, we survey the existing soil and water conservation techniques, analyze their impact on the livelihood condition of the population through a thorough literature review and field monitoring using a semi-quantitative methodology and evaluate their effectiveness and impact on crop yield in the Ribeira Seca watershed. A brief discussion is given on the cost and

  14. [Analysis of soil respiration and influence factors in wheat farmland under conservation tillage in southwest hilly region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Long-Chang; Luo, Hai-Xiu; Zhou, Hang-Fei; Ma, Zhong-Lian; Zhang, Cui-Wei

    2013-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of conservation tillage on soil respiration in dry cropping farmland in southwest purple hilly region, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Beibei, Chongqing. The respiration and the hydrothermal and biotic factors of soil were measured and analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat/maize/soybean. There were four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching) and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching), which were all in triplicates. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate changed in the range of 1.100-2.508 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) during the reproductive growth stage of wheat. There were significant differences in soil respiration rate among different treatments, which could be ranked as RS > R > TS > T. The soil temperature in the 10cm layer was ranked as T > R > TS > RS. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature fitted well with an exponential function, in which the Q10 values were 1.25, 1.20, 1.31 and 1.26, respectively. The soil moisture in the 5cm layer was ranked as TS > RS > T > R. The best fitting model between soil moisture and soil respiration was a parabolic curve, indicating the presence of soil moisture with the strongest soil respiration. The response threshold of wheat to soil moisture was 14.80%-17.47% during the reproductive stage. The dominant groups of soil animals were Collembola and Acarina, which were correlated with soil respiration to some extent. The correlation was high in the treatments T and R, ranged from 0.669-0.921, whereas there was no remarkable correlation in the other treatments.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey programs and investigations related to soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a rich tradition of collecting hydrologic data, especially for fluxes of water and suspended sediment, that provide a foundation for studies of soil and water conservation. Applied and basic research has included investigations of the effects of land use on rangelands, croplands, and forests; hazards mapping; derivation of flood and drought frequency, and other statistics related to streamflow and reservoir storage; development and application of models of rainfall-runoff relations, chemical quality, and sediment movement; and studies of the interactive processes of overland and channel flow with vegetation. Networks of streamgaging stations and (or) sampling sites within numerous drainage basins are yielding information that extends databases and enhances the ability to use those data for interpretive studies.

  16. Empirical solution of Green-Ampt equation using soil conservation service - curve number values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, S.; Petroselli, A.; Romano, N.

    2012-09-01

    The Soil Conservation Service - Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is a popular widely used rainfall-runoff model for quantifying the total stream-flow volume generated by storm rainfall, but its application is not appropriate for sub-daily resolutions. In order to overcome this drawback, the Green-Ampt (GA) infiltration equation is considered and an empirical solution is proposed and evaluated. The procedure, named CN4GA (Curve Number for Green-Ampt), aims to calibrate the Green-Ampt model parameters distributing in time the global information provided by the SCS-CN method. The proposed procedure is evaluated by analysing observed rainfall-runoff events; results show that CN4GA seems to provide better agreement with the observed hydrographs respect to the classic SCS-CN method.

  17. [New paradigm for soil and water conservation: a method based on watershed process modeling and scenario analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, La-Jiao; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jun-Zhi; Li, Run-Kui; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2012-07-01

    With the increase of severe soil erosion problem, soil and water conservation has become an urgent concern for sustainable development. Small watershed experimental observation is the traditional paradigm for soil and water control. However, the establishment of experimental watershed usually takes long time, and has the limitations of poor repeatability and high cost. Moreover, the popularization of the results from the experimental watershed is limited for other areas due to the differences in watershed conditions. Therefore, it is not sufficient to completely rely on this old paradigm for soil and water loss control. Recently, scenario analysis based on watershed modeling has been introduced into watershed management, which can provide information about the effectiveness of different management practices based on the quantitative simulation of watershed processes. Because of its merits such as low cost, short period, and high repeatability, scenario analysis shows great potential in aiding the development of watershed management strategy. This paper elaborated a new paradigm using watershed modeling and scenario analysis for soil and water conservation, illustrated this new paradigm through two cases for practical watershed management, and explored the future development of this new soil and water conservation paradigm.

  18. Integrating climate change into habitat conservation plans under the U.S. endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernazzani, Paola; Bradley, Bethany A; Opperman, Jeffrey J

    2012-06-01

    Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) are an important mechanism for the acquisition of land and the management of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. HCPs have become a vital means of protecting endangered and threatened species and their habitats throughout the United States, particularly on private land. The scientific consensus that climate is changing and that these changes will impact the viability of species has not been incorporated into the conservation strategies of recent HCPs, rendering plans vulnerable biologically. In this paper we review the regulatory context for incorporating climate change into HCPs and analyze the extent to which climate change is linked to management actions in a subset of large HCPs. We conclude that most current plans do not incorporate climate change into conservation actions, and so we provide recommendations for integrating climate change into the process of HCP development and implementation. These recommendations are distilled from the published literature as well as the practice of conservation planning and are structured to the specific needs of HCP development and implementation. We offer nine recommendations for integrating climate change into the HCP process: (1) identify species at-risk from climate change, (2) explore new strategies for reserve design, (3) increase emphasis on corridors, linkages, and connectivity, (4) develop anticipatory adaptation measures, (5) manage for diversity, (6) consider assisted migration, (7) include climate change in scenarios of water management, (8) develop future-oriented management actions, and (9) increase linkages between the conservation strategy and adaptive management/monitoring programs.

  19. Spatial distribution of soil moisture in precision farming using integrated soil scanning and field telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalopesas, Charalampos; Galanis, George; Kalopesa, Eleni; Katsogiannos, Fotis; Kalafatis, Panagiotis; Bilas, George; Patakas, Aggelos; Zalidis, George

    2015-04-01

    Mapping the spatial variation of soil moisture content is a vital parameter for precision agriculture techniques. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation of soil moisture and conductivity (EC) data obtained through scanning techniques with field telemetry data and to spatially separate the field into discrete irrigation management zones. Using the Veris MSP3 model, geo-referenced data for electrical conductivity and organic matter preliminary maps were produced in a pilot kiwifruit field in Chrysoupoli, Kavala. Data from 15 stratified sampling points was used in order to produce the corresponding soil maps. Fusion of the Veris produced maps (OM, pH, ECa) resulted on the delineation of the field into three zones of specific management interest. An appropriate pedotransfer function was used in order to estimate a capacity soil indicator, the saturated volumetric water content (θs) for each zone, while the relationship between ECs and ECa was established for each zone. Validation of the uniformity of the three management zones was achieved by measuring specific electrical conductivity (ECs) along a transect in each zone and corresponding semivariograms for ECs within each zone. Near real-time data produced by a telemetric network consisting of soil moisture and electrical conductivity sensors, were used in order to integrate the temporal component of the specific management zones, enabling the calculation of time specific volumetric water contents on a 10 minute interval, an intensity soil indicator necessary to be incorporated to differentiate spatially the irrigation strategies for each zone. This study emphasizes the benefits yielded by fusing near real time telemetric data with soil scanning data and spatial interpolation techniques, enhancing the precision and validity of the desired results. Furthermore the use of telemetric data in combination with modern database management and geospatial software leads to timely produced operational results

  20. Integrated action planning for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of highland aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunting, Stuart W.; Luo, S.; Cai, K.

    2016-01-01

    The need for enhanced environmental planning and management for highland aquatic resources is described and rationale for integrated action planning presented. Past action planning initiatives for biodiversity conservation and wetland management are reviewed. A reflective account is given...... of integrated action planning from five sites in China, India and Vietnam. Eight planning phases are described encompassing: stakeholder assessment and partner selection; rapport building and agreement on collaboration; integrated biodiversity, ecosystem services, livelihoods and policy assessment; problem...... analysis and target setting; strategic planning; planning and organisation of activities; coordinated implementation and monitoring; evaluation and revised target-setting. The scope and targeting of actions was evaluated using the DPSIR framework and compatibility with biodiversity conservation and socio...

  1. New Positive and Negative Hierarchies of Integrable Differential-Difference Equations and Conservation Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyue; Zhao Qiulan

    2009-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.

  2. Using Soil Conservation Strategies in the Development of Learning Activities for the Students of Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariya Kanchanwong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were 1 to study nutrient content in soil samples taken from Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology Campus, 2 to study the social factors, economic factors and technological factors the effect on soil conservation of Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology students, 3 the development of soil conservation activities Learning package efficiency of 80/80, 4 to Study and to compare the knowledge, attitudes and skills regarding soil conservation of students of Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology. The student activities package of learning soil conservation was enrolled by 40 people in its club. These people were selected by purposive sampling. The instruments were used in this research as follows; 1 scientific analysis, 2 social questionnaire on economic and technological factors affecting soil conservation, 3 test of knowledge about soil conservation, 4 test of attitudes about soil conservation, 5 test of skill about soil conservation. The experimental research was designed to use students as key informants. The statistics analysis was used in the research as follows: frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, test results, assumptions which included a dependent t-test statistical at the significance level of 0.05. The results of the study were as follows: 1 The study found that the amount of soil nutrient content (N: P: K around cultivated plants in an area of converted agriculture land have the significance: Soil checks collected in plots from soil containing morning glory, chrysanthemums, marigolds, corn and cassava, and had neutral pH. 2 The results of the analysis determing the factors that affected the conservation of soil found economic factors were at a high level Social factors and technology factors were moderate thus leading the approach that has come to create of learning activities package in soil conservation. 3 The results showed that the efficiency of the manual was 83

  3. Integrating In-Situ and Ex-Situ Data Management Processes for Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin R. Schwartz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for a “one plan approach” for conservation strategies that integrate in-situ and ex-situ management processes. Zoological institutions contribute directly to threatened species conservation through paradigms, such as reintroduction, head-starting, supplementation, or rescue/rehabilitation/release. This in-situ/ex-situ integration necessitates collaboration at all levels of conservation action including planning, implementation, monitoring and assessment to drive adaptive management processes. Each component is dependent on the availability and accuracy of data for evidence to facilitate evaluation and adaptive management processes. The Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS, managed by Species360, is a centralized web-based information system used in zoological institutions worldwide to pool life history, behavior and health data and facilitate animal husbandry, health, and breeding management processes. Currently used for few integrated conservation programs, ZIMS is an innovative tool that offers a new opportunity to link data management processes for animals that spend a part of their lives under human care and part in their natural environment and has great potential for use in managed wild populations.

  4. Number-conserving random phase approximation with analytically integrated matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotoku, M.; Schmid, K.W.; Gruemmer, F.; Faessler, A.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper a number conserving random phase approximation is derived as a special case of the recently developed random phase approximation in general symmetry projected quasiparticle mean fields. All the occurring integrals induced by the number projection are performed analytically after writing the various overlap and energy matrices in the random phase approximation equation as polynomials in the gauge angle. In the limit of a large number of particles the well-known pairing vibration matrix elements are recovered. We also present a new analytically number projected variational equation for the number conserving pairing problem

  5. Integrating network ecology with applied conservation: a synthesis and guide to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N; Blüthgen, Nico

    2015-07-10

    Ecological networks are a useful tool to study the complexity of biotic interactions at a community level. Advances in the understanding of network patterns encourage the application of a network approach in other disciplines than theoretical ecology, such as biodiversity conservation. So far, however, practical applications have been meagre. Here we present a framework for network analysis to be harnessed to advance conservation management by using plant-pollinator networks and islands as model systems. Conservation practitioners require indicators to monitor and assess management effectiveness and validate overall conservation goals. By distinguishing between two network attributes, the 'diversity' and 'distribution' of interactions, on three hierarchical levels (species, guild/group and network) we identify seven quantitative metrics to describe changes in network patterns that have implications for conservation. Diversity metrics are partner diversity, vulnerability/generality, interaction diversity and interaction evenness, and distribution metrics are the specialization indices d' and [Formula: see text] and modularity. Distribution metrics account for sampling bias and may therefore be suitable indicators to detect human-induced changes to plant-pollinator communities, thus indirectly assessing the structural and functional robustness and integrity of ecosystems. We propose an implementation pathway that outlines the stages that are required to successfully embed a network approach in biodiversity conservation. Most importantly, only if conservation action and study design are aligned by practitioners and ecologists through joint experiments, are the findings of a conservation network approach equally beneficial for advancing adaptive management and ecological network theory. We list potential obstacles to the framework, highlight the shortfall in empirical, mostly experimental, network data and discuss possible solutions. Published by Oxford University

  6. Effects of soil moisture conservation practice, irrigation and fertilization on Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran Phiwngam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on an Ultic Haplustalf at the Kanchanaburi Research Station, Muang district, Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand between July 2011 and June 2012. Split plots in a randomized complete block design with four replications were employed, having eight main plots (soil moisture conservation practice and irrigation, W1–W8 and 2 sub plots (fertilization, F1 and F2. Jatropha curcas (KUBP 78-9 Var., having been planted at 2 × 2 m spacing, was aged 2 yr when the experiment was commenced. The highly significantly heaviest 100-seed weight of 42 g was obtained 1 mth after water irrigation which had been applied at the rate of 16 L/plant, particularly in the treatment with crop residue mulching (W8 but there were no significant differences among the other treatments where irrigation had been applied (W5–W7. Fertilization and a combination between different fertilizers and soil moisture conservation schemes plus irrigation showed no different effect on the weight of 100 seeds throughout the year of measurement. Growing J. curcas with drip-irrigated water at the rate of 16 L/plant applied every 2 d and crop residue mulching (W8 significantly gave the highest seed yield of 1301.3 kg/ha at 15% moisture content. There were no significant differences among the seed yields from the plots applied with the same amount of irrigated water but with no mulching (W7 and half that amount of irrigated water with crop residue mulching (W6, producing yields of 1112.0 kg/ha and 1236.3 kg/ha, respectively. Three-year-old J. curcas gave inferior seed yield when grown with no irrigated water supply (W1–W4. The application of 50–150–150 kg/ha of N–P2O5–K2O significantly induced a higher amount of seed yield (933.9 kg/ha than did the addition of 93.75–93.75–93.75 kg/ha of N–P2O5–K2O (786.3 kg/ha. The interaction between soil moisture conservation plus irrigation and fertilizer was clear. Applying 50–150

  7. Evaluation of soil and water conservation measures in a semi-arid river basin in Tunisia using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Merguellil catchment (Central Tunisia) is a typical Mediterranean semi-arid basin which suffers from regular water shortage aggravated by current droughts. During the recent decades the continuous construction of small and large dams and Soil and Water Conservation Works (i.e. Contour ridges) ha...

  8. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Akalu; Graaff, de J.; Kassie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands

  9. Caring for the land : best practice in soil and water conservation in Beressa watershed, highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsalu Taye, A.

    2006-01-01

    Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient loss is a major constraint to farming activities and agricultural development in the highlands of Ethiopia. Though large-scale conservation projects have been initiated and carried out by the government during the past few decades, the

  10. Participatory soil and water conservation planning using a financial analysis tool in the west usambara highlands of tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Okoba, B.O.; Sterk, G.

    2007-01-01

    Despite decades of soil and water conservation (SWC) efforts in Tanzania, the adoption of the recommended SWC measures by farmers is minimal. In the past, SWC plans did not incorporate farmers' knowledge, and the economics of SWC was not given much attention at the planning stage. This research

  11. The development of soil and water conservation policies and practices in five selected countries from 1960 to 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.; Aklilu, A.; Ouessar, M.; Asins-Velis, S.; Kessler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1930s there has been worldwide concern about the effects and impacts of land degradation. After the problems experienced in the Dust Bowl in the USA, much attention was paid to soil and water conservation in both developed and developing countries. Initially Governments stimulated the

  12. Participatory soil and water conservation planning using an erosion mapping tool in the central highlands of kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoba, B.O.; Tenge, A.J.M.; Sterk, G.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Despite several approaches that aimed at mobilising East African farmers to embrace soil and water conservation (SWC) activities, farmers hardly responded since they were seldom involved in the planning of SWC activities. Two tools that employ farmers' participation were developed and applied at

  13. Impact of Soil and Water Conservation Interventions on Watershed Runoff Response in a Tropical Humid Highland of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Dagnenet; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Adgo, Enyew; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Masunaga, Tsugiyuki; Aklog, Dagnachew; Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Ebabu, Kindiye

    2018-05-01

    Various soil and water conservation measures (SWC) have been widely implemented to reduce surface runoff in degraded and drought-prone watersheds. But little quantitative study has been done on to what extent such measures can reduce watershed-scale runoff, particularly from typical humid tropical highlands of Ethiopia. The overall goal of this study is to analyze the impact of SWC interventions on the runoff response by integrating field measurement with a hydrological CN model which gives a quantitative analysis future thought. Firstly, a paired-watershed approach was employed to quantify the relative difference in runoff response for the Kasiry (treated) and Akusty (untreated) watersheds. Secondly, a calibrated curve number hydrological modeling was applied to investigate the effect of various SWC management scenarios for the Kasiry watershed alone. The paired-watershed approach showed a distinct runoff response between the two watersheds however the effect of SWC measures was not clearly discerned being masked by other factors. On the other hand, the model predicts that, under the current SWC coverage at Kasiry, the seasonal runoff yield is being reduced by 5.2%. However, runoff yields from Kasiry watershed could be decreased by as much as 34% if soil bunds were installed on cultivated land and trenches were installed on grazing and plantation lands. In contrast, implementation of SWC measures on bush land and natural forest would have little effect on reducing runoff. The results on the magnitude of runoff reduction under optimal combinations of SWC measures and land use will support decision-makers in selection and promotion of valid management practices that are suited to particular biophysical niches in the tropical humid highlands of Ethiopia.

  14. Nuclear techniques in integrated plant nutrient, water and soil management. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The need to produce sufficient food of acceptable quality in the context of an ever-expanding human population has been recognized as a priority by several international conventions and agreements. Intensification, rather than expansion of agriculture into new areas, will be required if the goal of food security is to become a reality. Problems related to the sustainable production of food, fuel and fibre, both in low input and in high input agricultural systems, are now widely recognized. The overexploitation of the natural resource base has led to serious declines in soil fertility through loss of organic matter, nutrient mining, and soil erosion. The overuse of external inputs of water and manufactured fertilizers has resulted in salinization and pollution of ground and surface waters. Nuclear science has a crucial role to play in supporting research and development of sustainable farming systems. An FAO/IAEA International Symposium on Nuclear Techniques in Integrated Plant Nutrient, Water and Soil Management, held in Vienna from 16 to 20 October 2000, was attended by 117 participants representing forty-three countries and five organizations. The purpose was to provide an international forum for a comprehensive review of the state of the art and recent advances made in this specific field, as well as a basis for delineating further research and development needs. The participation of soil, crop and environmental scientists, as well as isotope specialists, ensured an exchange of information and views on recent advances in interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches to addressing problems in sustainable land management. The symposium was organized around seven themes, each represented by a technical session introduced by a keynote speaker: Evaluation and management of natural and manufactured nutrient sources; Soil organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling; Soil water management and conservation; Plant tolerance to environmental stress; Environmental and

  15. Nuclear techniques in integrated plant nutrient, water and soil management. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The need to produce sufficient food of acceptable quality in the context of an ever-expanding human population has been recognized as a priority by several international conventions and agreements. Intensification, rather than expansion of agriculture into new areas, will be required if the goal of food security is to become a reality. Problems related to the sustainable production of food, fuel and fibre, both in low input and in high input agricultural systems, are now widely recognized. The overexploitation of the natural resource base has led to serious declines in soil fertility through loss of organic matter, nutrient mining, and soil erosion. The overuse of external inputs of water and manufactured fertilizers has resulted in salinization and pollution of ground and surface waters. Nuclear science has a crucial role to play in supporting research and development of sustainable farming systems. An FAO/IAEA International Symposium on Nuclear Techniques in Integrated Plant Nutrient, Water and Soil Management, held in Vienna from 16 to 20 October 2000, was attended by 117 participants representing forty-three countries and five organizations. The purpose was to provide an international forum for a comprehensive review of the state of the art and recent advances made in this specific field, as well as a basis for delineating further research and development needs. The participation of soil, crop and environmental scientists, as well as isotope specialists, ensured an exchange of information and views on recent advances in interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches to addressing problems in sustainable land management. The symposium was organized around seven themes, each represented by a technical session introduced by a keynote speaker: Evaluation and management of natural and manufactured nutrient sources; Soil organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling; Soil water management and conservation; Plant tolerance to environmental stress; Environmental and

  16. Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Brown, Christopher J; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia L; Chauvenet, Alienor; Champion, Curtis; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Dell, Anthony I; Donelson, Jennifer M; Evengård, Birgitta; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Jarzyna, Marta A; Lee, Emma; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mitchell, Nicola; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Possingham, Hugh; Pulsifer, Peter; Reynolds, Mark; Scheffers, Brett R; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Twiname, Samantha; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wapstra, Erik; Wernberg, Thomas; Pecl, Gretta T

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  17. VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria

  18. [Estimation on value of water and soil conservation of agricultural ecosystems in Xi' an metropolitan, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-yan; Zhou, Zhong-xue

    2014-12-01

    With the urban eco-environment increasingly deteriorating, the ecosystem services provided by modern urban agriculture are exceedingly significant to maintain and build more suitable environment in a city. Taking Xi' an metropolitan as the study area, based on remote sensing data, DEM data and the economic and social statistics data, the water and soil conservation service of the agricultural ecosystems was valued employing the remote sensing and geographic information system method, covering the reduction values on land waste, soil fertility loss and sediment loss from 2000 to 2011, and analyzed its changes in time and space. The results showed that during the study period, the total value of water and soil conservation service provided by agricultural systems in Xi' an metropolitan was increased by 46,086 and 33.008 billion yuan respectively from period of 2000 to 2005 and from 2005 to 2011. The cultivated land (including grains, vegetables and other farming land), forest (including orchard) and grassland provided higher value on the water and soil conservation service than waters and other land use. Ecosystem service value of water and soil conserva- tion provided by agriculture was gradually decreasing from the southern to the northern in Xi' an metropolitan. There were significantly positive relationship between the ecosystem service value and the vegetation coverage. Forest, orchard and grassland distributed intensively in the southern which had higher vegetation coverage than in northern where covered by more cultivated land, sparse forest and scattered orchard. There were significantly negative correlation between the urbanization level and the value of water and soil conservation. The higher level of urbanization, the lower value there was from built-up area to suburban and to countryside within Xi' an metropolitan.

  19. Fallout radionuclide based techniques for assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures in different eroded regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hanqing; Li Yong; Liu Guoqiang; Li Junjie; Nguyen, M.L.; Funk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using fallout radionuclide techniques (FRN), we investigated the extent of soil erosion and to quantify the beneficial effects of soil conservation measures at four sites (Xichang city in the Yangtze upriver, Yan'an in the Loess Plateau, Fengning in the wind erosion region of northern China, and Baiquan in black soil region of north-eastern China) extending from South West (SW) to North East (NE) China. At the Xichang site of SW-China, the combined use of FRN 137 Cs and 210 Pbex measurements demonstrated that the effectiveness of vegetation species in reducing soil erosion decreased in the following order: shrubs > trees with litter layer > grasses > trees without litter layer. At the Yan'an site of Loess Plateau, sediment production estimated by 137 Cs declined by 49% due to terracing and by 80% due to vegetated (with grass forest) compared to the cultivated hillslopes. Vegetated hillslope with grasses and forest increased soil organic matter (SOM) by 255%, soil available N (AN) by 198%, and soil available P (AP) by 18% while terracing increased SOM by 121%, soil AN by 103%, and soil AP by 162% compared with the entire cultivated hillslope. Both terracing and vegetating hillslopes were found to enhance soil porosity as shown by a decrease in soil bulk density (1.6% and 6.4%, respectively). At the Fengning site, data from 7 Be measurements indicated that four years of no tillage with high crop residues (50 ∼ 56 cm depth) reduced soil erosion by 44% and no tillage with low residues (25 cm depth) reduced soil erosion rates by 33% when compared with conventional tillage practices. At the Baiquan site in NE-China, soil loss as measured by 137 Cs tracer, decreased by 14% due to terracing and by 34% due to contoured tillage. Our results suggested that shrub cover and composite structure of forest and grass are the effective practices to control hillslope erosion in SW-China, while terracing forest-grass structure can greatly reduce soil erosion and improve soil quality

  20. Integrating authentic scientific research in a conservation course–based undergraduate research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Amanda E.; Corral, Lucia; Dauer, Jenny M.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2018-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have been developed to overcome barriers including students in research. However, there are few examples of CUREs that take place in a conservation and natural resource context with students engaging in field research. Here, we highlight the development of a conservation-focused CURE integrated to a research program, research benefits, student self-assessment of learning, and perception of the CURE. With the additional data, researchers were able to refine species distribution models and facilitate management decisions. Most students reported gains in their scientific skills, felt they had engaged in meaningful, real-world research. In student reflections on how this experience helped clarify their professional intentions, many reported being more likely to enroll in graduate programs and seek employment related to science. Also interesting was all students reported being more likely to talk with friends, family, or the public about wildlife conservation issues after participating, indicating that courses like this can have effects beyond the classroom, empowering students to be advocates and translators of science. Field-based, conservation-focused CUREs can create meaningful conservation and natural resource experiences with authentic scientific teaching practices.

  1. Lessons for integrated household energy conservation policies from an intervention study in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kua, H.W.; Wong, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for a community energy conservation program in the southwest district of Singapore, a pilot intervention study was conducted between August and November 2008 to study the effectiveness of tailored information and feedback in promoting household conservation. A sample of 125 households was involved in the study, of which 63 were the control group. Both self-reported behavioral changes and actual energy reductions were measured and any Hawthorne effect was identified. It was found that self-reported behavioral changes were strongly correlated to the level of trust in the energy conservation information given, the need for ease in practicing the recommended conservation measures and feeling of satisfaction in executing the measures; these results differ from several past studies on energy interventions. 60.7% of those who reported behavioral changes actually reduced energy consumption. Reasons were found and discussed. Lessons from this intervention study can be applied to design integrated policies aimed at promoting energy conservation in households. - Highlights: ► Energy intervention was implemented on 125 households. ► Outreach instruments included stickers, pamphlets and counseling. ► Self-reported behavioral and actual reductions were recorded. ► Self-reported behavioral change was only correlated to trust of information given. ► It was also correlated to ease of actions and feeling of satisfaction from actions.

