WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrating scientific methods

  1. A joint classification method to integrate scientific and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neshati, Mahmood; Asgari, Ehsaneddin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Beigy, Hamid

    In this paper, we address the problem of scientific-social network integration to find a matching relationship between members of these networks. Utilizing several name similarity patterns and contextual properties of these networks, we design a focused crawler to find high probable matching pairs,

  2. High-integrity software, computation and the scientific method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, L.

    2012-01-01

    Computation rightly occupies a central role in modern science. Datasets are enormous and the processing implications of some algorithms are equally staggering. With the continuing difficulties in quantifying the results of complex computations, it is of increasing importance to understand its role in the essentially Popperian scientific method. In this paper, some of the problems with computation, for example the long-term unquantifiable presence of undiscovered defect, problems with programming languages and process issues will be explored with numerous examples. One of the aims of the paper is to understand the implications of trying to produce high-integrity software and the limitations which still exist. Unfortunately Computer Science itself suffers from an inability to be suitably critical of its practices and has operated in a largely measurement-free vacuum since its earliest days. Within computer science itself, this has not been so damaging in that it simply leads to unconstrained creativity and a rapid turnover of new technologies. In the applied sciences however which have to depend on computational results, such unquantifiability significantly undermines trust. It is time this particular demon was put to rest. (author)

  3. Scientific integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2008-01-01

    consent was obtained.Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger...

  4. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  5. A model of "integrated scientific method" and its application for the analysis of instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbult, Craig Francis

    A model of 'integrated scientific method' (ISM) was constructed as a framework for describing the process of science in terms of activities (formulating a research problem, and inventing and evaluating actions--such as selecting and inventing theories, evaluating theories, designing experiments, and doing experiments--intended to solve the problem) and evaluation criteria (empirical, conceptual, and cultural-personal). Instead of trying to define the scientific method, ISM is intended to serve as a flexible framework that--by varying the characteristics of its components, their integrated relationships, and their relative importance can be used to describe a variety of scientific methods, and a variety of perspectives about what constitutes an accurate portrayal of scientific methods. This framework is outlined visually and verbally, followed by an elaboration of the framework and my own views about science, and an evaluation of whether ISM can serve as a relatively neutral framework for describing a wide range of science practices and science interpretations. ISM was used to analyze an innovative, guided inquiry classroom (taught by Susan Johnson, using Genetics Construction Kit software) in which students do simulated scientific research by solving classical genetics problems that require effect-to-cause reasoning and theory revision. The immediate goal of analysis was to examine the 'science experiences' of students, to determine how the 'structure of instruction' provides opportunities for these experiences. Another goal was to test and improve the descriptive and analytical utility of ISM. In developing ISM, a major objective was to make ISM educationally useful. A concluding discussion includes controversies about "the nature of science" and how to teach it, how instruction can expand opportunities for student experience, and how goal-oriented intentional learning (using ISM might improve the learning, retention, and transfer of thinking skills. Potential

  6. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  7. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  8. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information in policymaking. The selection of scientists and technology professionals for positions in the... Administration on a wide range of issues, including improvement of public health, protection of the environment... technological findings and conclusions. If scientific and technological information is developed and used by the...

  9. EPA scientific integrity policy draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its draft scientific integrity policy on 5 August. The draft policy addresses scientific ethical standards, communications with the public, the use of advisory committees and peer review, and professional development. The draft policy was developed by an ad hoc group of EPA senior staff and scientists in response to a December 2010 memorandum on scientific integrity from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The agency is accepting public comments on the draft through 6 September; comments should be sent to osa.staff@epa.gov. For more information, see http://www.epa.gov/stpc/pdfs/draft-scientific-integrity-policy-aug2011.pdf.

  10. Interactive Visualization Systems and Data Integration Methods for Supporting Discovery in Collections of Scientific Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    projection for exploratory analysis. It also enables quantitative analysis. We show that this combination can be used to assisting users with the...cited in “Undiscovered Public Knowledge” Swanson succeeds in integrating Wilson’s ideas with Karl Popper’s critique of positivism from the 1934 “Logik...data that was performed in the prior studies. In this study, quantitative properties of the graph were used to identify records that merit

  11. Improving the Efficiency of the Nodal Integral Method With the Portable, Extensible Tool-kit for Scientific Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toreja, Allen J.; Uddin, Rizwan

    2002-01-01

    An existing implementation of the nodal integral method for the time-dependent convection-diffusion equation is modified to incorporate various PETSc (Portable, Extensible Tool-kit for Scientific Computation) solver and pre-conditioner routines. In the modified implementation, the default iterative Gauss-Seidel solver is replaced with one of the following PETSc iterative linear solver routines: Generalized Minimal Residuals, Stabilized Bi-conjugate Gradients, or Transpose-Free Quasi-Minimal Residuals. For each solver, a Jacobi or a Successive Over-Relaxation pre-conditioner is used. Two sample problems, one with a low Peclet number and one with a high Peclet number, are solved using the new implementation. In all the cases tested, the new implementation with the PETSc solver routines outperforms the original Gauss-Seidel implementation. Moreover, the PETSc Stabilized Bi-conjugate Gradients routine performs the best on the two sample problems leading to CPU times that are less than half the CPU times of the original implementation. (authors)

  12. Scientific Integrity Policy Creation and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Ensuring the integrity of science was a priority for the Obama Administration. In March 2009, President Obama issued a Presidential Memorandum that recognized the need for the public to be able to trust the science and scientific process informing public policy decisions. In 2010, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) issued a Memorandum providing guidelines for Federal departments and agencies to follow in developing scientific integrity policies. This Memorandum describes minimum standards for: (1) strengthening the foundations of scientific integrity in government, including by shielding scientific data and analysis from inappropriate political influence; (2) improving public communication about science and technology by promoting openness and transparency; (3) enhancing the ability of Federal Advisory Committees to provide independent scientific advice; and (4) supporting the professional development of government scientists and engineers. The Memorandum called upon the heads of departments and agencies to develop scientific integrity policies that meet these requirements. At the end of the Obama Administration, 24 Federal departments and agencies had developed and implemented scientific integrity policies consistent with the OSTP guidelines. This year, there are significant questions as to the Trump Administration's commitment to these scientific integrity policies and interest in the Congress in codifying these policies in law. The session will provide an update on the status of agency scientific integrity policies and legislation.

  13. Teaching scientific integrity through statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijn, Marijtje A.J.; Post, Wendy J.; Makar, Katie; de Sousa, Bruno; Gould, Robert1

    In the past years, Dutch academia was confronted with several cases of fraud. The Stapel investigation revealed that the prevailing research culture allowed questionable research practices (QRP). As a consequence, there is an ongoing debate on how to prevent academic misconduct. Teaching scientific

  14. Biology, Philosophy, and Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L.

    1985-01-01

    The limits of falsification are discussed and the historically based models of science described by Lakatos and Kuhn are shown to offer greater insights into the practice of science. The theory of natural selection is used to relate biology to philosophy and scientific method. (Author/JN)

  15. On the Possibility of a Scientific Theory of Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical strengths and weaknesses of Laudan's normative naturalism, which understands the principles of scientific method to be akin to scientific hypotheses, and therefore open to test like any principle of science. Contains 19 references. (Author/WRM)

  16. INTEGRATION OF UKRAINIAN INDUSTRY SCIENTIFIC PERIODACLS INTO WORLD SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION SPACE: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Kolesnykova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Problem of representation lack of scientists’ publications, including transport scientists, in the international scientometric databases is the urgent one for Ukrainian science. To solve the problem one should study the structure and quality of the information flow of scientific periodicals of railway universities in Ukraine and to determine the integration algorithm of scientific publications of Ukrainian scientists into the world scientific information space. Methodology. Applying the methods of scientific analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison and prediction the author has investigated the problem of scientific knowledge distribution using formal communications. The readiness of Ukrainian railway periodicals to registration procedure in the international scientometric systems was analyzed. The level of representation of articles and authors of Ukrainian railway universities in scientometric database Scopus was studied. Findings. Monitoring of the portals of railway industry universities of Ukraine and the sites of their scientific periodicals and analysis of obtained data prove insufficient readiness of most scientific publications for submission to scientometric database. The ways providing sufficient "visibility" of industry periodicals of Ukrainian universities in the global scientific information space were proposed. Originality. The structure and quality of documentary flow of scientific periodicals in railway transport universities of Ukraine and its reflection in scientometric DB Scopus were first investigated. The basic directions of university activities to integrate the results of transport scientists research into the global scientific digital environment were outlined. It was determined the leading role of university libraries in the integration processes of scientific documentary resources of universities into the global scientific and information communicative space. Practical value. Implementation of the proposed

  17. The epistemic integrity of scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, Jan; Kosolosky, Laszlo

    2013-09-01

    We live in a world in which scientific expertise and its epistemic authority become more important. On the other hand, the financial interests in research, which could potentially corrupt science, are increasing. Due to these two tendencies, a concern for the integrity of scientific research becomes increasingly vital. This concern is, however, hollow if we do not have a clear account of research integrity. Therefore, it is important that we explicate this concept. Following Rudolf Carnap's characterization of the task of explication, this means that we should develop a concept that is (1) similar to our common sense notion of research integrity, (2) exact, (3) fruitful, and (4) as simple as possible. Since existing concepts do not meet these four requirements, we develop a new concept in this article. We describe a concept of epistemic integrity that is based on the property of deceptiveness, and argue that this concept does meet Carnap's four requirements of explication. To illustrate and support our claims we use several examples from scientific practice, mainly from biomedical research.

  18. Scientific Facts and Methods in Public Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønch-Clausen, Karin; Kappel, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Should scientific facts and methods have an epistemically privileged status in public reason? In Rawls’s public reason account he asserts what we will label the Scientific Standard Stricture: citizens engaged in public reason must be guided by non-controversial scientific methods, and public reason...... must be in line with non-controversial scientific conclusions. The Scientific Standard Stricture is meant to fulfill important tasks such as enabling the determinateness and publicity of the public reason framework. However, Rawls leaves us without elucidation with regard to when science...

  19. Embedding Scientific Integrity and Ethics into the Scientific Process and Research Data Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting climate change, developing resources sustainably, and mitigating natural hazard risk are complex interdisciplinary challenges in the geosciences that require the integration of data and knowledge from disparate disciplines and scales. This kind of interdisciplinary science can only thrive if scientific communities work together and adhere to common standards of scientific integrity, ethics, data management, curation, and sharing. Science and data without integrity and ethics can erode the very fabric of the scientific enterprise and potentially harm society and the planet. Inaccurate risk analyses of natural hazards can lead to poor choices in construction, insurance, and emergency response. Incorrect assessment of mineral resources can bankrupt a company, destroy a local economy, and contaminate an ecosystem. This paper presents key ethics and integrity questions paired with the major components of the research data life cycle. The questions can be used by the researcher during the scientific process to help ensure the integrity and ethics of their research and adherence to sound data management practice. Questions include considerations for open, collaborative science, which is fundamentally changing the responsibility of scientists regarding data sharing and reproducibility. The publication of primary data, methods, models, software, and workflows must become a norm of science. There are also questions that prompt the scientist to think about the benefit of their work to society; ensuring equity, respect, and fairness in working with others; and always striving for honesty, excellence, and transparency.

  20. "The Scientific Method" as Myth and Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    "The Scientific Method" as it has been portrayed in popular and introductory contexts has been declared a myth. The variation that one finds in introductory presentations of "The Scientific Method" is explained by the fact that there is no canonical account among historians and philosophers of science. What, in particular, is…

  1. The Effectiveness of Scientific Inquiry With/Without Integration of Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ting; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the difference in effectiveness between two scientific inquiry programs-one with an emphasis on scientific reasoning and one without a scientific reasoning component-on students' scientific concepts, scientific concept-dependent reasoning, and scientific inquiry. A mixed-method approach was used in which 115 grade 5…

  2. WARGAMES AND THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    be made of them. It is a method which, in exchange for a good shilling, gives you a pocketful of bad halfpence.”10 But Hamly is no advocate of... method to teach them, offering students “opportunities to make tough choices, study their decision-making calculus, and appreciate the consequences.”37 Dr...Conventional Instructional Method : A Randomized Controlled Trial with Third-Year Medical Students .” PLOS ONE 8, no. 12 (December 2013): e82328. http

  3. Representation and Integration of Scientific Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this Joint Research Interchange with NASA-Ames was to investigate how the Tsimmis technology could be used to represent and integrate scientific information. The main goal of the Tsimmis project is to allow a decision maker to find information of interest from such sources, fuse it, and process it (e.g., summarize it, visualize it, discover trends). Another important goal is the easy incorporation of new sources, as well the ability to deal with sources whose structure or services evolve. During the Interchange we had research meetings approximately every month or two. The funds provided by NASA supported work that lead to the following two papers: Fusion Queries over Internet Databases; Efficient Query Subscription Processing in a Multicast Environment.

  4. Scientific computing vol III - approximation and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Trangenstein, John A

    2017-01-01

    This is the third of three volumes providing a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals of scientific computing. This volume discusses topics that depend more on calculus than linear algebra, in order to prepare the reader for solving differential equations. This book and its companions show how to determine the quality of computational results, and how to measure the relative efficiency of competing methods. Readers learn how to determine the maximum attainable accuracy of algorithms, and how to select the best method for computing problems. This book also discusses programming in several languages, including C++, Fortran and MATLAB. There are 90 examples, 200 exercises, 36 algorithms, 40 interactive JavaScript programs, 91 references to software programs and 1 case study. Topics are introduced with goals, literature references and links to public software. There are descriptions of the current algorithms in GSLIB and MATLAB. This book could be used for a second course in numerical methods, for either ...

  5. Software Defects, Scientific Computation and the Scientific Method

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Computation has rapidly grown in the last 50 years so that in many scientific areas it is the dominant partner in the practice of science. Unfortunately, unlike the experimental sciences, it does not adhere well to the principles of the scientific method as espoused by, for example, the philosopher Karl Popper. Such principles are built around the notions of deniability and reproducibility. Although much research effort has been spent on measuring the density of software defects, much less has been spent on the more difficult problem of measuring their effect on the output of a program. This talk explores these issues with numerous examples suggesting how this situation might be improved to match the demands of modern science. Finally it develops a theoretical model based on an amalgam of statistical mechanics and Hartley/Shannon information theory which suggests that software systems have strong implementation independent behaviour and supports the widely observed phenomenon that defects clust...

  6. Scientific method, adversarial system, and technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic framework is provided for the consideration of the purposes and techniques of scientific method and adversarial systems. Similarities and differences in these two techniques of inquiry are considered with reference to their relevance in the performance of assessments.

  7. The Scientific Method in a Cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Bradley W.; More, M. B.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes an inexpensive hands-on activity that invites students to investigate an intriguing mystery and so discover for themselves the essence of the scientific method. When a spoon is tapped against the bottom of a mug of freshly made hot chocolate, a tone of constantly rising pitch is heard. Students’ reactions to this “hot chocolate effect” illustrate how the scientific method may be constructed from the common sense and curiosity present in us all.

  8. Computational Simulations and the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, Bil; Wood, Bill

    2005-01-01

    As scientific simulation software becomes more complicated, the scientific-software implementor's need for component tests from new model developers becomes more crucial. The community's ability to follow the basic premise of the Scientific Method requires independently repeatable experiments, and model innovators are in the best position to create these test fixtures. Scientific software developers also need to quickly judge the value of the new model, i.e., its cost-to-benefit ratio in terms of gains provided by the new model and implementation risks such as cost, time, and quality. This paper asks two questions. The first is whether other scientific software developers would find published component tests useful, and the second is whether model innovators think publishing test fixtures is a feasible approach.

  9. Developing Distinct Mathematical and Scientific Pedagogical Content Knowledge in an Early Childhood Dual-Content Methods Course: An Alternative to Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchman, Mindy; Kozoll, Richard H.

    2017-01-01

    Methods for teaching early childhood mathematics and science are often addressed in a single, dual-content course. Approaches to teaching this type of course include integrating the content and the pedagogy of both subjects, or keeping the subject areas distinct. In this article, the authors discuss and illustrate their approach to such a combined…

  10. Methods of Scientific Research: Teaching Scientific Creativity at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dennis; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2016-01-01

    We present a scaling-up plan for AstroComNYC's Methods of Scientific Research (MSR), a course designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of science practices. The course format and goals, notably the open-ended, hands-on, investigative nature of the curriculum are reviewed. We discuss how the course's interactive pedagogical techniques empower students to learn creativity within the context of experimental design and control of variables thinking. To date the course has been offered to a limited numbers of students in specific programs. The goals of broadly implementing MSR is to reach more students and early in their education—with the specific purpose of supporting and improving retention of students pursuing STEM careers. However, we also discuss challenges in preserving the effectiveness of the teaching and learning experience at scale.

  11. The Scientific Method - Critical and Creative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, John; Scarlise, Randall

    2011-10-01

    The ``scientific method'' is not just for scientists! Combined with critical thinking, the scientific method can enable students to distinguish credible sources of information from nonsense and become intelligent consumers of information. Professors John Cotton and Randall Scalise illustrate these principles using a series of examples and demonstrations that is enlightening, educational, and entertaining. This lecture/demonstration features highlights from their course (whose unofficial title is ``debunking pseudoscience'' ) which enables students to detect pseudoscience in its many guises: paranormal phenomena, free-energy devices, alternative medicine, and many others.

  12. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Hartl, Brett; Goldman, Gretchen T; Rohlf, Daniel J; Treves, Adrian; Kerr, Jeremy T; Ritchie, Euan G; Kingsford, Richard T; Gibbs, Katherine E; Maron, Martine; Watson, James E M

    2017-10-01

    Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest.

  13. What goes up... gravity and scientific method

    CERN Document Server

    Kosso, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The concept of gravity provides a natural phenomenon that is simultaneously obvious and obscure; we all know what it is, but rarely question why it is. The simple observation that 'what goes up must come down' contrasts starkly with our current scientific explanation of gravity, which involves challenging and sometimes counterintuitive concepts. With such extremes between the plain and the perplexing, gravity forces a sharp focus on scientific method. Following the history of gravity from Aristotle to Einstein, this clear account highlights the logic of scientific method for non-specialists. Successive theories of gravity and the evidence for each are presented clearly and rationally, focusing on the fundamental ideas behind them. Using only high-school level algebra and geometry, the author emphasizes what the equations mean rather than how they are derived, making this accessible for all those curious about gravity and how science really works.

  14. Federal Agency Scientific Integrity Policies and the Legal Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L.

    2017-12-01

    Federal agencies have worked to develop scientific integrity policies to promote the use of scientific and technical information in policymaking, reduce special-interest influences, and increase transparency. Following recent allegations of agency misconduct, these policies are now more important than ever. In addition to setting standards, scientific integrity policies also provide avenues for whistleblowers to complain about perceived violations. While these policies have their shortcomings (which may differ by agency), they are also one of the better available options for upholding principles of scientific integrity within the federal government. A legal perspective will be offered on what sorts of issues might rise to the threshold to make an official complaint, and the process of actually making a complaint. Other legal avenues for complaining about scientific integrity violations will also be discussed, such as complaints filed with the U.S. Office of Special Counsel or an agency's Office of Inspector General, and bringing the matter to federal court.

  15. Scientific misconduct and research integrity for the bench scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, C B

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the role of the Office of Research Integrity (ORI), a component of the Public Health Service (PHS), in defining scientific misconduct in research supported with PHS funds and in establishing standards for responding to allegations of misconduct. The principal methods by which ORI exercises its responsibilities in this area are defining what types of behaviors undertaken by research investigators constitute misconduct, overseeing institutional efforts to investigate and report misconduct, and recommending to the Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) PHS administrative actions when misconduct is identified. ORI also takes affirmative steps to promote research integrity through education, training, and other initiatives. The role of the research institution in responding to misconduct and promoting research integrity is complementary and overlapping with ORI's efforts but, as the employer of research investigators and front-line manager of the research, the institution has a greater opportunity to promote the highest standards of integrity in the day-to-day conduct of research. Finally, legal precedent established through civil litigation has played an important role in defining the standards that apply in determining when a breach of research integrity has occurred.

  16. SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF NATURE AND SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF CULTURE: INTE-GRATION TREND, PRACTICAL VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina Zoya Titovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a topic of interest : studying the expanding and deepening trend of integration of natural, technical, social and humanities fields of scientific knowledge. The point of absolute opposition between the sciences dealing with nature and those dealing with culture is subjected to criticism, the forms of integration of scientific knowledge are identified: mathematization, formalization, computerization of knowledge; philosophization/dialectization and environmentalization of the scientific knowledge. It is noted that such areas of scientific knowledge as synergetics, cybernetics, system theory, information technology, sociosynergetics, historical informatics, cliometrics, informatics for economics, evolutionary economics, human ecology, etc. Many scientific fields appear on the border between the science, technology and mathematics, and social and humanities studies, while the sharp borders between the natural sciences and cultural sciences tend to disappear, although specifics of studying the social reality still exists. Within the context of integration of sciences, comprehensive approach, synergetics, cybernetics, and mathematical model approach are analyzed. The philosophy of technology, and environmental problems, which are caused by the development of technological civilization, are studied. Practical value of integration processes in science is identified. The studied data is addressed to the specialists who are interested in the modern processes of integration of sciences, and modern issues of scientific and technical development of humanity, survival of humanity under the conditions of increasing technological understanding of the nature.

  17. Concept for integrated environmental monitoring. Scientific approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, W [comp.; Schoenthaler, K; Kerner, H F; Koeppel, J; Spandau, L

    1998-09-01

    Despite considerable expenditures for environmental protection and intensified efforts in the areas of environmental research and monitoring, environmental damage increasingly occurs, sometimes with global effects, largely due to the lack of early diagnosis. In the past few years various institutions have therefore demanded improvements in environmental monitoring. The Council of Experts on Environmental Issues (`Rat von Sachverstaendigen fuer Umweltfragen`, SRU), in particular, in its `Environmental Report` of 1987 and in its Special Report on `General Ecological Environmental Monitoring` (1990) presented far-reaching demands for a nationwide ecological early warning system which should integrate the various local, regional, national, and even global monitoring levels, and which should encompass an environmental monitoring of entire ecosystems at representative locations. This is aimed at creating the prerequisites for - detection of long-term gradual environmental change, - confirmation of refutation of initial assumptions regarding the causes of these environmental changes, - permitting decisions on preventive actions to stabilize or improve environmental conditions and - making it possible to assess the success of environmental protection policies. This report includes an abbreviated version and documentation of the conference on the `Concept for Integrated Environmental Monitoring` and the final report `Specification of the Concept for Integrated Environmental Monitoring from the Perspective of Nature Conservation`. (orig.)

  18. Scientific methods for developing ultrastable structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, M.; Thompson, T.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific methods used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for developing an ultrastable structure for study of silicon-based elementary particle tracking systems are addressed. In particular, the design, analysis, and monitoring of this system are explored. The development methodology was based on a triad of analytical, computational, and experimental techniques. These were used to achieve a significant degree of mechanical stability (alignment accuracy >1 μrad) and yet allow dynamic manipulation of the system. Estimates of system thermal and vibratory stability and component performance are compared with experimental data collected using laser interferometry and accelerometers. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. ASCR Cybersecurity for Scientific Computing Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piesert, Sean

    2015-02-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to address the energy, environmental, and nuclear security challenges that face our nation. Much of DOE’s enterprise involves distributed, collaborative teams; a signi¬cant fraction involves “open science,” which depends on multi-institutional, often international collaborations that must access or share signi¬cant amounts of information between institutions and over networks around the world. The mission of the Office of Science is the delivery of scienti¬c discoveries and major scienti¬c tools to transform our understanding of nature and to advance the energy, economic, and national security of the United States. The ability of DOE to execute its responsibilities depends critically on its ability to assure the integrity and availability of scienti¬c facilities and computer systems, and of the scienti¬c, engineering, and operational software and data that support its mission.

  20. AGU's Updated Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    AGU'S mission is to promote discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. This mission can only be accomplished if all those engaged in the scientific enterprise uphold the highest standards of scientific integrity and professional ethics. AGU's Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy provides a set of principles and guidelines for AGU members, staff, volunteers, contractors, and non-members participating in AGU sponsored programs and activities. The policy has recently been updated to include a new code of conduct that broadens the definition of scientific misconduct to include discrimination, harassment, and bullying. This presentation provides the context for what motivated the updated policy, an outline of the policy itself, and a discussion of how it is being communicated and applied.

  1. Dealing with scientific integrity issues: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigdomènech, Pere

    2014-02-01

    Integrity has been an important matter of concern for the scientific community as it affects the basis of its activities. Most countries having a significant scientific activity have dealt with this problem by different means, including drafting specific legal or soft law regulations and the appointment of stable or ad hoc committees that take care of these questions. This has also been the case in Spain. After the period of transition between dictatorship to a democratic regime, and, particularly, after the entrance in the European Union, scientific activity has increased in the country. As it could be expected, problems of misconduct have appeared and different institutions have been dealing with these matters. One of the best examples is that of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), the largest institution devoted to scientific research belonging to the Spanish Government. The experience of the CSIC’s Ethics Committee in dealing with conflicts related to scientific practices is discussed here.

  2. Integration of Information and Scientific Literacy: Promoting Literacy in Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbach, Kevin C.; Purzycki, Catherine B.; Bowman, Leslie A.; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement. PMID:21123700

  3. President's message: We must remain committed to scientific integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael

    2012-02-01

    During the third week of February our global community of Earth and space scientists witnessed the shocking fall from grace of an accomplished AGU member who betrayed the principles of scientific integrity. In doing so he compromised AGU's credibility as a scientific society, weakened the public's trust in scientists, and produced fresh fuel for the unproductive and seemingly endless ideological firestorm surrounding the reality of the Earth's changing climate. Peter Gleick resigned as chair of AGU's Task Force on Scientific Ethics on 16 February, prior to admitting in a blog post that he obtained documents from the Heartland Institute under false pretenses. His transgression cannot be condoned, regardless of his motives. It is a tragedy that requires us to stop and reflect on what we value as scientists and how we want to be perceived by the public. Here are a few things that come immediately to mind:

  4. NASA Guidelines for Promoting Scientific and Research Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Amy P.; Neogi, Natasha A.

    2017-01-01

    This guidebook provides an overarching summary of existing policies, activities, and guiding principles for scientific and research integrity with which NASA's workforce and affiliates must conform. This document addresses NASA's obligations as both a research institution and as a funder of research, NASA's use of federal advisory committees, NASA's public communication of research results, and professional development of NASA's workforce. This guidebook is intended to provide a single resource for NASA researchers, NASA research program administrators and project managers, external entities who do or might receive funding from NASA for research or technical projects, evaluators of NASA research proposals, NASA advisory committee members, NASA communications specialists, and members of the general public so that they can understand NASA's commitment to and expectations for scientific and integrity across the agency.

  5. Statistical Methods in Integrative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sylvia; Tseng, George C.; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Statistical methods in integrative genomics aim to answer important biology questions by jointly analyzing multiple types of genomic data (vertical integration) or aggregating the same type of data across multiple studies (horizontal integration). In this article, we introduce different types of genomic data and data resources, and then review statistical methods of integrative genomics, with emphasis on the motivation and rationale of these methods. We conclude with some summary points and future research directions. PMID:27482531

  6. Diverse methods for integrable models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehér, G.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is centered around three topics, sharing integrability as a common theme. This thesis explores different methods in the field of integrable models. The first two chapters are about integrable lattice models in statistical physics. The last chapter describes an integrable quantum chain.

  7. Leveraging Transcultural Enrollments to Enhance Application of the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, M.

    2013-12-01

    Continued growth of transcultural academic programs presents an opportunity for all of the students involved to improve utilization of the scientific method. Our own business success depends on how effectively we apply the scientific method, and so it is unsurprising that our hiring programs focus on three broad areas of capability among applicants which are strongly related to the scientific method. These are 1) ability to continually learn up-to-date earth science concepts, 2) ability to effectively and succinctly communicate in the English language, both oral and written, and 3) ability to employ behaviors that are advantageous with respect to the various phases of the scientific method. This third area is often the most difficult to develop, because neither so-called Western nor Eastern cultures encourage a suite of behaviors that are ideally suited. Generally, the acceptance of candidates into academic programs, together with subsequent high performance evidenced by grades, is a highly valid measure of continuous learning capability. Certainly, students for whom English is not a native language face additional challenges, but succinct and effective communication is an art which requires practice and development, regardless of native language. The ability to communicate in English is crucial, since it is today's lingua franca for both science and commerce globally. Therefore, we strongly support the use of frequent English written assignments and oral presentations as an integral part of all scientific academic programs. There is no question but that this poses additional work for faculty; nevertheless it is a key ingredient to the optimal development of students. No one culture has a monopoly with respect to behaviors that promote effective leveraging of the scientific method. For instance, the growing complexity of experimental protocols argues for a high degree of interdependent effort, which is more often associated with so-called Eastern than Western

  8. The Scientific Method and Scientific Inquiry: Tensions in Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaowei; Coffey, Janet E.; Elby, Andy; Levin, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, the scientific method in science classrooms takes the form of discrete, ordered steps meant to guide students' inquiry. In this paper, we examine how focusing on the scientific method as discrete steps affects students' inquiry and teachers' perceptions thereof. To do so, we study a ninth-grade environmental science class in which…

  9. Striving for Scientific Integrity and Ethical Practices in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissman, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The need for the highest levels of scientific integrity and ethical principles in higher education, globally, is obvious. This is the setting where faculty scientists practice and future scientists, as entering science majors, those who change course and switch to science, and graduate students, are nurtured and mentored. Institutions of higher education across the globe are devoting increasing attention to scientific integrity and ethical practices, often as mandated by specific (funding) agencies, and this certainly is a step in the right direction. One approach has involved graduate students, particularly PhD students, in formal classes/seminars on the subjects. Another, more institution-specific, is to require freshman science majors to take one or more classes designed to assist students, in many ways, to succeed in whatever science path they choose. For the past five years I have "taught" such a class, which I like to refer to as "Science is the Rest of Your Life 101". My section is very heavy on scientific integrity and ethical practices; most students have never been exposed to nor have considered such subjects. Their interest level is exceedingly keen. So, steps are being taken, but rectifying existing concerns will take time. Here are some (potential/real) problems. One facing all of higher education is the ever decreasing number, certainly in the United States, of tenured/tenure track faculty in all disciplines together with the generational "gap" or "double gap" (some colleagues of mine are in their 80s) between those who never for all intents and purposes received any "formal" exposure to scientific integrity and ethical practices issues and those fresh in the academy for which these subjects are recently and better engrained. At most institutions, those faculty never involved in such formal training because of, well, their age, are required to pass some form of on-line "certification" class in research ethics among other subjects on an annual or bi

  10. Teaching the Scientific Method in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Many undergraduates can tell you what the scientific method means but just a little probing reveals a rather shallow understanding as well as a number of misconceptions about the method. The purpose of this paper is to indicate why such misconceptions occur and to point out some implications and suggestions for teaching the scientific method in…

  11. Urology and the scientific method in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordetsky, Jennifer; O'Brien, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    To examine the practice of urology in ancient Egypt using various sources, including the Edwin Smith and Ebers Papyri. The sources of knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine include medical papyri, paleopathology, art, and hieroglyphic carvings. A brief overview of the medical system in ancient Egypt was completed, in addition to an examination of the training and specialization of the physician in the ancient world. Urologic diseases treated in ancient Egypt and some of the first documented urologic surgeries are presented. Finally, we studied the role of the physician-priest and the intertwined use of religion and magic in ancient Egyptian medicine. The same medical conditions urologists treat in the office today were methodically documented thousands of years ago. Medical papyri show evidence that the ancient Egyptians practiced medicine using a scientific method based on the clinical observation of disease. This has been exemplified by the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, a collection of surgical cases that gives a diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for each ailment, and the discovery of medical specialization in ancient Egypt, giving us perhaps the world's first urologists. Intertwined with the scientific method was also the rich mysticism and religion of ancient Egypt, which were integral components of the healing process. We present an overview of the practice of urology in ancient Egypt, in terms of both pharmacologic and surgical intervention, as well as with a look into the religion of medicine practiced at that time.

  12. On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagensberg, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. This article proffers for discussion a potential scientific method that aspires to be unique and universal and is rooted in the recent and ancient history of scientific thinking. Curiously, conclusions can be inferred from this scientific method that also concern education and the transmission of science to others.

  13. The Crossroads between Biology and Mathematics: The Scientific Method as the Basics of Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Istvan; Kampis, George

    2010-01-01

    Biology is changing and becoming more quantitative. Research is creating new challenges that need to be addressed in education as well. New educational initiatives focus on combining laboratory procedures with mathematical skills, yet it seems that most curricula center on a single relationship between scientific knowledge and scientific method:…

  14. How the Television Show "Mythbusters" Communicates the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik; Sharpsteen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The importance of understanding and internalizing the scientific method can hardly be exaggerated. Unfortunately, it is all too common for high school--and even university--students to graduate with only a partial or oversimplified understanding of what the scientific method is and how to actually employ it. Help in remedying this situation may…

  15. Adherence to Scientific Method while Advancing Exposure Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Lioy was simultaneously a staunch adherent to the scientific method and an innovator of new ways to conduct science, particularly related to human exposure. Current challenges to science and the application of the scientific method are presented as they relate the approaches...

  16. Variation in the Interpretation of Scientific Integrity in Community-based Participatory Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity means for the professional and community investigators who are involved in CBPR. This analysis explores the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR among 74 professional and community research team members from of 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. It describes the basic definition for scientific integrity and then explores variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR. Variations in the interpretations were associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Professional investigators understood scientific integrity in CBPR as either conceptually or logistically flexible, as challenging to balance with community needs, or no different than traditional scientific integrity. Community investigators interpret other factors as important in scientific integrity, such as trust, accountability, and overall benefit to the community. This research demonstrates that the variations in the interpretation of scientific integrity in CBPR call for a new definition of scientific integrity in CBPR that takes into account the understanding and needs of all investigators. PMID:24161098

  17. Perceptions That Influence the Maintenance of Scientific Integrity in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…

  18. Assembly and integration of geo-scientific knowledge and arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewki, P.; Gautschi, A.; Nguyen, T.S.; Laaksohaju, M.; Rohlig, K.J.; Peake, T.; Peltier, R.; Pitkanen, P.; Skagius Elert, K.; Sykes, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this working group was to consider the assembly and integration of geo-scientific knowledge and arguments. In an introductory presentation, K. Skagius Elert presented 'Assessment of Uncertainty and Confidence in Site Descriptive Models Experience from the On-going Site Investigation Programme in Sweden'. The detailed description of concepts and procedures established at SKB for the development of a Site Descriptive Model (SDM) provided a starting point for the discussion of the working group. The SDM components and the procedures to achieve them were used as 'references' for the discussion of comparable elements in other national programmes. The observations have been placed into two broad themes: 1. How to manage the integration? 2. How to handle uncertainties? No specific prescription was identified for either of these questions; rather a range of suggestions were noted based on experience. The appropriate solution will depend on the organisation, the site, the state of the programme, and other factors. A final observation from the working group was on the handling of evolution of the site with time. This topic incorporates aspects of both site integration and uncertainty management. Specifically, the integrated site description model (SDM) noted above represents a description of the site as it presently exists. This description takes into account the site history, but does not describe its evolution. The latter involves a number of uncertainties. This time evolution of the site can be described through Scenarios. The definition of scenarios, similar to the definition of the SDM, is an integrated and multidisciplinary process in order to ensure a self-consistent description. It will involve use of common assumptions. Since it involves the future and the associated uncertainties, it can be useful to draw on expert panels to help define the key assumptions and outlines for scenarios. (authors)

  19. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Volakis, John

    2012-01-01

    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  20. GumTree-An integrated scientific experiment environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Goetz, Andy; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis

  1. GumTree - An Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia; Goetz, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Full text: GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis. (authors)

  2. Integrating multiple scientific computing needs via a Private Cloud infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnasco, S; Berzano, D; Brunetti, R; Lusso, S; Vallero, S

    2014-01-01

    In a typical scientific computing centre, diverse applications coexist and share a single physical infrastructure. An underlying Private Cloud facility eases the management and maintenance of heterogeneous use cases such as multipurpose or application-specific batch farms, Grid sites catering to different communities, parallel interactive data analysis facilities and others. It allows to dynamically and efficiently allocate resources to any application and to tailor the virtual machines according to the applications' requirements. Furthermore, the maintenance of large deployments of complex and rapidly evolving middleware and application software is eased by the use of virtual images and contextualization techniques; for example, rolling updates can be performed easily and minimizing the downtime. In this contribution we describe the Private Cloud infrastructure at the INFN-Torino Computer Centre, that hosts a full-fledged WLCG Tier-2 site and a dynamically expandable PROOF-based Interactive Analysis Facility for the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC and several smaller scientific computing applications. The Private Cloud building blocks include the OpenNebula software stack, the GlusterFS filesystem (used in two different configurations for worker- and service-class hypervisors) and the OpenWRT Linux distribution (used for network virtualization). A future integration into a federated higher-level infrastructure is made possible by exposing commonly used APIs like EC2 and by using mainstream contextualization tools like CloudInit.

  3. Realizing Scientific Methods for Cyber Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2012-07-18

    There is little doubt among cyber security researchers about the lack of scientic rigor that underlies much of the liter-ature. The issues are manifold and are well documented. Further complicating the problem is insufficient scientic methods to address these issues. Cyber security melds man and machine: we inherit the challenges of computer science, sociology, psychology, and many other elds and create new ones where these elds interface. In this paper we detail a partial list of challenges imposed by rigorous science and survey how other sciences have tackled them, in the hope of applying a similar approach to cyber security science. This paper is by no means comprehensive: its purpose is to foster discussion in the community on how we can improve rigor in cyber security science.

  4. Integration in urban climate adaptation: Lessons from Rotterdam on integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.M.E.; Bosch, P.R.; Buijs, S.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the experience acquired in the Bergpolder Zuid district in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, this paper presents lessons learned so far on science-policy interactions supporting the adaptation to climate change in an urban district. Two types of integration issues were considered: (1)

  5. Integrating scientific, economic, and ecological aspects of global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, H.D.; Yang, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change is conducting research on methods for integrating the science of potential global change with economic analysis of litigation policies and quantification of economic and environmental impacts. The paper describes this work, with a focus on the way that research within the various contributing disciplines, and the design of their associated models, are influenced by the process of inclusion in an integrated framework for policy analysis. The results should contribute new insight into the relative importance of key feedbacks within the economy-climate-ecology system

  6. Scientific publications from Arab world in leading journals of Integrative and Complementary Medicine: a bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sweileh, Waleed M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bibliometric analysis is increasingly employed as a useful tool to assess the quantity and quality of research performance. The specific goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of research output originating from Arab world and published in international Integrative and Complementary Medicine (ICM) journals. Methods Original scientific publications and reviews from the 22 Arab countries that were published in 22 international peer-reviewed ICM journals during all ...

  7. Perceptions that influence the maintenance of scientific integrity in community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and unique concerns. Understanding the perceptions that promote or discourage scientific integrity in CBPR as identified by professional and community investigators is essential to promoting the value of CBPR. This analysis explores the perceptions that facilitate scientific integrity in CBPR as well as the barriers among a sample of 74 professional and community CBPR investigators from 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. There were variations in perceptions associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Perceptions identified to promote and discourage scientific integrity in CBPR by professional and community investigators were external pressures, community participation, funding, quality control and supervision, communication, training, and character and trust. Some perceptions such as communication and training promoted scientific integrity whereas other perceptions, such as a lack of funds and lack of trust could discourage scientific integrity. These results demonstrate that one of the most important perceptions in maintaining scientific integrity in CBPR is active community participation, which enables a co-responsibility by scientists and community members to provide oversight for scientific integrity. Credible CBPR science is crucial to empower the vulnerable communities to be heard by those in positions of power and policy making. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. Teachers' Integration of Scientific and Engineering Practices in Primary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Eileen G.; Chiu, Jennie; Peters-Burton, Erin; Bell, Randy

    2017-06-01

    The Next-Generation Science Standards (NGSS) challenge primary teachers and students to work and think like scientists and engineers as they strive to understand complex concepts. Teachers and teacher educators can leverage what is already known about inquiry teaching as they plan instruction to help students meet the new standards. This cross-case analysis of a multiple case study examined teacher practices in the context of a semester-long professional development course for elementary teachers. We reviewed lessons and teacher reflections, examining how kindergarten and first grade teachers incorporated NGSS scientific and engineering practices during inquiry-based instruction. We found that most of the teachers worked with their students on asking questions; planning and carrying out investigations; analyzing and interpreting data, using mathematics and computational thinking; and obtaining, evaluating and communicating information. Teachers faced challenges in supporting students in developing their own questions that could be investigated and using data collection strategies that aligned with students' development of number sense concepts. Also, some teachers overemphasized the scientific method and lacked clarity in how they elicited and responded to student predictions. Discussion focuses on teacher supports that will be needed as states transition to NGSS.

  9. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  10. INTEGRAL CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Nazarevich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we develop approaches to the estimation of production enterprises based on the criteria of classification of products, goods and services to innovative products. Developed their qualitative scale for interpreting the results of the evaluation, blind spots, which were not included in the intervals, are compensated by the use of fuzzy sets. In the presented method uses integral criterion based on fuzzy accessory products specific form. The obtained numerical values of the integral criterion reflect the adequacy of the technical characteristics to determine the form of new products, as well as identifying the characteristics of the gap to peers and benchmarks. The technique is applicable to the assessment processes of innovation and competitiveness of new and current products, as well as in dealing with the definition of the innovative features of the new products.

  11. Harnessing the power of big data: infusing the scientific method with machine learning to transform ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most efforts to harness the power of big data for ecology and environmental sciences focus on data and metadata sharing, standardization, and accuracy. However, many scientists have not accepted the data deluge as an integral part of their research because the current scientific method is not scalab...

  12. Numerical methods for engine-airframe integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, S.N.B.; Paynter, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    Various papers on numerical methods for engine-airframe integration are presented. The individual topics considered include: scientific computing environment for the 1980s, overview of prediction of complex turbulent flows, numerical solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, elements of computational engine/airframe integrations, computational requirements for efficient engine installation, application of CAE and CFD techniques to complete tactical missile design, CFD applications to engine/airframe integration, and application of a second-generation low-order panel methods to powerplant installation studies. Also addressed are: three-dimensional flow analysis of turboprop inlet and nacelle configurations, application of computational methods to the design of large turbofan engine nacelles, comparison of full potential and Euler solution algorithms for aeropropulsive flow field computations, subsonic/transonic, supersonic nozzle flows and nozzle integration, subsonic/transonic prediction capabilities for nozzle/afterbody configurations, three-dimensional viscous design methodology of supersonic inlet systems for advanced technology aircraft, and a user's technology assessment

  13. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. Cisar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

  14. What does «integrative medicine» provide to daily scientific clinical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller-Sifre, R; Bataller-Alberola, A

    2015-11-01

    Integrative medicine is an ambitious and noble-minded attempt to address the shortcomings of the current public health systems in our Western societies, which is restricted by the limited time available, especially in outpatient clinics. Integrative medicine also does not limit the possibilities of useful therapies that have been tested over the centuries (from China, India, etc.) or of certain resources that do not achieve the level of desired scientific credibility but that present certain therapeutic support in specific cases (homeopathy, acupuncture, etc.) but still require a scientific approach. Finally, the resource of botanical products (phytotherapy) constitutes a wide range of possibilities that universities can (and do) make progress on by providing drug brands for these products through the use of the scientific method and evidence-based medical criteria. This approach will help avoid the irrationality of the daily struggle between conventional scientific medicine (which we apply to the immense majority of patients) and the other diagnostic-therapeutic «guidelines» (natural medicine, alternative medicine, complementary medicine, patient-focused medicine and others). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Mathematical and Scientific Foundations for an Integrative Engineering Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Robin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Mathematical and Scientific Foundations of Engineering curriculum which emphasizes the mathematical and scientific concepts common to all engineering fields. Scientists and engineers together devised topics and experiments that emphasize the relevance of theory to real-world applications. Presents material efficiently while building…

  16. Divergence of Scientific Heuristic Method and Direct Algebraic Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calucag, Lina S.

    2016-01-01

    This is an experimental study, made used of the non-randomized experimental and control groups, pretest-posttest designs. The experimental and control groups were two separate intact classes in Algebra. For a period of twelve sessions, the experimental group was subjected to the scientific heuristic method, but the control group instead was given…

  17. Faculty Forum: HOMER as an Acronym for the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Jessica L.; Giesler, R. Brian; Morris, Kathryn A.; Vosmik, Jordan R.

    2007-01-01

    Mnemonic strategies, such as acronyms, effectively increase student retention of course material. We present an acronym based on a popular television character to help students remember the basic steps in the scientific method. Our empirical evaluation of the acronym revealed that students found it to be enjoyable, useful, and worthy of use in…

  18. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  19. Teaching the Scientific Method Using Current News Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Laura K.; Mahan, Carolyn G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a short (less than 50 minutes) activity using news articles from sources such as "Science Daily" to teach students the steps of the scientific method and the difference between primary and secondary literature sources. The flexibility in choosing news articles to examine allowed us to tailor the activity to the specific interests of…

  20. Jim Gray on eScience: A Transformed Scientific Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 8. Jim Gray on eScience: A Transformed Scientific Method. Classics Volume 21 Issue 8 August 2016 pp 749-763. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/08/0749-0763. Abstract ...

  1. A European legal method? On European private law and scientific method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between European private law and scientific method. It argues that a European legal method is a good idea. Not primarily because it will make European private law scholarship look more scientific, but because a debate on the method of a normative science

  2. 77 FR 21158 - VA Directive 0005 on Scientific Integrity: Availability for Review and Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Draft VA Directive 0005 on Scientific Integrity: [square] Fosters a culture of transparency, integrity, and ethical behavior in the development and application of scientific and technological findings in VA... information from inappropriate political or commercial influence; [square] Ensures that selection and...

