WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated water conservation

  1. Water conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes water systems used in green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also outlines some calculations that can be used to design water systems in green buildings. Finally, aspects of green building...

  2. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overcash, Michael; Russell, Dunn; Wenzel, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses operational techniques for applying mass integration design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. This paper presents a design technique for any number of wastewater streams containing multiple contaminants. The technique comprises...... a single non-linear optimization program to minimize the wastewater discharged (or maximize the amount of recycled wastewater). This program is developed based on general water allocation principles and uses the transshipment model theory to allow the “shipment” of wastewater (referred to as “sources......” or “warehouses”) to process water users (referred to as “sinks”, “demands” or “customers”). A detailed case study of industrial significance, highlighting land treatment technology, is included to illustrate the proposed methodology and various process scenarios are evaluated within this case study...

  3. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  4. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry. Part 3: Experience of Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Dunn, Russell; Gottrup, Lene

    2002-01-01

    This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience with indu......This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience......’s experience with defining the scope of the system and with identifying water flow constraints and water quality constraints is discussed. It is shown, how physical constraints for the system design often set a limit for the sophistication of the water recycle network and thereby also a limit for how...... sophisticated the method for system design should be. Finally, pinch analysis and system designs for water recycling in a practical case study are shown, documenting large water saving potentials and achievements....

  5. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    socio-cultural, economic system constraints for the implementation and maintenance of conservation .... Purpose of natural resource conservation is therefore ... the soil and water resources through traditional and ..... “Integrated Natural.

  6. Performance evaluation of an integrated solar water heater as an option for building energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharuman, C.; Arakeri, J.H.; Srinivasan, K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalaore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-03-15

    Since a majority of residential and industrial building hot water needs are around 50 {sup o}C, an integrated solar water heater could provide a bulk source that blends collection and storage into one unit. This paper describes the design, construction and performance test results of one such water-heating device. The test unit has an absorber area of 1.3 m{sup 2} and can hold 170 l of water, of which extractable volume per day is 100 l. Its performance was evaluated under various typical operating conditions. Every morning at about 7:00 a.m., 100 l of hot water were drawn from the sump and replaced with cold water from the mains. Although, during most of the days, the peak temperatures of water obtained are between 50 and 60 {sup o}C, the next morning temperatures were lower at 45-50 {sup o}C. Daytime collection efficiencies of about 60% and overall efficiencies of about 40% were obtained. Tests were conducted with and without stratification. Night radiation losses were reduced by use of a screen insulation. (author)

  7. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  8. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  9. Water-quality assessment of the Lower Grand River Basin, Missouri and Iowa, USA, in support of integrated conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of agricultural conservation programmes to adequately reduce nutrient exports to receiving streams and to help limit downstream hypoxia issues remains a concern. Quantifying programme success can be difficult given that short-term basin changes may be masked by long-term water-quality shifts. We evaluated nutrient export at stream sites in the 44 months that followed a period of increased, integrated conservation implementation within the Lower Grand River Basin. These short-term responses were then compared with export that occurred in the main stem and adjacent rivers in northern Missouri over a 22-year period to better contextualize any recent changes. Results indicate that short-term (October 2010 through May 2014) total nitrogen (TN) concentrations in the Grand River were 20% less than the long-term average, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were 23% less. Nutrient reductions in the short term were primarily the result of the less-than-average precipitation and, consequently, streamflow that was 36% below normal. Therefore, nutrient concentrations measured in tributary streams were likely less than normal during the implementation period. Northern Missouri streamflow-normalized TN concentrations remained relatively flat or declined over the period 1991 through 2013 likely because available sources of nitrogen, determined as the sum of commercial fertilizers, available animal manures and atmospheric inputs, were typically less than crop requirement for much of that time frame. Conversely, flow-normalized stream TP concentrations increased over the past 22 years in northern Missouri streams, likely in response to many years of phosphorus inputs in excess of crop requirements. Stream nutrient changes were most pronounced during periods that coincided with the major tillage, planting and growth phases of row crops and increased streamflow. Nutrient reduction strategies targeted at the period February through June would likely have the

  10. Water conservation in semiarid dryland agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.O.

    1980-01-01

    Factors affecting water conservation in semiarid dryland regions are discussed. Because precipitation is the only source of water for plant growth in most semiarid regions, a good understanding of precipitation patterns (quantity, distribution, and their probable frequency) is needed for each dryland area. The various dryland practices, e.g. tillage, cultivars, residue management, fertility, erosion control, and grazing, must be considered as integral parts of an entire system to develop best management practices and to gain most efficient water conservation for food and fiber production. (author)

  11. Foreign energy conservation integrated programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, Maria Luiza Viana; Bajay, Sergio Valdir

    1999-01-01

    The promotion of energy economy and efficiency is recognized as the single most cost-effective and least controversial component of any strategy of matching energy demand and supply with resource and environmental constraints. Historically such efficiency gains are not out of reach for the industrialized market economy countries, but are unlikely to be reached under present conditions by developing countries and economics in transition. The aim of the work was to analyze the main characteristics of United Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia and Denmark energy conservation integrated programs

  12. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  13. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  14. Consequences of Not Conserving Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.; Crawford, L.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of fresh water is not only local, but also global. In certain parts of the world, much needed rain is becoming less frequent, possibly due to the effects of global warming. The resources of clean fresh water on earth are very limited and are reducing every year due to pollution like industrial waste, oil spills, untreated sewage, inefficient irrigation systems, waste and leakage, etc. This is destroying the ecosystem of the entire planet. Of course, in some parts of world there is rain almost throughout the year. Regardless, major problems are still prevalent because of a variety of reasons such as drainage, storage, evaporation, cleanliness, etc. It is all too well known that evapotranspiration contributes to a significant water loss from drainage basins. Most of the citizens of this world are still careless about water usage and are unappreciative of the need for water conservation. This is a very unpleasant fact and needs to change. Cost expenditures for the development of infrastructure to supply water to households and industries are becoming prohibitively expensive. Many parts in this world have extremely dry terrain and rainfall is not as frequent as it should be. As a result, the underground water tables are not replenished properly, thereby turning regions to arid land and deserts. Unless effective irrigation methods are used, potential evapotranspiration may be actually greater than precipitation provided by nature. The soil therefore dries out creating an arid landmass. The earth and its inhabitants can sustain only if creative methods of clean water conservation ideas are effectively implemented. (Co-author: Dr. Mysore Narayanan) References: http://www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/water/http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=conservationhttp://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sandiego.gov/water/conservation/http://www.swcs.org/http://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/water-knowledge/water-conservation.aspxhttp://www.benefits-of-recycling.com/waterconservationmethods/

  15. 43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1... INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general. The Secretary shall encourage the full consideration and incorporation of prudent and responsible water conservation...

  16. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  17. Water Conservation Education with a Rainfall Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Hans; Kessen, Shelly

    1997-01-01

    Describes a program in which a rainfall simulator was used to promote water conservation by showing water infiltration, water runoff, and soil erosion. The demonstrations provided a good background for the discussion of issues such as water conservation, crop rotation, and conservation tillage practices. The program raised awareness of…

  18. An Approach for Selection of Flow Regime and Models for Conservative Evaluation of a Vessel Integrity Monitoring System for Water-Cooled Vacuum Vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointer, W. David; Ruggles, Arthur E.

    2003-01-01

    Thin-walled vacuum containment vessels cooled by circulating water jackets are often utilized in research and industrial applications where isolation of equipment or experiments from the influences of the surrounding environment is desirable. The development of leaks in these vessels can result in costly downtime for the facility. A Vessel Integrity Monitoring System (VIMS) is developed to detect leak formation and estimate the size of the leak to allow evaluation of the risk associated with continued operation. A wide range of leak configurations and fluid flow phenomena are considered in the evaluation of the rate at which a tracer gas dissolved in the cooling jacket water is transported into the vacuum vessel. A methodology is presented that uses basic fluid flow models and careful evaluation of their ranges of applicability to provide a conservative estimate of the transport rates for the tracer gas and hence the time required for the VIMS to detect a leak of a given size

  19. Conservation of Water and Related Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Lynton K.

    1984-04-01

    The author was quite clear about the purpose of this book and clearly achieved his intent. In his preface, the author states, “The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with a broad understanding of the topics relevant to the management of the nation's water and related land resources.” The book is a product of the author's 20 years of work as a teacher, consultant, researcher, and student of watershed management and hydrology and has served as a text for a course entitled Soil and Water Conservation, which the author has taught at the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse, New York. But it was also written with the intent to be of use “to informal students of water and land related resources on the national level as well.” The objectives of Black's course at Syracuse and its larger purpose define the scope of the book which, again in the author's words, have been “(1) to acquaint students with principles of soil and water conservation; (2) to stimulate an appreciation for an integrated, comprehensive approach to land management; (3) to illustrate the influence of institutional, economic, and cultural forces on the practice of soil and water conservation; and (4) to provide information, methods, and techniques by which soil and water conservation measures are applied to land, as well as the basis for predicting and evaluating results.” The book is written in straightforward nontechnical language and provides the reader with a set of references, a table of cases, a list of abbreviations, and an adequate index. It impresses this reviewer as a very well edited piece of work.

  20. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R V

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  1. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  2. Integral dose conservation in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, Adam S.; Das, Shiva K.; Curle, Charles; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment planners frequently modify beam arrangements and use IMRT to improve target dose coverage while satisfying dose constraints on normal tissues. The authors herein analyze the limitations of these strategies and quantitatively assess the extent to which dose can be redistributed within the patient volume. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that (1) the normalized integral dose is constant across concentric shells of normal tissue surrounding the target (normalized to the average integral shell dose), (2) the normalized integral shell dose is constant across plans with different numbers and orientations of beams, and (3) the normalized integral shell dose is constant across plans when reducing the dose to a critical structure. Using the images of seven patients previously irradiated for cancer of brain or prostate cancer and one idealized scenario, competing three-dimensional conformal and IMRT plans were generated using different beam configurations. Within a given plan and for competing plans with a constant mean target dose, the normalized integral doses within concentric ''shells'' of surrounding normal tissue were quantitatively compared. Within each patient, the normalized integral dose to shells of normal tissue surrounding the target was relatively constant (1). Similarly, for each clinical scenario, the normalized integral dose for a given shell was also relatively constant regardless of the number and orientation of beams (2) or degree of sparing of a critical structure (3). 3D and IMRT planning tools can redistribute, rather than eliminate dose to the surrounding normal tissues (intuitively known by planners). More specifically, dose cannot be moved between shells surrounding the target but only within a shell. This implies that there are limitations in the extent to which a critical structure can be spared based on the location and geometry of the critical structure relative to the target.

  3. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  4. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  5. An integrated moral obligation model for landowner conservation norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhananga, Amit K.; Davenport, Mae A.; Fulton, David C.; Maruyama, Geoffrey M.; Current, Dean

    2017-01-01

    This study applies an integrated moral obligation model to examine the role of environmental and cultural values, and beliefs in the activation of landowner conservation norms. Data for this study were collected through a self-administered survey of riparian landowners in two Minnesota watersheds: Sand Creek and Vermillion River watersheds. Study findings suggest that collectivistic and biospheric–altruistic values form the bases for the activation of personal norms. Further, beliefs about local responsibility and ability to act influence personal norms to protect water resources. Findings suggest that landowners’ personal norms of water conservation are more likely to be activated by conservation strategies that appeal to biospheric–altruistic and collectivistic values, emphasize adverse consequences of water pollution, highlight water resource protection as a local responsibility, and provide the resources needed to protect water resources.

  6. Integration of environmental flow assessment and freshwater conservation planning: a new era in catchment management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated water resources management offers an ideal platform for addressing the goals of freshwater conservation and climate change adaptation. Environmental flow assessment and systematic conservation planning have evolved separately...

  7. Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF): Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CWSRF can provide financial assistance for water conservation projects that reduce the demand for POTW capacity through reduced water consumption (i.e., water efficiency), as well as water reuse and precipitation harvesting.

  8. Towards a Fully Conservative Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L. B.; Vionnet, C. A.; Younger, P. L.; Parkin, G.

    2001-12-01

    Hydrological modeling is nowadays an essential tool in many aspects of water resources assessment and management. For practical purposes, hydrological models may be defined as mathematical procedures, which transform meteorological input data such as precipitation and evapotranspiration into hydrological output values such as riverflows. Conceptual water balance models are one kind of hydrological models still quite popular among engineers and scientists for three main reasons: firstly the "book-keeping" procedure they are based upon makes them computationally inexpensive, secondly, they require far less data than any physically based model, and thirdly, once calibrated and validated, they can yield the proper order of magnitude of the water cycle component on the basin under investigation. A common criticism of water balance models is their lack of sound theoretical basis. In this work a fully conservative water balance model for basin applications which takes into account physical processes is presented. The two-storage level model contains four calibration parameters: a, b, l and Umax. The saturated storage component resembles the abcd model by Thomas, corrected by the presence of the aquifer storativity coefficient s and the river-aquifer interface conductance l. The resulting model is capable of estimating monthly basin-average of actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture, effective groundwater recharge, groundwater level fluctuations, baseflows and direct runoff using an integral form of the mass conservation law in the saturated/unsaturated layers. The model was applied to a 600 Km2 catchment in the United Kingdom. An eight-year record was used for calibration, while a similar record was reserved for validation of model results. Total streamflows as well as baseflows calculated by the model were compared with observed and estimated data. A quite good agreement was obtained. Finally, simulated groundwater levels were compared with observation data collected at

  9. Integrating technologies for scalable ecology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, D.C.; Koh, L.P.; Lynam, A.J.; Wich, S.; Davies, A.B.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Stokes, E.; Starkey, R.; Asner, G.P.

