WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrating rewrite rules

  1. An Efficient Compiler for Weighted Rewrite Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Mohri, Mehryar; Sproat, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Context-dependent rewrite rules are used in many areas of natural language and speech processing. Work in computational phonology has demonstrated that, given certain conditions, such rewrite rules can be represented as finite-state transducers (FSTs). We describe a new algorithm for compiling rewrite rules into FSTs. We show the algorithm to be simpler and more efficient than existing algorithms. Further, many of our applications demand the ability to compile weighted rules into weighted FST...

  2. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  3. Parallel Execution of Multi Set Constraint Rewrite Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee

    2008-01-01

    that the underlying constraint rewrite implementation executes rewrite steps in parallel on increasingly popular becoming multi-core architectures. We design and implement efficient algorithms which allow for the parallel execution of multi-set constraint rewrite rules. Our experiments show that we obtain some......Multi-set constraint rewriting allows for a highly parallel computational model and has been used in a multitude of application domains such as constraint solving, agent specification etc. Rewriting steps can be applied simultaneously as long as they do not interfere with each other.We wish...

  4. SPARQL Query Re-writing Using Partonomy Based Transformation Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Yeh, Peter Z.; Verma, Kunal; Henson, Cory A.; Sheth, Amit P.

    Often the information present in a spatial knowledge base is represented at a different level of granularity and abstraction than the query constraints. For querying ontology's containing spatial information, the precise relationships between spatial entities has to be specified in the basic graph pattern of SPARQL query which can result in long and complex queries. We present a novel approach to help users intuitively write SPARQL queries to query spatial data, rather than relying on knowledge of the ontology structure. Our framework re-writes queries, using transformation rules to exploit part-whole relations between geographical entities to address the mismatches between query constraints and knowledge base. Our experiments were performed on completely third party datasets and queries. Evaluations were performed on Geonames dataset using questions from National Geographic Bee serialized into SPARQL and British Administrative Geography Ontology using questions from a popular trivia website. These experiments demonstrate high precision in retrieval of results and ease in writing queries.

  5. Let the Rewriter Beware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.

    Translating legal and bureaucratic language into plain, comprehensible English is not amenable to simple rules and procedures. Rewriting comprehensibly requires specialized knowledge about language and an awareness of a number of misconceptions and pitfalls. This paper discusses what not to do in rewriting, based upon rewritten documents presently…

  6. Nominal completion for rewrite systems with binders

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Maribel; Rubio Gimeno, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We design a completion procedure for nominal rewriting systems, based on a generalisation of the recursive path ordering to take into account alpha equivalence. Nominal rewriting generalises first-order rewriting by providing support for the specification of binding operators. Completion of rewriting systems with binders is a notably difficult problem; the completion procedure presented in this paper is the first to deal with binders in rewrite rules. Peer Reviewed

  7. Pattern graph rewrite systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleks Kissinger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available String diagrams are a powerful tool for reasoning about physical processes, logic circuits, tensor networks, and many other compositional structures. Dixon, Duncan and Kissinger introduced string graphs, which are a combinatoric representations of string diagrams, amenable to automated reasoning about diagrammatic theories via graph rewrite systems. In this extended abstract, we show how the power of such rewrite systems can be greatly extended by introducing pattern graphs, which provide a means of expressing infinite families of rewrite rules where certain marked subgraphs, called !-boxes ("bang boxes", on both sides of a rule can be copied any number of times or removed. After reviewing the string graph formalism, we show how string graphs can be extended to pattern graphs and how pattern graphs and pattern rewrite rules can be instantiated to concrete string graphs and rewrite rules. We then provide examples demonstrating the expressive power of pattern graphs and how they can be applied to study interacting algebraic structures that are central to categorical quantum mechanics.

  8. Transforming process models : executable rewrite rules versus a formalized Java program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gorp, P.M.E.; Eshuis, H.; Petriu, D.C.; Rouquette, N.

    2010-01-01

    In the business process management community, transformations for process models are usually programmed using imperative languages (such as Java). The underlying mapping rules tend to be documented using informal visual rules whereas they tend to be formalized using mathematical set constructs. In

  9. Transforming process models : executable rewrite rules versus a formalized Java program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gorp, P.M.E.; Eshuis, H.

    2010-01-01

    In the business process management community, transformations for process models are usually programmed using imperative languages. The underlying mapping rules tend to be documented using informal visual rules whereas they tend to be formalized using mathematical set constructs. In the Graph and

  10. Rule-based Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and

  11. Complexity Analysis of Precedence Terminating Infinite Graph Rewrite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohi Eguchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The general form of safe recursion (or ramified recurrence can be expressed by an infinite graph rewrite system including unfolding graph rewrite rules introduced by Dal Lago, Martini and Zorzi, in which the size of every normal form by innermost rewriting is polynomially bounded. Every unfolding graph rewrite rule is precedence terminating in the sense of Middeldorp, Ohsaki and Zantema. Although precedence terminating infinite rewrite systems cover all the primitive recursive functions, in this paper we consider graph rewrite systems precedence terminating with argument separation, which form a subclass of precedence terminating graph rewrite systems. We show that for any precedence terminating infinite graph rewrite system G with a specific argument separation, both the runtime complexity of G and the size of every normal form in G can be polynomially bounded. As a corollary, we obtain an alternative proof of the original result by Dal Lago et al.

  12. Integration rules for scattering equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-01-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  13. Synthesis for Structure Rewriting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Łukasz

    The description of a single state of a modelled system is often complex in practice, but few procedures for synthesis address this problem in depth. We study systems in which a state is described by an arbitrary finite structure, and changes of the state are represented by structure rewriting rules, a generalisation of term and graph rewriting. Both the environment and the controller are allowed to change the structure in this way, and the question we ask is how a strategy for the controller that ensures a given property can be synthesised.

  14. Termination of cycle rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; König, B.; Bruggink, H.J.S.; Dowek, G.

    2014-01-01

    String rewriting can not only be applied on strings, but also on cycles and even on general graphs. In this paper we investigate termination of string rewriting applied on cycles, shortly denoted as cycle rewriting, which is a strictly stronger requirement than termination on strings. Most

  15. Pragmatic Graph Rewriting Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

    1999-01-01

    We present new pragmatic constructs for easing programming in visual graph rewriting programming languages. The first is a modification to the rewriting process for nodes the host graph, where nodes specified as 'Once Only' in the LHS of a rewrite match at most once with a corresponding node in the host graph. This reduces the previously common use of tags to indicate the progress of matching in the graph. The second modification controls the application of LHS graphs, where those specified a...

  16. Meaningless terms in rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennaway, R.; Oostrom, V. van; Vries, F.-J. de

    We present an axiomatic approach to the concept of meaninglessness in finite and transfinite term rewriting and lambda calculus. We justify our axioms in several ways. They can be intuitively justified from the viewpoint of rewriting as computation. They are shown to imply important properties

  17. Strategic Port Graph Rewriting: An Interactive Modelling and Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present strategic portgraph rewriting as a basis for the implementation of visual modelling and analysis tools. The goal is to facilitate the specification, analysis and simulation of complex systems, using port graphs. A system is represented by an initial graph and a collection of graph rewriting rules, together with a user-defined strategy to control the application of rules. The strategy language includes constructs to deal with graph traversal and management of rewriting positions in the graph. We give a small-step operational semantics for the language, and describe its implementation in the graph transformation and visualisation tool PORGY.

  18. Triangulation in rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, V. van; Zantema, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a process, dubbed triangulation, turning any rewrite relation into a confluent one. It is more direct than usual completion, in the sense that objects connected by a peak are directly oriented rather than their normal forms. We investigate conditions under which this process preserves

  19. Undecidability Results for Bisimilarity on Prefix Rewrite Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jancar, Petr; Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    We answer an open question related to bisimilarity checking on labelled transition systems generated by prefix rewrite rules on words. Stirling (1996, 1998) proved the decidability of bisimilarity for normed pushdown processes. This result was substantially extended by Senizergues (1998, 2005) who...... language) was left open; this was repeatedly indicated by both Stirling and Senizergues. Here we answer the question negatively, i.e., we show undecidability of bisimilarity on Type -1 systems, even in the normed case. We complete the picture by considering classes of systems that use rewrite rules...

  20. Integrated Case Based and Rule Based Reasoning for Decision Support

    OpenAIRE

    Eshete, Azeb Bekele

    2009-01-01

    This project is a continuation of my specialization project which was focused on studying theoretical concepts related to case based reasoning method, rule based reasoning method and integration of them. The integration of rule-based and case-based reasoning methods has shown a substantial improvement with regards to performance over the individual methods. Verdande Technology As wants to try integrating the rule based reasoning method with an existing case based system. This project focu...

  1. Rewriting and suppressing UMLS terms for improved biomedical term identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettne Kristina M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of terms is essential for biomedical text mining.. We concentrate here on the use of vocabularies for term identification, specifically the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS. To make the UMLS more suitable for biomedical text mining we implemented and evaluated nine term rewrite and eight term suppression rules. The rules rely on UMLS properties that have been identified in previous work by others, together with an additional set of new properties discovered by our group during our work with the UMLS. Our work complements the earlier work in that we measure the impact on the number of terms identified by the different rules on a MEDLINE corpus. The number of uniquely identified terms and their frequency in MEDLINE were computed before and after applying the rules. The 50 most frequently found terms together with a sample of 100 randomly selected terms were evaluated for every rule. Results Five of the nine rewrite rules were found to generate additional synonyms and spelling variants that correctly corresponded to the meaning of the original terms and seven out of the eight suppression rules were found to suppress only undesired terms. Using the five rewrite rules that passed our evaluation, we were able to identify 1,117,772 new occurrences of 14,784 rewritten terms in MEDLINE. Without the rewriting, we recognized 651,268 terms belonging to 397,414 concepts; with rewriting, we recognized 666,053 terms belonging to 410,823 concepts, which is an increase of 2.8% in the number of terms and an increase of 3.4% in the number of concepts recognized. Using the seven suppression rules, a total of 257,118 undesired terms were suppressed in the UMLS, notably decreasing its size. 7,397 terms were suppressed in the corpus. Conclusions We recommend applying the five rewrite rules and seven suppression rules that passed our evaluation when the UMLS is to be used for biomedical term identification in MEDLINE. A software

  2. A Modal Logic for Termgraph Rewriting

    OpenAIRE

    Balbiani, Ph.; Echahed, R.; Herzig, A.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a modal logic tailored to describe graph transformations and discuss some of its properties. We focus on a particular class of graphs called termgraphs. They are first-order terms augmented with sharing and cycles. Termgraphs allow one to describe classical data-structures (possibly with pointers) such as doubly-linked lists, circular lists etc. We show how the proposed logic can faithfully describe (i) termgraphs as well as (ii) the application of a termgraph rewrite rule (i.e. ma...

  3. Constructs for Programming with Graph Rewrites

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Graph rewriting is becoming increasingly popular as a method for programming with graph based data structures. We present several modifications to a basic serial graph rewriting paradigm and discuss how they improve coding programs in the Grrr graph rewriting programming language. The constructs we present are once only nodes, attractor nodes and single match rewrites. We illustrate the operation of the constructs by example. The advantages of adding these new rewrite modifiers is to reduce t...

  4. Rewriting Modulo SMT and Open System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Camilo; Meseguer, Jose; Munoz, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes rewriting modulo SMT, a new technique that combines the power of SMT solving, rewriting modulo theories, and model checking. Rewriting modulo SMT is ideally suited to model and analyze infinite-state open systems, i.e., systems that interact with a non-deterministic environment. Such systems exhibit both internal non-determinism, which is proper to the system, and external non-determinism, which is due to the environment. In a reflective formalism, such as rewriting logic, rewriting modulo SMT can be reduced to standard rewriting. Hence, rewriting modulo SMT naturally extends rewriting-based reachability analysis techniques, which are available for closed systems, to open systems. The proposed technique is illustrated with the formal analysis of: (i) a real-time system that is beyond the scope of timed-automata methods and (ii) automatic detection of reachability violations in a synchronous language developed to support autonomous spacecraft operations.

  5. Integrals of Lagrange functions and sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baye, Daniel, E-mail: dbaye@ulb.ac.be [Physique Quantique, CP 165/82, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, CP 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-09-30

    Exact values are derived for some matrix elements of Lagrange functions, i.e. orthonormal cardinal functions, constructed from orthogonal polynomials. They are obtained with exact Gauss quadratures supplemented by corrections. In the particular case of Lagrange-Laguerre and shifted Lagrange-Jacobi functions, sum rules provide exact values for matrix elements of 1/x and 1/x{sup 2} as well as for the kinetic energy. From these expressions, new sum rules involving Laguerre and shifted Jacobi zeros and weights are derived. (paper)

  6. Infinitary Rewriting - Theory and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Infinitary rewriting generalises usual finitary rewriting by providing infinite reduction sequences with a notion of convergence. The idea of -- at least conceptually -- assigning a meaning to infinite derivations is well-known, for example, from lazy functional programming or from process calculi...... that are used to formalise infinite reduction sequences: The well-established metric approach as well as an alternative approach using partial orders. Both methods together with the consequent infinitary versions of confluence and termination properties are analysed on an abstract level. Based on this, we argue...

  7. Binary decision diagrams by shared rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, J. van de; Zantema, H.

    2000-01-01

    BDDs provide an established technique for propositional formula manipulation. In this paper we re-develope the basic BDD theory using standard rewriting techniques. Since a BDD is a DAG instead of a tree we need a notion of shared rewriting and develope appropriate theory. A rewriting system is

  8. Rewrite systems for integer arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Walters (Pum); H. Zantema (Hans)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe present three term rewrite systems for integer arithmetic with addition, multiplication, and, in two cases, subtraction. All systems are ground confluent and terminating; termination is proved by semantic labelling and recursive path order. The first system represents numbers by

  9. Rewrite systems for integer arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, H.R.; Zantema, H.

    1994-01-01

    We present three term rewrite systems for integer arithmetic with addition, multiplication, and, in two cases, subtraction. All systems are ground con uent and terminating; termination is proved by semantic labelling and recursive path order. The first system represents numbers by successor and

  10. Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang

    The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.

  11. Integrated Association Rules Complete Hiding Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Refaat Abdellah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents database security approach for complete hiding of sensitive association rules by using six novel algorithms. These algorithms utilize three new weights to reduce the needed database modifications and support complete hiding, as well as they reduce the knowledge distortion and the data distortions. Complete weighted hiding algorithms enhance the hiding failure by 100%; these algorithms have the advantage of performing only a single scan for the database to gather the required information to form the hiding process. These proposed algorithms are built within the database structure which enables the sanitized database to be generated on run time as needed.

  12. Rewriting Logic Semantics of a Plan Execution Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowek, Gilles; Munoz, Cesar A.; Rocha, Camilo

    2009-01-01

    The Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) is a synchronous language developed by NASA to support autonomous spacecraft operations. In this paper, we propose a rewriting logic semantics of PLEXIL in Maude, a high-performance logical engine. The rewriting logic semantics is by itself a formal interpreter of the language and can be used as a semantic benchmark for the implementation of PLEXIL executives. The implementation in Maude has the additional benefit of making available to PLEXIL designers and developers all the formal analysis and verification tools provided by Maude. The formalization of the PLEXIL semantics in rewriting logic poses an interesting challenge due to the synchronous nature of the language and the prioritized rules defining its semantics. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a general procedure for simulating synchronous set relations in rewriting logic that is sound and, for deterministic relations, complete. We also report on the finding of two issues at the design level of the original PLEXIL semantics that were identified with the help of the executable specification in Maude.

  13. Specification and Verification of Web Applications in Rewriting Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpuente, María; Ballis, Demis; Romero, Daniel

    This paper presents a Rewriting Logic framework that formalizes the interactions between Web servers and Web browsers through a communicating protocol abstracting HTTP. The proposed framework includes a scripting language that is powerful enough to model the dynamics of complex Web applications by encompassing the main features of the most popular Web scripting languages (e.g. PHP, ASP, Java Servlets). We also provide a detailed characterization of browser actions (e.g. forward/backward navigation, page refresh, and new window/tab openings) via rewrite rules, and show how our models can be naturally model-checked by using the Linear Temporal Logic of Rewriting (LTLR), which is a Linear Temporal Logic specifically designed for model-checking rewrite theories. Our formalization is particularly suitable for verification purposes, since it allows one to perform in-depth analyses of many subtle aspects related to Web interaction. Finally, the framework has been completely implemented in Maude, and we report on some successful experiments that we conducted by using the Maude LTLR model-checker.

  14. Weak convergence and uniform normalization in infinitary rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    the starkly surprising result that for any orthogonal system with finitely many rules, the system is weakly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is weakly normalizing under strong convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under strong...... convergence. As further corollaries, we derive a number of new results for weakly convergent rewriting: Systems with finitely many rules enjoy unique normal forms, and acyclic orthogonal systems are confluent. Our results suggest that it may be possible to recover some of the positive results for strongly...

  15. Rewriting Germany's nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Germany, the private use of nuclear energy for peaceful uses is strictly regulated by a Nuclear Energy Act. Since its enactment back in 1959, this legislation has been overhauled five times - most recently in 1985. Now Klaus Toepfer, Germany's Federal Minister for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Nuclear Safety, has set out to revise the Act for the sixth time. The present draft bill is intended to reorganise the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; eliminate public promotion of nuclear power; clarify points of legal dispute. Of the draft bill's three aims, the last two are more parochial. The real novelty lies in the changes to the rules for the back end of the fuel cycle. First, the Federal Government proposes to abandon the priority given to spent fuel recycling. In future, direct disposal will be an equivalent option, and waste avoidance will have top priority. Intimately linked to the back end proposal is the Government's plan to load on the shoulders of nuclear operators the full responsibility for building and operating repositories for the final disposal of nuclear waste. The third aspect of Government's back end plans concerns decommissioning. At present, operators accumulate provisions over the plant lifetime, which for that purpose is estimated at 19 years. The provisions vary from plant to plant but are generally around DM1 billion and are tax free. Under the proposed regulations, this sum must be available from the first day of operation to cover the case of an early shutdown. In practice, this will increase the initial investment for a nuclear power plant in Germany by 10-20% and so make nuclear power less competitive. (author)

  16. Rewriting the language of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2013-01-01

    For the past 5 decades the psychology of creativity has been influenced by what is known as the 4 P's of creative expression: person, process, product, and press. This conceptual schema, initially proposed by Rhodes (1961), helped researchers structure their thinking about the phenomenon. However......, it also supported an individualistic, static, and oftentimes disjointed vision of creativity. The present article aims to rewrite this fundamental language of the discipline by using terms that explicitly endorse a systemic, contextual, and dynamic approach. The 5 A's framework—actor, action, artifact...

  17. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We study an alternative model of infinitary term rewriting. Instead of a metric on terms, a partial order on partial terms is employed to formalise convergence of reductions. We consider both a weak and a strong notion of convergence and show that the metric model of convergence coincides with th...... to the metric setting -- orthogonal systems are both infinitarily confluent and infinitarily normalising in the partial order setting. The unique infinitary normal forms that the partial order model admits are Böhm trees....

  18. Integrity Checking and Maintenance with Active Rules in XML Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Rekouts, Maria

    2007-01-01

    While specification languages for integrity constraints for XML data have been considered in the literature, actual technologies and methodologies for checking and maintaining integrity are still in their infancy. Triggers, or active rules, which are widely used in previous technologies for the p...... updates, the method indicates trigger conditions and correctness criteria to be met by the trigger code supplied by a developer or possibly automatic methods. We show examples developed in the Sedna XML database system which provides a running implementation of XML triggers....

  19. Rules for integrals over products of distributions from coordinate independence of path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In perturbative calculations of quantum-mechanical path integrals in curvilinear coordinates, one encounters Feynman diagrams involving multiple temporal integrals over products of distributions which are mathematically undefined. In addition, there are terms proportional to powers of Dirac δ-functions at the origin coming from the measure of path integration. We derive simple rules for dealing with such singular terms from the natural requirement of coordinate independence of the path integrals. (orig.)

  20. Higher-order rewriting and partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Rose, Kristoffer H.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate the usefulness of higher-order rewriting techniques for specializing programs, i.e., for partial evaluation. More precisely, we demonstrate how casting program specializers as combinatory reduction systems (CRSs) makes it possible to formalize the corresponding program...

  1. Derivative-Based Trapezoid Rule for the Riemann-Stieltjes Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The derivative-based trapezoid rule for the Riemann-Stieltjes integral is presented which uses 2 derivative values at the endpoints. This kind of quadrature rule obtains an increase of two orders of precision over the trapezoid rule for the Riemann-Stieltjes integral and the error term is investigated. At last, the rationality of the generalization of derivative-based trapezoid rule for Riemann-Stieltjes integral is demonstrated.

  2. The Pi-0-2-Completeness of most of the Properties of Rewriting You Care About (and Productivity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2009-01-01

    Most of the standard pleasant properties of term rewriting systems are undecidable; to wit: local confluence, confluence, normalization, termination, and completeness. Mere undecidability is insufficient to rule out a number of possibly useful properties: For instance, if the set of normalizing...... term rewriting systems were recursively enumerable, there would be a program yielding “yes” in finite time if applied to any normalizing term rewriting system. The contribution of this paper is to show (the uniform version of) each member of the list of properties above (as well as the property...... of being a productive specification of a stream) complete for the class $\\Pi^0_2$. Thus, there is neither a program that can enumerate the set of rewriting systems enjoying any one of the properties, nor is there a program enumerating the set of systems that do not. For normalization and termination we...

  3. Incremental Query Rewriting with Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazanov, Alexandre; Aragão, Marcelo A. T.

    We address the problem of semantic querying of relational databases (RDB) modulo knowledge bases using very expressive knowledge representation formalisms, such as full first-order logic or its various fragments. We propose to use a resolution-based first-order logic (FOL) reasoner for computing schematic answers to deductive queries, with the subsequent translation of these schematic answers to SQL queries which are evaluated using a conventional relational DBMS. We call our method incremental query rewriting, because an original semantic query is rewritten into a (potentially infinite) series of SQL queries. In this chapter, we outline the main idea of our technique - using abstractions of databases and constrained clauses for deriving schematic answers, and provide completeness and soundness proofs to justify the applicability of this technique to the case of resolution for FOL without equality. The proposed method can be directly used with regular RDBs, including legacy databases. Moreover, we propose it as a potential basis for an efficient Web-scale semantic search technology.

  4. A kilobyte rewritable atomic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalff, Floris; Rebergen, Marnix; Fahrenfort, Nora; Girovsky, Jan; Toskovic, Ranko; Lado, Jose; FernáNdez-Rossier, JoaquíN.; Otte, Sander

    The ability to manipulate individual atoms by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) opens op opportunities for storage of digital data on the atomic scale. Recent achievements in this direction include data storage based on bits encoded in the charge state, the magnetic state, or the local presence of single atoms or atomic assemblies. However, a key challenge at this stage is the extension of such technologies into large-scale rewritable bit arrays. We demonstrate a digital atomic-scale memory of up to 1 kilobyte (8000 bits) using an array of individual surface vacancies in a chlorine terminated Cu(100) surface. The chlorine vacancies are found to be stable at temperatures up to 77 K. The memory, crafted using scanning tunneling microscopy at low temperature, can be read and re-written automatically by means of atomic-scale markers, and offers an areal density of 502 Terabits per square inch, outperforming state-of-the-art hard disk drives by three orders of magnitude.

  5. A Demonstration of the Grrr Graph Rewriting Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

    2000-01-01

    This paper overviews the graph rewriting programming language, Grrr. The serial graph rewriting strategy is detailed, and key elements of the user interface are described. The system is illustrated by a simple example.

  6. Path integral formulation and Feynman rules for phylogenetic branching models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, P D; Bashford, J D; Sumner, J G [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252C, 7001 Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2005-11-04

    A dynamical picture of phylogenetic evolution is given in terms of Markov models on a state space, comprising joint probability distributions for character types of taxonomic classes. Phylogenetic branching is a process which augments the number of taxa under consideration, and hence the rank of the underlying joint probability state tensor. We point out the combinatorial necessity for a second-quantized, or Fock space setting, incorporating discrete counting labels for taxa and character types, to allow for a description in the number basis. Rate operators describing both time evolution without branching, and also phylogenetic branching events, are identified. A detailed development of these ideas is given, using standard transcriptions from the microscopic formulation of non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion or birth-death processes. These give the relations between stochastic rate matrices, the matrix elements of the corresponding evolution operators representing them, and the integral kernels needed to implement these as path integrals. The 'free' theory (without branching) is solved, and the correct trilinear 'interaction' terms (representing branching events) are presented. The full model is developed in perturbation theory via the derivation of explicit Feynman rules which establish that the probabilities (pattern frequencies of leaf colourations) arising as matrix elements of the time evolution operator are identical with those computed via the standard analysis. Simple examples (phylogenetic trees with two or three leaves), are discussed in detail. Further implications for the work are briefly considered including the role of time reparametrization covariance.

  7. Path integral formulation and Feynman rules for phylogenetic branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, P D; Bashford, J D; Sumner, J G

    2005-01-01

    A dynamical picture of phylogenetic evolution is given in terms of Markov models on a state space, comprising joint probability distributions for character types of taxonomic classes. Phylogenetic branching is a process which augments the number of taxa under consideration, and hence the rank of the underlying joint probability state tensor. We point out the combinatorial necessity for a second-quantized, or Fock space setting, incorporating discrete counting labels for taxa and character types, to allow for a description in the number basis. Rate operators describing both time evolution without branching, and also phylogenetic branching events, are identified. A detailed development of these ideas is given, using standard transcriptions from the microscopic formulation of non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion or birth-death processes. These give the relations between stochastic rate matrices, the matrix elements of the corresponding evolution operators representing them, and the integral kernels needed to implement these as path integrals. The 'free' theory (without branching) is solved, and the correct trilinear 'interaction' terms (representing branching events) are presented. The full model is developed in perturbation theory via the derivation of explicit Feynman rules which establish that the probabilities (pattern frequencies of leaf colourations) arising as matrix elements of the time evolution operator are identical with those computed via the standard analysis. Simple examples (phylogenetic trees with two or three leaves), are discussed in detail. Further implications for the work are briefly considered including the role of time reparametrization covariance

  8. On Graph Rewriting, Reduction and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerny, Ian

    2010-01-01

    We inter-derive two prototypical styles of graph reduction: reduction machines à la Turner and graph rewriting systems à la Barendregt et al. To this end, we adapt Danvy et al.'s mechanical program derivations from the world of terms to the world of graphs. We also outline how to inter-derive a t......We inter-derive two prototypical styles of graph reduction: reduction machines à la Turner and graph rewriting systems à la Barendregt et al. To this end, we adapt Danvy et al.'s mechanical program derivations from the world of terms to the world of graphs. We also outline how to inter...

  9. Values Education through Aggadic Stories: The Didactic Rewriter as Interpreter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Didactic rewrites of aggadic stories are an important resource in values education. This study, geared primarily toward teachers involved in choosing curricular materials, investigates how the didactic rewriter actually becomes an interpreter, rather than a mere transmitter, of the original text. The personal values of the rewriters can influence…

  10. Parallel object-oriented term rewriting : the booleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.H.; Vrancken, J.L.M.

    As a first case study in parallel object-oriented term rewriting, we give two implementations of term rewriting algorithms for boolean terms, using the parallel object-oriented features of the language Pool-T. The term rewriting systems are specified in the specification formalism

  11. Symbol manipulation and rule learning in spiking neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    2011-04-21

    It has been claimed that the productivity, systematicity and compositionality of human language and thought necessitate the existence of a physical symbol system (PSS) in the brain. Recent discoveries about temporal coding suggest a novel type of neuronal implementation of a physical symbol system. Furthermore, learning classifier systems provide a plausible algorithmic basis by which symbol re-write rules could be trained to undertake behaviors exhibiting systematicity and compositionality, using a kind of natural selection of re-write rules in the brain, We show how the core operation of a learning classifier system, namely, the replication with variation of symbol re-write rules, can be implemented using spike-time dependent plasticity based supervised learning. As a whole, the aim of this paper is to integrate an algorithmic and an implementation level description of a neuronal symbol system capable of sustaining systematic and compositional behaviors. Previously proposed neuronal implementations of symbolic representations are compared with this new proposal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increasing the rewriting speed of optical rewritable e-paper by selecting proper liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yu; Sun Jiatong; Kwok Hoi Sing; Murauski Anatoli; Chigrinov Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The effect of interaction between liquid crystal (LC) and photoalignment material on the speed of optical rewriting process is investigated. The theoretical analysis shows that a smaller frank elastic constant K 22 of liquid crystal corresponds to a larger twist angle, which gives rise to a larger rewriting speed. Six different LC cells with the same boundary conditions (one substrate is covered with rubbed polyimide (PI) and the other with photo sensitive rewritable sulfuric dye 1(SD1)) are tested experimentally under the same illumination intensity (450 nm, 80 mW/cm 2 ). The results demonstrate that with a suitable liquid crystal, the LC optical rewriting speed for e-paper application can be obviously improved. For two well known LC materials E7 (K 22 is larger) and 5CB (K 22 is smaller), they require 11 s and 6 s corresponding to change alignment direction for generating image information. (general)

  13. A Rewriting Logic Approach to Type Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Chucky; Şerbănuţă, Traian Florin; Roşu, Grigore

    Meseguer and Roşu proposed rewriting logic semantics (RLS) as a programing language definitional framework that unifies operational and algebraic denotational semantics. RLS has already been used to define a series of didactic and real languages, but its benefits in connection with defining and reasoning about type systems have not been fully investigated. This paper shows how the same RLS style employed for giving formal definitions of languages can be used to define type systems. The same term-rewriting mechanism used to execute RLS language definitions can now be used to execute type systems, giving type checkers or type inferencers. The proposed approach is exemplified by defining the Hindley-Milner polymorphic type inferencer mathcal{W} as a rewrite logic theory and using this definition to obtain a type inferencer by executing it in a rewriting logic engine. The inferencer obtained this way compares favorably with other definitions or implementations of mathcal{W}. The performance of the executable definition is within an order of magnitude of that of highly optimized implementations of type inferencers, such as that of OCaml.

  14. Modeling Software Evolution using Algebraic Graph Rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciraci, Selim; van den Broek, Pim

    We show how evolution requests can be formalized using algebraic graph rewriting. In particular, we present a way to convert the UML class diagrams to colored graphs. Since changes in software may effect the relation between the methods of classes, our colored graph representation also employs the

  15. A rewriting view of simple typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stump, A.; Zantema, H.; Kimmell, G.; El Haj Omar, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how a recently developed view of typing as small-step abstract reduction, due to Kuan, MacQueen, and Findler, can be used to recast the development of simple type theory from a rewriting perspective. We show how standard meta-theoretic results can be proved in a completely new way,

  16. Phase structure rewrite systems in information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbiel, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Operational level automatic indexing requires an efficient means of normalizing natural language phrases. Subject switching requires an efficient means of translating one set of authorized terms to another. A phrase structure rewrite system called a Lexical Dictionary is explained that performs these functions. Background, operational use, other applications and ongoing research are explained.

  17. A rewriting view of simple typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stump, A.; Zantema, H.; Kimmell, G.; El Haj Omar, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows how a recently developed view of typing as small-step abstract reduction, due to Kuan, MacQueen, and Findler, can be used to recast the development of simple type theory from a rewriting perspective. We show how standard meta-theoretic results can be proved in a completely new way,

  18. Termination of canonical context-sensitive rewriting and productivity of rewrite systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Lucas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Termination of programs, i.e., the absence of infinite computations, ensures the existence of normal forms for all initial expressions, thus providing an essential ingredient for the definition of a normalization semantics for functional programs. In lazy functional languages, though, infinite data structures are often delivered as the outcome of computations. For instance, the list of all prime numbers can be returned as a neverending stream of numerical expressions or data structures. If such streams are allowed, requiring termination is hopeless. In this setting, the notion of productivity can be used to provide an account of computations with infinite data structures, as it "captures the idea of computability, of progress of infinite-list programs" (B.A. Sijtsma, On the Productivity of Recursive List Definitions, ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems 11(4:633-649, 1989. However, in the realm of Term Rewriting Systems, which can be seen as (first-order, untyped, unconditional functional programs, termination of Context-Sensitive Rewriting (CSR has been showed equivalent to productivity of rewrite systems through appropriate transformations. In this way, tools for proving termination of CSR can be used to prove productivity. In term rewriting, CSR is the restriction of rewriting that arises when reductions are allowed on selected arguments of function symbols only. In this paper we show that well-known results about the computational power of CSR are useful to better understand the existing connections between productivity of rewrite systems and termination of CSR, and also to obtain more powerful techniques to prove productivity of rewrite systems.

  19. A RuleML Study on Integrating Geographical and Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Boley, Harold

    2008-01-01

    To facilitate health surveillance, flexible ways to represent, integrate, and deduce health information become increasingly important. In this paper, an ontology is used to support the semantic definition of spatial, temporal and thematic factors of health information. The ontology is realized...... as an interchangeable RuleML knowledge base, consisting of facts and rules. Rules are also used for integrating geographical and health information. The implemented eHealthGeo system uses the OO jDREW reasoning engine to deduce implicit information such as spatial relationships. The system combines this with spatial...