  2. Integrating farming and #páramo# conservation: A case study from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Robineau, Ophélie; Chatelet, Martin; Soulard, Christophe-Toussaint; Michel-Dounias, Isabelle; Posner, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The Colombian environmental policy voted in 1993, which was to strengthen the protection of natural resources - particularly biodiversity and water - is totally unfavorable to farming in the strategic páramo ecosystem. However, many rural development practitioners and researchers believe that an integrated management of the páramo is possible, and that farming activities can be part of the solution along this agriculture-conservation frontier. This issue has become particularly acute on the R...

  3. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  4. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy: an integrated approach for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Bhavisha P; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2017-07-01

    Biological diversity is depleting at an alarming rate. Additionally, a vast amount of biodiversity still remains undiscovered. Taxonomy has been serving the purpose of describing, naming, and classifying species for more than 250 years. DNA taxonomy and barcoding have accelerated the rate of this process, thereby providing a tool for conservation practice. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy have their own inherent merits and demerits. The synergistic use of both methods, in the form of integrative taxonomy, has the potential to contribute to biodiversity conservation in a pragmatic timeframe and overcome their individual drawbacks. In this review, we discuss the basics of both these methods of biological identification (traditional taxonomy and DNA barcoding), the technical advances in integrative taxonomy, and future trends. We also present a comprehensive compilation of published examples of integrative taxonomy that refer to nine topics within biodiversity conservation. Morphological and molecular species limits were observed to be congruent in ∼41% of the 58 source studies. The majority of the studies highlighted the description of cryptic diversity through the use of molecular data, whereas research areas like endemism, biological invasion, and threatened species were less discussed in the literature.

  5. Evaluation of the Soil Conservation Service curve number methodology using data from agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Mohan; Mishra, S. K.; Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, R. P.; Meena, P. K.; Chaudhary, Anubhav; Jha, Ranjit Kumar; Shreevastava, Ajit Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra

    2017-01-01

    The Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method, also known as the Natural Resources Conservation Service curve number (NRCS-CN) method, is popular for computing the volume of direct surface runoff for a given rainfall event. The performance of the SCS-CN method, based on large rainfall (P) and runoff (Q) datasets of United States watersheds, is evaluated using a large dataset of natural storm events from 27 agricultural plots in India. On the whole, the CN estimates from the National Engineering Handbook (chapter 4) tables do not match those derived from the observed P and Q datasets. As a result, the runoff prediction using former CNs was poor for the data of 22 (out of 24) plots. However, the match was little better for higher CN values, consistent with the general notion that the existing SCS-CN method performs better for high rainfall-runoff (high CN) events. Infiltration capacity (fc) was the main explanatory variable for runoff (or CN) production in study plots as it exhibited the expected inverse relationship between CN and fc. The plot-data optimization yielded initial abstraction coefficient (λ) values from 0 to 0.659 for the ordered dataset and 0 to 0.208 for the natural dataset (with 0 as the most frequent value). Mean and median λ values were, respectively, 0.030 and 0 for the natural rainfall-runoff dataset and 0.108 and 0 for the ordered rainfall-runoff dataset. Runoff estimation was very sensitive to λ and it improved consistently as λ changed from 0.2 to 0.03.

  6. 12种林下地被植物水土保持功能研究%Soil and Water Conservation of Twelve Under-forest Cover Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪乔; 袁小环

    2017-01-01

    To study the soil and water conservation function of cover plants on the forest floor,the water absorption of stem and leaves,the soil anti-erodibility and the soil permeability were measured with 12 cover plants using the indoor leaf immersion method,the hydrostatic collapse method,and the bicyclic knife method,respectively.The results showed that Calamagrostis brachytricha and Phalaris arundinacea var.picta had the highest water absorption over 40% of the stem and leaves weight;Phalaris arundinacea var.Picta,Carex lanceolata and Carex leucochlora best increased the soil anti-erodibility;the cover plants decreased the soil bulk density and generally increased the soil permeability,and the permeability of soils planted with Phalaris arundinacea var.picta,Pennisetum alopecuroides,C.brachytricha,C.leucochlora,C.lanceolata and Cosmos sulphureus extremely significantly differed from the control.Therefore,C.leucochlora,C.Lanceolata,P.arundinacea var.picta and C.brachytricha have the higher integrated soil and water conservation function and fit to be planted under the forest.%为了研究林下地被植物的水土保持功能,分别运用室内茎叶浸泡法、静水崩析法、双环刀法对12种地被植物的茎叶截留雨水能力、土壤抗蚀性和渗透性进行了测定.结果表明:茎叶截留雨水最强的为拂子茅(Calamagrostis brach ytricha)和玉带草(Phalaris arundinacea var.picta),超过自身质量的40%;玉带草、披针叶苔草(Carex lanceolata)和青绿苔草(Carex leucochlora)最大地提高了土壤抗蚀性;种植地被植物普遍地降低了土壤容重,提高了土壤的渗透系数,其中玉带草、狼尾草(Pennisetum alopecuroides)、拂子茅、青绿苔草、披针叶苔草、硫华菊效果极显著.青绿苔草、披针叶苔草、玉带草、拂子茅的综合水土保持功能较强,适合林下栽植.

  7. Management and conservation of acid soils in the savannahs of Latin America: Lessons from the agricultural development of the Brazilian cerrados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.; Ayarza, M.; Lopes, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Acid-soil savannahs represent most of the remaining land suitable for agricultural development in the world. Considered as marginal lands, they are of low inherent productivity for agriculture, and susceptible to rapid degradation. The vast Brazilian 'cerrados' were opened up some 30 years ago, and today they supply a considerable portion of the country's agricultural commodities. Monocultures of grain crops and pastures are proving to be unsustainable under today's conditions, and alternative production systems are being developed and implemented that incorporate improved production technologies and conservation of the natural resources. No-till, minimum tillage and integrated crop-livestock systems are proving to be successful in terms of farmer adoption. However, there is a need to elucidate the principles and functioning of these systems in order to assess their suitability for long-term sustainability of marginal savannah lands. The challenges that remain to ensure that these lands are developed in a sustainable manner include social, cultural and economic aspects, a favourable policy environment and a clearer understanding of sustainability and its measurement. In this article we review the lessons learned from the cerrados experience. Future research should include the development of new crop options with tolerance of acid soils, a better understanding of water and nutrient cycles, the development of principles of soil organic matter and crop-residue management, and the biological management of soil fertility. (author)

  8. Management and conservation of acid soils in the savannahs of Latin America: Lessons from the agricultural development of the Brazilian cerrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R J; Ayarza, M [Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali (Colombia); Lopes, A S [Federal University of Lavras, Lavras (Brazil)

    2000-06-01

    Acid-soil savannahs represent most of the remaining land suitable for agricultural development in the world. Considered as marginal lands, they are of low inherent productivity for agriculture, and susceptible to rapid degradation. The vast Brazilian 'cerrados' were opened up some 30 years ago, and today they supply a considerable portion of the country's agricultural commodities. Monocultures of grain crops and pastures are proving to be unsustainable under today's conditions, and alternative production systems are being developed and implemented that incorporate improved production technologies and conservation of the natural resources. No-till, minimum tillage and integrated crop-livestock systems are proving to be successful in terms of farmer adoption. However, there is a need to elucidate the principles and functioning of these systems in order to assess their suitability for long-term sustainability of marginal savannah lands. The challenges that remain to ensure that these lands are developed in a sustainable manner include social, cultural and economic aspects, a favourable policy environment and a clearer understanding of sustainability and its measurement. In this article we review the lessons learned from the cerrados experience. Future research should include the development of new crop options with tolerance of acid soils, a better understanding of water and nutrient cycles, the development of principles of soil organic matter and crop-residue management, and the biological management of soil fertility. (author)

  9. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emission during the following winter-wheat season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Hu, Zheng-Hu; Wu, Yang-Zhou; Sun, Yin-Yin; Sheng, Lu; Chen, Shu-Tao; Xiao, Qi-Tao

    2014-07-01

    In order to study the effect of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emissions in the following crop-growing season, field experiments were conducted in the winter wheat-growing season. Four treatments were conventional tillage (T), no-tillage with no straw cover (NT), no-tillage with straw cover (NTS), and conventional tillage with straw incorporation (TS), respectively. The CO2 and N2O fluxes were measured using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that in the following winter wheat-growing season, conservation tillage did not change the seasonal pattern of CO2 and N2O emission fluxes from soil, and had no significant effect on crop biomass. Conservation tillage significantly reduced the accumulative amount of CO2 and N2O. Compared with the T treatment, the accumulative amount of CO2 under TS, NT, and NTS treatments were reduced by 5.95% (P = 0.132), 12.94% (P = 0.007), and 13.91% (P = 0.004), respectively, and the accumulative amount of N2O were significantly reduced by 31.23% (P = 0.000), 61.29% (P = 0.000), and 33.08% (P = 0.000), respectively. Our findings suggest that conservation tillage significantly reduced CO2 and N2O emission from soil in the following winter wheat-growing season.

  10. Integrating multiple distribution models to guide conservation efforts of an endangered toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Michael L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species’ ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species’ current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  11. Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

    2013-08-01

    Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. What is conservation physiology? Perspectives on an increasingly integrated and essential science†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Sack, Lawren; Franklin, Craig E.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Beardall, John; Wikelski, Martin; Chown, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    species, refinement of resource management strategies to minimize impacts, and evaluation of restoration plans. This concept of conservation physiology emphasizes the basis, importance, and ecological relevance of physiological diversity at a variety of scales. Real advances in conservation and resource management require integration and inter-disciplinarity. Conservation physiology and its suite of tools and concepts is a key part of the evidence base needed to address pressing environmental challenges. PMID:27293585

  13. Biosocial Conservation: Integrating Biological and Ethnographic Methods to Study Human-Primate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Fairet, Emilie; Shutt, Kathryn; Waters, Siân; Bell, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation is one of the grand challenges facing society. Many people interested in biodiversity conservation have a background in wildlife biology. However, the diverse social, cultural, political, and historical factors that influence the lives of people and wildlife can be investigated fully only by incorporating social science methods, ideally within an interdisciplinary framework. Cultural hierarchies of knowledge and the hegemony of the natural sciences create a barrier to interdisciplinary understandings. Here, we review three different projects that confront this difficulty, integrating biological and ethnographic methods to study conservation problems. The first project involved wildlife foraging on crops around a newly established national park in Gabon. Biological methods revealed the extent of crop loss, the species responsible, and an effect of field isolation, while ethnography revealed institutional and social vulnerability to foraging wildlife. The second project concerned great ape tourism in the Central African Republic. Biological methods revealed that gorilla tourism poses risks to gorillas, while ethnography revealed why people seek close proximity to gorillas. The third project focused on humans and other primates living alongside one another in Morocco. Incorporating shepherds in the coproduction of ecological knowledge about primates built trust and altered attitudes to the primates. These three case studies demonstrate how the integration of biological and social methods can help us to understand the sustainability of human-wildlife interactions, and thus promote coexistence. In each case, an integrated biosocial approach incorporating ethnographic data produced results that would not otherwise have come to light. Research that transcends conventional academic boundaries requires the openness and flexibility to move beyond one's comfort zone to understand and acknowledge the legitimacy of "other" kinds of knowledge. It is

  14. Restoration of degraded arid farmland at Project Wadi Attir: Impact of conservation on biological productivity and soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor-Mussery, Amir; Helman, David; Ben Eli, Michael; Leu, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Israeli Negev Desert, as most Mediterranean drylands, is profoundly degraded. We have been documenting degradation and successful rehabilitation approaches in recent research, aiming at maximizing environmental and economic benefits while restoring healthy dryland soils and perennial vegetation to act as carbon sinks. These methods have been implemented for rehabilitation of Project Wadi Attir's. 50 hectares of heavily degraded farmland suffering from intensive soil erosion (expressed in dense gullies net and massive overland flow). Project Wadi Attir is a groundbreaking initiative of the Bedouin community in the Negev, for establishing a model sustainable agricultural operation. The project was initiated by the US-based Sustainability Laboratory and the Hura Municipal Council. The project is designed to demonstrate implementation of holistic sustainability principles developed by The Lab. The project's ecosystem restoration component involves site development, erosion control, soil conservation and improvement, planting of native and agroforestry trees, together with conservation and protection of biodiversity hotspots and avoiding grazing have, within three years, revealed the high biodiversity and productivity potential of this arid/semi-arid landscape. A number of shrublands and loess plots were subject to strict conservation, avoiding tilling and grazing. Soil fertility, productivity and biodiversity of these conserved plots inside the farm boundaries was compared to similar unprotected plots outside the farm fences by sampling in the field and by using satellite imaging. Our findings indicate a gradual improvement of SOM content specifically in the conserved shrubland area. Water infiltration, herbaceous biomass productivity and ants' activity of the protected plots also significantly increased within 3 years compared to the unprotected control areas. Starting from similar soil organic matter content in 2013 (3.3%) in the rocky slopes, in 2016 1% higher

  15. Effort to Increase Oil Palm Production through Application Technique of Soil and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Murtilaksono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out at block 375, 415, and 414 (block 1, 2, and 3 Afdeling III, Mangement Unit of Rejosari, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VII, Lampung from June 2005 until December 2007. Objective of the study is to examine the effect of soil and water conservation measurement, namely bund terrace and silt pit that are combined with retarded-water hole on production of oil palm. Sampled trees of each block were randomly selected as much as 36 trees. Parameters of vegetative growth (additional new frond, total of frond, number of new bunch, production (number of bunch, fresh fruit bunch (TBS, and average of bunch weigh (RBT were observed and recorded every two weeks. Production of palm oil of each block was also recorded every harvesting schedule of Afdeling. Tabular data were analyzed descriptively by logical comparison among the blocks as result of application of bund terrace and silt pit. Although the data of sampled trees were erratic, bund terrace and silt pit generally increasing number of frond, number of bunch, average of bunch weight, and fresh fruit bunch. Bund terrace gived the highest production of TBS (25.2 t ha-1 compared to silt pit application (23.6 t ha-1, and it has better effect on TBS than block control (20.8 t ha-1. Aside from that, RBT is the highest (21 kg at bund terrace block compared to silt pit block (20 kg and control block (19 kg.

  16. FEASIBILITY OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES ON OIL PALM PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Murtilaksono

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of soil and water conservation techniques. The production of oil palm comprising the fresh fruit bunch, number of bunches, and average of bunch weight were recorded at every harvesting schedule. Tabular data were analyzed by logical comparison among the blocks as a result of application of bund terraces and silt-pit. Financial and sensi-tivity analysis of the effect of the techniques on FFB production were done. Bund terrace treatment was more effective (4.761 ton or 21.5% in increasing FFB production than the silt-pit treatment (3.046 ton or 13.4% when it is compared to that of the control block. The application of bund terraces and silt-pit also presents positive effects i.e. increases the average bunch weight and the number of bunch compared to that of the control. Furthermore, the financial analysis as well as sensitivity analysis shows that the bund terrace application is profitable and feasible (B/C = 3.06, IRR = 47% while the silt pit treatment is profitable but not feasible.

  17. Integrated intelligent instruments using supercritical fluid technology for soil analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, S.A.; Phillips, C.; Fitzgerald, W.; Levy, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminated soils pose a significant challenge for characterization and remediation programs that require rapid, accurate and comprehensive data in the field or laboratory. Environmental analyzers based on supercritical fluid (SF) technology have been designed and developed for meeting these global needs. The analyzers are designated the CHAMP Systems (Chemical Hazards Automated Multimedia Processors). The prototype instrumentation features SF extraction (SFE) and on-line capillary gas chromatographic (GC) analysis with chromatographic and/or spectral identification detectors, such as ultra-violet, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometers. Illustrations are given for a highly automated SFE-capillary GC/flame ionization (FID) configuration to provide validated screening analysis for total extractable hydrocarbons within ca. 5--10 min, as well as a full qualitative/quantitative analysis in 25--30 min. Data analysis using optional expert system and neural networks software is demonstrated for test gasoline and diesel oil mixtures in this integrated intelligent instrument approach to trace organic analysis of soils and sediments

  18. Natural Fostering in Fritillaria cirrhosa: Integrating herbal medicine production with biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are generally regarded as a power tool to conserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, few protected areas could address three crucial problems simultaneously, namely funding, public participation and rural living. Here, we introduced a new protective approach, Natural Fostering, which integrated herbal medicine production with community conservation. The principles of Natural Fostering adopted species–species interaction at community level. Most effective chemical components of herbal medicine are derived from such interaction. Fritillaria cirrhosa was selected as an economic botany, one of herbal medicines, to carry out Natural Fostering. Community habitats, herbal medicine production, funding and income of local family were investigated to verify the feasibility of Natural Fostering for biodiversity. We found the density of plant populations and the annual average personal income of rural people increased. F. cirrhosa production could provide sufficient funds for sustainable conservation. Local people gradually changed their life style of wild collection and overgrazing, instead of herbal medicine production. The fostering area set up a good sustainable economic cycle. Natural Fostering can be presented as an effective and pragmatic way to conserve biological diversity and sustainable utilization of traditional medicinal resources.

  19. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  20. Development of a New Zealand SedNet model for assessment of catchment-wide soil-conservation works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, John R.; Herzig, Alexander; Basher, Les; Betts, Harley D.; Marden, Mike; Phillips, Chris J.; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle E.; Palmer, David J.; Clark, Maree; Roygard, Jon

    2016-03-01

    Much hill country in New Zealand has been converted from indigenous forest to pastoral agriculture, resulting in increased soil erosion. Following a severe storm that hit the Manawatu-Wanaganui region in 2004 and caused 62,000 landslides, the Horizons Regional Council have implemented the Sustainable Land Use Initiative (SLUI), a programme of widespread soil conservation. We have developed a New Zealand version (SedNetNZ) of the Australian SedNet model to evaluate the impact of the SLUI programme in the 5850 km2 Manawatu catchment. SedNetNZ spatially distributes budgets of fine sediment in the landscape. It incorporates landslide, gully, earthflow erosion, surficial erosion, bank erosion, and flood-plain deposition, the important forms of soil erosion in New Zealand. Modelled suspended sediment loads compared well with measured suspended sediment loads with an R2 value of 0.85 after log transformation. A sensitivity analysis gave the uncertainty of estimated suspended sediment loads to be approximately plus or minus 50% (at the 95% confidence level). It is expected that by 2040, suspended sediment loads in targeted water management zones will decrease by about 40%. The expected decrease for the whole catchment is 34%. The expected reduction is due to maturity of tree planting on land at risk to soil erosion. The 34% reduction represents an annual rate of return of 20% on 20 million NZ of investment on soil conservation works through avoided damage to property and infrastructure and avoided clean-up costs.

  1. Soil Formation and Distribution in Missouri. Instructional Unit. Conservation Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillon, David A.

    This unit is designed to help vocational agriculture teachers incorporate information on soil formation and the soils geography of Missouri into their curriculum. The unit consists of: (1) a topic outline; (2) general unit objectives; (3) discussions of processes and factors of soil formation, the soils geography of Missouri, and some soil…

  2. Tillage for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, W.

    1999-01-01

    Soil tillage is the manipulation of soil which is generally considered as necessary to obtain optimum growth conditions for a crop. In the same time the resulting modification of soil structure has serious implications for the behaviour of the soil to erosive forces by water and wind. In

  3. Integrating between Malay culture and conservation in Green campus program: Best practices from Universitas Riau, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwondo, Darmadi, Yunus, Mohd.

    2017-11-01

    Green campus program (GCP) is a policy to optimize the role of the University of Riau in implementing sustainable development. Green campus development is done by integrating Malay culture and conservation in every implementation of the program. We identify the biophysical, economic and socio-cultural characteristics as well as the problems encountered in the campus environment. This study uses desk study, survey, and focus group discussion (FGD). GCP analysis is divided into several stages, namely assess problem, design, implementation, monitor, evaluate and adjust. Bina Widya Campus of Universitas Riau has a good biodiversity of flora and fauna with species characteristics in lowland tropical forest ecosystems. Plant species of the Dipterocarpaceae family are the dominant species, whereas fauna is from reptile, leaves, and mammals. Efforts to maintain and enhance species diversity are undertaken by designing and constructing Arboretum and Ecoedupark for the ex situ conservation of flora and fauna. The enrichment of species is carried out by planting vegetation types that are closely related to Malay culture. On the other hand, the management of the green campus faces challenges in the diverse perceptions of stakeholders with low levels of academic participation. Economically the existence of the campus provides a multiplier effect on the emergence of various economic activities of the community around the campus. Implementation of green university campus of Riau University by integrating Melayu culture and conservation contributes to the creation of green open space which is increasingly widespread and able to support sustainable development, especially in Pekanbaru City.

  4. SOILS AND GEOENVIRONMENTS OF THE NATIONAL PARK OF VIRUÁ AND SURROUNDING, RORAIMA: INTEGRATED VISION OF THE LANDSCAPE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Araujo Furtado de Mendonça

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989287The Viruá National Park (PARNA Viruá occupies 227.011ha, in the region of the low ‘Branco’ river, in Roraima state. This area includes an extensive mosaic of complex seasonally flooded forested and non-forested environments. The present work had as general objective to characterize the pedology aspects and the geo-environmental units of the Park and surroundings, in an integrated vision of the landscape and, additionally, estimate the carbon stocks in the soils and geo-environments. We described and collected 29 soil profiles in the main vegetation types of Campinaranas and Forests of PARNA Viruá and surroundings. The main soil classes are: Espodossolo Humilúvico, Neossolo Quartzarênico, Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Litólicos, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho, Cambissolo Háplico, Cambissolo Flúvico, Gleissolo Háplico and Plintossolo Háplico. The soils present spatial distribution marked by abrupt limits and close association with the vegetation type. We identified three pedo-environments: (1 sandy soils of the Campinaranas; (2 soils associated with the inselbergs and adjacencies; and (3 alluvial soils. We mapped and described 18 geoenvironmental units in PARNA Viruá National Park. The main geo-environments are: i Sandy plains and Paleodunes with grassy and arborous Campinarana on ‘Neossolos Quartzarênicos hidromórficos’ and ‘Espodossolos’; and Floodplains and; ii Terraces with Igapó Forest on sandy hydromorphic soils, occupying 24.6% and 20.1% of the studied area, respectively. In terms of total soil carbon stocks, the geo-environments of the sandy complexes of Campinaranas and associations stand out, with 9450.9 Gg C. The great extension and representativeness of the sandy areas of Campinaranas characterize PARNA Viruá PArk as an important conservation unit for protection Amazonian sandy soil systems. The areas under the domain of ‘Espodossolos’ possess the

  5. Integrating Science and Land Management for the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in Southwestern Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Heilman, P.; Nearing, M.; Speath, K.; Hernandez, M.; Wei, H.; Holifield-Collins, C.; Kautz, M.; Nichols, M.; Barlow, J.; Guertin, P.; Burns, S.; Stone, J. J.; Weltz, M.; Metz, L.; Norfleet, L.; Duriancik, L.; Johnson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Farm Bill legislation enacted by Congress in 2002 directed the U.S. Department of Agriculture to assess of the benefits and efficacy of conservation practices provided by a variety of USDA programs. Benefits include improved agricultural production, reduction of erosion and associated nutrient losses, improved water quality, improved soil resilience, and improved habitat among others. To conduct the assessment, the USDA initiated CEAP or the Conservation Effects Assessment Project in 2003, which included a national assessment complemented by small watershed studies. The national assessment started in eastern and midwestern cultivated croplands and has now progressed to western rangelands. This presentation will discuss the challenges of assessing the effects of rangeland conservation practices in a period of unusually hot and dry climatic conditions in the Cienega Creek Watershed (CCW) located southeast of Tucson, Arizona. As is common in the western U.S., the CCW consists of a patchwork of private and public lands in the west with much of the public lands leased for grazing cattle. The watershed also has high recreational value and provides many ecosystem services, including wildlife habitat qualities and flood protection to Tucson. A combination of monitoring, modeling, and remote sensing was utilized in the assessment. Conservation spending in the watershed ramped up in 1997. However, the 16-year period from 1997-2012 contains almost half of the 23 driest seasons (lowest 20 percentile) from the 117-year observed precipitation record. Initial results indicate that Landsat remotely sensed images can be effectively used to estimate both green and senescent canopy cover. This enabled detection of the impacts of drought and changes in canopy cover from practices such as prescribed fire and mechanical brush removal. Cienega Creek Watershed - Land Ownership

  6. A class of conservative Hamiltonians with exactly integrable discrete two-dimensional parametric maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikande, Alain M; Njumbe, E Epie

    2010-01-01

    A class of discrete conservative Hamiltonians with completely integrable two-dimensional (2D) mappings is constructed whose generic models are three families of non-integrable discrete Hamiltonians with on-site potentials whose double-well shapes vary. Unlike the discrete 2D mappings associated with the generic models, which all display pitchfork bifurcations towards randomly pinned states with chaotic features, for the derived models the pitchfork bifurcation leads to fixed points always surrounded by periodic trajectories. A nonlinear stability analysis reveals a finite crossover on the bifurcation line at which the pitchfork transition takes the maps from regular real periodic trajectories towards a regime dominated by a cluster of periodic point trajectories representing the allowed real solutions. The rich variety of structures displayed by the new class of discrete maps, combined with their complete integrability, offer rich perspectives for theoretical modelling of a wide class of systems undergoing structural instabilities without noticeable chaotic precursors.

  7. Integrating factors and conservation theorems for Hamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁杰; 乔永芬; 刘洋

    2002-01-01

    We present a general approach to the construction of conservation laws for variable mass nonholonomic noncon-servative systems. First, we give the definition of integrating factors, and we study in detail the necessary conditionsfor the existence of the conserved quantities. Then, we establish the conservation theorem and its inverse theorem forHamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems. Finally,we give an example to illustrate the application of the results.

  8. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  9. Conservative integration of rigid body motion by quaternion parameters with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    An angular momentum and energy‐conserving time integration algorithm for rigid body rotation is formulated in terms of the quaternion parameters and the corresponding four‐component conjugate momentum vector via Hamilton's equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric...... these equations via the set of momentum equations. Initially, the normalization of the quaternion array is introduced via a Lagrange multiplier. However, this Lagrange multiplier can be expressed explicitly in terms of the gradient of the external load potential, and elimination of the Lagrange multiplier from...... the final format leaves only an explicit projection applied to the external load potential gradient. An algorithm is developed by forming a finite increment of the Hamiltonian. This procedure identifies the proper selection of increments and mean values, and leads to an algorithm with conservation...