    Integration of multiple technologies greatly increases the spatial and temporal scales over which ecological patterns and processes can be studied, and threats to protected ecosystems can be identified and mitigated. A range of technology options relevant to ecologists and conservation practitioners

  10. Water Conservation in Schools and Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Suggests measures for New Jersey schools to take to decrease building water consumption by 25 per cent during the present state water shortage. Appended is a short list of water conservation instructional materials intended to supplement a bibliography published in the February, 1981 issue of this magazine (pp15-16). (SJL)

  11. Integrating technologies for scalable ecology and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Marvin; Lian Pin Koh; Antony J. Lynam; Serge Wich; Andrew B. Davies; Ramesh Krishnamurthy; Emma Stokes; Ruth Starkey; Gregory P. Asner

    2016-01-01

    Integration of multiple technologies greatly increases the spatial and temporal scales over which ecological patterns and processes can be studied, and threats to protected ecosystems can be identified and mitigated. A range of technology options relevant to ecologists and conservation practitioners are described, including ways they can be linked to increase the dimensionality of data collection efforts. Remote sensing, ground-based, and data fusion technologies are broadly discussed in the ...

  12. Water and the conservation movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1958-01-01

    Every age has its unique touchstone, its hallmark. The Nineties were thought gay. The Twenties had jazz and John Held, Jr. The Thirties had breadlines, dust bowls, the forgotten man. And each recent period has been studded with so many flashy gems, both paste and genuine, that no hallmark would alone be enough to label it.Of the present age, one of the nameplates will carry the word "Conservation." The first time a museum visitor walks by that label he will probably stop, push back the plexiglas globe of his space helmet and say to himself, "I never thought that conservation was a keynote of the Fifties." But I imagine he might agree as the pathetic truth of that label dawned on his tired body, accustomed to canned entertainment, synthetic flavors, and fighting the afternoon traffic of the jet lanes. I can imagine him musing: "Conservation, the hallmark of the Fifties. Somebody about that time said about something or other, 'too little and too late.'"

  13. Conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Teresa; Di Salvo, Martino Luigi; Angelaccio, Sebastiana; Pascarella, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Water molecules occurring in the interior of protein structures often are endowed with key structural and functional roles. We report the results of a systematic analysis of conserved water molecules in bacterial serine hydroxymethyltransferases (SHMTs). SHMTs are an important group of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of l-serine and tetrahydropteroylglutamate to glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydropteroylglutamate. The approach utilized in this study relies on two programs, ProACT2 and WatCH. The first software is able to categorize water molecules in a protein crystallographic structure as buried, positioned in clefts or at the surface. The other program finds, in a set of superposed homologous proteins, water molecules that occur approximately in equivalent position in each of the considered structures. These groups of molecules are referred to as 'clusters' and represent structurally conserved water molecules. Several conserved clusters of buried or cleft water molecules were found in the set of 11 bacterial SHMTs we took into account for this work. The majority of these clusters were not described previously. Possible structural and functional roles for the conserved water molecules are envisaged. This work provides a map of the conserved water molecules helpful for deciphering SHMT mechanism and for rational design of molecular engineering experiments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    controllers, centralized and site-specific sensor inputs, leak detection sensors, and the use of harvested water (i.e., rainwater and air condition water ...include ET functionality with soil moisture sensor, and leak detection via flow meter. ESTCP Final Report Smart Water Conservation System 58... leakage . The minimum static pressure was not achieved because tank water levels were less than 10 feet in the selected low profile tank.) Adjust break

  15. 18 CFR 806.25 - Water conservation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water conservation standards. 806.25 Section 806.25 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Standards for Review and Approval § 806.25 Water conservation...

  16. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San... meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water Authority/Applicant) draft Natural Communities Conservation Plan (NCCP)/Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) prepared in application to us for an incidental take...

  17. Integrated bird conservation web site in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxanne Bogart; Chris Eberly; Elizabeth Martin

    2005-01-01

    In working towards a vision of integrated bird conservation, scientists, conservationists, land managers, and administrators are faced with a variety of scientific, managerial, administrative, and logistical challenges and complexities. The broad scope of integrated bird conservation requires organizations to work together to conserve birds across taxonomic groups,...

  18. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  19. Water conservation for semi-arid rangelands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    Water deficiency is most often the cause for low forage production on rangelands in semi-arid and arid regions. Water conservation methods have been developed but additional research is needed to develop the best management practices for various climatic regions. Poor management is another major cause of low rangeland production. Better management, including the application of research findings, depends on attitudes, policies, adaptability of findings, resources for implementation and a good understanding of the governing biotic and abiotic factors. (author)

  20. Soil and Water Conservation Activities for Scouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the learning activities outlined in this booklet is to help Scouts understand some conservation principles which hopefully will lead to the development of an attitude of concern for the environment and a commitment to help with the task of using and managing soil, water, and other natural resources for long range needs as well as…

  1. Water Conservation and Hydrological Transitions in Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, G. M.; Gilligan, J. M.; Hess, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    A 2012 report by the National Research Council, Challenges and Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences, called for the development of "translational hydrologic science." Translational research in this context requires knowledge about the communication of science to decision makers and to the public but also improved understanding of the public by the scientists. This kind of knowledge is inherently interdisciplinary because it requires understanding of the complex sociotechnical dimensions of water, policy, and user relations. It is axiomatic that good governance of water resources and water infrastructure requires information about water resources themselves and about the institutions that govern water use. This "socio-hydrologic" or "hydrosociological" knowledge is often characterized by complex dynamics between and among human and natural systems. Water Resources Research has provided a forum for presentation of interdisciplinary research in coupled natural-human systems since its inception 50 years ago. The evolution of ideas presented in the journal provides a basis for framing new work, an example of which is water conservation in cities. In particular, we explore the complex interactions of political, sociodemographic, economic, and hydroclimatological factors in affecting decisions that either advance or retard the development of water conservation policies.

  2. 75 FR 9921 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San... the NCCP/HCP's conservation strategy. Covered Activities would include developing new water... permit application, and notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The San Diego County Water Authority (Water...

  3. Integrated conservation planning for coral reefs: Designing conservation zones for multiple conservation objectives in spatial prioritisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Magris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers focus on representing biodiversity pattern, maintaining connectivity, and strengthening resilience to global warming when designing marine protected area (MPA systems, especially in coral reef ecosystems. The achievement of these broad conservation objectives will likely require large areas, and stretch limited funds for MPA implementation. We undertook a spatial prioritisation of Brazilian coral reefs that considered two types of conservation zones (i.e. no-take and multiple use areas and integrated multiple conservation objectives into MPA planning, while assessing the potential impact of different sets of objectives on implementation costs. We devised objectives for biodiversity, connectivity, and resilience to global warming, determined the extent to which existing MPAs achieved them, and designed complementary zoning to achieve all objectives combined in expanded MPA systems. In doing so, we explored interactions between different sets of objectives, determined whether refinements to the existing spatial arrangement of MPAs were necessary, and tested the utility of existing MPAs by comparing their cost effectiveness with an MPA system designed from scratch. We found that MPAs in Brazil protect some aspects of coral reef biodiversity pattern (e.g. threatened fauna and ecosystem types more effectively than connectivity or resilience to global warming. Expanding the existing MPA system was as cost-effective as designing one from scratch only when multiple objectives were considered and management costs were accounted for. Our approach provides a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of integrating multiple objectives in the initial stages of conservation planning, and yields insights for planners of MPAs tackling multiple objectives in other regions.

  4. GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Toshio; Lawford, Richard; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    It is critically important to recognize and co-manage the fundamental linkages across the water-dependent domains; land use, including deforestation; ecosystem services; and food-, energy- and health-securities. Sharing coordinated, comprehensive and sustained observations and information for sound decision-making is a first step; however, to take full advantage of these opportunities, we need to develop an effective collaboration mechanism for working together across different disciplines, sectors and agencies, and thereby gain a holistic view of the continuity between environmentally sustainable development, climate change adaptation and enhanced resilience. To promote effective multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary collaboration based on coordinated and integrated efforts, the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). A component of GEOSS now under development is the "GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator (WCI)", which integrates Earth observations, modeling, data and information, management systems and education systems. GEOSS/WCI sets up "work benches" by which partners can share data, information and applications in an interoperable way, exchange knowledge and experiences, deepen mutual understanding and work together effectively to ultimately respond to issues of both mitigation and adaptation. (A work bench is a virtual geographical or phenomenological space where experts and managers collaborate to use information to address a problem within that space). GEOSS/WCI enhances the coordination of efforts to strengthen individual, institutional and infrastructure capacities, especially for effective interdisciplinary coordination and integration. GEO has established the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) and GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Through regional, inter-disciplinary, multi-sectoral integration and inter-agency coordination in Asia and Africa, GEOSS

  5. Water conservation, recycling, and reuse: US northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.

    1984-10-01

    This paper focuses upon present and future possibilities for water conservation, recycling, and reuse in New England and Middle Atlantic states. Telephone interviews and questionnaires sent to trade associations, public utility commissions, federal, state and other agencies were used to supplement information gathered in the literature. Water intake and consumptive demands in 1980 were calculated for industrial, electric utility, agricultural, and residential sectors. Corresponding information for the year 2000 were estimated using data from utilities, public utility commissions, and the US Bureau of Economic Affairs. Water supplies were estimated using the concept of safe yield. Assuming reductions in water use by industries, agriculture and by private residences in the year 2000, it was found that many users, particularly the electric utility sector, would still experience serious water supply shortfalls in several industrialized states. 20 references, 14 tables.

  6. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  7. Can conservation and development really be integrated? | Sayer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most biodiversity conservation projects in poor tropical countries also aspire to alleviate the poverty of local people. The results of these integrated conservation and development projects have often been disappointing. This paper argues that it would be impossible for both practical and ethical reasons for conservation

  8. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool... heating equipment and pool heaters. Table I.1--Amended Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... for national energy and water conservation; and 7. Other factors the Secretary of Energy (Secretary...

  9. Some Interesting Facts about Water and Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The total amount of water in the world today is still the same as it was hundreds of thousands of years ago. Almost 97% of the water that is on this earth is undrinkable. About two percent of world's water is locked in polar ice caps and glaciers. Only one percent of world's water is available for human consumption. Agriculture, livestock farming, irrigation, manufacturing, factories, businesses, commercial establishments, offices, communities and household all have to share this 1% of water that is available. Although we call it drinking water, humans actually drink only about 1% of water that is actually supplied to the household by the utility companies. Inside a leak-proof average American household, about 70% of the water is used in the bathroom and about 20% is utilized in kitchen and laundry. The U.S. daily average consumption of water is about 200 gallons per person. Desalinated water may typically cost about 2,000 - 3000 an acre foot. This is approximately a penny a gallon. An acre-foot or 325,851 gallons is roughly the amount of water a family of five uses in a year. 1.2 trillion gallons of industrial waste, untreated sewage and storm water are dumped into U.S. waters each year. Faster depletion of water supplies is partly due to hotter summers, which mean thirstier people, livestock, plants, trees and shrubs. In addition, hotter summers mean more evaporation from lakes, rivers, reservoirs and irrigated farmland. The median household in the U.S. spends about one of its income on water and sewerage. The human body is about 75% water. Although government agencies have taken necessary steps, water pollution levels continue to rise rapidly. It is becoming more and more difficult to clean up polluted water bodies. Water conservation and preventing water pollution is the responsibility of very human being. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.epa.gov/greeningepa/water/http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/conservation_portal/

  10. Costs of integrating economics and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arponen, Anni; Cabeza, Mar; Eklund, Johanna; Kujala, Heini; Lehtomäki, Joona

    2010-10-01

    Recent literature on systematic conservation planning has focused strongly on economics. It is a necessary component of efficient conservation planning because the question is about effective resource allocation. Nevertheless, there is an increasing tendency toward economic factors overriding biological considerations. Focusing too narrowly on economic cost may lead us back toward solutions resembling those obtained by opportunistic choice of areas, the avoidance of which was the motivation for development of systematic approaches. Moreover, there are many overlooked difficulties in incorporating economic considerations reliably into conservation planning because available economic data and the free market are complex. For instance, economies based on free markets tend to be shortsighted, whereas biodiversity conservation aims far into the future. Although economic data are necessary, they should not be relied on too heavily or considered separately from other sociopolitical factors. We suggest focusing on development of more-comprehensive ecological-economic modeling, while not forgetting the importance of purely biological analyses that are needed as a point of reference for evaluating conservation outcomes. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Fuel conservation integrated into airline economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel conservation efforts at most major airlines involve close scrutiny and intensive analysis in all areas - flight, maintenance and ground handling. Yet, despite the concern and attention devoted, the fundamental question of fuel saving versus time trade-offs remains unanswered. This paper introduces and defines the concept ''The value of an airplane to an airline is that airplane's earning power.

  12. Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: what can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesen, Anne Borge; Skonhoft, Anders [Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Dragvoll (Norway)

    2005-10-15

    Integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) have frequently been established in Africa to improve wildlife conservation and the welfare of local communities. However, their effectiveness has been hampered by conflicts and illegal harvesting. This paper focuses on the strategic interaction between the manager of a protected area and a group of local people. The park manager benefits from wildlife through tourism and hunting. The local people benefit through hunting, but also bear the wildlife damage. ICDPs relying on money transfers to the local people from the park manager may or may not promote wildlife conservation. In addition, the welfare of the local people are ambiguous. (author) [Wildlife; Conservation; Conflicts; Local welfare].