  20. Mapping Modular SOS to Rewriting Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Christiano de Oliveira; Haeusler, Edward Hermann; Meseguer, José

    2003-01-01

    and verification of MSOS specifications, we have defined a mapping, named , from MSOS to rewriting logic (RWL), a logic which has been proposed as a logical and semantic framework. We have proven the correctness of and implemented it as a prototype, the MSOS-SL Interpreter, in the Maude system, a high......Modular SOS (MSOS) is a framework created to improve the modularity of structural operational semantics specifications, a formalism frequently used in the fields of programming languages semantics and process algebras. With the objective of defining formal tools to support the execution...

  1. Nested (inverse) binomial sums and new iterated integrals for massive Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten; Bluemlein, Johannes; Raab, Clemens G.

    2014-07-01

    Nested sums containing binomial coefficients occur in the computation of massive operatormatrix elements. Their associated iterated integrals lead to alphabets including radicals, for which we determined a suitable basis. We discuss algorithms for converting between sum and integral representations, mainly relying on the Mellin transform. To aid the conversion we worked out dedicated rewrite rules, based on which also some general patterns emerging in the process can be obtained.

  2. Nested (inverse) binomial sums and new iterated integrals for massive Feynman diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, Johannes; Raab, Clemens G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Nested sums containing binomial coefficients occur in the computation of massive operatormatrix elements. Their associated iterated integrals lead to alphabets including radicals, for which we determined a suitable basis. We discuss algorithms for converting between sum and integral representations, mainly relying on the Mellin transform. To aid the conversion we worked out dedicated rewrite rules, based on which also some general patterns emerging in the process can be obtained.

  3. Towards a flexible service integration through separation of business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asuncion, C.H.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2010-01-01

    Driven by dynamic market demands, enterprises are continuously exploring collaborations with others to add value to their services and seize new market opportunities. Achieving enterprise collaboration is facilitated by Enterprise Application Integration and Business-to-Business approaches that

  4. Simulation and Verification of Synchronous Set Relations in Rewriting Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Camilo; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical foundation and a rewriting logic infrastructure for the execution and property veri cation of synchronous set relations. The mathematical foundation is given in the language of abstract set relations. The infrastructure consists of an ordersorted rewrite theory in Maude, a rewriting logic system, that enables the synchronous execution of a set relation provided by the user. By using the infrastructure, existing algorithm veri cation techniques already available in Maude for traditional asynchronous rewriting, such as reachability analysis and model checking, are automatically available to synchronous set rewriting. The use of the infrastructure is illustrated with an executable operational semantics of a simple synchronous language and the veri cation of temporal properties of a synchronous system.

  5. Hydrochromic molecular switches for water-jet rewritable paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lan; Li, Minjie; Zhu, Shaoyin; Li, Hao; Xi, Guan; Li, Yong-Gang; Wang, Yi; Li, Quanshun; Liang, Shaojun; Zhong, Ke; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2014-01-01

    The days of rewritable paper are coming, printers of the future will use water-jet paper. Although several kinds of rewritable paper have been reported, practical usage of them is rare. Herein, a new rewritable paper for ink-free printing is proposed and demonstrated successfully by using water as the sole trigger to switch hydrochromic dyes on solid media. Water-jet prints with various colours are achieved with a commercial desktop printer based on these hydrochromic rewritable papers. The prints can be erased and rewritten dozens of times with no significant loss in colour quality. This rewritable paper is promising in that it can serve an eco-friendly information display to meet the increasing global needs for environmental protection.

  6. A study of diverse clinical decision support rule authoring environments and requirements for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient rule authoring tools are critical to allow clinical Knowledge Engineers (KEs, Software Engineers (SEs, and Subject Matter Experts (SMEs to convert medical knowledge into machine executable clinical decision support rules. The goal of this analysis was to identify the critical success factors and challenges of a fully functioning Rule Authoring Environment (RAE in order to define requirements for a scalable, comprehensive tool to manage enterprise level rules. Methods The authors evaluated RAEs in active use across Partners Healthcare, including enterprise wide, ambulatory only, and system specific tools, with a focus on rule editors for reminder and medication rules. We conducted meetings with users of these RAEs to discuss their general experience and perceived advantages and limitations of these tools. Results While the overall rule authoring process is similar across the 10 separate RAEs, the system capabilities and architecture vary widely. Most current RAEs limit the ability of the clinical decision support (CDS interventions to be standardized, sharable, interoperable, and extensible. No existing system meets all requirements defined by knowledge management users. Conclusions A successful, scalable, integrated rule authoring environment will need to support a number of key requirements and functions in the areas of knowledge representation, metadata, terminology, authoring collaboration, user interface, integration with electronic health record (EHR systems, testing, and reporting.

  7. Strategy-Driven Exploration for Rule-Based Models of Biochemical Systems with Porgy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei , Oana; Fernández , Maribel; Kirchner , Hélène; Pinaud , Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents Porgy – an interactive visual environment for rule-based modelling of biochemical systems. We model molecules and molecule interactions as port graphs and port graph rewrite rules, respectively. We use rewriting strategies to control which rules to apply, and where and when to apply them. Our main contributions to rule-based modelling of biochemical systems lie in the strategy language and the associated visual and interactive features offered by Porgy. These features faci...

  8. Product integration rules at Clenshaw-Curtis and related points: A robust implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.; Nobile, A.

    1989-12-01

    Product integration rules generalizing the Fejer, Clenshaw-Curtis and Filippi quadrature rules respectively are derived for integrals with trigonometric and hyperbolic weight factors. The study puts in evidence the existence of well-conditioned fully analytic solutions, in terms of hypergeometric functions 0 F 1 . An a priori error estimator is discussed which is shown both to avoid wasteful invocation of the integration rule and to increase significantly the robustness of the automatic quadrature procedure. Then, specializing to extended Clenshaw-Curtis (ECC) rules, three types of a posteriori error estimates are considered and the existence of a great risk of their failure is put into evidence by large scale validation tests. An empirical error estimator, superseding them at slowly varying integrands, is found to result in a spectacular increase in the output reliability. Finally, enhancements in the control of the interval subdivision strategy aiming at increasing code robustness is discussed. Comparison with the code DQAWO of QUADPACK, extending over a statistics of about hundred thousand solved integrals, is illustrative for the increased robustness and error estimate reliability of our computer code implementation of the ECC rules. (author). 19 refs, 8 tabs

  9. Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trell, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it ''is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation'' also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)xO(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each

  10. Definition of path integrals and rules for non-linear transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerler, W.

    1978-01-01

    Functional integrals are defined as the limit of multidimensional integrals based on fundamental generating distributions. The 'lattice choice' is put into a suitable functional form. The independence of the particular choice and the necessity of this fact are shown. Various forms of the path integrals are derived and discussed. The relation to the traditional ordering problem is pointed out. The mechanism of non-linear transformations of variables is investigated and rules are given. In the case of fields it turns out that the path integrals can also be considered for space translations. (Auth.)

  11. Domain XML semantic integration based on extraction rules and ontology mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayu LI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A plenty of XML documents exist in petroleum engineering field, but traditional XML integration solution can’t provide semantic query, which leads to low data use efficiency. In light of WeXML(oil&gas well XML data semantic integration and query requirement, this paper proposes a semantic integration method based on extraction rules and ontology mapping. The method firstly defines a series of extraction rules with which elements and properties of WeXML Schema are mapped to classes and properties in WeOWL ontology, respectively; secondly, an algorithm is used to transform WeXML documents into WeOWL instances. Because WeOWL provides limited semantics, ontology mappings between two ontologies are then built to explain class and property of global ontology with terms of WeOWL, and semantic query based on global domain concepts model is provided. By constructing a WeXML data semantic integration prototype system, the proposed transformational rule, the transfer algorithm and the mapping rule are tested.

  12. Explicit Time Integrators for Nonlinear Dynamics Derived from the Midpoint Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Krysl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the design of time integrators for mechanical systems that are explicit in the forcing evaluations. Our starting point is the midpoint rule, either in the classical form for the vector space setting, or in the Lie form for the rotation group. By introducing discrete, concentrated impulses we can approximate the forcing impressed upon the system over the time step, and thus arrive at first-order integrators. These can then be composed to yield a second order integrator with very desirable properties: symplecticity and momentum conservation. 

  13. Integrating reasoning and clinical archetypes using OWL ontologies and SWRL rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Rodríguez-Solano, Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Semantic interoperability is essential to facilitate the computerized support for alerts, workflow management and evidence-based healthcare across heterogeneous electronic health record (EHR) systems. Clinical archetypes, which are formal definitions of specific clinical concepts defined as specializations of a generic reference (information) model, provide a mechanism to express data structures in a shared and interoperable way. However, currently available archetype languages do not provide direct support for mapping to formal ontologies and then exploiting reasoning on clinical knowledge, which are key ingredients of full semantic interoperability, as stated in the SemanticHEALTH report [1]. This paper reports on an approach to translate definitions expressed in the openEHR Archetype Definition Language (ADL) to a formal representation expressed using the Ontology Web Language (OWL). The formal representations are then integrated with rules expressed with Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) expressions, providing an approach to apply the SWRL rules to concrete instances of clinical data. Sharing the knowledge expressed in the form of rules is consistent with the philosophy of open sharing, encouraged by archetypes. Our approach also allows the reuse of formal knowledge, expressed through ontologies, and extends reuse to propositions of declarative knowledge, such as those encoded in clinical guidelines. This paper describes the ADL-to-OWL translation approach, describes the techniques to map archetypes to formal ontologies, and demonstrates how rules can be applied to the resulting representation. We provide examples taken from a patient safety alerting system to illustrate our approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Volterra Integral Equations System Using Simpson’s 3/8 Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Simpson’s 3/8 rule is used to solve the nonlinear Volterra integral equations system. Using this rule the system is converted to a nonlinear block system and then by solving this nonlinear system we find approximate solution of nonlinear Volterra integral equations system. One of the advantages of the proposed method is its simplicity in application. Further, we investigate the convergence of the proposed method and it is shown that its convergence is of order O(h4. Numerical examples are given to show abilities of the proposed method for solving linear as well as nonlinear systems. Our results show that the proposed method is simple and effective.

  15. Feynman rules and generalized ward identities in phase space functional integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziping

    1996-01-01

    Based on the phase-space generating functional of Green function, the generalized canonical Ward identities are derived. It is point out that one can deduce Feynman rules in tree approximation without carrying out explicit integration over canonical momenta in phase-space generating functional. If one adds a four-dimensional divergence term to a Lagrangian of the field, then, the propagator of the field can be changed

  16. Integration of object-oriented knowledge representation with the CLIPS rule based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, David S.; Kamil, Hasan

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes a portion of the work aimed at developing an integrated, knowledge based environment for the development of engineering-oriented applications. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was implemented in C++ which is used to build and modify an object-oriented knowledge base. The ORL was designed in such a way so as to be easily integrated with other representation schemes that could effectively reason with the object base. Specifically, the integration of the ORL with the rule based system C Language Production Systems (CLIPS), developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will be discussed. The object-oriented knowledge representation provides a natural means of representing problem data as a collection of related objects. Objects are comprised of descriptive properties and interrelationships. The object-oriented model promotes efficient handling of the problem data by allowing knowledge to be encapsulated in objects. Data is inherited through an object network via the relationship links. Together, the two schemes complement each other in that the object-oriented approach efficiently handles problem data while the rule based knowledge is used to simulate the reasoning process. Alone, the object based knowledge is little more than an object-oriented data storage scheme; however, the CLIPS inference engine adds the mechanism to directly and automatically reason with that knowledge. In this hybrid scheme, the expert system dynamically queries for data and can modify the object base with complete access to all the functionality of the ORL from rules.

  17. Lifting Term Rewriting Derivations in Constructor Systems by Using Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Riesco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrowing is a procedure that was first studied in the context of equational E-unification and that has been used in a wide range of applications. The classic completeness result due to Hullot states that any term rewriting derivation starting from an instance of an expression can be "lifted" to a narrowing derivation, whenever the substitution employed is normalized. In this paper we adapt the generator- based extra-variables-elimination transformation used in functional-logic programming to overcome that limitation, so we are able to lift term rewriting derivations starting from arbitrary instances of expressions. The proposed technique is limited to left-linear constructor systems and to derivations reaching a ground expression. We also present a Maude-based implementation of the technique, using natural rewriting for the on-demand evaluation strategy.

  18. Topic categorisation of statements in suicide notes with integrated rules and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Aleksandar; Dehghan, Azad; Keane, John A; Nenadic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    We describe and evaluate an automated approach used as part of the i2b2 2011 challenge to identify and categorise statements in suicide notes into one of 15 topics, including Love, Guilt, Thankfulness, Hopelessness and Instructions. The approach combines a set of lexico-syntactic rules with a set of models derived by machine learning from a training dataset. The machine learning models rely on named entities, lexical, lexico-semantic and presentation features, as well as the rules that are applicable to a given statement. On a testing set of 300 suicide notes, the approach showed the overall best micro F-measure of up to 53.36%. The best precision achieved was 67.17% when only rules are used, whereas best recall of 50.57% was with integrated rules and machine learning. While some topics (eg, Sorrow, Anger, Blame) prove challenging, the performance for relatively frequent (eg, Love) and well-scoped categories (eg, Thankfulness) was comparatively higher (precision between 68% and 79%), suggesting that automated text mining approaches can be effective in topic categorisation of suicide notes.

  19. A flexible optically re-writable color liquid crystal display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihong; Sun, Jiatong; Liu, Yang; Shang, Jianhua; Liu, Hao; Liu, Huashan; Gong, Xiaohui; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Kowk, Hoi Sing

    2018-03-01

    It is very difficult to make a liquid crystal display (LCD) that is flexible. However, for an optically re-writable LCD (ORWLCD), only the spacers and the substrates need to be flexible because the driving unit and the display unit are separate and there are no electronics in the display part of ORWLCD. In this paper, three flexible-spacer methods are proposed to achieve this goal. A cholesteric liquid crystal colored mirror with a polarizer behind it is used as the colored reflective backboard of an ORWLCD. Polyethersulfone substrates and flexible spacers are used to make the optically re-writable cell insensitive to mechanical force.

  20. Journalism's Rewriting of History in Reporting the Arab Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørndrup, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of journalism’s role as writer and rewriter of the record of political episodes of world importance is central to this article, which takes an empirical approach in choosing the Danish press coverage of The Arab Spring as its starting point. The article analyses how a number...... and circumstances that put Tunisia and Egypt on the Danish media’s agenda in the year before the Arab revolutions as a starting point. The central point of this comparison is to convey how journalism, while describing contemporary events of The Arab Spring, at the same time rewrites its own prior commentary...

  1. A Methodology for Multiple Rule System Integration and Resolution Within a Singular Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzmann, Frank N., III

    1988-01-01

    Expert Systems which support knowledge representation by qualitative modeling techniques experience problems, when called upon to support integrated views embodying description and explanation, especially when other factors such as multiple causality, competing rule model resolution, and multiple uses of knowledge representation are included. A series of prototypes are being developed to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the process of systems engineering, design and configuration, and diagnosis and fault management. A study involves not only a generic knowledge representation; it must also support multiple views at varying levels of description and interaction between physical elements, systems, and subsystems. Moreover, it will involve models of description and explanation for each level. This multiple model feature requires the development of control methods between rule systems and heuristics on a meta-level for each expert system involved in an integrated and larger class of expert system. The broadest possible category of interacting expert systems is described along with a general methodology for the knowledge representation and control of mutually exclusive rule systems.

  2. Path-integral quantization of solitons using the zero-mode Feynman rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Sheng Chang

    1978-01-01

    We propose a direct expansion treatment to quantize solitons without collective coordinates. Feynman's path integral for a free particle subject to an external force is directly used as the generating functional for the zero-frequency mode. The generating functional has no infrared singularity and defines a zero-mode Feynman rule which also gives a correct perturbative expansion for the harmonic-oscillator Green's function by treating the quadratic potential as a perturbation. We use the zero-mode Feynman rule to calculate the energy shift due to the second-order quantum corrections for solitons. Our result agrees with previous predictions using the collective-coordinate method or the method of Goldstone and Jackiw

  3. Integrating semantic web and software agents : Exchanging RIF and BDI rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Overbeek, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Software agents and rules are both used for creating flexibility. Exchanging rules between Semantic Web and agents can ensure consistency in rules and support easy updating and changing of rules. The Rule Interchange Format (RIF) is a new W3C recommendation Semantic Web standard for exchanging rules

  4. A rewritable, reprogrammable, dual light-responsive polymer actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelebart, A.H.; Mulder, D.J.; Vantomme, G.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Broer, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a rewritable and reprogrammable dual-photoresponsive liquid crystalline-based actuator containing an azomerocyanine dye that can be locally converted into the hydroxyazopyridinium form by acid treatment. Each dye absorbs at a different wavelength giving access to

  5. Politics of rewriting: what did Achebe really do? | Molande | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politics of rewriting: what did Achebe really do? Bright Molande. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  6. Automated termination proofs for logic programs by term rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider-Kamp, P.; Giesl, J.; Serebrenik, A.; Thiemann, R.

    2009-01-01

    There are two kinds of approaches for termination analysis of logic programs: "transformational" and "direct" ones. Direct approaches prove termination directly on the basis of the logic program. Transformational approaches transform a logic program into a Term Rewrite System (TRS) and then analyze

  7. 75 FR 19827 - Acquisition Regulation Rewrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... receive. We have found good cause to publish this rule without prior proposal. We have determined that it...) of the same clause: ``Downloadable hotline posters as well as instructions for obtaining a hard copy poster are available at http://www.doioig.gov/hotline .'' PART 1404--ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Subpart 1404...

  8. Concept of rewritable organic ferroelectric random access memory in two lateral transistors-in-one cell architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Hoi; Lee, Gyu Jeong; Keum, Chang-Min; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-01-01

    We propose a concept of rewritable ferroelectric random access memory (RAM) with two lateral organic transistors-in-one cell architecture. Lateral integration of a paraelectric organic field-effect transistor (OFET), being a selection transistor, and a ferroelectric OFET as a memory transistor is realized using a paraelectric depolarizing layer (PDL) which is patterned on a ferroelectric insulator by transfer-printing. For the selection transistor, the key roles of the PDL are to reduce the dipolar strength and the surface roughness of the gate insulator, leading to the low memory on–off ratio and the high switching on–off current ratio. A new driving scheme preventing the crosstalk between adjacent memory cells is also demonstrated for the rewritable operation of the ferroelectric RAM. (paper)

  9. Typed Multiset Rewriting Specifications of Security Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    how to determine a specific set pAq of Dolev-Yao intruder roles from any given derivation A of Σ R. It does so by mapping each rule instance...occurring in A to zero or more intruder roles from Section 8.1. We then define pRq as pAq . This definition entails that the encoding of any active role...privK k,Σ3); ∆ a A k (∆, k′) with ∆′ = (∆, k′). Recall that pAq = (IPV,DUP). E0 :: · . [p∆q] IPV,DUP Σ⊕ΣDY −→ [p∆q] (·→I(k′))I,DUP Σ⊕ΣDY by rule

  10. A Rewritable, Random-Access DNA-Based Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, S M Hossein Tabatabaei; Yuan, Yongbo; Ma, Jian; Zhao, Huimin; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2015-09-18

    We describe the first DNA-based storage architecture that enables random access to data blocks and rewriting of information stored at arbitrary locations within the blocks. The newly developed architecture overcomes drawbacks of existing read-only methods that require decoding the whole file in order to read one data fragment. Our system is based on new constrained coding techniques and accompanying DNA editing methods that ensure data reliability, specificity and sensitivity of access, and at the same time provide exceptionally high data storage capacity. As a proof of concept, we encoded parts of the Wikipedia pages of six universities in the USA, and selected and edited parts of the text written in DNA corresponding to three of these schools. The results suggest that DNA is a versatile media suitable for both ultrahigh density archival and rewritable storage applications.

  11. Böhm Reduction in Infinitary Term Graph Rewriting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    a corresponding theory of Böhm reduction for term graphs. Our main result is that partial order convergence in a term graph rewriting system can be truthfully and faithfully simulated by metric convergence in the Böhm extension of the system. To prove this result we generalise the notion of residuals...... that `meaningless terms' can be contracted to a fresh constant ⊥. In previous work, we have established that Böhm reduction can be instead characterised by a different mode of convergences of transfinite reductions that is based on a partial order structure instead of a metric space. In this paper, we develop...... and projections to the setting of infinitary term graph rewriting. As ancillary results we prove the infinitary strip lemma and the compression property, both for partial order and metric convergence....

  12. A graph rewriting programming language for graph drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes Grrr, a prototype visual graph drawing tool. Previously there were no visual languages for programming graph drawing algorithms despite the inherently visual nature of the process. The languages which gave a diagrammatic view of graphs were not computationally complete and so could not be used to implement complex graph drawing algorithms. Hence current graph drawing tools are all text based. Recent developments in graph rewriting systems have produced computationally com...

  13. Simulation of operating rules and discretional decisions using a fuzzy rule-based system integrated into a water resources management model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Water resources systems are operated, mostly, using a set of pre-defined rules not regarding, usually, to an optimal allocation in terms of water use or economic benefits, but to historical and institutional reasons. These operating policies are reproduced, commonly, as hedging rules, pack rules or zone-based operations, and simulation models can be used to test their performance under a wide range of hydrological and/or socio-economic hypothesis. Despite the high degree of acceptation and testing that these models have achieved, the actual operation of water resources systems hardly follows all the time the pre-defined rules with the consequent uncertainty on the system performance. Real-world reservoir operation is very complex, affected by input uncertainty (imprecision in forecast inflow, seepage and evaporation losses, etc.), filtered by the reservoir operator's experience and natural risk-aversion, while considering the different physical and legal/institutional constraints in order to meet the different demands and system requirements. The aim of this work is to expose a fuzzy logic approach to derive and assess the historical operation of a system. This framework uses a fuzzy rule-based system to reproduce pre-defined rules and also to match as close as possible the actual decisions made by managers. After built up, the fuzzy rule-based system can be integrated in a water resources management model, making possible to assess the system performance at the basin scale. The case study of the Mijares basin (eastern Spain) is used to illustrate the method. A reservoir operating curve regulates the two main reservoir releases (operated in a conjunctive way) with the purpose of guaranteeing a high realiability of supply to the traditional irrigation districts with higher priority (more senior demands that funded the reservoir construction). A fuzzy rule-based system has been created to reproduce the operating curve's performance, defining the system state (total

  14. Designing driver assistance systems with crossmodal signals: multisensory integration rules for saccadic reaction times apply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rike Steenken

    Full Text Available Modern driver assistance systems make increasing use of auditory and tactile signals in order to reduce the driver's visual information load. This entails potential crossmodal interaction effects that need to be taken into account in designing an optimal system. Here we show that saccadic reaction times to visual targets (cockpit or outside mirror, presented in a driving simulator environment and accompanied by auditory or tactile accessories, follow some well-known spatiotemporal rules of multisensory integration, usually found under confined laboratory conditions. Auditory nontargets speed up reaction time by about 80 ms. The effect tends to be maximal when the nontarget is presented 50 ms before the target and when target and nontarget are spatially coincident. The effect of a tactile nontarget (vibrating steering wheel was less pronounced and not spatially specific. It is shown that the average reaction times are well-described by the stochastic "time window of integration" model for multisensory integration developed by the authors. This two-stage model postulates that crossmodal interaction occurs only if the peripheral processes from the different sensory modalities terminate within a fixed temporal interval, and that the amount of crossmodal interaction manifests itself in an increase or decrease of second stage processing time. A qualitative test is consistent with the model prediction that the probability of interaction, but not the amount of crossmodal interaction, depends on target-nontarget onset asynchrony. A quantitative model fit yields estimates of individual participants' parameters, including the size of the time window. Some consequences for the design of driver assistance systems are discussed.

  15. Rewritable azobenzene polyester for polarization holographic data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, A; Sajti, Sz.; Loerincz, Emoeke

    2000-01-01

    Optical storage properties of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester films were examined by polarization holographic measurements. The new amorphous polyester film is the candidate material for the purpose of rewritable holographic memory system. Temporal formation of anisotropic and topographic...... gratings was studied in case of films with and without a hard protective layer. We showed that the dominant contribution to the diffraction efficiency comes from the anisotropy in case of expositions below 1 sec even for high incident intensity. The usage of the same wavelength for writing, reading...

  16. Monotonic Set-Extended Prefix Rewriting and Verification of Recursive Ping-Pong Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delzanno, Giorgio; Esparza, Javier; Srba, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    of messages) some verification problems become decidable. In particular we give an algorithm to decide control state reachability, a problem related to security properties like secrecy and authenticity. The proof is via a reduction to a new prefix rewriting model called Monotonic Set-extended Prefix rewriting...

  17. Printable and Rewritable Full Block Copolymer Structural Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han Sol; Lee, Jinseong; Cho, Suk Man; Park, Tae Hyun; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Chanho; Lee, Seung Won; Kim, Kang Lib; Ryu, Du Yeol; Huh, June; Thomas, Edwin L; Park, Cheolmin

    2017-08-01

    Structural colors (SCs) of photonic crystals (PCs) arise from selective constructive interference of incident light. Here, an ink-jet printable and rewritable block copolymer (BCP) SC display is demonstrated, which can be quickly written and erased over 50 times with resolution nearly equivalent to that obtained with a commercial office ink-jet printer. Moreover, the writing process employs an easily modified printer for position- and concentration-controlled deposition of a single, colorless, water-based ink containing a reversible crosslinking agent, ammonium persulfate. Deposition of the ink onto a self-assembled BCP PC film comprising a 1D stack of alternating layers enables differential swelling of the written BCP film and produces a full-colored SC display of characters and images. Furthermore, the information can be readily erased and the system can be reset by application of hydrogen bromide. Subsequently, new information can be rewritten, resulting in a chemically rewritable BCP SC display. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Olap and data mining technologies' integration in the construction of interdimensional associative rules in multidimensional data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Тихонович Фісун

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The features of associative rules in multidimensional data searching are presented in the article, specifically theoretical basis of association searching between different dimensions in OLAP cubes and formulas of their significance characteristics (support, confidence, lift, leverage calculation are shown. The method of interdimensional association rules generation is proposed. The implementation of this method as a component of operative and intellectual data analysis information system on database management system Caché platform is described.

  19. Differential impact of relevant and irrelevant dimension primes on rule-based and information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lisa R; Maddox, W Todd

    2013-11-01

    Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being "tuned" for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. © 2013.

  20. A Hybrid Approach for NER System for Scarce Resourced Language-URDU: Integrating n-gram with Rules and Gazetteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Naz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a hybrid NER (Name Entity Recognition system for Urdu script by integration of n-gram model (unigram and bigram, rules and gazetteers. We used prefix and suffix characters for rule construction instead of first name and last name lists or potential terms on the output list that is produced by n-gram model. Evaluation of the system is performed on two corpora, the IJCNLP NE (Named Entity corpus and CRL NE corpus in Urdu text. The system achieved 92.65 and 87.6% using hybrid unigram and 92.47 and 86.83% using hybrid bigram on IJCNLP NE corpus and CRL NE corpus, respectively.

  1. Integrative and distributive negotiation in small groups : Effects of task structure, decision rule, and social motive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Bianca; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of task structure, decision rule, and social motive on small-group negotiation processes and outcomes. Three-person groups negotiated either within an asymmetrical task structure (in which a majority of group members have compatible interests) or within a

  2. Moving picture recording and observation of femtosecond light pulse propagation using a rewritable holographic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Tosa, Kazuya; Kakue, Takashi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Awatsuji, Yasuhiro, E-mail: awatsuji@kit.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Nishio, Kenzo [Advanced Technology Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Ura, Shogo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Kubota, Toshihiro [Kubota Holography Laboratory, Corporation, Nishihata 34-1-609, Ogura, Uji 611-0042 (Japan)

    2011-08-01

    We succeeded in recording and observing femtosecond light pulse propagation as a form of moving picture by means of light-in-flight recording by holography using a rewritable holographic material, for the first time. We used a femtosecond pulsed laser whose center wavelength and duration were 800 nm and {approx}120 fs, respectively. A photo-conductor plastic hologram was used as a rewritable holographic material. The femtosecond light pulse was collimated and obliquely incident to the diffuser plate. The behavior of the cross-section between the collimated femtosecond light pulse and the diffuser plate was recorded on the photo-conductor plastic hologram. We experimentally obtained a spatially and temporally continuous moving picture of the femtosecond light pulse propagation for 58.3 ps. Meanwhile, we also investigated the rewritable performance of the photo-conductor plastic hologram. As a result, we confirmed that ten-time rewriting was possible for a photo-conductor plastic hologram.

  3. Modular Implementation of Programming Languages and a Partial-Order Approach to Infinitary Rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we investigate two independent areas of research. In the first part, we develop techniques for implementing programming languages in a modular fashion. Within this problem domain, we focus on operations on typed abstract syntax trees with the goal of developing a framework...... that facilitates the definition, manipulation and composition of such operations. The result of our work is a comprehensive combinator library that provides these facilities. What sets our approach apart is the use of recursion schemes derived from tree automata in order to implement operations on abstract syntax...... trees. The second part is concerned with infinitary rewriting, a field that studies transfinite rewrite sequences. We extend the established theory of infinitary rewriting in two ways: (1) a novel approach to convergence in infinitary rewriting that replaces convergence in a metric space with the limit...

  4. Integrable anyon chains: From fusion rules to face models to effective field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, Peter E.; Flohr, Michael; Frahm, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the fusion rules for the algebra SO(5) 2 we construct one-dimensional lattice models of interacting anyons with commuting transfer matrices of ‘interactions round the face’ (IRF) type. The conserved topological charges of the anyon chain are recovered from the transfer matrices in the limit of large spectral parameter. The properties of the models in the thermodynamic limit and the low energy excitations are studied using Bethe ansatz methods. Two of the anyon models are critical at zero temperature. From the analysis of the finite size spectrum we find that they are effectively described by rational conformal field theories invariant under extensions of the Virasoro algebra, namely WB 2 and WD 5 , respectively. The latter contains primaries with half and quarter spin. The modular partition function and fusion rules are derived and found to be consistent with the results for the lattice model

  5. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation improves rule-based, but not information-integration, category learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Nathaniel J; Saucedo, Celeste L; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2017-03-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation on category learning tasks. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation is a new non-invasive form of brain stimulation that shows promise for wide-ranging experimental and neuropsychological applications. It involves using infrared laser to enhance cerebral oxygenation and energy metabolism through upregulation of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase, the primary infrared photon acceptor in cells. Previous research found that transcranial infrared laser stimulation aimed at the prefrontal cortex can improve sustained attention, short-term memory, and executive function. In this study, we directly investigated the influence of transcranial infrared laser stimulation on two neurobiologically dissociable systems of category learning: a prefrontal cortex mediated reflective system that learns categories using explicit rules, and a striatally mediated reflexive learning system that forms gradual stimulus-response associations. Participants (n=118) received either active infrared laser to the lateral prefrontal cortex or sham (placebo) stimulation, and then learned one of two category structures-a rule-based structure optimally learned by the reflective system, or an information-integration structure optimally learned by the reflexive system. We found that prefrontal rule-based learning was substantially improved following transcranial infrared laser stimulation as compared to placebo (treatment X block interaction: F(1, 298)=5.117, p=0.024), while information-integration learning did not show significant group differences (treatment X block interaction: F(1, 288)=1.633, p=0.202). These results highlight the exciting potential of transcranial infrared laser stimulation for cognitive enhancement and provide insight into the neurobiological underpinnings of category learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rewriting the Metabolic Blueprint: Advances in Pathway Diversification in Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Sakir Hossain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms have evolved over millions of years to fine tune their metabolism to create efficient pathways for producing metabolites necessary for their survival. Advancement in the field of synthetic biology has enabled the exploitation of these metabolic pathways for the production of desired compounds by creating microbial cell factories through metabolic engineering, thus providing sustainable routes to obtain value-added chemicals. Following the past success in metabolic engineering, there is increasing interest in diversifying natural metabolic pathways to construct non-natural biosynthesis routes, thereby creating possibilities for producing novel valuable compounds that are non-natural or without elucidated biosynthesis pathways. Thus, the range of chemicals that can be produced by biological systems can be expanded to meet the demands of industries for compounds such as plastic precursors and new antibiotics, most of which can only be obtained through chemical synthesis currently. Herein, we review and discuss novel strategies that have been developed to rewrite natural metabolic blueprints in a bid to broaden the chemical repertoire achievable in microorganisms. This review aims to provide insights on recent approaches taken to open new avenues for achieving biochemical production that are beyond currently available inventions.