  10. ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY SOME OF THE TRIBAL COMMUNITIES OF PANCHET SOIL CONSERVATION DIVISION, BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debatri Banerjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indigenous Traditional knowledge (ITK is scientifically and culturally significant. This article focuses on the documentation of ITK of medicinal plants that are used against different diseases by the tribal people of Panchet Soil Conservation Division of Bankura district, West Bengal. A comprehensive survey was carried out between July 2014–January 2016 in 19 different locations of Panchet Soil Conservation Division. Data were obtained through semi–structured questionnaires, participant observation and plant walks with 33 respondents. A total of 12 plants belonging to 11 families were documented for 19 different disorders. Out of 12 plants 10 have been reported as new uses for the first time. It is expected that the documentation of medicinal plant knowledge will further promote bio-prospecting and pharmaceutical research.

  11. Can conservation trump impacts of climate change on soil erosion? An assessment from winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen D. Garbrecht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the need to increase crop production to meet the needs of a growing population, protecting the productivity of our soil resource is essential. However, conservationists are concerned that conservation practices that were effective in the past may no longer be effective in the future under projected climate change. In winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the U.S., increased precipitation intensity and increased aridity associated with warmer temperatures may pose increased risks of soil erosion from vulnerable soils and landscapes. This investigation was undertaken to determine which conservation practices would be necessary and sufficient to hold annual soil erosion by water under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario at or below the present soil erosion levels. Advances in and benefits of agricultural soil and water conservation over the last century in the United States are briefly reviewed, and challenges and climate uncertainties confronting resource conservation in this century are addressed. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP computer model was used to estimate future soil erosion by water from winter wheat cropland in Central Oklahoma and for 10 projected climates and 7 alternative conservation practices. A comparison with soil erosion values under current climate conditions and conventional tillage operations showed that, on average, a switch from conventional to conservation tillage would be sufficient to offset the average increase in soil erosion by water under most projected climates. More effective conservation practices, such as conservation tillage with a summer cover crop would be required to control soil erosion associated with the most severe climate projections. It was concluded that a broad range of conservation tools are available to agriculture to offset projected future increases in soil erosion by water even under assumed worst case climate change scenarios in Central Oklahoma. The problem

  12. The integration of innovative technologies into a physical-separation-based soil washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    An innovative system's approach to the treatment of soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has been proposed to effectively and cost competitively treat a significant mass of soil. The use of an integrated soil treatment system to decontaminate FEMP soils is a unique application of the soil washing technology. Due to the unfavorable soil particle size distribution and the ubiquitous distribution of uranium among these particle size fractions, conventional soil washing processes commonly used on predominantly sandy soils alone may not achieve the desirable waste minimization level without the inclusion of innovative technologies. This objective of this paper is to briefly describe the physical separation and chemical extraction process commonly used in soil washing operation and to present the baseline soil washing approach used on FEMP soils. Noting the successful and not-so-successful processes within the soil washing operation at the FEMP, a proposed innovative system's approach to treating FEMP soils will be described. This system's approach will integrate a conventional soil washing operation with proposed innovative technologies

  13. Conservation of soil organic carbon, biodiversity and the provision of other ecosystem services along climatic gradients in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marks

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial carbon resources are major drivers of development in West Africa. The distribution of these resources co-varies with ecosystem type and rainfall along a strong Northeast-Southwest climatic gradient. Soil organic carbon, a strong indicator of soil quality, has been severely depleted in some areas by human activities, which leads to issues of soil erosion and desertification, but this trend can be altered with appropriate management. There is significant potential to enhance existing soil carbon stores in West Africa, with benefits at the global and local scale, for atmospheric CO2 mitigation as well as supporting and provisioning ecosystem services. Three key factors impacting carbon stocks are addressed in this review: climate, biotic factors, and human activities. Climate risks must be considered in a framework of global change, especially in West Africa, where landscape managers have few resources available to adapt to climatic perturbations. Among biotic factors, biodiversity conservation paired with carbon conservation may provide a pathway to sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation is also a global priority with local benefits for ecosystem resilience, biomass productivity, and provisioning services such as foodstuffs. Finally, human management has largely been responsible for reduced carbon stocks, but this trend can be reversed through the implementation of appropriate carbon conservation strategies in the agricultural sector, as shown by multiple studies. Owing to the strong regional climatic gradient, country-level initiatives will need to consider carbon sequestration approaches for multiple ecosystem types. Given the diversity of environments, global policies must be adapted and strategies developed at the national or sub-national levels to improve carbon storage above and belowground. Initiatives of this sort must act locally at farmer scale, and focus on ecosystem services rather than on carbon

  14. Estimation of Soil Erosion Dynamics in the Koshi Basin Using GIS and Remote Sensing to Assess Priority Areas for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Kabir; Murthy, M S R; Wahid, Shahriar M; Matin, Mir A

    2016-01-01

    High levels of water-induced erosion in the transboundary Himalayan river basins are contributing to substantial changes in basin hydrology and inundation. Basin-wide information on erosion dynamics is needed for conservation planning, but field-based studies are limited. This study used remote sensing (RS) data and a geographic information system (GIS) to estimate the spatial distribution of soil erosion across the entire Koshi basin, to identify changes between 1990 and 2010, and to develop a conservation priority map. The revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) was used in an ArcGIS environment with rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover-management, and support practice factors as primary parameters. The estimated annual erosion from the basin was around 40 million tonnes (40 million tonnes in 1990 and 42 million tonnes in 2010). The results were within the range of reported levels derived from isolated plot measurements and model estimates. Erosion risk was divided into eight classes from very low to extremely high and mapped to show the spatial pattern of soil erosion risk in the basin in 1990 and 2010. The erosion risk class remained unchanged between 1990 and 2010 in close to 87% of the study area, but increased over 9.0% of the area and decreased over 3.8%, indicating an overall worsening of the situation. Areas with a high and increasing risk of erosion were identified as priority areas for conservation. The study provides the first assessment of erosion dynamics at the basin level and provides a basis for identifying conservation priorities across the Koshi basin. The model has a good potential for application in similar river basins in the Himalayan region.

  15. On the case of Goryachev-Chaplygin and new examples of integrable conservative systems on S^2

    OpenAIRE

    Selivanova, E. N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a class of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral cubic in momenta. We prove that this class of systems consists off the case of Goryachev-Chaplygin, the one-parameter family of systems which has been found by the author in the previous paper (dg-ga/9711005) and a new two-parameter family of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral cubic in momenta.

  16. New Comparative Experiments of Different Soil Types for Farmland Water Conservation in Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiben Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated farmland is the main food source of desert areas, and moisture is the main limiting factor of desert farmland crop productivity. Study on the influence of irrigation on desert farmland soil moisture can guide the agricultural water resource utilization and agricultural production in those regions. At present, the efficiency of irrigation water usage in Northwest China is as low as approximately 40% of the irrigated water. To understand the response of farmland soil moisture in different soil types on irrigation in the Ulan Buh Desert of Inner Mongolia of China, this experimental study takes advantage of different infiltration characteristics and hydraulic conductivities of sand, clay, and loam to determine an optimized soil combination scheme with the purpose of establishing a hydraulic barrier that reduces infiltration. This study includes three comparative experiments with each consisting of a 100 cm thick of filled sand, or clay, or loam soil underneath a 50 cm plough soil, with a total thickness of 150 cm soil profile. A new type of lysimeter is installed below the above-mentioned 150 cm soil profile to continuously measure deep soil recharge (DSR, and the ECH2O-5 soil moisture sensors are installed at different depths over the 150 cm soil profile to simultaneously monitor the soil moisture above the lysimeter. The study analyzes the characteristics of soil moisture dynamics, the irrigation-related recharge on soil moisture, and the DSR characteristics before and after irrigation, during the early sowing period from 2 April to 2 May 2017. Research results show that: (1 Irrigation significantly influences the soil moisture of 0–150 cm depths. The soil moisture increase after the irrigation follows the order from high to low when it is in the order of loam, sand, and clay. (2 Irrigation-induced soil moisture recharge occurs on all three soil combinations at 0–150 cm layers, and the order of soil moisture recharge from high to low

  17. Edaphic macrofauna as biological indicator of the conservation/disturbance status of soil. Results obtained in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Grisel

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the degradation status of a soil, a group of variables comprising its physical, chemical and/or biological properties is used. Macrofauna, which includes soil invertebrates higher than 2 mm of diameter, is a biological component that can be used for such purpose. Its taxonomic richness as well as its density, biomass and functional composition change depending on the effect of diverse land uses and managements. This review reaffirms that the macrofauna characteristics and the results obtained, mainly in Cuba, about its variation in ecosystems with different anthropization levels, support the potential use of this fauna as biological indicator of the soil's conservation status. Future studies should consider a lower taxonomic level in the identification of macrofauna, and relate its taxonomic and functional composition to the climate and pedological factors. (author)

  18. On certain two-dimensional conservative mechanical systems with a cubic second integral

    CERN Document Server

    Yehia, H M

    2002-01-01

    In a previous paper (Yehia H M 1986 J. Mec. Theor. Appl. 5 55-71) we have introduced a method for constructing integrable conservative two-dimensional mechanical systems whose second integral of motion is polynomial in the velocities. This method has proved successful in constructing a multitude of irreversible systems (involving gyroscopic forces) with a second quadratic integral (Yehia H M 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 197-221). The objective of this paper is to apply the same method for the systematic construction of mechanical systems with a cubic integral. As in our previous works, the configuration space is not assumed to be a Euclidean plane. This widens the range of applicability of the results to diverse mechanical systems to include such problems as rigid body dynamics. Several new reversible and irreversible integrable systems are obtained. Some of these systems generalize previously known ones by introducing additional parameters which may change either or both of the configuration manifold and t...

  19. Conservative multi-implicit integral deferred correction methods with adaptive mesh refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    In most models of reacting gas dynamics, the characteristic time scales of chemical reactions are much shorter than the hydrodynamic and diffusive time scales, rendering the reaction part of the model equations stiff. Moreover, nonlinear forcings may introduce into the solutions sharp gradients or shocks, the robust behavior and correct propagation of which require the use of specialized spatial discretization procedures. This study presents high-order conservative methods for the temporal integration of model equations of reacting flows. By means of a method of lines discretization on the flux difference form of the equations, these methods compute approximations to the cell-averaged or finite-volume solution. The temporal discretization is based on a multi-implicit generalization of integral deferred correction methods. The advection term is integrated explicitly, and the diffusion and reaction terms are treated implicitly but independently, with the splitting errors present in traditional operator splitting methods reduced via the integral deferred correction procedure. To reduce computational cost, time steps used to integrate processes with widely-differing time scales may differ in size. (author)

  20. [Effects of planting system on soil and water conservation and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Da-Bing; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Kai

    2010-06-01

    A three-year experiment was conducted to study the effects of wheat/maize/soybean with total no-tillage and mulching (NTM), wheat/maize/soybean with part no-tillage and part mulching (PTM), wheat/maize/soybean with total tillage without mulching (TWM), and wheat/maize/ sweet potato with total tillage without mulching (TWMS) on the soil and water conservation, soil fertility, and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China. The average soil erosion amount and surface runoff of NTM were significantly lower than those of the other three planting systems, being 1189 kg x hm(-2) and 215 m3 x hm(-2), and 10.6% and 84.7% lower than those of TWMS, respectively. The soil organic matter, total N, available K and available N contents of NTM were increased by 15.7%, 18.2%, 55.2%, and 25.9%, respectively, being the highest among the test planting systems. PTM and TWM took the second place, and TWMS pattern had the least. NTM had the highest annual crop output value (18809 yuan x hm(-2)) and net income (12619 yuan x hm(-2)) in three years, being 2.2% -20.6% and 3.8% -32.9% higher than other three planting systems, respectively. In a word, the planting system wheat/maize/soybean was more beneficial to the water and soil conservation and the improvement of soil fertility and crop output value, compared with the traditional planting system wheat/maize/sweet potato.

  1. Integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge on soils: recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    interpretations of indigenous soil classification systems. ... approach that is consistent with decentralised decision making. Understanding the soil resource is central to sound ..... methods recognise seasonal surface water stagnation in these.

  2. [Application of biotope mapping model integrated with vegetation cover continuity attributes in urban biodiversity conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Qiu, Ling; Chen, Cun-gen

    2010-09-01

    Based on the biotope classification system with vegetation structure as the framework, a modified biotope mapping model integrated with vegetation cover continuity attributes was developed, and applied to the study of the greenbelts in Helsingborg in southern Sweden. An evaluation of the vegetation cover continuity in the greenbelts was carried out by the comparisons of the vascular plant species richness in long- and short-continuity forests, based on the identification of woodland continuity by using ancient woodland indicator species (AWIS). In the test greenbelts, long-continuity woodlands had more AWIS. Among the forests where the dominant trees were more than 30-year-old, the long-continuity ones had a higher biodiversity of vascular plants, compared with the short-continuity ones with the similar vegetation structure. The modified biotope mapping model integrated with the continuity features of vegetation cover could be an important tool in investigating urban biodiversity, and provide corresponding strategies for future urban biodiversity conservation.

  3. Assessing Cross-disciplinary Efficiency of Soil Amendments for Agro-biologically, Economically, and Ecologically Integrated Soil Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Preventive and/or manipulative practices will be needed to maintain soil's biological, physiochemical, nutritional, and structural health in natural, managed, and disturbed ecosystems as a foundation for food security and global ecosystem sustainability. While there is a substantial body of interdisciplinary science on understanding function and structure of soil ecosystems, key gaps must be bridged in assessing integrated agro-biological, ecological, economical, and environmental efficiency of soil manipulation practices in time and space across ecosystems. This presentation discusses the application of a fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) model for assessing agronomic, economic, ecological, environmental, and nematode (pest) management efficiency of soil amendments. FUE is defined as increase in host productivity and/or decrease in plant-parasitic nematode population density in response to a given fertilizer treatment. Using the effects of nutrient amendment on Heterodera glycines population density and normalized difference vegetative index (indicator of physiological activities) of a soybean cultivar ‘CX 252’, how the FUE model recognizes variable responses and separates nutrient deficiency and toxicity from nematode parasitism as well as suitability of treatments designed to achieve desired biological and physiochemical soil health conditions is demonstrated. As part of bridging gaps between agricultural and ecological approaches to integrated understanding and management of soil health, modifications of the FUE model for analyzing the relationships amongst nematode community structure, soil parameters (eg. pH, nutrients, %OM), and plant response to soil amendment is discussed. PMID:22736840

  4. Integrating Laser Scanner and Bim for Conservation and Reuse: "the Lyric Theatre of Milan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utica, G.; Pinti, L.; Guzzoni, L.; Bonelli, S.; Brizzolari, A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper underlines the importance to apply a methodology that integrates the Building Information Modeling (BIM), Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and the Laser Scanner tool in conservation and reuse projects. As it is known, the laser scanner technology provides a survey of the building object which is more accurate rather than that carried out using traditional methodologies. Today most existing buildings present their attributes in a dispersed way, stored and collected in paper documents, in sheets of equipment information, in file folders of maintenance records. In some cases, it is difficult to find updated technical documentation and the research of reliable data can be a cost and time-consuming process. Therefore, this new survey technology, embedded with BIM systems represents a valid tool to obtain a coherent picture of the building state. The following case consists in the conservation and reuse project of Milan Lyric Theatre, started in 2013 from the collaboration between the Milan Polytechnic and the Municipality. This project first attempts to integrate these new techniques which are already professional standards in many other countries such as the US, Norway, Finland, England and so on. Concerning the methodology, the choice has been to use BIM software for the structured analysis of the project, with the aim to define a single code of communication to develop a coherent documentation according to rules in a consistent manner and in tight schedules. This process provides the definition of an effective and efficient operating method that can be applied to other projects.

  5. Ana3 is a conserved protein required for the structural integrity of centrioles and basal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Naomi R; Dobbelaere, Jeroen; Wainman, Alan; Gergely, Fanni; Raff, Jordan W

    2009-11-02

    Recent studies have identified a conserved "core" of proteins that are required for centriole duplication. A small number of additional proteins have recently been identified as potential duplication factors, but it is unclear whether any of these proteins are components of the core duplication machinery. In this study, we investigate the function of one of these proteins, Drosophila melanogaster Ana3. We show that Ana3 is present in centrioles and basal bodies, but its behavior is distinct from that of the core duplication proteins. Most importantly, we find that Ana3 is required for the structural integrity of both centrioles and basal bodies and for centriole cohesion, but it is not essential for centriole duplication. We show that Ana3 has a mammalian homologue, Rotatin, that also localizes to centrioles and basal bodies and appears to be essential for cilia function. Thus, Ana3 defines a conserved family of centriolar proteins and plays an important part in ensuring the structural integrity of centrioles and basal bodies.

  6. Integrating Ecological and Social Ranges of Variability in Conservation of Biodiversity: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally L. Duncan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical range of variability has been proposed as a concept that can be used by forest land managers to guide conservation of ecosystem functions and biodiversity conservation. The role of humans in historical range of variability has remained somewhat murky and unsettled, even though it is clear that humans have been, are, and will continue to be forces of disturbance and recovery in forested landscapes. We attempt to develop concepts that integrate the ecological and social forces affecting landscape variability. Toward that end, we present a conceptual framework that places "range of variability" into a broader context and integrates the ecological and social forces affecting landscapes past, present, and future. We use two terms to aid us in understanding the utility of historical range of variability as a context and future range of variability as a point of comparison: (1 the ecological range of variability is the estimated range of some ecological condition as a function of the biophysical and social forces affecting the area and (2 the social range of variability is the range of an ecological condition that society finds acceptable at a given time. We find it is important to recognize that future range of variability represents a constantly emerging and changing set of conditions, and that the more humans push a system to depart from its historical range of variabiloity domain, the less likely it becomes that historical range of variability processes will prove useful as benchmarks in recovering a system.

  7. Integrating Traditional and Evolutionary Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation: a Population Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan J. Fraser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their dual importance in the assessment of endangered/threatened species, there have been few attempts to integrate traditional ecological knowledge (TEK and evolutionary biology knowledge (EBK at the population level. We contrasted long-term aboriginal TEK with previously obtained EBK in the context of seasonal migratory habits and population biology of a salmonid fish, brook charr, (Salvelinus fontinalis inhabiting a large, remote postglacial lake. Compilation of TEK spanning four decades involved analytical workshops, semidirective interviews, and collaborative fieldwork with local aboriginal informants and fishing guides. We found that TEK complemented EBK of brook charr by providing concordant and additional information about (1 population viability; (2 breeding areas and migration patterns of divergent populations; and (3 the behavioral ecology of populations within feeding areas; all of which may ultimately affect the maintenance of population diversity. Aboriginal concerns related to human pressures on this species, not revealed by EBK, also help to focus future conservation initiatives for divergent populations and to encourage restoration of traditional fishing practices. However, relative to EBK, the relevance of TEK to salmonid biodiversity conservation was evident mainly at a smaller spatial scale, for example, that of individual rivers occupied by populations or certain lake sectors. Nevertheless, EBK was only collected over a 4-yr period, so TEK provided an essential long-term temporal window to evaluate population differences and persistence. We concluded that, despite different conceptual underpinnings, spatially and temporally varying TEK and EBK both contribute to the knowledge base required to achieve sustainability and effective biodiversity conservation planning for a given species. Such integration may be particularly relevant in many isolated regions, where intraspecific diversity can go unrecognized due to sparse

  8. Effects of Zero Tillage (No-Till) Conservation Agriculture on soil physical and biological properties and their contributions to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John N.; Rass, Gerard; de Freitas, Pedro L.; Basch, Gottlieb; González Sanchez, Emilio J.; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Kassan, Amir; Derpsch, Rolf; Friedrich, Theodor; Giupponi, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Not cultivating soil, rotating crops over the years, and leaving crop residues on the surface in the practice of zero tillage/conservation agriculture (ZT/CA) reverses the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure, while increasing soil biological activity by a factor of 2 to 4. The results of this are many: (a) not cultivating reduces soil compaction, leaving old root holes to facilitate internal drainage, averts the pulverization of soil aggregates and formation of pans, reduces draft power for planting and gives shelter, winter food and nesting sites for fauna, (b) crop residues on the surface practically eliminate wind and water erosion, reduce soil moisture loss through the mulch effect, slow spring warm-up (possibly offset by a lower specific heat demand with less water retention in surface soil) and act as a reserve of organically-compounded nutrients (as they decompose to humus), (c) more SOM means higher available water and nutrient retention, higher biological activity year round (enhancing biological controls), higher levels of water-stable aggregates and a positive carbon sink in incremental SOM. The positive impacts for society are: (i) more and cheaper food, (ii) reduced flood and drought-induced famine risks, (iii) a positive carbon sink in SOM and possible reductions in NO2 emissions, (iv) cleaner water and greater aquifer recharge due to reduced runoff, (v) cleaner air through effective elimination of dust as a product of cultivation (vi) less water pollution and greater aquifer recharge from reduced rainfall runoff, (vii) farm diesel consumption halved, (viii) reduced demand for (tropical) de-forestation, by permitting crop expansion on steeper lands, (ix) increased wildlife populations (skylarks, plovers, partridge and peccaries) and (x) an improved conservation mindset in farmers. It is notable that, in spite of successful practitioners in all European countries, mainstream adoption is still to come

  9. Soil Biochemical Changes Induced by Poultry Litter Application and Conservation Tillage under Cotton Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri Sajjala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc. have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT, and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decreased the activity of these enzymes at 10–20 cm. The increase in enzyme activity was a good indicator of intensive soil microbial activity in different soil management practices. Poultry litter (PL application under NT, MT, and rye cropping system could be considered as effective management practices due to the improvement in carbon (C content and the biochemical quality at the soil surface. The activities of the studied enzymes were highly correlated with soil total nitrogen (STN soil organic carbon (SOC at the 0–10 cm soil depth, except for acid phosphatase where no correlation was observed. This study revealed that agricultural practices such as tillage, PL, and cover crop cropping system have a noticeable positive effect on soil biochemical activities under cotton production.

  10. Long-term effects of conservation soil management in Saria, Burkina Faso, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharie, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The negative degradation spiral that currently leads to deteriorating soil properties in African drylands is a serious problem that limits food production and threatensthe livelihoods of the people. Nutrient depletion and water and wind erosion are the main factors in soil degradation in Africa. This thesis describes field research conducted from 2006 through 2008 to assess how changes in physical and hydrological soil properties, induced by differences in land management and macro-faunal bi...

  11. Influence of agricultural practice on trace metals in soils and vegetation in the water conservation area along the East River (Dongjiang River), South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang, Renxiu [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-08-01

    Dongjiang (East River) is the key resource of potable water for the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Although industrial activities are limited in the water conservation area along this river, agriculture is very intensive. The present study evaluated trace metals in four soils under different cultivation. The total concentrations of trace metals decreased in the order orchard soil > vegetable soil > paddy soil > natural soil, reflecting decreasing inputs of agrochemicals to soils. Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio in the above-ground tissues of plant was significantly lower than their corresponding soils. In combination with the low transfer factor of Pb from soil to plant shoots, atmospheric deposition is probably a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves. Regular monitoring on the soil quality in this area is recommended for the safety of water resource and agricultural products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil Cd exceeded the upper limit of Chinese standard for agricultural soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Agricultural soil had higher concentrations of metals and lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb in above-ground tissues of plant was more anthropogenic than soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atmospheric deposition may be a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves.

  12. Soil Hydrological Attributes of an Integrated Crop-Livestock Agroecosystem: Increased Adaptation through Resistance to Soil Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebig, M.A; Tanaka, D.L; Kronberg, S.L; Karn, J.F; Scholljegerdes, E.J

    2011-01-01

    Integrated crop-livestock systems have been purported to have significant agronomic and environmental benefits compared to specialized, single-enterprise production systems. However, concerns exist regarding the effect of livestock in integrated systems to cause soil compaction, thereby decreasing infiltration of water into soil. Such concerns are compounded by projections of more frequent high-intensity rainfall events from anticipated climate change, which would act to increase surface runoff and soil erosion. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of residue management, frequency of hoof traffic, season, and production system (e.g., integrated annual cropping versus perennial grass) on infiltration rates from 2001 through 2008 in central North Dakota, USA. Imposed treatments had no effect on infiltration rate at three, six, and nine years after study establishment, implying that agricultural producers should not be concerned with inhibited infiltration in integrated annual cropping systems, where winter grazing is used. The use of no-till management, coupled with annual freeze/thaw and wet/dry cycles, likely conferred an inherent resistance to change in near-surface soil properties affecting soil hydrological attributes. Accordingly, caution should be exercised in applying these results to other regions or management systems.