  13. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  14. Grid Integration | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Grid Integration For marine and hydrokinetic technologies to play a larger role in supplying the nation's energy needs, integration into the U.S. power grid is an important challenge to address. Efficient integration of variable power resources like water power is a critical part of the

  15. Water use patterns and conservation in households of Wei River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fully understanding patterns of water use and water conservation among different consumer groups will help in implementing more effective water conservation programs worldwide. Consequently, we investigated water use patterns, water conservation practices, attitudes, and hindrances to water

  16. Water Conservation with Water Saving Devices, Proceedings of a Conference. Extension Bulletin 421.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Theodore B., Ed.

    Presented are six papers on water conservation which were presented at a conference in New Jersey. The first two papers present recommendations of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection on water conservation and a master plan for New Jersey's water supply needs. The following four papers discuss water conservation with water-saving…

  17. Conserving Water: The Untapped Alternative. Worldwatch Paper 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Sandra

    This report addresses the global concern of water development and stresses the need for management of the water demand. Investments in water efficiency, recycling, and conservation are recommended over conventional water supply projects for greater cost behefits and production yield. Topic areas include: (1) water use trends in major crop…

  18. The Role of Communicative Feedback in Successful Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tauchus, Gail; Williams, Jared; Tong, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The Sacramento County Water Agency has made available 2 water conservation programs to its customers. The Data Logger Program attaches the Meter Master Model 100 EL data logger to the customer's water meter for 1 week and provides a detailed report of water usage from each fixture. The Water Wise House Call Program provides findings and…

  19. Water Conservation Study, Ft. Drum, New York, Watertown, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to conduct a limited site survey and evaluate energy use and savings, estimate construction costs and water savings and provide a cost to savings ratio...

  20. Water Conservation Study, Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which will result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP...

  1. Water Conservation Study. Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which will result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP...

  2. Water Conservation Study, Ft. Drum, New York, Watertown, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to conduct a limited site survey and evaluate energy use and savings, estimate construction costs and water savings and provide a cost-to-savings ratio...

  3. Characterizing spatial uncertainty when integrating social data in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, A M; Raymond, C M; Adams, V M; Polyakov, M; Gordon, A; Rhodes, J R; Mills, M; Stein, A; Ives, C D; Lefroy, E C

    2014-12-01

    Recent conservation planning studies have presented approaches for integrating spatially referenced social (SRS) data with a view to improving the feasibility of conservation action. We reviewed the growing conservation literature on SRS data, focusing on elicited or stated preferences derived through social survey methods such as choice experiments and public participation geographic information systems. Elicited SRS data includes the spatial distribution of willingness to sell, willingness to pay, willingness to act, and assessments of social and cultural values. We developed a typology for assessing elicited SRS data uncertainty which describes how social survey uncertainty propagates when projected spatially and the importance of accounting for spatial uncertainty such as scale effects and data quality. These uncertainties will propagate when elicited SRS data is integrated with biophysical data for conservation planning and may have important consequences for assessing the feasibility of conservation actions. To explore this issue further, we conducted a systematic review of the elicited SRS data literature. We found that social survey uncertainty was commonly tested for, but that these uncertainties were ignored when projected spatially. Based on these results we developed a framework which will help researchers and practitioners estimate social survey uncertainty and use these quantitative estimates to systematically address uncertainty within an analysis. This is important when using SRS data in conservation applications because decisions need to be made irrespective of data quality and well characterized uncertainty can be incorporated into decision theoretic approaches. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Impacts of Personal Experience: Informing Water Conservation Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2017-01-01

    Extension educators have diligently educated the general public about water conservation. Incorporating audiences' personal experience into educational programming is recommended as an approach to effectively enhance audiences' adoption of water conservation practices. To ensure the impact on the audiences and environment, understanding the…

  5. Integration of ecological-biological thresholds in conservation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommati, Georgia; Bithas, Kostas; Borsuk, Mark E; Howarth, Richard B

    2016-12-01

    In the Anthropocene, coupled human and natural systems dominate and only a few natural systems remain relatively unaffected by human influence. On the one hand, conservation criteria based on areas of minimal human impact are not relevant to much of the biosphere. On the other hand, conservation criteria based on economic factors are problematic with respect to their ability to arrive at operational indicators of well-being that can be applied in practice over multiple generations. Coupled human and natural systems are subject to economic development which, under current management structures, tends to affect natural systems and cross planetary boundaries. Hence, designing and applying conservation criteria applicable in real-world systems where human and natural systems need to interact and sustainably coexist is essential. By recognizing the criticality of satisfying basic needs as well as the great uncertainty over the needs and preferences of future generations, we sought to incorporate conservation criteria based on minimal human impact into economic evaluation. These criteria require the conservation of environmental conditions such that the opportunity for intergenerational welfare optimization is maintained. Toward this end, we propose the integration of ecological-biological thresholds into decision making and use as an example the planetary-boundaries approach. Both conservation scientists and economists must be involved in defining operational ecological-biological thresholds that can be incorporated into economic thinking and reflect the objectives of conservation, sustainability, and intergenerational welfare optimization. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Analytical Bibliography for Water Supply and Conservation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    American Water Works Association 67:331-35. This article describes the activities of the COMASP (water authority for Sao Paulo , Brazil ) during a...the Water Supply Act of 1958, as amiended. Flood Control Act of 1944. The Secretary of the Army was authorized to sell surplus impounded water in...each category. The issues discussed are: climate and water supply, floods and droughts, groundwater, water conservation in irrigation, water quality

  7. The Value of Forest Conservation for Water Quality Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Kreye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests protect water quality by reducing soil erosion, sedimentation, and pollution; yet there is little information about the economic value of conserving forests for water quality protection in much of the United States. To assess this value, we conducted a meta-analysis of willingness-to-pay (WTP for protecting unimpaired waters, and econometrically determined several significant drivers of WTP: type of conservation instrument (tool, aquatic resource type, geographic context, spatial scale, time, and household income. Using a benefit transfer to two highly forested sites, we illustrate the importance of these factors on WTP for water quality protection programs, forest conservation and policy design.

  8. Drought Resilience and Water Conservation Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many areas of the US, the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought events are increasing, this brief highlights EPA drought and conservation activities across the nation and includes links to additional materials and reference documents.

  9. Energy conservation and management strategies in Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the competitive industrial environment it is essential that cost of the product is kept at the minimum possible. Energy conservation is an important aspect in achieving this as energy is one of the key recourses for growth and survival of industry. The process of heavy water production being very complex and energy intensive, Heavy Water board has given a focussed attention for initiating various measures for reducing the specific energy consumption in all the plants. The initiative resulted in substantial reduction in specific energy consumption and brought in savings in cost. The cumulative reduction of specific energy consumption has been over 30% over the last seven years and the total savings for the last three years on account of the same has been about Rs. 190 crore. The paper describes the strategies adopted in the heavy water plants for effecting the above achievements. The paper covers the details of some of the energy saving schemes carried out at different heavy water plants through case studies. The case studies of schemes implemented at HWPs are general in nature and is applicable for any other industry. The case studies cover the modifications with re-optimisation of the process parameters, improvements effected in utility units like refrigeration and cooling water systems, improvements in captive power plant cycle and improved recycle scheme for water leading to reduced consumptions. The paper also mentions the innovative ammonia absorption refrigeration with improved coefficient of performance and HWB's efforts in development of the system as an integrated unit of the ammonia water deuterium exchange process for heavy water production. HWB also has taken up R and D on various other schemes for improvements in energy consumption for future activities covering utilisation of low grade energy for generation of refrigeration. (author)

  10. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative AGENCY... Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water Enhancement Program (AWEP) or the Cooperative... concerns to be addressed, and specifically what water conservation resource issues and water quality...

  11. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EE-2006-BT-STD-0129] RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on page 20112 in the issue of Friday...

  12. Higher quantum conserved current in a new completely integrable model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissimov, E.R.

    1980-06-01

    The first higher local quantum conserved current is the recently proposed new completely integrable (2esup(βphi)+esup(-2βphi)) 2 model is explicitly constructed thus proving absence of particle production and factorization of multiparticle scattering. (author)

  13. Adaptive and integrated water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahl-Wostl, C.; Kabat, P.; Möltgen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a key environmental challenge of the 21st century. Developing and implementing innovative management approaches and how to cope with the increasing complexity and uncertainties was the theme of the first International Conference on Adaptive and Integrated Water

  14. Global Format for Conservative Time Integration in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The widely used classic collocation-based time integration procedures like Newmark, Generalized-alpha etc. generally work well within a framework of linear problems, but typically may encounter problems, when used in connection with essentially nonlinear structures. These problems are overcome....... In the present paper a conservative time integration algorithm is developed in a format using only the internal forces and the associated tangent stiffness at the specific time integration points. Thus, the procedure is computationally very similar to a collocation method, consisting of a series of nonlinear...... equivalent static load steps, easily implemented in existing computer codes. The paper considers two aspects: representation of nonlinear internal forces in a form that implies energy conservation, and the option of an algorithmic damping with the purpose of extracting energy from undesirable high...

  15. Linkage of reproductive sciences: from 'quick fix' to 'integrated' conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, D E; Ellis, S; Howard, J G

    2001-01-01

    Our laboratory has experienced four phases in understanding how the reproductive sciences contribute to genuine conservation of biodiversity. The first is the 'quick fix phase' in which the erroneous assumption is made that extant knowledge and techniques are readily adaptable to an unstudied wild animal to produce offspring rapidly. The second is the 'species-specificity phase' in which it is recognized that every species has evolved unique reproductive mechanisms that must be mastered before propagation can be enhanced. The third is the 'applicability phase' in which one grasps that all the new knowledge and technology are of minimal relevance without the cooperation of wildlife managers. The final phase is 'integration', the realization that reproduction is only one component in an abundantly complex conservation puzzle that requires interweaving many scientific disciplines with elaborate biopolitical, economic and habitat variables. These phases are illustrated using 20 years of experience with wildlife species, including the cheetah, black-footed ferret and giant panda. We conclude that the foremost value of the reproductive sciences for conserving endangered species is the discipline's powerful laboratory tools for understanding species-specific reproductive mechanisms. Such scholarly information, when applied holistically, can be used to improve management by natural or, occasionally, assisted breeding. Genuine conservation is achieved only when the reproductive knowledge and technologies are integrated into multidisciplinary programmes that preserve species integrity ex situ and preferably in situ.

  16. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Hartl, Brett; Goldman, Gretchen T; Rohlf, Daniel J; Treves, Adrian; Kerr, Jeremy T; Ritchie, Euan G; Kingsford, Richard T; Gibbs, Katherine E; Maron, Martine; Watson, James E M

    2017-10-01

    Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest.

  17. Effect of restoring soil hydrological poperties on water conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, D.; Kostka, S.J.; Boerth, T.J.; Franklin, M.A.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Stoof, C.R.; Park, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Water repellency in soil is more wide spread than previously thought ¿ and has a significant impact on irrigation efficiency and water conservation. Soil water repellency has been identified in many soil types under a wide array of climatic conditions world wide. Consequences include increased

  18. Soil and Water Conservation Districts of New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD) shapefile includes forty-seven boudaries which cover each SWCD throughout the State.

  19. Water Conservation and Reuse. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.

    Described is a learning session on water conservation intended for citizen advisory groups interested in water quality planning. Topics addressed in this instructor's manual include water conservation needs, benefits, programs, technology, and problems. These materials are components of the Working for Clean Water Project. (Author/WB)

  20. Integration of Regional Mitigation Assessment and Conservation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Thorne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies that develop infrastructure such as roads, waterworks, and energy delivery often impact natural ecosystems, but they also have unique opportunities to contribute to the conservation of regional natural resources through compensatory mitigation. Infrastructure development requires a planning, funding, and implementation cycle that can frequently take a decade or longer, but biological mitigation is often planned and implemented late in this process, in a project-by-project piecemeal manner. By adopting early regional mitigation needs assessment and planning for habitat-level impacts from multiple infrastructure projects, agencies could secure time needed to proactively integrate these obligations into regional conservation objectives. Such practice can be financially and ecologically beneficial due to economies of scale, and because earlier mitigation implementation means potentially developable critical parcels may still be available for conservation. Here, we compare the integration of regional conservation designs, termed greenprints, with early multi-project mitigation assessment for two areas in California, USA. The expected spatial extent of habitat impacts and associated mitigation requirements from multiple projects were identified for each area. We used the reserve-selection algorithm MARXAN to identify a regional greenprint for each site and to seek mitigation solutions through parcel acquisition that would contribute to the greenprint, as well as meet agency obligations. The two areas differed in the amount of input data available, the types of conservation objectives identified, and local land-management capacity. They are representative of the range of conditions that conservation practitioners may encounter, so contrasting the two illustrates how regional advanced mitigation can be generalized for use in a wide variety of settings. Environmental organizations can benefit from this approach because it provides a

  1. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  2. Conservation Biology and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Integrating Academic Disciplines for Better Conservation Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Drew

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biology and environmental anthropology are disciplines that are both concerned with the identification and preservation of diversity, in one case biological and in the other cultural. Both conservation biology and the study of traditional ecoloigcal knowledge function at the nexus of the social and natural worlds, yet historically there have been major impediments to integrating the two. Here we identify linguistic, cultural, and epistemological barriers between the two disciplines. We argue that the two disciplines are uniquely positioned to inform each other and to provide critical insights and new perspectives on the way these sciences are practiced. We conclude by synthesizing common themes found in conservation success stories, and by making several suggestions on integration. These include cross-disciplinary publication, expanding memberships in professional societies and conducting multidisciplinary research based on similar interests in ecological process, taxonomy, or geography. Finally, we argue that extinction threats, be they biological or cultural/linguistic are imminent, and that by bringing these disciplines together we may be able to forge synergistic conservation programs capable of protecting the vivid splendor of life on Earth.