  3. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies. (4) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Okita, Taira

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the fourth issue showing the overview of scientific computational methods with the introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications. Simulation methods on physical radiation effects on materials are reviewed based on the process such as binary collision approximation, molecular dynamics, kinematic Monte Carlo method, reaction rate method and dislocation dynamics. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - The Establishment and Evolution of an Ethics Program at a Large Scientific Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael; Leinen, Margaret; McEntee, Christine; Townsend, Randy; Williams, Billy

    2016-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union, a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. This presentation will provide an overview of the Ethics program at AGU, highlighting the reasons for its establishment, the process of dealing ethical breaches, the number and types of cases considered, how AGU helps educate its members on Ethics issues, and the rapidly evolving efforts at AGU to address issues related to the emerging field of GeoEthics. The presentation will also cover the most recent AGU Ethics program focus on the role for AGU and other scientific societies in addressing sexual harassment, and AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  5. An Integrative Review of Scientific Evidence for Reconnective Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Natalie L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Biofield therapies offer a novel, non-invasive approach to treating chronic diseases based on assessing and adjusting an individual's physiological and emotional responses through their bio-energetic field. Reconnective Healing™ (RH) is defined as: “…not just energy healing, but instead a more comprehensive spectrum of healing composed of energy, light, and information.” Objectives: Several biofield therapies, such as Reiki, Therapeutic Touch and Johrei, have already been reviewed in the literature but RH has received little attention even though it is taught and practiced worldwide. This review provides a critical assessment of RH as a healing modality. Methods: Scientific research articles published in peer-reviewed journals addressing RH were identified using relevant databases and archives. Information was extracted from each article that met selection criteria for evaluation of quality of reporting and design. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the five currently published peer-reviewed research papers involving RH and assesses whether RH provides consistent physiological outcomes between the studies. Results: These results, taken together, suggest: (i) exposure of a healer or healee to RH, either directly or indirectly, amplifies their degree of autonomic arousal and energy, (ii) RH can reduce pain and improve range of motion in people with shoulder limitations, and (iii) when individuals experience RH as a group, their autonomic nervous systems simultaneously show sudden similar responses consistent with the idea that RH is mitigated by entrainment of biofields. Conclusions: Since these studies are extremely varied in design it is not possible at this point to reach conclusions about the general effectiveness of RH. More clinical and physiological research performed on different populations under a range of conditions is needed in order to support this healthcare approach. PMID:28654301

  6. ASPECTS OF INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemy Varshapetian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For manufacturing companies to succeed in today's unstable economic environment, it is necessary to restructure the main components of its activities: designing innovative product, production using modern reconfigurable manufacturing systems, a business model that takes into account the global strategy and management methods using modern management models and tools. The first three components are discussed in numerous publications, for example, (Koren, 2010 and is therefore not considered in the article. A large number of publications devoted to the methods and tools of production management, for example (Halevi, 2007. On the basis of what was said in the article discusses the possibility of the integration of only three methods have received in recent years, the most widely used, namely: Six Sigma method - SS (George et al., 2005 and supplements its-Design for six sigm? - DFSS (Taguchi, 2003; Lean production transformed with the development to the "Lean management" and further to the "Lean thinking" - Lean (Hirano et al., 2006; Theory of Constraints, developed E.Goldratt - TOC (Dettmer, 2001. The article investigates some aspects of this integration: applications in diverse fields, positive features, changes in management structure, etc.

  7. Methods for enhancing numerical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncker, Elise de

    2003-01-01

    We give a survey of common strategies for numerical integration (adaptive, Monte-Carlo, Quasi-Monte Carlo), and attempt to delineate their realm of applicability. The inherent accuracy and error bounds for basic integration methods are given via such measures as the degree of precision of cubature rules, the index of a family of lattice rules, and the discrepancy of uniformly distributed point sets. Strategies incorporating these basic methods often use paradigms to reduce the error by, e.g., increasing the number of points in the domain or decreasing the mesh size, locally or uniformly. For these processes the order of convergence of the strategy is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the error, and may be too slow in practice for the type of problem at hand. For certain problem classes we may be able to improve the effectiveness of the method or strategy by such techniques as transformations, absorbing a difficult part of the integrand into a weight function, suitable partitioning of the domain, transformations and extrapolation or convergence acceleration. Situations warranting the use of these techniques (possibly in an 'automated' way) are described and illustrated by sample applications

  8. An integrating factor matrix method to find first integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputra, K V I; Quispel, G R W; Van Veen, L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop an integrating factor matrix method to derive conditions for the existence of first integrals. We use this novel method to obtain first integrals, along with the conditions for their existence, for two- and three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with constant terms. The results are compared to previous results obtained by other methods.

  9. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications of nuclear technologies. (1) Overview of scientific computational methods, introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Okuda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the first issue showing their overview and introduction of continuum simulation methods. Finite element method as their applications is also reviewed. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Integrating scientific results for a post-closure safety demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.C.; Ramspott, L.D.; Sinnock, S.; Sprecher, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nuclear waste management system that will accept high-level radioactive waste, transport it, store it, and ultimately emplace it in a deep geologic repository. The key activity now is determining whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada is suitable as a site for the repository. If so, the crucial technological advance will be the demonstration that disposal of nuclear waste will be safe for thousands of years after closure. Recent regulatory, legal, and scientific developments imply that the safety demonstration must be simple. The scientific developments taken together support a simple set of hypotheses that constitute a post-closure safety argument for a repository at Yucca Mountain. If the understanding of Yucca Mountain hydrology presented in the Site Characterization Plan proves correct, then these hypotheses might be confirmed by combining results of Surface-Based Testing with early testing results in the Exploratory Studies Facility

  11. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  12. 77 FR 67063 - VA Directive 0005 on Scientific Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... in multiple areas, including data integrity, ethics, privacy, and human research protections, as well... replace the Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP) with Alion... human research protection programs. VA Response: VA is currently reviewing its accreditation...

  13. Integrated scientific data bases review on asulacrine and associated toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Attia; Sarfraz, Muhammad; Wu, Zimei; Wang, Guangji; Sun, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Asulacrine (ASL), a weakly basic and highly lipophilic drug was synthesized in 1980's in cancer research laboratory of Auckland by modifications to the acridine portion of amsacrine on 3-, 4- and 5-substitution patterns. In contrast to its precursor amsacrine (m-AMSA), ASL was effective not only against leukemia and Lewis lung tumor system but also a wide variety of solid tumor. Its metabolic pathway is not same to amsacrine hence different side effects, hepatotoxicity and excretion was observed. Asulacrine is under phase II clinical trials and has showed promising results but its toxicity especially phlebitis is stumbling block in its clinical implementation. This review is an effort to give a possible clue, based on scientifically proven results, to the researchers to solve the mystery of associated toxicity, phlebitis. Review covers the available literature on asulacrine and other acridine derivatives regarding pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, quantitative structure activity relationship and toxicology via electronic search using scientific databases like PubMed and others. To date, all abstracts and full-text articles were discussed and analyzed. The tabulated comparisons and circuitry mechanism of ASL are the added features of the review which give a complete understanding of hidden aspects of possible route cause of associated toxicity, the phlebitis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Continuous integration and quality control for scientific software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhardt, A.; Ettl, M.; Brisken, W.; Dassing, R.

    2013-08-01

    Modern software has to be stable, portable, fast and reliable. This is going to be also more and more important for scientific software. But this requires a sophisticated way to inspect, check and evaluate the quality of source code with a suitable, automated infrastructure. A centralized server with a software repository and a version control system is one essential part, to manage the code basis and to control the different development versions. While each project can be compiled separately, the whole code basis can also be compiled with one central “Makefile”. This is used to create automated, nightly builds. Additionally all sources are inspected automatically with static code analysis and inspection tools, which check well-none error situations, memory and resource leaks, performance issues, or style issues. In combination with an automatic documentation generator it is possible to create the developer documentation directly from the code and the inline comments. All reports and generated information are presented as HTML page on a Web server. Because this environment increased the stability and quality of the software of the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell tremendously, it is now also available for scientific communities. One regular customer is already the developer group of the DiFX software correlator project.

  15. A method for scientific code coupling in a distributed environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caremoli, C.; Beaucourt, D.; Chen, O.; Nicolas, G.; Peniguel, C.; Rascle, P.; Richard, N.; Thai Van, D.; Yessayan, A.

    1994-12-01

    This guide book deals with coupling of big scientific codes. First, the context is introduced: big scientific codes devoted to a specific discipline coming to maturity, and more and more needs in terms of multi discipline studies. Then we describe different kinds of code coupling and an example of code coupling: 3D thermal-hydraulic code THYC and 3D neutronics code COCCINELLE. With this example we identify problems to be solved to realize a coupling. We present the different numerical methods usable for the resolution of coupling terms. This leads to define two kinds of coupling: with the leak coupling, we can use explicit methods, and with the strong coupling we need to use implicit methods. On both cases, we analyze the link with the way of parallelizing code. For translation of data from one code to another, we define the notion of Standard Coupling Interface based on a general structure for data. This general structure constitutes an intermediary between the codes, thus allowing a relative independence of the codes from a specific coupling. The proposed method for the implementation of a coupling leads to a simultaneous run of the different codes, while they exchange data. Two kinds of data communication with message exchange are proposed: direct communication between codes with the use of PVM product (Parallel Virtual Machine) and indirect communication with a coupling tool. This second way, with a general code coupling tool, is based on a coupling method, and we strongly recommended to use it. This method is based on the two following principles: re-usability, that means few modifications on existing codes, and definition of a code usable for coupling, that leads to separate the design of a code usable for coupling from the realization of a specific coupling. This coupling tool available from beginning of 1994 is described in general terms. (authors). figs., tabs

  16. Demystifying Scientific Data ­ Using Earth Science to Teach the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiff, P. J.; Santos, E. A.; Erickson, P. J.; Niell, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    The collection of large quantities of data and their subsequent analyses are important components of any scientific process, particularly at research institutes such as MIT's Haystack Observatory, where the collection and analyses of data is crucial to research efforts. Likewise, a recent study on science education concluded that students should be introduced to analyzing evidence and hypotheses, to critical thinking - including appropriate skepticism, to quantitative reasoning and the ability to make reasonable estimates, and to the role of uncertainty and error in science. In order to achieve this goal with grades 9-12 students and their instructors, we developed lesson plans and activities based on atmospheric science and geodetic research at Haystack Observatory. From the complex steps of experimental design, measurement, and data analysis, students and teachers will gain insight into the scientific research processes as they exist today. The use of these space weather and geodesy activities in classrooms will be discussed. Space Weather: After decades of data collection with multiple variables, space weather is about as complex an area of investigation as possible. Far from the passive relationship between the Sun and Earth often taught in the early grades, or the beautiful auroras discussed in high school, there are complex and powerful interactions between the Sun and Earth. In spite of these complexities, high school students can learn about space weather and the repercussions on our communication and power technologies. Starting from lessons on the basic method of observing space weather with incoherent scatter radar, and progressing to the use of simplified data sets, students will discover how space weather affects Earth over solar cycles and how severe solar activity is measured and affects the Earth over shorter time spans. They will see that even from complex, seemingly ambiguous data with many variables and unknowns, scientists can gain valuable

  17. Integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Solin, Pavel; Karban, Pavel; Ulrych, Bohus

    2009-01-01

    A modern presentation of integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics This book provides state-of-the-art knowledge on integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics. Blending theory with numerous examples, it introduces key aspects of the integral methods used in engineering as a powerful alternative to PDE-based models. Readers will get complete coverage of: The electromagnetic field and its basic characteristics An overview of solution methods Solutions of electromagnetic fields by integral expressions Integral and integrodifferential methods

  18. I Can Make a Scientific Research: A Course about Scientific Research Methods, in Which Learning Management System (LMS) Is Used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the perception of teacher candidates towards scientific research process and their self-efficacy in this process, during Scientific Research Methods course that has been conducted using "Learning Management System" based on out-of-class learning activities. Being designed as a…

  19. LUDIC APPROACH OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN BIOCHEMICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Maia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Education in the current times concerns to  the intellectual autonomy, the capacity of decision and the possibilities of the student in making the difference. This work arose due to multi-transdisciplinary perception of an educator’s team from UFPE and UFRJ,  to  whom scientific research means intentional intellectual activity to attend human needs. As an answer to teacher’s questions about student difficulties of learning scientific methodology, it was included a ludic activity into classroom of high school, graduation and postgraduate levels. First of all a CD-ROM entitled: “O Método Científico: Uma Leitura Virtual”  was  made with adobe flash program and it was  used as neurodidactic strategy (auditory and visual stimulus. After thirty minutes of ludic activities, discussions about importance and utility of scientific method took place, and the Science and the Technology as subjects matters arose. So, a democratic and interfacial environment was produced.  As a result of using this didactic  activity it was stimulated curiosity, awakened up attention, developed specific abilities of observation, eased association of ideas and improved capacity of analysis and synthesis in all the groups. Ludic activities in education create possibilities of sociability  (such as consolidation of student’s individuality, and  also  stimulate the interest in the Sciences. In this way, for the development of educational projects focused on paradigms changes that lead to the rise of a new didactic culture,  the use  of diverse interfacial resources becomes necessary.

  20. Ecological Equivalence Assessment Methods: What Trade-Offs between Operationality, Scientific Basis and Comprehensiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezombes, Lucie; Gaucherand, Stéphanie; Kerbiriou, Christian; Reinert, Marie-Eve; Spiegelberger, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    In many countries, biodiversity compensation is required to counterbalance negative impacts of development projects on biodiversity by carrying out ecological measures, called offset when the goal is to reach "no net loss" of biodiversity. One main issue is to ensure that offset gains are equivalent to impact-related losses. Ecological equivalence is assessed with ecological equivalence assessment methods taking into account a range of key considerations that we summarized as ecological, spatial, temporal, and uncertainty. When equivalence assessment methods take into account all considerations, we call them "comprehensive". Equivalence assessment methods should also aim to be science-based and operational, which is challenging. Many equivalence assessment methods have been developed worldwide but none is fully satisfying. In the present study, we examine 13 equivalence assessment methods in order to identify (i) their general structure and (ii) the synergies and trade-offs between equivalence assessment methods characteristics related to operationality, scientific-basis and comprehensiveness (called "challenges" in his paper). We evaluate each equivalence assessment methods on the basis of 12 criteria describing the level of achievement of each challenge. We observe that all equivalence assessment methods share a general structure, with possible improvements in the choice of target biodiversity, the indicators used, the integration of landscape context and the multipliers reflecting time lags and uncertainties. We show that no equivalence assessment methods combines all challenges perfectly. There are trade-offs between and within the challenges: operationality tends to be favored while scientific basis are integrated heterogeneously in equivalence assessment methods development. One way of improving the challenges combination would be the use of offset dedicated data-bases providing scientific feedbacks on previous offset measures.

  1. The implementation of integrated science teaching materials based socio-scientific issues to improve students scientific literacy for environmental pollution theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenni, Rita; Hernani, Widodo, Ari

    2017-05-01

    The study aims to determine the increasing of students' science literacy skills on content aspects and competency of science by using Integrated Science teaching materials based Socio-scientific Issues (SSI) for environmental pollution theme. The method used in the study is quasi-experiment with nonequivalent pretest and posttest control group design. The students of experimental class used teaching materials based SSI, whereas the students of control class were still using the usual textbooks. The result of this study showed a significant difference between the value of N-gain of experimental class and control class, whichalso occurred in every indicator of content aspects and competency of science. This result indicates that using of Integrated Science teaching materials based SSI can improve content aspect and competency of science and can be used as teaching materials alternative in teaching of Integrated Science.

  2. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    example, this research proved the sustainability of the proposed integrated optimization parameters of transport systems. This approach could be applied not only for MTS, but also for other transport systems. Originality. The bases of the complex optimization of transport presented are the new system of universal scientific methods and approaches that ensure high accuracy and authenticity of calculations with the simulation of transport systems and transport networks taking into account the dynamics of their development. Practical value. The development of the theoretical and technological bases of conducting the complex optimization of transport makes it possible to create the scientific tool, which ensures the fulfillment of the automated simulation and calculating of technical and economic structure and technology of the work of different objects of transport, including its infrastructure.

  3. MATH: A Scientific Tool for Numerical Methods Calculation and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Glaser-Opitz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MATH is an easy to use application for various numerical methods calculations with graphical user interface and integrated plotting tool written in Qt with extensive use of Qwt library for plotting options and use of Gsl and MuParser libraries as a numerical and parser helping libraries. It can be found at http://sourceforge.net/projects/nummath. MATH is a convenient tool for use in education process because of its capability of showing every important step in solution process to better understand how it is done. MATH also enables fast comparison of similar method speed and precision.

  4. Integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge on soils: recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    interpretations of indigenous soil classification systems. ... approach that is consistent with decentralised decision making. Understanding the soil resource is central to sound ..... methods recognise seasonal surface water stagnation in these.

  5. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods that... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) AGENCY: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of...

  6. 77 FR 40358 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ..., revised, and alternative safety testing methods with regulatory applicability and promotes the scientific... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP...

  7. Using crowdsourcing to evaluate published scientific literature: methods and example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Brown

    Full Text Available Systematically evaluating scientific literature is a time consuming endeavor that requires hours of coding and rating. Here, we describe a method to distribute these tasks across a large group through online crowdsourcing. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, crowdsourced workers (microworkers completed four groups of tasks to evaluate the question, "Do nutrition-obesity studies with conclusions concordant with popular opinion receive more attention in the scientific community than do those that are discordant?" 1 Microworkers who passed a qualification test (19% passed evaluated abstracts to determine if they were about human studies investigating nutrition and obesity. Agreement between the first two raters' conclusions was moderate (κ = 0.586, with consensus being reached in 96% of abstracts. 2 Microworkers iteratively synthesized free-text answers describing the studied foods into one coherent term. Approximately 84% of foods were agreed upon, with only 4 and 8% of ratings failing manual review in different steps. 3 Microworkers were asked to rate the perceived obesogenicity of the synthesized food terms. Over 99% of responses were complete and usable, and opinions of the microworkers qualitatively matched the authors' expert expectations (e.g., sugar-sweetened beverages were thought to cause obesity and fruits and vegetables were thought to prevent obesity. 4 Microworkers extracted citation counts for each paper through Google Scholar. Microworkers reached consensus or unanimous agreement for all successful searches. To answer the example question, data were aggregated and analyzed, and showed no significant association between popular opinion and attention the paper received as measured by Scimago Journal Rank and citation counts. Direct microworker costs totaled $221.75, (estimated cost at minimum wage: $312.61. We discuss important points to consider to ensure good quality control and appropriate pay for microworkers. With good

  8. Using Crowdsourcing to Evaluate Published Scientific Literature: Methods and Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Systematically evaluating scientific literature is a time consuming endeavor that requires hours of coding and rating. Here, we describe a method to distribute these tasks across a large group through online crowdsourcing. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk, crowdsourced workers (microworkers) completed four groups of tasks to evaluate the question, “Do nutrition-obesity studies with conclusions concordant with popular opinion receive more attention in the scientific community than do those that are discordant?” 1) Microworkers who passed a qualification test (19% passed) evaluated abstracts to determine if they were about human studies investigating nutrition and obesity. Agreement between the first two raters' conclusions was moderate (κ = 0.586), with consensus being reached in 96% of abstracts. 2) Microworkers iteratively synthesized free-text answers describing the studied foods into one coherent term. Approximately 84% of foods were agreed upon, with only 4 and 8% of ratings failing manual review in different steps. 3) Microworkers were asked to rate the perceived obesogenicity of the synthesized food terms. Over 99% of responses were complete and usable, and opinions of the microworkers qualitatively matched the authors' expert expectations (e.g., sugar-sweetened beverages were thought to cause obesity and fruits and vegetables were thought to prevent obesity). 4) Microworkers extracted citation counts for each paper through Google Scholar. Microworkers reached consensus or unanimous agreement for all successful searches. To answer the example question, data were aggregated and analyzed, and showed no significant association between popular opinion and attention the paper received as measured by Scimago Journal Rank and citation counts. Direct microworker costs totaled $221.75, (estimated cost at minimum wage: $312.61). We discuss important points to consider to ensure good quality control and appropriate pay for microworkers. With good reliability and

  9. Scientific Integrity and Consensus in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, K.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific integrity is the hallmark of any assessment and is a paramount consideration in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment process. Procedures are in place for rigorous scientific review and to quantify confidence levels and uncertainty in the communication of key findings. However, the IPCC is unique in that its reports are formally accepted by governments through consensus agreement. This presentation will present the unique requirements of the IPCC intergovernmental assessment and discuss the advantages and challenges of its approach.

  10. Integrating Bioethics in Sciences’ curricula using values in science and socio-scientific issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The  The main objective of the present work is selection of ethical issues that should be addressed with first year undergraduate and K-12 students. Since K-12 Sciences’ curriculum, in Portugal, does not include bioethics content in any discipline explicitly, teachers need to make an effort to include it. Some online materials are available to use in high school classes and will be discussed. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting the discussion of bioethics issues in accordance to UNESCO Bioethics Core Curriculum already adopted by twenty universities throughout the world (Darwish 2015. Some of the issues that are addressed are: ecology and environment ethics, infectious diseases and vaccination, water for all, intellectual property, genomes and patents, biotechnological advances (genetic modified organisms and synthesis of genomes, future generations, climate hanges and natural resources, biomedical advances and human rights, authorship and contributions in scientific publications, and biobanks. In conclusion, this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by K-12 teachers, of active inquiry strategies, using features of science such as values and socio-scientific issues, and focused on the discussion of concrete ethical issues facing humanity. It also constitutes a proposal of integrating Bioethics in undergraduate sciences’ curricula.

  11. A scientist's voice in American culture. Simon Newcomb and the rhetoric of scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A. E.

    Through close readings of Newcomb's (1835 - 1909) published and unpublished works, the author illuminates the ways this eminent astronomer used the "rhetoric of scientific method" to great effect. The book devides into three sections: an introduction to the rhetoric of scientific method, a core of ten central chapters on Newcomb's life and thought, and the concluding commentary on pragmatism and scientific method.

  12. Automatic numerical integration methods for Feynman integrals through 3-loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Doncker, E; Olagbemi, O; Yuasa, F; Ishikawa, T; Kato, K

    2015-01-01

    We give numerical integration results for Feynman loop diagrams through 3-loop such as those covered by Laporta [1]. The methods are based on automatic adaptive integration, using iterated integration and extrapolation with programs from the QUADPACK package, or multivariate techniques from the ParInt package. The Dqags algorithm from QuadPack accommodates boundary singularities of fairly general types. PARINT is a package for multivariate integration layered over MPI (Message Passing Interface), which runs on clusters and incorporates advanced parallel/distributed techniques such as load balancing among processes that may be distributed over a network of nodes. Results are included for 3-loop self-energy diagrams without IR (infra-red) or UV (ultra-violet) singularities. A procedure based on iterated integration and extrapolation yields a novel method of numerical regularization for integrals with UV terms, and is applied to a set of 2-loop self-energy diagrams with UV singularities. (paper)

  13. Guiding students towards sensemaking: teacher questions focused on integrating scientific practices with science content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict-Chambers, Amanda; Kademian, Sylvie M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2017-10-01

    Science education reforms articulate a vision of ambitious science teaching where teachers engage students in sensemaking discussions and emphasise the integration of scientific practices with science content. Learning to teach in this way is complex, and there are few examples of sensemaking discussions in schools where textbook lessons and teacher-directed discussions are the norm. The purpose of this study was to characterise the questioning practices of an experienced teacher who taught a curricular unit enhanced with educative features that emphasised students' engagement in scientific practices integrated with science content. Analyses indicated the teacher asked four types of questions: explication questions, explanation questions, science concept questions, and scientific practice questions, and she used three questioning patterns including: (1) focusing students on scientific practices, which involved a sequence of questions to turn students back to the scientific practice; (2) supporting students in naming observed phenomena, which involved a sequence of questions to help students use scientific language; and (3) guiding students in sensemaking, which involved a sequence of questions to help students learn about scientific practices, describe evidence, and develop explanations. Although many of the discussions in this study were not yet student-centred, they provide an image of a teacher asking specific questions that move students towards reform-oriented instruction. Implications for classroom practice are discussed and recommendations for future research are provided.

  14. Toward a Model of Social Influence that Explains Minority Student Integration into the Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, such that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than non-minority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same rate as non-minority students. Kelman (1958, 2006) describes a tripartite integration model of social influence (TIMSI) by which a person orients to a social system. To test if this model predicts integration into the scientific community, we conducted analyses of data from a national panel of minority science students. A structural equation model framework showed that self-efficacy (operationalized consistent with Kelman’s ‘rule-orientation’) predicted student intentions to pursue a scientific career. However, when identification as a scientist and internalization of values are added to the model, self-efficacy becomes a poorer predictor of intention. Additional mediation analyses support the conclusion that while having scientific self-efficacy is important, identifying with and endorsing the values of the social system reflect a deeper integration and more durable motivation to persist as a scientist. PMID:21552374

  15. Developing Scientific Thinking Methods and Applications in Islamic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharaf, Adel

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the early and medieval Islamic scholarship to the development of critical and scientific thinking and how they contributed to the development of an Islamic theory of epistemology and scientific thinking education. The article elucidates how the Qur'an and the Sunna of Prophet Muhammad have also contributed to the…

  16. A science confidence gap: Education, trust in scientific methods, and trust in scientific institutions in the United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Peter; de Koster, Willem; van der Waal, Jeroen

    2017-08-01

    Following up on suggestions that attitudes toward science are multi-dimensional, we analyze nationally representative survey data collected in the United States in 2014 ( N = 2006), and demonstrate the existence of a science confidence gap: some people place great trust in scientific methods and principles, but simultaneously distrust scientific institutions. This science confidence gap is strongly associated with level of education: it is larger among the less educated than among the more educated. We investigate explanations for these educational differences. Whereas hypotheses deduced from reflexive-modernization theory do not pass the test, those derived from theorizing on the role of anomie are corroborated. The less educated are more anomic (they have more modernity-induced cultural discontents), which not only underlies their distrust in scientific institutions, but also fuels their trust in scientific methods and principles. This explains why this science confidence gap is most pronounced among the less educated.

  17. The Formation of Methodical Approach to Estimation of Scientific-Research, Scientific-Technical, and Innovative Activity of Institutions of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermachenko Volodymyr Ye.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at developing a methodical approach to the construction of an innovative system of estimation of research, scientific, technical, and innovative activities of higher education institutions (HEI on the basis of elaborate structured system of indicators. The proposed methodical approach contains five stages, the research discloses the content of each of them. Based on the results of a comparative analysis of international and national systems of HEI-rating, as well as the usage of economic and mathematical instrumentarium, a list of indicators for estimating their scientific activities in terms of the selected factors and directions of estimation was formed and substantiated. An approach to formation of cluster aggregates of HEI by the criterion of their scientific performance has been suggested. Proposals on formation of a HEI-rating within the limits of the allocated homogeneous groups by means of the system of integral indicators were developed. Prospects for further scientific researches in this direction imply formation of directions of development of managerial decisions in accordance with the obtained results of rating, which will be directed on strengthening and search for new ways of development of scientific activity of HEI, increase of its level of competitiveness and image, and also strengthening of its contribution to the solution of actual problems of economy and society.

  18. Towards the development of a scientifically accountable, comprehensive and integrated national road traffic safety databank in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mynhardt, DC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport Conference, CSIR Convention Centre, Pretoria, 7-10 July 2014 Towards the development of a scientifically accountable, comprehensive and integrated national road traffic safety databank in South Africa D. C. MYNHARDT Council for Scientific...

  19. Learning the scientific method using GloFish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Brianna M; Pollak, Adrianna; Welsh, Cynthia; Liang, Jennifer O

    2012-12-01

    Here we describe projects that used GloFish, brightly colored, fluorescent, transgenic zebrafish, in experiments that enabled students to carry out all steps in the scientific method. In the first project, students in an undergraduate genetics laboratory course successfully tested hypotheses about the relationships between GloFish phenotypes and genotypes using PCR, fluorescence microscopy, and test crosses. In the second and third projects, students doing independent research carried out hypothesis-driven experiments that also developed new GloFish projects for future genetics laboratory students. Brianna Vick, an undergraduate student, identified causes of the different shades of color found in orange GloFish. Adrianna Pollak, as part of a high school science fair project, characterized the fluorescence emission patterns of all of the commercially available colors of GloFish (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple). The genetics laboratory students carrying out the first project found that learning new techniques and applying their knowledge of genetics were valuable. However, assessments of their learning suggest that this project was not challenging to many of the students. Thus, the independent projects will be valuable as bases to widen the scope and range of difficulty of experiments available to future genetics laboratory students.

  20. Some thoughts on alternative methods and their scientific implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Reflections upon our agricultural problems cannot be limitated to those problems itself, but should incorporate a reflection upon our social and scientific traditions. An alternative agriculture asks for participating nature research

  1. Doing laboratory ethnography: reflections on method in scientific workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Neil; Lewis, Jamie

    2017-04-01

    Laboratory ethnography extended the social scientist's gaze into the day-to-day accomplishment of scientific practice. Here we reflect upon our own ethnographies of biomedical scientific workspaces to provoke methodological discussion on the doing of laboratory ethnography. What we provide is less a 'how to' guide and more a commentary on what to look for and what to look at. We draw upon our empirical research with stem cell laboratories and animal houses, teams producing robotic surgical tools, musicians sonifying data science, a psychiatric genetics laboratory, and scientists developing laboratory grown meat. We use these cases to example a set of potential ethnographic themes worthy of pursuit: science epistemics and the extended laboratory, the interaction order of scientific work, sensory realms and the rending of science as sensible, conferences as performative sites, and the spaces, places and temporalities of scientific work.

  2. RSYST: From nuclear reactor calculations towards a highly sophisticated scientific software integration environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, M.; Seybold, J.; Ruehle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The software environment RSYST was originally used to solve problems of reactor physics. The consideration of advanced scientific simulation requirements and the strict application of modern software design principles led to a system which is perfectly suitable to solve problems in various complex scientific problem domains. Starting with a review of the early days of RSYST, we describe the straight evolution driven by the need of software environment which combines the advantages of a high-performance database system with the capability to integrate sophisticated scientific technical applications. The RSYST architecture is presented and the data modelling capabilities are described. To demonstrate the powerful possibilities and flexibility of the RSYST environment, we describe a wide range of RSYST applications, e.g., mechanical simulations of multibody systems, which are used in biomechanical research, civil engineering and robotics. In addition, a hypermedia system which is used for scientific technical training and documentation is presented. (orig.) [de

  3. Subdomain Precise Integration Method for Periodic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A subdomain precise integration method is developed for the dynamical responses of periodic structures comprising many identical structural cells. The proposed method is based on the precise integration method, the subdomain scheme, and the repeatability of the periodic structures. In the proposed method, each structural cell is seen as a super element that is solved using the precise integration method, considering the repeatability of the structural cells. The computational efforts and the memory size of the proposed method are reduced, while high computational accuracy is achieved. Therefore, the proposed method is particularly suitable to solve the dynamical responses of periodic structures. Two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method through comparison with the Newmark and Runge-Kutta methods.

  4. Best Practices for Making Scientific Data Discoverable and Accessible through Integrated, Standards-Based Data Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucido, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Organization (ISO) metadata records to enhance data discovery for both human and machine interpretation. Lastly, the Water Quality Portal (http://www.waterqualitydata.us/) achieves interoperable dissemination of water quality data by referencing a vocabulary service for mapping constituents and methods between the USGS and USEPA. The NGWMN Data Portal, Geo Data Portal and Water Quality Portal are three examples of best practices when implementing data portals that provide distributed scientific data in an integrated, standards-based approach.

  5. A numerical method for resonance integral calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanbay, Tayfun; Ozgener, Bilge

    2013-01-01

    A numerical method has been proposed for resonance integral calculations and a cubic fit based on least squares approximation to compute the optimum Bell factor is given. The numerical method is based on the discretization of the neutron slowing down equation. The scattering integral is approximated by taking into account the location of the upper limit in energy domain. The accuracy of the method has been tested by performing computations of resonance integrals for uranium dioxide isolated rods and comparing the results with empirical values. (orig.)

  6. Teachers' Language on Scientific Inquiry: Methods of teaching or methods of inquiry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenpalm, Jakob; Wickman, Per-Olof; Holmgren, Sven-Olof

    2010-06-01

    With a focus on the use of language related to scientific inquiry, this paper explores how 12 secondary school science teachers describe instances of students' practical work in their science classes. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the culture and traditions of secondary school science teaching related to inquiry as expressed in the use of language. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews about actual inquiry units used by the teachers. These were used to situate the discussion of their teaching in a real context. The theoretical background is socio-cultural and pragmatist views on the role of language in science learning. The analysis focuses on two concepts of scientific inquiry: hypothesis and experiment. It is shown that the teachers tend to use these terms with a pedagogical function thus conflating methods of teaching with methods of inquiry as part of an emphasis on teaching the children the correct explanation. The teachers did not prioritise an understanding of scientific inquiry as a knowledge goal. It discusses how learners' possibilities to learn about the characteristics of scientific inquiry and the nature of science are affected by an unreflective use of everyday discourse.

  7. Efficient orbit integration by manifold correction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2005-12-01

    Triggered by a desire to investigate, numerically, the planetary precession through a long-term numerical integration of the solar system, we developed a new formulation of numerical integration of orbital motion named manifold correct on methods. The main trick is to rigorously retain the consistency of physical relations, such as the orbital energy, the orbital angular momentum, or the Laplace integral, of a binary subsystem. This maintenance is done by applying a correction to the integrated variables at each integration step. Typical methods of correction are certain geometric transformations, such as spatial scaling and spatial rotation, which are commonly used in the comparison of reference frames, or mathematically reasonable operations, such as modularization of angle variables into the standard domain [-pi, pi). The form of the manifold correction methods finally evolved are the orbital longitude methods, which enable us to conduct an extremely precise integration of orbital motions. In unperturbed orbits, the integration errors are suppressed at the machine epsilon level for an indefinitely long period. In perturbed cases, on the other hand, the errors initially grow in proportion to the square root of time and then increase more rapidly, the onset of which depends on the type and magnitude of the perturbations. This feature is also realized for highly eccentric orbits by applying the same idea as used in KS-regularization. In particular, the introduction of time elements greatly enhances the performance of numerical integration of KS-regularized orbits, whether the scaling is applied or not.

  8. The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of…

  9. A science confidence gap : Education, trust in scientific methods, and trust in scientific institutions in the United States, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, P.H.J.; De Koster, W.; van der Waal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Following up on suggestions that attitudes toward science are multi-dimensional, we analyze nationally representative survey data collected in the United States in 2014 (N = 2006), and demonstrate the existence of a science confidence gap: some people place great trust in scientific methods and

  10. Nationwide Buildings Energy Research enabled through an integrated Data Intensive Scientific Workflow and Advanced Analysis Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elsethagen, Todd O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hathaway, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guillen, Zoe C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dirks, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skorski, Daniel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorrissen, Willy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorton, Ian [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Yan [Concordia Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-01-28

    Modern workflow systems enable scientists to run ensemble simulations at unprecedented scales and levels of complexity, allowing them to study system sizes previously impossible to achieve, due to the inherent resource requirements needed for the modeling work. However as a result of these new capabilities the science teams suddenly also face unprecedented data volumes that they are unable to analyze with their existing tools and methodologies in a timely fashion. In this paper we will describe the ongoing development work to create an integrated data intensive scientific workflow and analysis environment that offers researchers the ability to easily create and execute complex simulation studies and provides them with different scalable methods to analyze the resulting data volumes. The integration of simulation and analysis environments is hereby not only a question of ease of use, but supports fundamental functions in the correlated analysis of simulation input, execution details and derived results for multi-variant, complex studies. To this end the team extended and integrated the existing capabilities of the Velo data management and analysis infrastructure, the MeDICi data intensive workflow system and RHIPE the R for Hadoop version of the well-known statistics package, as well as developing a new visual analytics interface for the result exploitation by multi-domain users. The capabilities of the new environment are demonstrated on a use case that focusses on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) building energy team, showing how they were able to take their previously local scale simulations to a nationwide level by utilizing data intensive computing techniques not only for their modeling work, but also for the subsequent analysis of their modeling results. As part of the PNNL research initiative PRIMA (Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis) the team performed an initial 3 year study of building energy demands for the US Eastern

  11. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  12. Scientific Opportunities for Monitoring at Environmental Remediation Sites (SOMERS): Integrated Systems-Based Approaches to Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Truex, Michael J.; Peterson, Mark; Freshley, Mark D.; Pierce, Eric M.; McCord, John; Young, Michael H.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Miller, Rick; Miracle, Ann L.; Kaback, Dawn; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Rossabi, Joe; Lee, Michelle H.; Bush, Richard P.; Beam , Paul; Chamberlain, G. M.; Marble, Justin; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Collazo, Yvette

    2012-05-15

    Through an inter-disciplinary effort, DOE is addressing a need to advance monitoring approaches from sole reliance on cost- and labor-intensive point-source monitoring to integrated systems-based approaches such as flux-based approaches and the use of early indicator parameters. Key objectives include identifying current scientific, technical and implementation opportunities and challenges, prioritizing science and technology strategies to meet current needs within the DOE complex for the most challenging environments, and developing an integrated and risk-informed monitoring framework.

  13. Formulating the American Geophysical Union's Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy: Challenges and lessons learned: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.; Townsend, Randy

    2017-01-01

    Creating an ethics policy for a large, diverse geosciences organization is a challenge, especially in the midst of the current contentious dialogue in the media related to such issues as climate change, sustaining natural resources, and responding to natural hazards. In 2011, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) took on this challenge, creating an Ethics Task Force to update their ethics policies to better support their new Strategic Plan and respond to the changing scientific research environment. Dialogue with AGU members and others during the course of creating the new policy unveiled some of the following issues to be addressed. Scientific results and individual scientists are coming under intense political and public scrutiny, with the efficacy of the science being questioned. In some cases, scientists are asked to take sides and/or provide opinions on issues beyond their research, impacting their objectivity. Pressure related to competition for funding and the need to publish high quality and quantities of papers has led to recent high profile plagiarism, data fabrication, and conflict of interest cases. The complexities of a continuously advancing digital environment for conducting, reviewing, and publishing science has raised concerns over the ease of plagiarism, fabrication, falsification, inappropriate peer review, and the need for better accessibility of data and methods. Finally, students and scientists need consistent education and encouragement on the importance of ethics and integrity in scientific research. The new AGU Scientific Integrity and Ethics Policy tries to address these issues and provides an inspirational code of conduct to encourage a responsible, positive, open, and honest scientific research environment.

  14. Integral Methods in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An enormous array of problems encountered by scientists and engineers are based on the design of mathematical models using many different types of ordinary differential, partial differential, integral, and integro-differential equations. Accordingly, the solutions of these equations are of great interest to practitioners and to science in general. Presenting a wealth of cutting-edge research by a diverse group of experts in the field, Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Computational and Analytic Aspects gives a vivid picture of both the development of theoretical integral techniques

  15. Method of manufacturing Josephson junction integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jillie, D.W. Jr.; Smith, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    Josephson junction integrated circuits of the current injection type and magnetically controlled type utilize a superconductive layer that forms both Josephson junction electrode for the Josephson junction devices on the integrated circuit as well as a ground plane for the integrated circuit. Large area Josephson junctions are utilized for effecting contact to lower superconductive layers and islands are formed in superconductive layers to provide isolation between the groudplane function and the Josephson junction electrode function as well as to effect crossovers. A superconductor-barrier-superconductor trilayer patterned by local anodization is also utilized with additional layers formed thereover. Methods of manufacturing the embodiments of the invention are disclosed

  16. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  17. Variational method for integrating radial gradient field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda-Saenz, Ricardo; Brito-Loeza, Carlos; Rivera, Mariano; Espinosa-Romero, Arturo

    2014-12-01

    We propose a variational method for integrating information obtained from circular fringe pattern. The proposed method is a suitable choice for objects with radial symmetry. First, we analyze the information contained in the fringe pattern captured by the experimental setup and then move to formulate the problem of recovering the wavefront using techniques from calculus of variations. The performance of the method is demonstrated by numerical experiments with both synthetic and real data.

  18. Using the Scientific Method to Engage Mathematical Modeling: An Investigation of pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Lester A. C.; Ng, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how to use the scientific method as the framework to introduce mathematical model. Two interdisciplinary activities, targeted for students in grade 6 or grade 7, are explained to show the application of the scientific method while building a mathematical model to investigate the relationship between the…

  19. The Scientific Method Ain't What It Used to Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Remember the time when all you had to do was memorize these five steps: ask a question, formulate a hypothesis, perform experiment, collect data, and draw conclusions? And you received full credit for defining the scientific method. Well, those days are gone. This article discusses why the "scientific method ain't what it used to be." (Contains 2…

  20. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  1. Advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies. (3) Introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Shin-ichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2006-01-01

    Scientific computational methods have advanced remarkably with the progress of nuclear development. They have played the role of weft connecting each realm of nuclear engineering and then an introductory course of advanced scientific computational methods and their applications to nuclear technologies were prepared in serial form. This is the third issue showing the introduction of continuum simulation methods and their applications. Spectral methods and multi-interface calculation methods in fluid dynamics are reviewed. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Didactical-Scientific Modeling: integrating experimental activities and the process of scientific modeling in the teaching of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Albuquerque Heidemann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dissociated way with which the theory and practice are often treated in Physics teaching contributes to students' difficulties in using scientific knowledge to represent real events, which are not idealized situations as the events presented in most textbook problems. Considering that the process of scientific modeling is of fundamental importance for students to learn Science, about Science and how to do Science, Brandão, Araujo and Veit, supported by Vergnaud's Theory of Conceptual Fields and by Bunge's concept of scientific modeling, propose a theoretical-methodological framework for modeling in Physics Education named Didactical-Scientific Modeling (DSM. The authors defend the thesis that it is possible to consider the process of scientific modeling as a conceptual field underlying the specific conceptual fields of Physics. They elucidate knowledge associated to the facing of problems that involve the use, exploration and validation of didactical versions of scientific models. However, the goal of this framework is not to explain how the concepts related to empirical testability are connected to scientific modeling concepts. In order to fill this gap, we present in this article an expansion of this theoretical-methodological framework based on Bunge's concepts on contrasting scientific ideas. In this regard, we insert experimental work concepts in the conceptual field associated to the process of didactical-scientific modeling. Lastly, we exemplify its use in order to support the design and execution of experimental activities focused on the scientific-didactical process, and we also discuss some implications for future research in Physics Education.

  3. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  4. Mining method selection by integrated AHP and PROMETHEE method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovic, Dejan; Nikolic, Djordje; Ilic, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Selecting the best mining method among many alternatives is a multicriteria decision making problem. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the implementation of an integrated approach that employs AHP and PROMETHEE together for selecting the most suitable mining method for the "Coka Marin" underground mine in Serbia. The related problem includes five possible mining methods and eleven criteria to evaluate them. Criteria are accurately chosen in order to cover the most important parameters that impact on the mining method selection, such as geological and geotechnical properties, economic parameters and geographical factors. The AHP is used to analyze the structure of the mining method selection problem and to determine weights of the criteria, and PROMETHEE method is used to obtain the final ranking and to make a sensitivity analysis by changing the weights. The results have shown that the proposed integrated method can be successfully used in solving mining engineering problems.

  5. Integrate Data into Scientific Workflows for Terrestrial Biosphere Model Evaluation through Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Cook, R. B.; Du, F.; Dasgupta, A.; Poco, J.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C. R.; Boldrini, E.; Santoro, M.; Pearlman, J.; Pearlman, F.; Nativi, S.; Khalsa, S.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become integral tools for extrapolating local observations and process-level understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. Model-model and model-observation intercomparisons are critical to understand the uncertainties within model outputs, to improve model skill, and to improve our understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange. The DataONE Exploration, Visualization, and Analysis (EVA) working group is evaluating TBMs using scientific workflows in UV-CDAT/VisTrails. This workflow-based approach promotes collaboration and improved tracking of evaluation provenance. But challenges still remain. The multi-scale and multi-discipline nature of TBMs makes it necessary to include diverse and distributed data resources in model evaluation. These include, among others, remote sensing data from NASA, flux tower observations from various organizations including DOE, and inventory data from US Forest Service. A key challenge is to make heterogeneous data from different organizations and disciplines discoverable and readily integrated for use in scientific workflows. This presentation introduces the brokering approach taken by the DataONE EVA to fill the gap between TBMs' evaluation scientific workflows and cross-organization and cross-discipline data resources. The DataONE EVA started the development of an Integrated Model Intercomparison Framework (IMIF) that leverages standards-based discovery and access brokers to dynamically discover, access, and transform (e.g. subset and resampling) diverse data products from DataONE, Earth System Grid (ESG), and other data repositories into a format that can be readily used by scientific workflows in UV-CDAT/VisTrails. The discovery and access brokers serve as an independent middleware that bridge existing data repositories and TBMs evaluation scientific workflows but introduce little overhead to either component. In the initial work, an OpenSearch-based discovery broker

  6. Interdisciplinary Knowledge Integration: Genuine Scientific Inquiry or 'Full-Bodied' Red Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, G.