  13. Large-Scale Agricultural Management and Soil Meso- and Macrofauna Conservation in the Argentine Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camilo Bedano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the most basic resource for sustainable agricultural production; it promotes water quality, is a key component of the biogeochemical cycles and hosts a huge diversity of organisms. However, we are not paying enough attention to soil degradation produced by land use. Modern agriculture has been successful in increasing yields but has also caused extensive environmental damage, particularly soil degradation. In the Argentine Pampas, agriculturization reached a peak with the generalized use of the no-till technological package: genetically modified soybeans tolerant to glyphosate, no-till, glyphosate, and inorganic fertilizers. This phenomenon has been widely spread in the country; the no-till package has been applied in large areas and has been used by tenants in a 60%–70% of cultivated lands. Thus, those who were involved in developing management practices may not be the same as those who will face degradation issues related to those practices. Indeed, most evidence reviewed in this paper suggests that the most widely distributed practices in the Pampas region are actually producing severe soil degradation. Biological degradation is particularly important because soil biota is involved in numerous soil processes on which soil functioning relies, affecting soil fertility and productivity. For example, soil meso- and macrofauna are especially important in nutrient cycling and in soil structure formation and maintenance, and they are key components of the network that links microbial process to the scale of fields and landscapes where ecosystem services are produced. However, the knowledge of the impact of different agricultural managements on soil meso- and macrofauna in Pampas agroecosystems is far from conclusive at this stage. The reason for this lack of definite conclusions is that this area has been given less attention than in other parts of the world; the response of soil fauna to agricultural practices is complex and taxa

  14. From GCM Output to Local Hydrologic and Ecological Impacts: Integrating Climate Change Projections into Conservation Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.; Micheli, L.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of climate change resilience, vulnerability, and adaptation options require downscaling of GCM outputs to local scales, and conversion of temperature and precipitation forcings into hydrologic and ecological responses. Recent work in the San Francisco Bay Area, and California demonstrate a practical approach to this process. First, climate futures (GCM x Emissions Scenario) are screened using cluster analysis for seasonal precipitation and temperature, to select a tractable subset of projections that still represent the range of climate projections. Second, monthly climate projections are downscaled to 270m and the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) applied, to generate fine-scale recharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration (AET), and climatic water deficit (CWD) accounting for soils, bedrock geology, topography, and local climate. Third, annual time-series are used to derive 30-year climatologies and recurrence intervals of extreme events (including multi-year droughts) at the scale of small watersheds and conservation parcels/networks. We take a "scenario-neutral" approach where thresholds are defined for system "failure," such as water supply shortfalls or drought mortality/vegetation transitions, and the time-window for hitting those thresholds is evaluated across all selected climate projections. San Francisco Bay Area examples include drought thresholds (CWD) for specific vegetation-types that identify leading/trailing edges and local refugia, evaluation of hydrologic resources (recharge and runoff) provided by conservation lands, and productivity of rangelands (AET). BCM outputs for multiple futures are becoming available to resource managers through on-line data extraction tools. This approach has wide applicability to numerous resource management issues.

  15. The efforts for cork oak forest management and their effects on soil conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laouina, A.; Aderghal, M.; Al Karkouri, J.; Antari, M.; Chaker, M.; Laghazi, Y.; Machmachi, I.; Machouri, N.; Nafaa, R.; Naimi, K.; Nouira, A.; Sfa, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Shoul oak grove is a forested ecosystem inherited from a Holocene phase of ecological optimum; its evolution, through the double geologic and human temporality, and in relation with several processes of degradation, led to the progressive loss of its environmental equilibrium and further to the reduction of its economic contributions. The fragility of these forests is the consequence of the convergence of two main factors, i) the intrinsic fragility of the forested environment based on an unstable balance between the tree, the leached soils and their moisture content ; ii) the anthropological action on the forest environment and its degradation with the change of its floristic composition. During the colonization the new context was at the origin of the new social and economic relation between the forest and the surrounding populations. The current use of this oak grove is in a classic scheme of the reports society / forest in Morocco. The population is especially of pastoral main activity in the bordering communes. But the oak groves of Mamora-Sehoul are integrated into the area of influence of several cities, what exposes the forest to the risks of uncontrolled urbanization. These oak groves are thus in the centre of interest of several stake holders with opposite behaviour and a new paradigm of relation rural/urban. Through a double approach, environmental and socio-economic, this paper will try to bring elements of answer by analyzing the interactions between a forest which reached an alarming threshold of degradation and a society affected by important changes in its modes of intervention and exploitation. (Author) 28 refs.

  16. Conserved patterns of integrated developmental plasticity in a group of polyphenic tropical butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Erik; Osbaldeston, Dave; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Brattström, Oskar; Aduse-Poku, Kwaku; Brakefield, Paul M

    2017-02-27

    Developmental plasticity is thought to have profound macro-evolutionary effects, for example, by increasing the probability of establishment in new environments and subsequent divergence into independently evolving lineages. In contrast to plasticity optimized for individual traits, phenotypic integration, which enables a concerted response of plastic traits to environmental variability, may affect the rate of local adaptation by constraining independent responses of traits to selection. Using a comparative framework, this study explores the evolution of reaction norms for a variety of life history and morphological traits across five related species of mycalesine butterflies from the Old World tropics. Our data indicate that an integrated response of a suite of key traits is shared amongst these species. Interestingly, the traits that make up the functional suite are all known to be regulated by ecdysteroid signalling in Bicyclus anynana, one of the species included in this study, suggesting the same underlying hormonal regulator may be conserved within this group of polyphenic butterflies. We also detect developmental thresholds for the expression of alternative morphs. The phenotypic plasticity of a broad suite of morphological and life history traits is integrated and shared among species from three geographically independent lineages of mycalesine butterflies, despite considerable periods of independent evolution and exposure to disparate environments. At the same time, we have detected examples of evolutionary change where independent traits show different patterns of reaction norms. We argue that the expression of more robust phenotypes may occur by shifting developmental thresholds beyond the boundaries of the typical environmental variation.

  17. Conservation agriculture among small scale farmers in semi-arid region of Kenya does improve soil biological quality and soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Geofrey; Okoba, Barrack; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    The low food production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been attributed to declining soil quality. This is due to soil degradation and fertility depletion resulting from unsustainable conventional farming practices such as continuous tillage, crop residue burning and mono cropping. To overcome these challenges, conservation agriculture (CA) is actively promoted. However, little has been done in evaluating the effect of each of the three principles of CA namely: minimum soil disturbance, maximum surface cover and diversified/crop rotation on soil quality in SSA. A study was conducted for three years from 2012 to 2015 in Laikipia East sub county in Kenya to evaluate the effect of tillage, surface cover and intercropping on a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological soil quality indicators, crop parameters and the field-water balance. This abstract reports on soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and soil organic carbon (SOC). The experimental set up was a split plot design with tillage as main treatment (conventional till (CT), no-till (NT) and no-till with herbicide (NTH)), and intercropping and surface cover as sub treatment (intercropping maize with: beans, MB; beans and leucaena, MBL; beans and maize residues at 1.5 Mg ha-1 MBMu, and dolichos, MD). NT had significantly higher SMBC by 66 and 31% compared with CT and NTH respectively. SOC was significantly higher in NTH than CT and NT by 15 and 4%, respectively. Intercropping and mulching had significant effect on SMBC and SOC. MBMu resulted in higher SMBC by 31, 38 and 43%, and SOC by 9, 20 and 22% as compared with MBL, MD and MB, respectively. SMBC and SOC were significantly affected by the interaction between tillage, intercropping and soil cover with NTMBMu and NTHMBMu having the highest SMBC and SOC, respectively. We conclude that indeed tillage, intercropping and mulching substantially affect SMBC and SOC. On the individual components of CA, tillage and surface cover had the highest effect on SMBC and

  18. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  19. Using the Rasch model as an objective and probabilistic technique to integrate different soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Francisco J.; Jesús Moral García, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is one of the simplest, least expensive soil measurements that integrates many soil properties affecting crop productivity, including, for instance, soil texture, water content, and cation exchange capacity. The ECa measurements obtained with a 3100 Veris sensor, operating in both shallow (0-30 cm), ECs, and deep (0-90 cm), ECd, mode, can be used as an additional and essential information to be included in a probabilistic model, the Rasch model, with the aim of quantifying the overall soil fertililty potential in an agricultural field. This quantification should integrate the main soil physical and chemical properties, with different units. In this work, the formulation of the Rasch model integrates 11 soil properties (clay, silt and sand content, organic matter -OM-, pH, total nitrogen -TN-, available phosphorus -AP- and potassium -AK-, cation exchange capacity -CEC-, ECd, and ECs) measured at 70 locations in a field. The main outputs of the model include a ranking of all soil samples according to their relative fertility potential and the unexpected behaviours of some soil samples and properties. In the case study, the considered soil variables fit the model reasonably, having an important influence on soil fertility, except pH, probably due to its homogeneity in the field. Moreover, ECd, ECs are the most influential properties on soil fertility and, on the other hand, AP and AK the less influential properties. The use of the Rasch model to estimate soil fertility potential (always in a relative way, taking into account the characteristics of the studied soil) constitutes a new application of great practical importance, enabling to rationally determine locations in a field where high soil fertility potential exists and establishing those soil samples or properties which have any anomaly; this information can be necessary to conduct site-specific treatments, leading to a more cost-effective and sustainable field

  20. Effects of land use and infiltration behaviour on soil conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion is a global problem because of its environmental consequences, including sedimentation and pollution in many areas of the world. Detachment of soil particles is mainly caused by rainsplash and the erosive force of overland flow. The main biophysical factor influencing the

  1. Long-term effects of conservation soil management in Saria, Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharie, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The negative degradation spiral that currently leads to deteriorating soil properties in African drylands is a serious problem that limits food production and threatensthe livelihoods of the people. Nutrient depletion and water and wind erosion are the main factors in soil degradation in Africa.

  2. Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the

  3. Can conservation trump impacts of climate change and extremes on soil erosion in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preservation of top soil is critical for the long term sustainability of agricultural productivity, food security, and biodiversity. However, today’s growing population and increasing demand for food and fiber is stressing the agricultural soil and water resources. Climate change imposes additional ...

  4. Biological soil crusts as an integral component of desert environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Weber, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    The biology and ecology of biological soil crusts, a soil surface community of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, green algae, fungi, and bacteria, have only recently been a topic of research. Most efforts began in the western U.S. (Cameron, Harper, Rushforth, and St. Clair), Australia (Rogers), and Israel (Friedmann, Evenari, and Lange) in the late 1960s and 1970s (e.g., Friedmann et al. 1967; Evenari 1985reviewed in Harper and Marble 1988). However, these groups worked independently of each other and, in fact, were often not aware of each other’s work. In addition, biological soil crust communities were seen as more a novelty than a critical component of dryland ecosystems. Since then, researchers have investigated many different aspects of these communities and have shown that although small to microscopic, biological soil crusts are critical in many ecological processes of deserts. They often cover most of desert soil surfaces and substantially mediate inputs and outputs from desert soils (Belnap et al. 2003). They can be a large source of biodiversity for deserts, as they can contain more species than the surrounding vascular plant community (Rosentreter 1986). These communities are important in reducing soil erosion and increasing soil fertility through the capture of dust and the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and carbon into forms available to other life forms (Elbert et al. 2012). Because of their many effects on soil characteristics, such as external and internal morphological characteristics, aggregate stability, soil moisture, and permeability, they also affect seed germination and establishment and local hydrological cycles. Covering up to 70% of the surface area in many arid and semi-arid regions around the world (Belnap and Lange 2003), biological soil crusts are a key component within desert environments.

  5. Infinitely many conservation laws for two integrable lattice hierarchies associated with a new discrete Schroedinger spectral problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zuo-nong; Tam, Hon-Wah; Ding, Qing

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, by means of considering matrix form of a new Schroedinger discrete spectral operator equation, and constructing opportune time evolution equations, and using discrete zero curvature representation, two discrete integrable lattice hierarchies proposed by Boiti et al. [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 (2003) 139] are re-derived. From the matrix Lax representations, we demonstrate the existence of infinitely many conservation laws for the two lattice hierarchies and give the corresponding conserved densities and the associated fluxes by means of formulae. Thus their integrability is further confirmed. Specially we obtain the infinitely many conservation laws for a new discrete version of the KdV equation. A connection between the conservation laws of the discrete KdV equation and the ones of the KdV equation is discussed by two examples

  6. Soil erosion, fertility and water conservation factors in agricultural activities in Kenya: A look at problems and efforts being made to solve them using radioisotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitonga, J.

    1980-01-01

    Inadequate nutrient supply is the major factor limiting production in the adequately rainfed region of Kenya around Lake Victoria. Phosphorus is particularly deficient and its availability difficult to determine. Soil P availability and optimum fertilizer P placement is being determined with 32 P. Serious soil erosion problems have been reduced by establishing tea on the steep slopes. The uneven rainfall distribution on the lowlands results in serious soil and water conservation problems. Residue management and terracing have provided erosion protection. Neutron probes have been used to measure water conservation. Stress tolerant crops such as an early maturing maize have proven useful. The role of International Organizations in supporting the research activities is acknowledged

  7. Reflecting on the structure of soil classification systems: insights from a proposal for integrating subsoil data into soil information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Juilleret, Jérôme; Vancampenhout, Karen; Deckers, Jozef; Hissler, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Classification of soils in both World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB) and Soil Taxonomy hinges on the identification of diagnostic horizons and characteristics. However as these features often occur within the first 100 cm, these classification systems convey little information on subsoil characteristics. An integrated knowledge of the soil, soil-to-substratum and deeper substratum continuum is required when dealing with environmental issues such as vegetation ecology, water quality or the Critical Zone in general. Therefore, we recently proposed a classification system of the subsolum complementing current soil classification systems. By reflecting on the structure of the subsoil classification system which is inspired by WRB, we aim at fostering a discussion on some potential future developments of WRB. For classifying the subsolum we define Regolite, Saprolite, Saprock and Bedrock as four Subsolum Reference Groups each corresponding to different weathering stages of the subsoil. Principal qualifiers can be used to categorize intergrades of these Subsoil Reference Groups while morphologic and lithologic characteristics can be presented with supplementary qualifiers. We argue that adopting a low hierarchical structure - akin to WRB and in contrast to a strong hierarchical structure as in Soil Taxonomy - offers the advantage of having an open classification system avoiding the need for a priori knowledge of all possible combinations which may be encountered in the field. Just as in WRB we also propose to use principal and supplementary qualifiers as a second level of classification. However, in contrast to WRB we propose to reserve the principal qualifiers for intergrades and to regroup the supplementary qualifiers into thematic categories (morphologic or lithologic). Structuring the qualifiers in this manner should facilitate the integration and handling of both soil and subsoil classification units into soil information systems and calls for paying

  8. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  9. Integration of 3d Models and Diagnostic Analyses Through a Conservation-Oriented Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, A.; Achille, C.; Tommasi, C.; Fassi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In the recent years, mature technologies for producing high quality virtual 3D replicas of Cultural Heritage (CH) artefacts has grown thanks to the progress of Information Technologies (IT) tools. These methods are an efficient way to present digital models that can be used with several scopes: heritage managing, support to conservation, virtual restoration, reconstruction and colouring, art cataloguing and visual communication. The work presented is an emblematic case of study oriented to the preventive conservation through monitoring activities, using different acquisition methods and instruments. It was developed inside a project founded by Lombardy Region, Italy, called "Smart Culture", which was aimed to realise a platform that gave the users the possibility to easily access to the CH artefacts, using as an example a very famous statue. The final product is a 3D reality-based model that contains a lot of information inside it, and that can be consulted through a common web browser. In the end, it was possible to define the general strategies oriented to the maintenance and the valorisation of CH artefacts, which, in this specific case, must consider the integration of different techniques and competencies, to obtain a complete, accurate and continuative monitoring of the statue.

  10. Adaptation to heavy rainfall events: watershed-community planning of soil and water conservation technologies in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadat, Feras; Al-Wadaey, Ahmed; Masri, Zuhair; Sakai, Hirokazu

    2010-05-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other research, predict a significant future increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events in many regions. This increase runoff and soil erosion, and reduce agricultural productivity, as well as increasing risks of flood damage to crops and infrastructure. Implementing adaptation measures and improved land management through erosion control and soil protection are among those that protect water and agriculture and limit their vulnerability. Soil erosion control practices are often based on long-term climatic averages. Special attention is needed to provide protection against average high-return frequency storms as well as severe storms with low-return frequency. Suitable and affordable soil conservation plans, coupled with an appropriate enabling environment, are needed. A watershed and community were selected in the mountainous area of North West Syria. The fields represent the non-tropical highland dry areas and dominated by olive orchards on steep slopes. Farmers were aware of resource degradation and productivity reduction, but lacked financial capital to implement the needed adaptation measures. A micro-credit system was established with the help of the UNDP Global Environment Facility - Small Grants Program (GEF-SGP) with small grants available for each farmer. Haphazard implementation on scattered fields proved inefficient in demonstrating obvious impact. Therefore, each watershed was classified into three erosion risk categories (high, moderate and low), derived from maps of flow accumulation, slope steepness, slope shape and land use. Using field survey of land ownership, the boundaries of 168 farms in the watersheds were mapped. Farmers' fields were classified using the erosion-risk map and considering the on-farm erosion hazard and the off-farm effect on other farmers' fields following the hillslope sequence. More than 60% of the farms were

  11. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overcash, Michael; Russell, Dunn; Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses operational techniques for applying mass integration design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. This paper presents a design technique for any number of wastewater streams containing multiple contaminants. The technique comprises...... a single non-linear optimization program to minimize the wastewater discharged (or maximize the amount of recycled wastewater). This program is developed based on general water allocation principles and uses the transshipment model theory to allow the “shipment” of wastewater (referred to as “sources......” or “warehouses”) to process water users (referred to as “sinks”, “demands” or “customers”). A detailed case study of industrial significance, highlighting land treatment technology, is included to illustrate the proposed methodology and various process scenarios are evaluated within this case study...

  12. Higher conserved charges and integrability for spinning strings in AdS5 x S5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engquist, Johan

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an infinite number of local commuting charges for classical solutions of the string sigma model on AdS 5 x S 5 associated with a certain circular three-spin solution spinning with large angular momenta in three orthogonal directions on the five-sphere. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find agreement to one-loop with the tower of conserved higher charges in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory associated with the dual composite single-trace operator in the highest weight representation (J 1 ,J 2 ,J 2 ) of SO(6). The agreement can be explained by the presence of integrability on both sides of the duality. (author)

  13. Integrated Conservation of the Cantonese Opera Art Museum and Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cantonese Opera, as the sole cultural heritage of Guangdong Province of China so far, which was included in the World Intangible Cultural Heritage List by the UNESCO, bears the cultural memory of the Lingnan region and as well as the overseas Chinese worldwide. Located in the core historic urban area – Enning Road of Guangzhou, the Cantonese Opera Art Museum is designed in Lingnan traditional garden manner, through going deep into the Cantonese opera culture, Lingnan traditional garden culture and Lingnan cultural spirit. The design highlights the integrated conservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, to protect living history and build the historical environment and place spirit for the intangible cultural heritage. The Cantonese Opera Art Museum is not only a tangible space for exhibition, study, education and display of the Cantonese Opera art, but also a cultural space with the Lingnan cultural memory, gathering the Lingnan intangible heritage and closely linked with current life of successors and ordinary people.

  14. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-02-05

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  15. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Ng, Kim Choon; Thuw, Kyaw; Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  16. Energy-Integrating Master Plan for the City of Atlantic City, New Jersey: energy conservation element. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The Master Plan describes a coordinated energy-conservation effort for the City, the effective application and ultimate success of which depend primarily on the active involvement of the City government and its functional departments. Following an introductory section, Section XXI, Community Energy Determinants, describes the natural and man-made environment, growth and energy profiles, and the institutional environment. Additional sections are entitled: Energy-Conservation Options (passive energy options and active energy-conservation options); Energy Integration; Community Energy Management; Energy-Conservation Implementation Plan; and an appendix containing an energy-related glossary, a directory to various sources of information on energy conservation, various technical documents, a copy of the National Energy Act, and a bibliography. (MCW)

  17. SoilCAM: soil contamination: advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Meju, M.

    2009-01-01

    The SoilCAM project is aimed at improving current methods for monitoring contaminant distribution and biodegradation in the subsurface. Currently proven methods, based on invasive sampling of soil, soil water and gaseous phase, are unable to provide sufficiently accurate data with high enough

  18. the use of integrated soil fertility approach in the improvement of soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sammy

    Innovational practices in the management of organic matters in semi-arid soil, ... Compared to other areas, a large proportion of soil in semi-arid areas has low .... combine old and new methods of nutrient management into ecologically sound and ... Furthermore, organic matter is the energy source for soil fauna and micro ...

  19. Integrating factors and conservation theorems for Hamilton‘s canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonmic nonconservative dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁杰; 刘洋; 等

    2002-01-01

    We present a general approach to the construction of conservation laws for variable mass noholonmic nonconservative systems.First,we give the definition of integrating factors,and we study in detail the necessary conditions for the existence of the conserved quantities,Then,we establish the conservatioin theorem and its inverse theorem for Hamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonocnservative dynamical systems.Finally,we give an example to illustrate the application of the results.

  20. Integrated Bird Conservation along the Pacific Coast of North America: An Action Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg Elliott; Bob Altman; Wendy Easton; Ricardo Estrella; Geoffrey Geupel; Mary Chase; Ellie Cohen; Ann Chrisney

    2005-01-01

    Scientists and managers representing the continental bird conservation plans explored the status of conservation planning and implementation for birds along the Pacific coast of North America. The theme of the session, "using common currencies to advance bird conservation," emphasized the components of bird conservation shared among the major initiatives,...

  1. Prioritizing Urban Habitats for Connectivity Conservation: Integrating Centrality and Ecological Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poodat, Fatemeh; Arrowsmith, Colin; Fraser, David; Gordon, Ascelin

    2015-09-01

    Connectivity among fragmented areas of habitat has long been acknowledged as important for the viability of biological conservation, especially within highly modified landscapes. Identifying important habitat patches in ecological connectivity is a priority for many conservation strategies, and the application of 'graph theory' has been shown to provide useful information on connectivity. Despite the large number of metrics for connectivity derived from graph theory, only a small number have been compared in terms of the importance they assign to nodes in a network. This paper presents a study that aims to define a new set of metrics and compares these with traditional graph-based metrics, used in the prioritization of habitat patches for ecological connectivity. The metrics measured consist of "topological" metrics, "ecological metrics," and "integrated metrics," Integrated metrics are a combination of topological and ecological metrics. Eight metrics were applied to the habitat network for the fat-tailed dunnart within Greater Melbourne, Australia. A non-directional network was developed in which nodes were linked to adjacent nodes. These links were then weighted by the effective distance between patches. By applying each of the eight metrics for the study network, nodes were ranked according to their contribution to the overall network connectivity. The structured comparison revealed the similarity and differences in the way the habitat for the fat-tailed dunnart was ranked based on different classes of metrics. Due to the differences in the way the metrics operate, a suitable metric should be chosen that best meets the objectives established by the decision maker.

  2. Dignity-conserving care actions in palliative care: an integrative review of Swedish research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstäde, Carina Werkander; Blomberg, Karin; Benzein, Eva; Östlund, Ulrika

    2018-03-01

    Previous research has proposed that persons in need of palliative care often have a loss of functions and roles that affects social and existential self-image. Moreover, these individuals also commonly suffer from complex multisymptoms. This, together with the situation of facing an impending death, can lead to a loss of dignity. Therefore, supporting these persons' dignity is a crucial challenge for professional nurses. The 'Dignity Care Intervention' addresses the multidimensionality of dignity by identifying patients' dignity-related concerns and suggests care actions to address them. At the present, the Dignity Care Intervention is adapted for implementation in Swedish care settings. Because expressions of dignity are influenced by culture, and an overview of care actions in a Swedish context is lacking, this integrative review aimed to find suggestions from Swedish research literature on what kind of care actions can preserve dignity. An integrative literature review was conducted using the databases SwePub and SweMed+. Articles published from 2006 to 2015 and theses published from 2000 to 2015 were searched for using the terms 'dignity' and 'palliative care'. Result sections of articles and theses were reviewed for dignity-conserving care actions synthesised by thematic analysis and categorised under themes and subthemes in Chochinov's model of dignity. Fifteen articles and 18 theses were included together providing suggestions of care actions in all themes and subthemes in the dignity model. Suggested care actions included listening, communication, information, symptom control, facilitating daily living and including patients in decision-making. Additionally, nurses' perceptiveness towards the patients was a core approach. The review offers culturally relevant suggestions on how to address specific dignity-related concerns. The adapted Dignity Care Intervention will be a way for Swedish nurses to provide person-centred palliative care that will conserve

  3. Behind the Lines of Stone: The Social Impact of a Soil and Water Conservation Project in the Sahel

    OpenAIRE

    Atampugre, N.

    1993-01-01

    Metadata only record The Projet Agro-Forestier (PAF) in Burkina Faso was set up by Oxfam in 1979 and by 1982 had developed into a large-scale operation involved in helping farmers to conserve, protect and develop their natural-resource potential. The use of the water tube in the construction of stone diguettes or bunds has proved effective as a means of halting soil erosion. The project has been evaluated by means of written questionnaires, but oral histories have also been taken into acco...

  4. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Zhang, Shao-long; Zhang, Meng-jie; Li, Xing-hua

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2) area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 0.12×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min), the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 4.91×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  5. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2 area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h and 0.12×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min, the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h and 4.91×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  6. Post-adoption behaviour of farmers towards soil and water conservation technologies of watershed management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lal Bagdi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation (IISWC and its Research Centres have developed many successful model watershed projects in India in the past and implemented many Soil and Water Conservation (SWC technologies for sustainable watershed management. While many evaluation studies were conducted on these projects in the past, there has been no assessment of the post-adoption status of the SWC technologies over a longer period. It was imperative to appraise the behaviour of the farmers with regard to the continuance or discontinuance of the technologies adopted, diffusion or infusion that took place and technological gaps that occurred in due course of time in the post watershed programme. Therefore, it was realized that the post-adoption behaviour of beneficiary farmers who have adopted different soil and water conservation technologies for watershed management projects should be studied in detail. The research study was initiated in 2012 as a core project at Vasad as the lead Centre along with IISWC headquarter Dehradun, and Centres Agra, Bellary, Chandigarh, Datia, Kota & Ooty, with the specific objectives of the study to measure the extent of post-adoption behaviour (continued-adoption, discontinuance, technological gap, diffusion and infusion of farmers towards the adopted SWC technologies of watershed management. In the present study various indices regarding continued adoption, dis-adoption (discontinuance, technological gap, diffusion, infusion regarding soil and water conservation technologies for watershed management were developed for measurement of post-adoption behaviour of farmers. It was revealed that a little less than three-fourth (73% of SWC technologies continued to be adopted and more than one-fourth (27% were discontinued by farmers. Out of the total continue adopted SWC technologies by farmers, a little less than one-fifth (19% of technologies continued to be adopted with a technological gap. More than one

  7. A micro focus with macro impact: Exploration of initial abstraction coefficient ratio (λ) in Soil Conservation Curve Number (CN) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, L; Yusop, Z

    2014-01-01

    Researchers started to cross examine United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Soil Conservation Services (SCS) Curve Number (CN) methodology after the technique produced inconsistent results throughout the world. More field data from recent decades were leaning against the assumption of the initial abstraction coefficient ratio value proposed by SCS in 1954. Physiographic conditions were identified as vital influencing factors to be considered under this methodology while practitioners of this method are encouraged to validate and derive regional specific relationship and employ the method with caution

  8. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil with poultry litter applications in conventional and conservation tillage systems in northern Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, T; Reddy, K C; Reddy, S S; Nyakatawa, E Z; Raper, R L; Reeves, D W; Lemunyon, J

    2008-01-01

    Increased CO2 release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage has generated concerns about contributions to global warming. Maintaining current levels of soil C and/or sequestering additional C in soils are important mechanisms to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere through production agriculture. We conducted a study in northern Alabama from 2003 to 2006 to measure CO2 efflux and C storage in long-term tilled and non-tilled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plots receiving poultry litter or ammonium nitrate (AN). Treatments were established in 1996 on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typic Paleudults) and consisted of conventional-tillage (CT), mulch-tillage (MT), and no-tillage (NT) systems with winter rye [Secale cereale (L.)] cover cropping and AN and poultry litter (PL) as nitrogen sources. Cotton was planted in 2003, 2004, and 2006. Corn was planted in 2005 as a rotation crop using a no-till planter in all plots, and no fertilizer was applied. Poultry litter application resulted in higher CO2 emission from soil compared with AN application regardless of tillage system. In 2003 and 2006, CT (4.39 and 3.40 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and MT (4.17 and 3.39 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) with PL at 100 kg N ha(-1) (100 PLN) recorded significantly higher CO2 efflux compared with NT with 100 PLN (2.84 and 2.47 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Total soil C at 0- to 15-cm depth was not affected by tillage but significantly increased with PL application and winter rye cover cropping. In general, cotton produced with NT conservation tillage in conjunction with PL and winter rye cover cropping reduced CO2 emissions and sequestered more soil C compared with control treatments.