  3. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ht ly M or e W or kl oa d; 5 -M or e W or kl oa d; 6 -S ig ni fic an lty M or...install the water harvesting and pump system was captured from the contractor cost proposal. 7.1.3 Water Cost Water purchased from the Port Hueneme Water...818) 737-2734 KDuke@valleycrest.com Contractor Tom Santoianni 1205 Mill Rd. Bldg. 1430 Public Works, Ventura (805) 982-4075 Tom.Santoianni@navy.mil Energy Manager

  4. Evaluating Water Conservation and Reuse Policies Using a Dynamic Water Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R.

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  5. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  6. Best Practices for Water Conservation and Efficiency as an Alternative for Water Supply Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released a document that provides water conservation and efficiency best practices for evaluating water supply projects. The document can help water utilities and federal and state governments carry out assessments of the potential for future

  7. An essential step to conserve water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, M.K.; Gajapati, C.R.; Srivastava, D.C.; Srivastava, J.; Verma, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Whenever a new chemical plant is designed, the designer keeps some extra margin to fulfill the future requirements and after successful operation of the plant and experience gained over a period of time, it becomes necessary to review and modify the various requirements in order to bring down the cost of the product to sustain in the market. Keeping the, same philosophy and pace, HWPK reviewed its requirements of raw water considering reuse and recycle the effluent within the plant. Heavy Water Production by GS process requires a huge quantity of de-mineralized water as a source of deuterium and after optimizing and attaining success in the operation of the plant, efforts were made to bring down the intake of raw water. Initially, the plant was designed to take 2280 m 3 /h of raw water from the lake and after modifications it has substantially come down to 700 m 3 /h. In the above modification the following benefits are observed: 1. Electrical consumption has been reduced as raw water pump of lower capacity has been installed; 2. Consumption of raw water has been reduced; 3. Concept of 'Zero effluent' is achieved, which is now a requirement for a chemical plant as directed by pollution control board; and 4. Cess being paid to pollution control board and Irrigation Department has been reduced. (author)

  8. Water conservation and allocation guideline for oilfield injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper was prepared as a guide for regulatory agencies and developers using non-saline water sources in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) schemes. A systems approach was used to achieve specific environmental outcomes that adhered to the Water Conservation and Allocation Policy for Oilfield Injection. The guide was applicable to licence renewal applications for projects operating and licensed to use non-saline water resources, as well as new licence applications for oilfield injection use. The guide provided recommended water conservation practices and application requirements, and outlined regulatory procedures and steps for obtaining a Water Act licence. The guideline was prepared to eliminate the use of non-saline water in EOR projects where feasible alternatives existed, as well as to identify areas with water shortages and reduce the use of non-saline water. The guide included monitoring and reporting requirements to improve the evaluation of water use practices and outlined current initiatives to address water conservation and research. It was concluded that outcomes from the program will include reliable quality water supplies for a sustainable economy, healthy aquatic ecosystems, and safe, secure drinking water supplies for Albertans. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  10. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  11. The development of a municipal water conservation and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of water conservation and water demand management ... and the municipalities do not have the necessary financial, technical and institutional capacity to support such a ... The methodology for this study was developed as part of the ... Study' for the Vaal River system (DWAF, 2006; DWAF, 2009).

  12. Agricultural water conservation programs in the lower Colorado River Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, J.

    1993-01-01

    Rice irrigation is the largest user of water within the area served by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), accounting for approximately 75 percent of total annual surface and ground water demands. In an average year, about 30 percent of surface water supplied to rice irrigation is satisfied with water released from the storage in the Highland Lakes located at the upstream reaches of the Lower Colorado River and its tributaries. During a severe drought, the demand for stored water could be as much as 70 percent of annual rice irrigation demand. LCRA owns and operates two irrigation canal systems which together supply water to irrigate 60,000 acres of rice each year. These irrigation systems are the Lakeside and Gulf Coast Irrigation Divisions. The Lakeside system is located in Colorado and Wharton Counties and the Gulf Coast system is located in Wharton and Matagorda Counties. In the 1987 and 1989, the Lower Colorado River Authority Board of Directors authorized implementation and funding for Canal Rehabilitation Project and Irrigation Water Measurement Project respectively. These two projects are key initiatives to agricultural water conservation goals established in the LCRA Water Management Plan and Water Conservation Policy. In addition LCRA participated actively in agricultural water conservation research projects and technology transfer activities

  13. Joint Venture Modes of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiding Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the long construction period, the giant scope and complex technology, water conservancy and hydroelectric engineering construction has large investment. In the fully competitive water conservancy and hydropower project construction contracting market, it is almost impossible for a company to contract with a water conservancy and hydropower project independently. Therefore, water conservancy and hydropower project construction can be contracted by several construction companies together, to play each company's strengths, lower offer, improve project quality, shorten the construction period and win the competition. In this paper, we started from the definition of Joint Venture, summed up the forms of Joint Venture in water conservancy and hydropower engineering, proposed that the JV modes can be divided into domestic and international union, tight mode, half-tight mode, loose mode, incorporation and consortium. Furthermore, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Joint Venture. Put forward that the JV can relieve the owner from interfacial administrative work, reduce risk of engineering, and raise the success rate of engineering contract, improve the correctness of price and increase the opportunity of project contracting, Learn from other members, enhance technology and management and make full use of idle resources

  14. 10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments 430.34 Section 430.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.34 Energy and water conservation standards...

  15. Integrating farming and #páramo# conservation: A case study from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Robineau, Ophélie; Chatelet, Martin; Soulard, Christophe-Toussaint; Michel-Dounias, Isabelle; Posner, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The Colombian environmental policy voted in 1993, which was to strengthen the protection of natural resources - particularly biodiversity and water - is totally unfavorable to farming in the strategic páramo ecosystem. However, many rural development practitioners and researchers believe that an integrated management of the páramo is possible, and that farming activities can be part of the solution along this agriculture-conservation frontier. This issue has become particularly acute on the R...

  16. PV water pumping systems for grassland and farmland conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Pietro Elia

    2013-01-01

    Grassland degradation is considered as one of the worst environmental and economic problems in China because of the negative impacts on water and food security. The application of the photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) technology for irrigation is an innovative and sustainable solution to curb the progress of grassland desertification and to promote the conservation of farmland in remote areas. The combination of PVWP with water saving irrigation techniques and the sustainable management of th...

  17. Self-Organization in Integrated Conservation and Development Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Simão Seixas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a cooking metaphor to explore key elements (i.e., ingredients for a great meal that contribute to self-organization processes in the context of successful community-based conservation (CBC or integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP. We pose two major questions: (1 What are the key factors that drive peoples' and/or organizations' willingness to take responsibilities and to act? (2 What contributes to community self-organization? In other words, how conservation-development projects originate, evolve, survive or disappear? In order to address these questions we examine trigger events and catalytic elements in several cases among the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees, from both the 2002 and 2004 awards. The Prize recognizes efforts in integrating biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. We use secondary data in our analysis, including data from several technical reports and scientific papers written about the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees. We observed common ingredients in most projects including: (1 involvement and commitment of key players (including communities, (2 funding, (3 strong leadership, (4 capacity building, (5 partnership with supportive organizations and government, and (6 economic incentives (including alternative livelihood options. We also observed that CBC and ICDP initiatives opportunistically evolve in a multi-level world, in which local communities establish linkages with people and organizations at different political levels, across different geographical scales and for different purposes. We conclude that there is no right 'recipe' to promote community self-organization but often a mix of some of these six ingredients need to come together for 'success' and that one or two ingredients are not sufficient to ensure success. Also the existence of these six ingredients does not guarantee a great meal - the 'chef's' creativity also is critical. That is

  18. 76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ...] San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA; Final Environmental Impact Statement and Habitat... also announce the availability of the Water Authority's Subregional Natural Community Conservation...

  19. Salvaging and Conserving Water Damaged Photographic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryuji

    Degradation of water damaged photographic materials is discussed; the most vulnerable elements are gelatin layers and silver image. A simple and inexpensive chemical treatment is proposed, consisting of a bath containing a gelatin-protecting biocide and a silver image protecting agent. These ingredients were selected among those used in manufacturing of silver halide photographic emulsions or processing chemicals. Experiments confirmed that this treatment significantly reduced oxidative attacks to silver image and bacterial degradation of gelatin layers. The treated material was also stable under intense light fading test. Method of hardening gelatin to suppress swelling is also discussed.

  20. Targeting water and energy conservation using big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water conservation is often the most cost effective source of additional water supply for water stressed regions to maintain supply reliability with increasing population and/or demands, or shorter-term droughts. In previous research we demonstrated how including energy savings of conserved water can increase willingness to adopt conservation measures, at the same time that increases energy and GHG emissions savings. But the capacity to save water, energy and GHG emissions depends fundamentally in the economic benefits for customers and utilities. Utilities have traditionally used rebates, subsidies or incentives to enhance water conservation. But the economic benefits originated by these rebates depend on the actual savings of the water, energy and GHG emissions. A crucial issue that is not considered in the financial analysis of these rebates is the heterogeneity in water consumption, resulting in rebating households that actually do not need improvements in certain appliances. Smart meters with end-use disaggregation allow to consider this heterogeneity and to target rebates. By using an optimization approach that minimizes water and energy residential costs—accounting for retrofit costs and individual benefits according to previous levels of consumption—we are able to assess economically optimal rebate programs both for customers and utilities. Three programs are considered: first, same economic incentives are provided to all households and then they do their optimal decisions; second, traditional appliance-focused rebates are assessed; and third, utilities provide only rebates to those households that maximize water, energy or GHG emissions savings. Results show that the most economically efficient options for households are not the best options for utilities, and that traditional appliance-focused rebates are much less optimal than targeted rebates.

  1. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012, from 1 p.m. to... the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation...

  2. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the use...

  3. Integrating climate change into habitat conservation plans under the U.S. endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernazzani, Paola; Bradley, Bethany A; Opperman, Jeffrey J

    2012-06-01

    Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) are an important mechanism for the acquisition of land and the management of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. HCPs have become a vital means of protecting endangered and threatened species and their habitats throughout the United States, particularly on private land. The scientific consensus that climate is changing and that these changes will impact the viability of species has not been incorporated into the conservation strategies of recent HCPs, rendering plans vulnerable biologically. In this paper we review the regulatory context for incorporating climate change into HCPs and analyze the extent to which climate change is linked to management actions in a subset of large HCPs. We conclude that most current plans do not incorporate climate change into conservation actions, and so we provide recommendations for integrating climate change into the process of HCP development and implementation. These recommendations are distilled from the published literature as well as the practice of conservation planning and are structured to the specific needs of HCP development and implementation. We offer nine recommendations for integrating climate change into the HCP process: (1) identify species at-risk from climate change, (2) explore new strategies for reserve design, (3) increase emphasis on corridors, linkages, and connectivity, (4) develop anticipatory adaptation measures, (5) manage for diversity, (6) consider assisted migration, (7) include climate change in scenarios of water management, (8) develop future-oriented management actions, and (9) increase linkages between the conservation strategy and adaptive management/monitoring programs.

  4. Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alexander R; Badola, Hemant K; Dhyani, Pitamber P; Rana, Santosh K

    2017-03-29

    Biocultural knowledge provides valuable insight into ecological processes, and can guide conservation practitioners in local contexts. In many regions, however, such knowledge is underutilized due to its often-fragmented record in disparate sources. In this article, we review and apply ethnobiological knowledge to biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas. Using Sikkim, India as a case study, we: (i) traced the history and trends of ethnobiological documentation; (ii) identified priority species and habitat types; and, (iii) analyzed within and among community differences pertaining to species use and management. Our results revealed that Sikkim is a biocultural hotspot, where six ethnic communities and 1128 species engage in biocultural relationships. Since the mid-1800s, the number of ethnobiological publications from Sikkim has exponentially increased; however, our results also indicate that much of this knowledge is both unwritten and partitioned within an aging, gendered, and caste or ethnic group-specific stratum of society. Reviewed species were primarily wild or wild cultivated, native to subtropical and temperate forests, and pend IUCN Red List of Threatened Species assessment. Our results demonstrate the value of engaging local knowledge holders as active participants in conservation, and suggest the need for further ethnobiological research in the Eastern Himalayas. Our interdisciplinary approach, which included rank indices and geospatial modelling, can help integrate diverse datasets into evidence-based policy.

  5. Water Conservation and Artificial Recharge of Aquifers in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandha, D. K.