    2004-12-01

    If the development of conceptual models is going to produce rigorous rules for the integration of knowledge from different disciplines and levels of organization, it should rely on an adequate understanding of scientific interdisciplinarity. Interdisciplinarity, however, is not always a clearly understood and widely accepted concept: (i) Interdisciplinarity has been viewed by certain groups in the same context as the unification of science, which refers to the pyramidal hierarchy that reduces one domain of science to another, seeking the unity of science and searching for the ultimate scientific truth. (ii) A distinction is made between interdisciplinarity producing a new discipline and interdisciplinarity involving the continuing interaction of a variety of disciplines without leading to a separate discipline. (iii) Another distinction is made between interdisciplinarity viewed as a merely practical activity happening on an everyday basis (e.g., studying the components of structured whole in isolation and applying ad hoc combinations to yield the final result) and interdisciplinarity considered for scientific research purposes (in which case issues of disciplinary incompleteness and non-reductive autonomy to be blended with another one may arise). In view of the above, genuinely interdisciplinary and innovative knowledge integration should not be confused with cosmetic inderdisciplinarity, the latter having a superficial and ad hoc interdisciplinary character allowing disciplinary business to go on as usual at the cheap price of some interdisciplinary rhetoric. In the cosmetic case 'interdisciplinarity' is used to describe -and praise- research projects as routinely as 'full-bodied' is used to describe red wines.

  7. Integrating scientific and local knowledge to inform risk-based management approaches for climate adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Kettle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based management approaches to climate adaptation depend on the assessment of potential threats, and their causes, vulnerabilities, and impacts. The refinement of these approaches relies heavily on detailed local knowledge of places and priorities, such as infrastructure, governance structures, and socio-economic conditions, as well as scientific understanding of climate projections and trends. Developing processes that integrate local and scientific knowledge will enhance the value of risk-based management approaches, facilitate group learning and planning processes, and support the capacity of communities to prepare for change. This study uses the Vulnerability, Consequences, and Adaptation Planning Scenarios (VCAPS process, a form of analytic-deliberative dialogue, and the conceptual frameworks of hazard management and climate vulnerability, to integrate scientific and local knowledge. We worked with local government staff in an urbanized barrier island community (Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina to consider climate risks, impacts, and adaptation challenges associated with sea level rise and wastewater and stormwater management. The findings discuss how the process increases understanding of town officials’ views of risks and climate change impacts to barrier islands, the management actions being considered to address of the multiple impacts of concern, and the local tradeoffs and challenges in adaptation planning. We also comment on group learning and specific adaptation tasks, strategies, and needs identified.

  8. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new formulation termed the Integrated Force Method (IFM) was proposed by Patnaik ... nated ``Structure (nY m)'' where (nY m) are the force and displacement degrees of ..... Patnaik S N, Yadagiri S 1976 Frequency analysis of structures.

  9. Scientific methods of research in archaeology, prehistory, and ancient history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentner, W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-12-01

    This contribution deals with some fields of archaeometry, i.e. the application of physical methods in archaeology: Age determination in glasses and potsherds with the aid of fission tracks and thermoluminescence, determination of the origin of coins and pottery by chemical analyses with the aid of neutron activation ('fingerprinting'), obtaining information on metal winning in ancient history with the aid of the C-14-method.

  10. Misconduct Policies, Academic Culture and Career Stage, Not Gender or Pressures to Publish, Affect Scientific Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fanelli

    Full Text Available The honesty and integrity of scientists is widely believed to be threatened by pressures to publish, unsupportive research environments, and other structural, sociological and psychological factors. Belief in the importance of these factors has inspired major policy initiatives, but evidence to support them is either non-existent or derived from self-reports and other sources that have known limitations. We used a retrospective study design to verify whether risk factors for scientific misconduct could predict the occurrence of retractions, which are usually the consequence of research misconduct, or corrections, which are honest rectifications of minor mistakes. Bibliographic and personal information were collected on all co-authors of papers that have been retracted or corrected in 2010-2011 (N=611 and N=2226 papers, respectively and authors of control papers matched by journal and issue (N=1181 and N=4285 papers, respectively, and were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Results, which avoided several limitations of past studies and are robust to different sampling strategies, support the notion that scientific misconduct is more likely in countries that lack research integrity policies, in countries where individual publication performance is rewarded with cash, in cultures and situations were mutual criticism is hampered, and in the earliest phases of a researcher's career. The hypothesis that males might be prone to scientific misconduct was not supported, and the widespread belief that pressures to publish are a major driver of misconduct was largely contradicted: high-impact and productive researchers, and those working in countries in which pressures to publish are believed to be higher, are less-likely to produce retracted papers, and more likely to correct them. Efforts to reduce and prevent misconduct, therefore, might be most effective if focused on promoting research integrity policies, improving mentoring and training

  11. Indirect methods for wake potential integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.

    2006-05-01

    The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)

  12. Scientific use of the finite element method in Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, Luegya; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga; Shintcovsk, Ricardo Lima; Gandini, Marcia Regina Elisa Aparecida Schiavon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The finite element method (FEM) is an engineering resource applied to calculate the stress and deformation of complex structures, and has been widely used in orthodontic research. With the advantage of being a non-invasive and accurate method that provides quantitative and detailed data on the physiological reactions possible to occur in tissues, applying the FEM can anticipate the visualization of these tissue responses through the observation of areas of stress created from applied orthodontic mechanics. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing and discussing the stages of the finite element method application and its applicability in Orthodontics. RESULTS: FEM is able to evaluate the stress distribution at the interface between periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and the shifting trend in various types of tooth movement when using different types of orthodontic devices. Therefore, it is necessary to know specific software for this purpose. CONCLUSIONS: FEM is an important experimental method to answer questions about tooth movement, overcoming the disadvantages of other experimental methods. PMID:25992996

  13. Honoring Our Ethical Origins: Scientific Integrity and Geoethics, Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Current ethics policy owes much of its origins to Aristotle and his writings on virtue - including the idea that if we understand and rationally practice virtue and excellence, we will be our best selves. From this humble beginning emerged a number of more complex, ever evolving, ethical theories. The Hypocratic Oath and atrocities of World War II resulted in the roots of scientific integrity through the Nuremberg Code and the Belmont Report, which set ethical rules for human experimentation, including, respect, beneficence, and justice. These roots produced bioethics, medical ethics, environmental ethics, and geoethics. Geoethics has its origins in Europe and is being embraced in the U.S.A. It needs a respected place in the geoscience curriculum, especially as we face the global challenges of climate change and sustainability. Modern scientific integrity in the U.S.A., where research misconduct is defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism, was derived from efforts of the 1980's through 1990's by the Nat'l Institutes of Health and Nat'l Academy of Sciences (NAS). This definition of misconduct has remained an immovable standard, excluding anything not of the scientific process, such as personal behaviors within the research environment. Modern scientific integrity codes and reports such as the Singapore Statement, the NAS' Fostering Integrity in Research, and current federal agency policies, provide standards of behavior to aspire to, and acknowledge the deleterious effects of certain behaviors and practices, but still hesitate to include them in formal definitions of research misconduct. Modern media is holding a mirror to what is happening in the research environment. There are conflicts of interest, misrepresentations of data and uncertainty, discrimination, harassment, bullying, misuse of funds, withholding of data and code, intellectual theft, and a host of others, that are having a serious detrimental effect on science. For science to have its best

  14. The VIS-AD data model: Integrating metadata and polymorphic display with a scientific programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, William L.; Dyer, Charles R.; Paul, Brian E.

    1994-01-01

    The VIS-AD data model integrates metadata about the precision of values, including missing data indicators and the way that arrays sample continuous functions, with the data objects of a scientific programming language. The data objects of this data model form a lattice, ordered by the precision with which they approximate mathematical objects. We define a similar lattice of displays and study visualization processes as functions from data lattices to display lattices. Such functions can be applied to visualize data objects of all data types and are thus polymorphic.

  15. Method of Factor Extraction and Simple Structure of Data from Diverse Scientific Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Robert M.

    To study the applicability of simple structure logic for factorial data from scientific disciplines outside psychology, four correlation matrices from each of six scientific areas were factor analyzed by five factoring methods. Resulting factor matrices were compared on two objective criteria of simple structure before and after rotation.…

  16. Study of the comprehension of the scientific method by members of a university health research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlamaque-Neto, A C; Santos, G R; Lisbôa, L M; Goldim, J R; Machado, C L B; Matte, U; Giugliani, R

    2012-02-01

    In Brazil, scientific research is carried out mainly at universities, where professors coordinate research projects with the active participation of undergraduate and graduate students. However, there is no formal program for the teaching/learning of the scientific method. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the comprehension of the scientific method by students of health sciences who participate in scientific projects in an academic research laboratory. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using Edgar Morin complexity as theoretical reference. In a semi-structured interview, students were asked to solve an abstract logical puzzle - TanGram. The collected data were analyzed using the hermeneutic-dialectic analysis method proposed by Minayo and discussed in terms of the theoretical reference of complexity. The students' concept of the scientific method is limited to participation in projects, stressing the execution of practical procedures as opposed to scientific thinking. The solving of the TanGram puzzle revealed that the students had difficulties in understanding questions and activities focused on subjects and their processes. Objective answers, even when dealing with personal issues, were also reflected on the students' opinions about the characteristics of a successful researcher. Students' difficulties concerning these issues may affect their scientific performance and result in poorly designed experiments. This is a preliminary study that should be extended to other centers of scientific research.

  17. [Philosophers, physicists and physicians in defense of the unity of the scientific method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiseri, D

    1998-01-01

    The falsifiability of scientific knowledge is an acquired result of contemporary philosophy of science and yet there is not a universal consensus upon the idea of the unity of scientific method. Albeit there are differences in techniques of testing (methodics) hypotheses in the vast field of research, the author, following the critical rationalism of Karl Popper, favors the perspective of the unity of method in natural as well in social and philological sciences.

  18. Permutation statistical methods an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Kenneth J; Johnston, Janis E

    2016-01-01

    This research monograph provides a synthesis of a number of statistical tests and measures, which, at first consideration, appear disjoint and unrelated. Numerous comparisons of permutation and classical statistical methods are presented, and the two methods are compared via probability values and, where appropriate, measures of effect size. Permutation statistical methods, compared to classical statistical methods, do not rely on theoretical distributions, avoid the usual assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance, and depend only on the data at hand. This text takes a unique approach to explaining statistics by integrating a large variety of statistical methods, and establishing the rigor of a topic that to many may seem to be a nascent field in statistics. This topic is new in that it took modern computing power to make permutation methods available to people working in the mainstream of research. This research monograph addresses a statistically-informed audience, and can also easily serve as a ...

  19. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Ho [Inzest Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun Sang [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  20. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun Ho; Lee, Kun Sang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  1. First integral method for an oscillator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Gong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the nonlinear Duffing-van der Pol-type oscillator system by means of the first integral method. This system has physical relevance as a model in certain flow-induced structural vibration problems, which includes the van der Pol oscillator and the damped Duffing oscillator etc as particular cases. Firstly, we apply the Division Theorem for two variables in the complex domain, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra, to explore a quasi-polynomial first integral to an equivalent autonomous system. Then, through solving an algebraic system we derive the first integral of the Duffing-van der Pol-type oscillator system under certain parametric condition.

  2. Scientific Integrity in Qualitative Research (SCIQUAL) Seminar 2017. Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; September 13-14, 2017 : Conference Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balachandran Nair, L.

    2017-01-01

    The Scientific Integrity in Qualitative Research (SCIQUAL) 2017 seminar focused on the basic rules of good scientific practice and researchers' commitment to (or lack thereof in) adhering to these rules. Especially in the case of qualitative research, where there is a lack of standardized measures

  3. The Integration of HIV and AIDS as a Socio-Scientific Issue in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Eugenie; Mnguni, Lindelani

    2015-01-01

    The potential of science to transform lives has been highlighted by a number of scholars. This means that critical socio-scientific issues (SSIs) must be integrated into science curricula. Development of context-specific scientific knowledge and twenty-first-century learning skills in science education could be used to address SSIs such as…

  4. A framework for integration of scientific applications into the OpenTopography workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandigam, V.; Crosby, C.; Baru, C.

    2012-12-01

    The NSF-funded OpenTopography facility provides online access to Earth science-oriented high-resolution LIDAR topography data, online processing tools, and derivative products. The underlying cyberinfrastructure employs a multi-tier service oriented architecture that is comprised of an infrastructure tier, a processing services tier, and an application tier. The infrastructure tier consists of storage, compute resources as well as supporting databases. The services tier consists of the set of processing routines each deployed as a Web service. The applications tier provides client interfaces to the system. (e.g. Portal). We propose a "pluggable" infrastructure design that will allow new scientific algorithms and processing routines developed and maintained by the community to be integrated into the OpenTopography system so that the wider earth science community can benefit from its availability. All core components in OpenTopography are available as Web services using a customized open-source Opal toolkit. The Opal toolkit provides mechanisms to manage and track job submissions, with the help of a back-end database. It allows monitoring of job and system status by providing charting tools. All core components in OpenTopography have been developed, maintained and wrapped as Web services using Opal by OpenTopography developers. However, as the scientific community develops new processing and analysis approaches this integration approach is not scalable efficiently. Most of the new scientific applications will have their own active development teams performing regular updates, maintenance and other improvements. It would be optimal to have the application co-located where its developers can continue to actively work on it while still making it accessible within the OpenTopography workflow for processing capabilities. We will utilize a software framework for remote integration of these scientific applications into the OpenTopography system. This will be accomplished by

  5. Multistep Methods for Integrating the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Technical Report 1055 [Multistep Methods for Integrating the Solar System 0 Panayotis A. Skordos’ MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory DTIC S D g8...RMA ELEENT. PROECT. TASK Artific ial Inteligence Laboratory ARE1A G WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 IL. CONTROLLING...describes research done at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, supported by the Advanced Research Projects

  6. Semantic integration of scientific publications and research data: proposal of model of expanded publication for the area of nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Luana Farias

    2014-01-01

    This research takes place under the conditions of an arising scientific paradigm, known as e-Science or 4 th Scientific Paradigm. This new way of doing science is characterized by intensive use of computer networks, distributed digital repositories and by extraordinary generation of research data, which is a consequence of the heavy use of information and simulation technologies and advancing of scientific instrumentation. The information environment that is established as a result of these transformations significantly impacts the patterns of scientific communication, especially regarding to cooperative research, the sharing and reuse of information resources and ways to communicate and to disseminate research results. In order to create a context for their field of study, the thesis contributes to delineate new and renewed concepts for Information Science such as e-Science, curation of research data, complex digital objects, data repository, CRIS (Current Research Information System Model ) and others key infrastructures for the management of research and also of new conceptions of academic and scientific publications. The research is based on two assumptions: first raises the need for a model of scientific publication that would reflect the new standard for generating scientific knowledge characterized by data richness, and being able to integrate these data to publications; the second highlights that this can be performed according to the technological possibilities and standards arising from the Semantic Web. These two assumptions embody the formulation of the hypothesis raised by this thesis: a scientific publication can be enriched and be closer to new ways of generating knowledge, which characterizes contemporary science, if it is configured according to a model that links through semantic relations the research data and datasets to conventional publication. The method adopted was the deductive one, starting from general concepts of Information Science

  7. Applying Human-Centered Design Methods to Scientific Communication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; DeGroot, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing your users is a critical part of developing anything to be used or experienced by a human being. User interviews, journey maps, and personas are all techniques commonly employed in human-centered design practices because they have proven effective for informing the design of products and services that meet the needs of users. Many non-designers are unaware of the usefulness of personas and journey maps. Scientists who are interested in developing more effective products and communication can adopt and employ user-centered design approaches to better reach intended audiences. Journey mapping is a qualitative data-collection method that captures the story of a user's experience over time as related to the situation or product that requires development or improvement. Journey maps help define user expectations, where they are coming from, what they want to achieve, what questions they have, their challenges, and the gaps and opportunities that can be addressed by designing for them. A persona is a tool used to describe the goals and behavioral patterns of a subset of potential users or customers. The persona is a qualitative data model that takes the form of a character profile, built upon data about the behaviors and needs of multiple users. Gathering data directly from users avoids the risk of basing models on assumptions, which are often limited by misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Journey maps and user interviews together provide the data necessary to build the composite character that is the persona. Because a persona models the behaviors and needs of the target audience, it can then be used to make informed product design decisions. We share the methods and advantages of developing and using personas and journey maps to create more effective science communication products.

  8. ASCR Cybersecurity for Scientific Computing Integrity - Research Pathways and Ideas Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peisert, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Potok, Thomas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-03

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science (SC) Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program office, a workshop was held June 2-3, 2015, in Gaithersburg, MD, to identify potential long term (10 to +20 year) cybersecurity fundamental basic research and development challenges, strategies and roadmap facing future high performance computing (HPC), networks, data centers, and extreme-scale scientific user facilities. This workshop was a follow-on to the workshop held January 7-9, 2015, in Rockville, MD, that examined higher level ideas about scientific computing integrity specific to the mission of the DOE Office of Science. Issues included research computation and simulation that takes place on ASCR computing facilities and networks, as well as network-connected scientific instruments, such as those run by various DOE Office of Science programs. Workshop participants included researchers and operational staff from DOE national laboratories, as well as academic researchers and industry experts. Participants were selected based on the submission of abstracts relating to the topics discussed in the previous workshop report [1] and also from other ASCR reports, including "Abstract Machine Models and Proxy Architectures for Exascale Computing" [27], the DOE "Preliminary Conceptual Design for an Exascale Computing Initiative" [28], and the January 2015 machine learning workshop [29]. The workshop was also attended by several observers from DOE and other government agencies. The workshop was divided into three topic areas: (1) Trustworthy Supercomputing, (2) Extreme-Scale Data, Knowledge, and Analytics for Understanding and Improving Cybersecurity, and (3) Trust within High-end Networking and Data Centers. Participants were divided into three corresponding teams based on the category of their abstracts. The workshop began with a series of talks from the program manager and workshop chair, followed by the leaders for each of the

  9. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.

  10. CAN THE UKRAINIAN SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY SUCCESSFULLY INTEGRATE INTO EUROPEAN KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Novikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current phase of global economic development is characterized by technological breakthroughs. However, the implementation of innovation and technological break through requires adequate scientific and technical potential that calls for funding of science at the appropriate level, which is at least of 3% of GDP. In Ukraine, the funding level of research and development sphere is very low - about 0.23% in 2016. This chronic underfunding has transformed the science in Ukraine into the spending area, at a time when it should serve as the major source of economic growth. Currently, the State's government broaches a point of establishing adequate financial and organizational conditions in order to restore the Ukrainian science and cause its self-repayment and profitability. The universities are the major source of technology all around the world and in Ukraine in particular, and technology transfer is the main tool of the innovation process, which implies commercialization of commercially attractive researches. Given the fact that Ukraine has strong scientific and technological potential, the development of an effective system of university-based technology transfer and strengthening of interaction between scientific and production spheres are to become important factors for innovation-driven growth in the State. The corresponding organization departments of Ukrainian universities are just starting to form, particularly in the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. The prospect of successful development of the network of university- based technology transfer in Ukraine will determine the conditions of integration of Ukrainian science into global and Common European scholastic environment; the latter should be carried out through equitable scientific and technical cooperation.

  11. A Formula for Fixing Troubled Projects: The Scientific Method Meets Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on project management, specifically addressing project issues using the scientific method of problem-solving. Two sample projects where this methodology has been applied are provided.

  12. [Evidence-based medicine: modern scientific methods for determining usefulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J G

    1999-01-01

    For quite some time, clinical epidemiology has introduced the art of critical appraisal of evidence as well as the methods of how to design sound clinical studies and trials. Almost unnoticed by most medical institutions a new hierarchy of evidence has emerged which puts well thought out trials, able to document unbiased treatment benefit in terms of patient suffering, above pathophysiological theory. Many controlled trials have shown, in the meantime, that the control of laboratory or other kind of pathologies and the correction of anatomical abnormalities do not necessarily mean a benefit for the patient. Concepts relating to this dissection of evidence include: Surrogate fallacy ("cosmetics" of laboratory results or ligament or cartilage "cosmetics" in surgery), confounding (spurious causal relationships), selection bias (comparison with selected groups) as well as lead-time bias (mistaking earlier diagnosis as increase of survival), length bias (overlooking differences in the aggressiveness of diseases as determinants of disease stage distributions) and overdiagnosis bias (mistaking the increasing detection of clinically silent pathologies as improvement of prognosis). Moreover, absolute instead of relative risk reduction needs to be used to measure patient benefit. The incorporation of decision-analysis and of the concepts or clinical epidemiology will improve the efficiency and quality of medicine much more effectively than the sole focus on technical medical performance. Evidence based medicine is the systematic and critical appraisal of medical interventions, based on the understanding how to avoid the fallacies and biases mentioned.

  13. The French initiative for scientific cores virtual curating : a user-oriented integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignol, Cécile; Godinho, Elodie; Galabertier, Bruno; Caillo, Arnaud; Bernardet, Karim; Augustin, Laurent; Crouzet, Christian; Billy, Isabelle; Teste, Gregory; Moreno, Eva; Tosello, Vanessa; Crosta, Xavier; Chappellaz, Jérome; Calzas, Michel; Rousseau, Denis-Didier; Arnaud, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    Managing scientific data is probably one the most challenging issue in modern science. The question is made even more sensitive with the need of preserving and managing high value fragile geological sam-ples: cores. Large international scientific programs, such as IODP or ICDP are leading an intense effort to solve this problem and propose detailed high standard work- and dataflows thorough core handling and curating. However most results derived from rather small-scale research programs in which data and sample management is generally managed only locally - when it is … The national excellence equipment program (Equipex) CLIMCOR aims at developing French facilities for coring and drilling investigations. It concerns indiscriminately ice, marine and continental samples. As part of this initiative, we initiated a reflexion about core curating and associated coring-data management. The aim of the project is to conserve all metadata from fieldwork in an integrated cyber-environment which will evolve toward laboratory-acquired data storage in a near future. In that aim, our demarche was conducted through an close relationship with field operators as well laboratory core curators in order to propose user-oriented solutions. The national core curating initiative currently proposes a single web portal in which all scientifics teams can store their field data. For legacy samples, this will requires the establishment of a dedicated core lists with associated metadata. For forthcoming samples, we propose a mobile application, under Android environment to capture technical and scientific metadata on the field. This application is linked with a unique coring tools library and is adapted to most coring devices (gravity, drilling, percussion, etc...) including multiple sections and holes coring operations. Those field data can be uploaded automatically to the national portal, but also referenced through international standards or persistent identifiers (IGSN, ORCID and INSPIRE

  14. Integrating scientific argumentation to improve undergraduate writing and learning in a global environmental change course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Koffman, B. G.; Trenbath, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    What makes a good scientific argument? We began ERS201: Global Environmental Change by asking students to reflect on the mechanics of a strong scientific argument. At the same time, we asked them to evaluate global CO2 and sea level data from different time periods in Earth's history to answer the question, 'Is there a relationship between atmospheric CO2 and sea level, and if so, why?' This question formed the theme for the course, a mid-level, inquiry-based class of about 20 students. Each week, students target specific aspects of the climate system through problem sets, which include experimental and laboratory work, basic statistical analyses of paleoclimate datasets, and the development of simple systems models using STELLA software. Every 2-4 weeks, we challenge students to write short (1500 word) data-driven scientific arguments, which require a synthesis of information from their problem sets and from the scientific literature. Students have to develop a clear, testable hypothesis related to each writing prompt, and then make their case using figures they have generated during the weekly problem sets. We evaluate student writing using a rubric that focuses on the structure and clarity of the argument, relevance of the data included, and integration and quality of the graphics, with a lesser emphasis placed on voice and style. In 2013, student scores improved from a median value of 86 × 9% to 94 × 8% over the course of the semester. More importantly, we found that incorporation of scientific argumentation served to increase student understanding of important and sometimes abstract scientific concepts. For example, on pre- and post-course assessments we asked the question, 'What would happen if a significant portion of the sea ice floating in the Arctic Ocean were to melt?' On the pre-assessment, 80% of students said that it would lead to more coastal flooding, while only 20% correctly stated that a decrease in the reflection of solar energy would lead to

  15. The methodological foundations of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in the field of physical education and sports and related sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of application of scientific knowledge in physical education and sport in contiguous scientific directions are considered. The advanced studies of leading specialists in area of physical education and sport are analysed. It is rotined that on the modern stage scientific developments in area of physical education and sport attained a level, when can be utillized in fundamental and applied sciences. Scientific researches in area of physical education and sport to the application scientific areas, such as pedagogics, psychology, design, programming et al are related. One of examples of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in area of physical education and sport there is theoretical conception of individualization of preparation of sportsmen.

  16. Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus; Applebaum, Rhona; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard; Dwyer, Johanna; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne; Miller, Sanford; Tancredi, Doris; Weaver, Connie; Woteki, Catherine; Wedral, Elaine

    2009-05-01

    There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. While biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion, to date, has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this paper, set out proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines, regarding industry funding, for protecting the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, specifying ground rules for industry-sponsored research. The paper, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. The Guiding Principles are as follows. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall: 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively; according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) prior to the commencement of studies, ensure that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time-frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations

  17. Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne R; Miller, Sanford A; Tancredi, Doris L; Weaver, Connie M; Woteki, Catherine E; Wedral, Elaine

    2009-05-01

    There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. Whereas biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion to date has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this article, proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines regarding industry funding to protect the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, which specify the ground rules for industry-sponsored research. This article, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively, and, according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) ensure, before the commencement of studies, that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations, full signed disclosure of all financial

  18. Integrated scientific assessment for ecosystem management in the interior Columbia Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Quigley; Richard W Haynes; Russell T. Graham

    1996-01-01

    The Integrated Scientific Assessment for Ecosystem Management for the Interior Columbia Basin links landscape, aquatic, terrestrial, social, and economic characterizations to describe biophysical and social systems. Integration was achieved through a framework built around six goals for ecosystem management and three different views of the future. These goals are:...

  19. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  20. LEARNING TO READ SCIENTIFIC RUSSIAN BY THE THREE QUESTION EXPERIMENTAL (3QX) METHOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFORD, M.H.T.

    A NEW METHOD FOR LEARNING TO READ TECHNICAL LITERATURE IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS BEING DEVELOPED AND TESTED AT THE LANGUAGE CENTRE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX, COLCHESTER, ENGLAND. THE METHOD IS CALLED "THREE QUESTION EXPERIMENTAL METHOD (3QX)," AND IT HAS BEEN USED IN THREE COURSES FOR TEACHING SCIENTIFIC RUSSIAN TO PHYSICISTS. THE THREE…

  1. Continual integration method in the polaron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetov, E.A.; Kuleshov, S.P.; Smondyrev, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The article is devoted to the investigation of a polaron system on the base of a variational approach formulated on the language of continuum integration. The variational method generalizing the Feynman one for the case of the system pulse different from zero has been formulated. The polaron state has been investigated at zero temperature. A problem of the bound state of two polarons exchanging quanta of a scalar field as well as a problem of polaron scattering with an external field in the Born approximation have been considered. Thermodynamics of the polaron system has been investigated, namely, high-temperature expansions for mean energy and effective polaron mass have been studied [ru

  2. Anticoagulant factor V: factors affecting the integration of novel scientific discoveries into the broader framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, Michelle L

    2014-09-01

    Since its initial discovery in the 1940s, factor V has long been viewed as an important procoagulant protein in the coagulation cascade. However, in the later part of the 20th century, two different scientists proposed novel anticoagulant roles for factor V. Philip Majerus proposed the first anticoagulant function for factor V in 1983, yet ultimately it was not widely accepted by the broader scientific community. In contrast, Björn Dahlbäck proposed a different anticoagulant role for factor V in 1994. While this role was initially contested, it was ultimately accepted and integrated into the scientific framework. In this paper, I present a detailed historical account of these two anticoagulant discoveries and propose three key reasons why Dahlbäck's anticoagulant role for factor V was accepted whereas Majerus' proposed role was largely overlooked. Perhaps most importantly, Dahlbäck's proposed anticoagulant role was of great clinical interest because the discovery involved the study of an important subset of patients with thrombophilia. Soon after Dahlbäck's 1994 work, this patient population was shown to possess the factor V Leiden mutation. Also key in the ultimate acceptance of the second proposed anticoagulant role was the persistence of the scientist who made the discovery and the interest in and ability of others to replicate and reinforce this work. This analysis of two different yet similar discoveries sheds light on factors that play an important role in how new discoveries are incorporated into the existing scientific framework. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Rubrics as a Scientific Writing Instructional Method in Early Stage Undergraduate Neuroscience Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabough, Erin B D; Clabough, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Scientific writing is an important communication and learning tool in neuroscience, yet it is a skill not adequately cultivated in introductory undergraduate science courses. Proficient, confident scientific writers are produced by providing specific knowledge about the writing process, combined with a clear student understanding about how to think about writing (also known as metacognition). We developed a rubric for evaluating scientific papers and assessed different methods of using the rubric in inquiry-based introductory biology classrooms. Students were either 1) given the rubric alone, 2) given the rubric, but also required to visit a biology subject tutor for paper assistance, or 3) asked to self-grade paper components using the rubric. Students who were required to use a peer tutor had more negative attitudes towards scientific writing, while students who used the rubric alone reported more confidence in their science writing skills by the conclusion of the semester. Overall, students rated the use of an example paper or grading rubric as the most effective ways of teaching scientific writing, while rating peer review as ineffective. Our paper describes a concrete, simple method of infusing scientific writing into inquiry-based science classes, and provides clear avenues to enhance communication and scientific writing skills in entry-level classes through the use of a rubric or example paper, with the goal of producing students capable of performing at a higher level in upper level neuroscience classes and independent research.

  4. Integrating authentic scientific research in a conservation course–based undergraduate research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Amanda E.; Corral, Lucia; Dauer, Jenny M.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2018-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have been developed to overcome barriers including students in research. However, there are few examples of CUREs that take place in a conservation and natural resource context with students engaging in field research. Here, we highlight the development of a conservation-focused CURE integrated to a research program, research benefits, student self-assessment of learning, and perception of the CURE. With the additional data, researchers were able to refine species distribution models and facilitate management decisions. Most students reported gains in their scientific skills, felt they had engaged in meaningful, real-world research. In student reflections on how this experience helped clarify their professional intentions, many reported being more likely to enroll in graduate programs and seek employment related to science. Also interesting was all students reported being more likely to talk with friends, family, or the public about wildlife conservation issues after participating, indicating that courses like this can have effects beyond the classroom, empowering students to be advocates and translators of science. Field-based, conservation-focused CUREs can create meaningful conservation and natural resource experiences with authentic scientific teaching practices.

  5. Scientific integrity and research ethics an approach from the ethos of science

    CERN Document Server

    Koepsell, David

    2017-01-01

    This book is an easy to read, yet comprehensive introduction to practical issues in research ethics and scientific integrity. It addresses questions about what constitutes appropriate academic and scientific behaviors from the point of view of what Robert Merton called the “ethos of science.” In other words, without getting into tricky questions about the nature of the good or right (as philosophers often do), Koepsell’s concise book provides an approach to behaving according to the norms of science and academia without delving into the morass of philosophical ethics. The central thesis is that: since we know certain behaviors are necessary for science and its institutions to work properly (rather than pathologically), we can extend those principles to guide good behaviors as scientists and academics. The Spanish version of this book was commissioned by the Mexican National Science Foundation (CONACyT) and is being distributed to and used by Mexican scientists in a unique, national plan to improve scie...

  6. Integrating entertainment and scientific rigor to facilitate a co-creation of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The advancing research on the changing climate system and on its impacts has uncovered the magnitude of the expectable societal implications. It therefore created substantial awareness of the problem with stakeholders and the general public. But despite this awareness, unsustainable trends have continued untamed. For a transition towards a sustainable world it is, apparently, not enough to disseminate the "scientific truth" and wait for the people to "understand". In order to remedy this problem it is rather necessary to develop new entertaining formats to communicate the complex topic in an integrated and comprehensive way. Beyond that, it could be helpful to acknowledge that science can only generate part of the knowledge that is necessary for the transformation. The nature of the problem and its deep societal implications call for a co-creation of knowledge by science and society in order to enable change. In this spirit the RAMSES project (Reconciling Adaptation, Mitigation and Sustainable Development for Cities) follows a dialogic communication approach allowing for a co-formulation of research questions by stakeholders. A web-based audio-visual guidance application presents embedded scientific information in an entertaining and intuitive way on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. It aims at enabling decision making despite uncertainty and it entails a reframing of the project's research according to applied and local knowledge.

  7. Integrating Scientific Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Writing and Learning in a Global Environmental Change Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffman, Bess G. [School of Earth and Climate Sciences, 5790 Bryand Global Sciences Center, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA; Department of Earth Sciences, 6105 Sherman Fairchild Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA; Kreutz, Karl J. [School of Earth and Climate Sciences, 5790 Bryand Global Sciences Center, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA; Climate Change Institute, 300 Bryand Global Sciences Center, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA; Trenbath, Kim [Maine Center for Research in STEM Education, 5727 Estabrooke Hall, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, 04469, USA; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA

    2017-08-01

    We present a strategy for using scientific argumentation in an early undergraduate laboratory course to teach disciplinary writing practices and to promote critical thinking, knowledge transformation, and understanding of the scientific method. The approach combines targeted writing instruction; data analysis and interpretation; formulation of a hypothesis; and construction of an argument. Students submit and receive feedback on two drafts of two different argumentation essays, providing the opportunity for guided practice. Each written argument is intended to draw on several weeks' course material, including short lectures, discussions, readings, and problem sets. Thus our aim with these writing assignments is to help students synthesize content and concepts, deepening their learning. We have found that this inquiry-based approach to writing engages students in course material, and significantly improves both writing and learning. We observed the greatest improvement among students with the lowest initial scores, suggesting that lower-achieving students benefitted disproportionately from this approach. Students have responded positively to the use of writing in the course, many stating on course evaluations that this is the first time they have received instruction in scientific writing. They have also pointed to a greater 'big-picture' understanding of the course gained through writing. We describe the course and our curriculum, and provide suggestions for implementation as well as rubrics used to evaluate problem sets and student argumentation essays.

  8. Difficulties in the neuroscience of creativity: jazz improvisation and the scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda; Limb, Charles J

    2013-11-01

    Creativity is a fundamental and remarkable human capacity, yet the scientific study of creativity has been limited by the difficulty of reconciling the scientific method and creative processes. We outline several hurdles and considerations that should be addressed when studying the cognitive neuroscience of creativity and suggest that jazz improvisation may be one of the most useful experimental models for the study of spontaneous creativity. More broadly, we argue that studying creativity in a way that is both scientifically and ecologically valid requires collaboration between neuroscientists and artists. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. The Art of Memory and the Growth of the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal P. Sarma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available I argue that European schools of thought on memory and memorization were critical in enabling growth of the scientific method. After giving a historical overview of the development of the memory arts from ancient Greece through 17th century Europe, I describe how the Baconian viewpoint on the scientific method was fundamentally part of a culture and a broader dialogue that conceived of memorization as a foundational methodology for structuring knowledge and for developing symbolic means for representing scientific concepts. The principal figures of this intense and rapidly evolving intellectual milieu included some of the leading thinkers traditionally associated with the scientific revolution; among others, Francis Bacon, Renes Descartes, and Gottfried Leibniz. I close by examining the acceleration of mathematical thought in light of the art of memory and its role in 17th century philosophy, and in particular, Leibniz’s project to develop a universal calculus.

  10. Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions: Scientific Basis, Evidence of Impact, and Implementation Considerations123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children’s linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208

  11. Improvements of the integral transport theory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavenoky, A.; Lam-Hime, M.; Stankovski, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The integral transport theory is widely used in practical reactor design calculations however it is computer time consuming for two dimensional calculations of large media. In the first part of this report a new treatment is presented; it is based on the Galerkin method: inside each region the total flux is expanded over a three component basis. Numerical comparison shows that this method can considerably reduce the computing time. The second part of the this report is devoted to homogeneization theory: a straightforward calculation of the fundamental mode for an heterogeneous cell is presented. At first general presentation of the problem is given, then it is simplified to plane geometry and numerical results are presented

  12. Integrating Response to Intervention (RTI) with Neuropsychology: A Scientific Approach to Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    This article integrates the fundamental components of both "Response to Intervention" (RTI) and cognitive neuropsychology when identifying reading disorders in children. Both proponents of RTI and cognitive neuropsychology agree the "discrepancy model" is not a reliable or valid method to identify learning disorders in school. In addition, both…

  13. Collaborative teaching of an integrated methods course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zhou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing diversity in American schools, teachers need to be able to collaborate in teaching. University courses are widely considered as a stage to demonstrate or model the ways of collaboration. To respond to this call, three authors team taught an integrated methods course at an urban public university in the city of New York. Following a qualitative research design, this study explored both instructors‟ and pre-service teachers‟ experiences with this course. Study findings indicate that collaborative teaching of an integrated methods course is feasible and beneficial to both instructors and pre-service teachers. For instructors, this collaborative teaching was a reciprocal learning process where they were engaged in thinking about teaching in a broader and innovative way. For pre-service teachers, this collaborative course not only helped them understand how three different subjects could be related to each other, but also provided opportunities for them to actually see how collaboration could take place in teaching. Their understanding of collaborative teaching was enhanced after the course.

  14. Integration of educational and scientific-technological areas during the process of education of aerospace engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorova, Vera

    2011-09-01

    National priorities, defined by modern state of high-tech industries, demand adequate problem solving of training professionals possessing required modern qualifications. Modern tendencies of the development of aerospace technologies, harsh competition in the market of space services and expansion of international cooperation for implementation of space projects, demand sharp increase of the scientific/technical level and competitiveness of the developed projects. Especially important is to be able to solve technological problems, which in turn define the cost and quality attributes of the designed item, as well as the ability to utilize the most modern design principles. Training of highly efficient, creative professionals who are capable of generating and implementing new ideas is a very important factor driving not only the development of national economy and industry, but also enriching the human capital of the country. Moscow State Technical University named after N.E. Bauman developed and successfully implemented the project-oriented technology of professional training for aerospace industry. It assumes a multitude of forms, methodologies and organizational events, which allow preparing the specialists - on the basis of integration of scientific/technological and educational environment - who are adapted to the conditions of the intellectual market. The Youth Space Center of the University is the base where graduate and post-graduate students attend unique lectures as a part of the facultative course "Applied Cosmonautics", participate in annual International Youth Science School "Space Development: Theory and Practice" and develop innovative technical projects aimed at creation of real-life space hardware. Microsatellite technologies are being developed in Bauman University through various projects, which are implemented in a coordinated manner by way of accomplishing the following steps: development of small-size satellites by universities, using them as

  15. Meta-analysis as Statistical and Analytical Method of Journal's Content Scientific Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-02-01

    A meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into one common result. Analysis of the journals "Medical Archives", "Materia Socio Medica" and "Acta Informatica Medica", which are located in the most eminent indexed databases of the biomedical milieu. The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period of the calendar year 2014. Study included six editions of all three journals (total of 18 journals). In this period was published a total of 291 articles (in the "Medical Archives" 110, "Materia Socio Medica" 97, and in "Acta Informatica Medica" 84). The largest number of articles was original articles. Small numbers have been published as professional, review articles and case reports. Clinical events were most common in the first two journals, while in the journal "Acta Informatica Medica" belonged to the field of medical informatics, as part of pre-clinical medical disciplines. Articles are usually required period of fifty to fifty nine days for review. Articles were received from four continents, mostly from Europe. The authors are most often from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Iran, Kosovo and Macedonia. The number of articles published each year is increasing, with greater participation of authors from different continents and abroad. Clinical medical disciplines are the most common, with the broader spectrum of topics and with a growing number of original articles. Greater support of the wider scientific community is needed for further development of all three of the aforementioned journals.

  16. Integrated core-log interpretation of Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project borehole 4 (WFSD-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Pan, Heping; Ma, Huolin; Qin, Zhen; Traoré, Alhouseiny

    2017-08-01

    Understanding slip behavior of active fault is a fundamental problem in earthquake investigations. Well logs and cores data provide direct information of physical properties of the fault zones at depth. The geological exploration of the Wenchuan earthquake Scientific Fault drilling project (WFSD) targeted the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and the Guanxian Anxian fault, respectively. Five boreholes (WFSD-1, WFSD-2, WFSD-3P WFSD-3 and WFSD-4) were drilled and logged with geophysical tools developed for the use in petroleum industry. WFSD-1, WFSD-2 and WFSD-3 in situ logging data have been reported and investigated by geoscientists. Here we present for the first time, the integrated core-log studies in the Northern segment of Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (WFSD-4) thereby characterizing the physical properties of the lithologies(original rocks), fault rocks and the presumed slip zone associated with the Wenchuan earthquake. We also present results from the comparison of WFSD-4 to those obtained from WFSD-1, WFSD-3 and other drilling hole in active faults. This study show that integrated core-log study would help in understanding the slip behavior of active fault.

  17. Resilient and Robust High Performance Computing Platforms for Scientific Computing Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yier [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2017-07-14

    As technology advances, computer systems are subject to increasingly sophisticated cyber-attacks that compromise both their security and integrity. High performance computing platforms used in commercial and scientific applications involving sensitive, or even classified data, are frequently targeted by powerful adversaries. This situation is made worse by a lack of fundamental security solutions that both perform efficiently and are effective at preventing threats. Current security solutions fail to address the threat landscape and ensure the integrity of sensitive data. As challenges rise, both private and public sectors will require robust technologies to protect its computing infrastructure. The research outcomes from this project try to address all these challenges. For example, we present LAZARUS, a novel technique to harden kernel Address Space Layout Randomization (KASLR) against paging-based side-channel attacks. In particular, our scheme allows for fine-grained protection of the virtual memory mappings that implement the randomization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by hardening a recent Linux kernel with LAZARUS, mitigating all of the previously presented side-channel attacks on KASLR. Our extensive evaluation shows that LAZARUS incurs only 0.943% overhead for standard benchmarks, and is therefore highly practical. We also introduced HA2lloc, a hardware-assisted allocator that is capable of leveraging an extended memory management unit to detect memory errors in the heap. We also perform testing using HA2lloc in a simulation environment and find that the approach is capable of preventing common memory vulnerabilities.

  18. Conceptual Teaching Based on Scientific Storyline Method and Conceptual Change Texts: Latitude-Parallel Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunöz, Abdulkadir

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the conceptual mistakes frequently encountered in teaching geography such as latitude-parallel concepts, and to prepare conceptual change text based on the Scientific Storyline Method, in order to resolve the identified misconceptions. In this study, the special case method, which is one of the qualitative…

  19. Validity of a structured method of selecting abstracts for a plastic surgical scientific meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, LPE; Hage, JJ; Kon, M; Monstrey, SJ

    In 1999, the European Association of Plastic Surgeons accepted a structured method to assess and select the abstracts that are submitted for its yearly scientific meeting. The two criteria used to evaluate whether such a selection method is accurate were reliability and validity. The authors

  20. The Scientific Method and the Creative Process: Implications for the K-6 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Amanda J.; Stephens, April H.

    2013-01-01

    Science and the arts might seem very different, but the processes that both fields use are very similar. The scientific method is a way to explore a problem, form and test a hypothesis, and answer questions. The creative process creates, interprets, and expresses art. Inquiry is at the heart of both of these methods. The purpose of this article is…

  1. The sixth Nordic conference on the application of scientific methods in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Sixth Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods in Archaeology with 73 participants was convened in Esbjerg (Denmark), 19-23 September 1993. Isotope dating of archaeological, paleoecological and geochronological objects, neutron activation and XRF analytical methods, magnetometry, thermoluminescence etc. have been discussed. The program included excursions to archaeological sites and a poster session with 12 posters. (EG)

  2. Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA): A Method for Evaluating Changes in Understanding and Visualization of the Scientific Process in a Multidisciplinary Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Rigakos, Bessie

    2016-01-01

    The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology,…

  3. Integrating scientific data for drug discovery and development using the Life Sciences Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ernst R; Hughes, James B; Stephens, Susie M; Narayan, Vaibhav A; Bishop, Richard W

    2009-06-01

    There are many daunting challenges for companies who wish to bring novel drugs to market. The information complexity around potential drug targets has increased greatly with the introduction of microarrays, high-throughput screening and other technological advances over the past decade, but has not yet fundamentally increased our understanding of how to modify a disease with pharmaceuticals. Further, the bar has been raised in getting a successful drug to market as just being new is no longer enough: the drug must demonstrate improved performance compared with the ever increasing generic pharmacopeia to gain support from payers and government authorities. In addition, partly as a consequence of a climate of concern regarding the safety of drugs, regulatory authorities have approved fewer new molecular entities compared to historical norms over the past few years. To overcome these challenges, the pharmaceutical industry must fully embrace information technology to bring better understood compounds to market. An important first step in addressing an unmet medical need is in understanding the disease and identifying the physiological target(s) to be modulated by the drug. Deciding which targets to pursue for a given disease requires a multidisciplinary effort that integrates heterogeneous data from many sources, including genetic variations of populations, changes in gene expression and biochemical assays. The Life Science Grid was developed to provide a flexible framework to integrate such diverse biological, chemical and disease information to help scientists make better-informed decisions. The Life Science Grid has been used to rapidly and effectively integrate scientific information in the pharmaceutical industry and has been placed in the open source community to foster collaboration in the life sciences community.

  4. Parallel Jacobi EVD Methods on Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chia Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design strategies for parallel iterative algorithms are presented. In order to further study different tradeoff strategies in design criteria for integrated circuits, A 10 × 10 Jacobi Brent-Luk-EVD array with the simplified μ-CORDIC processor is used as an example. The experimental results show that using the μ-CORDIC processor is beneficial for the design criteria as it yields a smaller area, faster overall computation time, and less energy consumption than the regular CORDIC processor. It is worth to notice that the proposed parallel EVD method can be applied to real-time and low-power array signal processing algorithms performing beamforming or DOA estimation.