  9. Linking Soil Microbial Ecology to Ecosystem Functioning in Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhanced soil stability, nutrient cycling and C sequestration potential are important ecosystem functions driven by soil microbial processes and are directly influenced by agricultural management. Integrated crop-livestock agroecosystems (ICL) can enhance these functions via high-residue returning c...

  10. Coordinating for Arctic Conservation: Implementing Integrated Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring, Data Management and Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M.; Svoboda, M.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are experiencing growing pressure from various stressors (e.g. development, climate change, contaminants, etc.) while established research and monitoring programs remain largely uncoordinated, lacking the ability to effectively monitor, understand and report on biodiversity trends at the circumpolar scale. The maintenance of healthy arctic ecosystems is a global imperative as the Arctic plays a critical role in the Earth's physical, chemical and biological balance. A coordinated and comprehensive effort for monitoring arctic ecosystems is needed to facilitate effective and timely conservation and adaptation actions. The Arctic's size and complexity represents a significant challenge towards detecting and attributing important biodiversity trends. This demands a scaled, pan-arctic, ecosystem-based approach that not only identifies trends in biodiversity, but also identifies underlying causes. It is critical that this information be made available to generate effective strategies for adapting to changes now taking place in the Arctic—a process that ultimately depends on rigorous, integrated, and efficient monitoring programs that have the power to detect change within a "management" time frame. To meet these challenges and in response to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment's recommendation to expand and enhance arctic biodiversity monitoring, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Working Group of the Arctic Council launched the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP). The CBMP is led by Environment Canada on behalf of Canada and the Arctic Council. The CBMP is working with over 60 global partners to expand, integrate and enhance existing arctic biodiversity research and monitoring efforts to facilitate more rapid detection, communication and response to significant trends and pressures. Towards this end, the CBMP has established three Expert Monitoring Groups representing major Arctic

  11. Soil-structure interaction studies for understanding the behavior of integral abutment bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) are bridges without any joints within the bridge deck or between the : superstructure and the abutments. An IAB provides many advantages during construction and maintenance of : a bridge. Soil-structure interactions at...

  12. Integral abutment bridge for Louisiana's soft and stiff soils : Tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In this project, fi eld-instrumentation, monitoring, and analyzing the design and : construction of full integral abutment bridges for Louisianas fi ne sand and silty sand : deposit and clay soil conditions were conducted. Comparison of results wa...

  13. Long‐Term Monitoring of a Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System (GRS‐IBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The geosynthetic reinforced soil integrated bridge system (GRS-IBS) is an innovative alternative to conventional bridge technology that utilizes closely spaced layers of geosynthetic reinforcement and compacted granular fill material to provide direc...

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of the Zonal Program of Castro Verde (Portugal): Highlighting the trade-off between biodiversity and soil conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marta-Predoso, C.; Domingos, T.; Freitas, H.; Groot, de R.S.

    2007-01-01

    We address the effects of erosion on the environmental services provided by the soil and explore possibilities for integrating soil erosion impacts in cost-benefit analyses of agri-environmental policies. As a case study, we considered the continued soil erosion caused by the traditional cereal

  15. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Integrated Demonstration Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Timpson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated approach that utilizes various characterization technologies has been developed for the Uranium Soil Integrated Demonstration program. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation site near Cincinnati, Ohio, was selected as the host facility for this demonstration. Characterization of background, untreated contaminated, and treated contaminated soils was performed to assess the contamination and the effect of treatment efforts to remove uranium from these soils. Carbonate minerals were present in the contaminated soils (added for erosion control) but were absent in the nearby background soils. Because of the importance of the carbonate anion to uranium solubility, the occurrence of carbonate minerals in these soils will be an important factor in the development of a successful remediation technology. Uranium partitioning data among several particle-size fractions indicate that conventional soil washing will be ineffective for remediation of these soils and that chemical extraction will be necessary to lower the uranium concentration to the target level (52 mg/kg). Carbonate-based (sodium carbonate/bicarbonate) and acid-based (sulfuric and citric acids) lixiviants were employed for the selective removal of uranium from these soils. Characterization results have identified uranium phosphate minerals as the predominant uranium mineral form in both the untreated and treated soils. The low solubility associated with phosphate minerals is primarily responsible for their occurrence in the posttreated soils. Artificial weathering of the treated soils caused by the treatments, particularly acid-based lixiviants, was documented by their detrimental effects on several physicochemical characteristics of these soils (e.g., soil pH, particle-size distribution, and mineralogy)

  16. FARM LEVEL DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SOIL CONSERVATION: AN APPLICATION TO THE PIEDMONT AREA OF VIRGINIA

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra, Eduardo; Taylor, Daniel B.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual optimal control theory model which considers farm level decision making with respect to soil management is developed. A simplified version of the theoretical model is applied to the Piedmont area of Virginia. The model includes the productivity impacts of both soil erosion and technological progress. Both the theoretical model and its empirical application are improvements over previous efforts. Results suggest that farmers in the study area can achieve substantial reductions in ...

  17. Assessment of soil erosion and conservation on agricultural sloping lands using plot data in the semi-arid hilly loess region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.X. Zhu

    2014-11-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The results revealed that runoff per unit area slightly increased with slope angle on SSP, but reached a maximum at 15° and then decreased with slope angle on LSP. Soil loss per unit area increased with slope angle on both SSP and LSP. An average of 36.4% less runoff but only 3.6% less soil loss per unit area was produced on LSP than on SSP. The S factor calculated using the slope factor equations in USLE/RUSLE was significantly greater than that estimated from the measured soil loss on the plots. Rainstorms with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years were responsible for more than two thirds of the total soil and water loss. The effectiveness in reducing surface runoff by five types of conservation practices was mixed. However, all the conservation practices yielded much less soil loss than cropland.

  18. Co-evolution of soil and water conservation policy and human-environment linkages in the Yellow River Basin since 1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Mu, Xingmin; Li, Rui; Fleskens, Luuk; Stringer, Lindsay C; Ritsema, Coen J

    2015-03-01

    Policy plays a very important role in natural resource management as it lays out a government framework for guiding long-term decisions, and evolves in light of the interactions between human and environment. This paper focuses on soil and water conservation (SWC) policy in the Yellow River Basin (YRB), China. The problems, rural poverty, severe soil erosion, great sediment loads and high flood risks, are analyzed over the period of 1949-present using the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework as a way to organize analysis of the evolution of SWC policy. Three stages are identified in which SWC policy interacts differently with institutional, financial and technology support. In Stage 1 (1949-1979), SWC policy focused on rural development in eroded areas and on reducing sediment loads. Local farmers were mainly responsible for SWC. The aim of Stage 2 (1980-1990) was the overall development of rural industry and SWC. A more integrated management perspective was implemented taking a small watershed as a geographic interactional unit. This approach greatly improved the efficiency of SWC activities. In Stage 3 (1991 till now), SWC has been treated as the main measure for natural resource conservation, environmental protection, disaster mitigation and agriculture development. Prevention of new degradation became a priority. The government began to be responsible for SWC, using administrative, legal and financial approaches and various technologies that made large-scale SWC engineering possible. Over the historical period considered, with the implementation of the various SWC policies, the rural economic and ecological system improved continuously while the sediment load and flood risk decreased dramatically. The findings assist in providing a historical perspective that could inform more rational, scientific and effective natural resource management going forward. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of the adoption of integrated soil fertility management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... focused approach to achieve sustainable soil fertility management among smallholder farmers. ... entry points that can help in developing innovative ISFM technologies.

  20. Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System, Synthesis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report is the second in a two-part series to provide engineers with the necessary background knowledge of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) technology and its fundamental characteristics as an alternative to other construction methods. It suppl...

  1. Integrated evaluation of soil quality after the incorporation of organic matter and microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valarini Pedro J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil quality was evaluated following the addition of organic matter and microorganisms to a clay loam soil collected in Aranjuez (Madrid under controlled conditions of temperature and moisture, and over a period of three months. The following treatments were carried out: soil (control; soil + 50 t/ha of animal manure (E50; soil + 50 t/ha of animal manure + 30l/ha of effective microorganisms (E50EM; soil + 30 t/ha of combination of various green crop residues and weeds (RC30 and soil + 30 t/ha of combination of various green crop residues and weeds + 30l/ha of effective microorganisms (RC30EM. The soil samples were taken before and after the incubation and analysed using physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. A significant increase in the production of polysaccharides and alkaline phosphatase and esterase enzymes in the treatments E50EM and RC30EM was observed, being in direct correlation with the humification of the organic matter, with the water retention at field capacity, and with the cationic exchange capacity (CEC. It can be concluded that the incorporation of microorganisms EM potentialized the soil biological activity and improved physico-chemical soil properties, contributing to a quick humification of fresh organic matter. Those findings were proved by microbiological activities of exopolysaccharides by alcaline phosphatase and esterase enzymes, which can be used as earlier and integral soil health indicators.

  2. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Fraga

    Full Text Available The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  3. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  4. Towards Integrating Soil Quality Monitoring Targets as Measures of Soil Natural Capital Stocks with the Provision of Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. D.; Mackay, A. D.; Dominati, E.; Hill, R. B.

    2012-04-01

    with appropriate targets tied to ecosystem services and changes in critical soil function. Such indicators would be used for specific purposes for limited periods, rather than long-term, continuous monitoring. Some examples will be presented. An important step needed to successfully initiate and complete the review was assigning national oversight. Reigniting scientific interest (which had declined with the cessation of funding in 2003) and documentation of the process were other important steps. We had to extend the recently developed ecosystem service approach to accommodate the catchment scale. This required additional attributes in the framework and recognition that some of the proxies will change with scale as will the techniques to value the services. The framework was originally developed for use at the farm scale. Macroporosity, one of the two indicators used to monitor the physical condition of the soil, was used to illustrate how the ecosystem service framework could be used to link a change in the physical condition of the soil with the provision of services. The sum of the dollar values of selected soil ecosystem services were used to inform the state of soil natural capital stocks. This estimate provides a new insight into the value of the soil quality indicators and existing target ranges. Doing so will enable targets to be more closely aligned and integrated with the provision of a range of ecosystem services, going far beyond food production.

  5. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    methods that were used by the USGS in 2012 to collect and process USDA agricultural conservation data, and also documents methods that were used by the jurisdictions to integrate Federal and State data records, reduce double counting, and provide an accurate reporting of conservation practices to the CBP Partnership’s Annual Progress Review. A similar tracking, reporting, and assessment will occur in future years, as State and Federal governments and nongovernmental organizations continue to work with farmers and conservation districts to reduce the impacts of agriculture on water-quality.

  6. The Potential of Improved Fallows to Improve and Conserve the Fertility of Nutrients-Depleted Soils of Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jama, B.; Amandou, I.; Niang; Amadalo, B.; Wolf, J.; Rao, M.R.; Buresh, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Maize yields are low low and declining in the densely populated highlands of Western Kenya where soils are deficient mainly in nitrogen, phosphrous and, in some areas potassium. Over the last seven years, a team of scientists from several agricultural institutions, national and international has been developing and testing on-farm soil fertility improving technologies. Improved fallows of fast-growing leguminous species appear to be one such technology that could be a more productive alternative to the commonly practiced natural fallows. Sesbania session, Crotolaria grahamiana and Tephrosia vogelii are some the promising species. In six to eight months, fallows of these species can root to N rich subsoil (0.5-2 m) below the soil surface and recycle it to the surface soil through leaf and root litter. Within this period, N sufficient for the requirements of moderate maize yields (3-4 t ha -1 ) can be recycled particular y in sites not limited by available soil P. Such fallows can also recycle sufficient K in K deficient sites. Unfortunately soils in most areas of Western Kenya are P deficient and although improved fallows can enhance the availability of soil P less available to crops, they cannot increase its supply. Under these conditions, P inputs from external sources is necessary to improve crop yields meaningfully and economically. Agronomic evaluations of inorganic P sources for maize suggests Minjingu phosphates rock can be alternative to more expensive water-soluble P sources, e.g., triple superphosphate. The need for P input and the benefits of integrating it with improved fallows in order to overcome deficiencies of other nutrients, particularly N and K is highlighted in this paper

  7. Determining uranium speciation in contaminated soils by molecular spectroscopic methods: Examples from the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.G.; Berg, J.M.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Conradson, S.D.; Donohoe, R.J.; Morris, D.E.; Musgrave, J.A.; Tait, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's former uranium production facility located at Fernald, OH (18 mi NW of Cincinnati) is the host site for an Integrated Demonstration for remediation of uranium-contaminated soils. A wide variety of source terms for uranium contamination have been identified reflecting the diversity of operations at the facility. Most of the uranium contamination is contained in the top ∼1/2 m of soil, but uranium has been found in perched waters indicating substantial migration. In support of the development of remediation technologies and risk assessment, we are conducting uranium speciation studies on untreated and treated soils using molecular spectroscopies. Untreated soils from five discrete sites have been analyzed. We have found that ∼80--90% of the uranium exists as hexavalent UO 2 2+ species even though many source terms consisted of tetravalent uranium species such as UO 2 . Much of the uranium exists as microcrystalline precipitates (secondary minerals). There is also clear evidence for variations in uranium species from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale. However, similarities in speciation at sites having different source terms suggest that soil and groundwater chemistry may be as important as source term in defining the uranium speciation in these soils. Characterization of treated soils has focused on materials from two sites that have undergone leaching using conventional extractants (e.g., carbonate, citrate) or novel chelators such as Tiron. Redox reagents have also been used to facilitate the leaching process. Three different classes of treated soils have been identified based on the speciation of uranium remaining in the soils. In general, the effective treatments decrease the total uranium while increasing the ratio of U(IV) to U(VI) species

  8. Farmers' Perception of Integrated Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production: A Study of Rural Areas in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouque, Md. Golam; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine farmers' perception of integrated soil fertility and nutrient management for sustainable crop production. Integrated soil fertility (ISF) and nutrient management (NM) is an advanced approach to maintain soil fertility and to enhance crop productivity. A total number of 120 farmers from eight villages in four districts…

  9. Three-Dimensional Conformal Simultaneously Integrated Boost Technique for Breast-Conserving Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Dolsma, Wil V.; Maduro, John H.; Korevaar, Erik W.; Hollander, Miranda; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the target coverage and normal tissue dose with the simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) and the sequential boost technique in breast cancer, and to evaluate the incidence of acute skin toxicity in patients treated with the SIB technique. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early-stage left-sided breast cancer underwent breast-conserving radiotherapy using the SIB technique. The breast and boost planning target volumes (PTVs) were treated simultaneously (i.e., for each fraction, the breast and boost PTVs received 1.81 Gy and 2.3 Gy, respectively). Three-dimensional conformal beams with wedges were shaped and weighted using forward planning. Dose-volume histograms of the PTVs and organs at risk with the SIB technique, 28 x (1.81 + 0.49 Gy), were compared with those for the sequential boost technique, 25 x 2 Gy + 8 x 2 Gy. Acute skin toxicity was evaluated for 90 patients treated with the SIB technique according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Results: PTV coverage was adequate with both techniques. With SIB, more efficiently shaped boost beams resulted in smaller irradiated volumes. The mean volume receiving ≥107% of the breast dose was reduced by 20%, the mean volume outside the boost PTV receiving ≥95% of the boost dose was reduced by 54%, and the mean heart and lung dose were reduced by 10%. Of the evaluated patients, 32.2% had Grade 2 or worse toxicity. Conclusion: The SIB technique is proposed for standard use in breast-conserving radiotherapy because of its dose-limiting capabilities, easy implementation, reduced number of treatment fractions, and relatively low incidence of acute skin toxicity

  10. Limited benefit of inversely optimised intensity modulation in breast conserving radiotherapy with simultaneously integrated boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Dolsma, Wil V.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Korevaar, Erik W.; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Maduro, John H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine whether in breast-conserving radiotherapy (RT) with simultaneously integrated boost (SIB), application of inversely planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT-SIB) instead of three-dimensional RT (3D-CRT-SIB) has benefits that justify the additional costs, and to evaluate whether a potential benefit of IMRT-SIB depends on specific patient characteristics. Material and methods: 3D-CRT-SIB and various IMRT-SIB treatment plans were constructed and optimised for 30 patients with early stage left-sided breast cancer. Coverage of planning target volumes (PTVs) and dose delivered to organs at risk (OARs) were determined for each plan. Overlap between heart and breast PTV (OHB), size of breast and boost PTVs and boost location were examined in their ability to identify patients that might benefit from IMRT-SIB. Results: All plans had adequate PTV coverage. IMRT-SIB generally reduced dose levels delivered to heart, lungs, and normal breast tissue relative to 3D-CRT-SIB. However, IMRT-SIB benefit differed per patient. For many patients, comparable results were obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB, while patients with OHB > 1.4 cm and a relatively large boost PTV volume (>125 cm 3 ) gained most from the use of IMRT-SIB. Conclusions: In breast-conserving RT, results obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB and IMRT-SIB are generally comparable. Patient characteristics could be used to identify patients that are most likely to benefit from IMRT-SIB.

  11. Cesium-137 in soils of conservation units of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, M.V.Sá; Silva Neto, P.C.; Farias, E.E.G. de; Cantinha, R.S.; França, E.J. de

    2017-01-01

    The study of concentrations of 137 Cs in the soil is of fundamental environmental importance, since the chemical similarity of cesium and potassium can cause the accumulation of these radionuclides in plants. This work presents the determination of 137 Cs in the soils of the permanent plots installed in the Ecological Station of Assis (EEA), the Carlos Botelho State Park (PECB), the Caetetus Ecological Station (EEC) and the Ilha do Cardoso State Park (PEIC), representative of the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes in the State of São Paulo. The soil samples were quantified by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry - EGAR, with HPGe detector. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs were below the detection limit of 1.01 Bq kg -1 in Cerrado soils (EEA). In the soils of the Atlantic Forest, activity concentrations of 137 Cs ranging from 1.32 Bq kg -1 to 4.07 Bq kg - '1 were quantified for EEC (Semi-deciduous Seasonal Forest), from 1.30 Bq kg -1 to 7.40 Bq kg -1 for PEIC (Restinga Forest) and 1.31 Bq kg -1 at 23.30 Bq kg - '1 for PECB (Dense Ombrophylous Forest). Considering the higher activity concentration values of 137 Cs in PECB, more detailed studies will be needed to know the fact of 137 Cs in the Atlantic Forest

  12. Costs, tariffs and electric power conservation: integrated purpose for the solution of the distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, R.

    1992-01-01

    The relations between costs and prices theory of energy with electricity conservation are discussed, analysing the demand characteristics by electricity and the importance of their knowledge for defining a politics for conservation. The theoretic treatment of the question is considered, mentioning the paper of the clients and the distributors, and the methodology used for energy conservation. (C.G.C.)

  13. Data resources for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Garman, Steven L.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this report were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA). The WLCI is a long-term science based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale in southwest Wyoming while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. The IA is an integrated synthesis and analysis of WLCI resource values based on best available data and information collected from multiple agencies and organizations. It is a support tool for landscape-scale conservation planning and evaluation, and a data and analysis resource that can be used for addressing specific management questions. The IA analysis was conducted using a Geographic Information System in a raster (that is, a grid) environment using a cell size of 30 meters. To facilitate the interpretation of the data in a regional context, mean values were summarized and displayed at the subwatershed unit (WLCI subwatersheds were subset from the National Hydrography Dataset, Hydrologic Unit Code 12/Level 6). A dynamic mapping platform, accessed via the WLCI webpage at http://www.wlci.gov is used to display the mapped information, and to access underlying resource values that were combined to produce the final mapped results. The raster data used in the IA are provided here for use by interested parties to conduct additional analyses and can be accessed via the WLCI webpage. This series contains 74 spatial data sets: WLCI subwatersheds (vector) and 73 geotiffs (raster) that are segregated into the major categories of Multicriteria Index (including Resource Index and Condition), Change Agents, and Future Change. The Total Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Multicriteria Index and the Terrestrial Multicriteria Index. The Aquatic Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Resource Index and the Aquatic Condition. The Aquatic Resource Index is composed of the

  14. Integrated Palmer Amaranth Management in Glufosinate-Resistant Cotton: II. Primary, Secondary and Conservation Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A three year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of soil inversion, cover crops and spring tillage methods for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR and within-row (WR management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. Main plots were two soil inversion treatments: fall inversion tillage (IT and non-inversion tillage (NIT. Subplots were three cover treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye or none (i.e., winter fallow; and the sub subplots were four secondary spring tillage methods: disking followed by (fb cultivator (DCU, disking fb chisel plow (DCH, disking fb disking (DD and no tillage (NT. Averaged over years and soil inversion, the crimson clover produced maximum cover biomass (4390 kg ha−1 fb cereal rye (3698 kg ha−1 and winter fallow (777 kg ha−1. Two weeks after planting (WAP and before the postemergence (POST application, Palmer amaranth WR and BR density were two- and four-times less, respectively, in IT than NIT. Further, Palmer amaranth WR and BR density were reduced two-fold following crimson clover and cereal rye than following winter fallow at 2 WAP. Without IT, early season Palmer amaranth densities were 40% less following DCU, DCH and DD, when compared with IT. Following IT, no spring tillage method improved Palmer amaranth control. The timely application of glufosinate + S-metolachlor POST tank mixture greatly improved Palmer amaranth control in both IT and NIT systems. The highest cotton yields were obtained with DD following cereal rye (2251 kg ha−1, DD following crimson clover (2213 kg ha−1 and DD following winter fallow (2153 kg ha−1. On average, IT cotton yields (2133 kg ha−1 were 21% higher than NIT (1766 kg ha−1. Therefore, from an integrated weed management standpoint, an occasional fall IT could greatly reduce Palmer amaranth emergence on farms highly infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. In addition, a cereal rye or crimson clover cover crop can effectively reduce early season Palmer

  15. Diversity in soil seed bank of Sinai and implications for conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the diversity level of seed bank is important for designing conservation and restoration programs especially in arid ecosystems. A diverse of diversity indices has been used in evaluating seed communities regardless of its suitability to measure the ecological quality of the targeted biological community.

  16. Soil carbon sequestration potential in semi-arid grasslands in the conservation reserve program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the USA plays a major role in carbon (C) sequestration to help mitigate rising CO2 levels and climate change. The Southern High Plains (SHP) region contains N900.000 ha enrolled in CRP, but a regionally specific C sequestration rate has not been studied, and...

  17. Study the Soil Quality Changes Indicators Using Nemoro and Integrated Quality Index Models in Some Khuzestan’s Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramezani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aspects of the physical, chemical and biological are considered. Land degradation for soil quality, or improve soil quality assessment is important.This study was conducted to evaluate soil quality indicators using quantitative models in some lands of Khuzestan province (Iran.Such studies, which are carried out to create a balance between the biological production and the maintenance and improvement of land resource quality, provide a framework for land degradation control and also for identification of sustainable management. Such studies, which are carried out to create a balance between the biological production and the maintenance and improvement of land resource quality, provide a framework for land degradation control and also for identification of sustainable management. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of crop management and cultivation on soil quality, Select several Khuzestan region and Samples were taken from the surrounding cultivated land. Physiochemical characteristics of soil samples from a depth of0-30 cm such as soil texture, bulk density (Db, mean weight diameter of wet aggregates (MWD, relative field capacity (RFC, air capacity (FA,plant available water capacity (AWC, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, organic carbon (OC,electrical conductivity (EC, pH, soluble cations (Mg, Ca, Na,sodium absorption ratio (SAR, exchange sodium percent (ESP and cation exchange capacity were determined (CEC. The soil quality was evaluated by integrated quality index (IQI and Nemero quality index (NQI in two data sets of soil properties including MDS and TDS. In these models, a set of characteristics that affect the quality of the soil in the form of a mathematical model incorporating and to propose a numerical quantity this number serve as general indicator of soil quality, Reflect the characteristics of the target. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there was significant correlation between

  18. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Anderson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010–2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI surface energy balance algorithm, and physically based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the

  19. Quantification of the Impact of Integrated Soil and Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    can be retained by these physical measures were computed using the measured dimensions of the structures (Table 1). Table 1. Physical conservation measures and actual volume of surface runoff that can be contained by the structures (as it was measured in April 2012). No. Type of physical SWC Unit Volume of work.

  20. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can enhance productivity and soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa and corn silage are widely planted for dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA, accounting for about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively. Much of this area could benefit from strategies to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses. Because the...