    2014-10-01

    India has proud traditions and wisdom which have evolved over thousands of years for developing technologies for water conservation and groundwater recharge using surplus monsoon precipitation runoff. This is imperative as the average rainfall/precipitation period is about 27 days/year and with uneven distribution across the country. Groundwater development is now the mainstay for sustaining agricultural production and rural water supplies. As such, groundwater development is increasing at an exponential rate and the estimated draft is now 231 000 hm{sup 3} with the result that almost 15% of the groundwater development areas are showing a continuous decline of water levels. There is an anomalous situation whereby water levels are declining in 831 blocks (assessment units) out of a total of 5 723 blocks across the country, and availability of excessive 864 000 hm{sup 3} runoff in different river basins brings floods and creates water logging in some parts of the country. This non-utilizable water can be planned for creating small surface water storage and to create additional sub-surface storage through groundwater recharge. At present, total water available is estimated at 660 000 hm{sup 3} and the minimum estimated water demand will be 843 000 hm{sup 3} in 2025 and 973 000 hm{sup 3} in 2050. Therefore, if India wants sustainable food supplies and to meet domestic/industrial water requirements, there is no other option than to implement projects for water conservation/groundwater recharge. Although a number of forward looking steps have been planned by the government and other institutions, many lacunae have been observed which need to be addressed for the successful implementation of water conservation and recharge programmes. This paper discusses various practices from the pre-historic to the present day, with case studies showing technological intervention. (Author)

  6. Integrated water and waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses concepts and developments within water quantity, water quality, integrated environmental assessment and wastewater treatment. The historical and the global perspectives are used in the discussion of the role of engineers in today's society. Sustainabilty and ethics are taken...... into the analysis. There is a need for re-evaluation of the resource, society and environment scenarios with a view to the totality of the system and with proper analysis of the flow of water and matter through society. Among the tools are input-output analysis and cradle to grave analysis, in combination...... with compilation of identified sets of values with respect to sustainable use of resources and ultimate fate of the environment and quality of life. The role of the engineer is to make available to society as many technical options as possible - and to put these options into the proper perspective in relation...

  7. Managing Water Scarcity: Why Water Conservation Matters to Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of water scarcity has often hit the headlines in the past several years. Some states have gone to court over water rights and access even as others have agonized over scarce supplies. University presidents and their staff of directors understand that the days of unlimited, inexpensive water are almost over. While it remains inexpensive…

  8. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  9. Implementing the 40 Gallon Challenge to Increase Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Mary Carol; Bauske, Ellen; Pugliese, Paul; Kolich, Heather; Boellstorff, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The 40 Gallon Challenge is an easy-to-use, comprehensive indoor and outdoor water conservation educational tool. It can be used nationwide and easily incorporated into existing educational programs. Promotional materials and pledge cards are available on the 40 Gallon Challenge website and can be modified by educators. The website displays data…

  10. Effects of soil and water conservation practices on selected soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although different types of soil and water conservation practices (SWCPs) were introduced, the sustainable use of these practices is far below expectations, and soil erosion continues to be a severe problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted at Debre Yakobe Micro-Watershed (DYMW), Northwest Ethiopia ...

  11. Implications of market access on soil and water conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market access is one of the motivating mechanisms for farmers to invest in soil and water conservation (SWC). Areas of relatively high agricultural potential but remote from major markets face numerous challenges in marketing their outputs. The objective of this study was to explore the market access determinants of farmer ...

  12. Evaluating water conservation and reuse policies using a dynamic water balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  13. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  14. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  15. Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.X.; Wang, F.; Liu, G.B.; Yang, X.; Qin, W.

    2014-01-01

    The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user

  16. New families of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta

    OpenAIRE

    Selivanova, Elena N.

    1997-01-01

    There is a well-known example of integrable conservative system on $S^2$, the case of Kovalevskaya in the dynamics of a rigid body, possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta. Goryachev proposed a one-parameter family of examples of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta which includes the case of Kovalevskaya. In this paper we proposed new examples of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta.

  17. Generalization of Water Pricing Model in Agriculture and Domestic Groundwater for Water Sustainability and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hek, Tan Kim; Fadzli Ramli, Mohammad; Iryanto; Rohana Goh, Siti; Zaki, Mohd Faiz M.

    2018-03-01

    The water requirement greatly increased due to population growth, increased agricultural areas and industrial development, thus causing high water demand. The complex problems facing by country is water pricing is not designed optimally as a staple of human needs and on the other hand also cannot guarantee the maintenance and distribution of water effectively. The cheap water pricing caused increase of water use and unmanageable water resource. Therefore, the more optimal water pricing as an effective control of water policy is needed for the sake of ensuring water resources conservation and sustainability. This paper presents the review on problems, issues and mathematical modelling of water pricing based on agriculture and domestic groundwater for water sustainability and conservation.

  18. Water demand management in times of drought: What matters for water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Southern California is subject to long droughts and short wet spells. Its water agencies have put in place voluntary, mandatory, and market-based conservation strategies since the 1980s. By analyzing water agencies' data between 2006 and 2010, this research studies whether rebates for water efficient fixtures, water rates, or water ordinances have been effective, and tests whether structural characteristics of water agencies have affected the policy outcome. It finds that mandates to curb outdoor water uses are correlated with reductions in residential per capita water usage, while water rates and subsidies for water saving devices are not. It also confirms that size is a significant policy implementation factor. In a policy perspective, the transition from a water supply to a water demand management-oriented strategy appears guided by mandates and by contextual factors such as the economic cycle and the weather that occur outside the water governance system. Three factors could improve the conservation effort: using prices as a conservation tool, not only as a cost recovering instrument; investing in water efficient tools only when they provide significant water savings; supporting smaller agencies in order to give them opportunities to implement conservation strategies more effectively or to help them consolidate.

  19. Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rachelle M; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Williams, Philip R; Hollingsworth, Anna L

    2011-08-01

    Within the research field of urban water demand management, understanding the link between environmental and water conservation attitudes and observed end use water consumption has been limited. Through a mixed method research design incorporating field-based smart metering technology and questionnaire surveys, this paper reveals the relationship between environmental and water conservation attitudes and a domestic water end use break down for 132 detached households located in Gold Coast city, Australia. Using confirmatory factor analysis, attitudinal factors were developed and refined; households were then categorised based on these factors through cluster analysis technique. Results indicated that residents with very positive environmental and water conservation attitudes consumed significantly less water in total and across the behaviourally influenced end uses of shower, clothes washer, irrigation and tap, than those with moderately positive attitudinal concern. The paper concluded with implications for urban water demand management planning, policy and practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrating Conservation and Development in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kilbane Gockel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have critiqued integrated conservation and development projects for failing to attain either of their two major goals. This paper evaluates one such project in Peru's Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, which entailed community-based natural resource-management plans for palm and aquatic resources. We conducted semistructured interviews with reserve inhabitants (n=57 during May 2007, as well as key-informant interviews with state and non-governmental organization (NGO staff. Monitoring data and reports from NGOs were important secondary sources in this study. The intervention has improved the status of targeted species and has improved the well-being of participants. This project worked well for a number of reasons, including the long-term commitment of the implementing organization, the social capital and legitimacy provided by participation in management groups, and the fact that local knowledge was incorporated into resource-management techniques.

  1. Advancing the integration of history and ecology for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter; Hédl, Radim

    2011-08-01

    The important role of humans in the development of current ecosystems was recognized decades ago; however, the integration of history and ecology in order to inform conservation has been difficult. We identified four issues that hinder historical ecological research and considered possible solutions. First, differences in concepts and methods between the fields of ecology and history are thought to be large. However, most differences stem from miscommunication between ecologists and historians and are less substantial than is usually assumed. Cooperation can be achieved by focusing on the features ecology and history have in common and through understanding and acceptance of differing points of view. Second, historical ecological research is often hampered by differences in spatial and temporal scales between ecology and history. We argue that historical ecological research can only be conducted at extents for which sources in both disciplines have comparable resolutions. Researchers must begin by clearly defining the relevant scales for the given purpose. Third, periods for which quantitative historical sources are not easily accessible (before AD 1800) have been neglected in historical ecological research. Because data from periods before 1800 are as relevant to the current state of ecosystems as more recent data, we suggest that historical ecologists actively seek out data from before 1800 and apply analytic methods commonly used in ecology to these data. Fourth, humans are not usually considered an intrinsic ecological factor in current ecological research. In our view, human societies should be acknowledged as integral parts of ecosystems and societal processes should be recognized as driving forces of ecosystem change. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Conservation Physiology and Conservation Pathogens: White-Nose Syndrome and Integrative Biology for Host-Pathogen Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R

    2015-10-01

    Conservation physiology aims to apply an understanding of physiological mechanisms to management of imperiled species, populations, or ecosystems. One challenge for physiologists hoping to apply their expertise to conservation is connecting the mechanisms we study, often in the laboratory, with the vital rates of populations in the wild. There is growing appreciation that infectious pathogens can threaten populations and species, and represent an important issue for conservation. Conservation physiology has much to offer in terms of addressing the threat posed to some host species by infectious pathogens. At the same time, the well-developed theoretical framework of disease ecology could provide a model to help advance the application of physiology to a range of other conservation issues. Here, I use white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating North American bats as an example of a conservation problem for which integrative physiological research has been a critical part of research and management. The response to WNS highlights the importance of a well-developed theoretical framework for the application of conservation physiology to a particular threat. I review what is known about physiological mechanisms associated with mortality from WNS and emphasize the value of combining a strong theoretical background with integrative physiological studies in order to connect physiological mechanisms with population processes and thereby maximize the potential benefits of conservation physiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure practices were first developed in temperate climates, green infrastructure also can be a cost-effective approach to stormwater management and water conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, such as those found in the western and southwestern United States. Green infrastructure practices can be applied at the site, neighborhood and watershed scales. In addition to water management and conservation, implementing green infrastructure confers many social and economic benefits and can address issues of environmental justice. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commissioned a literature review to identify the state-of-the science practices dealing with water control and conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, with emphasis on these regions in the United States. The search focused on stormwater control measures or practices that slow, capture, treat, infiltrate and/or store runoff at its source (i.e., green infrastructure). The material in Chapters 1 through 3 provides background to EPA’s current activities related to the application of green infrastructure practices in arid and semi-arid regions. An introduction to the topic of green infrastructure in arid and semi-arid regions i

  4. Trading Water Conservation Credits: A Coordinative Approach for Enhanced Urban Water Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    Water utilities in arid and semi-arid regions are increasingly relying on water use efficiency and conservation to extend the availability of supplies. Despite spatial and institutional inter-dependency of many service providers, these demand-side management initiatives have traditionally been tackled by individual utilities operating in a silo. In this study, we introduce a new approach to water conservation that addresses regional synergies—a novel system of tradable water conservation credits. Under the proposed approach, utilities have the flexibility to invest in water conservation measures that are appropriate for their specific service area. When utilities have insufficient capacity for local cost-effective measures, they may opt to purchase credits, contributing to fund subsidies for utilities that do have that capacity and can provide the credits, while the region as whole benefits from more reliable water supplies. While similar programs have been used to address water quality concerns, to our knowledge this is one of the first studies proposing tradable credits for incentivizing water conservation. Through mathematical optimization, this study estimates the potential benefits of a trading program and demonstrates the institutional and economic characteristics needed for such a policy to be viable, including a proposed web platform to facilitate transparent regional planning, data-driven decision-making, and enhanced coordination of utilities. We explore the impacts of defining conservation targets tailored to local realities of utilities, setting credit prices, and different policy configurations. We apply these models to the case study of water utility members of the Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation Agency. Preliminary work shows that the diverse characteristics of these utilities present opportunities for the region to achieve conservation goals while maximizing the benefits to individual utilities through more flexible coordinative efforts.

  5. Spatial targeting of conservation tillage to improve water quality and carbon retention benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Sheng, C.; Voroney, P.

    2005-01-01

    Conservation tillage reduces soil erosion and improves water quality in agricultural watersheds. However, the benefits of conservation tillage in carbon sequestration are the subject of controversy. Public funds are provided to farms to encourage the adoption of conservation tillage. Given the economic costs, the targeting of areas likely to achieve the greatest environmental benefits has become an important policy-making issue. A geographic information system (GIS) based modelling framework which integrated hydrologic, soil organic matter, and farm models to evaluate the spatial targeting of conservation tillage was presented. A case study applying the framework in the Fairchild Creek watershed in Ontario indicated that targeting conservation tillage based on sediment abatement goals can achieve comparable carbon retention benefits in terms of the percentage reduction of base carbon losses. Targeted subcatchments for conservation tillage varied across the watershed based on benefit to cost ratios. Conservation tillage patterns based on carbon retention goals showed similar results to sediment abatement goals but slight differences were observed because of different carbon content in the soils. The results indicated that sediment abatement may be used as an indicator in setting up program goals. The impacts of conservation programs can then be evaluated based on calibrated and validated hydrologic models in conjunction with monitoring data. Results also showed that setting carbon retention may lead to higher costs in order to achieve corresponding sediment abatement benefits. Carbon retention may not be suitable for setting as a stand-alone environmental goal for conservation programs because of the difficulties in verifying the impacts and the discrepancies between carbon and sediment benefits. It was concluded that the modelling results have important policy implications for the design of conservation stewardship programs that aim to achieve environmental

  6. Integrating agricultural expansion into conservation biogeography: conflicts and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dobrovolski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing food production without compromising biodiversity is one of the great challenges for humanity. The aims of my thesis were to define spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation and to evaluate conservation conflicts considering agricultural expansion in the 21st century. I also tested the effect of globalizing conservation efforts on both food production and biodiversity conservation. I found spatial conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion. However, incorporating agricultural expansion data into the spatial prioritization process can significantly alleviate conservation conflicts, by reducing spatial correlation between the areas under high impact of agriculture and the priority areas for conservation. Moreover, developing conservation blueprints at the global scale, instead of the usual approach based on national boundaries, can benefit both food production and biodiversity. Based on these findings I conclude that the incorporation of agricultural expansion as a key component for defining global conservation strategies should be added to the list of solutions for our cultivated planet.