  5. An evidence-based patient-centered method makes the biopsychosocial model scientific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert C; Fortin, Auguste H; Dwamena, Francesca; Frankel, Richard M

    2013-06-01

    To review the scientific status of the biopsychosocial (BPS) model and to propose a way to improve it. Engel's BPS model added patients' psychological and social health concerns to the highly successful biomedical model. He proposed that the BPS model could make medicine more scientific, but its use in education, clinical care, and, especially, research remains minimal. Many aver correctly that the present model cannot be defined in a consistent way for the individual patient, making it untestable and non-scientific. This stems from not obtaining relevant BPS data systematically, where one interviewer obtains the same information another would. Recent research by two of the authors has produced similar patient-centered interviewing methods that are repeatable and elicit just the relevant patient information needed to define the model at each visit. We propose that the field adopt these evidence-based methods as the standard for identifying the BPS model. Identifying a scientific BPS model in each patient with an agreed-upon, evidence-based patient-centered interviewing method can produce a quantum leap ahead in both research and teaching. A scientific BPS model can give us more confidence in being humanistic. In research, we can conduct more rigorous studies to inform better practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Meta-analysis as Statistical and Analytical Method of Journal’s Content Scientific Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into one common result. Goal: Analysis of the journals “Medical Archives”, “Materia Socio Medica” and “Acta Informatica Medica”, which are located in the most eminent indexed databases of the biomedical milieu. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period of the calendar year 2014. Study included six editions of all three journals (total of 18 journals). Results: In this period was published a total of 291 articles (in the “Medical Archives” 110, “Materia Socio Medica” 97, and in “Acta Informatica Medica” 84). The largest number of articles was original articles. Small numbers have been published as professional, review articles and case reports. Clinical events were most common in the first two journals, while in the journal “Acta Informatica Medica” belonged to the field of medical informatics, as part of pre-clinical medical disciplines. Articles are usually required period of fifty to fifty nine days for review. Articles were received from four continents, mostly from Europe. The authors are most often from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Iran, Kosovo and Macedonia. Conclusion: The number of articles published each year is increasing, with greater participation of authors from different continents and abroad. Clinical medical disciplines are the most common, with the broader spectrum of topics and with a growing number of original articles. Greater support of the wider scientific community is needed for further development of all three of the aforementioned journals. PMID:25870484

  7. Numerov iteration method for second order integral-differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Fanan; Zhang Jiaju; Zhao Xuan

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, Numerov iterative method for second order integral-differential equation and system of equations are constructed. Numerical examples show that this method is better than direct method (Gauss elimination method) in CPU time and memoy requireing. Therefore, this method is an efficient method for solving integral-differential equation in nuclear physics

  8. Integrating Scientific Content with Context to Connect Educators with the Complexities and Consequences of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Gosselin, D. C.; Oglesby, R. J.; Larson-Miller, C.; Thomas, J.; Mawalagedara, R.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past three years the Nebraska Earth Systems Education Network has designed professional development opportunities for K-12 and extension educators that integrates scientific content into the context of helping educators connect society with the complexities and consequences of climate change. Our professional development approach uses learner-, knowledge-, assessment-, and community-centered strategies to achieve our long-term goal: collaboration of scientists, educators and learners to foster civic literacy about climate change. Two NASA-funded projects, Global Climate Change Literacy for Educators (GCCE, 2009-2012), and the Educators Climatologists Learning Community (ECLC, 2011-2013), have provided the mechanism to provide teachers with scientifically sound and pedagogically relevant educational materials to improve climate and Earth systems literacy among educators. The primary product of the GCCE program is a 16-week, online, distance-delivered, asynchronous course entitled, Laboratory Earth: Human Dimensions of Climate Change. This course consists of four, four-week modules that integrate climate literacy, Earth Systems concepts, and pedagogy focused on active learning processes, building community, action research, and students' sense of place to promote action at the local level to address the challenges of climate change. Overall, the Community of Inquiry Survey (COI) indicated the course was effective in teaching content, developing a community of learners, and engaging students in experiences designed to develop content knowledge. A pre- and post- course Wilcoxan Signed Ranks Test indicated there was a statistically significant increase in participant's beliefs about their personal science teaching efficacy. Qualitative data from concept maps and content mastery assignments support a positive impact on teachers' content knowledge and classroom practice. Service Learning units seemed tohelp teachers connect course learning to their classroom

  9. An Integrated Method for Airfoil Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrent, Joshua B.

    Design exploration and optimization is a large part of the initial engineering and design process. To evaluate the aerodynamic performance of a design, viscous Navier-Stokes solvers can be used. However this method can prove to be overwhelmingly time consuming when performing an initial design sweep. Therefore, another evaluation method is needed to provide accurate results at a faster pace. To accomplish this goal, a coupled viscous-inviscid method is used. This thesis proposes an integrated method for analyzing, evaluating, and optimizing an airfoil using a coupled viscous-inviscid solver along with a genetic algorithm to find the optimal candidate. The method proposed is different from prior optimization efforts in that it greatly broadens the design space, while allowing the optimization to search for the best candidate that will meet multiple objectives over a characteristic mission profile rather than over a single condition and single optimization parameter. The increased design space is due to the use of multiple parametric airfoil families, namely the NACA 4 series, CST family, and the PARSEC family. Almost all possible airfoil shapes can be created with these three families allowing for all possible configurations to be included. This inclusion of multiple airfoil families addresses a possible criticism of prior optimization attempts since by only focusing on one airfoil family, they were inherently limiting the number of possible airfoil configurations. By using multiple parametric airfoils, it can be assumed that all reasonable airfoil configurations are included in the analysis and optimization and that a global and not local maximum is found. Additionally, the method used is amenable to customization to suit any specific needs as well as including the effects of other physical phenomena or design criteria and/or constraints. This thesis found that an airfoil configuration that met multiple objectives could be found for a given set of nominal

  10. Transparency in authors' contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia K; Bradford, Monica; Drazen, Jeffrey M; Hanson, Brooks; Howard, Bob; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Kiermer, Véronique; Marcus, Emilie; Pope, Barbara Kline; Schekman, Randy; Swaminathan, Sowmya; Stang, Peter J; Verma, Inder M

    2018-03-13

    In keeping with the growing movement in scientific publishing toward transparency in data and methods, we propose changes to journal authorship policies and procedures to provide insight into which author is responsible for which contributions, better assurance that the list is complete, and clearly articulated standards to justify earning authorship credit. To accomplish these goals, we recommend that journals adopt common and transparent standards for authorship, outline responsibilities for corresponding authors, adopt the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) (docs.casrai.org/CRediT) methodology for attributing contributions, include this information in article metadata, and require authors to use the ORCID persistent digital identifier (https://orcid.org). Additionally, we recommend that universities and research institutions articulate expectations about author roles and responsibilities to provide a point of common understanding for discussion of authorship across research teams. Furthermore, we propose that funding agencies adopt the ORCID identifier and accept the CRediT taxonomy. We encourage scientific societies to further authorship transparency by signing on to these recommendations and promoting them through their meetings and publications programs. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. From Kraepelin to a modern and integrative scientific discipline: the development of transcultural psychiatry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machleidt, Wielant; Sieberer, Marcel

    2013-12-01

    The roots of transcultural psychiatry in Germany can be traced back to Emil Kraepelin, who made the first culturally comparative observations on mental disorders in Southeast Asia at the start of the 20th century. Since the beginning of the 1970s, contributors to the literature of transcultural psychiatry in Germany have been predominantly concerned with the mental health of migrant workers from Mediterranean countries, particularly the practical difficulties and therapeutic implications of inpatient psychiatric treatment of these migrant groups. The inauguration of the Section on Transcultural Psychiatry of the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy 20 years ago reflected an increasing scientific interest in this topic. In addition to the psychic impact of migration, research into transcultural care is currently focused on disparities in the utilization of health care and conjectured barriers to access to health and mental health care among migrants. Furthermore, studies based on epidemiological approaches have been carried out in order to resolve the question of whether migrants are as affected by mental disorders as the ethnic German population, and which issues contribute to the so-called "healthy migrant" effect. Other topics that have been explored in the last 10 years are the particular psychosocial situation of asylum seekers and refugees in Germany, and the effects of inadequate integration and discrimination on their mental health. In summary, after a short historical and theoretical overview, this article reviews the current major themes in transcultural research in German contemporary psychiatry, and concludes with an overview of future developments in this field.

  12. Dirt: Integrating Scientific and Local Knowledge to Support Global Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, G.; Herrick, J.; Bestelmeyer, B.; Hanan, N. P.; Neff, J. C.; Peters, D. P. C.; Sala, O.; Salley, S. W.; Vivoni, E. R.; Wills, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    "Dirt." "It's that elm shade, red rust clay you grew up on - That plowed up ground that your dad damned his luck on." We will draw on the first lines of the chorus from a song by Florida Georgia Line to explain how our collective research can provide insights to help prevent the next Dust Bowl, increase returns on investments in land restoration, and limit nutrient runoff to the Gulf of Mexico. Our presentation will show how we are supporting management decisions in New Mexico, Namibia and Mongolia by integrating NRCS soil survey information with an understanding of soil variability, and landscape patterns and dynamics developed at the Jornada LTER and USDA-ARS research unit, working with and drawing on related research from around the world. We will highlight work identifying wind erosion thresholds based on easily measured changes in vegetation structure. We will also demonstrate how landscape stratification by soils can be used to increase the probability of success of restoration treatments. We will end with a demonstration of a suite of mobile phone apps that are being developed to increase access to scientific knowledge by farmers, policymakers and natural resource managers around the world, and to allow them to contextualize and share their own soil-specific local knowledge. A co-benefit is the use as a crowd-sourcing tool.

  13. BioLab: Using Yeast Fermentation as a Model for the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigage, Helen K.; Neilson, Milton C.; Greeder, Michele M.

    This document presents a science experiment demonstrating the scientific method. The experiment consists of testing the fermentation capabilities of yeasts under different circumstances. The experiment is supported with computer software called BioLab which demonstrates yeast's response to different environments. (YDS)

  14. Simulating experiments using a Comsol application for teaching scientific research methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    For universities it is important to teach the principles of scientific methods as soon as possible. However, in case of performing experiments, students need to have some knowledge and skills before start doing measurements. In this case, Comsol can be helpfully by simulating the experiments before

  15. Normal Science and the Paranormal: The Effect of a Scientific Method Course on Students' Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morier, Dean; Keeports, David

    1994-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of an interdisciplinary course on the scientific method on the attitudes of 34 college students toward the paranormal. Results indicated that the course substantially reduced belief in the paranormal, relative to a control group. Student beliefs in their own paranormal powers, however, did not change. (Author/MSE)

  16. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-01-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them "experiment," "science fair," and "hypothesis," is used to probe the students' knowledge structures.…

  17. Scaffolded Instruction Improves Student Understanding of the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Allison R.; Schlueter, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of a guided-inquiry lab in introductory biology classes, along with scaffolded instruction, improved students' understanding of the scientific method, their ability to design an experiment, and their identification of experimental variables. Pre- and postassessments from experimental versus control sections over three semesters…

  18. Using the Scientific Method to Motivate Biology Students to Study Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, James P.; Sabatino, Linda

    2008-01-01

    During the last two years we have developed a precalculus course customized around biology by using the scientific method as a framework to engage and motivate biology students. Historically, the precalculus and calculus courses required for the Suffolk County Community College biology curriculum were designed using examples from the physical…

  19. Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship: An approach for end-to-end data management and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzayus, K. M.; Garcia, H. E.; Jiang, L.; Michael, P.

    2012-12-01

    As the designated Federal permanent oceanographic data center in the United States, NOAA's National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) has been providing scientific stewardship for national and international marine environmental and ecosystem data for over 50 years. NODC is supporting NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program and the science community by providing end-to-end scientific data management of ocean acidification (OA) data, dedicated online data discovery, and user-friendly access to a diverse range of historical and modern OA and other chemical, physical, and biological oceanographic data. This effort is being catalyzed by the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program, but the intended reach is for the broader scientific ocean acidification community. The first three years of the project will be focused on infrastructure building. A complete ocean acidification data content standard is being developed to ensure that a full spectrum of ocean acidification data and metadata can be stored and utilized for optimal data discovery and access in usable data formats. We plan to develop a data access interface capable of allowing users to constrain their search based on real-time and delayed mode measured variables, scientific data quality, their observation types, the temporal coverage, methods, instruments, standards, collecting institutions, and the spatial coverage. In addition, NODC seeks to utilize the existing suite of international standards (including ISO 19115-2 and CF-compliant netCDF) to help our data producers use those standards for their data, and help our data consumers make use of the well-standardized metadata-rich data sets. These tools will be available through our NODC Ocean Acidification Scientific Data Stewardship (OADS) web page at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/oceanacidification. NODC also has a goal to provide each archived dataset with a unique ID, to ensure a means of providing credit to the data provider. Working with partner institutions, such as the

  20. Deterministic factor analysis: methods of integro-differentiation of non-integral order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Tarasova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to summarize the methods of deterministic factor economic analysis namely the differential calculus and the integral method. nbsp Methods mathematical methods for integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order the theory of derivatives and integrals of fractional nonintegral order. Results the basic concepts are formulated and the new methods are developed that take into account the memory and nonlocality effects in the quantitative description of the influence of individual factors on the change in the effective economic indicator. Two methods are proposed for integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order for the deterministic factor analysis of economic processes with memory and nonlocality. It is shown that the method of integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order can give more accurate results compared with standard methods method of differentiation using the first order derivatives and the integral method using the integration of the first order for a wide class of functions describing effective economic indicators. Scientific novelty the new methods of deterministic factor analysis are proposed the method of differential calculus of nonintegral order and the integral method of nonintegral order. Practical significance the basic concepts and formulas of the article can be used in scientific and analytical activity for factor analysis of economic processes. The proposed method for integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order extends the capabilities of the determined factorial economic analysis. The new quantitative method of deterministic factor analysis may become the beginning of quantitative studies of economic agents behavior with memory hereditarity and spatial nonlocality. The proposed methods of deterministic factor analysis can be used in the study of economic processes which follow the exponential law in which the indicators endogenous variables are power functions of the factors exogenous variables including the processes

  1. Boundary integral methods for unsaturated flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.J.; McTigue, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Many large simulations may be required to assess the performance of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the nations first high level nuclear waste repository. A boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is described for numerical analysis of quasilinear steady unsaturated flow in homogeneous material. The applicability of the exponential model for the dependence of hydraulic conductivity on pressure head is discussed briefly. This constitutive assumption is at the heart of the quasilinear transformation. Materials which display a wide distribution in pore-size are described reasonably well by the exponential. For materials with a narrow range in pore-size, the exponential is suitable over more limited ranges in pressure head. The numerical implementation of the BIEM is used to investigate the infiltration from a strip source to a water table. The net infiltration of moisture into a finite-depth layer is well-described by results for a semi-infinite layer if αD > 4, where α is the sorptive number and D is the depth to the water table. the distribution of moisture exhibits a similar dependence on αD. 11 refs., 4 figs.,

  2. NetiNeti: discovery of scientific names from text using machine learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akella Lakshmi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A scientific name for an organism can be associated with almost all biological data. Name identification is an important step in many text mining tasks aiming to extract useful information from biological, biomedical and biodiversity text sources. A scientific name acts as an important metadata element to link biological information. Results We present NetiNeti (Name Extraction from Textual Information-Name Extraction for Taxonomic Indexing, a machine learning based approach for recognition of scientific names including the discovery of new species names from text that will also handle misspellings, OCR errors and other variations in names. The system generates candidate names using rules for scientific names and applies probabilistic machine learning methods to classify names based on structural features of candidate names and features derived from their contexts. NetiNeti can also disambiguate scientific names from other names using the contextual information. We evaluated NetiNeti on legacy biodiversity texts and biomedical literature (MEDLINE. NetiNeti performs better (precision = 98.9% and recall = 70.5% compared to a popular dictionary based approach (precision = 97.5% and recall = 54.3% on a 600-page biodiversity book that was manually marked by an annotator. On a small set of PubMed Central’s full text articles annotated with scientific names, the precision and recall values are 98.5% and 96.2% respectively. NetiNeti found more than 190,000 unique binomial and trinomial names in more than 1,880,000 PubMed records when used on the full MEDLINE database. NetiNeti also successfully identifies almost all of the new species names mentioned within web pages. Conclusions We present NetiNeti, a machine learning based approach for identification and discovery of scientific names. The system implementing the approach can be accessed at http://namefinding.ubio.org.

  3. A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G.; Boyd, Stephen J.; Kopak, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies. PMID:22167325

  4. Scientific Integrity and Executive National Security Proclamations: A Conflict of the Modern Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.; Banerdt, B.; Bell, J. L.; Byrnes, D. V.; Carlisle, G. L.; D'Addario, L. R.; Weissman, P. R.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Foster, S. D.; Golombek, M. P.; Gorjian, V.; Gorjian, Z.; Hale, A. S.; Kulleck, J. G.; Laubach, S. L.; McElrath, T. P.; Penanen, K. I.; Satter, C.; Walker, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    In 2004, in response to the events of September, 11, 2001, President George W. Bush issued Homeland Security Presidential Directive #12, an executive order requiring a uniform means of identification (i.e. identification badge) for all employees and contractors at federal facilities. To comply with this directive NASA ordered that its contract employees at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 'voluntarily' agree to an open ended, unrestricted, background investigation into the intimate details of their private lives. These employees do not have security clearances and do not work with classified material. Caltech, which employs the JPL personnel under a NASA management contract, informed the employees that if they did not ‘voluntarily’ consent to the background investigation, they would be assumed to have voluntarily resigned and therefore be denied access to JPL (i.e. they would be functionally terminated). In October 2007, twentyeight JPL employees filed suit in Federal District Court. After an initial dismissal by the lowest federal court, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued an injunction against Caltech and NASA, stopping the background investigations. The Appeals Court found that the investigations were not narrowly tailored to meet the specific needs of NASA and therefore violated the employee’s legitimate expectation of informational privacy. This injunction has been reviewed and upheld several times by various panels of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. In November 2009, the United States Department of Justice petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court requesting that it overturn this injunction. The Supreme Court accepted the case for oral arguments and scheduled them for October 5, 2010. A decision is imminent (if it has not been made already). The case has opened the following questions regarding all research workers under government contract: 1. What impact would such intrusive investigations have on open scientific inquiry and scientific integrity? 2

  5. Scientific publications from Arab world in leading journals of Integrative and Complementary Medicine: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2015-09-04

    Bibliometric analysis is increasingly employed as a useful tool to assess the quantity and quality of research performance. The specific goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of research output originating from Arab world and published in international Integrative and Complementary Medicine (ICM) journals. Original scientific publications and reviews from the 22 Arab countries that were published in 22 international peer-reviewed ICM journals during all previous years up to December 31(st) 2013, were screened using the Web of Science databases. Five hundred and ninety-one documents were retrieved from 19 ICM journals. The h-index of the set of papers under study was 47. The highest h-index was 27 for Morocco, 21 for Jordan, followed by 19 for each Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and Egypt, and the lowest h-index was 1 for each of Comoros, Qatar, and Syrian Arab Republic. No data related to ICM were published from Djibouti, and Mauritania. After adjusting for economy and population power, Somalia (89), Morocco (32.5), Egypt (31.1), Yemen (21.4), and Palestine (21.2) had the highest research productivity. The total number of citations was 9,466, with an average citation of 16 per document. The study identified 262 (44.3 %) documents with 39 countries in Arab-foreign country collaborations. Arab authors collaborated most with countries in Europe (24.2 %), followed by countries in the Asia-Pacific region (9.8 %). Scientific research output in the ICM field in the Arab world region is increasing. Most of publications from Arab world in ICM filed were driven by societal use of medicinal plants and herbs. Search for new therapies from available low cost medicinal plants in Arab world has motivated many researchers in academia and pharmaceutical industry. Further investigation is required to support these findings in a wider journal as well as to improve research output in the field of ICM from Arab world region by investing in more national and

  6. Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Weng; Hu, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves is an outgrowth of several years of work. There have been no recent books on integral equation methods. There are books written on integral equations, but either they have been around for a while, or they were written by mathematicians. Much of the knowledge in integral equation methods still resides in journal papers. With this book, important relevant knowledge for integral equations are consolidated in one place and researchers need only read the pertinent chapters in this book to gain important knowledge needed for integral eq

  7. Analytic methods to generate integrable mappings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    essential integrability features of an integrable differential equation is a .... With this in mind we first write x3(t) as a cubic polynomial in (xn−1,xn,xn+1) and then ..... coefficients, the quadratic equation in xn+N has real and distinct roots which in ...

  8. Developing a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum for professionalism and scientific integrity training for biomedical graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nancy L; Peiffer, Ann M; Lambros, Ann; Guthold, Martin; Johnson, A Daniel; Tytell, Michael; Ronca, April E; Eldridge, J Charles

    2010-10-01

    A multidisciplinary faculty committee designed a curriculum to shape biomedical graduate students into researchers with a high commitment to professionalism and social responsibility and to provide students with tools to navigate complex, rapidly evolving academic and societal environments with a strong ethical commitment. The curriculum used problem-based learning (PBL), because it is active and learner-centred and focuses on skill and process development. Two courses were developed: Scientific Professionalism: Scientific Integrity addressed discipline-specific and broad professional norms and obligations for the ethical practice of science and responsible conduct of research (RCR). Scientific Professionalism: Bioethics and Social Responsibility focused on current ethical and bioethical issues within the scientific profession, and implications of research for society. Each small-group session examined case scenarios that included: (1) learning objectives for professional norms and obligations; (2) key ethical issues and philosophies within each topic area; (3) one or more of the RCR instructional areas; and (4) at least one type of moral reflection. Cases emphasised professional standards, obligations and underlying philosophies for the ethical practice of science, competing interests of stakeholders and oversight of science (internal and external). To our knowledge, this is the first use of a longitudinal, multi-semester PBL course to teach scientific integrity and professionalism. Both faculty and students endorsed the active learning approach for these topics, in contrast to a compliance-based approach that emphasises learning rules and regulations.

  9. Making a Math Teaching Aids of Junior High School Based on Scientific Approach Through an Integrated and Sustainable Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, E.; Mashuri

    2017-04-01

    Not all of teachers of Mathematics in Junior High School (JHS) can design and create teaching aids. Moreover, if teaching aids should be designed so that it can be used in learning through scientific approaches. The problem: How to conduct an integrated and sustainable training that the math teacher of JHS, especially in Semarang can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach? The purpose of this study to find a way of integrated and continuous training so that the math teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. This article was based on research with a qualitative approach. Through trials activities of resulting of training model, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), interviews, and triangulation of the results of the research were: (1) Produced a training model of integrated and sustainable that the mathematics teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. (2) In training, there was the provision of material and workshop (3) There was a mentoring in the classroom. (4) Sustainability of the consultation. Our advice: (1) the trainer should be clever, (2) the training can be held at the holidays, while the assistance during the holiday season was over.

  10. A new method of CCD dark current correction via extracting the dark Information from scientific images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lifan; Wei, Peng

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a new method to correct dark current at relatively high temperatures for Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) images when dark frames cannot be obtained on the telescope. For images taken with the Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) in 2012, due to the low cooling efficiency, the median CCD temperature was -46°C, resulting in a high dark current level of about 3e-/pix/sec, even comparable to the sky brightness (10e-/pix/sec). If not corrected, the nonuniformity of the dark current could even overweight the photon noise of the sky background. However, dark frames could not be obtained during the observing season because the camera was operated in frame-transfer mode without a shutter, and the telescope was unattended in winter. Here we present an alternative, but simple and effective method to derive the dark current frame from the scientific images. Then we can scale this dark frame to the temperature at which the scientific images were taken, and apply the dark frame corrections to the scientific images. We have applied this method to the AST3 data, and demonstrated that it can reduce the noise to a level roughly as low as the photon noise of the sky brightness, solving the high noise problem and improving the photometric precision. This method will also be helpful for other projects that suffer from similar issues.

  11. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  12. Methods for Specifying Scientific Data Standards and Modeling Relationships with Applications to Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rübel, Oliver; Dougherty, Max; Prabhat; Denes, Peter; Conant, David; Chang, Edward F.; Bouchard, Kristofer

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience continues to experience a tremendous growth in data; in terms of the volume and variety of data, the velocity at which data is acquired, and in turn the veracity of data. These challenges are a serious impediment to sharing of data, analyses, and tools within and across labs. Here, we introduce BRAINformat, a novel data standardization framework for the design and management of scientific data formats. The BRAINformat library defines application-independent design concepts and modules that together create a general framework for standardization of scientific data. We describe the formal specification of scientific data standards, which facilitates sharing and verification of data and formats. We introduce the concept of Managed Objects, enabling semantic components of data formats to be specified as self-contained units, supporting modular and reusable design of data format components and file storage. We also introduce the novel concept of Relationship Attributes for modeling and use of semantic relationships between data objects. Based on these concepts we demonstrate the application of our framework to design and implement a standard format for electrophysiology data and show how data standardization and relationship-modeling facilitate data analysis and sharing. The format uses HDF5, enabling portable, scalable, and self-describing data storage and integration with modern high-performance computing for data-driven discovery. The BRAINformat library is open source, easy-to-use, and provides detailed user and developer documentation and is freely available at: https://bitbucket.org/oruebel/brainformat. PMID:27867355

  13. The Modeling as Didactic Method in the Scientific-Professional Training of the Psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ramiro Gross Tur

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The modeling method has often been developed or recognized in various processes related to training of psychologists studies. It has educational value as its application favors the appropriation of skills and capacity necessary for the performance on the student. However, the method has limitations because it does not exhaust the content praxiological psychology in the teaching-learning process. Therefore, the modeling required to be valued its limitations and potentials in order to plan actions necessary to improve or complement other methods, which serve to improve the process of scientific and professional training of psychologists, with emphasis on the labor dimension.

  14. Isaac Newton's scientific method turning data into evidence about gravity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Harper, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, but also have those phenomena accurately measure the parameters which explain them. Harper explores the ways in which Newton's method aims to turn theoretical questions into ones which can be answered empirically by measurement from phenomena, and to establish that propositions inferred from phenomena are provisionally accepted as guides to further research. This methodology, guided by its rich ideal of empirical success, supports a conception of scientific progress that does not require construing it as progr...

  15. Revisiting the scientific method to improve rigor and reproducibility of immunohistochemistry in reproductive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Sharrón L; Johnson, Brian W; Frevert, Charles W; Duncan, Francesca E

    2018-04-21

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a robust scientific tool whereby cellular components are visualized within a tissue, and this method has been and continues to be a mainstay for many reproductive biologists. IHC is highly informative if performed and interpreted correctly, but studies have shown that the general use and reporting of appropriate controls in IHC experiments is low. This omission of the scientific method can result in data that lacks rigor and reproducibility. In this editorial, we highlight key concepts in IHC controls and describe an opportunity for our field to partner with the Histochemical Society to adopt their IHC guidelines broadly as researchers, authors, ad hoc reviewers, editorial board members, and editors-in-chief. Such cross-professional society interactions will ensure that we produce the highest quality data as new technologies emerge that still rely upon the foundations of classic histological and immunohistochemical principles.

  16. Proceedings of the 1st international scientific conference "Teaching methods for economics and business sciences"

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Teaching is a challenging but also a rewarding profession. It is underpinned by one key question: how do we build a good teaching and learning environment so that our students can acquire professional competences which will enable them to be successful in today’s global business environment. These proceedings include the papers presented at the 1st International Scientific Conference »Teaching Methods for Economics and Business Sciences« held on 8 May 2017 at the University of Maribor, F...

  17. A review of the scientific rationale and methods used in the search for other planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Planetary systems appear to be one of the crucial links in the chain leading from simple molecules to living systems, particularly complex (intelligent?) living systems. Although there is currently no observational proof of the existence of any planetary system other than our own, techniques are now being developed which will permit a comprehensive search for other planetary systems. The scientific rationale for and methods used in such a search effort are reviewed here.

  18. Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System to enhance the societal, scientific and economic benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Karstensen, Johannes; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic Ocean observing by establishing an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the EU Horizon 2020 project AtlantOS with its 62 partners from 18 countries (European and international) and several members will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit by supporting the full cycle of the integrated ocean observation value chain from requirements via data gathering and observation, product generation, information, prediction, dissemination and stakeholder dialogue towards information and product provision. The benefits will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality

  19. Integrated circuit and method of arbitration in a network on an integrated circuit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an integrated circuit and to a method of arbitration in a network on an integrated circuit. According to the invention, a method of arbitration in a network on an integrated circuit is provided, the network comprising a router unit, the router unit comprising a first input

  20. Integrals of Frullani type and the method of brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of brackets is a collection of heuristic rules, some of which have being made rigorous, that provide a flexible, direct method for the evaluation of definite integrals. The present work uses this method to establish classical formulas due to Frullani which provide values of a specific family of integrals. Some generalizations are established.

  1. Accurate Electromagnetic Modeling Methods for Integrated Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The present development of modern integrated circuits (IC’s) is characterized by a number of critical factors that make their design and verification considerably more difficult than before. This dissertation addresses the important questions of modeling all electromagnetic behavior of features on

  2. Jenkins-CI, an Open-Source Continuous Integration System, as a Scientific Data and Image-Processing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsatsos, Ioannis K.; Hossain, Imtiaz; Agarinis, Claudia; Harbinski, Fred; Abraham, Yann; Dobler, Luc; Zhang, Xian; Wilson, Christopher J.; Jenkins, Jeremy L.; Holway, Nicholas; Tallarico, John; Parker, Christian N.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening generates large volumes of heterogeneous data that require a diverse set of computational tools for management, processing, and analysis. Building integrated, scalable, and robust computational workflows for such applications is challenging but highly valuable. Scientific data integration and pipelining facilitate standardized data processing, collaboration, and reuse of best practices. We describe how Jenkins-CI, an “off-the-shelf,” open-source, continuous integration system, is used to build pipelines for processing images and associated data from high-content screening (HCS). Jenkins-CI provides numerous plugins for standard compute tasks, and its design allows the quick integration of external scientific applications. Using Jenkins-CI, we integrated CellProfiler, an open-source image-processing platform, with various HCS utilities and a high-performance Linux cluster. The platform is web-accessible, facilitates access and sharing of high-performance compute resources, and automates previously cumbersome data and image-processing tasks. Imaging pipelines developed using the desktop CellProfiler client can be managed and shared through a centralized Jenkins-CI repository. Pipelines and managed data are annotated to facilitate collaboration and reuse. Limitations with Jenkins-CI (primarily around the user interface) were addressed through the selection of helper plugins from the Jenkins-CI community. PMID:27899692

  3. Jenkins-CI, an Open-Source Continuous Integration System, as a Scientific Data and Image-Processing Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsatsos, Ioannis K; Hossain, Imtiaz; Agarinis, Claudia; Harbinski, Fred; Abraham, Yann; Dobler, Luc; Zhang, Xian; Wilson, Christopher J; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Holway, Nicholas; Tallarico, John; Parker, Christian N

    2017-03-01

    High-throughput screening generates large volumes of heterogeneous data that require a diverse set of computational tools for management, processing, and analysis. Building integrated, scalable, and robust computational workflows for such applications is challenging but highly valuable. Scientific data integration and pipelining facilitate standardized data processing, collaboration, and reuse of best practices. We describe how Jenkins-CI, an "off-the-shelf," open-source, continuous integration system, is used to build pipelines for processing images and associated data from high-content screening (HCS). Jenkins-CI provides numerous plugins for standard compute tasks, and its design allows the quick integration of external scientific applications. Using Jenkins-CI, we integrated CellProfiler, an open-source image-processing platform, with various HCS utilities and a high-performance Linux cluster. The platform is web-accessible, facilitates access and sharing of high-performance compute resources, and automates previously cumbersome data and image-processing tasks. Imaging pipelines developed using the desktop CellProfiler client can be managed and shared through a centralized Jenkins-CI repository. Pipelines and managed data are annotated to facilitate collaboration and reuse. Limitations with Jenkins-CI (primarily around the user interface) were addressed through the selection of helper plugins from the Jenkins-CI community.

  4. [Crowdsourcing is a new method for generating data for scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bækgaard, Josefine Stokholm; Hallas, Peter

    2015-01-05

    Crowdsourcing (CS) is a rapidly emerging method in scientific research. In CS, large groups of people generate new data or try to find solutions to specific research questions, mainly by online collaboration. Examples of the current use of CS in medicine include disease surveillance as well as diagnosis of rare conditions. CS techniques are rapid, low cost and geographically independent - traits lacking in traditional types of study design. However, CS as a method has not yet found its place in the evidence rating scale and a standard for conducting and reporting CS studies does not yet exist.

  5. Scientific method, history, Darwinism and laicism: a Giovanni Jervis's intellectual biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbellini, Gilberto; Sirgiovanni, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Some authors marked a change of perspective from the early to the late Jervis's thought, in terms of a supposed turn towards conservatism. That laid him open to criticism from some Leftist Italian intellectuals. The aim of this paper is to show that conservatism never was a Jervis's thought feature. Mainly, subjects and methods leading the development of his philosophical views suggest a continuity between earlier writings and later ones. All over his thought, in fact, the idea of preeminence of scientific method and historical contextualization convinced him about naturalistic approaches to human behavior, which came to support his Darwinism and laicism in approaching socio-psychological and socio-political issues.

  6. Bioinformatics as a Tool for Training in theScientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F De Mesquita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the Medical School of the Federal University of Rio de JaneiroState (UNIRIO, a course, named Scientific Initiation, allows students to develop a  protocol using the scientific method under the supervision of an established researcher. Surprisingly, a group of ten medical students sought out thebioinformatics laboratory to carry-out their respective projects. Upon accepting the challenge of guiding the future physicians by the paths of the computational biology, the starting point was the article “Ataxin-2 intermediate-length polyglutamine expansions are associated withincreased risk for ALS”. Subsequent to initial meetings and a thorough literature review using the OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man and PUBMED databases, the students defined their objective: defining a way to structurally analyze proteins carrying mutations detrimental to humansusing computational tools. The steps involvedincluded a search for natural variants of the protein in the ExPASy Proteomics Server, investigating the resolved native and variant protein structuresin the Protein Data Bank and, when these were not available, thecomparative or ab initiostructural modelling would be made. At the end of the semester, students were able to write a project in theformat required by funding agencies. Thisundertaking familiarized student with scientificareas not normally addressed in the medical curriculum and introduced hands-on learning of the scientific method.

  7. Adaptive integral equation methods in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive multilevel algorithm for integral equations is described that has been developed with the Chandrasekhar H equation and its generalizations in mind. The algorithm maintains good performance when the Frechet derivative of the nonlinear map is singular at the solution, as happens in radiative transfer with conservative scattering and in critical neutron transport. Numerical examples that demonstrate the algorithm's effectiveness are presented

  8. A symplectic integration method for elastic filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Tony; Misra, Gaurav

    2009-03-01

    Elastic rods are a ubiquitous coarse-grained model of semi-flexible biopolymers such as DNA, actin, and microtubules. The Worm-Like Chain (WLC) is the standard numerical model for semi-flexible polymers, but it is only a linearized approximation to the dynamics of an elastic rod, valid for small deflections; typically the torsional motion is neglected as well. In the standard finite-difference and finite-element formulations of an elastic rod, the continuum equations of motion are discretized in space and time, but it is then difficult to ensure that the Hamiltonian structure of the exact equations is preserved. Here we discretize the Hamiltonian itself, expressed as a line integral over the contour of the filament. This discrete representation of the continuum filament can then be integrated by one of the explicit symplectic integrators frequently used in molecular dynamics. The model systematically approximates the continuum partial differential equations, but has the same level of computational complexity as molecular dynamics and is constraint free. Numerical tests show that the algorithm is much more stable than a finite-difference formulation and can be used for high aspect ratio filaments, such as actin. We present numerical results for the deterministic and stochastic motion of single filaments.

  9. PREFACE: I International Scientific School Methods of Digital Image Processing in Optics and Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, I. P.; Kozlov, S. A.

    2014-09-01

    The first international scientific school "Methods of Digital Image Processing in Optics and Photonics" was held with a view to develop cooperation between world-class experts, young scientists, students and post-graduate students, and to exchange information on the current status and directions of research in the field of digital image processing in optics and photonics. The International Scientific School was managed by: Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO University) - Saint Petersburg (Russia) Chernyshevsky Saratov State University - Saratov (Russia) National research nuclear University "MEPHI" (NRNU MEPhI) - Moscow (Russia) The school was held with the participation of the local chapters of Optical Society of America (OSA), the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) and IEEE Photonics Society. Further details, including topics, committees and conference photos are available in the PDF

  10. Cancer risks, risk-cost-benefit analyses, and the scientific method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Two main changes in risk analysis are increasingly beginning to influence the manner in which, in the perception of scientists, low-dose modeling of radiation carcinogenesis is supposed to be done. In the past, efforts to model radiation risks have been carried out under the banner of scientific endeavors. On closer inspection, however, it has become obvious that these efforts were not guided by the scientific method and that a change in approach is needed. We realize increasingly that risk analysis is not done in a vacuum and that any action taken due to the result of the analysis not only has a benefit in the form of a risk reduction but leads inevitably to an increase in cost and an increase in the risks of persons effecting the benefit. Thus, a risk-cost-benefit analysis should be done and show a clear-cut net benefit before a remedial action is taken

  11. An Accurate and Impartial Expert Assignment Method for Scientific Project Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Yue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper proposes an expert assignment method for scientific project review that considers both accuracy and impartiality. As impartial and accurate peer review is extremely important to ensure the quality and feasibility of scientific projects, enhanced methods for managing the process are needed. Design/methodology/approach: To ensure both accuracy and impartiality, we design four criteria, the reviewers’ fitness degree, research intensity, academic association, and potential conflict of interest, to express the characteristics of an appropriate peer review expert. We first formalize the expert assignment problem as an optimization problem based on the designed criteria, and then propose a randomized algorithm to solve the expert assignment problem of identifying reviewer adequacy. Findings: Simulation results show that the proposed method is quite accurate and impartial during expert assignment. Research limitations: Although the criteria used in this paper can properly show the characteristics of a good and appropriate peer review expert, more criteria/conditions can be included in the proposed scheme to further enhance accuracy and impartiality of the expert assignment. Practical implications: The proposed method can help project funding agencies (e.g. the National Natural Science Foundation of China find better experts for project peer review. Originality/value: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first publication that proposes an algorithm that applies an impartial approach to the project review expert assignment process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Integral Method of Boundary Characteristics: Neumann Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    A new algorithm, based on systems of identical equalities with integral and differential boundary characteristics, is proposed for solving boundary-value problems on the heat conduction in bodies canonical in shape at a Neumann boundary condition. Results of a numerical analysis of the accuracy of solving heat-conduction problems with variable boundary conditions with the use of this algorithm are presented. The solutions obtained with it can be considered as exact because their errors comprise hundredths and ten-thousandths of a persent for a wide range of change in the parameters of a problem.

  13. Selective Integration in the Material-Point Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Andersen, Søren; Damkilde, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with stress integration in the material-point method. In order to avoid parasitic shear in bending, a formulation is proposed, based on selective integration in the background grid that is used to solve the governing equations. The suggested integration scheme is compared...... to a traditional material-point-method computation in which the stresses are evaluated at the material points. The deformation of a cantilever beam is analysed, assuming elastic or elastoplastic material behaviour....

  14. Numerical method of singular problems on singular integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huaiguo; Mou Zongze

    1992-02-01

    As first part on the numerical research of singular problems, a numerical method is proposed for singular integrals. It is shown that the procedure is quite powerful for solving physics calculation with singularity such as the plasma dispersion function. Useful quadrature formulas for some class of the singular integrals are derived. In general, integrals with more complex singularities can be dealt by this method easily

  15. Hierarchical Data Replication and Service Monitoring Methods in a Scientific Data Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhong Lu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In a grid and distributed computing environment, data replication is an effective way to improve data accessibility and data accessing efficiency. It is also significant in developing a real-time service monitoring system for a Chinese Scientific Data Grid to guarantee the system stability and data availability. Hierarchical data replication and service monitoring methods are proposed in this paper. The hierarchical data replication method divides the network into different domains and replicates data in local domains. The nodes in a local domain are classified into hierarchies to improve data accessibility according to bandwidth and storage memory space. An extensible agent-based prototype of a hierarchical service monitoring system is presented. The status information of services in the Chinese Scientific Data Grid is collected from the grid nodes based on agent technology and then is transformed into real-time operational pictures for management needs. This paper presents frameworks of the hierarchical data replication and service monitoring methods and gives detailed resolutions. Simulation analyses have demonstrated improved data accessing efficiency and verified the effectiveness of the methods at the same time.

  16. Soil Scientific Research Methods Used in Archaeology – Promising Soil Biochemistry: a Mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Vranová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to review soil scientific methods that have been used and are still being used in archaeology. This review paper aims at emphasising the importance of soil science practice to archaeology thus adding a scientific analytical nature to the cultural nature of archaeology. Common methods (physical, chemical and biochemical used to analyse archaeological soils and artefacts is touched on and their strengths and shortcomings duly noted to become the base for future research. Furthermore, the authors made emphasis on distinctive excavating/sampling methods, biochemical analyses focused on distinctive features of plough-land and soil organic matter mineralization, Counter Immunoelectrophoresis (CEIP method by the presence of proteins testing, carbon analyses such as carbon-14 dating techniques, soil phosphorus studies and geochemical analyses of hematite Fe2O3 and cinnabaryte HgS contents. It is obvious that, the future of archaeology is in the soil because the soil harbours information of the past hence the synergy between soil and archaeological research has to be strengthened and archaeology made a prime agenda by soil scientists by expanding the analyses scope of total phosphorus extraction and giving attention to soil magnetism.

  17. Measurement of integrated healthcare delivery: a systematic review of methods and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Strandberg-Larsen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated healthcare delivery is a policy goal of healthcare systems. There is no consensus on how to measure the concept, which makes it difficult to monitor progress. Purpose: To identify the different types of methods used to measure integrated healthcare delivery with emphasis on structural, cultural and process aspects. Methods: Medline/Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, WHOLIS, and conventional internet search engines were systematically searched for methods to measure integrated healthcare delivery (published – April 2008. Results: Twenty-four published scientific papers and documents met the inclusion criteria. In the 24 references we identified 24 different measurement methods; however, 5 methods shared theoretical framework. The methods can be categorized according to type of data source: a questionnaire survey data, b automated register data, or c mixed data sources. The variety of concepts measured reflects the significant conceptual diversity within the field, and most methods lack information regarding validity and reliability. Conclusion: Several methods have been developed to measure integrated healthcare delivery; 24 methods are available and some are highly developed. The objective governs the method best used. Criteria for sound measures are suggested and further developments should be based on an explicit conceptual framework and focus on simplifying and validating existing methods.

  18. Data management and scientific integration within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracio, Deborah K.; Hatfield, Larry D.; Yates, Kenneth R.; Voyles, Jimmy W.; Tichler, Joyce L.; Cederwall, Richard T.; Laufersweiler, Mark J.; Leach, Martin J.; Singley, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy with the goal to improve the predictive capabilities of General Circulation Models (GCM's) in their treatment of clouds and radiative transfer effects. To achieve this goal, three experimental testbeds were designed for the deployment of instruments that will collect atmospheric data used to drive the GCM's. Each site, known as a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART), consists of a highly available, redundant data system for the collection of data from a variety of instrumentation. The first CART site was deployed in April 1992 in the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Lamont, Oklahoma, with the other two sites to follow in September 1995 in the Tropical Western Pacific and in 1997 on the North Slope of Alaska. Approximately 400 MB of data are transferred per day via the Internet from the SGP site to the ARM Experiment Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The Experiment Center is central to the ARM data path and provides for the collection, processing, analysis, and delivery of ARM data. Data are received from the CART sites from a variety of instrumentation, observational systems, amd external data sources. The Experiment Center processes these data streams on a continuous basis to provide derived data products to the ARM Science Team in near real-time while providing a three-month running archive of data. A primary requirement of the ARM Program is to preserve and protect all data produced or acquired. This function is performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory where leading edge technology is employed for the long-term storage of ARM data. The ARM Archive provides access to data for participation outside of the ARM Program. The ARM Program involves a collaborative effort by teams from various DOE National Laboratories, providing multi-disciplinary areas of expertise. This paper will discuss the collaborative methods in which the ARM teams

  19. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S. E.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach

  20. Automating bibliometric analyses using Taverna scientific workflows : A tutorial on integrating Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guler, A.T.; Waaijer, C.J.F.; Mohammed, Y.; Palmblad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the scientific literature is a frequent task in bibliometrics. Several large online resources collect and disseminate bibliographic information, paving the way for broad analyses and statistics. The Europe PubMed Central (PMC) and its Web Services is one of these resources,

  1. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials : an integrated scientific and ethical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach

  2. Searching for Synergy: Integrating Traditional and Scientific Ecological Knowledge in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerer, Robin Wall

    2012-01-01

    Scientific ecological knowledge (SEK) is a powerful discipline for diagnosing and analyzing environmental degradation, but has been far less successful in devising sustainable solutions which lie at the intersection of nature and culture. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of indigenous and local peoples is rich in prescriptions for the…

  3. Momentum integral network method for thermal-hydraulic transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new momentum integral network method has been developed, and tested in the MINET computer code. The method was developed in order to facilitate the transient analysis of complex fluid flow and heat transfer networks, such as those found in the balance of plant of power generating facilities. The method employed in the MINET code is a major extension of a momentum integral method reported by Meyer. Meyer integrated the momentum equation over several linked nodes, called a segment, and used a segment average pressure, evaluated from the pressures at both ends. Nodal mass and energy conservation determined nodal flows and enthalpies, accounting for fluid compression and thermal expansion

  4. Migratory birds, the H5N1 influenza virus and the scientific method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianakis Nikolaos I

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of migratory birds and of poultry trade in the dispersal of highly pathogenic H5N1 is still the topic of intense and controversial debate. In a recent contribution to this journal, Flint argues that the strict application of the scientific method can help to resolve this issue. Discussion We argue that Flint's identification of the scientific method with null hypothesis testing is misleading and counterproductive. There is far more to science than the testing of hypotheses; not only the justification, bur also the discovery of hypotheses belong to science. We also show why null hypothesis testing is weak and that Bayesian methods are a preferable approach to statistical inference. Furthermore, we criticize the analogy put forward by Flint between involuntary transport of poultry and long-distance migration. Summary To expect ultimate answers and unequivocal policy guidance from null hypothesis testing puts unrealistic expectations on a flawed approach to statistical inference and on science in general.