  7. Rewriting the Metabolic Blueprint: Advances in Pathway Diversification in Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Nadarajan, Saravanan Prabhu; Zhang, Lei; Ng, Tee-Kheang; Foo, Jee Loon; Ling, Hua; Choi, Won Jae; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms have evolved over millions of years to fine tune their metabolism to create efficient pathways for producing metabolites necessary for their survival. Advancement in the field of synthetic biology has enabled the exploitation of these metabolic pathways for the production of desired compounds by creating microbial cell factories through metabolic engineering, thus providing sustainable routes to obtain value-added chemicals. Following the past success in metabolic engineering, there is increasing interest in diversifying natural metabolic pathways to construct non-natural biosynthesis routes, thereby creating possibilities for producing novel valuable compounds that are non-natural or without elucidated biosynthesis pathways. Thus, the range of chemicals that can be produced by biological systems can be expanded to meet the demands of industries for compounds such as plastic precursors and new antibiotics, most of which can only be obtained through chemical synthesis currently. Herein, we review and discuss novel strategies that have been developed to rewrite natural metabolic blueprints in a bid to broaden the chemical repertoire achievable in microorganisms. This review aims to provide insights on recent approaches taken to open new avenues for achieving biochemical production that are beyond currently available inventions.

  8. Rewritable three-dimensional holographic data storage via optical forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetisen, Ali K., E-mail: ayetisen@mgh.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Montelongo, Yunuen [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Butt, Haider [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-08

    The development of nanostructures that can be reversibly arranged and assembled into 3D patterns may enable optical tunability. However, current dynamic recording materials such as photorefractive polymers cannot be used to store information permanently while also retaining configurability. Here, we describe the synthesis and optimization of a silver nanoparticle doped poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) recording medium for reversibly recording 3D holograms. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate organizing nanoparticles into 3D assemblies in the recording medium using optical forces produced by the gradients of standing waves. The nanoparticles in the recording medium are organized by multiple nanosecond laser pulses to produce reconfigurable slanted multilayer structures. We demonstrate the capability of producing rewritable optical elements such as multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, 1D photonic crystals, and 3D multiplexed optical gratings. We also show that 3D virtual holograms can be reversibly recorded. This recording strategy may have applications in reconfigurable optical elements, data storage devices, and dynamic holographic displays.

  9. Anachronism and the rewriting of history: the South Africa case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Verbeeck

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The use and abuse of anachronism is often seen as the quintessence of the writing of history. Historians tend to conceive it as the hardcore of their métier to avoid anachronism. It designates a confusion in order of time, especially the mistake of placing an event, attitude, or circumstance too early. The awareness of historical anachronism is omnipresent in times of a radical rewriting of history, in particular as a result of political transformation. History reflects the needs and ambitions of a political context, and the sense of what is deemed historically significant does not remain unattached hereby. Chronology and anachronism are essential to particular conceptions of history, and if history is in a process of being rewritten, they are the first items to be addressed by the defenders of the old system and the advocates of a new discourse. In political debates on the use or abuse of history anachronism is often seen as ultimate proof of the (un-reliability of new insights and conceptions. As anachronism is defined as a way of transferring contemporary sets of values, assumptions and interpretative categories, every political reorientation inevitably provokes a discussion on that level. If a ‘new nation’ is in search of a ‘new past’, a new reflection on the basic categories of historical thinking becomes necessary. The changing discourses in South African historiography since the end of Apartheid serve here as an illuminative example.

  10. DTFP-Growth: Dynamic Threshold-Based FP-Growth Rule Mining Algorithm Through Integrating Gene Expression, Methylation, and Protein-Protein Interaction Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Bhadra, Tapas; Mukherji, Ayan; Mallik, Saurav; Bhadra, Tapas; Mukherji, Ayan; Mallik, Saurav; Bhadra, Tapas; Mukherji, Ayan

    2018-04-01

    Association rule mining is an important technique for identifying interesting relationships between gene pairs in a biological data set. Earlier methods basically work for a single biological data set, and, in maximum cases, a single minimum support cutoff can be applied globally, i.e., across all genesets/itemsets. To overcome this limitation, in this paper, we propose dynamic threshold-based FP-growth rule mining algorithm that integrates gene expression, methylation and protein-protein interaction profiles based on weighted shortest distance to find the novel associations among different pairs of genes in multi-view data sets. For this purpose, we introduce three new thresholds, namely, Distance-based Variable/Dynamic Supports (DVS), Distance-based Variable Confidences (DVC), and Distance-based Variable Lifts (DVL) for each rule by integrating co-expression, co-methylation, and protein-protein interactions existed in the multi-omics data set. We develop the proposed algorithm utilizing these three novel multiple threshold measures. In the proposed algorithm, the values of , , and are computed for each rule separately, and subsequently it is verified whether the support, confidence, and lift of each evolved rule are greater than or equal to the corresponding individual , , and values, respectively, or not. If all these three conditions for a rule are found to be true, the rule is treated as a resultant rule. One of the major advantages of the proposed method compared with other related state-of-the-art methods is that it considers both the quantitative and interactive significance among all pairwise genes belonging to each rule. Moreover, the proposed method generates fewer rules, takes less running time, and provides greater biological significance for the resultant top-ranking rules compared to previous methods.

  11. How Power-Laws Re-Write The Rules Of Cyber Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bibighaus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All warfare contains and element of randomness. This article will argue that, the kind uncertainty encountered in cyber warfare (Power-Law randomness is fundamentally different from the uncertainty the military has evolved to deal with in the physical world (Gaussian-Randomness. The article will explain the difference between these two kinds of randomness, and how cyber weapons appear to operate under Power-Law randomness. It then will show how in cyberspace, key aspects of strategic thought are based on a flaws assumption of randomness. Finally, this article shall argue that if the American military is going to be effective in cyberspace, it must re-examine the way the military assumes risk, recruits is forces, plans for war and maintains the peace.

  12. Managing in the Virtual World: How Second Life is Rewriting the Rules of "Real Life" Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyld, David C.

    In this paper, we will explore the growth of virtual worlds - one of the most exciting and fast-growing concepts in the Web 2.0 era. We will see that while there has been significant growth across all demographic groups, online gaming in MMOGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Games) are finding particular appeal in today's youth - the so-called "digital native" generation. We then overview the today's virtual world marketplace, both in the youth and adult-oriented markets. Second Life is emerging as the most important virtual world today, due to the intense interest amongst both large organizations and individual entrepreneurs to conduct real business in the virtual environment. Due to its prominence today and its forecasted growth over the next decade, we take a look at the unscripted world of Second Life, examining the corporate presence in-world, as well as the economic, technical, legal, ethical and security issues involved for companies doing business in the virtual world. In conclusion, we present an analysis of where we stand in terms of virtual world development today and a projection of where we will be heading in the near future. Finally, we present advice to management practitioners and academicians on how to learn about virtual worlds and explore the world of opportunities in them.

  13. Rewriting the rules governing high intensity interactions of light with matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Alex B.; McCorkindale, John C.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Longworth, James W.; Simon, Peter; Szatmári, Sándor; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2016-04-01

    The trajectory of discovery associated with the study of high-intensity nonlinear radiative interactions with matter and corresponding nonlinear modes of electromagnetic propagation through material that have been conducted over the last 50 years can be presented as a landscape in the intensity/quantum energy [I-ħω] plane. Based on an extensive series of experimental and theoretical findings, a universal zone of anomalous enhanced electromagnetic coupling, designated as the fundamental nonlinear domain, can be defined. Since the lower boundaries of this region for all atomic matter correspond to ħω ~ 103 eV and I  ≈  1016 W cm-2, it heralds a future dominated by x-ray and γ-ray studies of all phases of matter including nuclear states. The augmented strength of the interaction with materials can be generally expressed as an increase in the basic electromagnetic coupling constant in which the fine structure constant α  →  Z 2 α, where Z denotes the number of electrons participating in an ordered response to the driving field. Since radiative conditions strongly favoring the development of this enhanced electromagnetic coupling are readily produced in self-trapped plasma channels, the processes associated with the generation of nonlinear interactions with materials stand in natural alliance with the nonlinear mechanisms that induce confined propagation. An experimental example involving the Xe (4d105s25p6) supershell for which Z  ≅  18 that falls in the specified anomalous nonlinear domain is described. This yields an effective coupling constant of Z 2 α  ≅  2.4  >  1, a magnitude comparable to the strong interaction and a value rendering as useless conventional perturbative analyses founded on an expansion in powers of α. This enhancement can be quantitatively understood as a direct consequence of the dominant role played by coherently driven multiply-excited states in the dynamics of the coupling. It is also conclusively demonstrated by an abundance of data that the utterly peerless champion of the experimental campaign leading to the definition of the fundamental nonlinear domain was excimer laser technology. The basis of this unique role was the ability to satisfy simultaneously a triplet (ω, I, P) of conditions stating the minimal values of the frequency ω, intensity I, and the power P necessary to enable the key physical processes to be experimentally observed and controllably combined. The historical confluence of these developments creates a solid foundation for the prediction of future advances in the fundamental understanding of ultra-high power density states of matter. The atomic findings graciously generalize to the composition of a nuclear stanza expressing the accessibility of the nuclear domain. With this basis serving as the launch platform, a cadenza of three grand challenge problems representing both new materials and new interactions is presented for future solution; they are (1) the performance of an experimental probe of the properties of the vacuum state associated with the dark energy at an intensity approaching the Schwinger/Heisenberg limit, (2) the attainment of amplification in the γ-ray region (~1 MeV) and the discovery of a nuclear excimer, and (3) the determination of a path to the projected super-heavy nuclear island of stability.

  14. Performance analysis of different tuning rules for an isothermal CSTR using integrated EPC and SPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, A. H.; Karim, S. F. Abd; Hamzah, N.

    2018-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the integration of Engineering Process Control (EPC) and Statistical Process Control (SPC) for the control of product concentration of an isothermal CSTR. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N), Direct Synthesis, (DS) and Internal Model Control (IMC) tuning methods and determine the most effective method for this process. The simulation model was obtained from past literature and re-constructed using SIMULINK MATLAB to evaluate the process response. Additionally, the process stability, capability and normality were analyzed using Process Capability Sixpack reports in Minitab. Based on the results, DS displays the best response for having the smallest rise time, settling time, overshoot, undershoot, Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE) and Integral Square Error (ISE). Also, based on statistical analysis, DS yields as the best tuning method as it exhibits the highest process stability and capability.

  15. Efficient quadrature rules for illumination integrals from quasi Monte Carlo to Bayesian Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Ricardo; Santos, Luís Paulo; Bouatouch, Kadi

    2015-01-01

    Rendering photorealistic images is a costly process which can take up to several days in the case of high quality images. In most cases, the task of sampling the incident radiance function to evaluate the illumination integral is responsible for an important share of the computation time. Therefore, to reach acceptable rendering times, the illumination integral must be evaluated using a limited set of samples. Such a restriction raises the question of how to obtain the most accurate approximation possible with such a limited set of samples. One must thus ensure that sampling produces the highe

  16. Health care fraud and abuse data collection program: technical revisions to Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank data collection activities. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-21

    The rule finalizes technical changes to the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB) data collection reporting requirements by clarifying the types of personal numeric identifiers that may be reported to the data bank in connection with adverse actions. The rule clarifies that in lieu of a Social Security Number (SSN), an individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN) may be reported to the data bank when, in those limited situations, an individual does not have an SSN.

  17. Logical-rules and the classification of integral dimensions: Individual differences in the processing of arbitrary dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea G. Blunden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of converging operations demonstrate key differences between separable dimensions, which can be analyzed independently, and integral dimensions, which are processed in a non-analytic fashion. A recent investigation of response time distributions, applying a set of logical rule-based models, demonstrated that integral dimensions are pooled into a single coactive processing channel, in contrast to separable dimensions, which are processed in multiple, independent processing channels. This paper examines the claim that arbitrary dimensions created by factorially morphing four faces are processed in an integral manner (i.e., coactively. In two experiments, sixteen participants completed a categorization task in which either upright or inverted morph stimuli were classified in a speeded fashion. Analyses focused on contrasting different assumptions about the psychological representation of the stimuli, perceptual and decisional separability, and the processing architecture. We report consistent individual differences which demonstrate a mixture of some observers who demonstrate coactive processing with other observers who process the dimensions in a parallel self-terminating manner.

  18. Overcoming the sign problem in 1-dimensional QCD by new integration rules with polynomial exactness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, A. [IVU-Traffic Technologies AG, Berlin (Germany); Hartung, T. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics; Jansen, K.; Volmer, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Leoevey, H. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik

    2016-08-15

    In this paper we describe a new integration method for the groups U(N) and SU(N), for which we verified numerically that it is polynomially exact for N≤3. The method is applied to the example of 1-dimensional QCD with a chemical potential. We explore, in particular, regions of the parameter space in which the sign problem appears due the presence of the chemical potential. While Markov Chain Monte Carlo fails in this region, our new integration method still provides results for the chiral condensate on arbitrary precision, demonstrating clearly that it overcomes the sign problem. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our new method leads to orders of magnitude reduced errors also in other regions of parameter space.

  19. Model Development to Establish Integrated Operational Rule Curves for Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs - Montana, 1996 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.

  20. Mirroring the Object of the Lesson: The Creative Process of Scriptural Rewriting as an Effective Practice for Teaching Sacred Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces Rewritten Scripture and scriptural rewriting as a creative process that, when mirrored in a teaching exercise, may serve as an effective practice in teaching sacred texts. Observing changes made between scripture and its rewriting may allow readers to identify different contexts among these texts. Furthermore, the act of…

  1. Confluence via strong normalisation in an algebraic λ-calculus with rewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Buiras

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The linear-algebraic lambda-calculus and the algebraic lambda-calculus are untyped lambda-calculi extended with arbitrary linear combinations of terms. The former presents the axioms of linear algebra in the form of a rewrite system, while the latter uses equalities. When given by rewrites, algebraic lambda-calculi are not confluent unless further restrictions are added. We provide a type system for the linear-algebraic lambda-calculus enforcing strong normalisation, which gives back confluence. The type system allows an abstract interpretation in System F.

  2. Proposal of New Rewritable Printing Media Using Electrophoresis and Confirmation of Its Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yasushi; Ogura, Masahiro; Sano, Takayuki

    2004-10-01

    A new rewritable printing media using electrophoresis and selective heating is proposed to contribute to the reduction in paper consumption by printers. The mechanism is that when a heated part of the rewritable media is melted, white particles in that part of the media are able to move by electrophoresis. The media is initialized by heating its entire surface under the condition of voltage application and imaging is carried out by selective heating under the condition of an applied reversed-polarity voltage. Using a mixture system of carnauba wax and particles coated with titanium oxide (TiO2), the feasibility of the mechanism is confirmed.

  3. The Balance-Scale Task Revisited: A Comparison of Statistical Models for Rule-Based and Information-Integration Theories of Proportional Reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe D Hofman

    Full Text Available We propose and test three statistical models for the analysis of children's responses to the balance scale task, a seminal task to study proportional reasoning. We use a latent class modelling approach to formulate a rule-based latent class model (RB LCM following from a rule-based perspective on proportional reasoning and a new statistical model, the Weighted Sum Model, following from an information-integration approach. Moreover, a hybrid LCM using item covariates is proposed, combining aspects of both a rule-based and information-integration perspective. These models are applied to two different datasets, a standard paper-and-pencil test dataset (N = 779, and a dataset collected within an online learning environment that included direct feedback, time-pressure, and a reward system (N = 808. For the paper-and-pencil dataset the RB LCM resulted in the best fit, whereas for the online dataset the hybrid LCM provided the best fit. The standard paper-and-pencil dataset yielded more evidence for distinct solution rules than the online data set in which quantitative item characteristics are more prominent in determining responses. These results shed new light on the discussion on sequential rule-based and information-integration perspectives of cognitive development.

  4. [Ginseng prescription rules and molecular mechanism in treating coronary heart disease based on data mining and integrative pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Tang, Shi-Huan; Liu, Jin-Ling; Su, Jin; He, Fu-Yuan

    2018-04-01

    The ancient dragon Materia Medica, Compendium of Materia Medica and other works recorded that the main effect of ginseng is tonifying qi. It is reported that the main active ingredient of ginseng is ginsenoside. Modern studies have found that ginseng mono saponins are effective for cardiovascular related diseases. This paper preliminary clarified the efficacy of traditional ginseng-nourishing qi and cardiovascular disease through the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary platform and integration platform of association of pharmacology. With the help of TCM inheritance auxiliary platform-analysis of "Chinese medicine database", Chinese medicine treatment of modern diseases that ginseng rules, so the traditional effect associated with modern medicine and pharmacology; application integration platform enrichment analysis on the target of drug and gene function, metabolic pathway, to further explore the molecular mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of coronary heart disease, aimed at mining the molecular mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of coronary heart disease. Chinese medicine containing ginseng 307 prescriptions, 87 kinds of disease indications, western medicine disease Chinese medicine therapy for ginseng main coronary heart disease; analysis of molecular mechanism of ginseng pharmacology integration platform for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Ginsenosides(Ra₁, Ra₂, Rb₁, Rb₂, Rg₁, Ro) bind these targets, PRKAA1, PRKAA2, NDUFA4, COX5B, UQCRC1, affect chemokines, non-alcoholic fatty liver, gonadotropin, carbon metabolism, glucose metabolism and other pathways to treat coronary heart disease indirectly. The molecular mechanism of Panax ginseng's multi-component, multi-target and synergistic action is preliminarily elucidated in this paper. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Rewritable 3D bit optical data storage in a PMMA-based photorefractive polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D.; Gu, M. [Swinburne Univ. of Tech., Hawthorn, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Micro-Photonics; Smallridge, A. [Victoria Univ., Melbourne (Australia). School of Life Sciences and Technology

    2001-07-04

    A cheap, compact, and rewritable high-density optical data storage system for CD and DVD applications is presented by the authors. Continuous-wave illumination under two-photon excitation in a new poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) based photorefractive polymer allows 3D bit storage of sub-Tbyte data. (orig.)

  6. Structure of liquid Te-based alloys used in rewritable DVDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delheusy, M.; Raty, J.Y.; Detemple, R.; Welnic, W.; Wuttig, M.; Gaspard, J.-P

    2004-07-15

    We analyze the structure of Te-based chalcogenide compounds that are used as materials for rewritable DVDs by using a combination of neutron diffraction and ab initio computer simulation. We show that in the liquid, the atoms have a low average coordination number, as the result of a Peierls distortion. The partial pair correlation functions are obtained from the computer simulation data.

  7. A Female Interrogative Reader: The Adolescent Jane Austen Reads and Rewrites (His)tory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Walsh, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Argues that Jane Austen's unpublished juvenile work "The History of England" has considerable relevance to twentieth-century high-school English classrooms. Notes that the work humorously shows the gender bias of traditional history texts because it is a "woman-centered" rewriting. (RS)

  8. Four Complete Datatype Defining Rewrite Systems for an Abstract Datatype of Natural Numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural numbers with zero, one, successor, addition and multiplication, constitute a classic example of an abstract datatype amenable for equational initial algebra specification. Datatype defining rewrite systems provide a specification which at the same time is a complete, that is confluent and

  9. Kellogg Foundation Initiative: Rewriting the Way Foundations Do Business in Indian Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Describes the multi-million dollar initiative announced by W. K. Kellogg Foundation in 1995 to support the Native American Higher Education Initiative, and how the Kellogg initiative deserves attention from the nation as a whole because it is attempting to fundamentally rewrite the way foundations do business with Indian communities. (VWC)

  10. Integrating intermittent energy sources in liberalized electricity markets: from technical costs to economic penalties as a result of market rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L.

    2003-06-01

    With the aim of preventing climatic change and ensuring the security of energy supplies, the recent European Directive on renewable energy production sources is aimed at bringing about a very substantial increase in electricity production from renewable sources in Europe by the 2010 horizon. Generally speaking, production of electricity from renewable sources will be assured by biomass and wind, and to a lesser extent by micro hydro, technologies whose characteristics are very different from the point of view of their integration into the electricity system. Their inclusion in the electricity systems will cause problems because of the intermittent nature of the production, a factor that does not enter into the paradigms of producers, system operators or regulators. The problems raised by the integration of intermittent production are technical in nature (risk of non-availability in peak periods, the need for additional reserves) and will incur adjustment costs, but the way in which the electricity markets function will impose economic penalties generally more substantial than the added technical costs. In this paper are examined in succession: (i) the additional costs raised by intermittence; (ii) the economic penalties imposed by the operating rules of de-regulated electricity markets with electricity production from renewable sources included, with particular reference to the case of the British and Nordic markets; and (iii) an analysis of the options that could limit the gap between the additional cost of intermittent production for the system and the adjustment surcharges imposed by the electricity markets, with the aim of reducing the tension between the deregulation of the electricity market and promoting the development of renewable energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  11. Health care fraud and abuse data collection program: technical revisions to healthcare integrity and protection data bank data collection activities. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-17

    The rule makes technical changes to the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB) data collection reporting requirements set forth in 45 CFR part 61 by clarifying the types of personal numeric identifiers that may be reported to the data bank in connection with adverse actions. Specifically, the rule clarifies that in lieu of a Social Security Number (SSN), an individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN) may be reported to the data bank when, in those limited situations, an individual does not have an SSN.

  12. The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

  13. Rewriting the Matrix of Life. Biomedia Between Ecological Crisis and Playful Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neubert, Serjoscha Wiemer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses concepts of ‘nature’ and ‘life’ as subjected to historical changes. The 21st century seems to be obsessed with ‘life’ and ‘nature’, which are reconfigured as objects of simulation practices and of a multitude of technoscientific enterprises as well as of political struggle. The historical influences and epistemological shifts of systems thinking are significant within two distinctive and interwoven fields: On the one hand the discourse of environmentalism with the paradigm of ecological crises, centered around ideas of resource management, sustainability, the general idea of an ‘endangered nature’ and the interconnectedness of global politics and individual actions. On the other hand the optimistic promises of artificial life, with synthetic biology and digital cyborg technologies as its avantgarde, which are very much driven by the idea of technoscientific mastery to surpass natures ‘weakness’ and by desires to improve ‘life’ and to even refashion ‘life itself’. On the field of historical ecology, concepts of systems thinking are traced back to the middle of the 19th century, where ecological thought emerged at the intersections of biology and geography. Meandering between vitalistic, holistic, and mechanistic concepts, between living and non-living elements, systems ecology finally substitutes ‘nature’, which in turn is re-established in its new ‘gestalt’ as computer simulated world model since the early 1970s. Resurrected as an interrelation of system variables at the level of global simulations ‘nature’ strikes as a zombie. As a second turning point of the rewriting of the matrix, of life we will discuss the advance of ‘games’ since the early 1970ies, with the example of ‘Game of life’ (‘Life’ as a significant landmark. When ‘life’ becomes ‘Life’, it is by computerized modeling in terms of dynamic processes. Computer games can be thought of as instances of

  14. Automatic micropropagation of plants--the vision-system: graph rewriting as pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, Joerg; Megnet, Roland; Jensch, Peter F.

    1993-03-01

    The automation of plant-micropropagation is necessary to produce high amounts of biomass. Plants have to be dissected on particular cutting-points. A vision-system is needed for the recognition of the cutting-points on the plants. With this background, this contribution is directed to the underlying formalism to determine cutting-points on abstract-plant models. We show the usefulness of pattern recognition by graph-rewriting along with some examples in this context.

  15. Sub-Circuit Selection and Replacement Algorithms Modeled as Term Rewriting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-16

    of Defense, or the United States Government . AFIT/GCO/ENG/09-02 Sub-circuit Selection and Replacement Algorithms Modeled as Term Rewriting Systems... unicorns and random programs”. Communications and Computer Networks, 24–30. 2005. 87 Vita Eric D. Simonaire graduated from Granite Baptist Church School in...Service to attend the Air Force Institute of Technol- ogy in 2007. Upon graduation, he will serve the federal government in an Information Assurance

  16. URANOS: User-Guided Rewriting for Plugin-Enabled ANdroid ApplicatiOn Security

    OpenAIRE

    Schreckling , Daniel; Huber , Stephan; Höhne , Focke; Posegga , Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Mobile Security; International audience; URANOS is an Android application which uses syntactical static analysis to determine in which component of an Android application a permission is required. This work describes how the detection and analysis of widely distributed and security critical ad-ware plugins is achieved. We show, how users can trigger bytecode rewriting to (de)activate selected or redundant permissions in Android applications without sacrificing functionality. The paper...

  17. On-Chip Fluorescence Switching System for Constructing a Rewritable Random Access Data Storage Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Hiep; Park, Jeho; Hwang, Seungwoo; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo; Shin, Yong-Beom; Ha, Tai Hwan; Kim, Moonil

    2018-01-10

    We report the development of on-chip fluorescence switching system based on DNA strand displacement and DNA hybridization for the construction of a rewritable and randomly accessible data storage device. In this study, the feasibility and potential effectiveness of our proposed system was evaluated with a series of wet experiments involving 40 bits (5 bytes) of data encoding a 5-charactered text (KRIBB). Also, a flexible data rewriting function was achieved by converting fluorescence signals between "ON" and "OFF" through DNA strand displacement and hybridization events. In addition, the proposed system was successfully validated on a microfluidic chip which could further facilitate the encoding and decoding process of data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of DNA hybridization and DNA strand displacement in the field of data storage devices. Taken together, our results demonstrated that DNA-based fluorescence switching could be applicable to construct a rewritable and randomly accessible data storage device through controllable DNA manipulations.

  18. Review: Lesa Lockford (2004. Performing Femininity: Rewriting Gender Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gergen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Performing Femininity is composed of a series of performances presented by the author to a varied audience, from customers at a strip club in New Orleans to a university class, in which a feminist history "Spin the Bottle" game was an integral part. Challenging the dominant discourse of feminist theorists, LOCKFORD looks for strength and liberatory possibilities in what appear to be forms of abjection. Traditional topics of embodiment are rediscovered in this provocative book. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602130

  19. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  20. Rewrite history, make history. Woman as subject in Christine de Pizan and Margaret Cavendish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rudan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In The City of Ladies and Bell in Campo, Christine de Pizan and Margaret Cavendish imagine women’s participation to war as a metaphor of the sexual conflict that they must fight in order to conquer their visibility in history. While Pizan rewrites history from women’s stand point and acknowledges the universal value of sexual difference for the plan of salvation, Cavendish moves within a modern frame and thinks history as the result of human action. In both cases, the tale of women’s participation to war allows criticizing the moral and normative implications of «nature».

  1. The Politics of Rewriting History: New History Textbooks and Curriculum Materials in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajda, Joseph; Zajda, Rea

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of communism in Russia in 1991 necessitated, among other things, the rewriting of school history textbooks, which had been dominated by Marxist-Leninist interpretations of historical events. The aim of this article is to evaluate the new postcommunist history taught in upper secondary schools, giving particular attention to how the models for Russian identity presented in the new textbooks redefine legitimate culture for students. Attention will also be given to the multiple perspectives on history that textbooks and other curriculum materials emphasize; these new methods contrast with the grand narrative that dominated the study of history before 1991.

  2. Foxing the Child: The Cultural Transmission of Pedagogical Norms and Values in Dutch Rewritings of Literary Classics for Children 1850-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the reciprocity between children's literature and educational ideals in Dutch rewritings of international literary classics published for children between 1850 and 1950. It analyses the assumed pedagogical power of rewritings of international literary classics for children from the perspective of three theoretical concepts:…

  3. Two heads are better than one, but how much? Evidence that people's use of causal integration rules does not always conform to normative standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Ortega-Castro, Nerea; Barberia, Itxaso; Baker, A G

    2014-01-01

    Many theories of causal learning and causal induction differ in their assumptions about how people combine the causal impact of several causes presented in compound. Some theories propose that when several causes are present, their joint causal impact is equal to the linear sum of the individual impact of each cause. However, some recent theories propose that the causal impact of several causes needs to be combined by means of a noisy-OR integration rule. In other words, the probability of the effect given several causes would be equal to the sum of the probability of the effect given each cause in isolation minus the overlap between those probabilities. In the present series of experiments, participants were given information about the causal impact of several causes and then they were asked what compounds of those causes they would prefer to use if they wanted to produce the effect. The results of these experiments suggest that participants actually use a variety of strategies, including not only the linear and the noisy-OR integration rules, but also averaging the impact of several causes.

  4. An Association Rule Based Method to Integrate Metro-Public Bicycle Smart Card Data for Trip Chain Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart card data provide valuable insights and massive samples for enhancing the understanding of transfer behavior between metro and public bicycle. However, smart cards for metro and public bicycle are often issued and managed by independent companies and this results in the same commuter having different identity tags in the metro and public bicycle smart card systems. The primary objective of this study is to develop a data fusion methodology for matching metro and public bicycle smart cards for the same commuter using historical smart card data. A novel method with association rules to match the data derived from the two systems is proposed and validation was performed. The results showed that our proposed method successfully matched 573 pairs of smart cards with an accuracy of 100%. We also validated the association rules method through visualization of individual metro and public bicycle trips. Based on the matched cards, interesting findings of metro-bicycle transfer have been derived, including the spatial pattern of the public bicycle as first/last mile solution as well as the duration of a metro trip chain.

  5. Nonvolatile rewritable memory device based on solution-processable graphene/poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li, E-mail: lizhang9@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Li, Ye; Shi, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Shi, Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: Caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2013-11-01

    An electrically bistable device utilizing a nanocomposite of hexadecylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (HDAGO) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is demonstrated. The device has an ITO/P3HT-HDAGO/Al sandwich structure, in which the composite film of P3HT-HDAGO was prepared by simple solution phase mixing of the exfoliated HDAGO monolayers with P3HT matrix and a spin-coating method. The memory device exhibits typical bistable electrical switching behavior and a nonvolatile rewritable memory effect, with a turn-on voltage of about 1.5 V and an ON/OFF-state current ratio of 10{sup 5}. Under ambient conditions, both the ON and OFF states are stable under a constant voltage stress or a continuous pulse voltage stress at a read voltage of 1 V. The conduction mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the nature of currents in both states, and the electrical switching behavior can be attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer between P3HT and HDAGO nanosheets. - Highlights: • Nonvolatile rewritable memory effect in P3HT–graphene composite is demonstrated. • The memory device was fabricated through a simple solution processing technique. • The device shows a remarkable electrical bistable behavior and excellent stability. • Memory mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the currents in both states.

  6. Good grief: Lord of the Flies as a post-war rewriting of salvation history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Vuuren

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Golding’s Lord of the Flies, first published in 1954, reflects a bleak sense of post-war pessimism. But with undue attention focused on its portrayal of original sin and the problem of evil, readings have often remained reductive. In this article it is argued that the novel’s symbolic narrative is polysemic and, when it is read as anagogic myth, may be seen to span Judaeo-Christian Heilsgeschichte or salvation history, rewriting its chapters of creation, Fall, the problem of evil, the failure of law, the hope of salvation, the mission of a messianic figure, and – in the clearest departure from the Biblical narrative – an ambiguous representation of his return. This study examines the novel’s often paradoxical symbolism using Frye’s phases of anagogic myth, with its poles of apocalyptic and demonic imagery. It traces the relation of symbols to their counterparts in Biblical narratives, drawn in particular from the symbolic writings of the origin and end of humanity, to elucidate Golding’s bleak but certainly not hopeless rewriting of the salvation story for a post-faith readership.

  7. Dist-Orc: A Rewriting-based Distributed Implementation of Orc with Formal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Orc is a theory of orchestration of services that allows structured programming of distributed and timed computations. Several formal semantics have been proposed for Orc, including a rewriting logic semantics developed by the authors. Orc also has a fully fledged implementation in Java with functional programming features. However, as with descriptions of most distributed languages, there exists a fairly substantial gap between Orc's formal semantics and its implementation, in that: (i programs in Orc are not easily deployable in a distributed implementation just by using Orc's formal semantics, and (ii they are not readily formally analyzable at the level of a distributed Orc implementation. In this work, we overcome problems (i and (ii for Orc. Specifically, we describe an implementation technique based on rewriting logic and Maude that narrows this gap considerably. The enabling feature of this technique is Maude's support for external objects through TCP sockets. We describe how sockets are used to implement Orc site calls and returns, and to provide real-time timing information to Orc expressions and sites. We then show how Orc programs in the resulting distributed implementation can be formally analyzed at a reasonable level of abstraction by defining an abstract model of time and the socket communication infrastructure, and discuss the assumptions under which the analysis can be deemed correct. Finally, the distributed implementation and the formal analysis methodology are illustrated with a case study.