  7. The Effects of Water Conservation Instruction on Seventh-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Sandra K.; Schwaab, Karl E.

    1983-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of water conservation instructional unit in increasing students' (N=843) knowledge of water conservation practices and influencing their attitudes about efficient water use. Also examined assertion that school education programs are effective in promoting water conservation. Overall results indicate the unit was effective on…

  8. The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. Water conservation also means, less use of water. This in turn, results in less strain on the city sewage treatment plants. This may also imply that one uses less energy for heating water. For example, the city of Los Angeles has grown by more than a million over the past thirty years. Regardless, the city still uses almost the same amount of water even now. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability

  9. Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Liangxin Fan; Fei Wang; Guobin Liu; Xiaomei Yang; Wei Qin

    2014-01-01

    The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user socio-demographics. In this study, a total of 776 households in 16 villages situated in the rural Wei River Basin are investigated to address the gap in the literature. Questionnaires and 3-day water diaries are...

  10. Funding Water Reuse and Conservation Projects with the Clean Water State Revolving Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet demonstrates how the CWSRF provides assistance to eligible recipients for projects promoting water reuse and conservation. It highlights successful projects for these communities in California, Virginia and Texas.

  11. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  12. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibing

    2018-01-01

    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km 2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  13. Community Based Educational Model on Water Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiajeng, L.; Parwita, I. G. L.; Wiraga, I. W.; Mudhina, M.

    2018-01-01

    The previous research showed that there were indicators of water crisis in the northern and eastern part of Denpasar city and most of coastal area experienced on seawater intrusion. The recommended water conservation programs were rainwater harvesting and educate the community to develop a water saving and environmentally conscious culture. This research was conducted to built the community based educational model on water conservation program through ergonomics SHIP approach which placed the human aspect as the first consideration, besides the economic and technically aspects. The stakeholders involved in the program started from the problem analyses to the implementation and the maintenance as well. The model was built through three main steps, included determination of accepted design; building the recharge wells by involving local communities; guidance and assistance in developing a water saving and environmentally conscious culture for early childhood, elementary and junior high school students, community and industry. The program was implemented based on the “TRIHITA KARANA” concept, which means the relationship between human to God, human-to-human, and human to environment. Through the development of the model, it is expected to grow a sense of belonging and awareness from the community to maintain the sustainability of the program.

  14. Managing water and salinity with desalination, conveyance, conservation, waste-water treatment and reuse to counteract climate variability in Gaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Aljuaidi, A. E.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    We include demands for water of different salinity concentrations as input parameters and decision variables in a regional hydro-economic optimization model. This specification includes separate demand functions for saline water. We then use stochastic non-linear programming to jointly identify the benefit maximizing set of infrastructure expansions, operational allocations, and use of different water quality types under climate variability. We present a detailed application for the Gaza Strip. The application considers building desalination and waste-water treatment plants and conveyance pipelines, initiating water conservation and leak reduction programs, plus allocating and transferring water of different qualities among agricultural, industrial, and urban sectors and among districts. Results show how to integrate a mix of supply enhancement, conservation, water quality improvement, and water quality management actions into a portfolio that can economically and efficiently respond to changes and uncertainties in surface and groundwater availability due to climate variability. We also show how to put drawn-down and saline Gaza aquifer water to more sustainable and economical use.

  15. Conservation-reuse of water in fossil-fuel power plants including water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.S.R.

    1984-02-01

    The various areas where the conservation-reuse of water is possible are discussed. However, water conservation, especially effluent volume reduction-treatment reuse, should be seen in the light of pollution control measures. Some of the areas indicated recover a small quantity of water but they should be viewed in the light of well yield being not adequate, or having high salinity or having an increase of well water salinity after some use. Some of the methods can only be adopted at the design stage whereas others could be incorporated at the site.

  16. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-02-05

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  17. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Ng, Kim Choon; Thuw, Kyaw; Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  18. Rethinking soil and water conservation in a changing society : a case study in eastern Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D.

    2000-01-01

    Soil and water conservation is at the top of development agendas in Africa. Virtually every project related to agriculture or the environment has a soil and water conservation component to it and environmental protection plans are being drawn up by African governments in which soil and water conservation figures dominantly. This focus on soil and water conservation is due to its being perceived as a way to address both productivity and environmental sustainability questions. Land deg...

  19. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration. PMID:29425214

  20. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sandra Isay; Mota da Silva, Jonathan; Silva, Marx Leandro Naves; Guimarães, João Luis Bittencourt; Sousa Júnior, Wilson Cabral; Figueiredo, Ricardo de Oliveira; Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro da

    2018-01-01

    The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil), where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion), so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  1. Analyzing ecological restoration strategies for water and soil conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isay Saad

    Full Text Available The choice of areas for nature conservation involves the attempt to maximize the benefits, whether by carrying out an economic activity or by the provision of Ecosystem Services. Studies are needed to improve the understanding of the effect of the extent and position along the watershed of restored areas on soil and water conservation. This study aimed to understand how different restoration strategies might reflect in soil conservation and sediment retention. Using InVEST tool, sediment transport was simulated in a small 12 km2 watershed (Posses River, in Southeast Brazil, where one of first Brazilian Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES projects is being carried out, comparing different hypothetical restoration strategies. With 25% of restoration, sediment export decreased by 78% for riparian restoration, and 27% for the steepest slopes restoration. On the other hand, the decrease in soil loss was lower for riparian restoration, with a 16% decrease, while the steepest slopes restoration reduced it by 21%. This mismatch between the reduction of sediment export and soil loss was explained by the fact that forest not only reduces soil loss locally but also traps sediment arriving from the upper parts of the watershed. While the first mechanism is important to provide soil stability, decreasing the risk of landslip, and to maintain agricultural productivity, the second can improve water quality and decrease the risk of silting, with positive effects on the water reservoirs at the outlet of the watershed. This suggests that Riparian and the Steepest Slopes restoration strategies are complementary in the sense of preventing sediments from reaching the water bodies as well as protecting them at their origin (with the reduction of erosion, so it will be advisable to consider the two types of restoration.

  2. Water conservation by 3 R's - case histories of Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Hiremath, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    The basics of water conservation revolve around three R's of Reduce, Recycle, and Reuse. The Heavy Water Plants are an excellent example of water savings, and these case studies will be of interest to the chemical industry. The issues involved with water conservation and re-use in different Heavy Water Plants are of different nature. In H 2 S-H 2 O process plants the water consumption has been substantially decreased as compared to the design water needs. To quote the figures HWP (Kota) was designed to consume 2280 m 3 /hr water, which included 453 m 3 /hr water as feed for deuterium extraction. Today the plant operates with only 1250 m 3 /hr water while processing 500 m 3 /hr feed; and is headed to decrease the total water consumption to 700 m 3 /hr. Similarly at HWP (Manuguru) the design had provided 5600 m 3 /hr water consumption, which is today operating with only 1750 m 3 /hr and poised to operate with 1600 m 3 /hr. The issues of water conservation in Ammonia Hydrogen exchange plants have an additional dimension since water losses mean direct loss of heavy water production. In adjoining ammonia plants deuterium shifts to steam in the reformer and shift converter, and this excess steam is condensed as rich condensate. It becomes incumbent on the fertilizer plant to maintain a tight discipline for conserving and re-using the rich condensate so that deuterium concentration in the synthesis gas is maintained. Efforts are also underway to utilize rich condensate of GSFC in the newly developed technology of water ammonia exchange at HWP (Baroda) and we are targeting 20% production gains by implementation of this scheme and with no increase in the pollution load. These case histories will be of interest to Chemical Process Industry. (author)

  3. Defining the demands and meeting the challenges of integrated bird conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. Baxter

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the demands of integration bird conservation begins with a critical assessment of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative's (NABCI) goal."Regionally-based, biologically-driven, landscape oriented partnerships delivering the full spectrum of bird conservation across the entirety of North America."

  4. 75 FR 52010 - Land and Water Conservation Fund Description and Notification, Performance Reports, Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Land and Water Conservation Fund Description and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C 4601-4 et seq... for this program: 1. Description and Notification Form Title: Land and Water Conservation Fund...

  5. 26 CFR 1.175-2 - Definition of soil and water conservation expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of soil and water conservation... (continued) § 1.175-2 Definition of soil and water conservation expenditures. (a) Expenditures treated as a... of soil or water conservation in respect of land used in farming, or for the prevention of erosion of...

  6. 77 FR 2975 - Roosevelt Water Conservation District; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    .... Project No.: 11572-001. c. Date Initiated: January 9, 2012. d. Exemptee: Roosevelt Water Conservation District. e. Name and Location of Project: The Roosevelt Water Conservation District Conduit Hydropower..., Roosevelt Water Conservation District, 2344 S. Higley Road, Gilbert, AZ 82595-4794, (480) 988-9586. [[Page...

  7. 78 FR 12349 - Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program AGENCY: National.... Abstract The Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (LWCF Act) (16 U.S.C. 460l-4 et seq.) was enacted... discussed in detail in the Land and Water Conservation Fund State Assistance Program Federal Financial...

  8. Conservation properties of numerical integration methods for systems of ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    If a system of ordinary differential equations represents a property conserving system that can be expressed linearly (e.g., conservation of mass), it is then desirable that the numerical integration method used conserve the same quantity. It is shown that both linear multistep methods and Runge-Kutta methods are 'conservative' and that Newton-type methods used to solve the implicit equations preserve the inherent conservation of the numerical method. It is further shown that a method used by several authors is not conservative.

  9. Computer applications in water conservancy and hydropower engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J

    1984-09-20

    The use of computers in China's water conservancy and hydropower construction began in the 1960s for exploration surveys, planning, design, construction, operation, and scientific research. Despite the positive results, and the formation of a 1000-person computer computation contingent, computer development among different professions is not balanced. The weaknesses and disparities in computer applications include an overall low level of application relative to the rest of the world, which is partly due to inadequate hardware and programs. The report suggests five ways to improve applications and popularize microcomputers which emphasize leadership and planning.

  10. Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Graham B; McMordie-Stoughton, Katherine L; Sullivan, Gregory P; Elliott, Douglas B

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is considering the development of a technology-specific Super-Energy Saving Performance Contract (ESPC) for water conservation. Prior to the development however, FEMP requires the completion of a market assessment to better understand the water conservation opportunities and the strategies available for capturing them. Thus, this market assessment has been undertaken to evaluate the water conservation opportunities and answer the key questions necessary for FEMP to make recommendations on whether or not to proceed with strategies for water conservation primarily through the development of a water conservation technology-specific performance contract

  11. Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mcmordie, Katherine; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2001-08-17

    The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is considering the development of a technology-specific Super-Energy Saving Performance Contract (ESPC) for water conservation. Prior to the development however, FEMP requires the completion of a market assessment to better understand the water conservation opportunities and the strategies available for capturing them. Thus, this market assessment has been undertaken to evaluate the water conservation opportunities and answer the key questions necessary for FEMP to make recommendations on whether or not to proceed with strategies for water conservation primarily through the development of a water conservation technology-specific performance contract.

  12. An integral conservative gridding--algorithm using Hermitian curve interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volken, Werner; Frei, Daniel; Manser, Peter; Mini, Roberto; Born, Ernst J; Fix, Michael K

    2008-11-07

    The problem of re-sampling spatially distributed data organized into regular or irregular grids to finer or coarser resolution is a common task in data processing. This procedure is known as 'gridding' or 're-binning'. Depending on the quantity the data represents, the gridding-algorithm has to meet different requirements. For example, histogrammed physical quantities such as mass or energy have to be re-binned in order to conserve the overall integral. Moreover, if the quantity is positive definite, negative sampling values should be avoided. The gridding process requires a re-distribution of the original data set to a user-requested grid according to a distribution function. The distribution function can be determined on the basis of the given data by interpolation methods. In general, accurate interpolation with respect to multiple boundary conditions of heavily fluctuating data requires polynomial interpolation functions of second or even higher order. However, this may result in unrealistic deviations (overshoots or undershoots) of the interpolation function from the data. Accordingly, the re-sampled data may overestimate or underestimate the given data by a significant amount. The gridding-algorithm presented in this work was developed in order to overcome these problems. Instead of a straightforward interpolation of the given data using high-order polynomials, a parametrized Hermitian interpolation curve was used to approximate the integrated data set. A single parameter is determined by which the user can control the behavior of the interpolation function, i.e. the amount of overshoot and undershoot. Furthermore, it is shown how the algorithm can be extended to multidimensional grids. The algorithm was compared to commonly used gridding-algorithms using linear and cubic interpolation functions. It is shown that such interpolation functions may overestimate or underestimate the source data by about 10-20%, while the new algorithm can be tuned to

  13. An integral conservative gridding-algorithm using Hermitian curve interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volken, Werner; Frei, Daniel; Manser, Peter; Mini, Roberto; Born, Ernst J; Fix, Michael K

    2008-01-01

    The problem of re-sampling spatially distributed data organized into regular or irregular grids to finer or coarser resolution is a common task in data processing. This procedure is known as 'gridding' or 're-binning'. Depending on the quantity the data represents, the gridding-algorithm has to meet different requirements. For example, histogrammed physical quantities such as mass or energy have to be re-binned in order to conserve the overall integral. Moreover, if the quantity is positive definite, negative sampling values should be avoided. The gridding process requires a re-distribution of the original data set to a user-requested grid according to a distribution function. The distribution function can be determined on the basis of the given data by interpolation methods. In general, accurate interpolation with respect to multiple boundary conditions of heavily fluctuating data requires polynomial interpolation functions of second or even higher order. However, this may result in unrealistic deviations (overshoots or undershoots) of the interpolation function from the data. Accordingly, the re-sampled data may overestimate or underestimate the given data by a significant amount. The gridding-algorithm presented in this work was developed in order to overcome these problems. Instead of a straightforward interpolation of the given data using high-order polynomials, a parametrized Hermitian interpolation curve was used to approximate the integrated data set. A single parameter is determined by which the user can control the behavior of the interpolation function, i.e. the amount of overshoot and undershoot. Furthermore, it is shown how the algorithm can be extended to multidimensional grids. The algorithm was compared to commonly used gridding-algorithms using linear and cubic interpolation functions. It is shown that such interpolation functions may overestimate or underestimate the source data by about 10-20%, while the new algorithm can be tuned to

  14. Evaluating environmental policy integration and policy coherence across service sectors: The case of South Africa’s inland water biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available the inclusion of the systematic conservation of inland water ecosystems in the strategic planning processes of several sectors impacting on South Africa’s inland water biodiversity. The authors use environmental policy integration (EPI) research approach...