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THEMATIC – INTEGRATED E-PORTFOLIO MEDIA WEB BLOG BASED TO INCREASE THE SCIENTIFIC LITERACY OF ELEMENTARY TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM’S STUDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wijayanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to improve the scientific literacy of Elementary Teacher Education Program’s students using a valid thematic-integrated e-portfolio media web blog based. Applied research and development methods for elementary school’s course planning by applying thematic-integrated e-portfolio media web blog based. The result of media and evaluation experts recommend that e-portfolio which has been developed gets 98.75% of eligibility percentage which means that it is very decent to be used in the lecturing.  Thematic-Integrated e-portfolio media web blog based effectively improves the scientific literacy of students to reach multidimensional level, in which students are able to take advantage of various concepts and demonstrate the ability to connect these concepts to daily life.  Students understand how science, society and technology are interrelated and influence each other. Students also demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science through his answer.

  6. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community.

  7. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community. PMID:27124610

  8. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participato...

  9. Integrating gender medicine into the workplace health and safety policy in the scientific research institutions: a mandatory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarioli, Anna Maria; Siracusano, Alessandra; Sorrentino, Eugenio; Bettoni, Monica; Malorni, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Gender medicine is a multi-faceted field of investigation integrating various aspects of psycho-social and biological sciences but it mainly deals with the impact of the gender on human physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features of diseases. In Italy, the Decree Law 81/2008 recently introduced the gender issue in the risk assessment at the workplaces. This review briefly describes our current knowledge on gender medicine and on the Italian legislation in risk management. Public or private scientific institutions should be the first to pay attention to the safety of their workers, who are simultaneously subjected to biological, chemical and physical agents. Main tasks of risk management in scientific research institutions are here analyzed and discussed in a gender perspective.

  10. Integrating gender medicine into the workplace health and safety policy in the scientific research institutions: a mandatory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Giammarioli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gender medicine is a multi-faceted field of investigation integrating various aspects of psycho-social and biological sciences but it mainly deals with the impact of the gender on human physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features of diseases. In Italy, the Decree Law 81/2008 recently introduced the gender issue in the risk assessment at the workplaces. AIMS: This review briefly describes our current knowledge on gender medicine and on the Italian legislation in risk management. CONCLUSIONS: Public or private scientific institutions should be the first to pay attention to the safety of their workers, who are simultaneously subjected to biological, chemical and physical agents. Main tasks of risk management in scientific research institutions are here analyzed and discussed in a gender perspective.

  11. Integrated management of thesis using clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Indah Fitri; Cahyadi, Dedy

    2017-02-01

    Thesis is one of major requirements for student in pursuing their bachelor degree. In fact, finishing the thesis involves a long process including consultation, writing manuscript, conducting the chosen method, seminar scheduling, searching for references, and appraisal process by the board of mentors and examiners. Unfortunately, most of students find it hard to match all the lecturers' free time to sit together in a seminar room in order to examine the thesis. Therefore, seminar scheduling process should be on the top of priority to be solved. Manual mechanism for this task no longer fulfills the need. People in campus including students, staffs, and lecturers demand a system in which all the stakeholders can interact each other and manage the thesis process without conflicting their timetable. A branch of computer science named Management Information System (MIS) could be a breakthrough in dealing with thesis management. This research conduct a method called clustering to distinguish certain categories using mathematics formulas. A system then be developed along with the method to create a well-managed tool in providing some main facilities such as seminar scheduling, consultation and review process, thesis approval, assessment process, and also a reliable database of thesis. The database plays an important role in present and future purposes.

  12. IMP: Integrated method for power analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    An integrated, easy to use, economical package of microcomputer programs has been developed which can be used by small hydro developers to evaluate potential sites for small scale hydroelectric plants in British Columbia. The programs enable evaluation of sites located far from the nearest stream gauging station, for which streamflow data are not available. For each of the province's 6 hydrologic regions, a streamflow record for one small watershed is provided in the data base. The program can then be used to generate synthetic streamflow records and to compare results obtained by the modelling procedure with the actual data. The program can also be used to explore the significance of modelling parameters and to develop a detailed appreciation for the accuracy which can be obtained under various circumstances. The components of the program are an atmospheric model of precipitation; a watershed model that will generate a continuous series of streamflow data, based on information from the atmospheric model; a flood frequency analysis system that uses site-specific topographic data plus information from the atmospheric model to generate a flood frequency curve; a hydroelectric power simulation program which determines daily energy output for a run-of-river or reservoir storage site based on selected generation facilities and the time series generated in the watershed model; and a graphic analysis package that provides direct visualization of data and modelling results. This report contains a description of the programs, a user guide, the theory behind the model, the modelling methodology, and results from a workshop that reviewed the program package. 32 refs., 16 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Virtual reality devices integration in scientific visualization software in the VtkVRPN framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journe, G.; Guilbaud, C.

    2005-01-01

    A high-quality scientific visualization software relies on ergonomic navigation and exploration. Those are essential to be able to perform an efficient data analysis. To help solving this issue, management of virtual reality devices has been developed inside the CEA 'VtkVRPN' framework. This framework is based on VTK, a 3D graphical library, and VRPN, a virtual reality devices management library. This document describes the developments done during a post-graduate training course. (authors)

  14. An integrated IaaS and PaaS architecture for scientific computing

    OpenAIRE

    Donvito, Giacinto; Blanquer, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Scientific applications often require multiple computing resources deployed on a coordinated way. The deployment of multiple resources require installing and configuring special software applications which should be updated when changes in the virtual infrastructure take place. When working on hybrid and federated cloud environments, restrictions on the hypervisor or cloud management platform must be minimised to facilitate geographic-wide brokering and cross-site deployments. Moreover, prese...

  15. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species assay. AOAC Performance Tested Method 071304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of all species of Listeria in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Listeria species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 11290-1:1996 including amendment 1:2004 in a variety of foods plus plastic and stainless steel. The food matrixes validated were smoked salmon, processed cheese, fresh bagged spinach, cantaloupe, cooked prawns, cooked sliced turkey meat, cooked sliced ham, salami, pork frankfurters, and raw ground beef. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Basingstoke, UK. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, fresh bagged spinach, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled independent laboratory study by the University ofGuelph, Canada. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, a significant difference in favour of the SureTect assay was demonstrated between the SureTect and reference method for high level spiked samples of pork frankfurters, smoked salmon, cooked prawns, stainless steel, and low-spiked samples of salami. For all other matrixes, no significant difference was seen between the two methods during the study. Inclusivity testing was conducted with 68 different isolates of Listeria species, all of which were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. None of the 33 exclusivity isolates were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation, which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was additionally conducted, validating the assay

  16. Method-centered digital communities on protocols.io for fast-paced scientific innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Lori; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Teytelman, Leonid; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has enabled online social interaction for scientists beyond physical meetings and conferences. Yet despite these innovations in communication, dissemination of methods is often relegated to just academic publishing. Further, these methods remain static, with subsequent advances published elsewhere and unlinked. For communities undergoing fast-paced innovation, researchers need new capabilities to share, obtain feedback, and publish methods at the forefront of scientific development. For example, a renaissance in virology is now underway given the new metagenomic methods to sequence viral DNA directly from an environment. Metagenomics makes it possible to "see" natural viral communities that could not be previously studied through culturing methods. Yet, the knowledge of specialized techniques for the production and analysis of viral metagenomes remains in a subset of labs.  This problem is common to any community using and developing emerging technologies and techniques. We developed new capabilities to create virtual communities in protocols.io, an open access platform, for disseminating protocols and knowledge at the forefront of scientific development. To demonstrate these capabilities, we present a virology community forum called VERVENet. These new features allow virology researchers to share protocols and their annotations and optimizations, connect with the broader virtual community to share knowledge, job postings, conference announcements through a common online forum, and discover the current literature through personalized recommendations to promote discussion of cutting edge research. Virtual communities in protocols.io enhance a researcher's ability to: discuss and share protocols, connect with fellow community members, and learn about new and innovative research in the field.  The web-based software for developing virtual communities is free to use on protocols.io. Data are available through public APIs at protocols.io.

  17. Applying the scientific method to small catchment studies: Areview of the Panola Mountain experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    A hallmark of the scientific method is its iterative application to a problem to increase and refine the understanding of the underlying processes controlling it. A successful iterative application of the scientific method to catchment science (including the fields of hillslope hydrology and biogeochemistry) has been hindered by two factors. First, the scale at which controlled experiments can be performed is much smaller than the scale of the phenomenon of interest. Second, computer simulation models generally have not been used as hypothesis-testing tools as rigorously as they might have been. Model evaluation often has gone only so far as evaluation of goodness of fit, rather than a full structural analysis, which is more useful when treating the model as a hypothesis. An iterative application of a simple mixing model to the Panola Mountain Research Watershed is reviewed to illustrate the increase in understanding gained by this approach and to discern general principles that may be applicable to other studies. The lessons learned include the need for an explicitly stated conceptual model of the catchment, the definition of objective measures of its applicability, and a clear linkage between the scale of observations and the scale of predictions. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons. Ltd.

  18. On Understanding: Maxwell on the Methods of Illustration and Scientific Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat, Jordi

    In this paper I examine the notion and role of metaphors and illustrations in Maxwell's works in exact science as a pathway into a broader and richer philosophical conception of a scientist and scientific practice. While some of these notions and methods are still at work in current scientific research-from economics and biology to quantum computation and quantum field theory-, here I have chosen to attest to their entrenchment and complexity in actual science by attempting to make some conceptual sense of Maxwell's own usage; this endeavour includes situating Maxwell's conceptions and applications in his own culture of Victorian science and philosophy. I trace Maxwell's notions to the formulation of the problem of understanding, or interpreting, abstract representations such as potential functions and Lagrangian equations. I articulate the solution in terms of abstract-concrete relations, where the concrete, in tune with Victorian British psychology and engineering, includes the muscular as well as the pictorial. This sets the basis for a conception of understanding in terms of unification and concrete modelling, or representation. I examine the relation of illustration to analogies and metaphors on which this account rests. Lastly, I stress and explain the importance of context-dependence, its consequences for realism-instrumentalism debates, and Maxwell's own emphasis on method.

  19. Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA): A Method for Evaluating Changes in Understanding and Visualization of the Scientific Process in a Multidisciplinary Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J; Rigakos, Bessie

    The scientific process is nonlinear, unpredictable, and ongoing. Assessing the nature of science is difficult with methods that rely on Likert-scale or multiple-choice questions. This study evaluated conceptions about the scientific process using student-created visual representations that we term "flowcharts." The methodology, Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA), consisted of a prompt and rubric that was designed to assess students' understanding of the scientific process. Forty flowcharts representing a multidisciplinary group without intervention and 26 flowcharts representing pre- and postinstruction were evaluated over five dimensions: connections, experimental design, reasons for doing science, nature of science, and interconnectivity. Pre to post flowcharts showed a statistically significant improvement in the number of items and ratings for the dimensions. Comparison of the terms used and connections between terms on student flowcharts revealed an enhanced and more nuanced understanding of the scientific process, especially in the areas of application to society and communication within the scientific community. We propose that SPFA can be used in a variety of circumstances, including in the determination of what curricula or interventions would be useful in a course or program, in the assessment of curriculum, or in the evaluation of students performing research projects. © 2016 K. J. Wilson and B. Rigakos. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Deterministic methods to solve the integral transport equation in neutronic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, X.

    1993-11-01

    We present a synthesis of the methods used to solve the integral transport equation in neutronic. This formulation is above all used to compute solutions in 2D in heterogeneous assemblies. Three kinds of methods are described: - the collision probability method; - the interface current method; - the current coupling collision probability method. These methods don't seem to be the most effective in 3D. (author). 9 figs

  1. Fronting Integrated Scientific Web Applications: Design Features and Benefits for Regulatory Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated decision support systems for regulatory applications benefit from standardindustry practices such as code reuse, test-driven development, and modularization. Theseapproaches make meeting the federal government’s goals of transparency, efficiency, and quality assurance ...

  2. 11th International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods in Scientific Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Nuyens, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods in Scientific Computing that was held at the University of Leuven (Belgium) in April 2014. These biennial conferences are major events for Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo researchers. The proceedings include articles based on invited lectures as well as carefully selected contributed papers on all theoretical aspects and applications of Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods. Offering information on the latest developments in these very active areas, this book is an excellent reference resource for theoreticians and practitioners interested in solving high-dimensional computational problems, arising, in particular, in finance, statistics and computer graphics.

  3. National Nanotechnology Laboratory (LNNano) open facilities for scientific community: new methods for polymeric materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cristiane A.; Santos, Ramon H.Z. dos; Bernardes, Juliana S.; Gouveia, Rubia F.

    2015-01-01

    National Nanotechnology Laboratory (LNNano) at the National Center for Energy and Materials (CNPEM) presents open facilities for scientific public in some areas. In this work will be discussed the facilities for mainly the polymeric community, as well as new methods for the characterization. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) surfaces were characterized by X-ray microtomography and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results obtained by microtomography have shown that these surfaces present different contrasts when compared with the bulk. These differences are correlated with the formation of an oxidized layer at the polymer surface, which consequently have a greater X-ray attenuation. This hypothesis is confirmed by XPS, which shows LDPE surface layers are richer in carbonyl, carboxyl and vinyl groups than the bulk. This work presents that microtomography can be used as a new method for detection and characterization of polymer surface oxidation. (author)

  4. How to write a materials and methods section of a scientific article?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Fikret

    2013-09-01

    In contrast to past centuries, scientific researchers have been currently conducted systematically in all countries as part of an education strategy. As a consequence, scientists have published thousands of reports. Writing an effective article is generally a significant problem for researchers. All parts of an article, specifically the abstract, material and methods, results, discussion and references sections should contain certain features that should always be considered before sending a manuscript to a journal for publication. It is generally known that the material and methods section is a relatively easy section of an article to write. Therefore, it is often a good idea to begin by writing the materials and methods section, which is also a crucial part of an article. Because "reproducible results" are very important in science, a detailed account of the study should be given in this section. If the authors provide sufficient detail, other scientists can repeat their experiments to verify their findings. It is generally recommended that the materials and methods should be written in the past tense, either in active or passive voice. In this section, ethical approval, study dates, number of subjects, groups, evaluation criteria, exclusion criteria and statistical methods should be described sequentially. It should be noted that a well-written materials and methods section markedly enhances the chances of an article being published.

  5. Quadratic algebras in the noncommutative integration method of wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varaksin, O.L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of applications of the method of noncommutative integration of linear differential equations by partial derivatives. Nontrivial example was taken for integration of three-dimensions wave equation with the use of non-Abelian quadratic algebras

  6. Outlining and dictating scientific manuscripts is a useful method for health researchers: A focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Young researchers may experience difficulties when writing scientific articles for publication in biomedical journals. Various methods may facilitate the writing process including outlining the paper before the actual writing and using dictation instead of writing the first draft. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences and difficulties for young, experienced researchers when writing articles using a detailed outline and dictation of the first draft. We used qualitative focus group interviews and the study was reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research guideline. Participants were sampled from a group of researchers participating in a writing retreat/course. The interviews were recorded on a digital recorder and transcribed. The text was analyzed according to content analysis and coded and condensed into themes and subthemes. Groups of participants were added until data saturation was reached. A total of 14 researchers participated (9 women and 5 men). Their clinical experience was median (range) of 6 (1-11) years since graduation from medical school. Two themes arose during the analyses of the data: "Process guidance with the outline as the map" and "arrival at dictation." The outline was used in the preparation phase leading up to the day of dictation and was used in collaboration with co-authors and supervisors. The participants found it to be a useful tool for preparing the manuscript and dictating their initial first full draft. Experienced young researchers found beneficial effects of using a structured outline to prepare for dictation of scientific articles. The outline was a tool that would develop in close collaboration with co-authors and mentors. With dictation, a full first draft of a manuscript can be produced in a few hours. Participants positively evaluated this structured and reproducible way of producing scientific articles.

  7. New method for calculation of integral characteristics of thermal plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Popiolek, Zbigniew; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2008-01-01

    A method for calculation of integral characteristics of thermal plumes is proposed. The method allows for determination of the integral parameters of plumes based on speed measurements performed with omnidirectional low velocity thermoanemometers. The method includes a procedure for calculation...... of the directional velocity (upward component of the mean velocity). The method is applied for determination of the characteristics of an asymmetric thermal plume generated by a sitting person. The method was validated in full-scale experiments in a climatic chamber with a thermal manikin as a simulator of a sitting...

  8. INTEGRATED FUSION METHOD FOR MULTIPLE TEMPORAL-SPATIAL-SPECTRAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Data fusion techniques have been widely researched and applied in remote sensing field. In this paper, an integrated fusion method for remotely sensed images is presented. Differently from the existed methods, the proposed method has the performance to integrate the complementary information in multiple temporal-spatial-spectral images. In order to represent and process the images in one unified framework, two general image observation models are firstly presented, and then the maximum a posteriori (MAP framework is used to set up the fusion model. The gradient descent method is employed to solve the fused image. The efficacy of the proposed method is validated using simulated images.

  9. Abstracts of the CGU Annual Scientific Meeting : Geospatial Processes : Integrating Pedosphere, Lithosphere and Hydrosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebes, E.S.; Buttle, J.

    2006-01-01

    This annual scientific meeting of the Canadian Geophysical Union (CGU) was held jointly with the annual meeting of the Canadian Society of Soil Science (CSSS). The CGU sessions addressed topical issues such as hydrology; geoelectromagnetics; geodesy and geodynamics; earthquakes and natural hazards; environment and climate systems; geocomputations and visualization; glaciology; and general geophysics. The CSSS sessions addressed topical issues such as soil water; problem soils; northern issues; climate change; nutrient management; forest soils and management; land reclamation and remediation; and general soil science. The conference featured 311 oral presentations, of which 19 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  10. Alternative containment integrity test methods, an overview of possible techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to develop and analyze alternative methods for testing of containment integrity. The study is focused on techniques for continuously monitoring containment integrity to provide rapid detection of existing leaks, thus providing greater certainty of the integrity of the containment at any time. The study is also intended to develop techniques applicable to the currently required Type A integrated leakage rate tests. A brief discussion of the range of alternative methods currently being considered is presented. The methods include applicability to all major containment types, operating and shutdown plant conditions, and quantitative and qualitative leakage measurements. The techniques are analyzed in accordance with the current state of knowledge of each method. The bulk of the techniques discussed are in the conceptual stage, have not been tested in actual plant conditions, and are presented here as a possible future direction for evaluating containment integrity. Of the methods considered, no single method provides optimum performance for all containment types. Several methods are limited in the types of containment for which they are applicable. The results of the study to date indicate that techniques for continuous monitoring of containment integrity exist for many plants and may be implemented at modest cost

  11. Scientific methods and cultural heritage an introduction to the application of materials science to archaeometry and conservation science

    CERN Document Server

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Artioli provides an introduction to the methods and rationales of the scientific investigation of cultural heritage materials, with an emphasis placed on the analytical strategies, modes of operation and resulting information rather than on technicalities.

  12. Two pricing methods for solving an integrated commercial fishery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a model (Hasan and Raffensperger, 2006) to solve this problem: the integrated ... planning and labour allocation for that processing firm, but did not consider any fleet- .... the DBONP method actually finds such price information, and uses it.

  13. Critical Analysis of Methods for Integrating Economic and Environmental Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguet Ferran, Pau; Heijungs, Reinout; Vogtländer, Joost G.

    2018-01-01

    The application of environmental strategies requires scoring and evaluation methods that provide an integrated vision of the economic and environmental performance of systems. The vector optimisation, ratio and weighted addition of indicators are the three most prevalent techniques for addressing

  14. A simple flow-concentration modelling method for integrating water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple flow-concentration modelling method for integrating water quality and ... flow requirements are assessed for maintenance low flow, drought low flow ... the instream concentrations of chemical constituents that will arise from different ...

  15. APPLICATION OF BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR THERMOELASTICITY PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona Yu.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Boundary Integral Equation Method is used for solving analytically the problems of coupled thermoelastic spherical wave propagation. The resulting mathematical expressions coincide with the solutions obtained in a conventional manner.

  16. New Approaches to Aluminum Integral Foam Production with Casting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Güner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integral foam has been used in the production of polymer materials for a long time. Metal integral foam casting systems are obtained by transferring and adapting polymer injection technology. Metal integral foam produced by casting has a solid skin at the surface and a foam core. Producing near-net shape reduces production expenses. Insurance companies nowadays want the automotive industry to use metallic foam parts because of their higher impact energy absorption properties. In this paper, manufacturing processes of aluminum integral foam with casting methods will be discussed.

  17. An Inquiry-Based Laboratory Module to Promote Understanding of the Scientific Method and Bacterial Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie B. Berkmen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Students are engaged and improve their critical thinking skills in laboratory courses when they have the opportunity to design and conduct inquiry-based experiments that generate novel results. A discovery-driven project for a microbiology, genetics, or multidisciplinary research laboratory course was developed to familiarize students with the scientific method. In this multi-lab module, students determine whether their chosen stress conditions induce conjugation and/or cell death of the model BSL-1 Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Through consultation of the primary literature, students identify conditions or chemicals that can elicit DNA damage, the SOS response, and/or cellular stress.  In groups, students discuss their selected conditions, develop their hypotheses and experimental plans, and formulate their positive and negative controls. Students then subject the B. subtilis donor cells to the stress conditions, mix donors with recipients to allow mating, and plate serial dilutions of the mixtures on selective plates to measure how the treatments affect conjugation frequency and donor cell viability.  Finally, students analyze and discuss their collective data in light of their controls. The goals of this module are to encourage students to be actively involved in the scientific process while contributing to our understanding of the conditions that stimulate horizontal gene transfer in bacteria.

  18. Integrated project delivery methods for energy renovation of social housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola

    2015-11-01

    renting them. As such, SHOs are used to dealing with renovations on a professional basis. The limited financial capacity of SHOs to realise energy renovations magnifies the importance of improving process performance in order to get the best possible outcomes. In the last 30 years numerous authors have addressed the need to improve the performance of traditional construction processes via alternative project delivery methods. However, very little is known about the specifics of renovations processes for social housing, the feasibility of applying innovative construction management methods and the consequences for the process, for the role of all the actors involved and for the results of the projects. The aim of this study is to provide an insight into the project delivery methods available for SHOs when they are undertaking energy renovation projects and to evaluate how these methods could facilitate the achievement of a higher process performance. The main research question is: How can Social Housing Organisations improve the performance of energy renovation processes using more integrated project delivery methods? The idea of a PhD thesis about social housing renovation processes originated from the participation of TU Delft as research partner in the Intelligent Energy Europe project SHELTER1 which was carried out between 2010 and 2013. The aim of the SHELTER project was to promote and facilitate the use of new models of cooperation, inspired by integrated design, for the energy renovation of social housing. The SHELTER project was a joint effort between six social housing organisations (Arte Genova, Italy; Black Country Housing Group, United Kingdom; Bulgarian Housing Association, Bulgaria; Dynacité, France; Logirep, France and Société Wallonne du Logement, Belgium, three European professional federations based in Brussels (Architects Council of Europe, Cecodhas Housing Europe and European Builders Confederation and one research partner (Delft University of

  19. Novel keyword co-occurrence network-based methods to foster systematic reviews of scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Erbis, Serkan; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Kamarthi, Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of scientific literature are important for mapping the existing state of research and highlighting further growth channels in a field of study, but systematic reviews are inherently tedious, time consuming, and manual in nature. In recent years, keyword co-occurrence networks (KCNs) are exploited for knowledge mapping. In a KCN, each keyword is represented as a node and each co-occurrence of a pair of words is represented as a link. The number of times that a pair of words co-occurs in multiple articles constitutes the weight of the link connecting the pair. The network constructed in this manner represents cumulative knowledge of a domain and helps to uncover meaningful knowledge components and insights based on the patterns and strength of links between keywords that appear in the literature. In this work, we propose a KCN-based approach that can be implemented prior to undertaking a systematic review to guide and accelerate the review process. The novelty of this method lies in the new metrics used for statistical analysis of a KCN that differ from those typically used for KCN analysis. The approach is demonstrated through its application to nano-related Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) risk literature. The KCN approach identified the knowledge components, knowledge structure, and research trends that match with those discovered through a traditional systematic review of the nanoEHS field. Because KCN-based analyses can be conducted more quickly to explore a vast amount of literature, this method can provide a knowledge map and insights prior to undertaking a rigorous traditional systematic review. This two-step approach can significantly reduce the effort and time required for a traditional systematic literature review. The proposed KCN-based pre-systematic review method is universal. It can be applied to any scientific field of study to prepare a knowledge map.

  20. Tau method approximation of the Hubbell rectangular source integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalla, S.L.; Khajah, H.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Tau method is applied to obtain expansions, in terms of Chebyshev polynomials, which approximate the Hubbell rectangular source integral:I(a,b)=∫ b 0 (1/(√(1+x 2 )) arctan(a/(√(1+x 2 )))) This integral corresponds to the response of an omni-directional radiation detector situated over a corner of a plane isotropic rectangular source. A discussion of the error in the Tau method approximation follows

  1. Assessing Backwards Integration as a Method of KBO Family Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfell, Nathan; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    The age of young asteroid collisional families can sometimes be determined by using backwards n-body integrations of the solar system. This method is not used for discovering young asteroid families and is limited by the unpredictable influence of the Yarkovsky effect on individual specific asteroids over time. Since these limitations are not as important for objects in the Kuiper belt, Marcus et al. 2011 suggested that backwards integration could be used to discover and characterize collisional families in the outer solar system. But various challenges present themselves when running precise and accurate 4+ Gyr integrations of Kuiper Belt objects. We have created simulated families of Kuiper Belt Objects with identical starting locations and velocity distributions, based on the Haumea Family. We then ran several long-term test integrations to observe the effect of various simulation parameters on integration results. These integrations were then used to investigate which parameters are of enough significance to require inclusion in the integration. Thereby we determined how to construct long-term integrations that both yield significant results and require manageable processing power. Additionally, we have tested the use of backwards integration as a method of discovery of potential young families in the Kuiper Belt.

  2. A method to build and analyze scientific workflows from provenance through process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, R.; He, X.; Li, Jiafei; Liu, Zheng; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific workflows have recently emerged as a new paradigm for representing and managing complex distributed scientific computations and are used to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery. In many disciplines, individual workflows are large due to the large quantities of data used. As

  3. A method to mine workflows from provenance for assisting scientific workflow composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, R.; He, X.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific workflows have recently emerged as a new paradigm for representing and managing complex distributed scientific computations and are used to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery. In many disciplines, individual workflows are large and complicated due to the large quantities of data

  4. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  5. Explicit integration of extremely stiff reaction networks: partial equilibrium methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M W; Hix, W R; Billings, J J

    2013-01-01

    In two preceding papers (Guidry et al 2013 Comput. Sci. Disc. 6 015001 and Guidry and Harris 2013 Comput. Sci. Disc. 6 015002), we have shown that when reaction networks are well removed from equilibrium, explicit asymptotic and quasi-steady-state approximations can give algebraically stabilized integration schemes that rival standard implicit methods in accuracy and speed for extremely stiff systems. However, we also showed that these explicit methods remain accurate but are no longer competitive in speed as the network approaches equilibrium. In this paper, we analyze this failure and show that it is associated with the presence of fast equilibration timescales that neither asymptotic nor quasi-steady-state approximations are able to remove efficiently from the numerical integration. Based on this understanding, we develop a partial equilibrium method to deal effectively with the approach to equilibrium and show that explicit asymptotic methods, combined with the new partial equilibrium methods, give an integration scheme that can plausibly deal with the stiffest networks, even in the approach to equilibrium, with accuracy and speed competitive with that of implicit methods. Thus we demonstrate that such explicit methods may offer alternatives to implicit integration of even extremely stiff systems and that these methods may permit integration of much larger networks than have been possible before in a number of fields. (paper)

  6. Approximation of the exponential integral (well function) using sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa

    2015-04-01

    Exponential integral (also known as well function) is often used in hydrogeology to solve Theis and Hantush equations. Many methods have been developed to approximate the exponential integral. Most of these methods are based on numerical approximations and are valid for a certain range of the argument value. This paper presents a new approach to approximate the exponential integral. The new approach is based on sampling methods. Three different sampling methods; Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), Orthogonal Array (OA), and Orthogonal Array-based Latin Hypercube (OA-LH) have been used to approximate the function. Different argument values, covering a wide range, have been used. The results of sampling methods were compared with results obtained by Mathematica software, which was used as a benchmark. All three sampling methods converge to the result obtained by Mathematica, at different rates. It was found that the orthogonal array (OA) method has the fastest convergence rate compared with LHS and OA-LH. The root mean square error RMSE of OA was in the order of 1E-08. This method can be used with any argument value, and can be used to solve other integrals in hydrogeology such as the leaky aquifer integral.

  7. An integrated lean-methods approach to hospital facilities redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, John

    2012-01-01

    Lean production methods for eliminating waste and improving processes in manufacturing are now being applied in healthcare. As the author shows, the methods are appropriate for redesigning hospital facilities. When used in an integrated manner and employing teams of mostly clinicians, the methods produce facility designs that are custom-fit to patient needs and caregiver work processes, and reduce operational costs. The author reviews lean methods and an approach for integrating them in the redesign of hospital facilities. A case example of the redesign of an emergency department shows the feasibility and benefits of the approach.

  8. Iterative algorithm for the volume integral method for magnetostatics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasciak, J.E.

    1980-11-01

    Volume integral methods for solving nonlinear magnetostatics problems are considered in this paper. The integral method is discretized by a Galerkin technique. Estimates are given which show that the linearized problems are well conditioned and hence easily solved using iterative techniques. Comparisons of iterative algorithms with the elimination method of GFUN3D shows that the iterative method gives an order of magnitude improvement in computational time as well as memory requirements for large problems. Computational experiments for a test problem as well as a double layer dipole magnet are given. Error estimates for the linearized problem are also derived

  9. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials: an integrated scientific and ethical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2018-01-29

    Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach renders research with pregnant women fair. This paper analyzes and evaluates when research with pregnant women can be considered as fair and what constitutes scientific reasons for exclusion. Conceptual ethical and methodological analysis and evaluation of fair inclusion. Fair inclusion of pregnant women means (1) that pregnant women who are eligible are not excluded solely for being pregnant and (2) that the research interests of pregnant women are prioritized, meaning that they ought to receive substantially more attention. Fairness does not imply that pregnant women should be included in virtually every research project, as including only a few pregnant women in a population consisting only of women will not help to determine the effectiveness and safety of a treatment in pregnant women. Separate trials in pregnant women may be preferable once we assume, or know, that effects of interventions in pregnant women differ from the effects in other subpopulations, or when we assume, or know, that there are no differences. In the latter case, it may be preferable to conduct post-marketing studies or establish registries. If there is no conclusive evidence indicating either differences or equivalence of effects between pregnant and non-pregnant women, yet it seems unlikely that major differences or exact equivalence exist, the inclusion of pregnant women should be sufficient. Depending on the research question, this boils down to representativeness in terms of the proportion of pregnant and non-pregnant women, or to oversampling pregnant women. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in research implies that separate trials in pregnant women should be promoted. Inclusion of pregnant women has to

  10. Integrating a work-flow engine within a commercial SCADA to build end users applications in a scientific environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounsy, M.; Pierre-Joseph Zephir, S.; Saintin, K.; Abeille, G.; Ley, E. de

    2012-01-01

    To build integrated high-level applications, SOLEIL is using an original component-oriented approach based on GlobalSCREEN, an industrial Java SCADA. The aim of this integrated development environment is to give SOLEIL's scientific and technical staff a way to develop GUI (Graphical User Interface) applications for external users of beamlines. These GUI applications must address the two following needs: monitoring and supervision of a control system and development and execution of automated processes (as beamline alignment, data collection and on-line data analysis). The first need is now completely answered through a rich set of Java graphical components based on the COMETE library and providing a high level of service for data logging, scanning and so on. To reach the same quality of service for process automation, a big effort has been made for more seamless integration of PASSERELLE, a work-flow engine with dedicated user-friendly interfaces for end users, packaged as JavaBeans in GlobalSCREEN components library. Starting with brief descriptions of software architecture of the PASSERELLE and GlobalSCREEN environments, we will then present the overall system integration design as well as the current status of deployment on SOLEIL beamlines. (authors)

  11. Thwarting science by protecting the received wisdom on tobacco addiction from the scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difranza, Joseph R

    2010-11-04

    In their commentary, Dar and Frenk call into question the validity of all published data that describe the onset of nicotine addiction. They argue that the data that describe the early onset of nicotine addiction is so different from the conventional wisdom that it is irrelevant. In this rebuttal, the author argues that the conventional wisdom cannot withstand an application of the scientific method that requires that theories be tested and discarded when they are contradicted by data. The author examines the origins of the threshold theory that has represented the conventional wisdom concerning the onset of nicotine addiction for 4 decades. The major tenets of the threshold theory are presented as hypotheses followed by an examination of the relevant literature. Every tenet of the threshold theory is contradicted by all available relevant data and yet it remains the conventional wisdom. The author provides an evidence-based account of the natural history of nicotine addiction, including its onset and development as revealed by case histories, focus groups, and surveys involving tens of thousands of smokers. These peer-reviewed and replicated studies are the work of independent researchers from around the world using a variety of measures, and they provide a consistent and coherent clinical picture. The author argues that the scientific method demands that the fanciful conventional wisdom be discarded and replaced with the evidence-based description of nicotine addiction that is backed by data. The author charges that in their attempt to defend the conventional wisdom in the face of overwhelming data to the contrary, Dar and Frenk attempt to destroy the credibility of all who have produced these data. Dar and Frenk accuse other researchers of committing methodological errors and showing bias in the analysis of data when in fact Dar and Frenk commit several errors and reveal their bias by using a few outlying data points to misrepresent an entire body of research

  12. Review of Statistical Learning Methods in Integrated Omics Studies (An Integrated Information Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Irene Sui Lan; Lumley, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Integrated omics is becoming a new channel for investigating the complex molecular system in modern biological science and sets a foundation for systematic learning for precision medicine. The statistical/machine learning methods that have emerged in the past decade for integrated omics are not only innovative but also multidisciplinary with integrated knowledge in biology, medicine, statistics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. Here, we review the nontrivial classes of learning methods from the statistical aspects and streamline these learning methods within the statistical learning framework. The intriguing findings from the review are that the methods used are generalizable to other disciplines with complex systematic structure, and the integrated omics is part of an integrated information science which has collated and integrated different types of information for inferences and decision making. We review the statistical learning methods of exploratory and supervised learning from 42 publications. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the extended principal component analysis, cluster analysis, network analysis, and regression methods. Statistical techniques such as penalization for sparsity induction when there are fewer observations than the number of features and using Bayesian approach when there are prior knowledge to be integrated are also included in the commentary. For the completeness of the review, a table of currently available software and packages from 23 publications for omics are summarized in the appendix.

  13. A dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method for power transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wensheng; Bai, Cuifen; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified.

  14. A Dynamic Integrated Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wensheng; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified. PMID:25685841

  15. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835

  17. The embalming, the scientific method and the paleopathology: the case of Gaetano Arrighi (1836).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciranni, Rosalba; Caramella, Davide; Nenci, Riccardo; Fornaciari, Gino

    2005-01-01

    Since the most ancient times the problem of the artificial preservation of dead bodies has been an important object of study. In ancient and classic times the reasons leading to this practice were essentially of a religious and esoteric type, but in the modern age, following the development of medical and biological studies, embalming has assumed a more practical trend which is both medicine and scientific. The discovery of blood circulation has marked the scientific method which, in its various forms, has circulated all over Europe bringing fame to eminent anatomists such as Federico Ruysch (1638-1731), William (1718-1783) and John Hunter (1728-1793), Jean Nicolas Gannal (1791-1852), Giuseppe Tranchina, Laskowky and Brosch, who affirmed the embalming by endoarterial injection of conservation fluids making evisceration useless and obsolete. The advent of formalin and the introduction of new surgical and autoptic methods have made this practice gradually fall into disuse. For this reason, the mummy found in Leghorn (Tuscany, Central Italy) is of particular importance since was obtained applying the intravascular injection following the method, described by the Italian medical Giuseppe Tranchina in 1835. The mummified body belongs to Gaetano Arrighi, a prisoner in the Leghorn fortress. He was born in Arezzo in 1789 and died on March 1836 at the age of 47 in the Civil Hospital of Leghorn following pleurisy, as results in an annexed document. The day after his death Dr. Raimondo Barsanti from Pisa and Superintendent at the Leghorn hospital made up the Tranchina's method, which consisted in the injection of an arsencial -mercury solution inside of the blood vessels, giving rigidity and dark red color to the dead body. The excellent outcome of the intervention has made it possible, more than 160 years later, to study not only the method by which Arrighi's body was embalmed but also to perform a careful paleopathological imaging study by traditional X-rays and by Computer

  18. Teaching writing of scientific abstracts in English: CLIL methodology in an integrated English and Medicine course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Mungra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the I Faculty at the University of Rome “La Sapienza” Medical School, one of the several methodology courses aims at developing approaches by physicians to patient queries. One such course comprises several disciplines: Pathology, Immunology, Medical Statistics, Internal Medicine and English, with the specific aim of furnishing students, all Italian speakers, with skills for searching and evaluating the medical literature for answers to patient queries regarding risks and effectiveness of therapy. This paper describes the integration of English into a Methodology Course and delineates how the language component uses a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL approach to train students to write the highly specific genre of journal abstracts for medical experimental research articles. A corpus of student writing is presented and discussed with the aim of furnishing one didactic model for language teaching within the Italian Medical Curriculum.

  19. Computation of rectangular source integral by rational parameter polynomial method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabha, Hem

    2001-01-01

    Hubbell et al. (J. Res. Nat Bureau Standards 64C, (1960) 121) have obtained a series expansion for the calculation of the radiation field generated by a plane isotropic rectangular source (plaque), in which leading term is the integral H(a,b). In this paper another integral I(a,b), which is related with the integral H(a,b) has been solved by the rational parameter polynomial method. From I(a,b), we compute H(a,b). Using this method the integral I(a,b) is expressed in the form of a polynomial of a rational parameter. Generally, a function f (x) is expressed in terms of x. In this method this is expressed in terms of x/(1+x). In this way, the accuracy of the expression is good over a wide range of x as compared to the earlier approach. The results for I(a,b) and H(a,b) are given for a sixth degree polynomial and are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by numerically integrating the integral. Accuracy could be increased either by increasing the degree of the polynomial or by dividing the range of integration. The results of H(a,b) and I(a,b) are given for values of b and a up to 2.0 and 20.0, respectively

  20. A fast GNU method to draw accurate scientific illustrations for taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Montesanto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays only digital figures are accepted by the most important journals of taxonomy. These may be produced by scanning conventional drawings, made with high precision technical ink-pens, which normally use capillary cartridge and various line widths. Digital drawing techniques that use vector graphics, have already been described in literature to support scientists in drawing figures and plates for scientific illustrations; these techniques use many different software and hardware devices. The present work gives step-by-step instructions on how to make accurate line drawings with a new procedure that uses bitmap graphics with the GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP. This method is noteworthy: it is very accurate, producing detailed lines at the highest resolution; the raster lines appear as realistic ink-made drawings; it is faster than the traditional way of making illustrations; everyone can use this simple technique; this method is completely free as it does not use expensive and licensed software and it can be used with different operating systems. The method has been developed drawing figures of terrestrial isopods and some examples are here given.

  1. An integration weighting method to evaluate extremum coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyushchenko, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    The numerical version of the Laplace asymptotics has been used to evaluate the coordinates of extrema of multivariate continuous and discontinuous test functions. The performed computer experiments demonstrate the high efficiency of the integration method proposed. The saturating dependence of extremum coordinates on such parameters as a number of integration subregions and that of K going /theoretically/ to infinity has been studied in detail for the limitand being a ratio of two Laplace integrals with exponentiated K. The given method is an integral equivalent of that of weighted means. As opposed to the standard optimization methods of the zero, first and second order the proposed method can be successfully applied to optimize discontinuous objective functions, too. There are possibilities of applying the integration method in the cases, when the conventional techniques fail due to poor analytical properties of the objective functions near extremal points. The proposed method is efficient in searching for both local and global extrema of multimodal objective functions. 12 refs.; 4 tabs

  2. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species assay. AOAC Performance Tested Method 051303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Clark, Dorn; Radcliff, Roy; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonellae in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Salmonella species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 6579:2002 in a variety of food matrixes, namely, raw ground beef, raw chicken breast, raw ground pork, fresh bagged lettuce, pork frankfurters, nonfat dried milk powder, cooked peeled shrimp, pasteurized liquid whole egg, ready-to-eat meal containing beef, and stainless steel surface samples. With the exception of liquid whole egg and fresh bagged lettuce, which were tested in-house, all matrixes were tested by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, WI, on behalf of Thermo Fisher Scientific. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, lettuce, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. No significant difference by probability of detection or McNemars Chi-squared statistical analysis was found between the candidate or reference methods for any of the food matrixes or environmental surface samples tested during the validation study. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 117 and 36 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect Salmonella species Assay was able to detect all the major groups of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (e.g., Typhimurium) and the less common subspecies of S. enterica (e.g., arizoniae) and the rarely encountered S. bongori. None of the exclusivity isolates analyzed were detected by the SureTect Salmonella species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation (enrichment time

  3. Higher-Order Integral Equation Methods in Computational Electromagnetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    Higher-order integral equation methods have been investigated. The study has focused on improving the accuracy and efficiency of the Method of Moments (MoM) applied to electromagnetic problems. A new set of hierarchical Legendre basis functions of arbitrary order is developed. The new basis...

  4. Two pricing methods for solving an integrated commercial fishery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we develop two novel pricing methods for solving an integer program. We demonstrate the methods by solving an integrated commercial fishery planning model (IFPM). In this problem, a fishery manager must schedule fishing trawlers (determine when and where the trawlers should go fishing, and when the ...

  5. Using HeLa cell stress response to introduce first year students to the scientific method, laboratory techniques, primary literature, and scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, Karen K

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular biology course that couples inquiry-based experimental design with extensive scientific writing was designed at Westminster College to expose first year students to these concepts early in their undergraduate career. In the module students used scientific literature to design and then implement an experiment on the effect of cellular stress on protein expression in HeLa cells. In parallel the students developed a research paper in the style of the undergraduate journal BIOS to report their results. HeLa cells were used to integrate the research experience with the Westminster College "Next Chapter" first year program, in which the students explored the historical relevance of HeLa cells from a sociological perspective through reading The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. In this report I detail the design, delivery, student learning outcomes, and assessment of this module, and while this exercise was designed for an introductory course at a small primarily undergraduate institution, suggestions for modifications at larger universities or for upper division courses are included. Finally, based on student outcomes suggestions are provided for improving the module to enhance the link between teaching students skills in experimental design and execution with developing student skills in information literacy and writing. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Method for integrating a train of fast, nanosecond wide pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a method used to integrate a train of fast, nanosecond wide pulses. The pulses come from current transformers in a RF LINAC beamline. Because they are ac signals and have no dc component, true mathematical integration would yield zero over the pulse train period or an equally erroneous value because of a dc baseline shift. The circuit used to integrate the pulse train first stretches the pulses to 35 ns FWHM. The signals are then fed into a high-speed, precision rectifier which restores a true dc baseline for the following stage - a fast, gated integrator. The rectifier is linear over 55dB in excess of 25 MHz, and the gated integrator is linear over a 60 dB range with input pulse widths as short as 16 ns. The assembled system is linear over 30 dB with a 6 MHz input signal

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report for "Nanite" for Better Well-Bore Integrity and Zonal Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veedu, Vinod [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Hadmack, Michael [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Pollock, Jacob [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Pernambuco-Wise, Paul [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Ah Yo, Derek [Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Nanite™ is a cementitious material that contains a proprietary formulation of functionalized nanomaterial additive to transform conventional cement into a smart material responsive to pressure (or stress), temperature, and any intrinsic changes in composition. This project has identified optimal sensing modalities of smart well cement and demonstrated how real-time sensing of Nanite™ can improve long-term wellbore integrity and zonal isolation in shale gas and applicable oil and gas operations. Oceanit has explored Nanite’s electrical sensing properties in depth and has advanced the technology from laboratory proof-of-concept to sub-scale testing in preparation for field trials.