  8. Nonvolatile rewritable memory device based on solution-processable graphene/poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Ye; Shi, Jun; Shi, Gaoquan; Cao, Shaokui

    2013-01-01

    An electrically bistable device utilizing a nanocomposite of hexadecylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (HDAGO) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is demonstrated. The device has an ITO/P3HT-HDAGO/Al sandwich structure, in which the composite film of P3HT-HDAGO was prepared by simple solution phase mixing of the exfoliated HDAGO monolayers with P3HT matrix and a spin-coating method. The memory device exhibits typical bistable electrical switching behavior and a nonvolatile rewritable memory effect, with a turn-on voltage of about 1.5 V and an ON/OFF-state current ratio of 10 5 . Under ambient conditions, both the ON and OFF states are stable under a constant voltage stress or a continuous pulse voltage stress at a read voltage of 1 V. The conduction mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the nature of currents in both states, and the electrical switching behavior can be attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer between P3HT and HDAGO nanosheets. - Highlights: • Nonvolatile rewritable memory effect in P3HT–graphene composite is demonstrated. • The memory device was fabricated through a simple solution processing technique. • The device shows a remarkable electrical bistable behavior and excellent stability. • Memory mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the currents in both states

  9. Like Water for Chocolate: The Rewriting of the Female Experience and Its Parallels in Philippine History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marikit Tara Alto Uychoco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Laura Esquivel’s Like Water for Chocolate and reads the novel using the literary theories of the “new mestiza,” postcolonial theories, feminist theories, and historiographic metafiction. It seeks to find out how this novel rewrites the female experience of the Mexican Revolution, and the various techniques used in the rewriting of history. It reads the novel from a “new mestiza” feminist perspective, which enables the Filipina reader to find commonalities in the Mexican woman’s struggle in Mexican history and society, and finds ways to help her appreciate the Filipina’s struggle in Philippine history and society. The theories of historiographic metafiction are grounded in Linda Hutcheon’s theories about historiography, or the writing of history, and metafiction, or fiction that makes us aware of the craft of fiction. The theories regarding the “new mestiza” consciousness are from Gloria Anzaldua. This is a feminist theory that is contextualized on the historic oppression of women during Spanish colonization and its resulting patriarchal structures in society, and how women can seek to free themselves from such residual structures. Finally, the article touches upon a Filipina feminist perspective on the novel and what it signifies for the Philippine female experience.

  10. Rewriting History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Catherine Clark

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that the telling of vivid stories can help engage elementary students' emotions and increase the chances of fostering an interest in Texas history. Suggests that incorporating elements of the process approach to writing can merge with social studies objectives in creating a curriculum for wisdom. (RS)

  11. Electronuclear sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.; Drechsel, D.; Weber, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Generalized sum rules are derived by integrating the electromagnetic structure functions along lines of constant ratio of momentum and energy transfer. For non-relativistic systems these sum rules are related to the conventional photonuclear sum rules by a scaling transformation. The generalized sum rules are connected with the absorptive part of the forward scattering amplitude of virtual photons. The analytic structure of the scattering amplitudes and the possible existence of dispersion relations have been investigated in schematic relativistic and non-relativistic models. While for the non-relativistic case analyticity does not hold, the relativistic scattering amplitude is analytical for time-like (but not for space-like) photons and relations similar to the Gell-Mann-Goldberger-Thirring sum rule exist. (Auth.)

  12. Rationale, design, and implementation protocol of an electronic health record integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR randomized trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnivesky Juan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical prediction rules (CPRs represent well-validated but underutilized evidence-based medicine tools at the point-of-care. To date, an inability to integrate these rules into an electronic health record (EHR has been a major limitation and we are not aware of a study demonstrating the use of CPR's in an ambulatory EHR setting. The integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR trial integrates two CPR's in an EHR and assesses both the usability and the effect on evidence-based practice in the primary care setting. Methods A multi-disciplinary design team was assembled to develop a prototype iCPR for validated streptococcal pharyngitis and bacterial pneumonia CPRs. The iCPR tool was built as an active Clinical Decision Support (CDS tool that can be triggered by user action during typical workflow. Using the EHR CDS toolkit, the iCPR risk score calculator was linked to tailored ordered sets, documentation, and patient instructions. The team subsequently conducted two levels of 'real world' usability testing with eight providers per group. Usability data were used to refine and create a production tool. Participating primary care providers (n = 149 were randomized and intervention providers were trained in the use of the new iCPR tool. Rates of iCPR tool triggering in the intervention and control (simulated groups are monitored and subsequent use of the various components of the iCPR tool among intervention encounters is also tracked. The primary outcome is the difference in antibiotic prescribing rates (strep and pneumonia iCPR's encounters and chest x-rays (pneumonia iCPR only between intervention and control providers. Discussion Using iterative usability testing and development paired with provider training, the iCPR CDS tool leverages user-centered design principles to overcome pervasive underutilization of EBM and support evidence-based practice at the point-of-care. The ongoing trial will determine if this collaborative

  13. CF-integrals: A new family of pre-aggregation functions with application to fuzzy rule-based classification systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lucca, G.; Sanz, A.; Dimuro, G. P.; Bedregal, B.; Bustince, H.; Mesiar, Radko

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 1 (2018), s. 94-110 ISSN 0020-0255 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : CF-integral * classification problems * pre-aggregation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 4.832, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/mesiar-0485363.pdf

  14. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  15. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  16. Rewriting traditional tales as multilingual narratives at elementary school: Problems and progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Lotherington

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For several years children at Joyce Public School have been rewriting traditional stories from localized cultural and linguistic perspectives, creating innovative, individualized narrative forms with digital technology. Our experimental multiliteracies research project is a collaboration of school and university teachers and researchers following a guided action research paradigm. The study has as one of its stated objectives the development of multilingual story retelling as a means of inexpensively supporting home language maintenance, fostering language awareness and aiding English as a second language learning in a community of high linguistic diversity. This paper tells our story thus far, focusing on how we have approached the creation of multilingual stories in heterogeneous, urban language classes, discussing stumbling blocks that have forced creative problem-solving and showcasing successes.

  17. Laser writing and rewriting on YBa2Cu3O7 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.Q.; Freltoft, T.; Vase, P.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution patterning (4 μm) has been achieved on epitaxial thin films of the high-temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ using laser writing. A focused laser beam is applied to write semiconducting patterns on superconducting films in a vacuum or in a nitrogen atmosphere. The semiconducting patterns are shown to be formed by a reduction of the oxygen content due to local heating caused by the laser beam. The process does not cause any structural damage and does not change the surface morphology. When reapplying the same laser beam and rewriting the film in an oxygen atmosphere, it is possible to restore the superconductive properties. The application of this method for production of superconducting microelectronic circuits is discussed

  18. Don Quijote goes to Hollywood: The rewrite of myth by Charles Chaplin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bautista Naranjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The character of Charlot, created by Charles Chaplin, rewrites the myth of don Quixote in silent movies. While sharing the roots of the picaresque tradition, they represent a harsh criticism of modernity in all its stages. A distinction has to be made between the plain vaudevillesque humor of Charlot in the brief comic strips from 1914 and its tragi-comical shaping in some short films from 1915 up to Modern Times (1936. Beyond their mere physical aspects and their hilarious exploits, an underlying tragic heroism and idealism lead them to uphold all good causes and to support the wronged ones while they also struggle for survival. Charlot combines the comic with the sublime and, as well as the ingenious hidalgo, his soul becomes gradually fuller, deeper and more human. For all these reasons, this character could be regarded as a “quixote” of the big screen.

  19. Naphthalene based AIE active stimuli-responsive material as rewritable media for temporary communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannipara, Mehboobali; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Kalam, Abul; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2017-10-01

    Organic molecules having extended π-conjugated moieties is useful for creating 'dynamic' functional materials by modulating the photophysical properties and molecular packing through non-covalent interactions. Herein, we report the photoluminescence properties of a luminogen, NBA, exhibiting aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics, synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation reaction between 2-Hydroxy naphthaldehyde and malononitrile. NBA emits strongly upon aggregation and in solid state with large Stokes shift whereas it is non emissive in pure solvents. The aggregation induced emission behavior of the compound was carried out in DMSO (good solvent)-water mixture (poor solvent) with water fraction (fw) ranging from 0% to 98%. The AIE property of the luminogen were further exploited for fabricating rewritable fluorescent paper substrates that found applications in security printing and data storage where the written images or letters stored on the filter paper are invisible under normal light.

  20. Symbolic Evaluation Graphs and Term Rewriting — A General Methodology for Analyzing Logic Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesl, J.; Ströder, T.; Schneider-Kamp, P.

    2013-01-01

    There exist many powerful techniques to analyze termination and complexity of term rewrite systems (TRSs). Our goal is to use these techniques for the analysis of other programming languages as well. For instance, approaches to prove termination of definite logic programs by a transformation...... to TRSs have been studied for decades. However, a challenge is to handle languages with more complex evaluation strategies (such as Prolog, where predicates like the cut influence the control flow). We present a general methodology for the analysis of such programs. Here, the logic program is first...... information on the termination or complexity of the original logic program. More information can be found in the full paper [1]. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....

  1. Novel scenarios of early animal evolution--is it time to rewrite textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, Martin; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-09-01

    Understanding how important phenotypic, developmental, and genomic features of animals originated and evolved is essential for many fields of biological research, but such understanding depends on robust hypotheses about the phylogenetic interrelationships of the higher taxa to which the studied species belong. Molecular approaches to phylogenetics have proven able to revolutionize our knowledge of organismal evolution. However, with respect to the deepest splits in the metazoan Tree of Life-the relationships between Bilateria and the four non-bilaterian phyla (Porifera, Placozoa, Ctenophora, and Cnidaria)-no consensus has been reached yet, since a number of different, often contradictory, hypotheses with sometimes spectacular implications have been proposed in recent years. Here, we review the recent literature on the topic and contrast it with more classical perceptions based on analyses of morphological characters. We conclude that the time is not yet ripe to rewrite zoological textbooks and advocate a conservative approach when it comes to developing scenarios of the early evolution of animals.

  2. Integration of design and manufacturing in a virtual enterprise using enterprise rules, intelligent agents, STEP, and work flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Charles R.; Aparicio, Manuel; Barry, J.; Durniak, Timothy; Lam, Herman; Ramnath, Rajiv

    1997-12-01

    An enterprise's ability to deliver new products quickly and efficiently to market is critical for competitive success. While manufactureres recognize the need for speed and flexibility to compete in this market place, companies do not have the time or capital to move to new automation technologies. The National Industrial Information Infrastructure Protocols Consortium's Solutions for MES Adaptable Replicable Technology (NIIIP SMART) subgroup is developing an information infrastructure to enable the integration and interoperation among Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) and Enterprise Information Systems within an enterprise or among enterprises. The goal of these developments is an adaptable, affordable, reconfigurable, integratable manufacturing system. Key innovative aspects of NIIIP SMART are: (1) Design of an industry standard object model that represents the diverse aspects of MES. (2) Design of a distributed object network to support real-time information sharing. (3) Product data exchange based on STEP and EXPRESS (ISO 10303). (4) Application of workflow and knowledge management technologies to enact manufacturing and business procedures and policy. (5) Application of intelligent agents to support emergent factories. This paper illustrates how these technologies have been incorporated into the NIIIP SMART system architecture to enable the integration and interoperation of existing tools and future MES applications in a 'plug and play' environment.

  3. Business Rules Definition for Decision Support System Using Matrix Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zámečníková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with formalization of business rules by formal grammars. In our work we focus on methods for high frequency data processing. We process data by using complex event platforms (CEP which allow to process high volume of data in nearly real time. Decision making process is contained by one level of processing of CEP. Business rules are used for decision making process description. For the business rules formalization we chose matrix grammar. The use of formal grammars is quite natural as the structure of rules and its rewriting is very similar both for the business rules and for formal grammar. In addition the matrix grammar allows to simulate dependencies and correlations between the rules. The result of this work is a model for data processing of knowledge-based decision support system described by the rules of formal grammar. This system will support the decision making in CEP. This solution may contribute to the speedup of decision making process in complex event processing and also to the formal verification of these systems.

  4. Dramatic Rewritings of the Spanish Golden Age Theater of Cervantes´s La fuerza de la sangre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Escudero Baztán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Golden age spanish theater recreations of Cervantes’s exemplary novel La fuerza de la sangre. Specifically, the paper reviews three important stages in these recreations: La fuerza de la sangre of Guillen de Castro, El agravio satisfecho de Castillo Solórzano, and No hay cosa como callar de Calderon de la Barca. Different rewrites indicate a close relationship between the three dramatic texts through intertextuality and other influences.

  5. New application of functional integrals to classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherebtsov, Anton; Ilinski, Kirill

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter a new functional integral representation for classical dynamics is introduced. It is achieved by rewriting the Liouville picture in terms of bosonic creation-annihilation operators and utilizing the standard derivation of functional integrals for dynamical quantities in the coherent states representation. This results in a new class of functional integrals which are exactly solvable and can be found explicitly when the underlying classical systems are integrable

  6. Re-thinking representations, re-writing nursing texts: possibilities through feminist and Foucauldian thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, A D; Gilmour, J A

    2001-09-01

    Critical approaches are increasingly being used to inform theory and research within the discipline of nursing. In this paper we discuss the work of feminist writers, particularly those located within the postmodern, and Michel Foucault. Their work, although having significant points of difference, can be viewed as complementary and our engagement with these ideas has led us to re-think nursing knowledge. Using ideas from Foucault and postmodern feminism foregrounds critical questions such as whose knowledge is visible in nursing literature, whose is suppressed, and the power relationships reflected in representations of knowledge. Our exploration of representations of knowledge has led us to review fundamental nursing texts that we consider to be important political and ideological artefacts in the enculturation of student nurses. The dominant position of medical knowledge in the texts reviewed continues to position this 'voice' as primary in nursing literature. Drawing on our current research on endometriosis to illustrate the potential inherent in rewriting such texts, we argue for a repositioning of knowledge related to the illness experience. Privileging the voices of people who are the focus of our clinical care reflects the reality of nurses' work; the embodied experience of the person is made visible rather than marginalized in the illness discourse.

  7. ReWritable Data Storage on DVD by Using Phase Change Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, H.; Martin, F.; Kapeller, M.; Cord, B.; Ebinger, H.

    It is expected that the next few years the VHS casette will be replaced by rewritable Digital Versatile Discs (DVD) for home video recording. At this moment three different standards DVD+RW, DVD-RW and DVD-RAM exist, out of which the DVD+RW is expected to dominate the market in Europe and the United States. The disc holds 4.7 GB of computer data, which is equivalent to several hours of high quality video content. At the heart of the disc is a thin film layer stack with a special phase change recording layer. By proper laser irradiation the disc can be overwritten up to 1000 times without noticeable quality loss. A shelf lifetime of 20-50 years is anticipated. With these characteristics the disc is well suited for consumer applications. The present article illuminates how a process engineer can control the disc recording sensitivity, the recording speed and the number of overwriting cycles by the design of the thin film layer stack.

  8. A Multi-Addressable Dyad with Switchable CMY Colors for Full-Color Rewritable Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tianyou; Han, Jiaqi; Geng, Yue; Ju, Le; Sheng, Lan; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2018-06-23

    Reversible multicolor displays on solid media using single molecule pigments have been a long-awaited goal. Herein, a new and simple molecular dyad, which can undergo switchable CMY color changes both in solution and solid substrate upon exposure to light, water/acid, and nucleophiles, is designed and synthesized. The stimuli used in this work can be applied independent of each other, which is beneficial for color changes without mutual interference. As a comparison, the mixtures of the two molecular switching motifs forming the basis of the dyad were also studied. The dyad greatly outperforms the corresponding mixed system with respect to reversible color-switching on the paper substrate. Its potential for full-color rewritable paper with excellent reversibility has been demonstrated. Legible multicolor prints, that is, high color contrast and resolution, good dispersion, excellent reversibility, were achieved using common water-jet and light-based printers. This work provides a very promising approach for further development of full-color switchable molecules, materials and displays. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Manufacturing process of rewritable CD and DVD; Kakikae gata CD, DVD no seizo process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, M. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-05

    Development of rewritable DVD is desired which has feedback compatibility with the existing players and ROM drives. The DVD is formed on a substrate with a thickness of 0.6 mm (dummy plate), and is composed of the multilayer film, i.e., protective coating made of UV hardening resin, reflective layer, dielectric protective layer, phase change type recording layer, and polycarbonate layer from the lower in order. A pair of dummy plates are pasted to enhance the mechanical strength, which has the same thickness of 1.2 mm as CD. Since the grooves and prepits are very fine, injection molding is more difficult compared with CD. Since a great stress change occurs during the formation and initialization processes of multilayer of phase change recording medium layer which is particular to DVD manufacturing process, control of warping is significant. Control of warping of the substrate is also significant, which affects the pasting and the whole process. The recording layer, dielectric protective layer and reflective layer are formed by the discharge spattering. The initialization is a particular process to the phase change medium. Complete non-recording state can be obtained by crystallizing the amorphous recording layer after the film formation. 3 figs.

  10. A GIS-based multi-criteria seismic vulnerability assessment using the integration of granular computing rule extraction and artificial neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikhian, Hossein; Delavar, Mahmoud Reza; Stein, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes multi‐criteria group decision‐making to address seismic physical vulnerability assessment. Granular computing rule extraction is combined with a feed forward artificial neural network to form a classifier capable of training a neural network on the basis of the rules provided by

  11. Some empirical rules concerning the vapor pressure curve revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, S.; White, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A Claussius–Claperyron equation is obtained in the Pitzer corresponding states scheme. • Some well-known empirical rules for the vapor pressure are rewritten in terms of the Pitzer acentric factor. • The Guggenheim point follows the corresponding state scheme better than the normal boiling point. • The Ambrose–Walton vapor pressure equation yields excellent agreement with NIST data in all considered cases. -- Abstract: A form for the Clausius–Clapeyron vapor-pressure equation is obtained in the Pitzer corresponding states scheme. This equation allows one to rewrite the well-known Trouton, Guldberg, van Laar and Guggenheim rules in terms of the acentric factor ω. The original forms of these empirical rules are recovered for some particular values of ω. The proposed rules are checked by analyzing National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) data on the liquid-vapor coexistence curve for 105 fluids. These rules have been also analyzed by using the well-known Ambrose–Walton (AW) vapor pressure equation

  12. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  13. Rapidly Responsive and Flexible Chiral Nematic Cellulose Nanocrystal Composites as Multifunctional Rewritable Photonic Papers with Eco-Friendly Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liang; Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, Pengfei; Jiang, Zhiguo; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2018-02-14

    Rapidly responsive and flexible photonic papers are manufactured by coassembly of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and waterborne polyurethane (WPU) latex for fully taking advantage of the chiral nematic structure of CNCs and the flexibility of WPU elastomer. The resulting CNC/WPU composite papers exhibit not only tunable iridescent colors by adjusting the helical pitch size, but also instant optical responses to water and wet gas, ascribed to the easy chain movement of the elastomeric WPU that does not restrict the fast water absorption-induced swelling of CNCs. By choosing water or NaCl aqueous solutions as inks, the colorful patterns on the CNC/WPU photonic paper can be made temporary, durable, or even disguisable. In addition, the photonic paper is simultaneously rewritable for all these three types of patterns, and the disguisable patterns, which are invisible at normal times and show up under stimuli, exhibit a quick reveal conversion just by exhaling on the paper. The rewritability, rapid responsibility, easy fabrication, and the eco-friendly nature of the inks make the flexible photonic paper/ink combination highly promising in sensors, displays, and photonic circuits.

  14. Rule-based programming and strategies for automated generation of detailed kinetic models for gas phase combustion of polycyclic hydrocarbon molecules; Programmation par regles et strategies pour la generation automatique de mecanismes de combustion d'hydrocarbures polycycliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanescu, L.

    2004-06-15

    The primary objective of this thesis is to explore the approach of using rule-based systems and strategies, for a complex problem of chemical kinetic: the automated generation of reaction mechanisms. The chemical reactions are naturally expressed as conditional rewriting rules. The control of the chemical reactions chaining is easy to describe using a strategies language, such as the one of the ELAN system, developed in the Protheo team. The thesis presents the basic concepts of the chemical kinetics, the chemical and computational problems related to the conception and validation of a reaction mechanism, and gives a general structure for the generator of reaction mechanisms called GasEI. Our research focuses on the primary mechanism generator. We give solutions for encoding the chemical species, the reactions and their chaining, and we present the prototype developed in ELAN. The representation of the chemical species uses the notion of molecular graphs, encoded by a term structure called GasEI terms. The chemical reactions are expressed by rewriting rules on molecular graphs, encoded by a set of conditional rewriting rules on GasEI terms. The strategies language of the ELAN system is used to express the reactions chaining in the primary mechanism generator. This approach is illustrated by coding ten generic reactions of the oxidizing pyrolysis. Qualitative chemical validations of the prototype show that our approach gives, for acyclic molecules, the same results as the existing mechanism generators, and for polycyclic molecules produces original results.

  15. Rule-based programming and strategies for automated generation of detailed kinetic models for gas phase combustion of polycyclic hydrocarbon molecules; Programmation par regles et strategies pour la generation automatique de mecanismes de combustion d'hydrocarbures polycycliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanescu, L

    2004-06-15

    The primary objective of this thesis is to explore the approach of using rule-based systems and strategies, for a complex problem of chemical kinetic: the automated generation of reaction mechanisms. The chemical reactions are naturally expressed as conditional rewriting rules. The control of the chemical reactions chaining is easy to describe using a strategies language, such as the one of the ELAN system, developed in the Protheo team. The thesis presents the basic concepts of the chemical kinetics, the chemical and computational problems related to the conception and validation of a reaction mechanism, and gives a general structure for the generator of reaction mechanisms called GasEI. Our research focuses on the primary mechanism generator. We give solutions for encoding the chemical species, the reactions and their chaining, and we present the prototype developed in ELAN. The representation of the chemical species uses the notion of molecular graphs, encoded by a term structure called GasEI terms. The chemical reactions are expressed by rewriting rules on molecular graphs, encoded by a set of conditional rewriting rules on GasEI terms. The strategies language of the ELAN system is used to express the reactions chaining in the primary mechanism generator. This approach is illustrated by coding ten generic reactions of the oxidizing pyrolysis. Qualitative chemical validations of the prototype show that our approach gives, for acyclic molecules, the same results as the existing mechanism generators, and for polycyclic molecules produces original results.

  16. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  17. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 08: The "Golden Rule" and other lessons on communicating about hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Other fact sheets identified considerations for communicating about hazards, talked about the importance of working locally, and discussed the seven laws of effective hazard communication. This fact sheet introduces the "Golden Rule" of hazard communication and shares some final lessons from hazard educators.

  18. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  19. Hierarchical graphs for rule-based modeling of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rule-based modeling, graphs are used to represent molecules: a colored vertex represents a component of a molecule, a vertex attribute represents the internal state of a component, and an edge represents a bond between components. Components of a molecule share the same color. Furthermore, graph-rewriting rules are used to represent molecular interactions. A rule that specifies addition (removal of an edge represents a class of association (dissociation reactions, and a rule that specifies a change of a vertex attribute represents a class of reactions that affect the internal state of a molecular component. A set of rules comprises an executable model that can be used to determine, through various means, the system-level dynamics of molecular interactions in a biochemical system. Results For purposes of model annotation, we propose the use of hierarchical graphs to represent structural relationships among components and subcomponents of molecules. We illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to naturally document the structural organization of the functional components and subcomponents of two proteins: the protein tyrosine kinase Lck and the T cell receptor (TCR complex. We also show that computational methods developed for regular graphs can be applied to hierarchical graphs. In particular, we describe a generalization of Nauty, a graph isomorphism and canonical labeling algorithm. The generalized version of the Nauty procedure, which we call HNauty, can be used to assign canonical labels to hierarchical graphs or more generally to graphs with multiple edge types. The difference between the Nauty and HNauty procedures is minor, but for completeness, we provide an explanation of the entire HNauty algorithm. Conclusions Hierarchical graphs provide more intuitive formal representations of proteins and other structured molecules with multiple functional components than do the regular graphs of current languages for

  20. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  1. 77 FR 59790 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (GSAR); Rewrite of Part 504...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... and Forms. This final rule is part of the General Services Administration Acquisition Manual (GSAM... the prescription for inclusion of the clause at 552.204-9, Personal Identity Verification Requirements... the ``National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM)'', and link to the web address...

  2. "If you thought this story sour, sweeten it with your own telling" - a feminist poetics of rewriting in Susan Price's Ghost dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Lehtonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts to challenge conventional gendered discourses in children's fantasy have often resulted in feminist rewritings of earlier stories. Ghost dance (1994 by the English author Susan Price is a novel that reflects a specific feminist poetics of rewriting: metafictional passages highlight the constructedness of the narrative and at the end readers are invited to tell their own versions of the story. Moreover, the rewriting freely combines and recontextualises elements from different source texts and reformulates them to create a narrative that challenges conventional discourses of gender. While this poetics has an appeal from a feminist perspective, the play with cross-cultural intertexts and gender becomes more complex when the novel is examined in a postcolonialist framework in relation to ethnicity and the issue of cultural appropriation. Ghost dance is situated in a setting that has a real-world equivalent (Russia, involves characters that are identified with names of real-world ethnic groups (Lapps (Sámi, Russian, and mixes elements from Russian wonder tales, Nordic mythology and an Ojibwe legend. The novel does not aim at historical accuracy in its representations nor is it a direct retelling of any of the pre-texts but combines motifs, themes, names, characters and settings freely from each source. In this textual melting pot, the protagonist Shingebiss is, on one level, a revision of the witch Baba Yaga, but also described as a Lappish shaman with an Ojibwe name. To rewrite gendered discourses, certain elements from the pretexts are chosen and others left out – the question is, then, what effects does this recontextualisation have on the representation of ethnicity? Or, are the feminist rewriting strategies actually a form of cultural appropriation?

  3. Sum rules in classical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients

  4. FCJ-180 Spotify has Added an Event to your Past: (Rewriting the Self through Facebook’s Autoposting Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Kant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on in-depth interviews with sixteen Facebook users, this paper presents a series of vignettes that explore cross-platform Facebook apps as ‘tools’ for self-writing, self-expression and identity performance. The paper argues that the capacity of apps to write in the user’s stead – at times without the user’s knowledge or explicit consent – works to intervene in and on occasion disrupt users’ staged self-performances to their ‘invisible audience’ (Sauter, 2013 on Facebook. Furthermore, if such instances of automated self-writing are treated as performative, apps hold the constitutional capacity to actively rewrite, regulate and even constitute the self to suit the logic of the ‘like economy’ (Gelitz and Helmond, 2013, in ways that transcend the boundaries of Facebook.

  5. The fairy tale: recent interpretations, female characters and contemporary rewriting. Considerations about an “irresistible” genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Barsotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times, the fairy tale manages to catch the imagination of human beings everywhere in the world. Its appeal comes to us even thanks to reinterpretations, constant contaminations from different media, from the oral writing, from cinema to theatre, from advertising to animation. This article will highlight the key features of a very much analysed genre, after the most recent studies and will follow it also by referring to the new routes that it has embarked on in our time. Special attention is then paid on the woman presence and on her origin and evolution that she, in her most varied personifications – innocent girl persecuted by the fairy and by the witch – has suffered up to the latest rewriting of the fairy tales.

  6. Rewriting Revolutionary Myths: Photography in Castro’s Cuba and Tania Bruguera’s Tatlin’s Whisper#6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Söllner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Photography was a key medium for creating, spreading, and cementing myths about the Cuban Revolution and its leaders. In the first part of this essay, I’ll explore several iconic images as well as responses to these pictures, all parts of a Cuban “cross-national memory discourse” (cf. Quiroga, 2005. Walter Benjamin’s media philosophy can help in developing insights about the functioning of these photographs. In the second part of the paper, I turn to Tania Bruguera’s piece Tatlin’s Whisper#6 (staged at the 10th Havana Biennial in 2009, which radically rewrites the poetics of the images and aspires to create a sense of participation and direct involvement.

  7. The impact of the fundamental right to life and physical integrity on the interpretation of rules of procedure relating to atomic energy laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerich, V.; Hassemer, W.; Hohloch, G.; Ruland, F.; Schmidt, K.; Schulze-Osterloh, L.; Weber, H.

    1980-01-01

    The author comments on the decision of December 20, 1979 by the Federal Constitutional Court on the Muehlheim-Kaerlich reactor. The decision was also published in NZW 1980, 760. The essence of the decision is to be found in the representation of effects this fundamental right may have on administrative proceedings relating to atomic energy laws. Up to now, the guarantee concerning effective legal protection and the applications and interpretations of rules of procedure in conformity with this fundamental right has been restricted to legal proceedings. The Federal Constitutional Court draws conclusions from fundamental rights which concern the interpretation and application of regulations on the organization of administrative proceedings. (HSCH) [de

  8. Electromagnetic compatibility design and cabling system rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbourg, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report is devoted to establish EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) design and cabling system rules. It is intended for hardware designers in charge of designing electronic maps or integrating existing materials into a comprehensive system. It is a practical guide. The rules described in this document do not require enhanced knowledge of advanced mathematical or physical concepts. The key point is to understand phenomena with a pragmatic approach to highlight the design and protection rules. (author)

  9. Rule representation using linked data technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Beetz, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a prototype rule checking system based on Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies. This research aims to find a method to represent rules outside of specific systems, and can be used to integrate and share them among different organizations. In this system we propose to

  10. 3He electron scattering sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.E.; Tornow, V.

    1982-01-01

    Electron scattering sum rules for 3 He are derived with a realistic ground-state wave function. The theoretical results are compared with the experimentally measured integrated cross sections. (author)

  11. Sum rules in the response function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1990-01-01

    Sum rules in the response function method are studied in detail. A sum rule can be obtained theoretically by integrating the imaginary part of the response function over the excitation energy with a corresponding energy weight. Generally, the response function is calculated perturbatively in terms of the residual interaction, and the expansion can be described by diagrammatic methods. In this paper, we present a classification of the diagrams so as to clarify which diagram has what contribution to which sum rule. This will allow us to get insight into the contributions to the sum rules of all the processes expressed by Goldstone diagrams. (orig.)

  12. FeynRules - Feynman rules made easy

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Neil D.; Duhr, Claude

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present FeynRules, a new Mathematica package that facilitates the implementation of new particle physics models. After the user implements the basic model information (e.g. particle content, parameters and Lagrangian), FeynRules derives the Feynman rules and stores them in a generic form suitable for translation to any Feynman diagram calculation program. The model can then be translated to the format specific to a particular Feynman diagram calculator via F...

  13. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  14. PROBLEMS OF STRATEGY FORMATION IT-MARKETING, CRITERIA AND THE DECISIVE RULE OF THE INTEGRATION MODEL CHOICE IN ECONOMIC AND MARKETING PRACTICE OF THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Reshetko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article value of IT marketing at the modern enterprise is estimated. Parameters ofan assessment of appeal of IT marketing forproduction structures according to which themanagement of manufacturing enterprisescan approach to this question reasonablyare given. In article various strategy of integration of IT marketing for the enterprises which are at various stages of developmentare also considered. The main emphasis is placed on the detailed description of thesestrategy, and also the factors promotingtheir effective introduction.

  15. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  16. Sum rules for collisional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    We derive level-to-configuration sum rules for dielectronic capture and for collisional excitation and ionization. These sum rules give the total transition rate from a detailed atomic level to an atomic configuration. For each process, we show that it is possible to factor out the dependence on continuum-electron wave functions. The remaining explicit level dependence of each rate is then obtained from the matrix element of an effective operator acting on the bound orbitals only. In a large class of cases, the effective operator reduces to a one-electron monopole whose matrix element is proportional to the statistical weight of the level. We show that even in these cases, nonstatistical level dependence enters through the dependence of radial integrals on continuum orbitals. For each process, explicit analytic expressions for the level-to-configuration sum rules are given for all possible cases. Together with the well-known J-file sum rule for radiative rates [E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University Press, Cambridge, 1935)], the sum rules offer a systematic and efficient procedure for collapsing high-multiplicity configurations into ''effective'' levels for the purpose of modeling the population kinetics of ionized heavy atoms in plasma

  17. Functionalized Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Metal-free, Flexible and Rewritable Nonvolatile Memory Device via Direct Laser-Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Cheng, Huhu; Hu, Yue; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet (g-C3N4-NS) has layered structure similar with graphene nanosheet and presents unusual physicochemical properties due to the s-triazine fragments. But their electronic and electrochemical applications are limited by the relatively poor conductivity. The current work provides the first example that atomically thick g-C3N4-NSs are the ideal candidate as the active insulator layer with tunable conductivity for achieving the high performance memory devices with electrical bistability. Unlike in conventional memory diodes, the g-C3N4-NSs based devices combined with graphene layer electrodes are flexible, metal-free and low cost. The functionalized g-C3N4-NSs exhibit desirable dispersibility and dielectricity which support the all-solution fabrication and high performance of the memory diodes. Moreover, the flexible memory diodes are conveniently fabricated through the fast laser writing process on graphene oxide/g-C3N4-NSs/graphene oxide thin film. The obtained devices not only have the nonvolatile electrical bistability with great retention and endurance, but also show the rewritable memory effect with a reliable ON/OFF ratio of up to 105, which is the highest among all the metal-free flexible memory diodes reported so far, and even higher than those of metal-containing devices. PMID:25073687

  18. The Power of Love: Rewriting the Romance in Isabel Allende's The House of the Spirits and Eva Luna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Jane P. Abao

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ongoing popularity with women readers, romantic fiction has traditionally been regarded as an instrument of women's oppression, largely due to its reinforcement and even glorification of sexual stereotypes and bourgeois values. Latin American writer Isabel Allende's novels The House of the Spirits and Eva Luna both contain a number of the elements and conventions of romantic fiction, including distinct similarities to the two acknowledged foundations of this genre: Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre and Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights.However, The House of the Spirits and Eva Luna can also be read as rewritings of the genre of romantic fiction. In these two texts, Isabel Allende appropriates and then reworks certain conventions of romantic fiction in order to portray her notion of "fulfilling egalitarian relationships" between men and women. Nevertheless, despite these feminist revisions, Allende's rewritten romances do retain the "wish-fulfillment" element-or ideal-of romantic fiction, its depiction of women's fantasy of feminine values being appreciated and validated within heterosexual romantic relationships in the real world.