  1. Integrated vacuum extraction/pneumatic soil fracturing system for remediation of low permeability soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaines, A.L.; Piniewski, R.J.; Yarbrough, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    There is wide use of vacuum extraction to remove volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from unsaturated soil. At sites with soil of low permeability, VOC extraction rates may not be sufficient to meet soil clean-up objectives within the desired time frame. During vacuum extraction in low permeability soil, the diffusion rates of VOCs through the soil matrix may limit VOC removal rates. An increase in the number of subsurface paths for advective flow through the contaminated zone results in a larger mass of contaminant being removed in a shorter time frame, accelerating site remediation. One technique for increasing the number of subsurface flow paths is Terra Vac's process of pneumatic soil fracturing (PSF). In this process, pressurized air is injected into the subsurface, creating micro-fractures for the vacuum extraction system to withdraw contaminants. Similar to hydraulic fracturing techniques long used in the petroleum industry for increasing yield from oil and gas production wells, this technique has applications for soil remediation in low permeability conditions. Two case studies, one in Louisiana at a gasoline service station and one at a manufacturing plant in New York, are presented

  2. Breast Conserving Treatment for Breast Cancer: Dosimetric Comparison of Sequential versus Simultaneous Integrated Photon Boost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Van Parijs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast conserving surgery followed by whole breast irradiation is widely accepted as standard of care for early breast cancer. Addition of a boost dose to the initial tumor area further reduces local recurrences. We investigated the dosimetric benefits of a simultaneously integrated boost (SIB compared to a sequential boost to hypofractionate the boost volume, while maintaining normofractionation on the breast. Methods. For 10 patients 4 treatment plans were deployed, 1 with a sequential photon boost, and 3 with different SIB techniques: on a conventional linear accelerator, helical TomoTherapy, and static TomoDirect. Dosimetric comparison was performed. Results. PTV-coverage was good in all techniques. Conformity was better with all SIB techniques compared to sequential boost (P = 0.0001. There was less dose spilling to the ipsilateral breast outside the PTVboost (P = 0.04. The dose to the organs at risk (OAR was not influenced by SIB compared to sequential boost. Helical TomoTherapy showed a higher mean dose to the contralateral breast, but less than 5 Gy for each patient. Conclusions. SIB showed less dose spilling within the breast and equal dose to OAR compared to sequential boost. Both helical TomoTherapy and the conventional technique delivered acceptable dosimetry. SIB seems a safe alternative and can be implemented in clinical routine.

  3. Breast conserving treatment for breast cancer: dosimetric comparison of sequential versus simultaneous integrated photon boost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parijs, Hilde; Reynders, Truus; Heuninckx, Karina; Verellen, Dirk; Storme, Guy; De Ridder, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery followed by whole breast irradiation is widely accepted as standard of care for early breast cancer. Addition of a boost dose to the initial tumor area further reduces local recurrences. We investigated the dosimetric benefits of a simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) compared to a sequential boost to hypofractionate the boost volume, while maintaining normofractionation on the breast. For 10 patients 4 treatment plans were deployed, 1 with a sequential photon boost, and 3 with different SIB techniques: on a conventional linear accelerator, helical TomoTherapy, and static TomoDirect. Dosimetric comparison was performed. PTV-coverage was good in all techniques. Conformity was better with all SIB techniques compared to sequential boost (P = 0.0001). There was less dose spilling to the ipsilateral breast outside the PTVboost (P = 0.04). The dose to the organs at risk (OAR) was not influenced by SIB compared to sequential boost. Helical TomoTherapy showed a higher mean dose to the contralateral breast, but less than 5 Gy for each patient. SIB showed less dose spilling within the breast and equal dose to OAR compared to sequential boost. Both helical TomoTherapy and the conventional technique delivered acceptable dosimetry. SIB seems a safe alternative and can be implemented in clinical routine.

  4. Integrated research in archaeology using soil micromorphology and palynology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, M.J.; Kooistra, L.I.

    2003-01-01

    Archaeologists often encounter problems in interpreting the genesis of layers and the context in which specific materials occur in excavations. Field visits of geologists, soil scientists or biologists can solve a number of questions, but often, problems remain that only can be studied by

  5. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  6. A systematic survey of the integration of animal behavior into conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Carroll, Scott; Fisher, Robert N.; Mesnick, Sarah L.; Owen, Megan A.; Saltz, David; St. Claire, Colleen Cassady; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    The role of behavioral ecology in improving wildlife conservation and management has been the subject of much recent debate. We aim to answer two foundational questions about the current use of behavioral knowledge in conservation: 1. To what extent is behavioral knowledge used in wildlife conservation and management? 2. How does the use of behavior differ among conservation fields in both frequency and types of use? To answer these questions, we searched the literature for intersections between key fields of animal behavior and conservation biology and created a systematic ‘heat’ map to visualize relative efforts. Our analysis challenges previous suggestions that there is little association between the fields of behavioral ecology and conservation and reveals tremendous variation in the use of different behaviors in conservation. For instance, some behaviors, such as foraging and dispersal, are commonly considered, but other behaviors such as learning, social or anti-predatory behaviors are hardly considered. Our analysis suggests that in many cases awareness of the importance of behavior does not translate into applicable management tools. We recommend that researchers should focus on developing research in underutilized intersections of behavior and conservation themes for which preliminary work show a potential for improving conservation and management, on translating behavioral theory into applicable and testable predictions, and on creating systematic reviews to summarize the behavioral evidence within the behavior-conservation intersections for which many studies exist.

  7. the use of integrated soil fertility approach in the improvement of soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sammy

    improvement of soil texture and structure, thus boosters food production in the ecological region. ... the farm (Strainer 1984, Nicholaida et al 1985, Juo 1987, Renand et al 1997, ... degraded each year, due principally to water and wind erosion.

  8. Integrating Science & Management: Florida Scrub-Jay Conservation along the Central Florida's Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David R.

    2018-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays are a species listed under the Endangered Species Act. The NASA Ecology program has been a partner for conservation, recovery, and translocation across the species range. The objectives of this talk are to update members of the Archie Carr Working Group recovery, conservation, and translocation activities and describe how the Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge and nearby conservation lands relate to species recovery actions.

  9. Effects of Long-term Conservation Tillage on Soil Nutrients in Sloping Fields in Regions Characterized by Water and Wind Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunjian; Cao, Xue; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weiyu; Feng, Yongzhong; Qiao, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation tillage is commonly used in regions affected by water and wind erosion. To understand the effects of conservation tillage on soil nutrients and yield, a long-term experiment was set up in a region affected by water and wind erosion on the Loess Plateau. The treatments used were traditional tillage (CK), no tillage (NT), straw mulching (SM), plastic-film mulching (PM), ridging and plastic-film mulching (RPM) and intercropping (In). Our results demonstrate that the available nutrients in soils subjected to non-traditional tillage treatments decreased during the first several years and then remained stable over the last several years of the experiment. The soil organic matter and total nitrogen content increased gradually over 6 years in all treatments except CK. The nutrient content of soils subjected to conservative tillage methods, such as NT and SM, were significantly higher than those in soils under the CK treatment. Straw mulching and film mulching effectively reduced an observed decrease in soybean yield. Over the final 6 years of the experiment, soybean yields followed the trend RPM > PM > SM > NT > CK > In. This trend has implications for controlling soil erosion and preventing non-point source pollution in sloping fields by sacrificing some food production.

  10. Chemical and physical soil attributes in integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Hernani Alves da; Moraes,Anibal de; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio; Fonseca,Adriel Ferreira da; Caires,Eduardo Fávero; Dias,Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Although integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) under no-tillage (NT) is an attractive practice for intensify agricultural production, little regional information is available on the effects of animal grazing and trampling, particularly dairy heifers, on the soil chemical and physical attributes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of animal grazing on the chemical and physical attributes of the soil after 21 months of ICLS under NT in a succession of annual winter pastur...

  11. Determinants of farmers’ perception to invest in soil and water conservation technologies in the North-Western Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalew Meseret Moges

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion by water is a severe and continuous ecological problem in the north-western Highlands of Ethiopia. Limited perception of farmers to practice soil and water conservation (SWC technologies is one of the major causes that have resulted accelerated soil erosion. Therefore, this paper examines the major determinants of farmers’ perception to use and invest in SWC technologies in Ankasha District, north-western highlands of Ethiopia. A detailed field survey was carried out among 338 households, randomly selected from two rural sample kebeles (called villages here after. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression model were used to analyse the effects of multiple variables on farmers’ perception. The results indicate that educational level of the respondents and their access to trainings were found to have a positive and very significant association (P<0.01 with farmers’ perception. Likewise, land ownership, plot size, slope type, and extension contact positively and significantly influenced farmers’ perception at 5% level of significance. On the other hand, the influence of respondents’ age and plot distance from the homestead was found to be negative and significant (P<0.05. The overall results of this study indicate that the perception of farmers to invest in SWC technologies was highly determined by socioeconomic, institutional, attitudinal and biophysical factors. Thus, a better understanding of constrains that influence farmers' perception is very important while designing and implementing SWC technologies. Frequent contacts between farmers and extension agents and continues agricultural trainings are also needed to increase awareness of the impacts of SWC benefits.

  12. Continuous multi-criteria methods for crop and soil conservation planning on La Colacha (Río Cuarto, Province of Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Antón

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Agro-areas of Arroyos Menores (La Colacha west and south of Río Cuarto (Prov. of Córdoba, Argentina basins are very fertile but have high soil loses. Extreme rain events, inundations and other severe erosions forming gullies demand urgently actions in this area to avoid soil degradation and erosion supporting good levels of agro production. The authors first improved hydrologic data on La Colacha, evaluated the systems of soil uses and actions that could be recommended considering the relevant aspects of the study area and applied decision support systems (DSS with mathematic tools for planning of defences and uses of soils in these areas. These were conducted here using multi-criteria models, in multi-criteria decision making (MCDM; first of discrete MCDM to chose among global types of use of soils, and then of continuous MCDM to evaluate and optimize combined actions, including repartition of soil use and the necessary levels of works for soil conservation and for hydraulic management to conserve against erosion these basins. Relatively global solutions for La Colacha area have been defined and were optimised by Linear Programming in Goal Programming forms that are presented as Weighted or Lexicographic Goal Programming and as Compromise Programming. The decision methods used are described, indicating algorithms used, and examples for some representative scenarios on La Colacha area are given.

  13. Effects of hand-hoe tilled conservation farming on soil quality and carbon stocks under on-farm conditions in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, V; Shitumbanuma, V; Mulder, J

    2017-01-01

    Conservation farming (CF) has been promoted in Zambia since the 1980s. Despite long-term practice of CF in Zambia, its effect on soil fertility, including the storage of soil organic matter (SOM), on smallholder farms are inconclusive. Here, we assess the effect of CF as compared to conventional....... Overall, our results show small differences in the soil quality parameters between the CF and conventional practices at smallholder farms after maximum 12 years since adoption of CF....... tillage on soil quality parameters on smallholder farms in the Eastern province (EP, 20 sites, two to six years of CF) and Central province (CP, 20 sites, four to twelve years of CF) in Zambia. Soils under CF (minimum tillage hoe basins, crop rotation and residue retention) were compared with adjacent...

  14. Soil Conservation Techniques for Hillside Farms. A Guide for Peace Corps Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Reprint Series No. R-62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Carl

    This guide provides agricultural extensionists with basic information that will help them design plans for the conservation of soils and the management of water runoff in specific agricultural plots. It is based on experiences with small hillside farms in Honduras and takes into account the resources and constraints commonly encountered there.…

  15. Positive impacts in soil and water conservation in an Andean region of South America: Case scenarios from a USAID multidisciplinary cooperative project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USAID-SANREM-Virginia Polytechnic Institute project has made and continues to make an excellent impact, specifically showcasing the positive results of soil and water conservation (Barrera et al. 2010a; 2010b). This project has strong international cooperation between the USA, Ecuador and Bolivi...

  16. Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: Supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunink, J.E.; Droogers, P.; Kauffman, J.H.; Mwaniki, B.M.; Bouma, J.

    2012-01-01

    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to

  17. Co-evolution of soil and water conservation policy and human-environment linkages in the Yellow River Basin since 1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Mu, X.; Li, R.; Fleskens, L.; Stringer, L.C.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Policy plays a very important role in natural resource management as it lays out a government framework for guiding long-term decisions, and evolves in light of the interactions between human and environment. This paper focuses on soil and water conservation (SWC) policy in the Yellow River Basin

  18. Voluntary cooperation in the provision of a semi-public good : Community-based soil and water conservation in semi-arid India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation analyses the question whether households in India’s semi-arid tropics can be expected to voluntarily maintain semi-public investments in soil and water conservation. Increasingly, public investment programs decentralise project planning, implementation and management to local

  19. Can conservation trump impacts of climate change on soil erosion? An assessment from winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the need to increase crop production to meet the needs of growing population, protecting the productivity of our soil resource is essential. However, conservationists are concerned that conservation practices that were effective in the past may no longer be effective in the future under project...

  20. Integral biostimulation of soil polluted by 60000 ppm of motor waste oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucedo-Martínez Blanca Celeste

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste motor oil (WMO is a mixture of hydrocarbons (HICO soil pollutants. An alternative solution for its elimination is the biostimulation (BIS, secuancial, complementary and accumulative or integral which requires at first BIS by detergents to emulsify WMO, the second one following by enrichment by mineral solution, H2O2 as a O2 source for oxidation of WMO and controlling moisture soil content at 80% field capacity for exchange gases in soil to stimulate WMO mineralization The aim of the work was: i analyze in the integral BIS of contaminated soil by 60000 ppm of WMO. The first BIS was applying detergents to emulsify the WMO, the second BIS by mineral solution, then by H2O2, under humidity control at 80% of field capacity, for the best oxidation of WMO. Additionally bacterial population oxidant WMO was meas-ured, to select those which synthetized detergent related to WMO degradation, finally the type of bacteria were molecular identify. Results showed than integral BIS by an anionic / nonionic detergent, then en-richment with mineral solution, and 0.5% H2O2, reduced WMO from 60000 ppm to 27200 ppm in 23 days. Density of bacterial WMO oxidant population was 268 X 106 CFU/g dry soil, from which the domi-nant ones were selected and identified 47 bacterial genera divided into: Actinomycetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. These results showed that soil pollution by high concentration level of WMO demanded at integrated BIS, also was found some bacterial genus which synthetized detergent with potential used in soil polluted by WMO.

  1. [Impact of rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference: A case study of Xingguo, Shangrao, and Yujiang County in Jiangxi province ecologically vulnerable districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tai-Yang; Huang, Xian-jin

    2006-02-01

    The paper analyzed the farm households' decision-making progress of soil & water conservation and its two-stage conceptual model. It also discussed the impacts of rural land market on the farm households' behavior of soil & water conservation. Given that, the article established models for the relations between the land market and soil & water conservation, and the models' parameters were estimated with Heckman's two-stage approach by using the farm household questionnaires in Xingguo, Shangrao and Yujiang counties of Jiangxi province. The paper analyzed the impact o f rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference with the result of model estimation. The results show that the perception of soil & water loss and the tax & fee on the farm land have significant influence upon the soil and water conservation from the view of the population; however, because of different social and economic condition, and soil & water loss, there are differences of the influence among the three sample counties. These differences go as follows in detail: In Xingguo County, the rent-in land area and its cost have remarkable effect on the farm households' soil & water conservation behavior; In Yujiang County, the rent-in land area, rent-in cost and rent-out land area remarkably influence the farm households' behavior of soil and water conservation, with the influence of the rent-in land area being greater than Xingguo County; In Shangrao County, only rent-out land area has significant influence on the behaviors of soil & water conservation; In all samples, Xingguo County and Yujiang County samples, the rent-out income has no significant influence on the farm household's decision-making behavior soil and water conservation. Finally, the paper put forward some suggestions on how to bring the soil & water loss under control and use land resource in sustainable ways.

  2. GIS soil conservation planning: A case study of a pristine Central America watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Shultz

    2000-01-01

    In the Pacuare River Watershed in Costa Rica, farm size, ownership, and production data were collected and spatially referenced through global positioning surveys and farmer assessments of property boundaries in relation to cadastral maps and air photographs. Using GIs based spatial overlays, this data were integrated with previously collected land use and land...

  3. A new method of measuring the adoption of soil conservation practices : theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Tilburg, van A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for measuring the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices that attempts to integrate positive features of earlier approaches. It measures the degree of sustainability observed by the farmer and, at the same time, is straightforward and efficient in

  4. Soil and Water Conservation Strategies in Cape Verde (Cabo Verde in Portuguese and Their Impacts on Livelihoods: An Overview from the Ribeira Seca Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaurinda Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe land degradation has strongly affected both people’s livelihood and the environment in Cape Verde (Cabo Verde in Portuguese, a natural resource poor country. Despite the enormous investment in soil and water conservation measures (SWC or SLM, which are visible throughout the landscape, and the recognition of their benefits, their biophysical and socioeconomic impacts have been poorly assessed and scientifically documented. This paper contributes to filling this gap, by bringing together insights from literature and policy review, field survey and participatory assessment in the Ribeira Seca Watershed through a concerted approach devised by the DESIRE project (the “Desire approach”. Specifically, we analyze government strategies towards building resilience against the harsh conditions, analyze the state of land degradation and its drivers, survey and map the existing SWC measures, and assess their effectiveness against land degradation, on crop yield and people’s livelihood. We infer that the relative success of Cape Verde in tackling desertification and rural poverty owes to an integrated governance strategy that comprises raising awareness, institutional framework development, financial resource allocation, capacity building, and active participation of rural communities. We recommend that specific, scientific-based monitoring and assessment studies be carried out on the biophysical and socioeconomic impact of SLM and that the “Desire approach” be scaled-up to other watersheds in the country.

  5. Integral abutment bridge for Louisiana's soft and stiff soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have been designed and constructed in a few US states in the past few : decades. The initial purpose of building such bridges was to eliminate the expansion joints and resolve the : joint-induced problems. Although IA...

  6. Integration of Magnetic and Geotechnical methods for Shallow Subsurface Soil Characterization at Sungai Batu, Kedah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Y. M.; Saad, R.; Muztaza, N. M.; Saidin, M. M.; Muhammad, S. B.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic and geotechnical methods were used for shallow subsurface soil characterization at Sungai Batu, Kedah, (Malaysia). Ground magnetic data were collected along a survey line of length 160 m long at 2 m constant station spacing, while soil drilling using hand auger was conducted at 21 m on the survey line using 0.2 m sampling interval drilled to a depth of 5 m. Result from the processed magnetic profile data shows distribution of magnetic residuals in the range of -4.55 to 1.61 nT, with magnetic low (-4.55 nT to -0.058 nT) and were identified at distances 4 m, 10 to 16 m, 20 to 26 m, 58 m, 82 m, 104 to 106 m, 118 m, and 124 to 140 m. The magnetic lows are attributes of sediments. The result from the soil drilling shows sticky samples with variable sizes, greyish to brownish / reddish in colour, and some of the samples show the presence of shiny and black spots. The characteristics of the samples suggest the soil as a by-product of completely weathered rock; weak with high water content and classified as Grade V soil. The study concludes; integration of geophysical and geotechnical methods aided in characterizing the subsurface soil at Sungai Batu. The result was correlated with previous studies and confirms the importance of integrated approach in minimising ambiguity in interpretation.

  7. Integrated monitoring and assessment of soil restoration treatments in the Lake Tahoe Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, M E; Schnurrenberger, C; Arst, R; Hogan, M P

    2009-03-01

    Revegetation and soil restoration efforts, often associated with erosion control measures on disturbed soils, are rarely monitored or otherwise evaluated in terms of improved hydrologic, much less, ecologic function and longer term sustainability. As in many watersheds, sediment is a key parameter of concern in the Tahoe Basin, particularly fine sediments less than about ten microns. Numerous erosion control measures deployed in the Basin during the past several decades have under-performed, or simply failed after a few years and new soil restoration methods of erosion control are under investigation. We outline a comprehensive, integrated field-based evaluation and assessment of the hydrologic function associated with these soil restoration methods with the hypothesis that restoration of sustainable function will result in longer term erosion control benefits than that currently achieved with more commonly used surface treatment methods (e.g. straw/mulch covers and hydroseeding). The monitoring includes cover-point and ocular assessments of plant cover, species type and diversity; soil sampling for nutrient status; rainfall simulation measurement of infiltration and runoff rates; cone penetrometer measurements of soil compaction and thickness of mulch layer depths. Through multi-year hydrologic and vegetation monitoring at ten sites and 120 plots, we illustrate the results obtained from the integrated monitoring program and describe how it might guide future restoration efforts and monitoring assessments.

  8. GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT AND SOIL CONSERVATION OF KORAYAR WATERSHED THROUGH REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Balakrishnan; Dr. Ilanthirayan

    2017-01-01

    Watershed management is often seen as a potential engine for agricultural growth and development in fragile and marginal rain-fed areas India. Enhanced livelihood opportunities for watershed community through investment in their assets and improvements in income and productivity are the leading objective of the programme, as mentioned in the guidelines for watershed management programme (WMP) in India. Watershed management may be defined as an integrated approach of greenery for a better env...

  9. Termite and earthworm abundance and taxonomic richness under long-term conservation soil management in Saria, Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zida, Z.; Ouedraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Unsustainable crop and soil management practices are major causes of soil degradation and declining soil biodiversity in West Africa. Identifying soil management practices that favor macrofauna abundance is highly desirable for long-term soil health. This study investigates the effects of long-term

  10. Soil physico-hydrical properties resulting from the management in Integrated Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Auler

    Full Text Available Anthropic action, such as the soil use and management systems, promote changes in the soil structure. These changes might hamper the development of plants in soil management practices that involve its mobilization, and the negative effects might be increased due to intensive use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physico-hydrical properties of a Haplohumox in integrated production systems under different soil managements. The soil superficial (0.0-0.10 m and sub-superficial (0.10-0.20 m layers were evaluated in the different systems: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT, no-tillage (NT and chiseled no-tillage (CNT, taking into consideration the annual ryegrass cropped for different uses [cover crop (C, grazing (G and silage (S] during the winter. Soil bulk density (Db, total porosity (TP, macro (Ma and microporosity (Mi, water retention curves (SWRC and water retention due to pore size (r were determined. The annual ryegrass used as C produced lower Db and Mi and higher TP and Ma in CT, MT and CNT systems. No difference was verified between G and S in any of the management systems or soil layers. The superficial layer SWRC presented similar behavior regarding CT, MT and CNT. Under NT, C resulted in higher water retention. However, G and S provided higher water retention due to the pore size in this system.

  11. [Prediction of regional soil quality based on mutual information theory integrated with decision tree algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fen-Fang; Wang, Ke; Yang, Ning; Yan, Shi-Guang; Zheng, Xin-Yu

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, some main factors such as soil type, land use pattern, lithology type, topography, road, and industry type that affect soil quality were used to precisely obtain the spatial distribution characteristics of regional soil quality, mutual information theory was adopted to select the main environmental factors, and decision tree algorithm See 5.0 was applied to predict the grade of regional soil quality. The main factors affecting regional soil quality were soil type, land use, lithology type, distance to town, distance to water area, altitude, distance to road, and distance to industrial land. The prediction accuracy of the decision tree model with the variables selected by mutual information was obviously higher than that of the model with all variables, and, for the former model, whether of decision tree or of decision rule, its prediction accuracy was all higher than 80%. Based on the continuous and categorical data, the method of mutual information theory integrated with decision tree could not only reduce the number of input parameters for decision tree algorithm, but also predict and assess regional soil quality effectively.

  12. An integrated model of soil, hydrology, and vegetation for carbon dynamics in wetland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Zhang; Changsheng Li; Carl C. Trettin; Harbin Li; Ge Sun

    2002-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are an important component in global carbon (C) cycles and may exert a large influence on global clinlate change. Predictions of C dynamics require us to consider interactions among many critical factors of soil, hydrology, and vegetation. However, few such integrated C models exist for wetland ecosystems. In this paper, we report a simulation model...

  13. Exploring the Nutrient Release Potential of Organic Materials as Integrated Soil Fertility Management Components Using SAFERNAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the nutrient release potential of different organic materials and assess their role in integrated soil fertility management for coffee using the new coffee yield model SAFERNAC. It involved an incubation experiment conducted at TaCRI Lyamungu Screenhouse for

  14. Towards integrated modelling of soil organic carbon cycling at landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaud, V.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is recognized as a key factor of the chemical, biological and physical quality of soil. Numerous models of soil organic matter turnover have been developed since the 1930ies, most of them dedicated to plot scale applications. More recently, they have been applied to national scales to establish the inventories of carbon stocks directed by the Kyoto protocol. However, only few studies consider the intermediate landscape scale, where the spatio-temporal pattern of land management practices, its interactions with the physical environment and its impacts on SOC dynamics can be investigated to provide guidelines for sustainable management of soils in agricultural areas. Modelling SOC cycling at this scale requires accessing accurate spatially explicit input data on soils (SOC content, bulk density, depth, texture) and land use (land cover, farm practices), and combining both data in a relevant integrated landscape representation. The purpose of this paper is to present a first approach to modelling SOC evolution in a small catchment. The impact of the way landscape is represented on SOC stocks in the catchment was more specifically addressed. This study was based on the field map, the soil survey, the crop rotations and land management practices of an actual 10-km² agricultural catchment located in Brittany (France). RothC model was used to drive soil organic matter dynamics. Landscape representation in the form of a systematic regular grid, where driving properties vary continuously in space, was compared to a representation where landscape is subdivided into a set of homogeneous geographical units. This preliminary work enabled to identify future needs to improve integrated soil-landscape modelling in agricultural areas.

  15. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb)

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmău C; Cocârță D. M.; Reșetar-Deac A. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007). This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil f...

  16. Soil carbon sequestration, carbon markets, and conservation agriculture practices: A hypothetical examination in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoteo E. Simone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Payments for Environmental Services (PES are relatively novel mechanisms whereby the adoption of sustainable management practices by a stakeholder is rewarded by incentives linked to external markets. Adoption of PES for conservation agricultural practices (CAPS by smallholder farmers may provide opportunities to increase household income or cover the technology costs of adoption if the carbon sequestration benefits of CAPS are quantifiable, adoption rates are accelerated and maintained, a mechanism exists whereby carbon sequestration services can be compensated, and carbon offset exchange markets are viable. This research suggests a methodology to examine a PES market for carbon offsets generated by the adoption of CAPS by farmers in Mozambique. Assuming a cumulative adoption of 60% over a 20-year period, revenue from PES market participation to CA adopters was two times higher than revenue earned when disadoption occurred midway through the simulation. Lower adoption targets are associated with higher per household returns when fertilizer rates typical to the region are increased. Establishing and maintaining a sustainable PES system in the study region would require significant investment in time and resources. The lack of on-the-ground institutions or local support for such a program would also challenge successful implementation. Finally, the programs where participant success depends on external markets, such as the hypothetical one suggested here, are subject to the ebb and flow of foreign demand for carbon offsets. Addressing these three broad constraints to a PES/CAPS program in the region would require grass-roots driven policy initiatives with buy-in at multiple social, economic, and political levels.