  8. Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Use - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy T

    2011-04-29

    This report presents an integrated energy system that combines the production of substitute natural gas through coal hydrogasification with an algae process for beneficial carbon dioxide (CO2) use and biofuel production (funded under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FE0001099). The project planned to develop, test, operate and evaluate a 2 ton-per-day coal hydrogasification plant and 25-acre algae farm at the Arizona Public Service (APS) 1000 Megawatt (MW) Cholla coal-fired power plant in Joseph City, Arizona. Conceptual design of the integrated system was undertaken with APS partners Air Liquide (AL) and Parsons. The process engineering was separated into five major areas: flue gas preparation and CO2 delivery, algae farming, water management, hydrogasification, and biofuel production. The process flow diagrams, energy and material balances, and preliminary major equipment needs for each major area were prepared to reflect integrated process considerations and site infrastructure design basis. The total project also included research and development on a bench-scale hydrogasifier, one-dimensional (1-D) kinetic-model simulation, extensive algae stressing, oil extraction, lipid analysis and a half-acre algae farm demonstration at APS?s Redhawk testing facility. During the project, a two-acre algae testing facility with a half-acre algae cultivation area was built at the APS Redhawk 1000 MW natural gas combined cycle power plant located 55 miles west of Phoenix. The test site integrated flue gas delivery, CO2 capture and distribution, algae cultivation, algae nursery, algae harvesting, dewatering and onsite storage as well as water treatment. The site environmental, engineering, and biological parameters for the cultivators were monitored remotely. Direct biodiesel production from biomass through an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction and a supercritical methanol transesterification reaction were evaluated. The highest oil-to-biodiesel conversion of 79

  9. Implementation of a Curriculum-Integrated Computer Game for Introducing Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Robert C.; Jasti, Chandana; Lauren, Hillary Z. G.; Hug, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Argumentation has been emphasized in recent US science education reform efforts (NGSS Lead States 2013; NRC 2012), and while existing studies have investigated approaches to introducing and supporting argumentation (e.g., McNeill and Krajcik in Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(1), 53-78, 2008; Kang et al. in Science Education, 98(4), 674-704, 2014), few studies have investigated how game-based approaches may be used to introduce argumentation to students. In this paper, we report findings from a design-based study of a teacher's use of a computer game intended to introduce the claim, evidence, reasoning (CER) framework (McNeill and Krajcik 2012) for scientific argumentation. We studied the implementation of the game over two iterations of development in a high school biology teacher's classes. The results of this study include aspects of enactment of the activities and student argument scores. We found the teacher used the game in aspects of explicit instruction of argumentation during both iterations, although the ways in which the game was used differed. Also, students' scores in the second iteration were significantly higher than the first iteration. These findings support the notion that students can learn argumentation through a game, especially when used in conjunction with explicit instruction and support in student materials. These findings also highlight the importance of analyzing classroom implementation in studies of game-based learning.

  10. A study of compositional verification based IMA integration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Guoquan; Xu, Wanmeng

    2018-03-01

    The rapid development of avionics systems is driving the application of integrated modular avionics (IMA) systems. But meanwhile it is improving avionics system integration, complexity of system test. Then we need simplify the method of IMA system test. The IMA system supports a module platform that runs multiple applications, and shares processing resources. Compared with federated avionics system, IMA system is difficult to isolate failure. Therefore, IMA system verification will face the critical problem is how to test shared resources of multiple application. For a simple avionics system, traditional test methods are easily realizing to test a whole system. But for a complex system, it is hard completed to totally test a huge and integrated avionics system. Then this paper provides using compositional-verification theory in IMA system test, so that reducing processes of test and improving efficiency, consequently economizing costs of IMA system integration.

  11. Advanced Communication and Control for Distributed Energy Resource Integration: Phase 2 Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BPL Global

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this research project is to demonstrate sensing, communication, information and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of multivendor distributed energy resource (DER) units at aggregation levels that meet individual user requirements for facility operations (residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) and further serve as resource options for electric and natural gas utilities. The fully demonstrated DER aggregation system with embodiment of communication and control technologies will lead to real-time, interactive, customer-managed service networks to achieve greater customer value. Work on this Advanced Communication and Control Project (ACCP) consists of a two-phase approach for an integrated demonstration of communication and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of DER units to reach progressive levels of aggregated power output. Phase I involved design and proof-of-design, and Phase II involves real-world demonstration of the Phase I design architecture. The scope of work for Phase II of this ACCP involves demonstrating the Phase I design architecture in large scale real-world settings while integrating with the operations of one or more electricity supplier feeder lines. The communication and control architectures for integrated demonstration shall encompass combinations of software and hardware components, including: sensors, data acquisition and communication systems, remote monitoring systems, metering (interval revenue, real-time), local and wide area networks, Web-based systems, smart controls, energy management/information systems with control and automation of building energy loads, and demand-response management with integration of real-time market pricing. For Phase II, BPL Global shall demonstrate the Phase I design for integrating and controlling the operation of more than 10 DER units, dispersed at various locations in one or more Independent System Operator (ISO) Control Areas, at

  12. GeNNet: an integrated platform for unifying scientific workflows and graph databases for transcriptome data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel L. Costa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many steps in analyzing transcriptome data, from the acquisition of raw data to the selection of a subset of representative genes that explain a scientific hypothesis. The data produced can be represented as networks of interactions among genes and these may additionally be integrated with other biological databases, such as Protein-Protein Interactions, transcription factors and gene annotation. However, the results of these analyses remain fragmented, imposing difficulties, either for posterior inspection of results, or for meta-analysis by the incorporation of new related data. Integrating databases and tools into scientific workflows, orchestrating their execution, and managing the resulting data and its respective metadata are challenging tasks. Additionally, a great amount of effort is equally required to run in-silico experiments to structure and compose the information as needed for analysis. Different programs may need to be applied and different files are produced during the experiment cycle. In this context, the availability of a platform supporting experiment execution is paramount. We present GeNNet, an integrated transcriptome analysis platform that unifies scientific workflows with graph databases for selecting relevant genes according to the evaluated biological systems. It includes GeNNet-Wf, a scientific workflow that pre-loads biological data, pre-processes raw microarray data and conducts a series of analyses including normalization, differential expression inference, clusterization and gene set enrichment analysis. A user-friendly web interface, GeNNet-Web, allows for setting parameters, executing, and visualizing the results of GeNNet-Wf executions. To demonstrate the features of GeNNet, we performed case studies with data retrieved from GEO, particularly using a single-factor experiment in different analysis scenarios. As a result, we obtained differentially expressed genes for which biological functions were

  13. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  14. INTEGRATED SENSOR EVALUATION CIRCUIT AND METHOD FOR OPERATING SAID CIRCUIT

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Jens; Gausa, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    WO15090426A1 Sensor evaluation device and method for operating said device Integrated sensor evaluation circuit for evaluating a sensor signal (14) received from a sensor (12), having a first connection (28a) for connection to the sensor and a second connection (28b) for connection to the sensor. The integrated sensor evaluation circuit comprises a configuration data memory (16) for storing configuration data which describe signal properties of a plurality of sensor control signals (26a-c). T...

  15. Mathematical methods linear algebra normed spaces distributions integration

    CERN Document Server

    Korevaar, Jacob

    1968-01-01

    Mathematical Methods, Volume I: Linear Algebra, Normed Spaces, Distributions, Integration focuses on advanced mathematical tools used in applications and the basic concepts of algebra, normed spaces, integration, and distributions.The publication first offers information on algebraic theory of vector spaces and introduction to functional analysis. Discussions focus on linear transformations and functionals, rectangular matrices, systems of linear equations, eigenvalue problems, use of eigenvectors and generalized eigenvectors in the representation of linear operators, metric and normed vector

  16. User's guide to Monte Carlo methods for evaluating path integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbroek, Marise J. E.; King, Peter R.; Vvedensky, Dimitri D.; Dürr, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    We give an introduction to the calculation of path integrals on a lattice, with the quantum harmonic oscillator as an example. In addition to providing an explicit computational setup and corresponding pseudocode, we pay particular attention to the existence of autocorrelations and the calculation of reliable errors. The over-relaxation technique is presented as a way to counter strong autocorrelations. The simulation methods can be extended to compute observables for path integrals in other settings.

  17. Classification Method in Integrated Information Network Using Vector Image Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Integrated Information Network (WMN consists of integrated information that can get data from its surrounding, such as image, voice. To transmit information, large resource is required which decreases the service time of the network. In this paper we present a Classification Approach based on Vector Image Comparison (VIC for WMN that improve the service time of the network. The available methods for sub-region selection and conversion are also proposed.

  18. A Method for Improving the Integrity of Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadkhah, Mehdi; Kahani, Mohsen; Borchardt, Glenn

    2017-08-15

    Peer review is the most important aspect of reputable journals. Without it, we would be unsure about whether the material published was as valid and reliable as is possible. However, with the advent of the Internet, scientific literature has now become subject to a relatively new phenomenon: fake peer reviews. Some dishonest researchers have been manipulating the peer review process to publish what are often inferior papers. There are even papers that explain how to do it. This paper discusses one of those methods and how editors can defeat it by using a special review ID. This method is easy to understand and can be added to current peer review systems easily.

  19. SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY FOR THE APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES: CRITICAL ANALYSES ABOUT RESEARCH METHODS, TYPOLOGIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS FROM MARX, WEBER AND DURKHEIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Corrêa da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the importance of the scientific method to conduct and advertise research in applied social sciences and research typologies, as well as to highlight contributions from Marx, Weber and Durkheim to the scientific methodology. To reach this objective, we conducted a review of the literature on the term research, the scientific method,the research techniques and the scientific methodologies. The results of the investigation revealed that it is fundamental that the academic investigator uses a scientific method to conduct and advertise his/her academic works in applied social sciences in comparison with the biochemical or computer sciences and in the indicated literature. Regarding the contributions to the scientific methodology, we have Marx, dialogued, the dialectical, striking analysis, explicative of social phenomenon, the need to understand the phenomena as historical and concrete totalities; Weber, the distinction between “facts” and “value judgments” to provide objectivity to the social sciences and Durkheim, the need to conceptualize very well its object of study, reject sensible data and imbue with the spirit of discovery and of being surprised with the results.

  20. Getting personal: can systems medicine integrate scientific and humanistic conceptions of the patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Henrik; Ulvestad, Elling; Eriksen, Thor Eirik; Getz, Linn

    2014-12-01

    The practicing doctor, and most obviously the primary care clinician who encounters the full complexity of patients, faces several fundamental but intrinsically related theoretical and practical challenges - strongly actualized by so-called medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) and multi-morbidity. Systems medicine, which is the emerging application of systems biology to medicine and a merger of molecular biomedicine, systems theory and mathematical modelling, has recently been proposed as a primary care-centered strategy for medicine that promises to meet these challenges. Significantly, it has been proposed to do so in a way that at first glance may seem compatible with humanistic medicine. More specifically, it is promoted as an integrative, holistic, personalized and patient-centered approach. In this article, we ask whether and to what extent systems medicine can provide a comprehensive conceptual account of and approach to the patient and the root causes of health problems that can be reconciled with the concept of the patient as a person, which is an essential theoretical element in humanistic medicine. We answer this question through a comparative analysis of the theories of primary care doctor Eric Cassell and systems biologist Denis Noble. We argue that, although systems biological concepts, notably Noble's theory of biological relativity and downward causation, are highly relevant for understanding human beings and health problems, they are nevertheless insufficient in fully bridging the gap to humanistic medicine. Systems biologists are currently unable to conceptualize living wholes, and seem unable to account for meaning, value and symbolic interaction, which are central concepts in humanistic medicine, as constraints on human health. Accordingly, systems medicine as currently envisioned cannot be said to be integrative, holistic, personalized or patient-centered in a humanistic medical sense. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical

  1. An integral nodal variational method for multigroup criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.E.; Tsoulfanidis, N.

    2003-01-01

    An integral formulation of the variational nodal method is presented and applied to a series of benchmark critically problems. The method combines an integral transport treatment of the even-parity flux within the spatial node with an odd-parity spherical harmonics expansion of the Lagrange multipliers at the node interfaces. The response matrices that result from this formulation are compatible with those in the VARIANT code at Argonne National Laboratory. Either homogeneous or heterogeneous nodes may be employed. In general, for calculations requiring higher-order angular approximations, the integral method yields solutions with comparable accuracy while requiring substantially less CPU time and memory than the standard spherical harmonics expansion using the same spatial approximations. (author)

  2. Integrative methods for analyzing big data in precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijević, Vladimir; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    We provide an overview of recent developments in big data analyses in the context of precision medicine and health informatics. With the advance in technologies capturing molecular and medical data, we entered the area of "Big Data" in biology and medicine. These data offer many opportunities to advance precision medicine. We outline key challenges in precision medicine and present recent advances in data integration-based methods to uncover personalized information from big data produced by various omics studies. We survey recent integrative methods for disease subtyping, biomarkers discovery, and drug repurposing, and list the tools that are available to domain scientists. Given the ever-growing nature of these big data, we highlight key issues that big data integration methods will face. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cultural adaptation and translation of measures: an integrated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Souraya; Guruge, Sepali; Miranda, Joyal; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Differences in the conceptualization and operationalization of health-related concepts may exist across cultures. Such differences underscore the importance of examining conceptual equivalence when adapting and translating instruments. In this article, we describe an integrated method for exploring conceptual equivalence within the process of adapting and translating measures. The integrated method involves five phases including selection of instruments for cultural adaptation and translation; assessment of conceptual equivalence, leading to the generation of a set of items deemed to be culturally and linguistically appropriate to assess the concept of interest in the target community; forward translation; back translation (optional); and pre-testing of the set of items. Strengths and limitations of the proposed integrated method are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  5. Thwarting science by protecting the received wisdom on tobacco addiction from the scientific method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiFranza Joseph R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their commentary, Dar and Frenk call into question the validity of all published data that describe the onset of nicotine addiction. They argue that the data that describe the early onset of nicotine addiction is so different from the conventional wisdom that it is irrelevant. In this rebuttal, the author argues that the conventional wisdom cannot withstand an application of the scientific method that requires that theories be tested and discarded when they are contradicted by data. The author examines the origins of the threshold theory that has represented the conventional wisdom concerning the onset of nicotine addiction for 4 decades. The major tenets of the threshold theory are presented as hypotheses followed by an examination of the relevant literature. Every tenet of the threshold theory is contradicted by all available relevant data and yet it remains the conventional wisdom. The author provides an evidence-based account of the natural history of nicotine addiction, including its onset and development as revealed by case histories, focus groups, and surveys involving tens of thousands of smokers. These peer-reviewed and replicated studies are the work of independent researchers from around the world using a variety of measures, and they provide a consistent and coherent clinical picture. The author argues that the scientific method demands that the fanciful conventional wisdom be discarded and replaced with the evidence-based description of nicotine addiction that is backed by data. The author charges that in their attempt to defend the conventional wisdom in the face of overwhelming data to the contrary, Dar and Frenk attempt to destroy the credibility of all who have produced these data. Dar and Frenk accuse other researchers of committing methodological errors and showing bias in the analysis of data when in fact Dar and Frenk commit several errors and reveal their bias by using a few outlying data points to misrepresent

  6. "We Like to Listen to Stories about Fish": Integrating Indigenous Ecological and Scientific Knowledge to Inform Environmental Flow Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue E. Jackson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies that apply indigenous ecological knowledge to contemporary resource management problems are increasing globally; however, few of these studies have contributed to environmental water management. We interviewed three indigenous landowning groups in a tropical Australian catchment subject to increasing water resource development pressure and trialed tools to integrate indigenous and scientific knowledge of the biology and ecology of freshwater fish to assess their water requirements. The differences, similarities, and complementarities between the knowledge of fish held by indigenous people and scientists are discussed in the context of the changing socioeconomic circumstances experienced by indigenous communities of north Australia. In addition to eliciting indigenous knowledge that confirmed field fish survey results, the approach generated knowledge that was new to both science and indigenous participants, respectively. Indigenous knowledge influenced (1 the conceptual models developed by scientists to understand the flow ecology and (2 the structure of risk assessment tools designed to understand the vulnerability of particular fish to low-flow scenarios.

  7. Process of Integrating Screening and Detailed Risk-based Modeling Analyses to Ensure Consistent and Scientifically Defensible Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, John W.; McDonald, John P.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2002-01-01

    To support cleanup and closure of these tanks, modeling is performed to understand and predict potential impacts to human health and the environment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a screening tool for the United States Department of Energy, Office of River Protection that estimates the long-term human health risk, from a strategic planning perspective, posed by potential tank releases to the environment. This tool is being conditioned to more detailed model analyses to ensure consistency between studies and to provide scientific defensibility. Once the conditioning is complete, the system will be used to screen alternative cleanup and closure strategies. The integration of screening and detailed models provides consistent analyses, efficiencies in resources, and positive feedback between the various modeling groups. This approach of conditioning a screening methodology to more detailed analyses provides decision-makers with timely and defensible information and increases confidence in the results on the part of clients, regulators, and stakeholders

  8. The Integrating Role of the LBA and the LPB Programs as an Example of Cyberinfrastructures in International Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P. L.

    2007-05-01

    International science collaboration is a key component of research programs such as the The Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Interaction Program (LBA) and the La Plata Basin Project (LPB). Both are programs with crosscutting science questions permeating different areas of knowledge related to the functioning of the natural and agricultural ecosystems in the Amazon system (LBA) and the change in the hydrological, agricultural and social systems of the Plata Basin (LPB) ecosystem under natural climatic variability and climate change. Both programs are strongly related to GEWEX, CLIVAR and IGBP and are based on extensive use of data information system (LBA/LPB/DIS) with mirror sites in the US, Europe and South America. These international programs have a significant impact in building up regional scientific capabilities at all levels of education and triggered the establishment of new research groups located in remote areas of South America. The cyberinfrastructure has been fundamental to promote the integration of the research groups, and a remarkable feedback with the operational forecasting systems has been detected. The LBA/LPB should be used as examples on how to promote international scientific and operational collaboration.

  9. LabKey Server: An open source platform for scientific data integration, analysis and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Broad-based collaborations are becoming increasingly common among disease researchers. For example, the Global HIV Enterprise has united cross-disciplinary consortia to speed progress towards HIV vaccines through coordinated research across the boundaries of institutions, continents and specialties. New, end-to-end software tools for data and specimen management are necessary to achieve the ambitious goals of such alliances. These tools must enable researchers to organize and integrate heterogeneous data early in the discovery process, standardize processes, gain new insights into pooled data and collaborate securely. Results To meet these needs, we enhanced the LabKey Server platform, formerly known as CPAS. This freely available, open source software is maintained by professional engineers who use commercially proven practices for software development and maintenance. Recent enhancements support: (i) Submitting specimens requests across collaborating organizations (ii) Graphically defining new experimental data types, metadata and wizards for data collection (iii) Transitioning experimental results from a multiplicity of spreadsheets to custom tables in a shared database (iv) Securely organizing, integrating, analyzing, visualizing and sharing diverse data types, from clinical records to specimens to complex assays (v) Interacting dynamically with external data sources (vi) Tracking study participants and cohorts over time (vii) Developing custom interfaces using client libraries (viii) Authoring custom visualizations in a built-in R scripting environment. Diverse research organizations have adopted and adapted LabKey Server, including consortia within the Global HIV Enterprise. Atlas is an installation of LabKey Server that has been tailored to serve these consortia. It is in production use and demonstrates the core capabilities of LabKey Server. Atlas now has over 2,800 active user accounts originating from approximately 36 countries and 350

  10. Description of the HIA line in the CEEH integrated modelling chain. CEEH scientific report no. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulengracht Flachs, E. [Univ. of Southern Denmark (SDU), Odense (Denmark); Boenloekke, J.H.; Sigsgaard, T. [Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus (Denmark)] [and others

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the different components constituting the HIA-line in the CEEH integrated energy-environment-health-cost modelling. The CEEH framework consists of a number of independent models linked together to assess the impacts and associated costs of emissions from energy production on human health. The HIA-line carries out assessment of the health impact and associated costs of human exposure to air pollution from future scenarios for energy production in Denmark. The methodology employed is the impact pathway, where future emissions from all Danish air pollution sources are modelled in the Balmorel model; the emitted air pollution is then dispersed and chemically transformed in time and space by either the NERI or the DMI Atmospheric Chemical Transport models. The resulting concentration fields of air pollution are then averaged to give municipality based levels, and the resulting health impact and associated societal cost of the Danish population is modelled in the Health Impact Assessment model. The social costs associated with air pollution exposure are then converted from the modelled exposure costs to emission costs to be fed into the Balmorel model as additional energy production costs. The CEEH HIA-line presents a novel way of modelling health related consequences of air pollution, as it directly models, the demography, air pollution, morbidity and mortality, in a dynamic and integrated setup. When modelling the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in the period from 2005 to 2030 we find 2,000 extra deaths of lung cancer, 3,950 deaths of heart disease, 7,375 deaths of stroke and 1,750 deaths of COPD, and 11.475 premature deaths, amounting to 163,075 lost life years in the modelled 25-year period. The health related social costs sums up to 60.8m Euro for lung cancer, 88.3m Euro for heart disease, 91.6m Euro for stroke, 18.7m Euro for COPD, 26.9m Euro for other cause mortality and in total 282.5m Euro throughout the

  11. LabKey Server: An open source platform for scientific data integration, analysis and collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lum Karl

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broad-based collaborations are becoming increasingly common among disease researchers. For example, the Global HIV Enterprise has united cross-disciplinary consortia to speed progress towards HIV vaccines through coordinated research across the boundaries of institutions, continents and specialties. New, end-to-end software tools for data and specimen management are necessary to achieve the ambitious goals of such alliances. These tools must enable researchers to organize and integrate heterogeneous data early in the discovery process, standardize processes, gain new insights into pooled data and collaborate securely. Results To meet these needs, we enhanced the LabKey Server platform, formerly known as CPAS. This freely available, open source software is maintained by professional engineers who use commercially proven practices for software development and maintenance. Recent enhancements support: (i Submitting specimens requests across collaborating organizations (ii Graphically defining new experimental data types, metadata and wizards for data collection (iii Transitioning experimental results from a multiplicity of spreadsheets to custom tables in a shared database (iv Securely organizing, integrating, analyzing, visualizing and sharing diverse data types, from clinical records to specimens to complex assays (v Interacting dynamically with external data sources (vi Tracking study participants and cohorts over time (vii Developing custom interfaces using client libraries (viii Authoring custom visualizations in a built-in R scripting environment. Diverse research organizations have adopted and adapted LabKey Server, including consortia within the Global HIV Enterprise. Atlas is an installation of LabKey Server that has been tailored to serve these consortia. It is in production use and demonstrates the core capabilities of LabKey Server. Atlas now has over 2,800 active user accounts originating from approximately 36

  12. LabKey Server: an open source platform for scientific data integration, analysis and collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Elizabeth K; Piehler, Britt; Eckels, Josh; Rauch, Adam; Bellew, Matthew; Hussey, Peter; Ramsay, Sarah; Nathe, Cory; Lum, Karl; Krouse, Kevin; Stearns, David; Connolly, Brian; Skillman, Tom; Igra, Mark

    2011-03-09

    Broad-based collaborations are becoming increasingly common among disease researchers. For example, the Global HIV Enterprise has united cross-disciplinary consortia to speed progress towards HIV vaccines through coordinated research across the boundaries of institutions, continents and specialties. New, end-to-end software tools for data and specimen management are necessary to achieve the ambitious goals of such alliances. These tools must enable researchers to organize and integrate heterogeneous data early in the discovery process, standardize processes, gain new insights into pooled data and collaborate securely. To meet these needs, we enhanced the LabKey Server platform, formerly known as CPAS. This freely available, open source software is maintained by professional engineers who use commercially proven practices for software development and maintenance. Recent enhancements support: (i) Submitting specimens requests across collaborating organizations (ii) Graphically defining new experimental data types, metadata and wizards for data collection (iii) Transitioning experimental results from a multiplicity of spreadsheets to custom tables in a shared database (iv) Securely organizing, integrating, analyzing, visualizing and sharing diverse data types, from clinical records to specimens to complex assays (v) Interacting dynamically with external data sources (vi) Tracking study participants and cohorts over time (vii) Developing custom interfaces using client libraries (viii) Authoring custom visualizations in a built-in R scripting environment. Diverse research organizations have adopted and adapted LabKey Server, including consortia within the Global HIV Enterprise. Atlas is an installation of LabKey Server that has been tailored to serve these consortia. It is in production use and demonstrates the core capabilities of LabKey Server. Atlas now has over 2,800 active user accounts originating from approximately 36 countries and 350 organizations. It tracks

  13. The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method. Henrik Koblitz Rasmussen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    . This are processes such as thermo-forming, gas-assisted injection moulding and all kind of simultaneous multi-component polymer processing operations. Though, in all polymer processing operations free surfaces (or interfaces) are present and the dynamic of these surfaces are of interest. In the "3D Lagrangian...... Integral Method" to simulate viscoelastic flow, the governing equations are solved for the particle positions (Lagrangian kinematics). Therefore, the transient motion of surfaces can be followed in a particularly simple fashion even in 3D viscoelastic flow. The "3D Lagrangian Integral Method" is described...

  14. Enhancing forest carbon sequestration in China: toward an integration of scientific and socio-economic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J M; Thomas, S C; Yin, Y; Maclaren, V; Liu, J; Pan, J; Liu, G; Tian, Q; Zhu, Q; Pan, J-J; Shi, X; Xue, J; Kang, E

    2007-11-01

    This article serves as an introduction to this special issue, "China's Forest Carbon Sequestration", representing major results of a project sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. China occupies a pivotal position globally as a principle emitter of carbon dioxide, as host to some of the world's largest reforestation efforts, and as a key player in international negotiations aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emission. The goals of this project are to develop remote sensing approaches for quantifying forest carbon balance in China in a transparent manner, and information and tools to support land-use decisions for enhanced carbon sequestration (CS) that are science based and economically and socially viable. The project consists of three components: (i) remote sensing and carbon modeling, (ii) forest and soil assessment, and (iii) integrated assessment of the socio-economic implications of CS via forest management. Articles included in this special issue are highlights of the results of each of these components.

  15. Asymmetry in scientific method and limits to cross-disciplinary dialogue: toward a shared language and science policy in pharmacogenomics and human disease genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Vural; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Graham, Janice E; Preskorn, Sheldon H; Gripeos, Dimitrios; Glatt, Stephen J; Friis, Robert H; Reist, Christopher; Szabo, Sandor; Lohr, James B; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2007-04-01

    Pharmacogenomics is a hybrid field of experimental science at the intersection of human disease genetics and clinical pharmacology sharing applications of the new genomic technologies. But this hybrid field is not yet stable or fully integrated, nor is science policy in pharmacogenomics fully equipped to resolve the challenges of this emerging hybrid field. The disciplines of human disease genetics and clinical pharmacology contain significant differences in their scientific practices. Whereas clinical pharmacology originates as an experimental science, human disease genetics is primarily observational in nature. The result is a significant asymmetry in scientific method that can differentially impact the degree to which gene-environment interactions are discerned and, by extension, the study sample size required in each discipline. Because the number of subjects enrolled in observational genetic studies of diseases is characteristically viewed as an important criterion of scientific validity and reliability, failure to recognize discipline-specific requirements for sample size may lead to inappropriate dismissal or silencing of meritorious, although smaller-scale, craft-based pharmacogenomic investigations using an experimental study design. Importantly, the recognition that pharmacogenomics is an experimental science creates an avenue for systematic policy response to the ethical imperative to prospectively pursue genetically customized therapies before regulatory approval of pharmaceuticals. To this end, we discuss the critical role of interdisciplinary engagement between medical sciences, policy, and social science. We emphasize the need for development of shared standards across scientific, methodologic, and socioethical epistemologic divides in the hybrid field of pharmacogenomics to best serve the interests of public health.

  16. A document-driven method for certifying scientific computing software for use in nuclear safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W. Spencer; Koothoor, Mimitha

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a documentation and development method to facilitate the certification of scientific computing software used in the safety analysis of nuclear facilities. To study the problems faced during quality assurance and certification activities, a case study was performed on legacy software used for thermal analysis of a fuel pin in a nuclear reactor. Although no errors were uncovered in the code, 27 issues of incompleteness and inconsistency were found with the documentation. This work proposes that software documentation follow a rational process, which includes a software requirements specification following a template that is reusable, maintainable, and understandable. To develop the design and implementation, this paper suggests literate programming as an alternative to traditional structured programming. Literate programming allows for documenting of numerical algorithms and code together in what is termed the literate programmer's manual. This manual is developed with explicit traceability to the software requirements specification. The traceability between the theory, numerical algorithms, and implementation facilitates achieving completeness and consistency, as well as simplifies the process of verification and the associated certification

  17. Method and apparatus for scientific analysis under low temperature vacuum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefordner, James D.; Jones, Bradley T.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for scientific analysis of a sample under low temperature vacuum conditions uses a vacuum chamber with a conveyor belt disposed therein. One end of the conveyor belt is a cool end in thermal contact with the cold stage of a refrigerator, whereas the other end of the conveyor belt is a warm end spaced from the refrigerator. A septum allows injection of a sample into the vacuum chamber on top of the conveyor belt for spectroscopic or other analysis. The sample freezes on the conveyor belt at the cold end. One or more windows in the vacuum chamber housing allow spectroscopic analysis of the sample. Following the spectroscopic analysis, the conveyor belt may be moved such that the sample moves toward the warm end of the conveyor belt where upon it evaporates, thereby cleaning the conveyor belt. Instead of injecting the sample by way of a septum and use of a syringe and needle, the present device may be used in series with capillary-column gas chromatography or micro-bore high performance liquid chromatography.

  18. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.

  19. IYPT problems teach high school students about teamwork and the scientific method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanski, K.; Klishin, A.

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory work is often STEM students' primary exposure to key creative and communicative skills in the sciences, including experimental design, trouble shooting, team work, and oral presentations. The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) teaches these skills by inviting high school students to investigate simple unsolved systems instead of reproducing familiar results. Students work in teams to form hypotheses, gather data, and present their results orally in a tournament format. The IYPT has published 17 questions yearly since 1988, and its archives are an efficient source of experimental problems for outreach programs and have also been used for first-year undergraduate project classes (Planisic, 2009). We present insights and outcomes from two schools in which we introduced a new extracurricular program based on the IYPT model. Twenty-four students worked in small teams for three hours per day for six weeks. Surprisingly, most teams chose problems in unfamiliar subject areas such as fluid dynamics, and tailored their approaches to take advantage of individual skills including soldering, photography, and theoretical analysis. As the program progressed, students developed an increasingly intuitive understanding of the scientific method. They began to discuss the repeatability of their experiments without prompting, and were increasingly willing to describe alternative hypotheses.

  20. A document-driven method for certifying scientific computing software for use in nuclear safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W. Spencer; Koothoor, Mimitha [Computing and Software Department, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents a documentation and development method to facilitate the certification of scientific computing software used in the safety analysis of nuclear facilities. To study the problems faced during quality assurance and certification activities, a case study was performed on legacy software used for thermal analysis of a fuel pin in a nuclear reactor. Although no errors were uncovered in the code, 27 issues of incompleteness and inconsistency were found with the documentation. This work proposes that software documentation follow a rational process, which includes a software requirements specification following a template that is reusable, maintainable, and understandable. To develop the design and implementation, this paper suggests literate programming as an alternative to traditional structured programming. Literate programming allows for documenting of numerical algorithms and code together in what is termed the literate programmer's manual. This manual is developed with explicit traceability to the software requirements specification. The traceability between the theory, numerical algorithms, and implementation facilitates achieving completeness and consistency, as well as simplifies the process of verification and the associated certification.

  1. Scientific method by argumentation design: learning process for maintaining student’s retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto; Yusiran; Asriyadin; Gumilar, S.; Subali, B.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research describes the effect of scientific methods designed by argumentation in maintaining retention of pre-service physics teachers (students) in mechanical concept. This learning consists of five stages including the first two stages namely observing and questioning. While the next three stages of reasoning, trying, and communicating are made of argumentation design. To know the effectiveness of treatment, students are given pre-test and post-test in one time. On the other hand, students were given advanced post-test to know the durability of retention as many as four times in four months. The results show that there was mean difference between pre-test and post-test based on the Wilcoxon test (z = -3.4, p=0.001). While the effectiveness of treatment is in the high category based on normalized gain values ( = 0.86). Meanwhile, mean difference of all post-test is significantly different based on Analysis of Varian (F = 365.63, p = 0.00). However, in the fourth month, students retention rates began to stabilize based on Tuckey’s HSD (p=0.074) for comparison of mean difference between fourth and fifth post-test. Overall, learning designed can maintain students retention within 4 months after the learning finish.

  2. The IUR Forum: Worldwide Harmonisation of Networks to Support Integration of Scientific Knowledge and Consensus Development in Radioecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, F; Alexakhin, R; Bollhöfer, A; Frogg, K E; Hardeman, F; Higley, K; Hinton, T G; Kapustka, L A; Kuhne, W; Leonard, K; Masson, O; Nanba, K; Smith, G; Smith, K; Strand, P; Vandenhove, H; Yankovich, T; Yoshida, S

    2017-04-01

    During the past decades, many specialised networks have formed to meet specific radioecological objectives, whether regional or sectorial (purpose-oriented). Regional networks deal with an array of radioecological issues related to their territories. Examples include the South Pacific network of radioecologists, and the European network of excellence in radioecology. The latter is now part of the European platform for radiation protection. Sectorial networks are more problem-oriented, often with wider international representativeness, but restricted to one specific issue, (e.g. radioactive waste, low-level atmospheric contamination, modelling). All such networks, while often working in relative isolation, contribute to a flow of scientific information which, through United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR's) efforts of synthesis, feeds into the radiation protection frameworks of protecting humans and the environment. The IUR has therefore prompted a co-construction process aimed at improving worldwide harmonisation of radioecology networks. An initiative based on an initial set of 15 networks, now called the IUR FORUM, was launched in June 2014. The IUR Forum agreed to build a framework for improved coordination of scientific knowledge, integration and consensus development relative to environmental radioactivity. Three objectives have been collectively assigned to the IUR FORUM: (1) coordination, (2) global integration and construction of consensus and (3) maintenance of expertise. One particular achievement of the FORUM was an improved description and common understanding of the respective roles and functions of the various networks within the overall scene of radioecology R&D. It clarifies how the various networks assembled within the IUR FORUM interface with UNSCEAR and other international regulatory bodies (IAEA, ICRP), and how consensus on the assessment of risk is constructed. All these agencies interact with regional

  3. The IUR forum: worldwide harmonisation of networks to support integration of scientific knowledge and consensus development in radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Alexakhin, R.; Bollhoefer, A.; Frogg, K.E.; Strand, P.; Hardeman, F.; Vandenhove, H.; Higley, K.; Hinton, T.G.; Nanba, K.; Kapustka, L.A.; Kuhne, W.; Leonard, K.; Masson, O.; Smith, G.; Smith, K.; Yankovich, T.; Yoshida, S.

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many specialised networks have formed to meet specific radioecological objectives, whether regional or sectorial (purpose-oriented). Regional networks deal with an array of radioecological issues related to their territories. Examples include the South Pacific network of radio-ecologists, and the European network of excellence in radioecology. The latter is now part of the European platform for radiation protection. Sectorial networks are more problem-oriented, often with wider international representativeness, but restricted to one specific issue, (e.g. radioactive waste, low-level atmospheric contamination, modelling). All such networks, while often working in relative isolation, contribute to a flow of scientific information which, through United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR's) efforts of synthesis, feeds into the radiation protection frameworks of protecting humans and the environment. The IUR has therefore prompted a co-construction process aimed at improving worldwide harmonisation of radioecology networks. An initiative based on an initial set of 15 networks, now called the IUR Forum, was launched in June 2014. The IUR Forum agreed to build a framework for improved coordination of scientific knowledge, integration and consensus development relative to environmental radioactivity. Three objectives have been collectively assigned to the IUR Forum: (1) coordination, (2) global integration and construction of consensus and (3) maintenance of expertise. One particular achievement of the Forum was an improved description and common understanding of the respective roles and functions of the various networks within the overall scene of radioecology R and D. It clarifies how the various networks assembled within the IUR Forum interface with UNSCEAR and other international regulatory bodies (IAEA, ICRP), and how consensus on the assessment of risk is constructed. All these agencies interact with

  4. Structuring scientific works in the “Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion” format – what a beginner ought to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avdeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference materials about the “Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion”, which is a commonly used international format for scientific works, have become available for Russian authors nowadays, still lack of knowledge about the format would pop up here or there, especially when we speak about beginners. The faults which would appear regularly in work structuring prompted the present research, the aim of which is to compare the information about the IMRAD format with the specific difficulties beginning authors would often face when preparing their works for publication.The main materials to be studied were sources in Russian and in English published mostly in 2010s and devoted to the problems of structuring works according to the meant above format. Besides, the present research considered the results of plagiarism tests (such tests used to be carried out at the Russia State Library within the period of 2013 – 2015 with the help of software “Automated system of specialized processing of textual documents”. The main methods of our research would remain structural and comparative analysis of texts.As a result, our research revealed the fact of inconsistency of the available information on the IMRAD structure. It would often demand deep thinking and explanations. Different authors of reference editions would as a rule differ one from another in their interpretation of the degree of necessity of this or that composition element, of the amount of details in descriptions, etc. Moreover, the very structure of scientific work looks differently for different authors. More often the structure supposes the integrity of the contents and its form, still sometimes its description would be replaced by outer elements, such as, for example, language clichés. The analysis of the most common faults in text structuring points that authors do not often have a clear idea of how to understand the different demands which are so obscurely described

  5. Integrating Bioethics in Sciences’ curricula using values in science and socio-scientific issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, C.

    2017-01-01

    [EN] The The main objective of the present work is selection of ethical issues that should be addressed with first year undergraduate and K-12 students.Since K-12 Sciences’ curriculum, in Portugal, does not include bioethics content in any discipline explicitly, teachers need to make an effort to include it. Some online materials are available to use in high school classes and will be discussed.My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting the discussion of ...

  6. A numerical integration-based yield estimation method for integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Tao; Jia Xinzhang

    2011-01-01

    A novel integration-based yield estimation method is developed for yield optimization of integrated circuits. This method tries to integrate the joint probability density function on the acceptability region directly. To achieve this goal, the simulated performance data of unknown distribution should be converted to follow a multivariate normal distribution by using Box-Cox transformation (BCT). In order to reduce the estimation variances of the model parameters of the density function, orthogonal array-based modified Latin hypercube sampling (OA-MLHS) is presented to generate samples in the disturbance space during simulations. The principle of variance reduction of model parameters estimation through OA-MLHS together with BCT is also discussed. Two yield estimation examples, a fourth-order OTA-C filter and a three-dimensional (3D) quadratic function are used for comparison of our method with Monte Carlo based methods including Latin hypercube sampling and importance sampling under several combinations of sample sizes and yield values. Extensive simulations show that our method is superior to other methods with respect to accuracy and efficiency under all of the given cases. Therefore, our method is more suitable for parametric yield optimization. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. A numerical integration-based yield estimation method for integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Tao; Jia Xinzhang, E-mail: tliang@yahoo.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-04-15

    A novel integration-based yield estimation method is developed for yield optimization of integrated circuits. This method tries to integrate the joint probability density function on the acceptability region directly. To achieve this goal, the simulated performance data of unknown distribution should be converted to follow a multivariate normal distribution by using Box-Cox transformation (BCT). In order to reduce the estimation variances of the model parameters of the density function, orthogonal array-based modified Latin hypercube sampling (OA-MLHS) is presented to generate samples in the disturbance space during simulations. The principle of variance reduction of model parameters estimation through OA-MLHS together with BCT is also discussed. Two yield estimation examples, a fourth-order OTA-C filter and a three-dimensional (3D) quadratic function are used for comparison of our method with Monte Carlo based methods including Latin hypercube sampling and importance sampling under several combinations of sample sizes and yield values. Extensive simulations show that our method is superior to other methods with respect to accuracy and efficiency under all of the given cases. Therefore, our method is more suitable for parametric yield optimization. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Application of Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis to Integrated Force Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. F. Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new formulation in structural analysis, Integrated Force Method has been successfully applied to many structures for civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering due to the accurate estimate of forces in computation. Right now, it is being further extended to the probabilistic domain. For the assessment of uncertainty effect in system optimization and identification, the probabilistic sensitivity analysis of IFM was further investigated in this study. A set of stochastic sensitivity analysis formulation of Integrated Force Method was developed using the perturbation method. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate its application. Its efficiency and accuracy were also substantiated with direct Monte Carlo simulations and the reliability-based sensitivity method. The numerical algorithm was shown to be readily adaptable to the existing program since the models of stochastic finite element and stochastic design sensitivity are almost identical.

  9. Real-time hybrid simulation using the convolution integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Jig; Christenson, Richard E; Wojtkiewicz, Steven F; Johnson, Erik A

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time hybrid simulation method that will allow complex systems to be tested within the hybrid test framework by employing the convolution integral (CI) method. The proposed CI method is potentially transformative for real-time hybrid simulation. The CI method can allow real-time hybrid simulation to be conducted regardless of the size and complexity of the numerical model and for numerical stability to be ensured in the presence of high frequency responses in the simulation. This paper presents the general theory behind the proposed CI method and provides experimental verification of the proposed method by comparing the CI method to the current integration time-stepping (ITS) method. Real-time hybrid simulation is conducted in the Advanced Hazard Mitigation Laboratory at the University of Connecticut. A seismically excited two-story shear frame building with a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid damper is selected as the test structure to experimentally validate the proposed method. The building structure is numerically modeled and simulated, while the MR damper is physically tested. Real-time hybrid simulation using the proposed CI method is shown to provide accurate results

  10. Integral methods in science and engineering theoretical and practical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, C; Rollins, D

    2006-01-01

    Presents a series of analytic and numerical methods of solution constructed for important problems arising in science and engineering, based on the powerful operation of integration. This volume is meant for researchers and practitioners in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students.

  11. An approximation method for nonlinear integral equations of Hammerstein type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Moore, C.

    1989-05-01

    The solution of a nonlinear integral equation of Hammerstein type in Hilbert spaces is approximated by means of a fixed point iteration method. Explicit error estimates are given and, in some cases, convergence is shown to be at least as fast as a geometric progression. (author). 25 refs

  12. The philosophy and method of integrative humanism and religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper titled “Philosophy and Method of Integrative Humanism and Religious Crises in Nigeria: Picking the Essentials”, acknowledges the damaging effects of religious bigotry, fanaticism and creed differences on the social, political and economic development of the country. The need for the cessation of religious ...

  13. An Integrated Approach to Research Methods and Capstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postic, Robert; McCandless, Ray; Stewart, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the AACU issued a report on improving undergraduate education suggesting, in part, that a curriculum should be both comprehensive and cohesive. Since 2008, we have systematically integrated our research methods course with our capstone course in an attempt to accomplish the twin goals of comprehensiveness and cohesion. By taking this…

  14. Confluent education: an integrative method for nursing (continuing) education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.; Erkens, T.

    1994-01-01

    Confluent education is presented as a method to bridge the gap between cognitive and affective learning. Attention is focused on three main characteristics of confluent education: (a) the integration of four overlapping domains in a learning process (readiness, the cognitive domain, the affective

  15. On the solution of high order stable time integration methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim; Sysala, Stanislav; Ahmad, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-22 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : evolution equations * preconditioners for quadratic matrix polynomials * a stiffly stable time integration method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2013 http://www.boundaryvalueproblems.com/content/2013/1/108

  16. Educational integrating projects as a method of interactive learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Иван Николаевич Куринин

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a method of interactive learning based on educational integrating projects. Some examples of content of such projects for the disciplines related to the study of information and Internet technologies and their application in management are presented.

  17. Integrating Expressive Methods in a Relational-Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic Involvement is an integral part of all effective psychotherapy.This article is written to illustrate the concept of Therapeutic Involvement in working within a therapeutic relationship – within the transference -- and with active expressive and experiential methods to resolve traumatic experiences, relational disturbances and life shaping decisions.

  18. The integral equation method applied to eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddlecombe, C.S.; Collie, C.J.; Simkin, J.; Trowbridge, C.W.

    1976-04-01

    An algorithm for the numerical solution of eddy current problems is described, based on the direct solution of the integral equation for the potentials. In this method only the conducting and iron regions need to be divided into elements, and there are no boundary conditions. Results from two computer programs using this method for iron free problems for various two-dimensional geometries are presented and compared with analytic solutions. (author)

  19. Methods to extract information on the atomic and molecular states from scientific abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Akira; Ueshima, Yutaka; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Murata, Masaki; Kanamaru, Toshiyuki; Shirado, Tamotsu; Isahara, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new application of information technology to recognize and extract expressions of atomic and molecular states from electrical forms of scientific abstracts. Present results will help scientists to understand atomic states as well as the physics discussed in the articles. Combining with the internet search engines, it will make one possible to collect not only atomic and molecular data but broader scientific information over a wide range of research fields. (author)

  20. Merits and Demerits of Teaching Method Using Case Studies of Scientific Management

    OpenAIRE

    工藤, 市兵衛; 尾藤, 信

    1981-01-01

    The practical aspects of scientific management were neglected in management education although its theory and knowledge have been taught. Knowledge and practice are not mutually exclusive. It is important that both of them, which are well-balanced, should be taught in management class. Academic societies are tend to neglect the practical aspects while business societies slack off the theory. This study pursed a well-balanced course by introducing the practical aspects of scientific management...

  1. Mixed methods in psychotherapy research: A review of method(ology) integration in psychotherapy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Theodore T; Lockard, Allison J

    2018-06-13

    Mixed methods can foster depth and breadth in psychological research. However, its use remains in development in psychotherapy research. Our purpose was to review the use of mixed methods in psychotherapy research. Thirty-one studies were identified via the PRISMA systematic review method. Using Creswell & Plano Clark's typologies to identify design characteristics, we assessed each study for rigor and how each used mixed methods. Key features of mixed methods designs and these common patterns were identified: (a) integration of clients' perceptions via mixing; (b) understanding group psychotherapy; (c) integrating methods with cases and small samples; (d) analyzing clinical data as qualitative data; and (e) exploring cultural identities in psychotherapy through mixed methods. The review is discussed with respect to the value of integrating multiple data in single studies to enhance psychotherapy research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dhage Iteration Method for Generalized Quadratic Functional Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao C. Dhage

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove the existence as well as approximations of the solutions for a certain nonlinear generalized quadratic functional integral equation. An algorithm for the solutions is developed and it is shown that the sequence of successive approximations starting at a lower or upper solution converges monotonically to the solutions of related quadratic functional integral equation under some suitable mixed hybrid conditions. We rely our main result on Dhage iteration method embodied in a recent hybrid fixed point theorem of Dhage (2014 in partially ordered normed linear spaces. An example is also provided to illustrate the abstract theory developed in the paper.