  19. Functionalized Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Metal-free, Flexible and Rewritable Nonvolatile Memory Device via Direct Laser-Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Cheng, Huhu; Hu, Yue; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-07-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet (g-C3N4-NS) has layered structure similar with graphene nanosheet and presents unusual physicochemical properties due to the s-triazine fragments. But their electronic and electrochemical applications are limited by the relatively poor conductivity. The current work provides the first example that atomically thick g-C3N4-NSs are the ideal candidate as the active insulator layer with tunable conductivity for achieving the high performance memory devices with electrical bistability. Unlike in conventional memory diodes, the g-C3N4-NSs based devices combined with graphene layer electrodes are flexible, metal-free and low cost. The functionalized g-C3N4-NSs exhibit desirable dispersibility and dielectricity which support the all-solution fabrication and high performance of the memory diodes. Moreover, the flexible memory diodes are conveniently fabricated through the fast laser writing process on graphene oxide/g-C3N4-NSs/graphene oxide thin film. The obtained devices not only have the nonvolatile electrical bistability with great retention and endurance, but also show the rewritable memory effect with a reliable ON/OFF ratio of up to 105, which is the highest among all the metal-free flexible memory diodes reported so far, and even higher than those of metal-containing devices.

  20. Rule-Governed Behavior: Teaching a Preliminary Repertoire of Rule-Following to Children With Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tarbox, Jonathan; Zuckerman, Carrie K; Bishop, Michele R; Olive, Melissa L; O'Hora, Denis P

    2011-01-01

    Rule-governed behavior is generally considered an integral component of complex verbal repertoires but has rarely been the subject of empirical research. In particular, little or no previous research has attempted to establish rule-governed behavior in individuals who do not already display the repertoire. This study consists of two experiments that evaluated multiple exemplar training procedures for teaching a simple component skill, which may be necessary for developing a repertoire of rule...

  1. Persistent Rule-Following in the Face of Reversed Reinforcement Contingencies: The Differential Impact of Direct Versus Derived Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Colin; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; McEnteggart, Ciara

    2017-11-01

    Rule-governed behavior and its role in generating insensitivity to direct contingencies of reinforcement have been implicated in human psychological suffering. In addition, the human capacity to engage in derived relational responding has also been used to explain specific human maladaptive behaviors, such as irrational fears. To date, however, very little research has attempted to integrate research on contingency insensitivity and derived relations. The current work sought to fill this gap. Across two experiments, participants received either a direct rule (Direct Rule Condition) or a rule that involved a novel derived relational response (Derived Rule Condition). Provision of a direct rule resulted in more persistent rule-following in the face of competing contingencies, but only when the opportunity to follow the reinforced rule beforehand was relatively protracted. Furthermore, only in the Direct Rule Condition were there significant correlations between rule-compliance and stress. A post hoc interpretation of the findings is provided.

  2. Teaching How to Prepare a Manuscript by Means of Rewriting Published Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaska, Lubomir

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the course described here is to train undergraduate students to write a scientific manuscript. The students participate in selection of a current topic in contemporary genetics or molecular biology by choosing the most interesting paper of a given year. After the teacher provides all essential background about the selected subject, he or she selects a recent article from the corresponding field and presents the students with all the necessary information contained in the paper without revealing its title and author. The data presented in the paper are reviewed by the class so that each student understands every experiment and the main points of the work. Simultaneously, the students are informed about the basic rules of writing the individual sections of a scientific paper. They are then asked to write and formally submit a manuscript summarizing the data. Finally, the students act as reviewers of their colleagues' manuscripts and compare their papers with the original published articles. This enables them to identify both the strengths and the weaknesses of their manuscripts and to gain confidence in the writing skills that will be so critical for their future scientific activities. PMID:17110479

  3. A system for nonmonotonic rules on the web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, G.; Bikakis, A.; Wagner, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Defeasible reasoning is a rule-based approach for efficient reasoning with incomplete and inconsistent information. Such reasoning is, among others, useful for ontology integration, where conflicting information arises naturally; and for the modeling of business rules and policies, where rules with

  4. Rule-Governed Behavior: Teaching a Preliminary Repertoire of Rule-Following to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Jonathan; Zuckerman, Carrie K.; Bishop, Michele R.; Olive, Melissa L.; O'Hora, Denis P.

    2011-01-01

    Rule-governed behavior is generally considered an integral component of complex verbal repertoires but has rarely been the subject of empirical research. In particular, little or no previous research has attempted to establish rule-governed behavior in individuals who do not already display the repertoire. This study consists of two experiments…

  5. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  6. The status of the Civil Servant and Rules of Ethics in Public Administration efficacy in preserving the integrity of civil servants and preventing corruption: the case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eralda Çani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  7. A Better Budget Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  8. Learning the Rules of the Game: The Nature of Game and Classroom Supports When Using a Concept-Integrated Digital Physics Game in the Middle School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Phillip Michael, Jr.

    Games in science education is emerging as a popular topic of scholarly inquiry. The National Research Council recently published a report detailing a research agenda for games and science education entitled Learning Science Through Computer Games and Simulations (2011). The report recommends moving beyond typical proof-of-concept studies into more exploratory and theoretically-based work to determine how best to integrate games into K-12 classrooms for learning , as well as how scaffolds from within the game and from outside the game (from peers and teachers) support the learning of applicable science. This study uses a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design with an 8th grade class at an independent school in southern Connecticut to answer the following questions: 1. What is the nature of the supports for science content learning provided by the game, the peer, and the teacher, when the game is used in a classroom setting? 2. How do the learning gains in the peer support condition compare to the solo play condition, both qualitatively and quantitatively? The concept-integrated physics game SURGE (Scaffolding Understanding through Redesigning Games for Education) was selected for this study, as it was developed with an ear towards specific learning theories and prior work on student understandings of impulse, force, and vectors. Stimulated recall interviews and video observations served as the primary sources and major patterns emerged through the triangulation of data sources and qualitative analysis in the software QSR NVivo 9. The first pattern which emerged indicated that scaffolding from within the game and outside the game requires a pause in game action to be effective, unless that scaffolding is directly useful to the player in the moment of action. The second major pattern indicated that both amount and type of prior gaming experience has somewhat complex effects on both the uses of supports and learning outcomes. In general, a high correlation was found

  9. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  10. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  11. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent with its caption, the text of the rule controls. [Order 376, 49 FR 21705, May 23, 1984] ...

  12. The rewritable effects of bonded magnet for large starting torque and high efficiency in the small power single-phase written pole motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hak; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a single-phase written pole motor using a bonded ring magnet for the small power home application. The motor has an exciter pole structure inside the stator and hybrid characteristics of an induction motor and permanent magnet motor. The design parameters and operating characteristics of the hybrid concept motor are investigated to increase starting torque and efficiency, which is most important for the small power home application. Larger starting torque and higher efficiency than those of the conventional induction motor could be obtained by using the rewritable characteristics of bonded magnet on the starting and running conditions.

  13. A (re escrita de textos em livros didáticos de língua portuguesa = The rewriting of texts portuguese didactic books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair Vieira Gonçalves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A partir do quadro epistemológico do interacionismo sociodiscursivo (ISD de Bronckart (2003, dos aportes teórico-metodológicos para o ensino de língua materna de Schneuwly e Dolz (2004 e em concepções de reescrita dialógica (GONÇALVES; BAZARIM, 2009, investigaremos como duas coleções de Livros Didáticos recomendadas pelo Ministério da Educação - MEC- abordam a reescrita de gêneros no Ensino Fundamental – ciclo II. Para sua efetivação, nos apoiaremos no folhado textual de Bronckart (2003, que contempla a infraestrutura textual, os componentes de ação, discursivos e linguístico-discursivos. A coleção Português – uma proposta de letramento – foca capacidades discursivas em detrimento de capacidades acionais e linguístico-discursivas, além de as propostas de escrita/reescrita não pertencerem ao mesmo gênero dentro de uma unidade temática. A coleção Linguagens no século XXI, ao contrário, focaliza as três capacidades de linguagem analisadas e, sobretudo, favorece a escrita/reescrita do mesmo gênero dentro da unidade do LD.Parting from the epistemological frame of Bronckart's (2003 sociodiscursive interactionism, on the theorethical-methodological supports for the teaching of mother tongue of Schneuwly and Dolz (2004 and the dialogical rewriting' conceptions (GONÇALVES; BAZARIM, 2009, we investigate how two collections of didactic books recommended by Ministry of Education and Culture-MEC- approach textual gender's rewriting in Primary Education cycle II. For its fulfillment, we will uphold on Bronckart's (2003 textual leafy, which contemplates textual infrastructure, discursive and linguistic-discursive components of action. The Português – uma proposta para o letramento collection - focus discursive capacities in detriment of actions and linguistic-discursive capabilities, besides the writing/rewriting's proposals don't belong to the same textual genre inside a thematic unity. The Linguagens no S

  14. Technical rules in law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  15. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  16. Hamiltonian path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of path integrals associated with the allowance for nonstandard terms reflecting the operator nature of the canonical variables are considered. Rules for treating such terms (''equivalence rules'') are formulated. Problems with a boundary, the behavior of path integrals under canonical transformations, and the problem of quantization of dynamical systems with constraints are considered in the framework of the method

  17. Local structure of liquid Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} for rewritable data storage use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zhimei; Zhou Jian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, 361005 (China); Blomqvist, Andreas; Ahuja, Rajeev [Division for Materials Theory, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University, Box 530, SE-751 21, Uppsala (Sweden); Xu Lihua [Department of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials Science, School of Materials and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083 (China)], E-mail: zhmsun2@yahoo.com, E-mail: zmsun@xmu.edu.cn

    2008-05-21

    Phase-change materials based on chalcogenide alloys have been widely used for optical data storage and are promising materials for nonvolatile electrical memory use. However, the mechanism behind the utilization is unclear as yet. Since the rewritable data storage involved an extremely fast laser melt-quenched process for chalcogenide alloys, the liquid structure of which is one key to investigating the mechanism of the fast reversible phase transition and hence rewritable data storage, here by means of ab initio molecular dynamics we have studied the local structure of liquid Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. The results show that the liquid structure gives a picture of most Sb atoms being octahedrally coordinated, and the coexistence of tetrahedral and fivefold coordination at octahedral sites for Ge atoms, while Te atoms are essentially fourfold and threefold coordinated at octahedral sites, as characterized by partial pair correlation functions and bond angle distributions. The local structure of liquid Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} generally resembles that of the crystalline form, except for the much lower coordination number. It may be this unique liquid structure that results in the fast and reversible phase transition between crystalline and amorphous states.

  18. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  19. Bern-Kosower rule for scalar QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daikouji, K.; Shino, M.; Sumino, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We derive a full Bern-Kosower-type rule for scalar QED starting from quantum field theory: we derive a set of rules for calculating S-matrix elements for any processes at any order of the coupling constant. A gauge-invariant set of diagrams in general is first written in the world line path-integral expression. Then we integrate over x(τ), and the resulting expression is given in terms of a correlation function on the world line left-angle x(τ)x(τ ' )right-angle. Simple rules to decompose the correlation function into basic elements are obtained. A gauge transformation known as the integration by parts technique can be used to reduce the number of independent terms before integration over proper-time variables. The surface terms can be omitted provided the external scalars are on shell. Also, we clarify correspondence to the conventional Feynman rule, which enabled us to avoid any ambiguity coming from the infinite dimensionality of the path-integral approach. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  1. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  2. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  3. Safe specification of operator precedence rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afroozeh, A.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Johnstone, A.; Scott, E.; Vinju, J.J.; Erwig, M.; Paige, R.F.; Van Wyk, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to specifying operator precedence based on declarative disambiguation constructs and an implementation mechanism based on grammar rewriting. We identify a problem with existing generalized context-free parsing and disambiguation technology: generating a correct

  4. Safe Specification of Operator Precedence Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Afroozeh (Ali); M.G.J. van den Brand (Mark); A. Johnstone; E. Scott; J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); K. Czarnecki; G. Hedin

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we present an approach to specifying opera- tor precedence based on declarative disambiguation constructs and an implementation mechanism based on grammar rewriting. We identify a problem with existing generalized context-free parsing and disambigua- tion technology:

  5. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  6. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooshan Sonya E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. Methods: In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Results: Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI, a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. Conclusion: We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI.

  7. New Brunswick electricity market rules : summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The electricity market rules for New Brunswick were reviewed with particular reference to two broad classifications. The first classification is based on the roles and responsibilities of the system operator (SO) in facilitating the Bilateral Contract market, as well as the role of market participants in participating in the Bilateral Contract market. The second classification is based on the roles and responsibilities of each of the SO, market participants and transmitters in maintaining the reliability of the integrated electricity system and ensuring a secure supply of electricity for consumers in New Brunswick. The market rules consist of 10 chapters entitled: (1) introduction to the market rules and administrative rules of general application, (2) market participation and the use of the SO-controlled grid, (3) market administration, (4) technical and connection requirements, testing and commissioning, (5) system reliability, (6) operational requirements, (7) settlement, (8) connection of new or modified facilities, (9) transmission system planning, investment and operation, and (10) definitions and interpretation

  8. Sum rules for nuclear collective excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, O.

    1978-07-01

    Characterizations of the response function and of integral properties of the strength function via a moment expansion are discussed. Sum rule expressions for the moments in the RPA are derived. The validity of these sum rules for both density independent and density dependent interactions is proved. For forces of the Skyrme type, analytic expressions for the plus one and plus three energy weighted sum rules are given for isoscalar monopole and quadrupole operators. From these, a close relationship between the monopole and quadrupole energies is shown and their dependence on incompressibility and effective mass is studied. The inverse energy weighted sum rule is computed numerically for the monopole operator, and an upper bound for the width of the monopole resonance is given. Finally the reliability of moments given by the RPA with effective interactions is discussed using simple soluble models for the hamiltonian, and also by comparison with experimental data

  9. Rewriting the Opportunity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    The aim of this paper is to further the discussion of opportunity theory by discussing its ontological and epistemological underpinnings, which have been neglected in previous discussions. The idea that opportunities have an objective component is critically examined drawing on insights from soci...... constructionism. It is argued that opportunity theory needs to be rewritten.......The aim of this paper is to further the discussion of opportunity theory by discussing its ontological and epistemological underpinnings, which have been neglected in previous discussions. The idea that opportunities have an objective component is critically examined drawing on insights from social...

  10. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  11. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  12. Following the Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
.

  13. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    , the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected......Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999...

  14. GraDit: graph-based data repair algorithm for multiple data edits rule violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode Zuhayeni Madjida, Wa; Gusti Bagus Baskara Nugraha, I.

    2018-03-01

    Constraint-based data cleaning captures data violation to a set of rule called data quality rules. The rules consist of integrity constraint and data edits. Structurally, they are similar, where the rule contain left hand side and right hand side. Previous research proposed a data repair algorithm for integrity constraint violation. The algorithm uses undirected hypergraph as rule violation representation. Nevertheless, this algorithm can not be applied for data edits because of different rule characteristics. This study proposed GraDit, a repair algorithm for data edits rule. First, we use bipartite-directed hypergraph as model representation of overall defined rules. These representation is used for getting interaction between violation rules and clean rules. On the other hand, we proposed undirected graph as violation representation. Our experimental study showed that algorithm with undirected graph as violation representation model gave better data quality than algorithm with undirected hypergraph as representation model.

  15. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  16. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  17. « Et ils ne vécurent pas heureux » : la fin de Jane Eyre réécrite dans Charlotte de D.M. Thomas “And they didn’t live happily ever after”: D.M. Thomas’s Rewriting of the Ending of Jane Eyre in Charlotte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Parey

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available D.M. Thomas’s rewriting of Jane Eyre in Charlotte (2000 takes the shape of a transformation of the ending which enables the second Mrs Rochester’s story to be continued in the West Indies, thus also acknowledging Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea as another intertext. In order to challenge the narrative and ideological hierarchy of the source text by rewriting its ending, the pastiche defamiliarises it while some chapters set in 1999 move the limits of rewriting and take the reader into a narrative spiral.

  18. Life fraction rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maile, K.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluations for lifetime estimation of high temperature loaded HTR-components under creep fatigue load had been performed. The evaluations were carried out on the basis of experimental data of strain controlled fatigue tests with respectively without hold times performed on material NiCr 22 Co 12 Mo (Inconel 617). Life prediction was made by means of the linear damage accumulation rule. Due to the high temperatures no realistic estimates of creep damage can be obtained with this rule. Therefore the rule was modified. The modifications consist in a different analysis of the relaxation curve including different calculation of the creep damage estimate resp. in an extended rule, taking into consideration the interaction between creep and fatigue. In order to reach a better result transparency and to reduce data set dependent result scattering a round robin with a given data set was carried out. The round robin yielded that for a given test temperature of T = 950deg C realistic estimate of damage can be obtained with each modification. Furthermore a reduction of resulting scatterbands in the interaction diagram can be observed, i.e. the practicability of the rule has been increased. (orig.)

  19. Connection between Fourier coefficient and Discretized Cartesian path integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalson, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between so-called Discretized and Fourier coefficient formulations of Cartesian path integration is examined. In particular, an intimate connection between the two is established by rewriting the Discretized formulation in a manifestly Fourier-like way. This leads to improved understanding of both the limit behavior and the convergence properties of computational prescriptions based on the two formalisms. The performance of various prescriptions is compared with regard to calculation of on-diagonal statistical density matrix elements for a number of prototypical 1-d potentials. A consistent convergence order among these prescriptions is established

  20. The role of traffic rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Experienced road users seem to have their own set of traffic rules (including rules about when to violate the official rules). The number of violations is enormous, causing great concern for the authorities. The situation could be improved by separating a set of rules with the aim of deterring road

  1. Communicating rules in recreation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Ross; George H. Moeller

    1974-01-01

    Five hundred fifty-eight campers were surveyed on the Allegheny National Forest to determine their knowledge of rules governing recreation behavior. Most of them were uninformed about the rules. Results of the study suggest that previous camping experience, age, camping style, and residence significantly affect knowledge of rules. Campers who received rule brochures or...

  2. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  3. Robert's rules of order

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Henry M; Balch, Thomas J; Seabold, Daniel E; Gerber, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    The only authorized edition of the classic work on parliamentary procedure, with new and enhanced features, including how to conduct electronic meetings. Robert's Rules of Order is the book on parliamentary procedure for parliamentarians and anyone involved in an organization, association, club, or group and the authoritative guide to smooth, orderly, and fairly conducted meetings and assemblies. This newly revised edition is the only book on parliamentary procedure to have been updated since 1876 under the continuing program of review established by General Henry M. Robert himself, in cooperation with the official publisher of Robert's Rules. The eleventh edition has been thoroughly revised to address common inquiries and incorporate new rules, interpretations, and procedures made necessary by the evolution of parliamentary procedure, including new material relating to electronic communication and "electronic meetings."

  4. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  5. The diamond rule for multi-loop Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijl, B.; Ueda, T.; Vermaseren, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    An important aspect of improving perturbative predictions in high energy physics is efficiently reducing dimensionally regularised Feynman integrals through integration by parts (IBP) relations. The well-known triangle rule has been used to achieve simple reduction schemes. In this work we introduce an extensible, multi-loop version of the triangle rule, which we refer to as the diamond rule. Such a structure appears frequently in higher-loop calculations. We derive an explicit solution for the recursion, which prevents spurious poles in intermediate steps of the computations. Applications for massless propagator type diagrams at three, four, and five loops are discussed

  6. Cramer's Rule Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

  7. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  8. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  9. Rules of (Student) Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskist, William; Busler, Jessica N.; Kirby, Lauren A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Teachers often think of student engagement in terms of hands-on activities that get students involved in their courses. They seldom consider the larger aspects of the teaching--learning environment that often influence the extent to which students are willing to become engaged in their coursework. In this chapter, we describe five "rules of…

  10. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail; Pottmann, Helmut; Grohs, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ

  11. Ten-day rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.; Gilman, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors argue against R.H. Mole's paper (Lancet, Dec. 12 1987), supporting the relaxation of ICRP recommendations and the DHSS decision to withdraw the 10 day rule in relation to diagnostic radiography for menstruating women, and draw attention to the recent refinement of estimates of the enhanced risk of childhood cancers, following diagnostic radiography during pregnancy. (U.K.)

  12. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  13. Design rules for phase-change materials in data storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lencer, Dominic; Salinga, Martin [I. Physikalisches Institut IA, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut IA, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance, Section Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (JARA-FIT), 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-05-10

    Phase-change materials can rapidly and reversibly be switched between an amorphous and a crystalline phase. Since both phases are characterized by very different optical and electrical properties, these materials can be employed for rewritable optical and electrical data storage. Hence, there are considerable efforts to identify suitable materials, and to optimize them with respect to specific applications. Design rules that can explain why the materials identified so far enable phase-change based devices would hence be very beneficial. This article describes materials that have been successfully employed and discusses common features regarding both typical structures and bonding mechanisms. It is shown that typical structural motifs and electronic properties can be found in the crystalline state that are indicative for resonant bonding, from which the employed contrast originates. The occurence of resonance is linked to the composition, thus providing a design rule for phase-change materials. This understanding helps to unravel characteristic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity which are discussed in the subsequent section. Then, turning to the transition kinetics between the phases, the current understanding and modeling of the processes of amorphization and crystallization are discussed. Finally, present approaches for improved high-capacity optical discs and fast non-volatile electrical memories, that hold the potential to succeed present-day's Flash memory, are presented. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Design rules for phase-change materials in data storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencer, Dominic; Salinga, Martin; Wuttig, Matthias

    2011-05-10

    Phase-change materials can rapidly and reversibly be switched between an amorphous and a crystalline phase. Since both phases are characterized by very different optical and electrical properties, these materials can be employed for rewritable optical and electrical data storage. Hence, there are considerable efforts to identify suitable materials, and to optimize them with respect to specific applications. Design rules that can explain why the materials identified so far enable phase-change based devices would hence be very beneficial. This article describes materials that have been successfully employed and dicusses common features regarding both typical structures and bonding mechanisms. It is shown that typical structural motifs and electronic properties can be found in the crystalline state that are indicative for resonant bonding, from which the employed contrast originates. The occurence of resonance is linked to the composition, thus providing a design rule for phase-change materials. This understanding helps to unravel characteristic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity which are discussed in the subsequent section. Then, turning to the transition kinetics between the phases, the current understanding and modeling of the processes of amorphization and crystallization are discussed. Finally, present approaches for improved high-capacity optical discs and fast non-volatile electrical memories, that hold the potential to succeed present-day's Flash memory, are presented. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  16. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document presents the Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/449) convened in accordance with Chapter 3 of the Convention. It includes four parts: General provisions, Preparatory process for review meetings, Review meetings, and Amendment and interpretation of rules

  17. Rules of Deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas

    In all wars, deception has been an important element for the military planners, on both the tactical level and the operational level. The good, effective deception operation is of great risk of conflicting with the current Laws of Armed Conflicts, which will be of great concern for the deception ......, the paper will discuss how the inclusion of mission specific rules of deception can greatly help define the boundaries, and give necessary guide lines for conducting deception operations within the laws of armed conflict....

  18. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  19. Rule-Based Event Processing and Reaction Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Adrian; Kozlenkov, Alexander

    Reaction rules and event processing technologies play a key role in making business and IT / Internet infrastructures more agile and active. While event processing is concerned with detecting events from large event clouds or streams in almost real-time, reaction rules are concerned with the invocation of actions in response to events and actionable situations. They state the conditions under which actions must be taken. In the last decades various reaction rule and event processing approaches have been developed, which for the most part have been advanced separately. In this paper we survey reaction rule approaches and rule-based event processing systems and languages.

  20. Proof Rules for Recursive Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    1993-01-01

    Four proof rules for recursive procedures in a Pascal-like language are presented. The main rule deals with total correctness and is based on results of Gries and Martin. The rule is easier to apply than Martin's. It is introduced as an extension of a specification format for Pascal-procedures, with

  1. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  2. Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eszlinger, Markus; Hegedüs, László; Paschke, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET....../PTC rearrangements) has been investigated by several groups with overall reproducible results. Moreover, molecular screening for point mutations and rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried FNA smears, offering several advantages over obtaining additional fresh FNA material. The current panel of somatic...

  3. “Invading Your Hearts and Minds”: Call of Duty®and the (ReWriting of Militarism in U.S. Digital Games and Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérick Gagnon 1

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to discuss how digital war games such as the Call of Duty series elicit consent for the U.S. military, militarism and the wars waged by the U.S. and its allies abroad. Building bridges between the humanities approach to Game Studies, American Studies, International Relations and Critical Geopolitics, we start from the assumption that digital games are more than “kid’s games”; they are sophisticated vehicles inhabiting and disseminating specific ideologies (Leonard 2004. Accordingly, our goal is to conduct a content analysis (Sisler 2008 of Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare and Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 to show how these games contain images and narratives that (1 resonate with and reinforce a tabloid imaginary of post-9/11 geopolitics (Debrix 2008; (2 glorify military power and elicit consent for the idea that state violence and wars are inevitable; and (3 encourage our myopia by depicting a sanitized vision of war and downplaying the negative consequences of state violence (Stahl 2006. The conclusion invites players to think about ways to criticize the way games like Call of Duty employ and deploy values that (rewrite the militarist mindset that has often pervaded the post-9/11 U.S. national security debate.

  4. Business rules for creating process flexibility : Mapping RIF rules and BDI rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Overbeek, S.J.; Janssen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Business rules and software agents can be used for creating flexible business processes. The Rule Interchange Format (RIF) is a new W3C recommendation standard for exchanging rules among disparate systems. Yet, the impact that the introduction of RIF has on the design of flexible business processes

  5. Sanitizing sensitive association rules using fuzzy correlation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, S.; Shahzad, F.; Asghar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Data mining is used to extract useful information hidden in the data. Sometimes this extraction of information leads to revealing sensitive information. Privacy preservation in Data Mining is a process of sanitizing sensitive information. This research focuses on sanitizing sensitive rules discovered in quantitative data. The proposed scheme, Privacy Preserving in Fuzzy Association Rules (PPFAR) is based on fuzzy correlation analysis. In this work, fuzzy set concept is integrated with fuzzy correlation analysis and Apriori algorithm to mark interesting fuzzy association rules. The identified rules are called sensitive. For sanitization, we use modification technique where we substitute maximum value of fuzzy items with zero, which occurs most frequently. Experiments demonstrate that PPFAR method hides sensitive rules with minimum modifications. The technique also maintains the modified data's quality. The PPFAR scheme has applications in various domains e.g. temperature control, medical analysis, travel time prediction, genetic behavior prediction etc. We have validated the results on medical dataset. (author)

  6. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    The value of developing hybrid international criminal procedure (ICP) is that it is arguably inclusive (representing two major legal traditions) and distinct from any domestic system, thus creating a separate, sui generis realm for international criminal law (ICL) jurists to meet. Since its...... addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  7. OZI rule and instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, M.A.; Zahed, I.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the effects of strangeness mixing in the QCD vacuum described as a quantum disordered phase of instantons and anti-instantons. We find that the constituent mass of the light quarks is a decreasing function of the current quark masses, and that its mass is almost insensitive to the value of the strange quark mass. Our results cannot account for a breach in the OZI rule in the vacuum. The relevance of this result for the amount of santi s pairs in the nucleon and the pion-nucleon sigma term is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  9. Pochhammer symbol with negative indices. A new rule for the method of brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of brackets is a method of integration based upon a small number of heuristic rules. Some of these have been made rigorous. An example of an integral involving the Bessel function is used to motivate a new evaluation rule.

  10. An updated nuclear criticality slide rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, C.M.; Broadhead, B.L.

    1998-04-01

    This Volume 2 contains the functional version of the updated nuclear criticality slide rule (more accurately, sliding graphs) that is referenced in An Updated Nuclear Criticality Slide Rule: Technical Basis, NUREG/CR-6504, Vol. 1 (ORNL/TM-13322/V1). This functional slide rule provides a readily usable open-quotes in-handclose quotes method for estimating pertinent nuclear criticality accident information from sliding graphs, thereby permitting (1) the rapid estimation of pertinent criticality accident information without laborious or sophisticated calculations in a nuclear criticality emergency situation, (2) the appraisal of potential fission yields and external personnel radiation exposures for facility safety analyses, and (3) a technical basis for emergency preparedness and training programs at nonreactor nuclear facilities. The slide rule permits the estimation of neutron and gamma dose rates and integrated doses based upon estimated fission yields, distance from the fission source, and time-after criticality accidents for five different critical systems. Another sliding graph permits the estimation of critical solution fission yields based upon fissile material concentration, critical vessel geometry, and solution addition rate. Another graph provides neutron and gamma dose-reduction factors for water, steel, and concrete. Graphs from historic documents are provided as references for estimating critical parameters of various fissile material systems. Conversion factors for various English and metric units are provided for quick reference

  11. Learning the Rules of the Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.

    2018-03-01

    Games have often been used in the classroom to teach physics ideas and concepts, but there has been less published on games that can be used to teach scientific thinking. D. Maloney and M. Masters describe an activity in which students attempt to infer rules to a game from a history of moves, but the students don't actually play the game. Giving the list of moves allows the instructor to emphasize the important fact that nature usually gives us incomplete data sets, but it does make the activity less immersive. E. Kimmel suggested letting students attempt to figure out the rules to Reversi by playing it, but this game only has two players, which makes it difficult to apply in a classroom setting. Kimmel himself admits the choice of Reversi is somewhat arbitrary. There are games, however, that are designed to make the process of figuring out the rules an integral aspect of play. These games involve more people and require only a deck or two of cards. I present here an activity constructed around the card game Mao, which can be used to help students recognize aspects of scientific thinking. The game is particularly good at illustrating the importance of falsification tests (questions designed to elicit a negative answer) over verification tests (examples that confirm what is already suspected) for illuminating the underlying rules.

  12. Sleep promotes the extraction of grammatical rules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L C Nieuwenhuis

    Full Text Available Grammar acquisition is a high level cognitive function that requires the extraction of complex rules. While it has been proposed that offline time might benefit this type of rule extraction, this remains to be tested. Here, we addressed this question using an artificial grammar learning paradigm. During a short-term memory cover task, eighty-one human participants were exposed to letter sequences generated according to an unknown artificial grammar. Following a time delay of 15 min, 12 h (wake or sleep or 24 h, participants classified novel test sequences as Grammatical or Non-Grammatical. Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging work has shown that classification can be guided by two distinct underlying processes: (1 the holistic abstraction of the underlying grammar rules and (2 the detection of sequence chunks that appear at varying frequencies during exposure. Here, we show that classification performance improved after sleep. Moreover, this improvement was due to an enhancement of rule abstraction, while the effect of chunk frequency was unaltered by sleep. These findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in extracting complex structure from separate but related items during integrative memory processing. Our findings stress the importance of alternating periods of learning with sleep in settings in which complex information must be acquired.

  13. Learning Expressive Linkage Rules for Entity Matching using Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Isele, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in data integration and data cleansing is to identify pairs of entities in data sets that describe the same real-world object. Many existing methods for matching entities rely on explicit linkage rules, which specify how two entities are compared for equivalence. Unfortunately, writing accurate linkage rules by hand is a non-trivial problem that requires detailed knowledge of the involved data sets. Another important issue is the efficient execution of link...

  14. Spectral sum rule for time delay in R2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, T.A.; Sinha, K.B.; Bolle, D.; Danneels, C.

    1985-01-01

    A local spectral sum rule for nonrelativistic scattering in two dimensions is derived for the potential class velement ofL 4 /sup // 3 (R 2 ). The sum rule relates the integral over all scattering energies of the trace of the time-delay operator for a finite region Σis contained inR 2 to the contributions in Σ of the pure point and singularly continuous spectra

  15. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  16. Sum Rules, Classical and Quantum - A Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, William; Smith, David Y.

    2014-03-01

    Sum rules in the form of integrals over the response of a system to an external probe provide general analytical tools for both experiment and theory. For example, the celebrated f-sum rule gives a system's plasma frequency as an integral over the optical-dipole absorption spectrum regardless of the specific spectral distribution. Moreover, this rule underlies Smakula's equation for the number density of absorbers in a sample in terms of the area under their absorption bands. Commonly such rules are derived from quantum-mechanical commutation relations, but many are fundamentally classical (independent of ℏ) and so can be derived from more transparent mechanical models. We have exploited this to illustrate the fundamental role of inertia in the case of optical sum rules. Similar considerations apply to sum rules in many other branches of physics. Thus, the ``attenuation integral theorems'' of ac circuit theory reflect the ``inertial'' effect of Lenz's Law in inductors or the potential energy ``storage'' in capacitors. These considerations are closely related to the fact that the real and imaginary parts of a response function cannot be specified independently, a result that is encapsulated in the Kramers-Kronig relations. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  17. Hamburg rules V Hague Visby rules an English perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tozaj Dorian; Xhelilaj Ermal

    2010-01-01

    It has often been argued for the effect of defences provided to carriers under Art IV (2) of Hague Visby Rules to almost nullify the protection guaranteed to shippers in other provisions of this convention. Therefore an all embracing universal shipper friendly convention, merely the Hamburg Rules, need be incorporated in all countries in order to address this issue and fully satisfy the intentions of the parties for the establishment of international rules in international trade

  18. Trade and investment rules for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Rules that govern energy trade is an issue that has generated increasing concern everywhere, from the standpoint of both the security of supply for consumers and security of demand for suppliers. This concern reflects the importance of rules that comprehensively address the needs from supply and demand point of view and integrate the international fabric of energy trade. The GATT and the WTO Agreement define trans-border movement of energy but leave many aspects unclear, particularly as efforts accelerate to control carbon emissions. This timely report by a WEC Task Force of experts with legal standing in the energy business identifies the most pressing issues relating to energy trade and suggests actions and measures which, if implemented, would provide clarity and answer many questions. More importantly, these measures would strengthen the WTO and coming rounds of negotiations.