  15. Water Integration In Sugar Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Hatim Balla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sugar industry uses much water and produces a significant amount of wastewater for disposal. Efficient utilization of water is vital in the process industries not only to reduce the cost of the supply and discharge of freshwater associated with the process but also to minimize environmental problems associated with the use and discharge of water. This paper presents the analysis of fresh water used and wastewater discharged in a sugar manufacturing process. In order to reduce the load of the cooling water system. The system was modified to an open recirculation cooling water system. Also the excess condensate internal water and the discharged water from cooling water system were analyzed and optimized using pinch analysis and mathematical optimization techniques by Resource Conversation Networks spreadsheet software.

  16. Integrated Solution Support System for Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassahun, A.; Blind, M.; Krause, A.U.M.; Roosenschoon, O.R.

    2008-01-01

    Solving water management problems involves technical, social, economic, political and legal challenges and thus requires an integrated approach involving people from different backgrounds and roles. The integrated approach has been given a prominent role within the European Union¿s Water Framework

  17. Water conservation in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Christopher W; Costa, Daniel P

    2006-11-01

    Prolonged terrestrial fasting is a key element in the life history of elephant seals. While on land seals typically fast without access to fresh water, and thus must maintain positive water balance by reductions in water loss such that they can subsist primarily on metabolic water production (MWP). The terrestrial apnea demonstrated by seals may reduce respiratory evaporative water loss (REWL) to levels that allow seals to make a net gain of water from MWP. We empirically measured REWL in 13 fasting northern elephant seal pups and determined the effects on water conservation of a breathing mode that incorporates a regular pattern of apneas, of > or =1 min in duration, followed by eupneic recovery, compared with a breathing mode with no apneas longer than 20 s and resembling typical breathing patterns in other mammals (normative breathing). Overall REWL fell 41% from 0.075+/-0.013 g min(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) during normative breathing to 0.044+/-0.006 g min(-1) during apneic breathing. The decline in REWL is attributed to a decrease in overall ventilation rate, made possible by a decline in metabolic rate along with an increase in oxygen extraction that would occur during apneic breathing. Data on the range of ambient humidity conditions at the local breeding site were collected and used to bound the range of environmental conditions used in laboratory measurements. Our data showed that the observed variations in ambient humidity had no significant effect on REWL. A combination of apneic breathing and the complex nasal turbinates allows fasting elephant seals to reduce REWL well below the rate of MWP so that they can maintain water balance during the fast.

  18. Water conservation in agriculture -a step in combating the water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinz, D.; Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    In Pakistan, the agricultural sector is the largest water user with 95%, leaving only marginal quantities for households and industry. On one hand, agriculture is a very important sector in Pakistan's economic development, contributing about 23 % to the national GDP -but industry contributes slightly more using only about 2 % of the available water resources. As Pakistan faces a growing problem of water shortage, significant achievements in water conservation have to be materialized, predominantly on the agricultural sector. There is scope for a higher degree of efficiency in water use, as water losses, namely in irrigation, are still rather high. There is another good reason for water conservation in agriculture: Over-irrigation results in rising water tables and increased soil salinity, which has reduced Pakistan's agricultural output during the last 2 decades by nearly 25%. Water conservation measures can be divided into (1) measures which are only applicable under rain-fed agricultural conditions, (2) measures which are relevant to save water in rain-fed agriculture as well as in irrigated agriculture and (3) measures, which are relevant in irrigated agriculture only. The first group centres around efficient rainwater management, which can be either 'in-situ moisture conservation' or 'rainwater harvesting'. The second group includes (1) improving crop selection, (2) improving crop husbandry, (3) combining cropping with animal husbandry, (4) reduction of transpiration losses, (5) reduction of evaporation losses and (6) reduction of percolation losses. Efficient irrigation can be accomplished by (1) reduction of conveying and distribution losses, (2) reduction of application losses, (3) use of efficient irrigation methods, (4) use of efficient application techniques, (5) application of supplemental and deficit irrigation and (6) improving water availability. The awareness of the problem, the knowledge of adapted and affordable techniques, the creation of suitable

  19. Discrete conservation properties for shallow water flows using mixed mimetic spectral elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Palha, A.; Gerritsma, M.

    2018-03-01

    A mixed mimetic spectral element method is applied to solve the rotating shallow water equations. The mixed method uses the recently developed spectral element histopolation functions, which exactly satisfy the fundamental theorem of calculus with respect to the standard Lagrange basis functions in one dimension. These are used to construct tensor product solution spaces which satisfy the generalized Stokes theorem, as well as the annihilation of the gradient operator by the curl and the curl by the divergence. This allows for the exact conservation of first order moments (mass, vorticity), as well as higher moments (energy, potential enstrophy), subject to the truncation error of the time stepping scheme. The continuity equation is solved in the strong form, such that mass conservation holds point wise, while the momentum equation is solved in the weak form such that vorticity is globally conserved. While mass, vorticity and energy conservation hold for any quadrature rule, potential enstrophy conservation is dependent on exact spatial integration. The method possesses a weak form statement of geostrophic balance due to the compatible nature of the solution spaces and arbitrarily high order spatial error convergence.

  20. Research as an integral part of conservation-restoration education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Larsen, René

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we focus on the necessity of conservators-restorers to be equipped with scientific research tools such as observation skills from the beginning and throughout their education. We exemplify the necessity of this with two cases from the applied conservation-restoration practice...... in parchment and wax-resin lining of paintings, respectively, and show that research tools constitute an essential precondition not only for practicing scientific research but also for the performance of a number of other activities in the professional life of a conservator-restorer....

  1. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    methods that were used by the USGS in 2012 to collect and process USDA agricultural conservation data, and also documents methods that were used by the jurisdictions to integrate Federal and State data records, reduce double counting, and provide an accurate reporting of conservation practices to the CBP Partnership’s Annual Progress Review. A similar tracking, reporting, and assessment will occur in future years, as State and Federal governments and nongovernmental organizations continue to work with farmers and conservation districts to reduce the impacts of agriculture on water-quality.

  2. Water conservation quantities vs customer opinion and satisfaction with water efficient appliances in Miami, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mengshan; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-10-15

    During 2006-2007, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA, provided incentives for low income and senior residents in single family homes for retrofitting with high efficiency fixtures. The participating residences were retrofitted with high-efficiency toilets, showerheads, and aerators. In 2012, a telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of the participants and the associated effects on water conservation practices. This study evaluates the attitudes and opinions of the participants relative to water use efficiency measures and the actual reduction in water consumption characteristics of the participating households. The participant characteristics were analyzed to identify correlations between the socio-demographic factors, program satisfaction and actual water savings. Approximately 65.5% of the survey respondents reported changes in their water use habits and 76.6% reported noticeable reduction in their water bills. The analyses showed that the satisfaction levels of the participants were closely correlated with the actual water savings. The results also showed that satisfaction level along with water saving potential (i.e., implementation of water efficiency devices) or change of water use habits has provided positive synergistic effect on actual water savings. The majority of the participants surveyed (81.3-89.1%) reported positive attitudes for water conservation incentive program and the benefits of the high efficiency fixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toward sustainable water use in North China Plain - Scenario analysis of water conservation strategies in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X.; Qin, H.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Zheng, C.

    2016-12-01

    North China Plain (NCP), situated in the continental semi-arid climate region, is one of the most densely populated regions in the world, and contributes to over 1/10 of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in China. NCP is traditionally a water scarce area where precipitation equals to or less than ET. In recent years, due to rapid population and economic growth, and subsequently significantly larger water demand, the water crisis in this region has deepened. The surface water resources has run dry except for a few canals and reservoirs, and thus the water consumption of NCP is almost entirely dependent on groundwater. It is estimated that the groundwater table has declined at the rate of about 1 m/year in the past decades; therefore, sustainable water use in the NCP is of critical importance. In the present study, we explore the scale of the water scarcity problem in NCP as well as the possible water saving strategies to alleviate the crisis from a modeling approach. Water demand is extremely difficult to estimate due to the lack of actual data. To solve this problem, we use a System Dynamic model, where the resulted data are then used as groundwater pumping in a physically based, distributed and integrated hydrological model. Five scenarios are developed to analyze different water management perspectives: 1) Business as usual, 2) Agricultural water saving, 3) Domestic and industrial water saving, 4) Managed aquifer recharge using water leftover from the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, and 5) a combination of the above mentioned measures. The hydrological model will predict the overall water balance and water at different hydrological components for the period 2020-2050. Under each scenario, our study also accounts for dry, medium, and wet climate conditions. The results indicate if the current tendency continues, groundwater table will keep declining at the rate of about 1 m/year. Each single conservation measure will not be able to solve the water crisis on

  4. 10 CFR 431.156 - Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. 431.156 Section 431.156 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... Standards § 431.156 Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. Each commercial clothes...

  5. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential water... final rule revising energy conservation standards for residential water heaters, direct heating.... EERE-2009-BT-TP-0013] RIN 1904-AB95 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures...

  6. Turning Minds On and Faucets Off: Water Conservation Education in Jordanian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan; Grieser, Mona; Hernandez, Orlando; Tubaishat, Khulood; Sanchack, Julie; Southwell, Brian; Schwartz, Reva

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted to measure the impact of a curriculum implemented through the Jordan Water Conservation Education Project. Examines the effect of recommending water conservation at the household level and the impact of using interactive teaching methods to promote conservation behaviors among students and their families. (Author/SAH)

  7. Soil and Water Conservation for a Better America. A Framework Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Through this framework plan, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) takes a look ahead to its soil and water conservation mission, a look at its direction and thrust in helping create a desirable America in the decades ahead. The plan attempts to define the nature of soil and water conservation efforts, to put them in perspective, and to present a…

  8. Simulated wetland conservation-restoration effects on water quantity and quality at watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xixi; Shang, Shiyou; Qu, Zhongyi; Liu, Tingxi; Melesse, Assefa M; Yang, Wanhong

    2010-07-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), enhanced by the hydrologic equivalent wetland (HEW) concept developed by Wang [Wang, X., Yang, W., Melesse, A.M., 2008. Using hydrologic equivalent wetland concept within SWAT to estimate streamflow in watersheds with numerous wetlands. Trans. ASABE 51 (1), 55-72.], can be a best resort. However, there is a serious lack of information about simulated effects using this kind of integrated modeling approach. The objective of this study was to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota. The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes and wetland characteristics (e.g., size and morphology) to be accurately represented in the models. The loss of the first 10-20% of the wetlands in the Minnesota study area would drastically increase the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN). On the other hand, the justifiable reductions of the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, TP, and TN in the Manitoba study area may require that 50-80% of the lost wetlands be restored. Further, the comparison between the predicted restoration and conservation effects revealed that wetland conservation seems to deserve a higher priority

  9. Integrated Microfluidic Gas Sensors for Water Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Sniadecki, N.; DeVoe, D. L.; Beamesderfer, M.; Semancik, S.; DeVoe, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    A silicon-based microhotplate tin oxide (SnO2) gas sensor integrated into a polymer-based microfluidic system for monitoring of contaminants in water systems is presented. This device is designed to sample a water source, control the sample vapor pressure within a microchannel using integrated resistive heaters, and direct the vapor past the integrated gas sensor for analysis. The sensor platform takes advantage of novel technology allowing direct integration of discrete silicon chips into a larger polymer microfluidic substrate, including seamless fluidic and electrical interconnects between the substrate and silicon chip.

  10. Greenhouse gas and energy co-benefits of water conservation[Water Sustainability Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, C.

    2009-03-15

    Energy is needed to deliver water to, within and from communities to remove contaminants from water and wastewater, and to heat water in homes. The interconnections between water and energy are referred to as the water-energy nexus. Large volumes of water are needed to generate energy, notably to power turbines, to cool thermal or nuclear energy plants, and to extract oil from tar sands. At the same time, large amounts of energy are needed to pump, treat, heat and distribute water for urban, industrial and agricultural use and to collect and treat the resulting wastewater. The two sides of the water-energy nexus are generating new research and policy proposals to address the challenges of climate change, energy security and increasing water scarcity. This report demonstrated that a large untapped opportunity exists for water conservation to reduce energy, municipal costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The water-energy research in this study was based on a Soft Path for Water approach that incorporated facets of water demand management while moving beyond a short-term focus on cost-benefit criteria to examine how the services currently provided by water can be delivered to meet the need for economic, social and ecological sustainability. Although the research was conducted using data for municipalities in Ontario, the report is relevant to the rest of Canada and much of North America. Water conservation strategies included water efficiency measures such as high efficiency toilets and washing machines, as well as water saving measures such as xeriscaping and rainwater harvesting. The objectives of the study were to quantify the energy use associated with each component of the urban water use cycle and to determine the potential for energy and GHG emissions reductions associated with water conservation strategies. This report provided an overview of energy inputs needed for water provision. It outlined the methodology used to achieve the project objectives and

  11. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines

  12. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    together with the water footprint concept could thus provide an appropriate framework to support more optimal water management practices by informing production and trade decisions and the development and adoption of water efficient technology. In order to move towards better water governance however a further integration of water-related concerns into water-related sectoral policies is paramount. This will require a concerted effort by all stakeholders, the willingness to adopt a total resource view where water is seen as a key, cross-sectoral input for development and growth, a mix of technical approaches, and the courage to undertake and fund water sector reforms. We are convinced that the water footprint analysis can provide a sufficiently robust fact base for meaningful stakeholder dialogue and action towards solutions.