  3. Entropic sampling in the path integral Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov-Velyaminov, P N; Lyubartsev, A P

    2003-01-01

    We have extended the entropic sampling Monte Carlo method to the case of path integral representation of a quantum system. A two-dimensional density of states is introduced into path integral form of the quantum canonical partition function. Entropic sampling technique within the algorithm suggested recently by Wang and Landau (Wang F and Landau D P 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 2050) is then applied to calculate the corresponding entropy distribution. A three-dimensional quantum oscillator is considered as an example. Canonical distributions for a wide range of temperatures are obtained in a single simulation run, and exact data for the energy are reproduced

  4. High sensitive quench detection method using an integrated test wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fevrier, A.; Tavergnier, J.P.; Nithart, H.; Kiblaire, M.; Duchateau, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A high sensitive quench detection method which works even in the presence of an external perturbing magnetic field is reported. The quench signal is obtained from the difference in voltages at the superconducting winding terminals and at the terminals at a secondary winding strongly coupled to the primary. The secondary winding could consist of a ''zero-current strand'' of the superconducting cable not connected to one of the winding terminals or an integrated normal test wire inside the superconducting cable. Experimental results on quench detection obtained by this method are described. It is shown that the integrated test wire method leads to efficient and sensitive quench detection, especially in the presence of an external perturbing magnetic field

  5. Integrating computational methods to retrofit enzymes to synthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunk, Elizabeth; Neri, Marilisa; Tavernelli, Ivano; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2012-02-01

    Microbial production of desired compounds provides an efficient framework for the development of renewable energy resources. To be competitive to traditional chemistry, one requirement is to utilize the full capacity of the microorganism to produce target compounds with high yields and turnover rates. We use integrated computational methods to generate and quantify the performance of novel biosynthetic routes that contain highly optimized catalysts. Engineering a novel reaction pathway entails addressing feasibility on multiple levels, which involves handling the complexity of large-scale biochemical networks while respecting the critical chemical phenomena at the atomistic scale. To pursue this multi-layer challenge, our strategy merges knowledge-based metabolic engineering methods with computational chemistry methods. By bridging multiple disciplines, we provide an integral computational framework that could accelerate the discovery and implementation of novel biosynthetic production routes. Using this approach, we have identified and optimized a novel biosynthetic route for the production of 3HP from pyruvate. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Integration and Differentiation as the Universal Scientific Categories and their Reflection in the Theory and Practice of Natural Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ignatova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The post-industrial society gives way to the qualitatively new formation of education, integrated at its every level: integration with science and production; cooperation of different educational establishments; succession of educational levels; cross-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary expertise development; choice of methods, technologies and organizational forms of education and upbringing, etc. The integration and differentiation in their didactic unity reflect the complexity and contradiction of educational process, either of them dominating in certain socio-economic conditions of the given historic period. The retrospective analysis of the above correlation regarding the natural science disciplines demonstrates the lack of theoretical and methodological bases for integration, and its accidental unsystematic character in educational processes. The main conclusion of the study is the need for the complex competence model to combine the ideas of integration and differentiation providing both the wide outlook and professional training. For overcoming the predominance of differentiated education, the author suggests adapting the concepts of post-non-classical science, and selection and structuring of educational information with the reference to the semantic universals of systematic synergetic approach. The research findings can be used in pedagogic research methodology, educational process design and modeling, its content, technology and organization. 

  7. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-30

    analysts. The second technique is that of matched field processing whereby spatial covariance matrices calculated from large numbers of confirmed events from a single site can be used to generate calibrated narrow-band steering vectors which can replace the theoretical plane-wave steering vectors of traditional f-k analysis. This provides a kind of fingerprint which is specific to a given source region and is effective to higher frequencies than traditional beamforming since deviations from the theoretical planewave model are compensated for in the calibrations. The narrow-band nature of the technique makes the source identification most sensitive to the spatial nature of the recorded wavefield and less sensitive to the temporal nature. This may make the method far more suitable for events with very complicated seismic sources than full waveform-correlation methods.

  8. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    analysts. The second technique is that of matched field processing whereby spatial covariance matrices calculated from large numbers of confirmed events from a single site can be used to generate calibrated narrow-band steering vectors which can replace the theoretical plane-wave steering vectors of traditional f-k analysis. This provides a kind of fingerprint which is specific to a given source region and is effective to higher frequencies than traditional beam forming since deviations from the theoretical planewave model are compensated for in the calibrations. The narrow-band nature of the technique makes the source identification most sensitive to the spatial nature of the recorded wavefield and less sensitive to the temporal nature. This may make the method far more suitable for events with very complicated seismic sources than full waveform-correlation methods

  9. [Quality and integrity in the production and publication of scientific results: data trimming, manipulation and (self) plagiarism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, T F

    2014-08-01

    The publication of scientific manuscripts is an essential part in the research process and in the attempt to produce novel knowledge: only what is published exists. It is the aim of research to produce reproducible and sustainable knowledge. Reproducible knowledge is based on precise observation, the use of modern methodologies and an appropriate statistical analysis. As a consequence, it must be the intention of any scientist to report the truth and nothing but the truth. This principle requires precision and honesty. Deviation from such a behavior may lead to scientific misconduct: It encompasses the use of inappropriate methods and/or statistics, double publication of data, sloppy data presentation and processing, up to data massaging, manipulation, data theft or fabrication. Famous examples can be found throughout the history of research but it appears that such behavior has recently become more common possibly due to excessive competition, the crucial role of grants for scientific productivity and funding as well as promotion. Accordingly, in the training of researchers it seems essential to emphasize the importance of precise data acquisition and analysis to ascertain reproducible data. Similarly, it must be assured that data sets are only published once, that authors have contributed technically and/or intellectually in an important manner and that the work of other scientists is cited appropriately. Editors and reviewers should carefully assess the quality of submitted manuscripts. In fact, it is the aim of the peer review process to assure as much as possible that the quality of submitted manuscripts meets current methodological as well as ethical standards.

  10. Nuclear methods - an integral part of the NBS certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Within the past twenty years, new techniques and methods have emerged in response to new technologies that are based upon the performance of high-purity and well-characterized materials. The National Bureau of Standards, through its Standard Reference Materials (SRM's) Program, provides standards in the form of many of these materials to ensure accuracy and the compatibility of measurements throughout the US and the world. These standards, defined by the National Bureau of Standards as Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), are developed by using state-of-the-art methods and procedures for both preparation and analysis. Nuclear methods-activation analysis constitute an integral part of that analysis process

  11. The Scientific Method, Diagnostic Bayes, and How to Detect Epistemic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrugt, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades, Bayesian methods have found widespread application and use in environmental systems modeling. Bayes theorem states that the posterior probability, P(H|D) of a hypothesis, H is proportional to the product of the prior probability, P(H) of this hypothesis and the likelihood, L(H|hat{D}) of the same hypothesis given the new/incoming observations, \\hat {D}. In science and engineering, H often constitutes some numerical simulation model, D = F(x,.) which summarizes using algebraic, empirical, and differential equations, state variables and fluxes, all our theoretical and/or practical knowledge of the system of interest, and x are the d unknown parameters which are subject to inference using some data, \\hat {D} of the observed system response. The Bayesian approach is intimately related to the scientific method and uses an iterative cycle of hypothesis formulation (model), experimentation and data collection, and theory/hypothesis refinement to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world. Unfortunately, model refinement has proven to be very difficult in large part because of the poor diagnostic power of residual based likelihood functions tep{gupta2008}. This has inspired te{vrugt2013} to advocate the use of 'likelihood-free' inference using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). This approach uses one or more summary statistics, S(\\hat {D}) of the original data, \\hat {D} designed ideally to be sensitive only to one particular process in the model. Any mismatch between the observed and simulated summary metrics is then easily linked to a specific model component. A recurrent issue with the application of ABC is self-sufficiency of the summary statistics. In theory, S(.) should contain as much information as the original data itself, yet complex systems rarely admit sufficient statistics. In this article, we propose to combine the ideas of ABC and regular Bayesian inference to guarantee that no information is lost in diagnostic model

  12. Management of Teacher Scientific-Methodical Work in Vocational Educational Institutions on the Basis of Project-Target Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakuto, Elena A.; Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Kozlova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the subject under analysis is determined by the lack of theoretical development of the problem of management of teacher scientific-methodical work in vocational educational institutions based upon innovative approaches in the framework of project paradigm. The purpose of the article is to develop and test a science-based…

  13. Direct integration multiple collision integral transport analysis method for high energy fusion neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new analysis method specially suited for the inherent difficulties of fusion neutronics was developed to provide detailed studies of the fusion neutron transport physics. These studies should provide a better understanding of the limitations and accuracies of typical fusion neutronics calculations. The new analysis method is based on the direct integration of the integral form of the neutron transport equation and employs a continuous energy formulation with the exact treatment of the energy angle kinematics of the scattering process. In addition, the overall solution is analyzed in terms of uncollided, once-collided, and multi-collided solution components based on a multiple collision treatment. Furthermore, the numerical evaluations of integrals use quadrature schemes that are based on the actual dependencies exhibited in the integrands. The new DITRAN computer code was developed on the Cyber 205 vector supercomputer to implement this direct integration multiple-collision fusion neutronics analysis. Three representative fusion reactor models were devised and the solutions to these problems were studied to provide suitable choices for the numerical quadrature orders as well as the discretized solution grid and to understand the limitations of the new analysis method. As further verification and as a first step in assessing the accuracy of existing fusion-neutronics calculations, solutions obtained using the new analysis method were compared to typical multigroup discrete ordinates calculations

  14. Scientific and methodic approaches to reveal stability essence at the industrial enterprises and its functional components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyulyov Oleksii Valentynovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical analysis of the scientific approaches concerning definition of the concept “stability”, which exist in the scientific literature. There are five different approaches to interpret the concept “enterprise stability”, as an open economic system. On this base, the author’s definition of the enterprise stability is formed. Due to the carried out analysis of the main tendencies in changes of the industry development factors for 2006-2015 and future expectations, the main functional constituents of the enterprise stability. The author suggests to use an approach of self-organizational artificial neural networks to evaluate stability degree at the industrial enterprises.

  15. Characteristics of the scientific researches in sport climbing (review of the articles, theses, programs, methodical works.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedliar Yu.V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The general estimation of the condition of the scientific developments will presented in sport climbing and on this base is specified the most perspective ways of scientific searching for in this area. Analysis publication reflecting different questions of preparation sport climbing athletes was organized. On base of the analysis of the special literature and coming from generally accepted in home science structure of the knowledge, was ascertained degree of the development different theoretical and practical aspect in this sphere. Discovered increase amount of the experimental studies in sport climbing.

  16. An Integrated Method of Supply Chains Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain vulnerability identification and evaluation are extremely important to mitigate the supply chain risk. We present an integrated method to assess the supply chain vulnerability. The potential failure mode of the supply chain vulnerability is analyzed through the SCOR model. Combining the fuzzy theory and the gray theory, the correlation degree of each vulnerability indicator can be calculated and the target improvements can be carried out. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we use Kendall’s tau coefficient to measure the effect of different methods. The result shows that the presented method has the highest consistency in the assessment compared with the other two methods.

  17. Field Method for Integrating the First Order Differential Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-qun; ZHENG Shi-wang; ZHANG Yao-yu

    2007-01-01

    An important modern method in analytical mechanics for finding the integral, which is called the field-method, is used to research the solution of a differential equation of the first order. First, by introducing an intermediate variable, a more complicated differential equation of the first order can be expressed by two simple differential equations of the first order, then the field-method in analytical mechanics is introduced for solving the two differential equations of the first order. The conclusion shows that the field-method in analytical mechanics can be fully used to find the solutions of a differential equation of the first order, thus a new method for finding the solutions of the first order is provided.

  18. Computing thermal Wigner densities with the phase integration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutier, J.; Borgis, D.; Vuilleumier, R.; Bonella, S.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss how the Phase Integration Method (PIM), recently developed to compute symmetrized time correlation functions [M. Monteferrante, S. Bonella, and G. Ciccotti, Mol. Phys. 109, 3015 (2011)], can be adapted to sampling/generating the thermal Wigner density, a key ingredient, for example, in many approximate schemes for simulating quantum time dependent properties. PIM combines a path integral representation of the density with a cumulant expansion to represent the Wigner function in a form calculable via existing Monte Carlo algorithms for sampling noisy probability densities. The method is able to capture highly non-classical effects such as correlation among the momenta and coordinates parts of the density, or correlations among the momenta themselves. By using alternatives to cumulants, it can also indicate the presence of negative parts of the Wigner density. Both properties are demonstrated by comparing PIM results to those of reference quantum calculations on a set of model problems

  19. Computing thermal Wigner densities with the phase integration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutier, J; Borgis, D; Vuilleumier, R; Bonella, S

    2014-08-28

    We discuss how the Phase Integration Method (PIM), recently developed to compute symmetrized time correlation functions [M. Monteferrante, S. Bonella, and G. Ciccotti, Mol. Phys. 109, 3015 (2011)], can be adapted to sampling/generating the thermal Wigner density, a key ingredient, for example, in many approximate schemes for simulating quantum time dependent properties. PIM combines a path integral representation of the density with a cumulant expansion to represent the Wigner function in a form calculable via existing Monte Carlo algorithms for sampling noisy probability densities. The method is able to capture highly non-classical effects such as correlation among the momenta and coordinates parts of the density, or correlations among the momenta themselves. By using alternatives to cumulants, it can also indicate the presence of negative parts of the Wigner density. Both properties are demonstrated by comparing PIM results to those of reference quantum calculations on a set of model problems.

  20. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinn, Ronald [MIT; Webster, Mort [MIT

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  1. Methods in Entrepreneurship Education Research: A Review and Integrative Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per; Trolle Elmholdt, Stine; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    2014-01-01

    is fragmented both conceptually and methodologically. Findings suggest that the methods applied in entrepreneurship education research cluster in two groups: 1. quantitative studies of the extent and effect of entrepreneurship education, and 2. qualitative single case studies of different courses and programmes....... It integrates qualitative and quantitative techniques, the use of research teams consisting of insiders (teachers studying their own teaching) and outsiders (research collaborators studying the education) as well as multiple types of data. To gain both in-depth and analytically generalizable studies...... a variety of helpful methods, explore the potential relation between insiders and outsiders in the research process, and discuss how different types of data can be combined. The integrated framework urges researchers to extend investments in methodological efforts and to enhance the in-depth understanding...

  2. System integrational and migrational concepts and methods within healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endsleff, F; Loubjerg, P

    1997-01-01

    In this paper an overview and comparison of the basic concepts and methods behind different system integrational implementations is given, including the DHE, which is based on the coming Healthcare Information Systems Architecture pre-standard HISA, developed by CEN TC251. This standard and the DHE...... (Distributed Healthcare Environment) not only provides highly relevant standards, but also provides an efficient and well structured platform for Healthcare IT Systems....

  3. A geometrical method towards first integrals for dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrunie, S.; Conte, R.

    1996-01-01

    We develop a method, based on Darboux close-quote s and Liouville close-quote s works, to find first integrals and/or invariant manifolds for a physically relevant class of dynamical systems, without making any assumption on these elements close-quote forms. We apply it to three dynamical systems: Lotka endash Volterra, Lorenz and Rikitake. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. Towards risk-based structural integrity methods for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, O.J.V.; Lloyd, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of risk-based structural integrity assurance methods and their application to Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. In-service inspection is introduced as a way of reducing the failure probability of high risk sites and the latter are identified using reliability analysis; the extent and interval of inspection can also be optimized. The methodology is illustrated by reference to the aspect of reliability of weldments in PWR systems. (author)

  5. INTEGRATED APPLICATION OF OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN ULCERATIVE COLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Velikanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Our results suggest that the combined use of optical coherent tomography (OCT and fluorescence diagnosis helps to refine the nature and boundaries of the pathological process in the tissue of the colon in ulcerative colitis. Studies have shown that an integrated optical diagnostics allows us to differentiate lesions respectively to histology and to decide on the need for biopsy and venue. This method is most appropriate in cases difficult for diagnosis. 

  6. SCIENTIFIC AND METHODICAL ASPECTS OF FORMATION OF SUBJECT CONTENT OF TRAINING COURSESFOR INVERSE PROBLEMS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В С Корнилов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents scientific and methodical aspects of forming the content of education inverse problems for differential equations for students of higher educational institutions of physical, mathematical and natural science training areas. The goals are formulated and the principles of training are the content of learning inverse problems for differential equations. Attention is drawn to the particular issues of teaching courses inverse problems. Describes the classification criteria and target modules that play the role of tools to create and analyze the model and curriculum, forming learning content inverse problems for differential equations. The content classification features and target modules. Formulate conclusions that learning the inverse problems for differential equations has scientific, educational and humanitarian potential of students and as a result of this training they gain the fundamental knowledge in the applied and computational mathematics, and also develop scientific worldview, applied, environmental, information thinking.

  7. Scientific method, analyzed by means of examples from weak interaction physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietschmann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Following K. POPPER, the logic of science is briefly reviewed. The decay of the long lived K meson into muon pairs is considered and limits for its branching ratio are computed. It is used - together with the discovery of weak neutral currents - to demonstrate the logic of scientific discovery on special examples. (Auth.)

  8. Proceedings of scientific, practical and methodical conference devoted to 30-years anniversary of the institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulazhanova, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Collection consists of materials of scientific, practical and methodological conference devoted to 30-year anniversary of the Almaty Technological Inst., which considered following items: actual problems of food and light industry, equipment of food and grain-processing productions, chemistry of foodstuffs and materials etc. (author)

  9. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  10. Using a Simple "Escherichia Coli" Growth Curve Model to Teach the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Lisa N.

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of teaching in the sciences is not only conveying knowledge in the discipline, but also developing essential critical thinking, data analysis, and scientific writing skills. I outline an exercise that can be done easily as part of a microbiology laboratory course. It teaches the nature of the research process, from asking questions…

  11. The ethics of improving African traditional medical practice: scientific or African traditional research methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Aceme

    2009-11-01

    The disease burden in Africa, which is relatively very large compared with developed countries, has been attributed to various factors that include poverty, food shortages, inadequate access to health care and unaffordability of Western medicines to the majority of African populations. Although for 'old diseases' knowledge about the right African traditional medicines to treat or cure the diseases has been passed from generation to generation, knowledge about traditional medicines to treat newly emerging diseases has to be generated in one way or another. In addition, the existing traditional medicines have to be continuously improved, which is also the case with Western scientific medicines. Whereas one school of thought supports the idea of improving medicines, be they traditional or Western, through scientific research, an opposing school of thought argues that subjecting African traditional medicines to scientific research would be tantamount to some form of colonization and imperialism. This paper argues that continuing to use African traditional medicines for old and new diseases without making concerted efforts to improve their efficacy and safety is unethical since the disease burden affecting Africa may continue to rise in spite of the availability and accessibility of the traditional medicines. Most importantly, the paper commends efforts being made in some African countries to improve African traditional medicine through a combination of different mechanisms that include the controversial approach of scientific research on traditional medicines.

  12. Structural reliability calculation method based on the dual neural network and direct integration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; He, Yun; Nie, Xiaobo

    2018-01-01

    Structural reliability analysis under uncertainty is paid wide attention by engineers and scholars due to reflecting the structural characteristics and the bearing actual situation. The direct integration method, started from the definition of reliability theory, is easy to be understood, but there are still mathematics difficulties in the calculation of multiple integrals. Therefore, a dual neural network method is proposed for calculating multiple integrals in this paper. Dual neural network consists of two neural networks. The neural network A is used to learn the integrand function, and the neural network B is used to simulate the original function. According to the derivative relationships between the network output and the network input, the neural network B is derived from the neural network A. On this basis, the performance function of normalization is employed in the proposed method to overcome the difficulty of multiple integrations and to improve the accuracy for reliability calculations. The comparisons between the proposed method and Monte Carlo simulation method, Hasofer-Lind method, the mean value first-order second moment method have demonstrated that the proposed method is an efficient and accurate reliability method for structural reliability problems.

  13. Evaluation of the filtered leapfrog-trapezoidal time integration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roache, P.J.; Dietrich, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation are presented for a new method of time integration for fluid dynamic proposed by Dietrich. The method, called the filtered leapfrog-trapezoidal (FLT) scheme, is analyzed for the one-dimensional constant-coefficient advection equation and is shown to have some advantages for quasi-steady flows. A modification (FLTW) using a weighted combination of FLT and leapfrog is developed which retains the advantages for steady flows, increases accuracy for time-dependent flows, and involves little coding effort. Merits and applicability are discussed

  14. Investigation of Optimal Integrated Circuit Raster Image Vectorization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Jasevičius

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual analysis of integrated circuit layer requires raster image vectorization stage to extract layer topology data to CAD tools. In this paper vectorization problems of raster IC layer images are presented. Various line extraction from raster images algorithms and their properties are discussed. Optimal raster image vectorization method was developed which allows utilization of common vectorization algorithms to achieve the best possible extracted vector data match with perfect manual vectorization results. To develop the optimal method, vectorized data quality dependence on initial raster image skeleton filter selection was assessed.Article in Lithuanian

  15. OECD/NEA data bank scientific and integral experiments databases in support of knowledge preservation and transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Kodeli, I.; Mompean, F.J.; Briggs, J.B.; Gado, J.; Hasegawa, A.; D'hondt, P.; Wiesenack, W.; Zaetta, A.

    2004-01-01

    The OECD/Nuclear Energy Data Bank was established by its member countries as an institution to allow effective sharing of knowledge and its basic underlying information and data in key areas of nuclear science and technology. The activities as regards preserving and transferring knowledge consist of the: 1) Acquisition of basic nuclear data, computer codes and experimental system data needed over a wide range of nuclear and radiation applications; 2) Independent verification and validation of these data using quality assurance methods, adding value through international benchmark exercises, workshops and meetings and by issuing relevant reports with conclusions and recommendations, as well as by organising training courses to ensure their qualified and competent use; 3) Dissemination of the different products to authorised establishments in member countries and collecting and integrating user feedback. Of particular importance has been the establishment of basic and integral experiments databases and the methodology developed with the aim of knowledge preservation and transfer. Databases established thus far include: 1) IRPhE - International Reactor Physics Experimental Benchmarks Evaluations, 2) SINBAD - a radiation shielding experiments database (nuclear reactors, fusion neutronics and accelerators), 3) IFPE - International Fuel Performance Benchmark Experiments Database, 4) TDB - The Thermochemical Database Project, 5) ICSBE - International Nuclear Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluations, 6) CCVM - CSNI Code Validation Matrix of Thermal-hydraulic Codes for LWR LOCA and Transients. This paper will concentrate on knowledge preservation and transfer concepts and methods related to some of the integral experiments and TDB. (author)

  16. A Science of Social Work, and Social Work as an Integrative Scientific Discipline: Have We Gone Too Far, or Not Far Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, John S.

    2014-01-01

    There are two purposes to this article. The first is to update the science of social work framework. The second is to use recent discussions on the nature of realist science and on social work science to propose a definition of social work as an integrative scientific discipline that complements its definition as a profession.

  17. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - Strategies and Actions to Impact Sexual Harassment in Science and other Work Climate Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael; Davidson, Eric; McEntee, Christine; Williams, Billy

    2017-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. More recently AGU has undertaken strategies and actions to help address the issue of harassment in the sciences and other work climate issues. This presentation will provide an overview of the role of scientific societies in helping to address these important issues, as well as specific strategies and actions underway at AGU and other societies. Progress to date and remaining challenges of this effort will be discussed, including AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  18. Numerical method for solving integral equations of neutron transport. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyalka, S.K.; Tsai, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In a recent paper it was pointed out that the weakly singular integral equations of neutron transport can be quite conveniently solved by a method based on subtraction of singularity. This previous paper was devoted entirely to the consideration of simple one-dimensional isotropic-scattering and one-group problems. The present paper constitutes interesting extensions of the previous work in that in addition to a typical two-group anisotropic-scattering albedo problem in the slab geometry, the method is also applied to an isotropic-scattering problem in the x-y geometry. These results are compared with discrete S/sub N/ (ANISN or TWOTRAN-II) results, and for the problems considered here, the proposed method is found to be quite effective. Thus, the method appears to hold considerable potential for future applications. (auth)

  19. Comparison of Three Different Methods for Pile Integrity Testing on a Cylindrical Homogeneous Polyamide Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovtsova, Y. D.; Soldatov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Three different methods for pile integrity testing are proposed to compare on a cylindrical homogeneous polyamide specimen. The methods are low strain pile integrity testing, multichannel pile integrity testing and testing with a shaker system. Since the low strain pile integrity testing is well-established and standardized method, the results from it are used as a reference for other two methods.

  20. A simple reliability block diagram method for safety integrity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Haitao; Yang Xianhui

    2007-01-01

    IEC 61508 requires safety integrity verification for safety related systems to be a necessary procedure in safety life cycle. PFD avg must be calculated to verify the safety integrity level (SIL). Since IEC 61508-6 does not give detailed explanations of the definitions and PFD avg calculations for its examples, it is difficult for common reliability or safety engineers to understand when they use the standard as guidance in practice. A method using reliability block diagram is investigated in this study in order to provide a clear and feasible way of PFD avg calculation and help those who take IEC 61508-6 as their guidance. The method finds mean down times (MDTs) of both channel and voted group first and then PFD avg . The calculated results of various voted groups are compared with those in IEC61508 part 6 and Ref. [Zhang T, Long W, Sato Y. Availability of systems with self-diagnostic components-applying Markov model to IEC 61508-6. Reliab Eng System Saf 2003;80(2):133-41]. An interesting outcome can be realized from the comparison. Furthermore, although differences in MDT of voted groups exist between IEC 61508-6 and this paper, PFD avg of voted groups are comparatively close. With detailed description, the method of RBD presented can be applied to the quantitative SIL verification, showing a similarity of the method in IEC 61508-6

  1. Numerical Simulation of Antennas with Improved Integral Equation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ji; Fang Guang-You; Lu Wei

    2015-01-01

    Simulating antennas around a conducting object is a challenge task in computational electromagnetism, which is concerned with the behaviour of electromagnetic fields. To analyze this model efficiently, an improved integral equation-fast Fourier transform (IE-FFT) algorithm is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme employs two Cartesian grids with different size and location to enclose the antenna and the other object, respectively. On the one hand, IE-FFT technique is used to store matrix in a sparse form and accelerate the matrix-vector multiplication for each sub-domain independently. On the other hand, the mutual interaction between sub-domains is taken as the additional exciting voltage in each matrix equation. By updating integral equations several times, the whole electromagnetic system can achieve a stable status. Finally, the validity of the presented method is verified through the analysis of typical antennas in the presence of a conducting object. (paper)

  2. A comparison of non-integrating reprogramming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Daheron, Laurence; Brickler, Thomas R; Entwisle, Samuel; Chan, Karrie; Cianci, Amelia; DeVine, Alexander; Ettenger, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Kelly; Godfrey, Michelle; Gupta, Dipti; McPherson, Jade; Malwadkar, Prerana; Gupta, Manav; Bell, Blair; Doi, Akiko; Jung, Namyoung; Li, Xin; Lynes, Maureen S; Brookes, Emily; Cherry, Anne B C; Demirbas, Didem; Tsankov, Alexander M; Zon, Leonard I; Rubin, Lee L; Feinberg, Andrew P; Meissner, Alexander; Cowan, Chad A; Daley, George Q

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs1–3) are useful in disease modeling and drug discovery, and they promise to provide a new generation of cell-based therapeutics. To date there has been no systematic evaluation of the most widely used techniques for generating integration-free hiPSCs. Here we compare Sendai-viral (SeV)4, episomal (Epi)5 and mRNA transfection mRNA6 methods using a number of criteria. All methods generated high-quality hiPSCs, but significant differences existed in aneuploidy rates, reprogramming efficiency, reliability and workload. We discuss the advantages and shortcomings of each approach, and present and review the results of a survey of a large number of human reprogramming laboratories on their independent experiences and preferences. Our analysis provides a valuable resource to inform the use of specific reprogramming methods for different laboratories and different applications, including clinical translation. PMID:25437882

  3. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerr, R. Joseph, E-mail: rjz116@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Azmy, Yousry Y., E-mail: yyazmy@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Burlington Engineering Laboratories, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)

  4. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerr, R. Joseph; Azmy, Yousry Y.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)

  5. Recent Advances in the Method of Forces: Integrated Force Method of Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Stress that can be induced in an elastic continuum can be determined directly through the simultaneous application of the equilibrium equations and the compatibility conditions. In the literature, this direct stress formulation is referred to as the integrated force method. This method, which uses forces as the primary unknowns, complements the popular equilibrium-based stiffness method, which considers displacements as the unknowns. The integrated force method produces accurate stress, displacement, and frequency results even for modest finite element models. This version of the force method should be developed as an alternative to the stiffness method because the latter method, which has been researched for the past several decades, may have entered its developmental plateau. Stress plays a primary role in the development of aerospace and other products, and its analysis is difficult. Therefore, it is advisable to use both methods to calculate stress and eliminate errors through comparison. This paper examines the role of the integrated force method in analysis, animation and design.

  6. Using the Scientific Method to Guide Learning: An Integrated Approach to Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerde, Hope K.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in how early childhood programs prepare young children for science. Due to a number of factors, including educators' low self-efficacy for teaching science and lack of educational resources, many early childhood classrooms do not offer high-quality science experiences for young…

  7. Manual for JSSL (JAERI scientific subroutine library)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shuji; Fujimura, Toichiro; Tsutsui, Tsuneo; Nishida, Takahiko

    1982-09-01

    A manual on revised version of JAERI scientific subroutine library, which is a collection of scientific subroutines developed or modified in JAERI. They are classified into fifteen fields (Special Functions, Linear Problems, Eigenvalue and Eigen vector Problems, Non linear Problems, Mathematical Programming, Extreme Value Problems, Transformations, Functional Approximation Methods, Numerical Differential and Integral Methods, Numerical Differential and Integral Equations, Statistical Functions, Physical Problems, I/O Routines, Plotter Routines, Computer System Functions and Others). Main expansion of this version is in the fields of mathematical programming and statistical functions. The present library may be said to be a comprehensive compilation of scientific subroutines covering almost all the important fields. (author)

  8. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, J. Randall; Dominguez, Frank; Johnson, A. Wayne; Omstead, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

  9. [Development method of healthcare information system integration based on business collaboration model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Nie, Hongchao; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2015-02-01

    Integration of heterogeneous systems is the key to hospital information construction due to complexity of the healthcare environment. Currently, during the process of healthcare information system integration, people participating in integration project usually communicate by free-format document, which impairs the efficiency and adaptability of integration. A method utilizing business process model and notation (BPMN) to model integration requirement and automatically transforming it to executable integration configuration was proposed in this paper. Based on the method, a tool was developed to model integration requirement and transform it to integration configuration. In addition, an integration case in radiology scenario was used to verify the method.

  10. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - SSST Testing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Huntsville, AL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-03-25

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the methods used for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis during the IDCA program. These methods changed throughout the Proficiency Test and the reasons for these changes are documented in this report. The most significant modifications in standard testing methods are: 1) including one specified sandpaper in impact testing among all the participants, 2) diversifying liquid test methods for selected participants, and 3) including sealed sample holders for thermal testing by at least one participant. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is putting the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study will suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. The testing performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  11. Life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment method for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbur, Baris Burak; Xiang, Liming; Dubey, Swapnil; Choo, Fook Hoong; Duan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LCA integrated thermoeconomic approach is presented. • The new unit fuel cost is found 4.8 times higher than the classic method. • The new defined parameter increased the sustainability index by 67.1%. • The case studies are performed for countries with different CO 2 prices. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) based thermoeconomic modelling has been applied for the evaluation of energy conversion systems since it provided more comprehensive and applicable assessment criteria. This study proposes an improved thermoeconomic method, named as life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment (LCiTA), which combines the LCA based enviroeconomic parameters in the production steps of the system components and fuel with the conventional thermoeconomic method for the energy conversion systems. A micro-cogeneration system is investigated and analyzed with the LCiTA method, the comparative studies show that the unit cost of fuel by using the LCiTA method is 3.8 times higher than the conventional thermoeconomic model. It is also realized that the enviroeconomic parameters during the operation of the system components do not have significant impacts on the system streams since the exergetic parameters are dominant in the thermoeconomic calculations. Moreover, the improved sustainability index is found roundly 67.2% higher than the previously defined sustainability index, suggesting that the enviroeconomic and thermoeconomic parameters decrease the impact of the exergy destruction in the sustainability index definition. To find the feasible operation conditions for the micro-cogeneration system, different assessment strategies are presented. Furthermore, a case study for Singapore is conducted to see the impact of the forecasted carbon dioxide prices on the thermoeconomic performance of the micro-cogeneration system.

  12. The reduced basis method for the electric field integral equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, M.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Maday, Y.; Stamm, B.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the reduced basis method (RBM) as an efficient tool for parametrized scattering problems in computational electromagnetics for problems where field solutions are computed using a standard Boundary Element Method (BEM) for the parametrized electric field integral equation (EFIE). This combination enables an algorithmic cooperation which results in a two step procedure. The first step consists of a computationally intense assembling of the reduced basis, that needs to be effected only once. In the second step, we compute output functionals of the solution, such as the Radar Cross Section (RCS), independently of the dimension of the discretization space, for many different parameter values in a many-query context at very little cost. Parameters include the wavenumber, the angle of the incident plane wave and its polarization.

  13. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-02-01

    In addition to the traditional lecture format, three other teaching strategies (class discussions, concept maps, and cooperative learning) were incorporated into a freshman level general chemistry course. Student perceptions of their involvement in each of the teaching methods, as well as their perceptions of the utility of each method were used to assess the effectiveness of the integration of the teaching strategies as received by the students. Results suggest that each strategy serves a unique purpose for the students and increased student involvement in the course. These results indicate that the multiple teaching strategies were well received by the students and that all teaching strategies are necessary for students to get the most out of the course.

  14. Integral equation methods for vesicle electrohydrodynamics in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapaneni, Shravan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a new boundary integral equation formulation that describes the coupled electro- and hydro-dynamics of a vesicle suspended in a viscous fluid and subjected to external flow and electric fields. The dynamics of the vesicle are characterized by a competition between the elastic, electric and viscous forces on its membrane. The classical Taylor-Melcher leaky-dielectric model is employed for the electric response of the vesicle and the Helfrich energy model combined with local inextensibility is employed for its elastic response. The coupled governing equations for the vesicle position and its transmembrane electric potential are solved using a numerical method that is spectrally accurate in space and first-order in time. The method uses a semi-implicit time-stepping scheme to overcome the numerical stiffness associated with the governing equations.

  15. Integrated Phoneme Subspace Method for Speech Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyunsin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech feature extraction has been a key focus in robust speech recognition research. In this work, we discuss data-driven linear feature transformations applied to feature vectors in the logarithmic mel-frequency filter bank domain. Transformations are based on principal component analysis (PCA, independent component analysis (ICA, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Furthermore, this paper introduces a new feature extraction technique that collects the correlation information among phoneme subspaces and reconstructs feature space for representing phonemic information efficiently. The proposed speech feature vector is generated by projecting an observed vector onto an integrated phoneme subspace (IPS based on PCA or ICA. The performance of the new feature was evaluated for isolated word speech recognition. The proposed method provided higher recognition accuracy than conventional methods in clean and reverberant environments.

  16. Accelerometer method and apparatus for integral display and control functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    Vibration analysis has been used for years to provide a determination of the proper functioning of different types of machinery, including rotating machinery and rocket engines. A determination of a malfunction, if detected at a relatively early stage in its development, will allow changes in operating mode or a sequenced shutdown of the machinery prior to a total failure. Such preventative measures result in less extensive and/or less expensive repairs, and can also prevent a sometimes catastrophic failure of equipment. Standard vibration analyzers are generally rather complex, expensive, and of limited portability. They also usually result in displays and controls being located remotely from the machinery being monitored. Consequently, a need exists for improvements in accelerometer electronic display and control functions which are more suitable for operation directly on machines and which are not so expensive and complex. The invention includes methods and apparatus for detecting mechanical vibrations and outputting a signal in response thereto. The apparatus includes an accelerometer package having integral display and control functions. The accelerometer package is suitable for mounting upon the machinery to be monitored. Display circuitry provides signals to a bar graph display which may be used to monitor machine condition over a period of time. Control switches may be set which correspond to elements in the bar graph to provide an alert if vibration signals increase over the selected trip point. The circuitry is shock mounted within the accelerometer housing. The method provides for outputting a broadband analog accelerometer signal, integrating this signal to produce a velocity signal, integrating and calibrating the velocity signal before application to a display driver, and selecting a trip point at which a digitally compatible output signal is generated. The benefits of a vibration recording and monitoring system with controls and displays readily

  17. Acoustic 3D modeling by the method of integral equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovichko, M.; Khokhlov, N.; Yavich, N.; Zhdanov, M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a parallel algorithm for frequency-domain acoustic modeling by the method of integral equations (IE). The algorithm is applied to seismic simulation. The IE method reduces the size of the problem but leads to a dense system matrix. A tolerable memory consumption and numerical complexity were achieved by applying an iterative solver, accompanied by an effective matrix-vector multiplication operation, based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT). We demonstrate that, the IE system matrix is better conditioned than that of the finite-difference (FD) method, and discuss its relation to a specially preconditioned FD matrix. We considered several methods of matrix-vector multiplication for the free-space and layered host models. The developed algorithm and computer code were benchmarked against the FD time-domain solution. It was demonstrated that, the method could accurately calculate the seismic field for the models with sharp material boundaries and a point source and receiver located close to the free surface. We used OpenMP to speed up the matrix-vector multiplication, while MPI was used to speed up the solution of the system equations, and also for parallelizing across multiple sources. The practical examples and efficiency tests are presented as well.

  18. Hierarchical Matrices Method and Its Application in Electromagnetic Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical (H- matrices method is a general mathematical framework providing a highly compact representation and efficient numerical arithmetic. When applied in integral-equation- (IE- based computational electromagnetics, H-matrices can be regarded as a fast algorithm; therefore, both the CPU time and memory requirement are reduced significantly. Its kernel independent feature also makes it suitable for any kind of integral equation. To solve H-matrices system, Krylov iteration methods can be employed with appropriate preconditioners, and direct solvers based on the hierarchical structure of H-matrices are also available along with high efficiency and accuracy, which is a unique advantage compared to other fast algorithms. In this paper, a novel sparse approximate inverse (SAI preconditioner in multilevel fashion is proposed to accelerate the convergence rate of Krylov iterations for solving H-matrices system in electromagnetic applications, and a group of parallel fast direct solvers are developed for dealing with multiple right-hand-side cases. Finally, numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed multilevel preconditioner compared to conventional “single level” preconditioners and the practicability of the fast direct solvers for arbitrary complex structures.

  19. A method for establishing integrity in software-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staple, B.D.; Berg, R.S.; Dalton, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present a digital system requirements specification method that has demonstrated a potential for improving the completeness of requirements while reducing ambiguity. It assists with making proper digital system design decisions, including the defense against specific digital system failures modes. It also helps define the technical rationale for all of the component and interface requirements. This approach is a procedural method that abstracts key features that are expanded in a partitioning that identifies and characterizes hazards and safety system function requirements. The key system features are subjected to a hierarchy that progressively defines their detailed characteristics and components. This process produces a set of requirements specifications for the system and all of its components. Based on application to nuclear power plants, the approach described here uses two ordered domains: plant safety followed by safety system integrity. Plant safety refers to those systems defined to meet the safety goals for the protection of the public. Safety system integrity refers to systems defined to ensure that the system can meet the safety goals. Within each domain, a systematic process is used to identify hazards and define the corresponding means of defense and mitigation. In both domains, the approach and structure are focused on the completeness of information and eliminating ambiguities in the generation of safety system requirements that will achieve the plant safety goals

  20. Multi-stage open peer review: scientific evaluation integrating the strengths of traditional peer review with the virtues of transparency and self-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich ePöschl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to the demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public.The advantages of open access, public peer review and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmo¬sphe¬ric Chemistry and Physics (ACP and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU and the open access publisher Copernicus.The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including the life sciences and economics. Multi-stage open peer review can be flexibly adjusted to the needs and peculiarities of different scientific communities. Due to the flexibility and compatibility with traditional structures of scientific publishing and peer review, the multi-stage open peer review concept enables efficient evolution in scientific communication and quality assurance. It has the potential for swift replacement of hidden peer review as the standard of scientific quality assurance, and it provides a basis for open evaluation in

  1. Assessing Scientific Practices Using Machine-Learning Methods: How Closely Do They Match Clinical Interview Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis; Boone, William J.

    2014-02-01

    The landscape of science education is being transformed by the new Framework for Science Education (National Research Council, A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2012), which emphasizes the centrality of scientific practices—such as explanation, argumentation, and communication—in science teaching, learning, and assessment. A major challenge facing the field of science education is developing assessment tools that are capable of validly and efficiently evaluating these practices. Our study examined the efficacy of a free, open-source machine-learning tool for evaluating the quality of students' written explanations of the causes of evolutionary change relative to three other approaches: (1) human-scored written explanations, (2) a multiple-choice test, and (3) clinical oral interviews. A large sample of undergraduates (n = 104) exposed to varying amounts of evolution content completed all three assessments: a clinical oral interview, a written open-response assessment, and a multiple-choice test. Rasch analysis was used to compute linear person measures and linear item measures on a single logit scale. We found that the multiple-choice test displayed poor person and item fit (mean square outfit >1.3), while both oral interview measures and computer-generated written response measures exhibited acceptable fit (average mean square outfit for interview: person 0.97, item 0.97; computer: person 1.03, item 1.06). Multiple-choice test measures were more weakly associated with interview measures (r = 0.35) than the computer-scored explanation measures (r = 0.63). Overall, Rasch analysis indicated that computer-scored written explanation measures (1) have the strongest correspondence to oral interview measures; (2) are capable of capturing students' normative scientific and naive ideas as accurately as human-scored explanations, and (3) more validly detect understanding

  2. An integrated approach for facilities planning by ELECTRE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbishari, E. M. Y.; Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Adesta, E. Y. T.; Rahman, Nur Salihah Binti Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Facility planning is concerned with the design, layout, and accommodation of people, machines and activities of a system. Most of the researchers try to investigate the production area layout and the related facilities. However, few of them try to investigate the relationship between the production space and its relationship with service departments. The aim of this research to is to integrate different approaches in order to evaluate, analyse and select the best facilities planning method that able to explain the relationship between the production area and other supporting departments and its effect on human efforts. To achieve the objective of this research two different approaches have been integrated: Apple’s layout procedure as one of the effective tools in planning factories, ELECTRE method as one of the Multi Criteria Decision Making methods (MCDM) to minimize the risk of getting poor facilities planning. Dalia industries have been selected as a case study to implement our integration the factory have been divided two main different area: the whole facility (layout A), and the manufacturing area (layout B). This article will be concerned with the manufacturing area layout (Layout B). After analysing the data gathered, the manufacturing area was divided into 10 activities. There are five factors that the alternative were compared upon which are: Inter department satisfactory level, total distance travelled for workers, total distance travelled for the product, total time travelled for the workers, and total time travelled for the product. Three different layout alternatives have been developed in addition to the original layouts. Apple’s layout procedure was used to study and evaluate the different alternatives layouts, the study and evaluation of the layouts was done by calculating scores for each of the factors. After obtaining the scores from evaluating the layouts, ELECTRE method was used to compare the proposed alternatives with each other and with

  3. GIS-Based Integration of Subjective and Objective Weighting Methods for Regional Landslides Susceptibility Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhua Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of landslide susceptibility maps is of great importance due to rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study is to present a method to integrate the subjective weight with objective weight for regional landslide susceptibility mapping on the geographical information system (GIS platform. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is subjective, was employed to weight predictive factors’ contribution to landslide occurrence. The frequency ratio (FR method, which is objective, was used to derive subclasses’ frequency ratio with respect to landslides that indicate the relative importance of a subclass within each predictive factor. A case study was carried out at Tsushima Island, Japan, using a historical inventory of 534 landslides and seven predictive factors: elevation, slope, aspect, terrain roughness index (TRI, lithology, land cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The landslide susceptibility index (LSI was calculated using the weighted linear combination of factors’ weights and subclasses’ weights. The study area was classified into five susceptibility zones according to the LSI. In addition, the produced susceptibility map was compared with maps generated using the conventional FR and AHP method and validated using the relative landslide index (RLI. The validation result showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional application of the FR method and AHP method. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps could serve as a scientific basis for urban planning and landslide hazard management.