  19. New Games, New Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Kallinikos, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    Big data and the mechanisms by which it is produced and disseminated introduce important changes in the ways information is generated and made relevant for organizations. Big data often represents miscellaneous records of the whereabouts of large and shifting online crowds. It is frequently......, the usefulness of big data rests on their steady updatability, a condition that reduces the time span within which this data is useful or relevant. Jointly, these attributes challenge established rules of strategy making as these are manifested in the canons of procuring structured information of lasting value...... that addresses specific and long-term organizational objectives. The developments underlying big data thus seem to carry important implications for strategy making, and the data and information practices with which strategy has been associated. We conclude by placing the understanding of these changes within...

  20. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. The biosphere rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  2. Food rules in the Koran

    OpenAIRE

    Kocturk, Tahire O.

    2002-01-01

    Islam is now the second largest religion in Scandinavia and has a high representation among immigrant groups. Knowledge of food rules in Islam is a necessity for nutritionists in multicultural settings. Food rules as they appear in the Koran are contained within the concepts of halal and haram. Halal means lawful, permitted and recommended by the Islamic law. Haram is the opposite, meaning unlawful, prohibited. Food rules are meant to be observed by postpubertal people in good physical and me...

  3. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  4. Deriving Process Congruences from Reaction Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    of adhesive categories, we shall present a con� struction of GRPOs in input�linear cospan bicategories. As an immediate application, we shall shed light on as well as extend the theory of rewriting via borrowed contexts, due to Ehrig and K ̈onig. Secondly, we shall examine the implications of the construction...... form a category which has certain colimits. We shall begin by extending Leifer and Milner’s theory of reactive sys� tems to a 2�categorical setting. This development is motivated by the com� mon situation in which the contexts of a reactive system contain non�trivial algebraic structure...

  5. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is the first revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  6. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The document is the second revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  7. Re-Writing the Construction History of Boughton House (northamptonshire, Uk) with the Help of DOCU-TOOLS®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    The tablet-based software docu-tools digitize the documentation of buildings, simplifies construction and facility management and the data analysis in building and construction-history research. As a plan-based software, `pins' can be set to record data (images, audio, text etc.), each data point containing a time and date stamp. Once a pin is set and information recorded, it can never be deleted from the system, creating clear contentious-free documentation. Reports to any/all data recorded can immediately be generated through various templates in order to share, document, analyze and archive the information gathered. The software both digitizes building condition assessment, as well as simplifies the fully documented management and solving of problems and monitoring of a building. Used both in the construction industry and for documenting and analyzing historic buildings, docu-tools is a versatile and flexible tool that has become integral to my work as a building historian working on the conservation and curating of the historic built environment in Europe. I used the software at Boughton House, Northamptonshire, UK, during a one-year research project into the construction history of the building. The details of how docu-tools was used during this project will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... he been correctly informed; the causality rule provides either zero cover if the omitted fact has caused the insurance event, or full cover if the event would have occurred regardless of the fact. This article explores which rule is more efficient. Using the framework proposed by Picard and Dixit...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  9. Rule base system in developing groundwater pollution expert system: predicting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop

    2000-01-01

    New techniques are now available for use in the protection of the environment. One of these techniques is the use of expert system for prediction groundwater pollution potential. Groundwater Pollution Expert system (GWPES) rules are a collection of principles and procedures used to know the comprehension of groundwater pollution prediction. The rules of groundwater pollution expert system in the form of questions, choice, radio-box, slide rule, button or frame are translated in to IF-THEN rule. The rules including of variables, types, domains and descriptions were used by the function of wxCLIPS (C Language Integrate Production System) expert system shell. (author)

  10. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  11. Business model for business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline Haan; Martin Zoet; Koen Smit

    2014-01-01

    Business rule models are widely applied, standalone and embedded in smart objects. They have become segregated from information technology and they are now a valuable asset in their own right. As more business rule models are becoming assets, business models to monetize these assets are designed.

  12. Statistical Rules-of-Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, James K.

    1988-01-01

    Six best-selling introductory behavioral statistics textbooks that were published in 1982 and two well-known sampling theory textbooks were reviewed to determine the presence of rules-of-thumb--useful principles with wide application that are not intended to be strictly accurate. The relative frequency and type of rules are reported along with a…

  13. Boarding school rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Matt

    2017-01-04

    Ofsted inspects and regulates services that care for children and young people, including boarding facilities. Medication management is an integral part of caring for children in boarding schools, and robust systems must be in place to pass inspection. These systems must cover how medicines are dispensed, administered and stored at the facility, risk assessments, identifying which pupils can manage their own medicines and the individual health needs of boarders, so that care plans can be put in place for children with specific needs.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  15. On Generating Discrete Integrable Systems via Lie Algebras and Commutator Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu-Feng; Tam, Honwah

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, we introduce the Lie algebras and the commutator equations to rewrite the Tu-d scheme for generating discrete integrable systems regularly. By the approach the various loop algebras of the Lie algebra A_1 are defined so that the well-known Toda hierarchy and a novel discrete integrable system are obtained, respectively. A reduction of the later hierarchy is just right the famous Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy. Finally, via two different enlarging Lie algebras of the Lie algebra A_1, we derive two resulting differential-difference integrable couplings of the Toda hierarchy, of course, they are all various discrete expanding integrable models of the Toda hierarchy. When the introduced spectral matrices are higher degrees, the way presented in the paper is more convenient to generate discrete integrable equations than the Tu-d scheme by using the software Maple. (paper)

  16. Compton scattering from nuclei and photo-absorption sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Hobbs, Timothy; Londergan, J. Timothy; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the photo-absorption sum rule for real Compton scattering from the proton and from nuclear targets. In analogy with the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule appropriate at low energies, we propose a new 'constituent quark model' sum rule that relates the integrated strength of hadronic resonances to the scattering amplitude on constituent quarks. We study the constituent quark model sum rule for several nuclear targets. In addition, we extract the α=0 pole contribution for both proton and nuclei. Using the modern high-energy proton data, we find that the α=0 pole contribution differs significantly from the Thomson term, in contrast with the original findings by Damashek and Gilman.

  17. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  18. Rewriting Classical Myths: Women's Voices in “Los motivos de Circe” and “Penélope” by Lourdes Ortiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgado, Nuria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the mythical representations in two of the six short stories that make up Lourdes Ortiz's Voces de mujer (2007, previously published under the title Los motivos de Circe. It is well known that most rewritings of the classical myths have been faithful to the “official truth” of the original versions. But recent works in search of other meanings, have explored dimensions often hidden or blurred by the “official” version. This is the case of the short stories in this collection whose protagonists are six archetypal or mythical women and their respectful references to the biblical, Homeric and pictorial world: Eve, Circe, Penelope, Betsabé, Salomé and Gioconda. The perspective offered by Lourdes Ortiz about the history of these myths allows us to read the story from the point of view of her female heroines. As such, then, in this article I will focus on two female characters from the Homeric epic: Circe and Penelope.El propósito de este artículo es explorar las representaciones míticas en dos de los seis cuentos que componen Voces de mujer (2007, de Lourdes Ortiz, publicado anteriormente bajo el título Los Motivos de Circe. Es bien sabido que la mayoría de las reescrituras de los mitos clásicos han sido fieles a la “verdad oficial” de las versiones originales. Sin embargo, trabajos recientes han explorado las dimensiones a menudo silenciadas por la versión “oficial”. Este es el caso de los cuentos de esta colección cuyas protagonistas son seis mujeres arquetípicas o míticas, y sus referencias con el mundo bíblico, homérico y pictórico: Eva, Circe, Penélope, Betsabé, Salomé y Gioconda. La perspectiva ofrecida por Lourdes Ortiz sobre estos mitos nos permite leer la historia desde el punto de vista de sus heroínas femeninas. Este artículo se centra en dos personajes femeninos de la épica de Homero: Circe y Penélope.

  19. Firm heterogeneity, Rules of Origin and Rules of Cumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bombarda , Pamela; Gamberoni , Elisa

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the impact of relaxing rules of origin (ROOs) in a simple setting with heterogeneous firms that buy intermediate inputs from domestic and foreign sources. In particular, we consider the impact of switching from bilateral to diagonal cumulation when using preferences (instead of paying the MFN tariff) involving the respect of rules of origin. We find that relaxing the restrictiveness of the ROOs leads the least productive exporters to stop exporting. The empirical part confirms thes...

  20. Operator algebra from fusion rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1989-03-01

    It is described how the fusion rules of a conformal field theory can be employed to derive differential equations for the four-point functions of the theory, and thus to determine eventually the operator product coeffients for primary fields. The results are applied to the Ising fusion rules. A set of theories possessing these function rules is found which is labelled by two discrete parameters. For a specific value of one of the parameters, these are the level one Spin(2m+1) Wess-Zusimo-Witten theories; it is shown that they represent an infinite number of inequivalent theories. (author). 38 refs

  1. Cutkosky rules for superstring field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pius, Roji; Sen, Ashoke

    2016-01-01

    Superstring field theory expresses the perturbative S-matrix of superstring theory as a sum of Feynman diagrams each of which is manifestly free from ultraviolet divergences. The interaction vertices fall off exponentially for large space-like external momenta making the ultraviolet finiteness property manifest, but blow up exponentially for large time-like external momenta making it impossible to take the integration contours for loop energies to lie along the real axis. This forces us to carry out the integrals over the loop energies by choosing appropriate contours in the complex plane whose ends go to infinity along the imaginary axis but which take complicated form in the interior navigating around the various poles of the propagators. We consider the general class of quantum field theories with this property and prove Cutkosky rules for the amplitudes to all orders in perturbation theory. Besides having applications to string field theory, these results also give an alternative derivation of Cutkosky rules in ordinary quantum field theories.

  2. Designing business rules for mediation : a process towards agent-mediated business coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Z.; Dignum, M.V.; Dignum, F.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Business process integration is a very active research area, in which mediation is one of the fundamental architectural choices. Mediators have difficulties to design mediation services that meet the requirements of the different stakeholders. Business rules play an important role in the decision process of mediation. In this paper, we analyze the role of business rules in the decision process, and use some examples to illustrate how business rules should be designed in order to help the deci...

  3. Electromagnetic compatibility design and cabling system rules; Regles de conception et de cablage des systemes electroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimbourg, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report is devoted to establish EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) design and cabling system rules. It is intended for hardware designers in charge of designing electronic maps or integrating existing materials into a comprehensive system. It is a practical guide. The rules described in this document do not require enhanced knowledge of advanced mathematical or physical concepts. The key point is to understand phenomena with a pragmatic approach to highlight the design and protection rules. (author)

  4. Path integrals over phase space, their definition and simple properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarski, J.; Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld

    1981-10-01

    Path integrals over phase space are defined in two ways. Some properties of these integrals are established. These properties concern the technique of integration and the quantization rule isup(-I)deltasub(q) p. (author)

  5. Decision Mining Revisited – Discovering Overlapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, F.; de Leoni, M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  6. Decision Mining Revisited - Discovering Overlapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, F.; De Leoni, M.; Reijers, H.A.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Nurcan, S.; Soffer, P.; Bajec, M.; Eder, J.

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  7. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  8. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  9. 'Sum rules' for preequilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1981-03-01

    Evidence that suggests a correct relationship between the optical transmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, gamma sub(n), found in nsmission matrix, P, and the several correlation widths, n, found in multistep compound (preequilibrium) nuclear reactions, is presented. A second sum rule is also derived within the shell model approach to nuclear reactions. Indications of the potential usefulness of the sum rules in preequilibrium studies are given. (Author) [pt

  10. Cellular automata with voting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chosen local interaction - the voting (majority) rule applied to the square lattice is known to cause the non ergodic cellular automata behaviour. Presented computer simulation results verify two cases of non ergodicity. The first one is implicated by the noise introduced to the local interactions and the second one follows properties of the initial lattice configuration selected at random. For the simplified voting rule - non symmetric voting, the critical behaviour has been explained rigorously. (author)

  11. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprows, David

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  12. Rule Systems for Runtime Verification: A Short Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus; Rydeheard, David; Groce, Alex

    In this tutorial, we introduce two rule-based systems for on and off-line trace analysis, RuleR and LogScope. RuleR is a conditional rule-based system, which has a simple and easily implemented algorithm for effective runtime verification, and into which one can compile a wide range of temporal logics and other specification formalisms used for runtime verification. Specifications can be parameterized with data, or even with specifications, allowing for temporal logic combinators to be defined. We outline a number of simple syntactic extensions of core RuleR that can lead to further conciseness of specification but still enabling easy and efficient implementation. RuleR is implemented in Java and we will demonstrate its ease of use in monitoring Java programs. LogScope is a derivation of RuleR adding a simple very user-friendly temporal logic. It was developed in Python, specifically for supporting testing of spacecraft flight software for NASA’s next 2011 Mars mission MSL (Mars Science Laboratory). The system has been applied by test engineers to analysis of log files generated by running the flight software. Detailed logging is already part of the system design approach, and hence there is no added instrumentation overhead caused by this approach. While post-mortem log analysis prevents the autonomous reaction to problems possible with traditional runtime verification, it provides a powerful tool for test automation. A new system is being developed that integrates features from both RuleR and LogScope.

  13. The HIPAA Security Rule: implications for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    The HIPAA Security Rule, with which hospitals must become compliant by April 2005, is broad in scope. Some aspect of this rule will affect virtually every function and department within a healthcare organization. The functions and departments that deal with biomedical technologies face special challenges due to the great diversity of technologies, the variety of data maintained and transmitted, and the risks associated with compromises to data security--combined with the presence of older technology and the absence of integrated expertise. It is essential that hospitals recognize this challenge and initiate steps now to implement appropriate information security management.

  14. 77 FR 41481 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... point to the importance of the Proposed Rule in removing market barriers to VER integration. NextEra... Commission's initiative to remove market and operational barriers to VERs integration and eliminate undue... Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol...

  15. Three religious rules of nonlinear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The theory of strong turbulence is a part of nonlinear physics. The three open-quotes religious rulesclose quotes of nonlinear physics present a heuristic viewpoint that can be used to qualitatively predict the evolution of nonlinear systems. These rules are as follows. (1) The basic results can be obtained from the conservation laws. If some kind of process is not forbidden by these laws, it generally occurs. If it doesn't this means that another conserved quantity imposing the constraint is being missed. (2) The universal law of open-quotes 20/80close quotes takes place: 20% of people drink 80% of beer. In other words, interesting processes usually take place in localized structures occupying a small share of volume. The localized structures interact weakly and therefore maintain their identity. For this reason they are universal and can be investigated. (3) The open-quotes general situationclose quotes is nonintegrable. The special case of exact solutions in integrable models represent a degenerate (nontypical) behavior. Particular exact solutions cannot be taken as representative solutions unless they are attractors. The presence of attractors simplifies the analysis and clarifies the situation. In plasma physics one deals with infinite-dimensional (PDE) systems distributed in space. The application of the religious rules 1 and 2 then leads to the following. If the conservation laws do not prohibit the development of singularities they do occur. If the singularities are prohibited, then stable localized structures take place. Solitons (or solitary waves) and vortices are examples of such stable structures. Wave collapse, wave-breaking, shock waves, magnetic reconnection and singularities in ideal Euler liquid are the examples of singularities. According to rule 3, exact solutions are very essential if they are attractors in some sense. Analysis of this problem is presented for solitons in nonintegrable wave systems and 2D vortices

  16. 75 FR 51934 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission (``Commission'') published a final rule on August 10, 2010, adopting amendments to the Telemarketing Sales Rule that address the...

  17. Atypical Rulings of the Indonesian Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisariyadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In deciding judicial review cases, the Court may issue rulings that is not in accordance to what is stipulated in the Constitutional Court Law (Law Number 8 Year 2011. Atypical rulings means that the court may reconstruct a provision, delay the legislation/rulings enactment or give instruction to lawmakers. In addition, the court also introduce the “conditionally (unconstitutional” concept. This essay attempts to identify and classify these atypical rulings, including conditionally (un constitutional rulings, by examined the constitutional court judicial review rulings from 2003 to 2015. This study will provide a ground work for advance research on typical rulings by the Indonesian constitutional court.

  18. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  19. Gaming the system. Dodging the rules, ruling the dodgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreim, E H

    1991-03-01

    Although traditional obligations of fidelity require physicians to deliver quality care to their patients, including to utilize costly technologies, physicians are steadily losing their accustomed control over the necessary resources. The "economic agents" who own the medical and monetary resources of care now impose a wide array of rules and restrictions in order to contain their costs of operation. However, physicians can still control resources indirectly through "gaming the system," employing tactics such as "fudging" that exploit resource rules' ambiguity and flexibility to bypass the rules while ostensibly honoring them. Physicians may be especially inclined to game the system where resource rules seriously underserve patients' needs, where economic agents seem to be "gaming the patient," with needless obstacles to care, or where others, such as hospitals or even physicians themselves, may be denied needed reimbursements. Though tempting, gaming is morally and medically hazardous. It can harm patients and society, offend honesty, and violate basic principles of contractual and distributive justice. It is also, in fact, usually unnecessary in securing needed resources for patients. More fundamentally, we must reconsider what physicians owe their patients. They owe what is theirs to give: their competence, care and loyalty. In light of medicine's changing economics, two new duties emerge: economic advising, whereby physicians explicitly discuss the economic as well as medical aspects of each treatment option; and economic advocacy, whereby physicians intercede actively on their patients' behalf with the economic agents who control the resources.

  20. Methodological approaches based on business rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize the rules and move them outside the application. This paper analyzes and evaluates three well-known business rules approaches. It also outlines some critical factors that have to be taken into account in the decision to introduce business rules facilities in a software system. Based on the concept of explicit manipulation of business rules in a software system, the need for a general approach based on business rules is discussed.

  1. Integrals over products of distributions and coordinate independence of zero-temperature path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.

    2003-01-01

    In perturbative calculations of quantum-statistical zero-temperature path integrals in curvilinear coordinates one encounters Feynman diagrams involving multiple temporal integrals over products of distributions, which are mathematically undefined. In addition, there are terms proportional to powers of Dirac δ-functions at the origin coming from the measure of path integration. We give simple rules for integrating products of distributions in such a way that the results ensure coordinate independence of the path integrals. The rules are derived by using equations of motion and partial integration, while keeping track of certain minimal features originating in the unique definition of all singular integrals in 1-ε dimensions. Our rules yield the same results as the much more cumbersome calculations in 1-ε dimensions where the limit ε→0 is taken at the end. They also agree with the rules found in an independent treatment on a finite time interval

  2. Sum rules and constraints on passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernland, A; Gustafsson, M; Luger, A

    2011-01-01

    A passive system is one that cannot produce energy, a property that naturally poses constraints on the system. A system in convolution form is fully described by its transfer function, and the class of Herglotz functions, holomorphic functions mapping the open upper half-plane to the closed upper half-plane, is closely related to the transfer functions of passive systems. Following a well-known representation theorem, Herglotz functions can be represented by means of positive measures on the real line. This fact is exploited in this paper in order to rigorously prove a set of integral identities for Herglotz functions that relate weighted integrals of the function to its asymptotic expansions at the origin and infinity. The integral identities are the core of a general approach introduced here to derive sum rules and physical limitations on various passive physical systems. Although similar approaches have previously been applied to a wide range of specific applications, this paper is the first to deliver a general procedure together with the necessary proofs. This procedure is described thoroughly and exemplified with examples from electromagnetic theory.

  3. Methodological approaches based on business rules

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU; Adina UTA

    2008-01-01

    Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize...

  4. Evolving temporal association rules with genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Stephen G.; Gongora, Mario A.; Hopgood, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel framework for mining temporal association rules by discovering itemsets with a genetic algorithm is introduced. Metaheuristics have been applied to association rule mining, we show the efficacy of extending this to another variant - temporal association rule mining. Our framework is an enhancement to existing temporal association rule mining methods as it employs a genetic algorithm to simultaneously search the rule space and temporal space. A methodology for validating the ability of...

  5. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  6. Selection rule for Dirac-like points in two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    We developed a selection rule for Dirac-like points in two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals. The rule is derived from a perturbation theory and states that a non-zero, mode-coupling integral between the degenerate Bloch states guarantees a Dirac-like point, regardless of the type of the degeneracy. In fact, the selection rule can also be determined from the symmetry of the Bloch states even without computing the integral. Thus, the existence of Dirac-like points can be quickly and conclusively predicted for various photonic crystals independent of wave polarization, lattice structure, and composition. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  7. A rule-based automatic sleep staging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sheng-Fu; Kuo, Chin-En; Hu, Yu-Han; Cheng, Yu-Shian

    2012-03-30

    In this paper, a rule-based automatic sleep staging method was proposed. Twelve features including temporal and spectrum analyses of the EEG, EOG, and EMG signals were utilized. Normalization was applied to each feature to eliminating individual differences. A hierarchical decision tree with fourteen rules was constructed for sleep stage classification. Finally, a smoothing process considering the temporal contextual information was applied for the continuity. The overall agreement and kappa coefficient of the proposed method applied to the all night polysomnography (PSG) of seventeen healthy subjects compared with the manual scorings by R&K rules can reach 86.68% and 0.79, respectively. This method can integrate with portable PSG system for sleep evaluation at-home in the near future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Continual integral in perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that all results obtained by means of continual integration within the framework of perturbation theory are completely equivalent to those obtained by the usual diagram technique and are therfore just as rigorous. A rigorous justification is given for the rules for operating with continual integrals in perturbation theory. (author)

  9. De la primera lengua a la traducción literaria: Itinerarios de evaluación y reescritura creativa / From mother tongue teaching to literary translation: Assessing and creative rewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. SÁNCHEZ IGLESIAS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta propuesta parte de las particularidades de la formación en Lengua A para Traductores, un ámbito poco definido y normalmente muy alejado de los contenidos literarios. Se plantean dos conjuntos de actividades, vinculados a la evaluación y a la reescritura, de cuya vinculación surgen los conceptos de lectura intencional y desautomatización de la escritura, y que parecen por tanto especialmente adecuadas para fomentar una creatividad en el uso de la lengua que resulta de la mayor importancia para la traducción literaria. A partir de unas primeras experimentaciones con reescritura de textos literarios, se puede concluir que las nociones de tono y estilo están intuitivamente disponibles para los escritores noveles y son por tanto excelentes candidatas para ser operativas en la formación en traducción literaria.  The distinguishing characteristics of First Language training - a vaguely defined area of study which is not usually explored in literary publications - will form the basis of our investigation.  We will consider two sets of activities, both linked to evaluation and rewriting, which will allow us to explore the concepts of intentional reading and deautomisation of the writing process. These notions seem especially useful for encouraging creativity in language use, a highly important skill in literary translation. Based on the results of a few initial experiments involving the rewriting of literary texts, we can conclude that novice writers are intuitively aware of tone and style. These notions could therefore provide an excellent focus for literary translation training. 

  10. Bisphenol A; Final Test Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing a final rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of bisphenol A, hereinafter BPA, (4.4’-isopropylidenediphenol, CAS No. 80-05—7) to conduct a 90-day inhalation study.

  11. Polarizability sum rules in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanta, E.; Tarrach, R.

    1978-01-01

    The well founded total photoproduction and the, assumed subtraction free, longitudinal photoproduction polarizability sum rules are checked in QED at the lowest non-trivial order. The first one is shown to hold, whereas the second one turns out to need a subtraction, which makes its usefulness for determining the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons quite doubtful. (Auth.)

  12. Rules and Acts of Considerateness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 395-418 ISSN 1370-0049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-20785S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : normativity, moral rules * Wittgensteinian ethics * particularity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2015

  13. Phase space quark counting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-gin, C.; Lo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

  14. Selection rules for splitting strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Gregory, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been pointed out that Nielsen-Olesen vortices may be able to decay by pair production of black holes. We show that when the Abelian-Higgs model is embedded in a larger theory, the additional fields mau lead to selection rules for this process-even in the absence of fermions-due to the failure

  15. Cosmic-ray sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.

  16. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  17. Following the Rules of Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 118-128 ISSN 1877-3095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : rule * normativity * speech acts * evolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  18. Neutrino mass sum-rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Asan

    2018-03-01

    Neutrino mass sum-rele is a very important research subject from theoretical side because neutrino oscillation experiment only gave us two squared-mass differences and three mixing angles. We review neutrino mass sum-rule in literature that have been reported by many authors and discuss its phenomenological implications.

  19. A history of slide rules for blackbody radiation computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Stewart, Sean M.

    2012-10-01

    During the Second World War the importance of utilizing detection devices capable of operating in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum was firmly established. Up until that time, laboriously constructed tables for blackbody radiation needed to be used in calculations involving the amount of radiation radiated within a given spectral region or for other related radiometric quantities. To rapidly achieve reasonably accurate calculations of such radiometric quantities, a blackbody radiation calculator was devised in slide rule form first in Germany in 1944 and soon after in England and the United States. In the immediate decades after its introduction, the radiation slide rule was widely adopted and recognized as a useful and important tool for engineers and scientists working in the infrared field. It reached its pinnacle in the United States in 1970 in a rule introduced by Electro Optical Industries, Inc. With the onset in the latter half of the 1970s of affordable, hand-held electronic calculators, the impending demise of the radiation slide rule was evident. No longer the calculational device of choice, the radiation slide rule all but disappeared within a few short years. Although today blackbody radiation calculations can be readily accomplished using anything from a programmable pocket calculator upwards, with each device making use of a wide variety of numerical approximations to the integral of Planck's function, radiation slide rules were in the early decades of infrared technology the definitive "workhorse" for those involved in infrared systems design and engineering. This paper presents a historical development of radiation slide rules with many versions being discussed.

  20. Hamiltonian path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to consideration of operator nonpermutability in Hamiltonian path integral (HPI) are considered in the review. Integrals are investigated using trajectories in configuration space (nonrelativistic quantum mechanics). Problems related to trajectory integrals in HPI phase space are discussed: the problem of operator nonpermutability consideration (extra terms problem) and corresponding equivalence rules; ambiguity of HPI usual recording; transition to curvilinear coordinates. Problem of quantization of dynamical systems with couplings has been studied. As in the case of canonical transformations, quantization of the systems with couplings of the first kind requires the consideration of extra terms

  1. GMRES and integral operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, C.T.; Xue, Z.Q. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Many discretizations of integral equations and compact fixed point problems are collectively compact and strongly convergent in spaces of continuous functions. These properties not only lead to stable and convergent approximations but also can be used in the construction of fast multilevel algorithms. Recently the GMRES algorithm has become a standard coarse mesh solver. The purpose of this paper is to show how the special properties of integral operators and their approximations are reflected in the performance of the GMRES iteration and how these properties can be used to strengthen the norm in which convergence takes place. The authors illustrate these ideas with composite Gauss rules for integral equations on the unit interval.

  2. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  3. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Richard P. [NRR/DOTS/TQMP, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, M/S OWFN 10A19, Washington, D.C. 20555 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  4. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  5. iRODS Primer Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Arcot

    2010-01-01

    Policy-based data management enables the creation of community-specific collections. Every collection is created for a purpose. The purpose defines the set of properties that will be associated with the collection. The properties are enforced by management policies that control the execution of procedures that are applied whenever data are ingested or accessed. The procedures generate state information that defines the outcome of enforcing the management policy. The state information can be queried to validate assessment criteria and verify that the required collection properties have been con

  6. The Rule of Metaphor commented.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Begué

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective of the paper was to provide an introduction to the thought of Ricoeur in this book, to the seminar participants according to the work they have been doing on the dialogue between poetry and mysticism.Key words: Paul Ricoeur, Rule Methaphor, Theology and Literature, Philosophy of Language.

  7. Solving Hammerstein Type Integral Equation by New Discrete Adomian Decomposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda O. Bakodah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New discrete Adomian decomposition methods are presented by using some identified Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature rules. We investigate two mixed quadrature rules one of precision five and the other of precision seven. The first rule is formed by using the Fejér second rule of precision three and Simpson rule of precision three, while the second rule is formed by using the Fejér second rule of precision five and the Boole rule of precision five. Our methods were applied to a nonlinear integral equation of the Hammerstein type and some examples are given to illustrate the validity of our methods.

  8. Sum rules for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.; Martemyanov, B.V.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Sum rules for neutrino oscillations are obtained. The derivation of the general form of the s matrix for two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) (where lsub(i)sup(-)e, μ, tau, ... are initial leptons with flavor i and lsub(k)sup(+-) is final lepton) is presented. The consideration of two stage process lsub(i)sup(-)→ν→lsub(k)sup(+-) gives the possibility to take into account neutrino masses and to obtain the expressions for the oscillating cross sections. In the case of Dirac and left-handed Majorana neutrino is obtained the sum rule for the quantities 1/Vsub(K)σ(lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+-)), (where Vsub(K) is a velocity of lsub(K)). In the left-handed Majorana neutrino case there is an additional antineutrino admixture leading to lsub(i)sup(-)→lsub(K)sup(+) process. Both components (neutrino and antineutrino) oscillate independently. The sums Σsub(K)1/Vsub(k)σ(lsub(i)sup(-) - lsub(K)sup(+-) then oscillate due to the presence of left-handed antineutrinos and right-handed neutrinos which do not take part in weak interactions. If right-handed currents are added sum rules analogous to considered above may be obtained. All conclusions are valid in the general case when CP is not conserved [ru

  9. The OZI rule and nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1991-11-01

    The title of this lecture series raises two questions: (1) what is the OZI rule? (2) what is a nucleon. In the lectures both questions were addressed in parallel and the material moved back and forth between them. In a written version it seems more appropriate to treat the two question separately, begining with trying to understand the structure of the nucleon. Experimental evidence for the symmetry and quark structure of hadrons is reviewed with a historical introduction and updated by presenting constituent quark model relation for hadron masses and magnetic moments.Three definitions of the OZI rule are presented, all which forbid decay like φ->ρπ but making different selection rules for more complicate reactions. All suffer from the higer order paradox that a forbidden process can take place via two-step transition in which each step is allowed; e.g. φ-> KK-bar -> ρπ. No prescription is given for estimating the strength of forbidden processes. The role of cancellations between different higer order diagrams is discussed. (author)

  10. Application of a generalized Leibniz rule for calculating electromagnetic fields within continuous source regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.

    1991-01-01

    In deriving the electric and magnetic fields in a continuous source region by differentiating the vector potential, Yaghjian (1985) explains that the central obstacle is the dependence of the integration limits on the differentiation variable. Since it is not mathematically rigorous to assume the curl and integral signs are interchangeable, he uses an integration variable substitution to circumvent this problematic dependence. Here, an alternative derivation is presented, which evaluates the curl of the vector potential volume integral directly, retaining the dependence of the limits of integration on the differentiation variable. It involves deriving a three-dimensional version of Leibniz' rule for differentiating an integral with variable limits of integration, and using the generalized rule to find the Maxwellian and cavity fields in the source region. 7 refs

  11. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  12. Performance Indicators for Business Rule Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline de Haan; dr. Martijn Zoet; Koen Smit

    2016-01-01

    From the article: With increasing investments in business rules management (BRM), organizations are searching for ways to value and benchmark their processes to elicitate, design, accept, deploy and execute business rules. To realize valuation and benchmarking of previously mentioned processes,

  13. Religionsfrihed i Kina & The Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law......Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law...

  14. The efficiency of the negligence rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Ljubica; Mojašević, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    This study comparatively analizes economic effects of different negligence rules, contained in American law on the one hand, and Serbian law on the other. It is important to establish economic implications of the different negligence rules, based on the incentives for tortfeasor’s and victim’s precaution under the different negligence rules. Study of the efficiency of several different forms of negligence rules: simple negligence, negligence with a defense of contributory negligence, comparat...

  15. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  16. The Rule-Assessment Approach and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the rule-assessment approach to cognitive development. The basic question that motivated the rule-assessment approach is how people's existing knowledge influences their ability to learn. Research using the rule-assessment approach is summarized in terms of eight conclusions, each illustrated with empirical examples.…

  17. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  18. Safe reduction rules for weighted treewidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkhof, F. van den; Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Several sets of reductions rules are known for preprocessing a graph when computing its treewidth. In this paper, we give reduction rules for a weighted variant of treewidth, motivated by the analysis of algorithms for probabilistic networks. We present two general reduction rules that are safe for

  19. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-11-06

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency.