  17. Large-scale soil conservation measures contribute to water insecurity in NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Feger, Karl-Heinz; Schwärzel, Kai

    2014-05-01

    The Loess Plateau of NW China is one of the most degraded environments worldwide with an annual soil loss rate of ~20,000 t/km². To improve the situation, a national policy against erosion has been implemented in this region since 1950s. This policy includes biological (tree and grass plantation) and engineering (terrace and check-dam construction) measures. However, subject to enormous alteration in land cover / form, an undesired drastic reduction of runoff has appeared hampering economic growth, agricultural production and thus threatening social stability. As a consequence, adaptive innovative management strategies are necessary for mitigating water use conflicts and ensuring regional sustainable development. For successful implementation of such strategies, an improved understanding and quantification of hydrological response to land use and climate change across different scales is essential. For this purpose, the hydrological response to different land cover / form and climate change in the past 50 years was analyzed in small and medium-scale catchments using the upstream of Jing River (Gansu province) as a case. It appears that the driving factors of runoff reduction at different scales are different in terms of land use and climate change. Our study gave evidence that in a small catchment (19 km²), land cover / form change and precipitation variability are the major factors reducing runoff. After separating their contribution, we found that land use change was responsible for 74% of runoff decline while decreased precipitation accounted for 26%. Surprisingly, the annual runoff exhibits a good correlation with precipitation and the percentage area of various land use. Notably, with increasing catchment size the impact of land use on runoff attenuates, while the role of climate ascends. In addition to land use and precipitation, energy supply (evaporative demand of the atmosphere) becomes another dominant climatic factor affecting runoff on the larger

  18. Combined Use Of Cs-137 And Be-7 To Assess The Effectiveness Of Soil Conservation For Vetiver Grass Strips In Coffee Crop Lands In The Central Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Son Hai; Nguyen Dao; Tran Van Hoa; Tran Dinh Khoa; Nguyen Thi Mui; Trinh Cong Tu

    2007-01-01

    The combined use of 137 Cs and 7 Be for assessment of medium- and short-term soil erosion rates for sloping lands with and without soil conservation technologies in the Central Highlands of Vietnam has been carried out. Studies were performed at five 128 m 2 runoff plots and two 0.5 ha coffee plots with the slope gradient of about 25%. Experiments carried out at runoff plots showed that: (i) In the case of low erosion rates (less than 30 t ha -1 y -1 ), soil erosion rates estimated by 7 Be technique using the Profile-Distribution Model were consistent with net soil erosion rates obtained by runoff plots when particle size correction factor P is taken into account; (ii) In the case of high erosion rates (greater than 30 t ha -1 y -1 ), the conversion model overestimated soil erosion rates when P was not allowed for, and underestimated erosion rate when P factor was taken into account. Studies carried out at two 0.5 ha coffee plots showed that: (i) For the plot without soil conservation, soil erosion occurred for all sampling points with medium-term erosion rates ranging between 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 and 35 t ha -1 y -1 (the average erosion rate was 22.7 ± 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 ). The short term soil erosion rate estimated by 7 Be technique was 32.7 ± 6.1 t ha -1 y -1 for this plot; (ii) For the plot with the last seven year presence of Vetiver strips, about 93% of the area suffered from medium term erosion with erosion rates varying from 3 t ha -1 y -1 to 33 t ha -1 y -1 (the mean is 22.2 t ha -1 y -1 ), and medium term deposition occurred for only 7% of the area with the deposition rates ranging between 1.3 and 1.4 t ha -1 y -1 , resulting in the net erosion rate of 20.4 ± 0.6 t ha -1 y -1 . The short term soil erosion rate at this plot estimated by 7 Be technique was 2.3 t ha -1 y -1 . By using Vetiver strips as a soil conservation technology, soil erosion was almost controlled and the net erosion rate was reduced from 32.7 t ha -1 y -1 to 2.3 t ha -1 y -1 . (author)

  19. Combining Organic and Mineral Fertilizers for Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Smallholder Farming Systems of Kenya: Explorations Using the Crop-Soil Model FIELD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Corbeels, M.; Wijk, van M.T.; Vanlauwe, B.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technologies for African smallholders should consider (i) within-farm soil heterogeneity; (ii) long-term dynamics and variability; (iii) manure quality and availability; (iv) access to fertilizers; and (v) competing uses for crop residues. We used the

  20. Awareness and Adoption of Soil and Water Conservation Technologies in a Developing Country: A Case of Nabajuzi Watershed in Central Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoya, Sarah; Paudel, Krishna P.; Daniel, Nadhomi L.

    2018-02-01

    Soil and water conservation technologies have been widely available in most parts of Uganda. However, not only has the adoption rate been low but also many farmers seem not to be aware of these technologies. This study aims at identifying the factors that influence awareness and adoption of soil and water conservation technologies in Nabajuzi watershed in central Uganda. A bivariate probit model was used to examine farmers' awareness and adoption of soil and water conservation technologies in the watershed. We use data collected from the interview of 400 households located in the watershed to understand the factors affecting the awareness and adoption of these technologies in the study area. Findings indicate that the likelihood of being aware and adopting the technologies are explained by the age of household head, being a tenant, and number of years of access to farmland. To increase awareness and adoption of technologies in Uganda, policymakers may expedite the process of land titling as farmers may feel secure about landholding and thus adopt these technologies to increase profitability and productivity in the long run. Incentive payments to farmers residing in the vulnerable region to adopt these considered technologies may help to alleviate soil deterioration problems in the affected area.

  1. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area. PMID:26580644

  2. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-13

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  3. Integrating the avoidance of forest degradation into systematic conservation planning in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.; Barlow, J.; Thompson, J.; Berenguer, E.; Aragão, L. E.; Lees, A.; Lennox, G.; Brancalion, P.; Ferraz, S.; Moura, N.; Oliveira, V. H.; Louzada, J.; Solar, R.; Nunes, S.; Parry, L.; Fonseca, T.; Garrett, R.; Vieira, I.; MacNally, R.; Gardner, T.

    2017-12-01

    Undisturbed forests are becoming increasingly rare in the tropics. The area of forest degraded by some form of disturbance, such as logging or fire, in the Brazilian Amazon now greatly exceeds that which had been deforested. Yet forest policy in the Amazon, as elsewhere in the tropics, remains overwhelmingly focused curbing the rate of forest loss without considering impacts on forest quality. We use a unique data set from the Sustainable Amazon Network (RAS), in the eastern Brazilian Amazon to assess the impacts of forest disturbance on biodiversity and assess the benefits of including avoided degradation measures in conservation planning. Biodiversity data on trees and fauna from two large regions, Santarém and Paragominas, were combined with remote sensing data to model biodiversity patterns as well as estimates of above-ground carbon stocks across a range of land-use types and forest conditions. We found that impact of forest disturbance on biodiversity loss in the state of Pará equates to double that lost from deforestation alone, -the equivalent of losing 92,000-139,000 km2 of primary forest. We found a strong positive relationship between increasing carbon stocks and higher biodiversity in varyingly disturbed forests. Simulations demonstrated that a carbon-focused conservation strategy is least effective at conserving biodiversity in the least disturbed forests, highlighting the importance of on-the-ground biodiversity surveys to prioritise conservation investments in the most species rich forests. We explored trade-offs among management actions to guide priorities for habitat protection, avoided degradation and restoration and found that where restoration imposes significant opportunity and implementation costs, efforts to avoid and reverse the degradation of existing forests can deliver greater returns on investment for biodiversity conservation. Systemic planning of forest management options at regional scales can substantially improve biodiversity

  4. Integration of GIS, Geostatistics, and 3-D Technology to Assess the Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, M.; Tsegaye, T.; Tadesse, W.; Coleman, T. L.; Fahsi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of near surface soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many physical, biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. However, knowledge of these space-time dynamics and the processes which control them remains unclear. The integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics together promise a simple mechanism to evaluate and display the spatial and temporal distribution of this vital hydrologic and physical variable. Therefore, this research demonstrates the use of geostatistics and GIS to predict and display soil moisture distribution under vegetated and non-vegetated plots. The research was conducted at the Winfred Thomas Agricultural Experiment Station (WTAES), Hazel Green, Alabama. Soil moisture measurement were done on a 10 by 10 m grid from tall fescue grass (GR), alfalfa (AA), bare rough (BR), and bare smooth (BS) plots. Results indicated that variance associated with soil moisture was higher for vegetated plots than non-vegetated plots. The presence of vegetation in general contributed to the spatial variability of soil moisture. Integration of geostatistics and GIS can improve the productivity of farm lands and the precision of farming.

  5. A high-order relaxation method with projective integration for solving nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafitte, Pauline; Melis, Ward; Samaey, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    We present a general, high-order, fully explicit relaxation scheme which can be applied to any system of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple dimensions. The scheme consists of two steps. In a first (relaxation) step, the nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law is approximated by a kinetic equation with stiff BGK source term. Then, this kinetic equation is integrated in time using a projective integration method. After taking a few small (inner) steps with a simple, explicit method (such as direct forward Euler) to damp out the stiff components of the solution, the time derivative is estimated and used in an (outer) Runge-Kutta method of arbitrary order. We show that, with an appropriate choice of inner step size, the time step restriction on the outer time step is similar to the CFL condition for the hyperbolic conservation law. Moreover, the number of inner time steps is also independent of the stiffness of the BGK source term. We discuss stability and consistency, and illustrate with numerical results (linear advection, Burgers' equation and the shallow water and Euler equations) in one and two spatial dimensions.

  6. An integrated (nano-bio) technique for degradation of γ-HCH contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ritu [Ecotoxicology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India); Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India); Manickam, Natesan [Environmental Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India); Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy [Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India); Murthy, Ramesh Chandra, E-mail: murthyrc729@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India); Misra, Virendra, E-mail: virendra_misra2001@yahoo.co.in [Ecotoxicology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP (India)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • An integrated (nano-bio) technique is employed to degrade γ-HCH in soil. • Degradation efficiency of γ-HCH in integrated and individual systems is compared. • Synergistic effect was noticed on γ-HCH degradation in integrated system. • Integrated system was found 1.7–2.1 times more efficient than individual methods. • This technique could be exploited for other chlorinated pesticides as well. -- Abstract: We have evaluated the effect of an integrated (nano-bio) technique involving the use of stabilized Pd/Fe{sup 0} bimetallic nanoparticles (CMC-Pd/nFe{sup 0}) and a Sphingomonas sp. strain NM05, on the degradation of γ-HCH in soil. Factors affecting degradation such as pH, incubation temperature and γ-HCH initial concentration were also studied. The results revealed that γ-HCH degradation efficiency is ∼ 1.7–2.1 times greater in integrated system as compared to system containing either NM05 or CMC-Pd/nFe{sup 0} alone. The integration showed synergistic effect on γ-HCH degradation. Further, cell growth studies indicated that NM05 gets well acclimatized to nanoparticles, showing potential growth in the presence of CMC-Pd/nFe{sup 0} with respect to control system. This study signifies the potential efficacy of integrated technique to become an effective alternative remedial tool for γ-HCH contaminated soil. Further research in this direction could lead to the development of effective remediation strategies for other isomers of HCH and other chlorinated pesticides as well.

  7. [Assessment of the impacts of soil erosion on water environment based on the integration of soil erosion process and landscape pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wu, Bing-Fang; Zeng, Yuan; Zhang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    The integration of the effects of landscape pattern to the assessment of the impacts of soil erosion on eco-environmental is of practical significance in methodological prospect, being able to provide an approach for identifying water body's sediment source area, assessing the potential risks of sediment export of on-site soil erosion to the target water body, and evaluating the capacity of regional landscape pattern in preventing soil loss. In this paper, the RUSLE model was applied to simulate the on-site soil erosion rate. With the consideration of the soil retention potential of vegetation cover and topography, a quantitative assessment was conducted on the impacts of soil erosion in the water source region of the middle route for South-to-North Water Transfer Project on rivers and reservoirs by delineating landscape pattern at point (or cell) scale and sub-watershed level. At point (or grid cell) scale, the index of soil erosion impact intensity (I) was developed as an indicator of the potential risk of sediment export to the water bodies. At sub-watershed level, the landscape leakiness index (LI) was employed to indicate the sediment retention capacity of a given landscape pattern. The results revealed that integrating the information of landscape pattern and the indices of soil erosion process could spatially effectively reflect the impact intensity of in situ soil erosion on water bodies. The LI was significantly exponentially correlated to the mean sediment retention capacity of landscape and the mean vegetation coverage of watershed, and the sediment yield at sub-watershed scale was significantly correlated to the LI in an exponential regression. It could be concluded that the approach of delineating landscape pattern based on soil erosion process and the integration of the information of landscape pattern with its soil retention potential could provide a new approach for the risk evaluation of soil erosion.

  8. A second-order, unconditionally positive, mass-conserving integration scheme for biochemical systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Bruggeman (Frank); H. Burchard; B. Kooi; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBiochemical systems are bound by two mathematically-relevant restrictions. First, state variables in such systems represent non-negative quantities, such as concentrations of chemical compounds. Second, biochemical systems conserve mass and energy. Both properties must be reflected in

  9. Environmental and Conservation Volunteering as Workplace Integrated Learning for University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rowena H.; van Etten, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    This research paper introduces the concept and practice of tertiary sciences students doing environmental volunteering, also known as conservation volunteering, as a core part of their course. First year Natural Sciences students at Edith Cowan University do five days environmental volunteer work with community groups as a practicum, currently…

  10. Integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for a gravitational field with the absolute parallelism structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown the description of gravitational field in the riemannian space-time by means of the absolute parallelism structure makes it possible to formulate an integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for gravitational field, by imposing on the energy-momentum tensor the condition of vanishing of the covariant divergence (in the sense of the absolute parallelism). As a result of taking into account covariant constraints for the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the Lagrangian density turns out to be not geometrised anymore and leads to the unambiguous conservation law of the type mentioned in the N-body problem. Covariant field equations imply the existence of the special euclidean coordinates outside of static neighbourhoods of gravitationing bodies. In these coordinates determined by the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the linear approximation is not connected with any noncovariant assumptions

  11. Estimating the impacts of conservation on ecosystem services and poverty by integrating modeling and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Nelson, Joanna L; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Nolte, Christoph; Sims, Katharine R E

    2015-06-16

    Scholars have made great advances in modeling and mapping ecosystem services, and in assigning economic values to these services. This modeling and valuation scholarship is often disconnected from evidence about how actual conservation programs have affected ecosystem services, however. Without a stronger evidence base, decision makers find it difficult to use the insights from modeling and valuation to design effective policies and programs. To strengthen the evidence base, scholars have advanced our understanding of the causal pathways between conservation actions and environmental outcomes, but their studies measure impacts on imperfect proxies for ecosystem services (e.g., avoidance of deforestation). To be useful to decision makers, these impacts must be translated into changes in ecosystem services and values. To illustrate how this translation can be done, we estimated the impacts of protected areas in Brazil, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand on carbon storage in forests. We found that protected areas in these conservation hotspots have stored at least an additional 1,000 Mt of CO2 in forests and have delivered ecosystem services worth at least $5 billion. This aggregate impact masks important spatial heterogeneity, however. Moreover, the spatial variability of impacts on carbon storage is the not the same as the spatial variability of impacts on avoided deforestation. These findings lead us to describe a research program that extends our framework to study other ecosystem services, to uncover the mechanisms by which ecosystem protection benefits humans, and to tie cost-benefit analyses to conservation planning so that we can obtain the greatest return on scarce conservation funds.

  12. Chemical and physical soil attributes in integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available Although integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS under no-tillage (NT is an attractive practice for intensify agricultural production, little regional information is available on the effects of animal grazing and trampling, particularly dairy heifers, on the soil chemical and physical attributes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of animal grazing on the chemical and physical attributes of the soil after 21 months of ICLS under NT in a succession of annual winter pastures (2008, soybeans (2008/2009, annual winter pastures (2009, and maize (2009/10. The experiment was performed in the municipality of Castro (PR in a dystrophic Humic Rhodic Hapludox with a clay texture. The treatments included a combination of two pasture (annual ryegrass monoculture and multicropping - annual ryegrass, black oat, white clover and red clover with animal grazing during the fall-winter period with two animal weight categories (light and heavy, in a completely randomized block experimental design with 12 replications. After the maize harvest (21 months after beginning, soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers to measure soil chemical and physical attributes. The different combinations of pasture and animal weight did not alter the total organic carbon and nitrogen in the soil, but they influence the attributes of soil acidity and exchangeable cations. The monoculture pasture of ryegrass showed greater soil acidification process compared to the multicropping pasture. When using heavier animals, the multicropping pasture showed lesser increase in soil bulk density and greater macroporosity.

  13. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  14. Recovery of soil water, groundwater, and streamwater from acidification at the Swedish integrated monitoring catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Aastrup, Mats; Bringmark, Lage; Hultberg, Hans; Lewin-Pihlblad, Lotta; Lundin, Lars; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Thunholm, Bo

    2011-12-01

    Recovery from anthropogenic acidification in streams and lakes is well documented across the northern hemisphere. In this study, we use 1996-2009 data from the four Swedish Integrated Monitoring catchments to evaluate how the declining sulfur deposition has affected sulfate, pH, acid neutralizing capacity, ionic strength, aluminum, and dissolved organic carbon in soil water, groundwater and runoff. Differences in recovery rates between catchments, between recharge and discharge areas and between soil water and groundwater are assessed. At the IM sites, atmospheric deposition is the main human impact. The chemical trends were weakly correlated to the sulfur deposition decline. Other factors, such as marine influence and catchment features, seem to be as important. Except for pH and DOC, soil water and groundwater showed similar trends. Discharge areas acted as buffers, dampening the trends in streamwater. Further monitoring and modeling of these hydraulically active sites should be encouraged.

  15. Gamma transmission gauge for assay of integral water content in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, A.; Notea, A.; Segal, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A photon transmission gauge applied for integral water content measurement in a soil layer was analyzed. The gauge may be used as a control unit for automatic irrigation in a field, or as a scanner employed for establishing an irrigation policy. The characteristic functions of the gauge: response and relative resolving power were developed. The functions provide parameter study at the design stage and interpretational ability at the operational stage. The model led to a design which eliminates sensitivity to water distribution in the examined soil. It is shown that a resolving power of 2% was obtained for a 2.3 mCi 137 Cs source at 53 cm below surface, in measuring water content of 0.2 g water/cm 3 soil during 1000 s. (orig.)

  16. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  17. Plant-conservative agriculture of acid and degraded Raña-grassland enhances diversity of the common soil mites (Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorrín, J.; González-Fernández, P.

    2016-11-01

    The seminatural prairie of the Raña of Cañamero (Spain) is a degraded and unproductive agrosystem with acid and stony soils, and low coverage of xerophytic grasses. In a project about secondary reconversion of the raña-prairie to a more productive cropland, an experimental field (EF) was established to assess the effect on plot-productivity of the interaction between correction of soil pH (liming) with three cropping systems: a no-tilled and annually fertilized and improved prairies, and a conventionally-tilled forage crop. The EF model of management was designed as plant-conservative, because no herbicide was applied after seeding to preserve the post-emergence of wild herbs and the natural grass diversity of the prairie. Between 2008 and 2012, we analysed the effect of managing factors (initial conventional-tillage, fertilization, liming and cropping) and agricultural predictors (pH, C:N ratio, soil bulk density and herbaceous biomass) on the alpha(α)-diversity of one of the major group of soil animals, the oribatids. In relation to the raña-prairie, all EF-plots improved their soil bulk density (ρs) and herbaceous biomass (t/ha), and enhanced desirable α-diversity values (richness, abundance and community equity). We conclude that the plant-conservative model: i) do not affect statistically the species richness of the prairie; ii) the desirable α-diversity responses are negatively correlated with soil bulk density and positively with herbaceous biomass, and iii) the low input or minimum intervention model, of an initial and conventional till and annual fertilisation, is the threshold and optimal model of agricultural management to improving oribatids diversity of the raña-soil. (Author)

  18. Performance of two Vermont elementary school integrated energy conservation/solar energy retrofit projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.W. (Marlboro College, VT); Converse, A.O.

    1980-01-01

    Two Vermont elementary school energy conservation/passive solar energy retrofit projects are described. Both masonry buildings were insulated with polystyrene on the east, north and west exterior walls. The south walls of each building were converted to Trombe walls, and, in addition, a portion of the south wall of one building was fitted with a solar greenhouse. The construction details, the predicted performance, and some actual results are reported here.

  19. Increased microbial functional diversity under long-term organic and integrated fertilization in a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Long-Jun; Su, Jian-Qiang; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Jin-Shui; Wei, Wen-Xue

    2018-02-01

    Microbes play key roles in diverse biogeochemical processes including nutrient cycling. However, responses of soil microbial community and functional genes to long-term integrated fertilization (chemical combined with organic fertilization) remain unclear. Here, we used pyrosequencing and a microarray-based GeoChip to explore the shifts of microbial community and functional genes in a paddy soil which received over 21-year fertilization with various regimes, including control (no fertilizer), rice straw (R), rice straw plus chemical fertilizer nitrogen (NR), N and phosphorus (NPR), NP and potassium (NPKR), and reduced rice straw plus reduced NPK (L-NPKR). Significant shifts of the overall soil bacterial composition only occurred in the NPKR and L-NPKR treatments, with enrichment of certain groups including Bradyrhizobiaceae and Rhodospirillaceae families that benefit higher productivity. All fertilization treatments significantly altered the soil microbial functional structure with increased diversity and abundances of genes for carbon and nitrogen cycling, in which NPKR and L-NPKR exhibited the strongest effect, while R exhibited the least. Functional gene structure and abundance were significantly correlated with corresponding soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, respectively, suggesting that the structural shift of the microbial functional community under fertilization might promote soil nutrient turnover and thereby affect yield. Overall, this study indicates that the combined application of rice straw and balanced chemical fertilizers was more pronounced in shifting the bacterial composition and improving the functional diversity toward higher productivity, providing a microbial point of view on applying a cost-effective integrated fertilization regime with rice straw plus reduced chemical fertilizers for sustainable nutrient management.

  20. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T X

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of 20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km(2) in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km(2) in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km(2) on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km(2) on the woodland plot, 213 t/km(2) on the grassland plot, 467 t/km(2) on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km(2) on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km(2) on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  1. INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT AND GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF ACCUMULATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN THE SOIL COVER OF SAKHALIN ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dmitriev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the approach to the integral estimation of the assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHc in the soil cover of Sakhalin Island. The soil map of Sakhalin was used as the cartographic base for this work. The soil map includes 103 soil polygons. An additional information on soils was also taken from The Soil Atlas of the Russian Federation. As an integral criterion for the accumulation of PHc, it is proposed to use an integral indicator calculated on the basis of 5 evaluation criteria. The choice of criteria for the assessment was based on the works of Russian scientists. The evaluation criteria on each of the polygons include information on the soil texture, the total thickness of the organic and humus horizons, the content of organic carbon in these horizons and the content of organic carbon in the mineral horizons, as well as the presence of a gley barrier.The calculation of the integral indicator is based on the principles of the ASPID methodology. On this basis, the authors compiled the map of the potential capacity of Sakhalin soils to accumulate petroleum hydrocarbons. On the basis of GIS-technology using the estimates of the integral indicator, the analysis has been performed revealing the features of spatial differentiation of PHc accumulation in the soil cover.The analysis and assessment of the accumulations of petroleum hydrocarbons has shown that peaty and peat boggy soil have the greatest ability to holding the PHc. The lowest ability to accumulate petroleum hydrocarbons is typical of illuvial-ferruginous podzols (illuvial low-humic podzols. The soils of this group occupy 1% of the island. In general, soils with low and very low hydrocarbon accumulation capacity occupy less than forty percent of the territory. 

  2. Initializing numerical weather prediction models with satellite-derived surface soil moisture: Data assimilation experiments with ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System and the TMI soil moisture data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusch, M.

    2007-02-01

    Satellite-derived surface soil moisture data sets are readily available and have been used successfully in hydrological applications. In many operational numerical weather prediction systems the initial soil moisture conditions are analyzed from the modeled background and 2 m temperature and relative humidity. This approach has proven its efficiency to improve surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and consequently the forecast on large geographical domains. However, since soil moisture is not always related to screen level variables, model errors and uncertainties in the forcing data can accumulate in root zone soil moisture. Remotely sensed surface soil moisture is directly linked to the model's uppermost soil layer and therefore is a stronger constraint for the soil moisture analysis. For this study, three data assimilation experiments with the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have been performed for the 2-month period of June and July 2002: a control run based on the operational soil moisture analysis, an open loop run with freely evolving soil moisture, and an experimental run incorporating TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) derived soil moisture over the southern United States. In this experimental run the satellite-derived soil moisture product is introduced through a nudging scheme using 6-hourly increments. Apart from the soil moisture analysis, the system setup reflects the operational forecast configuration including the atmospheric 4D-Var analysis. Soil moisture analyzed in the nudging experiment is the most accurate estimate when compared against in situ observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet. The corresponding forecast for 2 m temperature and relative humidity is almost as accurate as in the control experiment. Furthermore, it is shown that the soil moisture analysis influences local weather parameters including the planetary boundary layer height and cloud coverage.

  3. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. Copyright

  4. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of the different soil conservation measure on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably - a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. (author)

  5. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soils

    OpenAIRE

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The long-term effects of tillage system and residue management on soil organic carbon stabilization are studied in two tropical soils in Zimbabwe, a red clay and a sandy soil. The four tillage systems evaluated were conventional tillage (CT), mulch ripping (MR), clean ripping (CR) and tied ridging (TR). Soil organic carbon (SOC) content was measured for each size fraction as well as total SOC. Based on the findings, the authors conclude that residue management - mainta...