  4. New methods to interpolate large volume of data from points or particles (Mesh-Free) methods application for its scientific visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lopez, Y.; Yervilla Herrera, H.; Viamontes Esquivel, A.; Recarey Morfa, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    In the following paper we developed a new method to interpolate large volumes of scattered data, focused mainly on the results of the Mesh free Methods, Points Methods and the Particles Methods application. Through this one, we use local radial basis function as interpolating functions. We also use over-tree as the data structure that allows to accelerate the localization of the data that influences to interpolate the values at a new point, speeding up the application of scientific visualization techniques to generate images from large data volumes from the application of Mesh-free Methods, Points and Particle Methods, in the resolution of diverse models of physics-mathematics. As an example, the results obtained after applying this method using the local interpolation functions of Shepard are shown. (Author) 22 refs

  5. Phase-integral method allowing nearlying transition points

    CERN Document Server

    Fröman, Nanny

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of the phase-integral method developed by the present au­ thors has been shown both analytically and numerically in many publica­ tions. With the inclusion of supplementary quantities, closely related to new Stokes constants and obtained with the aid of comparison equation technique, important classes of problems in which transition points may approach each other become accessible to accurate analytical treatment. The exposition in this monograph is of a mathematical nature but has important physical applications, some examples of which are found in the adjoined papers. Thus, we would like to emphasize that, although we aim at mathematical rigor, our treatment is made primarily with physical needs in mind. To introduce the reader into the background of this book, we start by de­ scribing the phase-integral approximation of arbitrary order generated from an unspecified base function. This is done in Chapter 1, which is reprinted, after minor changes, from a review article. Chapter 2 is the re...

  6. Total integrated dose testing of solid-state scientific CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 devices by irradiation with CO-60 gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A. R. V.; Gauthier, M. K.; Coss, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The total integrated dose response of three CMOS devices manufactured by Solid State Scientific has been measured using CO-60 gamma rays. Key parameter measurements were made and compared for each device type. The data show that the CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 produced by this manufacturers should not be used in any environments where radiation levels might exceed 1,000 rad(Si).

  7. Integrating financial theory and methods in electricity resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, F.A. [Economics Resource Group, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Decision makers throughout the world are introducing risk and market forces in the electric power industry to lower costs and improve services. Incentive based regulation (IBR), which replaces cost of service ratemaking with an approach that divorces costs from revenues, exposes the utility to the risk of profits or losses depending on their performance. Regulators also are allowing for competition within the industry, most notably in the wholesale market and possibly in the retail market. Two financial approaches that incorporate risk in resource planning are evaluated: risk adjusted discount rates (RADR) and options theory (OT). These two complementary approaches are an improvement over the standard present value revenue requirement (PVRR). However, each method has some important limitations. By correctly using RADR and OT and understanding their limitations, decision makers can improve their ability to value risk properly in power plant projects and integrated resource plans. (Author)

  8. Apparatus and method for defect testing of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Soden, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for defect and failure-mechanism testing of integrated circuits (ICs) is disclosed. The apparatus provides an operating voltage, V.sub.DD, to an IC under test and measures a transient voltage component, V.sub.DDT, signal that is produced in response to switching transients that occur as test vectors are provided as inputs to the IC. The amplitude or time delay of the V.sub.DDT signal can be used to distinguish between defective and defect-free (i.e. known good) ICs. The V.sub.DDT signal is measured with a transient digitizer, a digital oscilloscope, or with an IC tester that is also used to input the test vectors to the IC. The present invention has applications for IC process development, for the testing of ICs during manufacture, and for qualifying ICs for reliability.

  9. Integrated airfoil and blade design method for large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated method for designing airfoil families of large wind turbine blades. For a given rotor diameter and tip speed ratio, the optimal airfoils are designed based on the local speed ratios. To achieve high power performance at low cost, the airfoils are designed...... with an objective of high Cp and small chord length. When the airfoils are obtained, the optimum flow angle and rotor solidity are calculated which forms the basic input to the blade design. The new airfoils are designed based on the previous in-house airfoil family which were optimized at a Reynolds number of 3...... million. A novel shape perturbation function is introduced to optimize the geometry on the existing airfoils and thus simplify the design procedure. The viscos/inviscid code Xfoil is used as the aerodynamic tool for airfoil optimization where the Reynolds number is set at 16 million with a free...

  10. Integrated airfoil and blade design method for large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated method for designing airfoil families of large wind turbine blades. For a given rotor diameter and a tip speed ratio, optimal airfoils are designed based on the local speed ratios. To achieve a high power performance at low cost, the airfoils are designed...... with the objectives of high Cp and small chord length. When the airfoils are obtained, the optimum flow angle and rotor solidity are calculated which forms the basic input to the blade design. The new airfoils are designed based on a previous in-house designed airfoil family which was optimized at a Reynolds number...... of 3 million. A novel shape perturbation function is introduced to optimize the geometry based on the existing airfoils which simplifies the design procedure. The viscous/inviscid interactive code XFOIL is used as the aerodynamic tool for airfoil optimization at a Reynolds number of 16 million...

  11. ARE METHODS USED TO INTEGRATE STANDARDIZED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS A CONDITIONING FACTOR OF THE LEVEL OF INTEGRATION? AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce Bernardo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly implementing multiple Management System Standards (M SSs and considering managing the related Management Systems (MSs as a single system.The aim of this paper is to analyze if methods us ed to integrate standardized MSs condition the level of integration of those MSs. A descriptive methodology has been applied to 343 Spanish organizations registered to, at least, ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. Seven groups of these organizations using different combinations of methods have been analyzed Results show that these organizations have a high level of integration of their MSs. The most common method used, was the process map. Organizations using a combination of different methods achieve higher levels of integration than those using a single method. However, no evidence has been found to confirm the relationship between the method used and the integration level achieved.

  12. Was there a scientific ’68? Its repercussion on Action Research and Mixing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés-Gallego

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The author asks whether there was a “scientific ‘68”, and focuses on aspects of two specific methodological proposals defined in the 1940s and 50s by the terms “action research” and “mixing methods”, applied particularly to social sciences. In the first, the climate surrounding the events of 1968 contributed to heightening the participative element to be found –by definition– in “action research”; that is: the importance of making the research subjects themselves participants in the design, execution and application of the study of which they are the focus. This approach captured the democratic and anti-authoritarian spirit at the heart of the proposal, which was part of the prevailing climate in those days. The repercussions of 1968 on “mixing methods” focused on studying what had actually occurred, especially between the youth and workers, and therefore, particularly from the point of view of sociology and social psychology, using a “mixed methods” approach. The author explores the proposal of Norman Denzin; but traces the recent origins of both “mixing methods” and “action research” back to the proposals of mainly Kurt Lewin and the Chicago School.

  13. Formation of integrated structural units using the systematic and integrated method when implementing high-rise construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Development of design documentation for a future construction project gives rise to a number of issues with the main one being selection of manpower for structural units of the project's overall implementation system. Well planned and competently staffed integrated structural construction units will help achieve a high level of reliability and labor productivity and avoid negative (extraordinary) situations during the construction period eventually ensuring improved project performance. Research priorities include the development of theoretical recommendations for enhancing reliability of a structural unit staffed as an integrated construction crew. The author focuses on identification of destabilizing factors affecting formation of an integrated construction crew; assessment of these destabilizing factors; based on the developed mathematical model, highlighting the impact of these factors on the integration criterion with subsequent identification of an efficiency and reliability criterion for the structural unit in general. The purpose of this article is to develop theoretical recommendations and scientific and methodological provisions of an organizational and technological nature in order to identify a reliability criterion for a structural unit based on manpower integration and productivity criteria. With this purpose in mind, complex scientific tasks have been defined requiring special research, development of corresponding provisions and recommendations based on the system analysis findings presented herein.

  14. Using HeLa Cell Stress Response to Introduce First Year Students to the Scientific Method, Laboratory Techniques, Primary Literature, and Scientific Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular…

  15. Methods of assessing total doses integrated across pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzechnik, M.; Camplin, W.; Clyne, F.; Allott, R.; Webbe-Wood, D.

    2006-01-01

    Calculated doses for comparison with limits resulting from discharges into the environment should be summed across all relevant pathways and food groups to ensure adequate protection. Current methodology for assessments used in the radioactivity in Food and the Environment (R.I.F.E.) reports separate doses from pathways related to liquid discharges of radioactivity to the environment from those due to gaseous releases. Surveys of local inhabitant food consumption and occupancy rates are conducted in the vicinity of nuclear sites. Information has been recorded in an integrated way, such that the data for each individual is recorded for all pathways of interest. These can include consumption of foods, such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs, fruit and vegetables, milk and meats. Occupancy times over beach sediments and time spent in close proximity to the site is also recorded for inclusion of external and inhalation radiation dose pathways. The integrated habits survey data may be combined with monitored environmental radionuclide concentrations to calculate total dose. The criteria for successful adoption of a method for this calculation were: Reproducibility can others easily use the approach and reassess doses? Rigour and realism how good is the match with reality?Transparency a measure of the ease with which others can understand how the calculations are performed and what they mean. Homogeneity is the group receiving the dose relatively homogeneous with respect to age, diet and those aspects that affect the dose received? Five methods of total dose calculation were compared and ranked according to their suitability. Each method was labelled (A to E) and given a short, relevant name for identification. The methods are described below; A) Individual doses to individuals are calculated and critical group selection is dependent on dose received. B) Individual Plus As in A, but consumption and occupancy rates for high dose is used to derive rates for application in

  16. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Adams, Rachel G.

    2014-01-01

    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive upta...

  17. Lessons for tumor biomarker trials: vicious cycles, scientific method & developing guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel; Raison, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Interview with Daniel Hayes, by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) Daniel F Hayes, M.D. is the Stuart A Padnos Professor of Breast Cancer Research and co-Director of the Breast Oncology Program at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center (Ann Arbor, MI, USA). Dr Hayes has extensive experience in clinical and translational breast cancer biomarker research, and in drug development and clinical trials. Around 30 years ago, he led the discovery of the circulating breast tumor biomarker, CA15-3, which started his career into further tumor biomarker work. The main thrust of his work since then has been in clinical trials, tumor biomarkers and trying to integrate the two. Dr Hayes is Chair of the Correlative Sciences Committee of the North American Breast Cancer Group (now called the Breast Cancer Steering Committee), and co-chairs the Expert Panel for Tumor Biomarker Practice Guidelines for the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Medical Student Research: An Integrated Mixed-Methods Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amgad

    Full Text Available Despite the rapidly declining number of physician-investigators, there is no consistent structure within medical education so far for involving medical students in research.To conduct an integrated mixed-methods systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies about medical students' participation in research, and to evaluate the evidence in order to guide policy decision-making regarding this issue.We followed the PRISMA statement guidelines during the preparation of this review and meta-analysis. We searched various databases as well as the bibliographies of the included studies between March 2012 and September 2013. We identified all relevant quantitative and qualitative studies assessing the effect of medical student participation in research, without restrictions regarding study design or publication date. Prespecified outcome-specific quality criteria were used to judge the admission of each quantitative outcome into the meta-analysis. Initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in the retrieval of 256 articles for full-text assessment. Eventually, 79 articles were included in our study, including eight qualitative studies. An integrated approach was used to combine quantitative and qualitative studies into a single synthesis. Once all included studies were identified, a data-driven thematic analysis was performed.Medical student participation in research is associated with improved short- and long- term scientific productivity, more informed career choices and improved knowledge about-, interest in- and attitudes towards research. Financial worries, gender, having a higher degree (MSc or PhD before matriculation and perceived competitiveness of the residency of choice are among the factors that affect the engagement of medical students in research and/or their scientific productivity. Intercalated BSc degrees, mandatory graduation theses and curricular research components may help in standardizing research education during

  19. Integrated method for the measurement of trace nitrogenous atmospheric bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Key

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace, atmospheric, gaseous nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications (e.g., methylamine, 1 pptv; ethylamine, 2 pptv; morpholine, 1 pptv; aniline, 1 pptv; hydrazine, 0.1 pptv; methylhydrazine, 2 pptv, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  20. Stress estimation in reservoirs using an integrated inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuyer, Antoine; Cupillard, Paul; Giot, Richard; Conin, Marianne; Leroy, Yves; Thore, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Estimating the stress in reservoirs and their surroundings prior to the production is a key issue for reservoir management planning. In this study, we propose an integrated inverse method to estimate such initial stress state. The 3D stress state is constructed with the displacement-based finite element method assuming linear isotropic elasticity and small perturbations in the current geometry of the geological structures. The Neumann boundary conditions are defined as piecewise linear functions of depth. The discontinuous functions are determined with the CMA-ES (Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy) optimization algorithm to fit wellbore stress data deduced from leak-off tests and breakouts. The disregard of the geological history and the simplified rheological assumptions mean that only the stress field, statically admissible and matching the wellbore data should be exploited. The spatial domain of validity of this statement is assessed by comparing the stress estimations for a synthetic folded structure of finite amplitude with a history constructed assuming a viscous response.

  1. KNODWAT: a scientific framework application for testing knowledge discovery methods for the biomedical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Zupan, Mario

    2013-06-13

    Professionals in the biomedical domain are confronted with an increasing mass of data. Developing methods to assist professional end users in the field of Knowledge Discovery to identify, extract, visualize and understand useful information from these huge amounts of data is a huge challenge. However, there are so many diverse methods and methodologies available, that for biomedical researchers who are inexperienced in the use of even relatively popular knowledge discovery methods, it can be very difficult to select the most appropriate method for their particular research problem. A web application, called KNODWAT (KNOwledge Discovery With Advanced Techniques) has been developed, using Java on Spring framework 3.1. and following a user-centered approach. The software runs on Java 1.6 and above and requires a web server such as Apache Tomcat and a database server such as the MySQL Server. For frontend functionality and styling, Twitter Bootstrap was used as well as jQuery for interactive user interface operations. The framework presented is user-centric, highly extensible and flexible. Since it enables methods for testing using existing data to assess suitability and performance, it is especially suitable for inexperienced biomedical researchers, new to the field of knowledge discovery and data mining. For testing purposes two algorithms, CART and C4.5 were implemented using the WEKA data mining framework.

  2. Multi-Stage Open Peer Review: Scientific Evaluation Integrating the Strengths of Traditional Peer Review with the Virtues of Transparency and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The traditional forms of scientific publishing and peer review do not live up to all demands of efficient communication and quality assurance in today’s highly diverse and rapidly evolving world of science. They need to be advanced and complemented by interactive and transparent forms of review, publication, and discussion that are open to the scientific community and to the public. The advantages of open access, public peer review, and interactive discussion can be efficiently and flexibly combined with the strengths of traditional scientific peer review. Since 2001 the benefits and viability of this approach are clearly demonstrated by the highly successful interactive open access journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP, www.atmos-chem-phys.net) and a growing number of sister journals launched and operated by the European Geosciences Union (EGU, www.egu.eu) and the open access publisher Copernicus (www.copernicus.org). The interactive open access journals are practicing an integrative multi-stage process of publication and peer review combined with interactive public discussion, which effectively resolves the dilemma between rapid scientific exchange and thorough quality assurance. Key features and achievements of this approach are: top quality and impact, efficient self-regulation and low rejection rates, high attractivity and rapid growth, low costs, and financial sustainability. In fact, ACP and the EGU interactive open access sister journals are by most if not all standards more successful than comparable scientific journals with traditional or alternative forms of peer review (editorial statistics, publication statistics, citation statistics, economic costs, and sustainability). The high efficiency and predictive validity of multi-stage open peer review have been confirmed in a series of dedicated studies by evaluation experts from the social sciences, and the same or similar concepts have recently also been adopted in other disciplines, including

  3. Introduction into scientific work methods-a necessity when performance-based codes are introduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    The introduction of performance-based codes in Denmark in 2004 requires new competences from people working with different aspects of fire safety in the industry and the public sector. This abstract presents an attempt in reducing problems with handling and analysing the mathematical methods...... and CFD models when applying performance-based codes. This is done within the educational program "Master of Fire Safety Engineering" at the department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. It was found that the students had general problems with academic methods. Therefore, a new...

  4. The Integral Method, a new approach to quantify bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Waldemar; Pfleiderer, Jörg; Nagl, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The bactericidal activity (BA) of antimicrobial agents is generally derived from the results of killing assays. A reliable quantitative characterization and particularly a comparison of these substances, however, are impossible with this information. We here propose a new method that takes into account the course of the complete killing curve for assaying BA and that allows a clear-cut quantitative comparison of antimicrobial agents with only one number. The new Integral Method, based on the reciprocal area below the killing curve, reliably calculates an average BA [log10 CFU/min] and, by implementation of the agent's concentration C, the average specific bactericidal activity SBA=BA/C [log10 CFU/min/mM]. Based on experimental killing data, the pertaining BA and SBA values of exemplary active halogen compounds were established, allowing quantitative assertions. N-chlorotaurine (NCT), chloramine T (CAT), monochloramine (NH2Cl), and iodine (I2) showed extremely diverging SBA values of 0.0020±0.0005, 1.11±0.15, 3.49±0.22, and 291±137log10 CFU/min/mM, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus. This immediately demonstrates an approximately 550-fold stronger activity of CAT, 1730-fold of NH2Cl, and 150,000-fold of I2 compared to NCT. The inferred quantitative assertions and conclusions prove the new method suitable for characterizing bactericidal activity. Its application comprises the effect of defined agents on various bacteria, the consequence of temperature shifts, the influence of varying drug structure, dose-effect relationships, ranking of isosteric agents, comparison of competing commercial antimicrobial formulations, and the effect of additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program... Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of... Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2013-17919 Filed 7-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  6. An outline of the systematic-dialectical method: scientific and political significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuten, G.; Moseley, F.; Smith, T.

    2014-01-01

    The method of systematic-dialectics (SD) is reconstructed with a focus on what institutions and processes are necessary - rather than contingent - for the capitalist system. This allows for the detection of strengths and weaknesses in the actual structure of the system. Weaknesses should be

  7. Mind-to-paper is an effective method for scientific writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    The problem of initiating the writing process is a well-known phenomenon, especially for young and inexperienced scientists. The purpose of this paper is to present an effective method to overcome this problem and increase writing efficiency among inexperienced scientists....

  8. Clustering Methods; Part IV of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    Two papers are included as Part Four of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Controlled Single Pass Classification Algorithm with Application to Multilevel Clustering" by D. B. Johnson and J. M. Laferente presents a single pass clustering method which compares favorably…

  9. Authentic scientific data collection in support of an integrative model-based class: A framework for student engagement in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, A. E.; Dauer, J. M.; Corral, L.; Fontaine, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    A core component of public scientific literacy, and thereby informed decision-making, is the ability of individuals to reason about complex systems. In response to students having difficulty learning about complex systems, educational research suggests that conceptual representations, or mental models, may help orient student thinking. Mental models provide a framework to support students in organizing and developing ideas. The PMC-2E model is a productive tool in teaching ideas of modeling complex systems in the classroom because the conceptual representation framework allows for self-directed learning where students can externalize systems thinking. Beyond mental models, recent work emphasizes the importance of facilitating integration of authentic science into the formal classroom. To align these ideas, a university class was developed around the theme of carnivore ecology, founded on PMC-2E framework and authentic scientific data collection. Students were asked to develop a protocol, collect, and analyze data around a scientific question in partnership with a scientist, and then use data to inform their own learning about the system through the mental model process. We identified two beneficial outcomes (1) scientific data is collected to address real scientific questions at a larger scale and (2) positive outcomes for student learning and views of science. After participating in the class, students report enjoying class structure, increased support for public understanding of science, and shifts in nature of science and interest in pursuing science metrics on post-assessments. Further work is ongoing investigating the linkages between engaging in authentic scientific practices that inform student mental models, and how it might promote students' systems-thinking skills, implications for student views of nature of science, and development of student epistemic practices.

  10. Perspektiven einer Rezeption neurowissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse in der Erziehungswissenschaft (Perspectives of an Integration of Neuro-Scientific Findings into Educational Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Sketches the status quo and possible starting points for the adoption of neuro-scientific findings by educational science. Describes the latest developments in U.S. research. Discusses the adoption of these points by German educational science. Outlines the possibilities and limits of an interdisciplinary discourse. (CAJ)

  11. Using Cloud-Computing Applications to Support Collaborative Scientific Inquiry: Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Barriers to Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna, Joel D.; Miller, Brant G.

    2013-01-01

    Technology plays a crucial role in facilitating collaboration within the scientific community. Cloud-computing applications, such as Google Drive, can be used to model such collaboration and support inquiry within the secondary science classroom. Little is known about pre-service teachers' beliefs related to the envisioned use of collaborative,…

  12. Method-centered digital communities on protocols.io for fast-paced scientific innovation [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Kindler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has enabled online social interaction for scientists beyond physical meetings and conferences. Yet despite these innovations in communication, dissemination of methods is often relegated to just academic publishing. Further, these methods remain static, with subsequent advances published elsewhere and unlinked. For communities undergoing fast-paced innovation, researchers need new capabilities to share, obtain feedback, and publish methods at the forefront of scientific development. For example, a renaissance in virology is now underway given the new metagenomic methods to sequence viral DNA directly from an environment. Metagenomics makes it possible to "see" natural viral communities that could not be previously studied through culturing methods. Yet, the knowledge of specialized techniques for the production and analysis of viral metagenomes remains in a subset of labs.  This problem is common to any community using and developing emerging technologies and techniques. We developed new capabilities to create virtual communities in protocols.io, an open access platform, for disseminating protocols and knowledge at the forefront of scientific development. To demonstrate these capabilities, we present a virology community forum called VERVENet. These new features allow virology researchers to share protocols and their annotations and optimizations, connect with the broader virtual community to share knowledge, job postings, conference announcements through a common online forum, and discover the current literature through personalized recommendations to promote discussion of cutting edge research. Virtual communities in protocols.io enhance a researcher's ability to: discuss and share protocols, connect with fellow community members, and learn about new and innovative research in the field.  The web-based software for developing virtual communities is free to use on protocols.io. Data are available through public APIs at protocols.io.

  13. Research methods in complementary and alternative medicine: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Andrade, Fabiana; Schlechta Portella, Caio Fabio

    2018-01-01

    The scientific literature presents a modest amount of evidence in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). On the other hand, in practice, relevant results are common. The debates among CAM practitioners about the quality and execution of scientific research are important. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather, synthesize and describe the differentiated methodological models that encompass the complexity of therapeutic interventions. The process of bringing evidence-based medicine into clinical practice in CAM is essential for the growth and strengthening of complementary medicines worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Scientific basis of a new method for hydrophobic modification of mineral binders using peat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Misnikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the issue of caking of mineral binding materials during storage and transportation. The author conducted a critical analysis of known methods for the protection of cement from exposure to moisture and water vapour. Common disadvantages of these methods are their low effectiveness and complexity of use in industrial and domestic environments. This article introduces a new method for hydrophobising construction materials using peat, which achieves high water repellency in the modified materials with relatively low expenditure on organic materials. The author proposes film coating of the mineral particles of dispersed hydrophilic materials as a protection mechanism against their undesirable exposure to moisture during storage. The insulating film consists of hydrophobic products (bitumens released during thermal decomposition of the organic matter in peat. The estimated thickness of the bitumen film is about 12 nm and it does not adversely affect the flow properties of the powder. A model of the formation of film coatings on mineral particles is provided and their elemental chemical composition is determined. It is shown experimentally that the modified hydrophobic cement is protected from exposure to liquid vapours, and optimal values of organic component concentrations in the dispersed mineral matter that do not reduce the strength of cement mortar are identified.

  15. A set of vertically integrated inquiry-based practical curricula that develop scientific thinking skills for large cohorts of undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardi, Kirsten; Bugarcic, Andrea; Colthorpe, Kay; Good, Jonathan P; Lluka, Lesley J

    2013-12-01

    Science graduates require critical thinking skills to deal with the complex problems they will face in their 21st century workplaces. Inquiry-based curricula can provide students with the opportunities to develop such critical thinking skills; however, evidence suggests that an inappropriate level of autonomy provided to underprepared students may not only be daunting to students but also detrimental to their learning. After a major review of the Bachelor of Science, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a series of three vertically integrated courses with inquiry-style laboratory practicals for early-stage undergraduate students in biomedical science. These practical curricula were designed so that students would work with increasing autonomy and ownership of their research projects to develop increasingly advanced scientific thinking and communication skills. Students undertaking the first iteration of these three vertically integrated courses reported learning gains in course content as well as skills in scientific writing, hypothesis construction, experimental design, data analysis, and interpreting results. Students also demonstrated increasing skills in both hypothesis formulation and communication of findings as a result of participating in the inquiry-based curricula and completing the associated practical assessment tasks. Here, we report the specific aspects of the curricula that students reported as having the greatest impact on their learning and the particular elements of hypothesis formulation and communication of findings that were more challenging for students to master. These findings provide important implications for science educators concerned with designing curricula to promote scientific thinking and communication skills alongside content acquisition.

  16. Is multicultural psychology a-scientific?: diverse methods for diversity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauce, Ana Mari

    2011-07-01

    This article asks, and answers three separate questions: What is multicultural psychology? What is psychological science? Are multicultural psychology and (empirical/positivist) psychological science incompatible? A brief overview of the history of science is provided emphasizing the emancipatory impulses behind a modernist, empirical, positivist approach to science. It is argued that such an approach is not incompatible with multicultural psychology. The author concludes that multicultural psychological will be strengthened if psychologists draw upon both qualitative and quantitative methods, including those that come from a positivist tradition, when investigating psychological and social issues as they affect diverse populations.

  17. Parallel scientific computing theory, algorithms, and applications of mesh based and meshless methods

    CERN Document Server

    Trobec, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This book is concentrated on the synergy between computer science and numerical analysis. It is written to provide a firm understanding of the described approaches to computer scientists, engineers or other experts who have to solve real problems. The meshless solution approach is described in more detail, with a description of the required algorithms and the methods that are needed for the design of an efficient computer program. Most of the details are demonstrated on solutions of practical problems, from basic to more complicated ones. This book will be a useful tool for any reader interes

  18. Metriplectic Gyrokinetics and Discretization Methods for the Landau Collision Integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvijoki, Eero; Burby, Joshua W.; Kraus, Michael

    2017-10-01

    We present two important results for the kinetic theory and numerical simulation of warm plasmas: 1) We provide a metriplectic formulation of collisional electrostatic gyrokinetics that is fully consistent with the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. 2) We provide a metriplectic temporal and velocity-space discretization for the particle phase-space Landau collision integral that satisfies the conservation of energy, momentum, and particle densities to machine precision, as well as guarantees the existence of numerical H-theorem. The properties are demonstrated algebraically. These two result have important implications: 1) Numerical methods addressing the Vlasov-Maxwell-Landau system of equations, or its reduced gyrokinetic versions, should start from a metriplectic formulation to preserve the fundamental physical principles also at the discrete level. 2) The plasma physics community should search for a metriplectic reduction theory that would serve a similar purpose as the existing Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reduction theories do in gyrokinetics. The discovery of metriplectic formulation of collisional electrostatic gyrokinetics is strong evidence in favor of such theory and, if uncovered, the theory would be invaluable in constructing reduced plasma models. Supported by U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC02-09-CH11466 (EH) and DE-AC05-06OR23100 (JWB) and by European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation Grant No. 708124 (MK).

  19. Boundary integral method for torsion of composite shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, S.I.; Mohr, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Saint-Venant torsion problem for homogeneous shafts with simply or multiply-connected regions has received a great deal of attention in the past. However, because of the mathematical difficulties inherent in the problem, very few problems of torsion of shafts with composite cross sections have been solved analytically. Muskhelishvili (1963) studied the torsion problem for shafts with cross sections having several solid inclusions surrounded by an elastic material. The problem of a circular shaft reinforced by a non-concentric round inclusion, a rectangular shaft composed of two rectangular parts made of different materials were solved. In this paper, a boundary integral equation method, which can be used to solve problems more complex than those considered by Katsikadelis et. al., is developed. Square shaft with two dissimilar rectangular parts, square shaft with a square inclusion are solved and the results compared with those given in the reference cited above. Finally, a square shaft composed of two rectangular parts with circular inclusion is solved. (orig./GL)

  20. Integration of rock typing methods for carbonate reservoir characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliakbardoust, E; Rahimpour-Bonab, H

    2013-01-01

    Reservoir rock typing is the most important part of all reservoir modelling. For integrated reservoir rock typing, static and dynamic properties need to be combined, but sometimes these two are incompatible. The failure is due to the misunderstanding of the crucial parameters that control the dynamic behaviour of the reservoir rock and thus selecting inappropriate methods for defining static rock types. In this study, rock types were defined by combining the SCAL data with the rock properties, particularly rock fabric and pore types. First, air-displacing-water capillary pressure curues were classified because they are representative of fluid saturation and behaviour under capillary forces. Next the most important rock properties which control the fluid flow and saturation behaviour (rock fabric and pore types) were combined with defined classes. Corresponding petrophysical properties were also attributed to reservoir rock types and eventually, defined rock types were compared with relative permeability curves. This study focused on representing the importance of the pore system, specifically pore types in fluid saturation and entrapment in the reservoir rock. The most common tests in static rock typing, such as electrofacies analysis and porosity–permeability correlation, were carried out and the results indicate that these are not appropriate approaches for reservoir rock typing in carbonate reservoirs with a complicated pore system. (paper)

  1. High temperature spectral emissivity measurement using integral blackbody method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yijie; Dong, Wei; Lin, Hong; Yuan, Zundong; Bloembergen, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Spectral emissivity is a critical material's thermos-physical property for heat design and radiation thermometry. A prototype instrument based upon an integral blackbody method was developed to measure material's spectral emissivity above 1000 °. The system was implemented with an optimized commercial variable-high-temperature blackbody, a high speed linear actuator, a linear pyrometer, and an in-house designed synchronization circuit. A sample was placed in a crucible at the bottom of the blackbody furnace, by which the sample and the tube formed a simulated blackbody which had an effective total emissivity greater than 0.985. During the measurement, the sample was pushed to the end opening of the tube by a graphite rod which was actuated through a pneumatic cylinder. A linear pyrometer was used to monitor the brightness temperature of the sample surface through the measurement. The corresponding opto-converted voltage signal was fed and recorded by a digital multi-meter. A physical model was proposed to numerically evaluate the temperature drop along the process. Tube was discretized as several isothermal cylindrical rings, and the temperature profile of the tube was measurement. View factors between sample and rings were calculated and updated along the whole pushing process. The actual surface temperature of the sample at the end opening was obtained. Taking advantages of the above measured voltage profile and the calculated true temperature, spectral emissivity under this temperature point was calculated.

  2. Methods for assessing NPP containment pressure boundary integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Research is being conducted to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants. Objectives of this research are to (1) understand the significant factors relating to corrosion occurrence, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and of liners of concrete containments; (2) provide the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) reviewers a means of establishing current structural capacity margins or estimating future residual structural capacity margins for steel containments and concrete containments as limited by liner integrity; and (3) provide recommendations, as appropriate, on information to be requested of licensees for guidance that could be utilized by USNRC reviewers in assessing the seriousness of reported incidences of containment degradation. Activities include development of a degradation assessment methodology; reviews of techniques and methods for inspection and repair of containment metallic pressure boundaries; evaluation of candidate techniques for inspection of inaccessible regions of containment metallic pressure boundaries; establishment of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessments of steel containments and liners; and fragility assessments of steel containments with localized corrosion

  3. Influence Cooperative Learning Method and Personality Type to Ability to Write The Scientific Article (Experiment Study on SMAN 2 Students Ciamis Learning Indonesian Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriatna Supriatna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the influence of cooperative learning method (Jigsaw and TPS and personality type (extrovert and introvert toward students’ ability in scientific writing at the SMA Negeri 2 Ciamis class XII. The research used experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial design. The population was the students of class XII which consisted of 150. The sample was 57 students. The results showed that: (1 The ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative learning method jigsaw model (= 65,88 is higher than students who learn by cooperative technique method of TPS (= 59,88, (2 Ability writing scientific articles of students whose extroverted personality (= 65.69 is higher than introverted students (= 60.06; (3 there is interaction between cooperative learning method and personality type to score of writing ability of scientific article (4 ability to write scientific article of extrovert student and studying with technique of Jigsaw (= 77,75 higher than extrovert student learning with cooperative learning method model of TPS (= 53,63 to score of writing ability of scientific article, (5 ability to write introverted student's scientific article and get treatment of cooperative learning method of jigsaw model (= 54,00 lower than introverted student learning TPS technique = 66,13, (6 the ability to write extroverted students' scientific articles studied with jigsaw techniques, and introverted students who studied Jigsaw techniques (= 77.75 were higher than those with introverted personality types studied by the Jigsaw technique (= 54.00 , (7 Ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative techniques of TPS technique and have extrovert personality type ( = 53.63 lower than introverted students learning TPS techniques (= 66.13.

  4. Novel citation-based search method for scientific literature: application to meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, A Cecile J W; Gwinn, M

    2015-10-13

    Finding eligible studies for meta-analysis and systematic reviews relies on keyword-based searching as the gold standard, despite its inefficiency. Searching based on direct citations is not sufficiently comprehensive. We propose a novel strategy that ranks articles on their degree of co-citation with one or more "known" articles before reviewing their eligibility. In two independent studies, we aimed to reproduce the results of literature searches for sets of published meta-analyses (n = 10 and n = 42). For each meta-analysis, we extracted co-citations for the randomly selected 'known' articles from the Web of Science database, counted their frequencies and screened all articles with a score above a selection threshold. In the second study, we extended the method by retrieving direct citations for all selected articles. In the first study, we retrieved 82% of the studies included in the meta-analyses while screening only 11% as many articles as were screened for the original publications. Articles that we missed were published in non-English languages, published before 1975, published very recently, or available only as conference abstracts. In the second study, we retrieved 79% of included studies while screening half the original number of articles. Citation searching appears to be an efficient and reasonably accurate method for finding articles similar to one or more articles of interest for meta-analysis and reviews.

  5. A Multi-Objective Optimization Method to integrate Heat Pumps in Industrial Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Helen; Spinato, Giulia; Maréchal, François

    2011-01-01

    Aim of process integration methods is to increase the efficiency of industrial processes by using pinch analysis combined with process design methods. In this context, appropriate integrated utilities offer promising opportunities to reduce energy consumption, operating costs and pollutants emissions. Energy integration methods are able to integrate any type of predefined utility, but so far there is no systematic approach to generate potential utilities models based on their technology limit...

  6. Reporting on methods of subgroup analysis in clinical trials: a survey of four scientific journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Moreira Jr.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of subgroup analysis (SA reported in randomized clinical trials (RCT cannot be adequately interpreted without information about the methods used in the study design and the data analysis. Our aim was to show how often inaccurate or incomplete reports occur. First, we selected eight methodological aspects of SA on the basis of their importance to a reader in determining the confidence that should be placed in the author's conclusions regarding such analysis. Then, we reviewed the current practice of reporting these methodological aspects of SA in clinical trials in four leading journals, i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association, the Lancet, and the American Journal of Public Health. Eight consecutive reports from each journal published after July 1, 1998 were included. Of the 32 trials surveyed, 17 (53% had at least one SA. Overall, the proportion of RCT reporting a particular methodological aspect ranged from 23 to 94%. Information on whether the SA preceded/followed the analysis was reported in only 7 (41% of the studies. Of the total possible number of items to be reported, NEJM, JAMA, Lancet and AJPH clearly mentioned 59, 67, 58 and 72%, respectively. We conclude that current reporting of SA in RCT is incomplete and inaccurate. The results of such SA may have harmful effects on treatment recommendations if accepted without judicious scrutiny. We recommend that editors improve the reporting of SA in RCT by giving authors a list of the important items to be reported.

  7. The structure and material composition of ossified aortic valves identified using a set of scientific methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Antonín; Šmíd, Michal; Havelcová, Martina; Coufalová, Lucie; Kučková, Štěpánka; Velčovská, Martina; Hynek, Radovan

    2013-11-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis has become a common and dangerous disease in recent decades. This disease leads to the mineralization of aortic valves, their gradual thickening and loss of functionality. We studied the detailed assessment of the proportion and composition of inorganic and organic components in the ossified aortic valve, using a set of analytical methods applied in science: polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample valves showed the occurrence of phosphorus and calcium in the form of phosphate and calcium carbonate, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and hydroxy-fluorapatite, with varying content of inorganic components from 65 to 90 wt%, and with phased development of degenerative disability. The outer layers of the plaque contained an organic component with peptide bonds, fatty acids, proteins and cholesterol. The results show a correlation between the formation of fluorapatite in aortic valves and in other parts of the human bodies, associated with the formation of bones.

  8. Developing automated analytical methods for scientific environments using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christoph; Armenta, Sergio; Lendl, Bernhard

    2010-01-15

    The development of new analytical techniques often requires the building of specially designed devices, each requiring its own dedicated control software. Especially in the research and development phase, LabVIEW has proven to be one highly useful tool for developing this software. Yet, it is still common practice to develop individual solutions for different instruments. In contrast to this, we present here a single LabVIEW-based program that can be directly applied to various analytical tasks without having to change the program code. Driven by a set of simple script commands, it can control a whole range of instruments, from valves and pumps to full-scale spectrometers. Fluid sample (pre-)treatment and separation procedures can thus be flexibly coupled to a wide range of analytical detection methods. Here, the capabilities of the program have been demonstrated by using it for the control of both a sequential injection analysis - capillary electrophoresis (SIA-CE) system with UV detection, and an analytical setup for studying the inhibition of enzymatic reactions using a SIA system with FTIR detection.

  9. Scientific fraud in 20 falsified anesthesia papers : detection using financial auditing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J; Zobrist, R; Konrad, C; Schuepfer, G

    2012-06-01

    Data from natural sources show counter-intuitive distribution patterns for the leading digits to the left of the decimal point and the digit 1 is observed more frequently than all other numbers. This pattern, which was first described by Newcomb and later confirmed by Benford, is used in financial and tax auditing to detect fraud. Deviations from the pattern indicate possible falsifications. Anesthesiology journals are affected not only by ghostwriting and plagiarism but also by counterfeiting. In the present study 20 publications in anesthesiology known to be falsified by an author were investigated for irregularities with respect to Benford's law using the χ(2)-test and the Z-test. In the 20 retracted publications an average first-digit frequency of 243.1 (standard deviation SD ± 118.2, range: 30-592) and an average second-digit frequency of 132.3 (SD ± 72.2, range: 15-383) were found. The observed distribution of the first and second digits to the left of the decimal point differed significantly (panalysis of each paper 17 out of 20 studies differed significantly from the expected value for the first digit and 18 out of 20 studies varied significantly from the expected value of the second digit. Only one paper did not vary significantly from expected values for the digits to the left of the decimal. For comparison, a meta-analysis using complex mathematical procedures was chosen as a control. The analysis showed a first-digit distribution consistent with the Benford distribution. Thus, the method used in the present study seems to be sensitive for detecting fraud. Additional statements of specificity cannot yet be made as this requires further analysis of data that is definitely not falsified. Future studies exploring conformity might help prevent falsified studies from being published.

  10. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC's PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described

  11. Diagrammatical methods within the path integral representation for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alastuey, A

    2014-01-01

    The path integral representation has been successfully applied to the study of equilibrium properties of quantum systems for a long time. In particular, such a representation allowed Ginibre to prove the convergence of the low-fugacity expansions for systems with short-range interactions. First, I will show that the crucial trick underlying Ginibre's proof is the introduction of an equivalent classical system made with loops. Within the Feynman-Kac formula for the density matrix, such loops naturally emerge by collecting together the paths followed by particles exchanged in a given cyclic permutation. Two loops interact via an average of two- body genuine interactions between particles belonging to different loops, while the interactions between particles inside a given loop are accounted for in a loop fugacity. It turns out that the grand-partition function of the genuine quantum system exactly reduces to its classical counterpart for the gas of loops. The corresponding so-called magic formula can be combined with standard Mayer diagrammatics for the classical gas of loops. This provides low-density representations for the quantum correlations or thermodynamical functions, which are quite useful when collective effects must be taken into account properly. Indeed, resummations and or reorganizations of Mayer graphs can be performed by exploiting their remarkable topological and combinatorial properties, while statistical weights and bonds are purely c-numbers. The interest of that method will be illustrated through a brief description of its application to two long-standing problems, namely recombination in Coulomb systems and condensation in the interacting Bose gas.

  12. Integration of gas chromatography mass spectrometry methods for differentiating ricin preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunschel, David S; Melville, Angela M; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Colburn, Heather A; Victry, Kristin D; Antolick, Kathryn C; Wahl, Jon H; Wahl, Karen L

    2012-05-07

    The investigation of crimes involving chemical or biological agents is infrequent, but presents unique analytical challenges. The protein toxin ricin is encountered more frequently than other agents and is found in the seeds of Ricinus communis, commonly known as the castor plant. Typically, the toxin is extracted from castor seeds utilizing a variety of different recipes that result in varying purity of the toxin. Moreover, these various purification steps can also leave or differentially remove a variety of exogenous and endogenous residual components with the toxin that may indicate the type and number of purification steps involved. We have applied three gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based analytical methods to measure the variation in seed carbohydrates and castor oil ricinoleic acid, as well as the presence of solvents used for purification. These methods were applied to the same samples prepared using four previously identified toxin preparation methods, starting from four varieties of castor seeds. The individual data sets for seed carbohydrate profiles, ricinoleic acid, or acetone amount each provided information capable of differentiating different types of toxin preparations across seed types. However, the integration of the data sets using multivariate factor analysis provided a clear distinction of all samples based on the preparation method, independent of the seed source. In particular, the abundance of mannose, arabinose, fucose, ricinoleic acid, and acetone were shown to be important differentiating factors. These complementary tools provide a more confident determination of the method of toxin preparation than would be possible using a single analytical method.

  13. Analysis of Scientific and Methodical Approaches to Portfolio Investment as a Tool of Financial Provision of Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leus Daryna V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses scientific and methodical approaches to portfolio investment. It develops recommendations on specification of the categorical apparatus of portfolio investment in the context of differentiation of strategic (direct and portfolio investments as alternative approaches to the conduct of investment activity. It identifies the composition and functions of objects and subjects of portfolio investment under conditions of globalisation of the world financial markets. It studies main postulates of the portfolio theory and justifies a necessity of identification of the place, role and functions of subjects of portfolio investment in them for ensuring sustainable development of the economy. It offers to specify, as one of the ways of further development of portfolio theories, a separate direction in the financial provision of economy with consideration of ecologic and social components – socio responsible investment.

  14. A discontinous Galerkin finite element method with an efficient time integration scheme for accurate simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Meilin; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) with a highly-accurate time integration scheme is presented. The scheme achieves its high accuracy using numerically constructed predictor-corrector integration coefficients. Numerical results

  15. Integrating Evidence Within and Across Evidence Streams Using Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is high demand in environmental health for adoption of a structured process that evaluates and integrates evidence while making decisions transparent. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework holds promise to address this deman...

  16. Integral methods of solving boundary-value problems of nonstationary heat conduction and their comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.

  17. Balancing consumer protection and scientific integrity in the face of uncertainty: the example of gluten-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Margaret Sova

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, gluten-free foods were not only "hot" in the marketplace, several countries, including the United States, continued efforts to define gluten-free and appropriate labeling parameters. The regulatory process illuminates how difficult regulations based on safe scientific thresholds can be for regulators, manufacturers and consumers. This article analyzes the gluten-free regulatory landscape, challenges to defining a safe gluten threshold, and how consumers might need more label information beyond the term "gluten-free." The article includes an overview of international gluten-free regulations, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rulemaking process, and issues for consumers.

  18. Data, models, and views: towards integration of diverse numerical model components and data sets for scientific and public dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Richard; Lemmen, Carsten; Nasermoaddeli, Hassan; Klingbeil, Knut; Wirtz, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Data and models for describing coastal systems span a diversity of disciplines, communities, ecosystems, regions and techniques. Previous attempts of unifying data exchange, coupling interfaces, or metadata information have not been successful. We introduce the new Modular System for Shelves and Coasts (MOSSCO, http://www.mossco.de), a novel coupling framework that enables the integration of a diverse array of models and data from different disciplines relating to coastal research. In the MOSSCO concept, the integrating framework imposes very few restrictions on contributed data or models; in fact, there is no distinction made between data and models. The few requirements are: (1) principle coupleability, i.e. access to I/O and timing information in submodels, which has recently been referred to as the Basic Model Interface (BMI) (2) open source/open data access and licencing and (3) communication of metadata, such as spatiotemporal information, naming conventions, and physical units. These requirements suffice to integrate different models and data sets into the MOSSCO infrastructure and subsequently built a modular integrated modeling tool that can span a diversity of processes and domains. We demonstrate how diverse coastal system constituents were integrated into this modular framework and how we deal with the diverging development of constituent data sets and models at external institutions. Finally, we show results from simulations with the fully coupled system using OGC WebServices in the WiMo geoportal (http://kofserver3.hzg.de/wimo), from where stakeholders can view the simulation results for further dissemination.

  19. The integrated circuit IC EMP transient state disturbance effect experiment method investigates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Transient state disturbance characteristic study on the integrated circuit, IC, need from its coupling path outset. Through cable (aerial) coupling, EMP converts to an pulse current voltage and results in the impact to the integrated circuit I/O orifice passing the cable. Aiming at the armament system construction feature, EMP effect to the integrated circuit, IC inside the system is analyzed. The integrated circuit, IC EMP effect experiment current injection method is investigated and a few experiments method is given. (authors)

  20. Manual for JSSL (JAERI Scientific Subroutine Library)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Toichiro; Tsutsui, Tsuneo

    1991-09-01

    JSSL (JAERI Scientific Subroutine Library) is a library of scientific subroutines developed or modified in JAERI. They are classified into sixteen fields (Special Functions, Linear Problems, Eigenvalue and Eigenvector Problems, Non Linear Problems, Mathematical Programming, Extreme Value Problems, Transformations, Functional Approximation Methods, Numerical Differential and Integral Methods, Numerical Differential and Integral Equations, Statistical Functions, Physical Problems, I/O Routines, Plotter Routines, Computer System Functions and Others). This report is the user manual for the revised version of JSSL which involves evaluated subroutines selected from the previous compilation of JSSL, applied in almost all the fields. (author)