  20. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Used Throughout This Statement of Basis and Purpose ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and codified at 16 CFR 436. ``ANPR'' refers to the.../bcp/workshops/bizopps/disclosure-form-report.pdf . ``Original Franchise Rule'' refers to the original...

  1. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  2. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency

  3. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  4. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R Smit (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible

  5. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  6. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  7. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  8. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  9. FUZZY MODELING BY SUCCESSIVE ESTIMATION OF RULES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an algorithm for automatically deriving fuzzy rules directly from a set of input-output data of a process for the purpose of modeling. The rules are extracted by a method termed successive estimation. This method is used to generate a model without truncating the number of fired rules, to within user ...

  10. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  11. Oxytocin modulates trait-based rule following

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    Rules, whether in the form of norms, taboos or laws, regulate and coordinate human life. Some rules, however, are arbitrary and adhering to them can be personally costly. Rigidly sticking to such rules can be considered maladaptive. Here, we test whether, at the neurobiological level, (mal)adaptive

  12. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  13. Rules in School. Strategies for Teachers Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kathryn; Forton, Mary Beth; Porter, Deborah; Wood, Chip

    This book offers an approach for helping K-8 students become invested in creating and living by classroom rules. It provides techniques for: helping students articulate their hopes and dreams for school; involving students in generating classroom rules that grow out of their hopes and dreams; modeling, practicing, and role playing the rules; using…

  14. On Communication Rules from a Social Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Stuart J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses assumptions and criticisms of rule-governed approaches to interpersonal communication research and theory. Outlines a definition of rules that does not require sole reliance on interpersonal actors' statements about their behavior or assumptions of communicator self-awareness. Suggests consideration of rules-based concomitants of…

  15. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  16. Rule-based topology system for spatial databases to validate complex geographic datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Llario, J.; Coll, E.; Núñez-Andrés, M.; Femenia-Ribera, C.

    2017-06-01

    A rule-based topology software system providing a highly flexible and fast procedure to enforce integrity in spatial relationships among datasets is presented. This improved topology rule system is built over the spatial extension Jaspa. Both projects are open source, freely available software developed by the corresponding author of this paper. Currently, there is no spatial DBMS that implements a rule-based topology engine (considering that the topology rules are designed and performed in the spatial backend). If the topology rules are applied in the frontend (as in many GIS desktop programs), ArcGIS is the most advanced solution. The system presented in this paper has several major advantages over the ArcGIS approach: it can be extended with new topology rules, it has a much wider set of rules, and it can mix feature attributes with topology rules as filters. In addition, the topology rule system can work with various DBMSs, including PostgreSQL, H2 or Oracle, and the logic is performed in the spatial backend. The proposed topology system allows users to check the complex spatial relationships among features (from one or several spatial layers) that require some complex cartographic datasets, such as the data specifications proposed by INSPIRE in Europe and the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) for Cadastral data.

  17. Organizational Knowledge Transfer Using Ontologies and a Rule-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Masao; Yoshioka, Akiko; Kobayashi, Keido; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In recent automated and integrated manufacturing, so-called intelligence skill is becoming more and more important and its efficient transfer to next-generation engineers is one of the urgent issues. In this paper, we propose a new approach without costly OJT (on-the-job training), that is, combinational usage of a domain ontology, a rule ontology and a rule-based system. Intelligence skill can be decomposed into pieces of simple engineering rules. A rule ontology consists of these engineering rules as primitives and the semantic relations among them. A domain ontology consists of technical terms in the engineering rules and the semantic relations among them. A rule ontology helps novices get the total picture of the intelligence skill and a domain ontology helps them understand the exact meanings of the engineering rules. A rule-based system helps domain experts externalize their tacit intelligence skill to ontologies and also helps novices internalize them. As a case study, we applied our proposal to some actual job at a remote control and maintenance office of hydroelectric power stations in Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. We also did an evaluation experiment for this case study and the result supports our proposal.

  18. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  19. The mapping approach in the path integral formalism applied to curve-crossing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Alexey; Kleinekathoefer, Ulrich; Schreiber, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The path integral formalism in a combined phase-space and coherent-state representation is applied to the problem of curve-crossing dynamics. The system of interest is described by two coupled one-dimensional harmonic potential energy surfaces interacting with a heat bath consisting of harmonic oscillators. The mapping approach is used to rewrite the Lagrangian function of the electronic part of the system. Using the Feynman-Vernon influence-functional method the bath is eliminated whereas the non-Gaussian part of the path integral is treated using the generating functional for the electronic trajectories. The dynamics of a Gaussian wave packet is analyzed along a one-dimensional reaction coordinate within a perturbative treatment for a small coordinate shift between the potential energy surfaces

  20. Rules Versus Discretion in Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Fischer

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the case for rules rather than discretion in the conduct of monetary policy, from both historical and analytic perspectives. The paper starts with the rules of the game under the gold standard. These rules were ill-defined and not adhered to; active discretionary policy was pursued to defend the gold standard -- but the gold standard came closer to a regime of rules than the current system. The arguments for rules in general developed by Milton Friedman are described mo ap...

  1. Do Group Decision Rules Affect Trust? A Laboratory Experiment on Group Decision Rules and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced participation has been prescribed as the way forward for improving democratic decision making while generating positive attributes like trust. Yet we do not know the extent to which rules affect the outcome of decision making. This article investigates how different group decision rules......-hierarchical decision-making procedures enhance trust vis-à-vis other more hierarchical decision-making procedures....... affect group trust by testing three ideal types of decision rules (i.e., a Unilateral rule, a Representative rule and a 'Non-rule') in a laboratory experiment. The article shows significant differences between the three decision rules on trust after deliberation. Interestingly, however, it finds...

  2. The Half RR Rule: A Poor Rule of Thumb and Not a Risk Assessment Tool for QT Interval Prolongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berling, Ingrid; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2015-10-01

    Measuring the QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) is integral to risk assessment of Torsade de Pointes (TdP). This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of the 1/2 RR rule as a risk assessment tool for drug-induced TdP, comparing it to the QT nomogram, Bazett's corrected QT (QTcB), and Fridericia's corrected QT (QTcF). The authors calculated sensitivity and specificity of the 1/2 RR rule using a published data set of 129 cases of drug-induced TdP and 316 controls (noncardiotoxic overdoses), compared to the QT nomogram, QTcB > 500 msec and QTcF > 500 msec. To further determine the value of the 1/2 RR rule, its observed positive, and negative agreement were calculated when compared to the QT nomogram for determining an abnormal QT in eight samples of different drugs in overdose. The sensitivity and specificity of the 1/2 RR rule were 88% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 80% to 93%) and 53% (95% CI = 47% to 58%), respectively, compared to the QT nomogram (sensitivity = 97%, 95% CI = 92% to 99%; specificity = 99%, 95% CI = 97% to 100%). It was also less sensitive than QTcB > 500 msec and had a lower specificity than QTcB > 500 msec and QTcF > 500 msec. In drug overdose patients, the 1/2 RR rule had poor observed agreement averaging 41%, which was mainly due to poor positive agreement, except for amisulpride where there was good agreement. The 1/2 RR rule was not as sensitive as the QT nomogram or QTcB > 500 msec for drug-induced TdP. It had poor positive agreement in almost all overdose patients, resulting in over half of patients receiving unnecessary cardiac monitoring and repeat ECGs. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Majority rule on heterogeneous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiotte, R

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the majority rule (MR) applied on heterogeneous networks. When the underlying topology is homogeneous, the system is shown to exhibit a transition from an ordered regime to a disordered regime when the noise is increased. When the network exhibits modular structures, in contrast, the system may also exhibit an asymmetric regime, where the nodes in each community reach an opposite average opinion. Finally, the node degree heterogeneity is shown to play an important role by displacing the location of the order-disorder transition and by making the system exhibit non-equipartition of the average spin

  4. Inference rule and problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, S

    1982-04-01

    Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.

  5. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows......This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... that the traditional Weberian “rules breed rules” explanations must be supplemented with political explanations that take party ideology and changes in the political agenda into account. Moreover, the effect of political factors is indistinguishable across changes in primary laws and changes in administrative rules...

  6. Integral or integrated marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davčik Nebojša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing theorists and experts try to develop business efficient organization and to get marketing performance at higher, business integrated level since its earliest beginnings. The core issue in this paperwork is the dialectic and practical approach dilemma should we develop integrated or integral marketing approach in the organization. The presented company cases as well as dialectic and functional explanations of this dilemma clearly shows that integrated marketing is narrower approach than integral marketing if we take as focal point new, unique and completed entity. In the integration the essence is in getting different parts together, which do not have to make necessary the new entity. The key elements in the definition of the integral marketing are necessity and holistic, e.g. necessity to develop new, holistic entity.

  7. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... of this report, the Amending Act had been in force for more than two and a half years. In the planning of this project, we assumed that at this point in time sufficient experience with the new rules would be available, enabling us to get an impression of its practical consequences for businesses. Also, we...

  8. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  9. Understanding signal integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Thierauf, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides you with practical guidance on understanding and interpreting signal integrity (SI) performance to help you with your challenging circuit board design projects. You find high-level discussions of important SI concepts presented in a clear and easily accessible format, including question and answer sections and bulleted lists.This valuable resource features rules of thumb and simple equations to help you make estimates of critical signal integrity parameters without using circuit simulators of CAD (computer-aided design). The book is supported with over 120 illustratio

  10. The α3S corrections to the Bjorken sum rule for polarized electro-production and to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, S.A.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica; Vermaseren, J.A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The next-next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule for deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering and to the Bjorken sum rule for polarized electron-nucleon scattering have been computed. This involved the proper treatment of γ 5 inside the loop integrals with dimensional regularization. It is found that the difference between the two sum rules are entirely due to a class of 6 three loop graphs and is of the order of 1% of the leading QCD term. Hence the Q 2 behavior of both sum rules should be the same if the physics is described adequately by the lower order terms of perturbative QCD. (author). 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  11. Proposal to modify Rule 6, Rule 10a, and Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M; Schink, Bernhard

    2014-04-01

    According to the current versions of Rule 10a and Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, names of a genus or subgenus and specific epithets may be taken from any source and may even be composed in an arbitrary manner. Based on these rules, names may be composed of any word or any combination of elements derived from any language with a Latin ending. We propose modifying these rules by adding the text, currently part of Recommendation 6, according to which words from languages other than Latin or Greek should be avoided as long as equivalents exist in Latin or Greek or can be constructed by combining word elements from these two languages. We also propose modification of Rule 6 by adopting some of the current paragraphs of Recommendation 6 to become part of the Rule.

  12. Having Linguistic Rules and Knowing Linguistic Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ludlow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    'Knowledge' doesn't correctly describe our relation to linguistic rules. It is too thick a notion (for example, we don't believe linguistic rules. On the other hand, 'cognize', without further elaboration, is too thin a notion, which is to say that it is too thin to play a role in a competence theory. One advantage of the term 'knowledge'-and presumably Chomsky's original motivation for using it-is that knowledge would play the right kind of role in a competence theory: Our competence would consist in a body of knowledge which we have and which we may or may not act upon-our performance need not conform to the linguistic rules that we know.

    Is there a way out of the dilemma? I'm going to make the case that the best way to talk about grammatical rules is simply to say that we have them. That doesn't sound very deep, I know, but saying that we have individual rules leaves room for individual norm guidance in a way that 'cognize' does not. Saying we have a rule like subjacency is also thicker than merely saying we cognize it. Saying I have such a rule invites the interpretation that it is a rule for me-that I am normatively guided by it. The competence theory thus becomes a theory of the rules that we have. Whether we follow those rules is another matter entirely.

  13. High-performance and low-power rewritable SiOx 1 kbit one diode-one resistor crossbar memory array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gunuk; Lauchner, Adam C; Lin, Jian; Natelson, Douglas; Palem, Krishna V; Tour, James M

    2013-09-14

    An entire 1-kilobit crossbar device based upon SiOx resistive memories with integrated diodes has been made. The SiOx -based one diode-one resistor device system has promise to satisfy the prerequisite conditions for next generation non-volatile memory applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Choosing the rules: distinct and overlapping frontoparietal representations of task rules for perceptual decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Carlin, Johan D; Rowe, James B

    2013-07-17

    Behavior is governed by rules that associate stimuli with responses and outcomes. Human and monkey studies have shown that rule-specific information is widely represented in the frontoparietal cortex. However, it is not known how establishing a rule under different contexts affects its neural representation. Here, we use event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern classification methods to investigate the human brain's mechanisms of establishing and maintaining rules for multiple perceptual decision tasks. Rules were either chosen by participants or specifically instructed to them, and the fMRI activation patterns representing rule-specific information were compared between these contexts. We show that frontoparietal regions differ in the properties of their rule representations during active maintenance before execution. First, rule-specific information maintained in the dorsolateral and medial frontal cortex depends on the context in which it was established (chosen vs specified). Second, rule representations maintained in the ventrolateral frontal and parietal cortex are independent of the context in which they were established. Furthermore, we found that the rule-specific coding maintained in anticipation of stimuli may change with execution of the rule: representations in context-independent regions remain invariant from maintenance to execution stages, whereas rule representations in context-dependent regions do not generalize to execution stage. The identification of distinct frontoparietal systems with context-independent and context-dependent task rule representations, and the distinction between anticipatory and executive rule representations, provide new insights into the functional architecture of goal-directed behavior.

  15. Unifying hydrotropy under Gibbs phase rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-13

    The task of elucidating the mechanism of solubility enhancement using hydrotropes has been hampered by the wide variety of phase behaviour that hydrotropes can exhibit, encompassing near-ideal aqueous solution, self-association, micelle formation, and micro-emulsions. Instead of taking a field guide or encyclopedic approach to classify hydrotropes into different molecular classes, we take a rational approach aiming at constructing a unified theory of hydrotropy based upon the first principles of statistical thermodynamics. Achieving this aim can be facilitated by the two key concepts: (1) the Gibbs phase rule as the basis of classifying the hydrotropes in terms of the degrees of freedom and the number of variables to modulate the solvation free energy; (2) the Kirkwood-Buff integrals to quantify the interactions between the species and their relative contributions to the process of solubilization. We demonstrate that the application of the two key concepts can in principle be used to distinguish the different molecular scenarios at work under apparently similar solubility curves observed from experiments. In addition, a generalization of our previous approach to solutes beyond dilution reveals the unified mechanism of hydrotropy, driven by a strong solute-hydrotrope interaction which overcomes the apparent per-hydrotrope inefficiency due to hydrotrope self-clustering.

  16. Integration by parts for the L^r Henstock-Kurzweil integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Musial

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Musial and Sagher [4] described a Henstock-Kurzweil type integral that integrates $L^r$-derivatives. In this article, we develop a product rule for the $L^r$-derivative and then an integration by parts formula.

  17. A new sum rule relating the deep-inelastic polarized structure function to the cross section of photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretune, Susumu

    1993-01-01

    A sum rule which relates the deep-inelastic polarized structure function g 1 p (x,Q 2 ) to the cross section of photoproduction, (σ 3/2 -σ 1/2 ), is derived. This rule makes it possible to compare the integral of g 1 p (x,Q 2 ) with the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule without worrying about contributions from higher twist terms. Further this sum rule shows that there may exist a dynamical mechanism which relates the low energy region to the high energy one. It is conjectured that the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the vacuum is the origin of this mechanism. (author)

  18. Critical Evaluation of Validation Rules Automated Extraction from Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pejcoch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to critically evaluate a possibility of automatic extraction of such kind of rules which could be later used within a Data Quality Management process for validation of records newly incoming to Information System. For practical demonstration the 4FT-Miner procedure implemented in LISpMiner System was chosen. A motivation for this task is the potential simplification of projects focused on Data Quality Management. Initially, this article is going to critically evaluate a possibility of fully automated extraction with the aim to identify strengths and weaknesses of this approach in comparison to its alternative, when at least some a priori knowledge is available. As a result of practical implementation, this article provides design of recommended process which would be used as a guideline for future projects. Also the question of how to store and maintain extracted rules and how to integrate them with existing tools supporting Data Quality Management is discussed

  19. Resistive switching effect in the planar structure of all-printed, flexible and rewritable memory device based on advanced 2D nanocomposite of graphene quantum dots and white graphene flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Kim, Sowon; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pursuit of the most appropriate materials and fabrication methods is essential for developing a reliable, rewritable and flexible memory device. In this study, we have proposed an advanced 2D nanocomposite of white graphene (hBN) flakes embedded with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as the functional layer of a flexible memory device owing to their unique electrical, chemical and mechanical properties. Unlike the typical sandwich type structure of a memory device, we developed a cost effective planar structure, to simplify device fabrication and prevent sneak current. The entire device fabrication was carried out using printing technology followed by encapsulation in an atomically thin layer of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) for protection against environmental humidity. The proposed memory device exhibited attractive bipolar switching characteristics of high switching ratio, large electrical endurance and enhanced lifetime, without any crosstalk between adjacent memory cells. The as-fabricated device showed excellent durability for several bending cycles at various bending diameters without any degradation in bistable resistive states. The memory mechanism was deduced to be conductive filamentary; this was validated by illustrating the temperature dependence of bistable resistive states. Our obtained results pave the way for the execution of promising 2D material based next generation flexible and non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. (paper)

  20. Fusion rules of chiral algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently we showed that for the case of the WZW and the minimal models fusion can be understood as a certain ring-like tensor product of the symmetry algebra. In this paper we generalize this analysis to arbitrary chiral algebras. We define the tensor product of conformal field theory in the general case and prove that it is associative and symmetric up to equivalence. We also determine explicitly the action of the chiral algebra on this tensor product. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate that this framework provides a powerful tool for calculating restrictions for the fusion rules of chiral algebras. We exhibit this for the case of the W 3 algebra and the N=1 and N=2 NS superconformal algebras. (orig.)

  1. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  2. ADVERTISING BETWEEN RULES AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SUSANU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Where would the world be without advertising? Stuart Henderson Britt strongly believed in it. Hesaid: “Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what youare doing, but she doesn’t.” The work reviews the evolution of advertising, highlighting theuncontestable part played by it within organizations and society in general and it focuses on anessential element of it, that is the advertising print. The purpose of this paperwork is to highlight thenecessary rules for the making of a quality print, with the help of a comparative study on prints ofeight organizations. The print represents an exercise of writing and design, in words and images, fortransmitting the advertising message. The fulfillment of this task depends on the perspicacity,imagination and the creativity of the maker.

  3. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    regimes. However, the analysis here indicates that there are different drivers, both internal and external, that cause companies to adopt new rules or modify their existing ones, such as changes in organizational structures, organizational conflicts, and changes in ownership or strategy. In addition......Purpose: - The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers that induce companies to change their rules for managing product development. Most companies use a form of rule-based management approach, but surprisingly little is known about what makes companies change these rules...... 10 years based on three rounds of interviews with 40 managers. Findings: - Previous research has assumed that the dynamics of product development rules are based on internal learning processes, and that increasingly competent management will stimulate the implementation of newer and more complex rule...

  4. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite......This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows...... wanted to build a coalition of support in this region. Coming from the region himself, the president had a keen interest in dairy cattle. The sector was subsequently regulated because the biggest processor put pressure on the ruling elite to do so. Even when the ruling coalition is fragmented, promoting...

  5. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  6. Integral-preserving integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D I; Quispel, G R W

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations having a first integral may be solved numerically using one of several methods, with the integral preserved to machine accuracy. One such method is the discrete gradient method. It is shown here that the order of the method can be bootstrapped repeatedly to higher orders of accuracy. The method is illustrated using the Henon-Heiles system. (letter to the editor)

  7. Online Rule Generation Software Process Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sudeep Marwaha; Alka Aroa; Satma M C; Rajni Jain; R C Goyal

    2013-01-01

    For production systems like expert systems, a rule generation software can facilitate the faster deployment. The software process model for rule generation using decision tree classifier refers to the various steps required to be executed for the development of a web based software model for decision rule generation. The Royce’s final waterfall model has been used in this paper to explain the software development process. The paper presents the specific output of various steps of modified wat...

  8. Circumventing the Privity Rule in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Meng, Tan

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly introduces the privity rule and its application in Malaysia which has created difficulties in relation to contracts made for the benefit of third parties. This article then investigates how Malaysian courts circumvent the privity rule to ensure that justice prevails. The mechanisms examined include among others agency, trust, tort and estoppel. This article argues that the application of these mechanisms rule are not adequate to resolve the difficulties caused by the priv...

  9. Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Falvey, Rod; Reed, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the role of rules of origin as a commercial policy instrument that targets the input composition of imports. Using a three-country, partial equilibrium structure, we demonstrate conditions under which the imposition of a binding rule will be welfare improving for an importer facing competitive export suppliers. We further show that employing rules of origin in this way would be complementary to, rather than a substitute for, conventional optimal tariffs. Copyright Econom...

  10. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  12. Streamling the Change Management with Business Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Will discuss how their organization is trying to streamline workflows and the change management process with business rules. In looking for ways to make things more efficient and save money one way is to reduce the work the workflow task approvers have to do when reviewing affected items. Will share the technical details of the business rules, how to implement them, how to speed up the development process by using the API to demonstrate the rules in action.

  13. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)

  14. QCD Sum Rules, a Modern Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Colangelo, Pietro; Colangelo, Pietro; Khodjamirian, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    An introduction to the method of QCD sum rules is given for those who want to learn how to use this method. Furthermore, we discuss various applications of sum rules, from the determination of quark masses to the calculation of hadronic form factors and structure functions. Finally, we explain the idea of the light-cone sum rules and outline the recent development of this approach.

  15. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 2001; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC(45)/RES/9)

  16. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    1 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits ...Lexicon And Rules William Snavely 2 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material

  17. School children's reasoning about school rules

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    School rules are usually associated with classroom management and school discipline. However, rules also define ways of thinking about oneself and the world. Rules are guidelines for actions and for the evaluation of actions in terms of good and bad, or right and wrong, and therefore a part of moral or values education in school. This study is a part of a larger ethnographic study on values education in the everyday life of school. Here the focus is on school rules and students' reasoning abo...

  18. An Historical Analysis of Monetary Policy Rules

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines several episodes in U.S. monetary history using the framework of an interest rate rule for monetary policy. The main finding is that a monetary policy rule in which the interest rate responds to inflation and real output more aggressively than it did in the 1960s and 1970s, or than during the time of the international gold standard, and more like the late 1980s and 1990s, is a good policy rule. Moreover, if one defines rule, then such mistakes have been associated with eit...

  19. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  20. The Rules of Origin of Goods as an Instrument of the State Foreign Trade Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storozhchuk Volodymyr M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the types of rules of origin of goods, existing in the international practice, and approaches to assess their impact on the foreign trade flows. The article considers two types of rules for determining the country of origin of goods used in the international practice: non-preferential and preferential. The main characteristics of the non-preferential rules of origin and peculiarities of their application in Ukraine are defined and systematized. The article defines the priority functions of the customs tariff, subject to the use of non-preferential rules of origin of goods, to which are classified: protective, fiscal, and regulatory. The criteria used in the non-preferential rules of origin of goods have been considered. It has been substantiated that the priority functions of the customs tariff subject to the use of preferential rules of origin of goods are the integration and progressive functions. The criteria used in the preferential rules of origin of goods have been considered. Based on the results of the analysis of the rules of origin of goods, it has been substantiated that their use can be considered as a restrictive or an incentive tool of the State foreign trade policy. It has been shown that of special importance, in the context of Ukraine’s integration into the global value chains, is the goods’ acquisition of the status of preferential origin in accordance with the criterion of diagonal cumulation within the framework of the Regional Pan-Euro-Med Convention, which requires Ukraine to conclude a number of bilateral agreements with the identical preferential rules of origin of goods.

  1. Smooth criminal: convicted rule-breakers show reduced cognitive conflict during deliberate rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Pfister, Roland; Mayer, Sarah V; Schwarz, Katharina A; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. In the current study, we validate these findings by showing that convicted criminals, i.e., individuals with a history of habitual and severe forms of rule violations, can free themselves from such cognitive conflict in a similarly controlled laboratory task. These findings support an emerging view that aims at understanding rule violations from the perspective of the violating agent rather than from the perspective of outside observer.

  2. MAPI: towards the integrated exploitation of bioinformatics Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sergio; Karlsson, Johan; Trelles, Oswaldo

    2011-10-27

    Bioinformatics is commonly featured as a well assorted list of available web resources. Although diversity of services is positive in general, the proliferation of tools, their dispersion and heterogeneity complicate the integrated exploitation of such data processing capacity. To facilitate the construction of software clients and make integrated use of this variety of tools, we present a modular programmatic application interface (MAPI) that provides the necessary functionality for uniform representation of Web Services metadata descriptors including their management and invocation protocols of the services which they represent. This document describes the main functionality of the framework and how it can be used to facilitate the deployment of new software under a unified structure of bioinformatics Web Services. A notable feature of MAPI is the modular organization of the functionality into different modules associated with specific tasks. This means that only the modules needed for the client have to be installed, and that the module functionality can be extended without the need for re-writing the software client. The potential utility and versatility of the software library has been demonstrated by the implementation of several currently available clients that cover different aspects of integrated data processing, ranging from service discovery to service invocation with advanced features such as workflows composition and asynchronous services calls to multiple types of Web Services including those registered in repositories (e.g. GRID-based, SOAP, BioMOBY, R-bioconductor, and others).

  3. Analyzing large gene expression and methylation data profiles using StatBicRM: statistical biclustering-based rule mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwal Maulik

    Full Text Available Microarray and beadchip are two most efficient techniques for measuring gene expression and methylation data in bioinformatics. Biclustering deals with the simultaneous clustering of genes and samples. In this article, we propose a computational rule mining framework, StatBicRM (i.e., statistical biclustering-based rule mining to identify special type of rules and potential biomarkers using integrated approaches of statistical and binary inclusion-maximal biclustering techniques from the biological datasets. At first, a novel statistical strategy has been utilized to eliminate the insignificant/low-significant/redundant genes in such way that significance level must satisfy the data distribution property (viz., either normal distribution or non-normal distribution. The data is then discretized and post-discretized, consecutively. Thereafter, the biclustering technique is applied to identify maximal frequent closed homogeneous itemsets. Corresponding special type of rules are then extracted from the selected itemsets. Our proposed rule mining method performs better than the other rule mining algorithms as it generates maximal frequent closed homogeneous itemsets instead of frequent itemsets. Thus, it saves elapsed time, and can work on big dataset. Pathway and Gene Ontology analyses are conducted on the genes of the evolved rules using David database. Frequency analysis of the genes appearing in the evolved rules is performed to determine potential biomarkers. Furthermore, we also classify the data to know how much the evolved rules are able to describe accurately the remaining test (unknown data. Subsequently, we also compare the average classification accuracy, and other related factors with other rule-based classifiers. Statistical significance tests are also performed for verifying the statistical relevance of the comparative results. Here, each of the other rule mining methods or rule-based classifiers is also starting with the same post

  4. Analyzing large gene expression and methylation data profiles using StatBicRM: statistical biclustering-based rule mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Ujjwal; Mallik, Saurav; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2015-01-01

    Microarray and beadchip are two most efficient techniques for measuring gene expression and methylation data in bioinformatics. Biclustering deals with the simultaneous clustering of genes and samples. In this article, we propose a computational rule mining framework, StatBicRM (i.e., statistical biclustering-based rule mining) to identify special type of rules and potential biomarkers using integrated approaches of statistical and binary inclusion-maximal biclustering techniques from the biological datasets. At first, a novel statistical strategy has been utilized to eliminate the insignificant/low-significant/redundant genes in such way that significance level must satisfy the data distribution property (viz., either normal distribution or non-normal distribution). The data is then discretized and post-discretized, consecutively. Thereafter, the biclustering technique is applied to identify maximal frequent closed homogeneous itemsets. Corresponding special type of rules are then extracted from the selected itemsets. Our proposed rule mining method performs better than the other rule mining algorithms as it generates maximal frequent closed homogeneous itemsets instead of frequent itemsets. Thus, it saves elapsed time, and can work on big dataset. Pathway and Gene Ontology analyses are conducted on the genes of the evolved rules using David database. Frequency analysis of the genes appearing in the evolved rules is performed to determine potential biomarkers. Furthermore, we also classify the data to know how much the evolved rules are able to describe accurately the remaining test (unknown) data. Subsequently, we also compare the average classification accuracy, and other related factors with other rule-based classifiers. Statistical significance tests are also performed for verifying the statistical relevance of the comparative results. Here, each of the other rule mining methods or rule-based classifiers is also starting with the same post-discretized data

  5. Electricity and gas market in Switzerland - concepts and rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, A.

    2003-01-01

    The political process to introduce the opening of the market in Switzerland is slow, but in movement. The preparation allows to participate in the experience of other countries and to adapt the system to the particularities of the industries and the country. The principle of subsidiarity allows the utilities to organise the technical and organisational realisation and to keep the legal rules to a minimum. The high technical integration in the European interconnection network asks for an EU compatible, but not identical, system in Switzerland.(author)

  6. Logarithmic corrections in a quantization rule. The polaron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, M.V.; Pereskokov, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear integrodifferential equation that arises in polaron theory is considered. The integral nonlinearity is given by a convolution with the Coulomb potential. Radially symmetric solutions are sought. In the semiclassical limit, an equation for the self-consistent potential is found and studied. The potential has a logarithmic singularity at the origin, and also a turning point at 1. The phase shifts at these points are determined. The quantization rule that takes into account the logarithmic corrections gives a simple asymptotic formula for the polaron spectrum. Global semiclassical solutions of the original nonlinear equation are constructed. 18 refs., 1 tab

  7. Using Rule-Based Computer Programming to Unify Communication Rules Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, David L.; Roach, J. W.

    This paper proposes the use of a rule-based computer programming language as a standard for the expression of rules, arguing that the adoption of a standard would enable researchers to communicate about rules in a consistent and significant way. Focusing on the formal equivalence of artificial intelligence (AI) programming to different types of…

  8. 18 CFR 39.10 - Changes to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RULES CONCERNING CERTIFICATION OF THE ELECTRIC RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.10 Changes to an Electric... Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule. 39.10 Section 39.10 Conservation of Power and Water...

  9. A Constructivist Approach to Rule Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Loiseau, S.; Filipe, J.; Duval, B.; van den Herik, J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a set of algorithms for the conversion of rule bases between priority-based and constraint-based representations. Inspired by research in precedential reasoning in law, such algorithms can be used for the analysis of a rule base, and for the study of the impact of the introduction

  10. Procedures to establish National Rules of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish the EPA National Rules of Behavior to comply with OMB Circular A-130, regarding rules of behavior for users of information systems applicable to all users of EPA information and information systems for users.

  11. Conformal branching rules and modular invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)

  12. 77 FR 22200 - Rescission of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... ``Identity Theft Rules,'' 16 CFR part 681, and its rules governing ``Disposal of Consumer Report Information...; Duties of Creditors Regarding Risk-Based Pricing, 16 CFR part 640; Duties of Users of Consumer Reports... collection, assembly, and use of consumer report information and provides the framework for the credit...

  13. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal Register...

  14. Bewijslastverdeling onder de Hague (Visby) Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margetson, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Er bestaat geen heersende leer ten aanzien van de bewijslastverdeling onder de Hague Rules en de Hague Visby Rules. In dit artikel worden verschillende visies die naast elkaar bestaan besproken. De auteur concludeert dat een algemene regel van bewijslastverdeling niet bestaat. De bewijslast zal

  15. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  16. 18 CFR 358.7 - Transparency rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transparency rule. 358.7 Section 358.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transparency rule. (a) Contemporaneous disclosure. (1) If a transmission provider discloses non-public...

  17. Restoring trust in the rule of law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch Ballin, Ernst

    The law as an abstract system of rules establishes the conditions under which people in large societies can live together in peace. This is not because they all have personal trust in each other (which is obviously impossible to establish) but because they trust that living up to the rules is what

  18. 20 CFR 345.401 - General rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rule. 345.401 Section 345.401... EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Benefit Charging § 345.401 General rule. Effective January... the basis of a claim for benefits to that employee's base year employer's cumulative benefit balance...

  19. Rule customization in head-up games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, E.B.; Soute, I.A.C.; Markopoulos, P.

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the feasibility of rule customization for a genre of pervasive games for children called Head-Up Games [11], which are intended to be played outdoors by children and to encourage physical activity and social interaction. An interface to allow customization of game rules was

  20. Fusion rules in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1993-06-01

    Several aspects of fusion rings and fusion rule algebras, and of their manifestations in two-dimensional (conformal) field theory, are described: diagonalization and the connection with modular invariance; the presentation in terms of quotients of polynomial rings; fusion graphs; various strategies that allow for a partial classification; and the role of the fusion rules in the conformal bootstrap programme. (orig.)

  1. Following legal rules : Visibility and feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roermund, G.C.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on the idea of ‘visualization’ of legal rules as part of an account of rule following in action. Presenting an alternative to Van Schooten’s (Jurisprudence and communication. Deborah Charles, Liverpool, 2012) account of interpretation, I first distinguish between two modes of

  2. Interpreting the Customary Rules on Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panos

    2017-01-01

    International courts have at times interpreted the customary rules on interpretation. This is interesting because what is being interpreted is: i) rules of interpretation, which sounds dangerously tautological, and ii) customary law, the interpretation of which has not been the object of critical

  3. 16 CFR 1025.41 - General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rules. 1025.41 Section 1025.41 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE... to the convenience of the parties, shall continue without suspension until concluded, except in...