  6. Soil nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in integrated crop-livestock systems in subtropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckow, Jeferson; Pergher, Maico; Moraes, Anibal de; Piva, Jonatas Thiago; Bayer, Cimélio; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2015-01-01

    Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) system is an agricultural practice in which crop-pasture rotation is carried out in the same field over time. In Brasil, ICL associated with no-tillage farming is increasingly gaining importance as a soil use strategy that improves food production (grain, milk and beef) and economic returns to farmers. Integrated crop-livestock-forestry (ICLF) is a recent modification of ICL in Brazil, with the inclusion of trees cultivation aiming at additional wood production and offering thermal comfort to livestock (Porfírio-da-Silva & Moraes, 2010). However, despite the increasing importance of ICL, little information is available on how this system may affect soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 )

  7. Soil Structure Interaction for Integral Abutment Bridge Using Spring Analogy Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanoon, W A; Abdulrazeg, A A; Jaafar, M S; Kohnehpooshi, O; Noorzaei, J

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of the backfill behind the abutments and adjacent to the piles plays a significant role in the behavior of the Integral bridge. The handling of soil-structure interaction in the analysis and design of integral abutment bridges has always been problematic due to its complexity. This study describes the implementation of a 2-D finite element model of IAB system which explicitly incorporates the soil response. The superstructure members and the pile have been represented by means of three-node isoperimetric beam elements with three degree of freedom per node. The Eight node isoperimetric quadrilateral element has been used to model the abutment. The backfill was idealized by uncoupled 'Winkler' spring. The applic1ability of this model is demonstrated by analyzing a single span IA bridge. The results have shown that the shear forces at the tops of the supported piles were only 12% to 16% of the load which at the top of abutment.

  8. Soil Structure Interaction for Integral Abutment Bridge Using Spring Analogy Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanoon, W A [Faculty Engineering, Nizwa University (Oman); Abdulrazeg, A A; Jaafar, M S; Kohnehpooshi, O [Department of Civil Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Noorzaei, J, E-mail: jamal@eng.upm.edu.my [Institute of Advance Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The reaction of the backfill behind the abutments and adjacent to the piles plays a significant role in the behavior of the Integral bridge. The handling of soil-structure interaction in the analysis and design of integral abutment bridges has always been problematic due to its complexity. This study describes the implementation of a 2-D finite element model of IAB system which explicitly incorporates the soil response. The superstructure members and the pile have been represented by means of three-node isoperimetric beam elements with three degree of freedom per node. The Eight node isoperimetric quadrilateral element has been used to model the abutment. The backfill was idealized by uncoupled 'Winkler' spring. The applic1ability of this model is demonstrated by analyzing a single span IA bridge. The results have shown that the shear forces at the tops of the supported piles were only 12% to 16% of the load which at the top of abutment.

  9. Phosphorus forms and chemistry in the soil profile under long-term conservation tillage: a phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Carter, Martin R; James, Dean C; Liu, Corey W

    2010-01-01

    In many regions, conservation tillage has replaced conventional tilling practices to reduce soil erosion, improve water conservation, and increase soil organic matter. However, tillage can have marked effects on soil properties, specifically nutrient redistribution or stratification in the soil profile. The objective of this research was to examine soil phosphorus (P) forms and concentrations in a long-term study comparing conservation tillage (direct drilling, "No Till") and conventional tillage (moldboard plowing to 20 cm depth, "Till") established on a fine sandy loam (Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. No significant differences in total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total P, or total organic P concentrations were detected between the tillage systems at any depth in the 0- to 60-cm depth range analyzed. However, analysis with phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed differences in P forms in the plow layer. In particular, the concentration of orthophosphate was significantly higher under No Till than Till at 5 to 10 cm, but the reverse was true at 10 to 20 cm. Mehlich 3-extractable P was also significantly higher in No Till at 5 to 10 cm and significantly higher in Till at 20 to 30 cm. This P stratification appears to be caused by a lack of mixing of applied fertilizer in No Till because the same trends were observed for pH and Mehlich 3-extractable Ca (significantly higher in the Till treatment at 20 to 30 cm), reflecting mixing of applied lime. The P saturation ratio was significantly higher under No Till at 0 to 5 cm and exceeded the recommended limits, suggesting that P stratification under No Till had increased the potential for P loss in runoff from these sites.

  10. Effect of integrated nutrient management on nut production of coconut and soil environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, P.A.; Rajpar, I.

    2014-01-01

    With the adoption of new technology of intensive cropping with high yielding varieties, there is a considerable demand on soil for supply of nutrients. However, the native fertility of our soils is poor and cannot sustain high yields. Sustainable agricultural production incorporates the idea that natural resources should be used to generate increased output and incomes, without depleting the natural resources. The solution is application of integrated nutrient management (INM). It is the system, which envisages the use of organic wastes, biofertilisers and inorganic fertilizers in judicious combinations to sustain soil productivity. The conjunctive use of organic and inorganic sources improves soil health and helps in maximization production as it involves utilization of local sources and, hence turned to be rational, realistic and economically viable way of supply of nutrients. Coconut is a versatile tree and is the most popular home garden crop in the world. It is very beneficial for health because of its high nutrient management affects on its growth and yield characteristics to a great extent. This paper, therefore, presents a review on various aspects of INM used to improve soil environment, coconut growth and yield characters. (author)

  11. Soil and Living Things. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the structure of the two main soil types in Seychelles; (2) the role of roots in…

  12. Soil chemical atributtes on brachiaria spp in integrated crop livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Tadeu Paulino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated crop-livestock systems have attracted more interest in the last few years due to their capacity of improving stability and sustainability of agricultural systems when compared to more specialized production ones. The crop-livestock integration is an effective technique, but complex to maintain pasture productivity and its recovery, whose efficiency depends on soil physical management and its chemical fertility. Regarding the soil fertility, the corrective practices generally begin with the liming due to the high acidity of most Brazilian soils and low levels of Ca and Mg in the exchange complex and high Al saturation. In areas of crop-livestock systems, liming corrects the surface acidity potential. However, this practice can leave the subsoil with excess aluminum and lack of calcium, which inhibit root growth and affect the absorption of water and nutrients. The application of gypsum allows the improvement of the subsoil, reducing Al saturation and increasing levels of calcium and sulfur. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the soil chemical properties of a Haplorthox soil in integrated crop-livestock system (ICL with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Piatã, Brachiaria ruziziensis with gypsum and liming application. This study was conducted at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa/SP, a pasture established on a soil with medium texture (61.4% sand, silt 14.6% and 24.0% clay. The treatment plots consisted on integration crop-livestock (ICL cultivated - maize and B. Marandu,  ICL - maize and B. ruziziensis, ICL - maize and B. Piatã and an untreated control group (control - without liming and fertilization grazed pasture throughout the year, located immediately adjacent to the ICL evaluation, which was cultivated for 25 years with B. brizantha cv. Marandu. All pastures were desiccated in October with glyphosate-based herbicide (4 liters per hectare. Then gypsum (1.2 Mg ha-1 and liming (1.2 Mg ha-1 were applied

  13. Kajian Model Estimasi Volume Limpasan Permukaan, Debit Puncak Aliran, dan Erosi Tanah dengan Model Soil Conservation Service (SCS, Rasional Dan Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE (Studi Kasus di DAS Keduang, Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugro Hari Murtiono

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic modelling has been developing and it is usefull for basic data in managing water resources. The aim of the reseach is to estimate volume runoff, maximum discharge, and soil erosion with SCS, Rational, and MUSLE models on Keduang Watershed. Explain the data analysis, and flow to get the data. SCS parameters model use are: runoff, rainfall, deferent between rainfall runoff. The deferent rainfall between runoff relationship kurva Runoff Coefisient (Curve Nunmber/CN. This Coefisient connected with Soil Hydrology Group (antecedent moisture content/AMC, landuse, and cultivation method. Rational parameters model use are: runoff coefisient, soil type, slope, land cover, rainfall intensity, and watershed areas. MUSLE parameters model use are: rainfall erosifity (RM, soil erodibility (K, slope length (L, slope (S, land cover (C, and soil conservation practice (P. The result shows that the conservation service models be applied Keduang Watershed, Wonogiri is over estimed abaut 29.54 %, Rational model is over estimed abaut 49.96 %, and MUSLE model is over estimed abaut 48.47 %.

  14. Combining Old and New Stable Isotope Techniques to Evaluate the Impact of Conservation Tillage on Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics and Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Clercq, T.; Xu, H.; Mercklx, R.; Heiling, M.; Dercon, G.; Resch, C.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a major carbon pool. It is a crucial factor for soil quality including several soil physical properties and a major nutrient source for crops. It also plays a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Soils can act as a carbon sink or source depending on land use and agricultural management practices. Some practices such as conservation tillage or no-tillage could increase SOM stocks, particularly in the topsoil, but in the long term it remains to be seen if and how this SOM is stabilized (De Clercq et al., 2015; Govaerts et al., 2009). In order to evaluate the sustainability and efficiency of soil carbon sequestration measures and the impact of different management and environmental factors, information on SOM stability and mean residence time (MRT) is required. However, this information on SOM stability and MRT is expensive to determine via radiocarbon dating, precluding a wide spread use of stability measurements in soil science. But alternative methods based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, can provide this information at a fraction of the cost

  15. Improving cross-sector policy integration and co-operation in support of freshwater conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available agricultural resources), and integrated development planning (MacKay & Ashton 2004). Of special importance is the coordination between land-related and water-related sectors because freshwater ecosystems are affected by activities that happen throughout...

  16. Quasi-integrable non-linear Schrödinger models, infinite towers of exactly conserved charges and bright solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, H.; do Bonfim, A. C. R.; Vilela, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    Deformations of the focusing non-linear Schrödinger model (NLS) are considered in the context of the quasi-integrability concept. We strengthen the results of JHEP 09 (2012) 103 10.1007/JHEP06(2015)177" TargetType="URL"/> for bright soliton collisions. We addressed the focusing NLS as a complement to the one in JHEP 03 (2016) 005 10.1007/JHEP06(2015)177" TargetType="URL"/> , in which the modified defocusing NLS models with dark solitons were shown to exhibit an infinite tower of exactly conserved charges. We show, by means of analytical and numerical methods, that for certain two-bright-soliton solutions, in which the modulus and phase of the complex modified NLS field exhibit even parities under a space-reflection symmetry, the first four and the sequence of even order charges are exactly conserved during the scattering process of the solitons. We perform extensive numerical simulations and consider the bright solitons with deformed potential V=2η /2+\\upepsilon{({|ψ |}^2)}^{2+\\upepsilon},\\upepsilon \\in \\mathbb{R},η <0 . However, for two-soliton field components without definite parity we also show numerically the vanishing of the first non-trivial anomaly and the exact conservation of the relevant charge. So, the parity symmetry seems to be a sufficient but not a necessary condition for the existence of the infinite tower of conserved charges. The model supports elastic scattering of solitons for a wide range of values of the amplitudes and velocities and the set { η, ɛ}. Since the NLS equation is ubiquitous, our results may find potential applications in several areas of non-linear science.

  17. Geographic variation in species richness, rarity, and the selection of areas for conservation: An integrative approach with Brazilian estuarine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Ciro C.; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Spach, Henry L.

    2017-09-01

    While the number of species is a key indicator of ecological assemblages, spatial conservation priorities solely identified from species richness are not necessarily efficient to protect other important biological assets. Hence, the results of spatial prioritization analysis would be greatly enhanced if richness were used in association to complementary biodiversity measures. In this study, geographic patterns in estuarine fish species rarity (i.e. the average range size in the study area), endemism and richness, were mapped and integrated to identify regions important for biodiversity conservation along the Brazilian coast. Furthermore, we analyzed the effectiveness of the national system of protected areas to represent these regions. Analyses were performed on presence/absence data of 412 fish species in 0.25° latitudinal bands covering the entire Brazilian biogeographical province. Species richness, rarity and endemism patterns differed and strongly reflected biogeographical limits and regions. However, among the existing 154 latitudinal bands, 48 were recognized as conservation priorities by concomitantly harboring high estuarine fish species richness and assemblages of geographically rare species. Priority areas identified for all estuarine fish species largely differed from those identified for Brazilian endemics. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the different aspects of the fish assemblages considered (i.e. species richness, endemism or rarity), suggesting that designating reserves based on a single variable may lead to large gaps in the overall protection of biodiversity. Our results further revealed that the existing system of protected areas is insufficient for representing the priority bands we identified. This highlights the urgent need for expanding the national network of protected areas to maintain estuarine ecosystems with high conservation value.

  18. In-situ biochar application conserves nutrients while simultaneously mitigating runoff and erosion of an Fe-oxide-enriched tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Hsing; Wang, Chung-Chi; Lin, Huan-Hsuan; Lee, Sang Soo; Tsang, Daniel C W; Jien, Shih-Hao; Ok, Yong Sik

    2018-04-01

    Climate change gives rise to rapid degradation of rural soils in sloping subtropical and tropical areas and might further threaten environmental sustainability. In this study, we conducted an integrated evaluation of the effects of wood biochar (WB) application mixed with a green waste dreg compost (GWC) on runoff quality, soil losses, and agricultural productivity for a highly weathered tropical soil. A conventional agriculture method, in which soils are treated with anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), was also conducted for comparison. The amounts of runoff and soil loss, and nutrient retention were evaluated a year after WB application. Soil fertility was also investigated through a year pot experiment with rape (Brassica campestris L.) cultivation. Our results showed that the WB application not only effectively increased soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC) and exchangeable K + but also increased the production of rape plants. Significant reduction of runoff and the increases of inorganic nitrogen (IN) and total phosphorus (TP) were found in the WB-treated soil. Compared to the control, the co-application of WB and GWC, particularly for the WB at 4%, decreased runoff by 16.8%, soil loss by 25%, and IN loss (via runoff) by 41.8%. Meanwhile, compared to the control and PAM treatments, the co-application of WB and GWC improved soil acidity and the contents of SOC, IN, TP, and exchangeable K + . The co-application of WB and GWC could be an alternative agricultural strategy to obtain benefits to agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Influence of Philosophical Perspectives in Integrative Research: a Conservation Case Study in the Cairngorms National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Evely

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of increasing the contribution of the social sciences in the fields of environmental and conservation science disciplines are increasingly recognized. However, integration between the social and natural sciences has been limited, in part because of the barrier caused by major philosophical differences in the perspectives between these research areas. This paper aims to contribute to more effective interdisciplinary integration by explaining some of the philosophical views underpinning social research and how these views influence research methods and outcomes. We use a project investigating the motivation of volunteers working in an adaptive co-management project to eradicate American Mink from the Cairngorms National Park in Scotland as a case study to illustrate the impact of philosophical perspectives on research. Consideration of different perspectives promoted explicit reflection of the contributing researcher's assumptions, and the implications of his or her perspectives on the outcomes of the research. We suggest a framework to assist conservation research projects by: (1 assisting formulation of research questions; (2 focusing dialogue between managers and researchers, making underlying worldviews explicit; and (3 helping researchers and managers improve longer-term strategies by helping identify overall goals and objectives and by identifying immediate research needs.

  20. Sustainable Development of Heritage Areas: Towards Cyber-Physical Systems Integration in Extant Heritage Buildings and Planning Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Mohamed Khodeir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although architectural heritage reflects the evolution of human civilization throughout history, nevertheless, civilized and social changes of heritage areas in many countries led to their degradation. Historical building management and planning conservation raise two important issues: the restoration and improvement of historical areas features and adopting a framework of sustainable development in heritage regions. Recently a number of processes have arose to aid in the aforementioned problems, namely the heritage building information modelling (HBIM and the  cyber-physical systems approach (CPS, where the latter is believed to  achieve great potentials hereby integrating virtual models and physical construction and  enabling bidirectional coordination. Since HBIM has recently been investigated through a number of recent research and application, the aim of this paper is to explore the potentials offered by the CPS, to move from 3D content model to bi-dimensional coordination for achieving efficient management of built heritage. To tackle the objective of this paper, firstly, a review of the BIM use in the field of cultural heritage  was undergone, Secondly, reporting the existing BIM/HBIM platforms, analyzing cyber-physical systems integration in extant heritage buildings and in planning conservation were performed. Results of this paper took the form of detailed comparative analysis between both CPS and HBIM, which could guide decision makers working in the field of heritage buildings management, in addition to shedding light on the main potentials of the emerging CPS.

  1. A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2013-07-25

    Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  2. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry. Part 3: Experience of Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Dunn, Russell; Gottrup, Lene

    2002-01-01

    This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience with indu......This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience......’s experience with defining the scope of the system and with identifying water flow constraints and water quality constraints is discussed. It is shown, how physical constraints for the system design often set a limit for the sophistication of the water recycle network and thereby also a limit for how...... sophisticated the method for system design should be. Finally, pinch analysis and system designs for water recycling in a practical case study are shown, documenting large water saving potentials and achievements....

  3. An improved energy conserving implicit time integration algorithm for nonlinear dynamic structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, E.; Rouvray, A.L. de; Nguyen, Q.S.

    1977-01-01

    This study proposes a general nonlinear algorithm stability criterion; it introduces a nonlinear algorithm, easily implemented in existing incremental/iterative codes, and it applies the new scheme beneficially to problems of linear elastic dynamic snap buckling. Based on the concept of energy conservation, the paper outlines an algorithm which degenerates into the trapezoidal rule, if applied to linear systems. The new algorithm conserves energy in systems having elastic potentials up to the fourth order in the displacements. This is true in the important case of nonlinear total Lagrange formulations where linear elastic material properties are substituted. The scheme is easily implemented in existing incremental-iterative codes with provisions for stiffness reformation and containing the basic Newmark scheme. Numerical analyses of dynamic stability can be dramatically sensitive to amplitude errors, because damping algorithms may mask, and overestimating schemes may numerically trigger, the physical instability. The newly proposed scheme has been applied with larger time steps and less cost to the dynamic snap buckling of simple one and multi degree-of-freedom structures for various initial conditions

  4. Spatial and temporal movements in Pyrenean bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus): Integrating movement ecology into conservation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalida, Antoni; Pérez-García, Juan Manuel; Afonso, Ivan; Moreno-Opo, Rubén

    2016-10-25

    Understanding the movement of threatened species is important if we are to optimize management and conservation actions. Here, we describe the age and sex specific spatial and temporal ranging patterns of 19 bearded vultures Gypaetus barbatus tracked with GPS technology. Our findings suggest that spatial asymmetries are a consequence of breeding status and age-classes. Territorial individuals exploited home ranges of about 50 km 2 , while non-territorial birds used areas of around 10 000 km 2 (with no seasonal differences). Mean daily movements differed between territorial (23.8 km) and non-territorial birds (46.1 km), and differences were also found between sexes in non-territorial birds. Daily maximum distances travelled per day also differed between territorial (8.2 km) and non-territorial individuals (26.5 km). Territorial females moved greater distances (12 km) than males (6.6 km). Taking into account high-use core areas (K20), Supplementary Feeding Sites (SFS) do not seem to play an important role in the use of space by bearded vultures. For non-territorial and territorial individuals, 54% and 46% of their home ranges (K90), respectively, were outside protected areas. Our findings will help develop guidelines for establishing priority areas based on spatial use, and also optimize management and conservation actions for this threatened species.

  5. An assessment to prioritise the critical erosion-prone sub-watersheds for soil conservation in the Gumti basin of Tripura, North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Istak; Das Pan, Nibedita; Debnath, Jatan; Bhowmik, Moujuri

    2017-10-31

    Erosion-induced land degradation problem has emerged as a serious environmental issue across the world. Assessment of this problem through modelling can generate valuable quantitative information for the planners to identify priority areas for proper soil conservation measures. The Gumti River basin of Tripura falls under humid tropical climate and experiences soil erosion for a prolonged period which has turned into a major environmental issue. Increased sediment supply through top soil erosion is one of the major reasons for reduced navigability of this river. Thus, the present study is an attempt to prioritize the sub-watersheds of the Gumti basin by estimating soil loss through the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model. For that purpose, five parameters of the USLE model were processed, computed and overlaid in a GIS environment. The result shows that potential mean annual soil loss of the Gumti basin ranges between 0.03 and 114.08 t ha -1  year -1 . The resultant values of soil loss were classified into five categories considering the minimum and maximum values. It has been identified that low, moderate, high, very high and severe soil loss categories occupy 68.71, 8.94, 5.86, 5.02 and 11.47% of the basin respectively. Moreover, it has been recognised that sub-watersheds like SW7, SW8, SW12, SW21, SW24 and SW29 fall under very high priority class for which mitigation measures are essential. Therefore, the present study recommends mitigation measures through terrace cultivation, as an alternative of shifting cultivation in the hilly areas and through construction of check dams at the appropriate sites of the erosion prone sub-watersheds. Moreover, proper afforestation programmes that have been implemented successfully in other parts of Tripura through the Japan International Cooperation Agency, Joint Forest Management, and National Afforestation Programme should be initiated in the highly erosion-prone areas of the Gumti River basin.

  6. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  7. Application Of 137Cs And 7Be To Assess The Effectiveness Of Soil Conservation Technologies In The Central Highlands Of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Son Hai; Tran Dinh Khoa; Nguyen Dao; Nguyen Thi Mui; Tran Van Hoa; Trinh Cong Tu

    2008-01-01

    The combined use of 137 Cs and 7 Be for assessment of medium- and short-term soil erosion rates for sloping lands with and without soil conservation technologies in the Central Highlands of Vietnam has been carried out. For the 2.5 ha mulberry field with the slope gradient of about 15%, where green manure hedgerows have been utilized as a soil conservation measure for 22 years, about 54.6% of the area suffered from erosion with erosion rates varying from 0.6 to 70 t ha -1 y -1 (the average: 31 t ha -1 y -1 ), and deposition occurred for 45.4% of the area with the deposition rates ranging between 0.2 and 74 t ha-1 y-1 (the average: 36 t ha -1 y -1 ). The medium-term erosion rate at this field was 1.2 ± 0.6 t ha -1 y -1 , and short-term erosion rate was 1.5 ± 0.24 t ha -1 y -1 . Soil erosion was almost controlled by the shrubby hedgerows and the net erosion rate was reduced from 28 t ha -1 y -1 to 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 . 137 Cs and 7 Be were also used for assessment of soil erosion rates for two 0.5 ha coffee plots with the slope gradient of about 25%. For the plot without soil conservation, soil erosion occurred for all sampling points with medium-term erosion rates ranging between 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 and 35 t ha -1 y -1 (the average erosion rate was 22.7 ± 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 ). The short term soil erosion rate estimated by 7 Be technique in the year 2005 was 32.7 ± 6.1 t ha -1 y -1 for this plot. For the plot with the last five year presence of Vetiver strips, about 93% of the area suffered from medium term erosion with erosion rates varying from 3 t ha -1 y -1 to 33 t ha -1 y -1 (the mean is 22.2 t ha -1 y -1 ), and medium term deposition occurred for only 7% of the area with the deposition rates ranging between 1.3 and 1.4 t ha -1 y -1 , resulting in the net erosion rate of 20.4 ± 0.6 t ha -1 y -1 . The short term soil erosion rate at this plot estimated by 7 Be technique in the year 2005 was 2.3 t ha -1 y -1 . By using Vetiver strips as a soil conservation technology

  8. Built Heritage Documentation and Management: AN Integrated Conservation Approach in Bagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzino, D.; Chan, L.; Santana Quintero, M.; Esponda, M.; Lee, S.; Min, A.; Pwint, M.

    2017-08-01

    Good practices in heritage conservation are based on accurate information about conditions, materials, and transformation of built heritage sites. Therefore, heritage site documentation and its analysis are essential parts for their conservation. In addition, the devastating effects of recent catastrophic events in different geographical areas have highly affected cultural heritage places. Such areas include and are not limited to South Europe, South East Asia, and Central America. Within this framework, appropriate acquisition of information can effectively provide tools for the decision-making process and management. Heritage documentation is growing in innovation, providing dynamic opportunities for effectively responding to the alarming rate of destruction by natural events, conflicts, and negligence. In line with these considerations, a multidisciplinary team - including students and faculty members from Carleton University and Yangon Technological University, as well as staff from the Department of Archaeology, National Museum and Library (DoA) and professionals from the CyArk foundation - developed a coordinated strategy to document four temples in the site of Bagan (Myanmar). On-field work included capacity-building activities to train local emerging professionals in the heritage field (graduate and undergraduate students from the Yangon Technological University) and to increase the technical knowledge of the local DoA staff in the digital documentation field. Due to the short time of the on-field activity and the need to record several monuments, a variety of documentation techniques, including image and non-image based ones, were used. Afterwards, the information acquired during the fieldwork was processed to develop a solid base for the conservation and monitoring of the four documented temples. The relevance of developing this kind of documentation in Bagan is related to the vulnerability of the site, often affected by natural seismic events and

  9. BUILT HERITAGE DOCUMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED CONSERVATION APPROACH IN BAGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mezzino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Good practices in heritage conservation are based on accurate information about conditions, materials, and transformation of built heritage sites. Therefore, heritage site documentation and its analysis are essential parts for their conservation. In addition, the devastating effects of recent catastrophic events in different geographical areas have highly affected cultural heritage places. Such areas include and are not limited to South Europe, South East Asia, and Central America. Within this framework, appropriate acquisition of information can effectively provide tools for the decision-making process and management. Heritage documentation is growing in innovation, providing dynamic opportunities for effectively responding to the alarming rate of destruction by natural events, conflicts, and negligence. In line with these considerations, a multidisciplinary team – including students and faculty members from Carleton University and Yangon Technological University, as well as staff from the Department of Archaeology, National Museum and Library (DoA and professionals from the CyArk foundation – developed a coordinated strategy to document four temples in the site of Bagan (Myanmar. On-field work included capacity-building activities to train local emerging professionals in the heritage field (graduate and undergraduate students from the Yangon Technological University and to increase the technical knowledge of the local DoA staff in the digital documentation field. Due to the short time of the on-field activity and the need to record several monuments, a variety of documentation techniques, including image and non-image based ones, were used. Afterwards, the information acquired during the fieldwork was processed to develop a solid base for the conservation and monitoring of the four documented temples. The relevance of developing this kind of documentation in Bagan is related to the vulnerability of the site, often affected by natural

  10. Integration of Problem-Based Learning and Web-Based Multimedia to Enhance Soil Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strivelli, R.; Krzic, M.; Crowley, C.; Dyanatkar, S.; Bomke, A.; Simard, S.; Grand, S.

    2012-04-01

    In an attempt to address declining enrolment in soil science programs and the changing learning needs of 21st century students, several universities in North America and around the world have re-organized their soil science curriculum and adopted innovative educational approaches and web-based