  4. Intergroup Bias in Parliamentary Rule Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Political actors are often assigned roles requiring them to enforce rules without giving in-groups special treatment. But are such institutional roles likely to be successful? Here, I exploit a special case of exogenously assigned intergroup relations: debates in the Danish Parliament, in which P...... of clear rules, complete observability, and a tradition of parliamentary cooperation....

  5. The Filtering Effect of Sharing Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.; de Geest, G.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sharing rules have a filtering effect on violations: they prevent the most harmful violations and let the least harmful ones occur. We show under what conditions the filtering effect improves social welfare and argue that this may explain why, in most areas of the law, sharing rules are, in general,

  6. The Equilibrium Rule--A Personal Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Examples of equilibrium are evident everywhere and the equilibrium rule provides a reasoned way to view all things, whether in static (balancing rocks, steel beams in building construction) or dynamic (airplanes, bowling balls) equilibrium. Interestingly, the equilibrium rule applies not just to objects at rest but whenever any object or system of…

  7. Rule - Governed Behavior as a Psychological Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Erwin M.; Stacy, E. Webb, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Some descriptive criteria for identifying rule-governed behavior are identified from the perspective of cognitive psychology. It is suggested that the concept of explanation in psychology be modified from a specification in terms of physical properties of the antecedent events in a causal sequence to a mapping of rules onto behavior or behavior…

  8. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two month...

  9. 76 FR 58716 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission... Telemarketing Sales Rule in the Federal Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48458), with new provisions to..., Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC...

  10. Superconvergent sum rules for the normal reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, K.; Zimerman, A.H.; Villani, A.

    1976-05-01

    Families of superconvergent relations for the normal reflectivity function are written. Sum rules connecting the difference of phases of the reflectivities of two materials are also considered. Finally superconvergence relations and sum rules for magneto-reflectivity in the Faraday and Voigt regimes are also studied

  11. Interjurisdictional trading rules and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Rules and issues regarding financial transmission rights were presented in this power point presentation which focused on access to the Ontario electricity grid. Power generators submit offers to the independent market operator (IMO) to participate in the IMO dispatch. This presentation covered uniform pricing issues in Ontario, the congestion pricing theory, congestion management, and how congestion pricing can apply to inter-regional trades. Inter-regional trading examples of buying and selling electricity in Ontario were also presented. IMOs have the power to auction transmission rights, which are the financial instrument that protects against exposure to changes in price differences. Initially, this would apply only to price differences between the uniform Ontario price and prices in each zone. The holders of financial transmission rights receive a portion of the congestion surplus collected through the IMO settlements as a result of congestion pricing on the entities. The problem is that this provides no incentive for transmitters. Another problem is that there are different trading regimes in Ontario, but it is preferable to have seamless trading across jurisdictions to promote inter-jurisdictional trading

  12. Rules-based analysis with JBoss Drools: adding intelligence to automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, E. de; Jacobs, D.

    2012-01-01

    Rule engines are specialized software systems for applying conditional actions (if/then rules) on data. They are also known as 'production rule systems'. Rules engines are less-known as software technology than the traditional procedural, object-oriented, scripting or dynamic development languages. This is a pity, as their usage may offer an important enrichment to a development toolbox. JBoss Drools is an open-source rules engine that can easily be embedded in any Java application. Through an integration in our Passerelle process automation suite, we have been able to provide advanced solutions for intelligent process automation, complex event processing, system monitoring and alarming, automated repair etc. This platform has been proven for many years as an automated diagnosis and repair engine for Belgium's largest telecom provider, and it is being piloted at Synchrotron Soleil for device monitoring and alarming. After an introduction to rules engines in general and JBoss Drools in particular, we will present its integration in a solution platform, some important principles and a practical use case. (authors)

  13. Rules of thumb in life-cycle savings models

    OpenAIRE

    Rodepeter, Ralf; Winter, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    We analyze life-cycle savings decisions when households use simple heuristics, or rules of thumb, rather than solve the underlying intertemporal optimization problem. The decision rules we explore are a simple Keynesian rule where consumption follows income; a simple consumption rule where only a fraction of positive income shocks is saved; a rule that corresponds to the permanent income hypothesis; and two rules that have been found in experimental studies. Using these rules, we simulate lif...

  14. The research on business rules classification and specification methods

    OpenAIRE

    Baltrušaitis, Egidijus

    2005-01-01

    The work is based on the research of business rules classification and specification methods. The basics of business rules approach are discussed. The most common business rules classification and modeling methods are analyzed. Business rules modeling techniques and tools for supporting them in the information systems are presented. Basing on the analysis results business rules classification method is proposed. Templates for every business rule type are presented. Business rules structuring ...

  15. Reduction Rules for Interaction Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The internet today has grown to be more than just being a basis for exchanging information. It steadily becomes a platform for processing business processes. Many companies distribute their service with the help of web services or integrate other web services into their own workflow. However, before a web service gets published it should be examined well. We will introduce a way of examining the controllability of a web service. That means, we study whether a controller can actually use the f...

  16. Current algebra sum rules for Reggeons

    CERN Document Server

    Carlitz, R

    1972-01-01

    The interplay between the constraints of chiral SU/sub 2/*SU/sub 2/ symmetry and Regge asymptotic behaviour is investigated. The author reviews the derivation of various current algebra sum rules in a study of the reaction pi + alpha to pi + beta . These sum rules imply that all particles may be classified in multiplets of SU/sub 2/*SU/sub 2/ and that each of these multiplets may contain linear combinations of an infinite number of physical states. Extending his study to the reaction pi + alpha to pi + pi + beta , he derives new sum rules involving commutators of the axial charge with the reggeon coupling matrices of the rho and f Regge trajectories. Some applications of these new sum rules are noted, and the general utility of these and related sum rules is discussed. (17 refs).

  17. Study of QCD medium by sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    1998-08-01

    Though it has no analogue in condensed matter physics, the thermal QCD sum rules can, nevertheless, answer questions of condensed matter type about the QCD medium. The ingredients needed to write such sum rules, viz. the operator product expansion and the spectral representation at finite temperature, are reviewed in detail. The sum rules are then actually written for the case of correlation function of two vector currents. Collecting information on the thermal average of the higher dimension operators from other sources, we evaluate these sum rules for the temperature dependent {rho}-meson parameters. Possibility of extracting more information from the combined set of all sum rules from different correlation functions is also discussed. (author) 30 refs., 2 figs.

  18. The formal logic of business rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of improvement areas and utilization of information and communication technologies have gained value and priority in our knowledge driven society. Rules define constraints, conditions and policies of how the business processes are to be performed but they also affect the behavior of the resource and facilitate strategic business goals achieving. They control the business and represent business knowledge. The research works about business rules show how to specify and classify business rules from the business perspective and to establish an approach to managing them that will enable faster change in business processes and other business concepts in all areas of the business. In concrete this paper deals with four approaches to business rules formalization, i. e. notation of OCL, inference rules, decision table and predicate logic and with their general evaluation. The article shows also the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches of formalization. They are the example of every mentioned approach.

  19. Business rules formalisation for information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with relation business rules and business applications and describes a number of structures for support of information systems implementation and customization. Particular formats of structure are different according to different type of business rules. We arise from model of enterprise architecture that is a significant document of all what happens in business and serves for blueprint and facilitates of managers decisions. Most complicated part of enterprise architecture is business rule. When we gain its accurate formulation and when we achieve to formalize and to store business rule in special repository we can manage it actualize it and use it for many reasons. The article emphasizes formats of business rule formalization and its reference to business applications implementation.

  20. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-11-25

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  1. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  2. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  3. Studying the prose style of Dastgiri Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Mirzaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dastgiri Rules is a valuable work in the field of Persian grammar and rhetoric which has remained in manuscript form. In case of an exact and scientific editing of this title, a precious source will be added into the legacy of Persian language and literature. The manuscript belongs to the thirteenth century and the early Qajar period. It was writtenin two volumes by Maulana Gholam Dastgir in order to teach Persian grammar to non-Persian speakers of the Indian subcontinent. Like most of the subcontinent grammarian, the author wrote his work in Arabic grammar style and based on this fact, the word is divided into the three types of verb, noun and letter and expressions are divided into full and partial compound statements. There is no significant information about the biography of Gholam Dastgir, the author; although his work is well known, his condition and life story is unclear, like many other author in the subcontinent. But relying on his work, some aspects of his life is revealed including date of birth, creed and religion, some masters and so on. This work is written in eight chapters, based on the 8 doors of heaven, and every chapter has some parts. The first volume consists of 4 chapters and the first chapter is about the definition of morphology, past tense and its eight types, present tense in 9 rules, future tense, imperative mood in 7 rules, negative imperatives, verbs, pseudo-verbs and infinitives, Amale, reduced muthana, plural, genus name, genus alam and person alam of a word which sometimes considered as single and sometimes plural, makharej and attributes of letters, dictation and definition of handwriting, merge, combining two words, some rules and advantages of Turkish dictation and spelling. The second chapter is dedicated to the definition of noun and its types and the third chapter is about history of literature including the first Persian poet, the 7 various branches of the Persian language, and it explained the

  4. Class Association Rule Pada Metode Associative Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Karyawati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequent patterns (itemsets discovery is an important problem in associative classification rule mining.  Differents approaches have been proposed such as the Apriori-like, Frequent Pattern (FP-growth, and Transaction Data Location (Tid-list Intersection algorithm. This paper focuses on surveying and comparing the state of the art associative classification techniques with regards to the rule generation phase of associative classification algorithms.  This phase includes frequent itemsets discovery and rules mining/extracting methods to generate the set of class association rules (CARs.  There are some techniques proposed to improve the rule generation method.  A technique by utilizing the concepts of discriminative power of itemsets can reduce the size of frequent itemset.  It can prune the useless frequent itemsets. The closed frequent itemset concept can be utilized to compress the rules to be compact rules.  This technique may reduce the size of generated rules.  Other technique is in determining the support threshold value of the itemset. Specifying not single but multiple support threshold values with regard to the class label frequencies can give more appropriate support threshold value.  This technique may generate more accurate rules. Alternative technique to generate rule is utilizing the vertical layout to represent dataset.  This method is very effective because it only needs one scan over dataset, compare with other techniques that need multiple scan over dataset.   However, one problem with these approaches is that the initial set of tid-lists may be too large to fit into main memory. It requires more sophisticated techniques to compress the tid-lists.

  5. Reservoir adaptive operating rules based on both of historical streamflow and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Pan; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jie; Lei, Xiaohui; Feng, Maoyuan

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is affecting hydrological variables and consequently is impacting water resources management. Historical strategies are no longer applicable under climate change. Therefore, adaptive management, especially adaptive operating rules for reservoirs, has been developed to mitigate the possible adverse effects of climate change. However, to date, adaptive operating rules are generally based on future projections involving uncertainties under climate change, yet ignoring historical information. To address this, we propose an approach for deriving adaptive operating rules considering both historical information and future projections, namely historical and future operating rules (HAFOR). A robustness index was developed by comparing benefits from HAFOR with benefits from conventional operating rules (COR). For both historical and future streamflow series, maximizations of both average benefits and the robustness index were employed as objectives, and four trade-offs were implemented to solve the multi-objective problem. Based on the integrated objective, the simulation-based optimization method was used to optimize the parameters of HAFOR. Using the Dongwushi Reservoir in China as a case study, HAFOR was demonstrated to be an effective and robust method for developing adaptive operating rules under the uncertain changing environment. Compared with historical or projected future operating rules (HOR or FPOR), HAFOR can reduce the uncertainty and increase the robustness for future projections, especially regarding results of reservoir releases and volumes. HAFOR, therefore, facilitates adaptive management in the context that climate change is difficult to predict accurately.

  6. Bringing Agility to Business Process Management: Rules Deployment in an SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbili, Marwane; Keil, Tobias

    Business process management (BPM) has emerged as paradigm for integrating business strategies and enterprise architecture (EA). In this context, BPM implementation on top of web-service-based service oriented architectures is an accepted approach as shown by great amount of literature. One concern in this regard is how-to make BPs reactive to change. Our approach to the problem is the integration of business rule management (BRM) and BPM by allowing modeling of decisions hard-coded in BPs as separate business rules (BRs). These BRs become EA assets and need to be exploited when executing BPs. We motivate why BPM needs agility and discuss what requirements on BPM this poses. This paper presents prototyping work conducted at a BP modeling and analysis vendor which weeks to showcase how using business rule management (BRM) as a mean for modeling decisions can help achieve a much sought-after agility to BPM. This prototype relies on the integrated modeling of business rules (BRs) and BPs, and rule deployment as web services part of an SOA.

  7. Endpoint behavior of the pion distribution amplitude in QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates for the pion distribution amplitude, we derive another sum rule for its derivative and its ''integral derivatives''--defined in this work. We use this new sum rule to analyze the fine details of the pion distribution amplitude in the endpoint region x∼0. The results for endpoint-suppressed and flattop (or flatlike) pion distribution amplitudes are compared with those we obtained with differential sum rules by employing two different models for the distribution of vacuum-quark virtualities. We determine the range of values of the derivatives of the pion distribution amplitude and show that endpoint-suppressed distribution amplitudes lie within this range, while those with endpoint enhancement--flat-type or Chernyak-Zhitnitsky like--yield values outside this range.

  8. RuleMaDrone: A Web-Interface to Visualise Space Usage Rules for Drones

    OpenAIRE

    Trippaers, Aäron

    2015-01-01

    RuleMaDrone, an application developed within this thesis, is presented as a solution to communicate the rules and regulations to drone operators. To provide the solution a framework for drone safety was designed which consists of the rules and regulations, the drone properties and the environmental factors. RuleMaDrone is developed with this framework and thus will provide drone operators with an application which they can use to find a safe and legal fly zone. RuleMaDrone u...

  9. Proof of Kochen–Specker Theorem: Conversion of Product Rule to Sum Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, S.P.; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    2009-01-01

    Valuation functions of observables in quantum mechanics are often expected to obey two constraints called the sum rule and product rule. However, the Kochen–Specker (KS) theorem shows that for a Hilbert space of quantum mechanics of dimension d ≤ 3, these constraints contradict individually with the assumption of value definiteness. The two rules are not irrelated and Peres [Found. Phys. 26 (1996) 807] has conceived a method of converting the product rule into a sum rule for the case of two qubits. Here we apply this method to a proof provided by Mermin based on the product rule for a three-qubit system involving nine operators. We provide the conversion of this proof to one based on sum rule involving ten operators. (general)

  10. Car la Lettre tue mais l’Esprit vivifie : une relecture des textes bibliques selon Elizabeth Gaskell For the Letter Killeth, but the Spirit Giveth Life: Elizabeth Gaskell’s Rewriting of the Gospels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamine Toussaint-Thiriet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the anonymous author of “The Hard Church Novel” underlined in his article, “Theology and Literature – the study of God and the study of Man – need to go hand in hand, and are only just beginning to know it”. The links between literature and religion are in fact much older than we might imagine when reading this statement; however, it is a fact that the Victorian period was a time when many authors tried to reconcile secular writing and the Scriptures, to the extent that a new literary genre, the religious novel, was born. Although Elizabeth Gaskell’s works do not belong to this category, she set her heart on reconciling her vocation as a novelist with her beliefs as a Christian. Unlike her husband, she was not a Minister and therefore her own way of preaching the Word of God was to write fiction. She was convinced that the Pharisees had not disappeared with the Advent of Christ and, in her novels, she used her own, sometimes unorthodox, interpretation and rewriting of the Gospels to convert the Pharisees of her own time to the true essence of Christianity. Indeed, her Unitarian education granted her a greater freedom than most of her contemporaries in terms of biblical exegesis, as we can see in many of her works, but most particularly in Ruth, in which the eponymous heroine, a fallen woman, is not only described as a Magdalen but soon turns into a Madonna and then a Christ-like figure.

  11. 76 FR 27274 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Rules of the Armed Services Board of Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ..., Organization, Forwarding, and Status of Appeal File Rule 5 Motions Rule 6 Pleadings Rule 7 Amendments of Pleadings or Record Rule 8 Hearing Election Rule 9 Prehearing Briefs Rule 10 Prehearing or Presubmission... Party Rule 20 Hearings: Nature, Examination of Witnesses Rule 21 Subpoenas Rule 22 Copies of Papers Rule...

  12. Ontario emissions trading code : emission reduction credit creation, recording and transfer rules, rules for renewable energy projects and conservation projects, and rules for the operation of the Ontario Emissions Trading Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Emissions trading has been an integral part of Ontario's air quality strategy since December 31, 2001. Ontario has adopted the 'cap, credit and trade' type of emissions trading system, a hybrid that takes the best features of pure 'cap-and-trade' and 'baseline-and-credit' type systems. It covers nitric oxide and sulphur dioxide. The Ontario Emissions Trading Code supplements Ontario Regulation 397/01 and sets out rules for renewable energy projects and conservation projects for which applications for emission allowances can be made. This Code describes the rules for the creation and transfer of emission reduction credits (ERCs). It also explains the rules for the operation of the registry that has been established to provide information to the public about the emissions trading program and records decisions about credit creation and credit and allowance retirement. 3 tabs

  13. 14 CFR 91.139 - Emergency air traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency air traffic rules. 91.139 Section 91.139 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.139 Emergency air traffic rules. (a) This...

  14. The knowledge of dietary rules among patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Świrska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of diabetes increases in Poland and all over the world. Diet is an integral element of diabetes therapy. The knowledge of dietary rules and compliance with them facilitates body mass reduction and improves metabolic parameters of the body thus preventing diabetes’ complications development. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of dietary rules among diabetic patients. Material and methods: The study included 50 patients with recognized diabetes  who were hospitalized in SPSK-4 hospital in Lublin from January to May, 2016. In the study the diagnostic survey was applied. Results: The knowledge of basic dietary rules in diabetes among the majority of surveyed diabetic patients (64% was unsatisfactory. The most significant deficit included lack of acquaintance with glycemic index and carbohydrate exchanges thus making it impossible to make use of them in preparing everyday meals. The knowledge of the surveyed patients depended on their educational status, place of residence and age. Unsatisfactory knowledge was found among 82% of patients  with primary education vs. 40% with higher education, in 80% with countryside residence vs. 53% residing in town and in 80% of patients aged 31-40  and 41-55 years vs. 50% aged 18-30. Conclusion: Dietary education is a necessary element of diabetes therapy. Educating patients about diabetic diet should be repeated regularly as even patients with long-standing diabetes history have unsatisfactory knowledge about the dietary rules. Preferably, educating should be individual and adjusted to patient’s age and education.

  15. Rules for preventing chemical risks: fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem, this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. The present rule defines the dispositions to take in account for avoid fire hazards in nuclear facilities (Power reactors and accelerators are excluded) [fr

  16. Implementation of maintenance rule for structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, H.; Bagchi, G.

    1999-01-01

    The maintenance rule, 10 CFR 50.65, 'Requirements for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants', was published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the Federal Register (56 FR 31324) on July 10, 1991. The rule became effective on July 10, 1996, giving nuclear power plant licensees 5 years to implement it. During 1994-1995, NRC staff visited nine nuclear power plant sites to observe licensees' preparations for implementation of the rule. The teams found that most of the licensees had not established goals, or performance criteria for monitoring structures at their sites. The licensees contended that the structures were inherently reliable and required no monitoring under the maintenance rule. On the basis of earlier site visits performed by NRC staff to assess the condition of structures, the NRC staff could not accept this contention, and clarified its position in Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide 1.160, 'Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants'. This paper discusses the applicability of the maintenance rule criteria for structures and its usefulness in ensuring that the structures, systems, and components within the scope of the maintenance rule are capable of fulfilling their intended functions. Also discussed are the aspects of maintenance rule efforts that could be useful for license renewal applications. (orig.)

  17. The INCOTERMS rules and their importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca LAZĂR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The content INCOTERMS are a set of rules that determine the rights and obligations of the international sales contract, selecting a rule of interpretation of commercial terms INCOTERMS, progress is the result of negotiation between the parties and expresses the ratio of these economic forces. In relation to the obligations of the parties to an international sales contract are several different types of contracts covered by the clause. To define the main rules INCOTERMS was considered as a starting point delivery of goods, establishment of the seller and the buyer2, the rules concerning the obligations of each party that are grouped into ten items with identical titles for all the rules. Due to significant developments in international trade, for making available to retailers in the interpretation of the rules commonly used trade terms in international trade, the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris draw a set of delivery conditions for their interpretation in international sales, rules that were in international trade practice some habits, but who were not of equal significance to traders in different countries.

  18. Sum rules for four-spinon dynamic structure factor in XXX model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Lakhal, B.; Abada, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the antiferromagnetic spin 12 Heisenberg quantum spin chain (XXX model), we estimate the contribution of the exact four-spinon dynamic structure factor S 4 by calculating a number of sum rules the total dynamic structure factor S is known to satisfy exactly. These sum rules are: the static susceptibility, the integrated intensity, the total integrated intensity, the first frequency moment and the nearest-neighbor correlation function. We find that the contribution of S 4 is between 1% and 2.5%, depending on the sum rule, whereas the contribution of the exact two-spinon dynamic structure factor S 2 is between 70% and 75%. The calculations are numerical and Monte Carlo based. Good statistics are obtained

  19. Rules and routines in organizations and the management of safety rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichbrodt, J. Ch.

    2013-07-01

    This thesis is concerned with the relationship between rules and routines in organizations and how the former can be used to steer the latter. Rules are understood as formal organizational artifacts, whereas organizational routines are collective patterns of action. While research on routines has been thriving, a clear understanding of how rules can be used to influence or control organizational routines (and vice-versa) is still lacking. This question is of particular relevance to safety rules in high-risk organizations, where the way in which organizational routines unfold can ultimately be a matter of life and death. In these organizations, an important and related issue is the balancing of standardization and flexibility – which, in the case of rules, takes the form of finding the right degree of formalization. In high-risk organizations, the question is how to adequately regulate actors’ routines in order to facilitate safe behavior, while at the same time leaving enough leeway for actors to make good decisions in abnormal situations. The railroads are regarded as high-risk industries and also rely heavily on formal rules. In this thesis, the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) were therefore selected for a field study on rules and routines. The issues outlined so far are being tackled theoretically (paper 1), empirically (paper 2), and from a practitioner’s (i.e., rule maker’s) point of view (paper 3). In paper 1, the relationship between rules and routines is theoretically conceptualized, based on a literature review. Literature on organizational control and coordination, on rules in human factors and safety, and on organizational routines is combined. Three distinct roles (rule maker, rule supervisor, and rule follower) are outlined. Six propositions are developed regarding the necessary characteristics of both routines and rules, the respective influence of the three roles on the rule-routine relationship, and regarding organizational aspects such as

  20. Rules and routines in organizations and the management of safety rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichbrodt, J. Ch.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the relationship between rules and routines in organizations and how the former can be used to steer the latter. Rules are understood as formal organizational artifacts, whereas organizational routines are collective patterns of action. While research on routines has been thriving, a clear understanding of how rules can be used to influence or control organizational routines (and vice-versa) is still lacking. This question is of particular relevance to safety rules in high-risk organizations, where the way in which organizational routines unfold can ultimately be a matter of life and death. In these organizations, an important and related issue is the balancing of standardization and flexibility – which, in the case of rules, takes the form of finding the right degree of formalization. In high-risk organizations, the question is how to adequately regulate actors’ routines in order to facilitate safe behavior, while at the same time leaving enough leeway for actors to make good decisions in abnormal situations. The railroads are regarded as high-risk industries and also rely heavily on formal rules. In this thesis, the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) were therefore selected for a field study on rules and routines. The issues outlined so far are being tackled theoretically (paper 1), empirically (paper 2), and from a practitioner’s (i.e., rule maker’s) point of view (paper 3). In paper 1, the relationship between rules and routines is theoretically conceptualized, based on a literature review. Literature on organizational control and coordination, on rules in human factors and safety, and on organizational routines is combined. Three distinct roles (rule maker, rule supervisor, and rule follower) are outlined. Six propositions are developed regarding the necessary characteristics of both routines and rules, the respective influence of the three roles on the rule-routine relationship, and regarding organizational aspects such as

  1. On construction of partial association rules

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of approximate algorithms for minimization of partial association rule length. It is shown that under some natural assumptions on the class NP, a greedy algorithm is close to the best polynomial approximate algorithms for solving of this NP-hard problem. The paper contains various bounds on precision of the greedy algorithm, bounds on minimal length of rules based on an information obtained during greedy algorithm work, and results of the study of association rules for the most part of binary information systems. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows: as from 1 April 2003 • Article R II 1.19 - Types and duration of contracts of staff members (page 15) as from 1 July 2003 Implementation of the category of local staff members Copies of this update are available in the divisional secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  3. The Mortensen Rule and Efficient Coordination Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; King, Ian; Julien, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    We apply the efficiency axioms of [Mortensen, D. (1982). Efficiency of mating, racing and related games. American Economic Review, 72 968–979.] to a set of matching games involving coordination frictions between buyers. These games include markets with finite numbers of buyers and sellers...... and markets with infinite numbers of heterogeneous buyers and homogenous sellers. We show that the Mortensen rule, but not the Hosios rule, gives constrained efficient allocations. We also show that the Mortensen rule is implemented by a simple auction...

  4. Fixed mass and scaling sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, B.F.L.

    1975-01-01

    Using the correspondence principle (continuity in dynamics), the approach of Keppell-Jones-Ward-Taha to fixed mass and scaling current algebraic sum rules is extended so as to consider explicitly the contributions of all classes of intermediate states. A natural, generalized formulation of the truncation ideas of Cornwall, Corrigan, and Norton is introduced as a by-product of this extension. The formalism is illustrated in the familiar case of the spin independent Schwinger term sum rule. New sum rules are derived which relate the Regge residue functions of the respective structure functions to their fixed hadronic mass limits for q 2 → infinity. (Auth.)

  5. Sign rules for anisotropic quantum spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R. F.; Farnell, D. J. J.; Parkinson, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    We present exact ''sign rules'' for various spin-s anisotropic spin-lattice models. It is shown that, after a simple transformation which utilizes these sign rules, the ground-state wave function of the transformed Hamiltonian is positive definite. Using these results exact statements for various expectation values of off-diagonal operators are presented, and transitions in the behavior of these expectation values are observed at particular values of the anisotropy. Furthermore, the importance of such sign rules in variational calculations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations is emphasized. This is illustrated by a simple variational treatment of a one-dimensional anisotropic spin model

  6. Designing business rules for mediation : a process towards agent-mediated business coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Z.; Dignum, M.V.; Dignum, F.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Business process integration is a very active research area, in which mediation is one of the fundamental architectural choices. Mediators have difficulties to design mediation services that meet the requirements of the different stakeholders. Business rules play an important role in the

  7. Finite energy sum rules and instantons in the instanton liquid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, V.; Fang Shi; Steele, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    We obtain the imaginary part of the direct single-instanton contribution to the pseudoscalar correlator, as defined by the appropriate dispersion relation, in order to derive an explicit integral representation for the instanton contribution to finite energy sum rules in the instanton liquid model. (author)

  8. Capacities and overlap indexes with an application in fuzzy rule-based classification systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paternain, D.; Bustince, H.; Pagola, M.; Sussner, P.; Kolesárová, A.; Mesiar, Radko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 305, č. 1 (2016), s. 70-94 ISSN 0165-0114 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Capacity * Overlap index * Overlap function * Choquet integral * Fuzzy rule-based classification systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/mesiar-0465739.pdf

  9. Integration of iRevive with the Lightweight Trauma Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key to this system is the collection and presentation of data. This has required: 1) rewriting the iRevive GUI and database codebase using current technology; 2)...

  10. Lightweight structure design for wind energy by integrating nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Lu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrate high-strength nano-materials into lightweight design. • Lightweight design scheme for wind turbine tower application. • Expand the bending formulae for tapered tubular structures with varying thickness. • We rewrite the Secant Formula for a tapered beam under eccentric compression. - Abstract: Wind power develops very fast nowadays with high expectation. Although at the mean time, the use of taller towers, however, smacks head-on into the issue of transportability. The engineering base and computational tools have to be developed to match machine size and volume. Consequently the research on the light weight structures of tower is carrying out in the main countries which are actively developing wind energy. This paper reports a new design scheme of light weight structure for wind turbine tower. This design scheme is based on the integration of the nanostructured materials produced by the Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) process. The objective of this study is to accomplish the weight reduction by optimizing the wall thickness of the tapered tubular structure. The basic methods include the identification of the critical zones and the distribution of the high strength materials according to different necessities. The equivalent strength or stiffness design method and the high strength material properties after SMAT process are combined together. Bending and buckling are two main kinds of static loads concerned in consideration. The study results reveal that there is still enough margin for weight reduction in the traditional wind turbine tower design

  11. Being Anal About the Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Marshall

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing technologies, digital media and mobile internet access have allowed members of the MSM community the opportunity to integrate their lives more fully into a world once dominated by exclusively straight places and communities - the change fostered by hook-up apps and services has taken the socio-sexual interaction of men who have sex with men (MSM from the old physical community spaces into digital sexual oases. This paper will discuss from a theoretical standpoint the changing sexual behaviours and new opportunities to create a sense of space for MSM individuals made possible by geolocation-based apps and the emergent playstyles that are born from the app developers’, and players’, gamification of sexual expression.

  12. 77 FR 14979 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is amending the transportation conformity rule to finalize provisions that were proposed on August 13, 2010. These amendments restructure several sections of the transportation conformity...

  13. Design and Analysis of Decision Rules via Dynamic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.

    2017-01-01

    Another area of advancement is the presentation of algorithms for constructing Pareto optimal points for rules and rule systems. This allows us to study the existence of “totally optimal” decision rules

  14. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Background: The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, the correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and the properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or the nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. Purpose: To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Methods: To compute sum rules, we carry out contour integration of the response function in the complex-energy plane. We benchmark our results against the conventional matrix formulation of the QRPA theory, the Thouless theorem for the energy-weighted sum rule, and the dielectric theorem for the inverse-energy-weighted sum rule. Results: We derive the sum-rule expressions from the contour integration of the complex-energy FAM. We demonstrate that calculated sum-rule values agree with those obtained from the matrix formulation of the QRPA. We also discuss the applicability of both the Thouless theorem about the energy-weighted sum rule and the dielectric theorem for the inverse-energy-weighted sum rule to nuclear density functional theory in cases when the EDF is not based on a Hamiltonian. Conclusions: The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method

  15. Historical Relics and Qing Rule Over Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In October 1720, when the Qing troops had driven the Zungar forces out of Tibet, the Qing court started to reform the govemment system of the region that was geared to control by Tibetans of the upper ruling class.

  16. Extracting pronunciation rules for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Various automated techniques can be used to generalise from phonemic lexicons through the extraction of grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets. These techniques are particularly useful when developing pronunciation models for previously unmodelled languages...

  17. 17 CFR 200.29 - Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Organization and Program Management General Organization § 200.29 Rules. The.... Where any such proposals presents a legal problem or is a matter of first impression, or involves a...

  18. A Bayesian analysis of QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A new technique has recently been developed, in which the Maximum Entropy Method is used to analyze QCD sum rules. This approach has the virtue of being able to directly generate the spectral function of a given operator, without the need of making an assumption about its specific functional form. To investigate whether useful results can be extracted within this method, we have first studied the vector meson channel, where QCD sum rules are traditionally known to provide a valid description of the spectral function. Our results show a significant peak in the region of the experimentally observed ρ-meson mass, which is in agreement with earlier QCD sum rules studies and suggests that the Maximum Entropy Method is a strong tool for analyzing QCD sum rules.

  19. Early implementation of the Maintenance Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    On July 10, 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published the Maintenance Rule as Section 50.65 of 10 CFR 50. The purpose of the Maintenance Rule is to ensure that the effectiveness of maintenance activities is assessed on an ongoing basis in a manner that ensures key structures, systems, and components are capable of performing their intended function. Full implementation of the rule is required by July 10, 1996. On May 31, 1994, the NRC published Generic Letter 94-01, which allowed removal of technical specification accelerated testing and special reporting requirements for emergency diesel generators provided a program is implemented for monitoring and maintaining emergency diesel generator performance consistent with the provisions of the Maintenance Rule

  20. Decision Analysis of Dynamic Spectrum Access Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton; Luiz A. DaSilva; Christian Wernz

    2011-12-01

    A current trend in spectrum regulation is to incorporate spectrum sharing through the design of spectrum access rules that support Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). This paper develops a decision-theoretic framework for regulators to assess the impacts of different decision rules on both primary and secondary operators. We analyze access rules based on sensing and exclusion areas, which in practice can be enforced through geolocation databases. Our results show that receiver-only sensing provides insufficient protection for primary and co-existing secondary users and overall low social welfare. On the other hand, using sensing information between the transmitter and receiver of a communication link, provides dramatic increases in system performance. The performance of using these link end points is relatively close to that of using many cooperative sensing nodes associated to the same access point and large link exclusion areas. These results are useful to regulators and network developers in understanding in developing rules for future DSA regulation.