  13. Community standards for genomic resources, genetic conservation, and data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Wegrzyn; Meg Staton; Emily Grau; Richard Cronn; C. Dana Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Genetics and genomics are increasingly important in forestry management and conservation. Next generation sequencing can increase analytical power, but still relies on building on the structure of previously acquired data. Data standards and data sharing allow the community to maximize the analytical power of high throughput genomics data. The landscape of incomplete...

  14. Integrating population genetics and conservation biology in the era of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouborg, N Joop

    2010-02-23

    As one of the final activities of the ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, a conference entitled 'Integrating Population Genetics and Conservation Biology' was held at Trondheim, Norway, from 23 to 26 May 2009. Conference speakers and poster presenters gave a display of the state-of-the-art developments in the field of conservation genetics. Over the five-year running period of the successful ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, much progress has been made in theoretical approaches, basic research on inbreeding depression and other genetic processes associated with habitat fragmentation and conservation issues, and with applying principles of conservation genetics in the conservation of many species. Future perspectives were also discussed in the conference, and it was concluded that conservation genetics is evolving into conservation genomics, while at the same time basic and applied research on threatened species and populations from a population genetic point of view continues to be emphasized.

  15. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  16. Evaluating the impact of water conservation on fate of outdoor water use: a study in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria

    2011-08-01

    In this research, the impact of several water conservation policies and return flow credits on the fate of water used outdoors in an arid region is evaluated using system dynamics modeling approach. Return flow credits is a strategy where flow credits are obtained for treated wastewater returned to a water body, allowing for the withdrawal of additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. In the return credit strategy, treated wastewater becomes a resource. This strategy creates a conundrum in which conservation may lead to an apparent decrease in water supply because less wastewater is generated and returned to water body. The water system of the arid Las Vegas Valley in Nevada, USA is used as basis for the dynamic model. The model explores various conservation scenarios to attain the daily per capita demand target of 752 l by 2035: (i) status quo situation where conservation is not implemented, (ii) conserving water only on the outdoor side, (iii) conserving water 67% outdoor and 33% indoor, (iv) conserving equal water both in the indoor and outdoor use (v) conserving water only on the indoor side. The model is validated on data from 1993 to 2008 and future simulations are carried out up to 2035. The results show that a substantial portion of the water used outdoor either evapo-transpires (ET) or infiltrates to shallow groundwater (SGW). Sensitivity analysis indicated that seepage to groundwater is more susceptible to ET compared to any other variable. The all outdoor conservation scenario resulted in the highest return flow credits and the least ET and SGW. A major contribution of this paper is in addressing the water management issues that arise when wastewater is considered as a resource and developing appropriate conservation policies in this backdrop. The results obtained can be a guide in developing outdoor water conservation policies in arid regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... storage control); 5. Fish Habitat (mainstem floodplain restoration program); 6. Enhanced Water Conservation (agricultural water and municipal/ domestic conservation); and 7. Market-Based Reallocation of... water conservation/water acquisition activities, tributary fish screens, and long-term management needs...

  18. 78 FR 59919 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission, Intent to... No.: 14327-000. c. Date filed: June 26, 2013. d. Applicant: Pershing County Water Conservation... water quality certification; (2) a copy of the request for certification, including proof of the date on...

  19. Examining Thought Processes to Understand the Impact of Water Conservation Messages on Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Martin, Emmett T.; Warner, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Water availability issues have plagued many regions around the world and is viewed as the top issue facing the world. As a result, encouraging water conservation has become a priority for agricultural communicators. Previous research suggests strategically framed messages can impact attitudes about water conservation, but whether this change is a…

  20. 77 FR 12830 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Water Conservation District; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application.... Submitted by: Pershing County Water Conservation District (Pershing County). e. Name of Project: Humboldt... the Commission's regulations. h. Potential Applicant Contact: Bennie Hodges, Pershing County Water...

  1. Water Worries: The Hidden Costs of Water Conservation in China are not Working

    OpenAIRE

    Junlian Zhang

    2006-01-01

    One of the obstacles many conservation strategies face is the amount of time and money it actually costs for people t o be involved in their implementation - in other words, their "transaction costs" (TCs) . A new study from China has looked at how these costs have affected an innovative market-based water conservation system. The study found that TCs are a significant barrier to proper functioning of the system. It also found that these costs are linked to key social and administrative obsta...

  2. Water system integration of a chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Pingyou; Feng Xiao; Qian Feng; Cao Dianliang

    2006-01-01

    Water system integration can minimize both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge of a plant. In industrial applications, it is the key to determine reasonably the contaminants and the limiting concentrations, which will decide the freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge of the system. In this paper, some rules to determine the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are proposed. As a case study, the water system in a chemical plant that produces sodium hydroxide and PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is integrated. The plant consumes a large amount of freshwater and discharges a large amount of wastewater, so minimization of both the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge is very important to it. According to the requirements of each water using process on the water used in it, the contaminants and the limiting concentrations are determined. Then, the optimal water reuse scheme is firstly studied based on the water network with internal water mains. To reduce the freshwater consumption and the wastewater discharge further, decentralized regeneration recycling is considered. The water using network is simplified by mixing some of the used water. After the water system integration, the freshwater consumption is reduced 25.5%, and the wastewater discharge is reduced 48%

  3. Bentuang Karimun National Park: integrated conservation and development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Soedjito, H.

    1997-01-01

    The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) has funded a project for the Bentuang Karimun National Park (BKNP) of the Department of Forestry of Indonesia [Project Bentuang Karimun PD 26/ 93 Rev. 1 (F)]. It started on November 1995 and is implemented by WWF Indonesia. The main objective is to develop a model of natural forest management through a National Park system that not only will serve conservation of species and ecosystems, but will also accommodate other purposes such as the ...

  4. Scenario Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation in Xiejia Watershed Based on Improved CSLE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieying; Yu, Ming; Wu, Yong; Huang, Yao; Nie, Yawen

    2018-01-01

    According to the existing research results and related data, use the scenario analysis method, to evaluate the effects of different soil and water conservation measures on soil erosion in a small watershed. Based on the analysis of soil erosion scenarios and model simulation budgets in the study area, it is found that all scenarios simulated soil erosion rates are lower than the present situation of soil erosion in 2013. Soil and water conservation measures are more effective in reducing soil erosion than soil and water conservation biological measures and soil and water conservation tillage measures.

  5. Integrated waste and water management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  6. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... the resulting time integrals of the inertia and stiffness terms via integration by parts. This process introduces the time derivatives of the state space variables, and these are then substituted from the original state-space differential equations. The resulting discrete form of the state-space equations...... is a direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained...

  7. Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Crop Yield, Run-off, Soil Loss and Nutrient Loss in Ethiopia: Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimassu, Zenebe; Langan, Simon; Johnston, Robyn; Mekuria, Wolde; Amede, Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Research results published regarding the impact of soil and water conservation practices in the highland areas of Ethiopia have been inconsistent and scattered. In this paper, a detailed review and synthesis is reported that was conducted to identify the impacts of soil and water conservation practices on crop yield, surface run-off, soil loss, nutrient loss, and the economic viability, as well as to discuss the implications for an integrated approach and ecosystem services. The review and synthesis showed that most physical soil and water conservation practices such as soil bunds and stone bunds were very effective in reducing run-off, soil erosion and nutrient depletion. Despite these positive impacts on these services, the impact of physical soil and water conservation practices on crop yield was negative mainly due to the reduction of effective cultivable area by soil/stone bunds. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Additionally, effective use of unutilized land (the area occupied by bunds) by planting multipurpose grasses and trees on the bunds may offset the yield lost due to a reduction in planting area. If high value grasses and trees can be grown on this land, farmers can harvest fodder for animals or fuel wood, both in scarce supply in Ethiopia. Growing of these grasses and trees can also help the stability of the bunds and reduce maintenance cost. Economic feasibility analysis also showed that, soil and water conservation practices became economically more viable if physical and agronomic soil and water conservation practices are integrated.

  8. Integrating biological and social values when prioritizing places for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Amy L; Kujala, Heini; Ives, Christopher D; Gordon, Ascelin; Lentini, Pia E; Wintle, Brendan A; Nicholson, Emily; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-08-01

    The consideration of information on social values in conjunction with biological data is critical for achieving both socially acceptable and scientifically defensible conservation planning outcomes. However, the influence of social values on spatial conservation priorities has received limited attention and is poorly understood. We present an approach that incorporates quantitative data on social values for conservation and social preferences for development into spatial conservation planning. We undertook a public participation GIS survey to spatially represent social values and development preferences and used species distribution models for 7 threatened fauna species to represent biological values. These spatially explicit data were simultaneously included in the conservation planning software Zonation to examine how conservation priorities changed with the inclusion of social data. Integrating spatially explicit information about social values and development preferences with biological data produced prioritizations that differed spatially from the solution based on only biological data. However, the integrated solutions protected a similar proportion of the species' distributions, indicating that Zonation effectively combined the biological and social data to produce socially feasible conservation solutions of approximately equivalent biological value. We were able to identify areas of the landscape where synergies and conflicts between different value sets are likely to occur. Identification of these synergies and conflicts will allow decision makers to target communication strategies to specific areas and ensure effective community engagement and positive conservation outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. [Effects of land use changes on soil water conservation in Hainan Island, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi; Zhao, He; Liu, Lei; OuYang, Zhi Yun; Zheng, Hua; Mi, Hong Xu; Li, Yan Min

    2017-12-01

    In tropical areas, a large number of natural forests have been transformed into other plantations, which affected the water conservation function of terrestrial ecosystems. In order to clari-fy the effects of land use changes on soil water conservation function, we selected four typical land use types in the central mountainous region of Hainan Island, i.e., natural forests with stand age greater than 100 years (VF), secondary forests with stand age of 10 years (SF), areca plantations with stand age of 12 years (AF) and rubber plantations with stand age of 35 years (RF). The effects of land use change on soil water holding capacity and water conservation (presented by soil water index, SWI) were assessed. The results showed that, compared with VF, the soil water holding capacity index of other land types decreased in the top soil layer (0-10 cm). AF had the lowest soil water holding capacity in all soil layers. Soil water content and maximum water holding capacity were significantly related to canopy density, soil organic matter and soil bulk density, which indicated that canopy density, soil organic matter and compactness were important factors influencing soil water holding capacity. Compared to VF, soil water conservation of SF, AF and RF were reduced by 27.7%, 54.3% and 11.5%, respectively. The change of soil water conservation was inconsistent in different soil layers. Vegetation canopy density, soil organic matter and soil bulk density explained 83.3% of the variance of soil water conservation. It was suggested that land use conversion had significantly altered soil water holding capacity and water conservation function. RF could keep the soil water better than AF in the research area. Increasing soil organic matter and reducing soil compaction would be helpful to improve soil water holding capacity and water conservation function in land management.

  10. Study of an evaluation index system of well-off water conservancy in Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve good water conservancy under the well-off society before 2020, the future water conservancy planning is undergoing in Yunnan Province. In this study, by analysing the research results of domestic relevant water evaluation index systems and combining this with the water conservancy construction key of Yunnan Province, an unique evaluation index system was proposed to evaluate the well-off water conservancy level of Yunnan Province. It is composed of three levels which are the target layer, criterion layer and index layer. And the criterion layer includes six systems, namely flood control and drought relief mitigation, reasonable allocation of water resources, highly effective water utilization, water source protection and river health security, water management and securing of water development. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP was used to determine the weight of each index. According to the present situation of water development and the related water conservancy planning in Yunnan Province, the target value of each index and evaluation standards are put forward for Yunnan Province in 2020. The results show that the evaluation results are consistent with the actual condition of water development in Yunnan Province and can be used to examine the effects of well-off water conservancy planning.

  11. Role of UASBs in River Water Quality Conservation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Veeresh; Thakur, Manisha; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Ganguly, Rajiv

    2018-03-01

    Appropriate low-cost treatment technologies are a prerequisite for sound management of natural water resources against pollution in developing countries. Among the existing technologies available, UASB is found to be economically viable for India when considering all factors including operation and maintenance cost and treatment efficiency. However, this technology suffers setbacks in meeting the effluent guidelines prescribed by the government of India. Post treatment is supplemental to this process to meet the effluent standards in terms of removal of organic matter, suspended solids, pathogens and nutrients. Recent stringent effluent guidelines notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, Government of India has further reduced the limits of BOD by 3 times, COD and TSS by 5 times, NH4-N and total Nitrogen by 10 times as compared to the previous guidelines. Fecal Coliforms has been specified as conservation is reviewed against the backdrop of stringent effluent guidelines. The minimum removal rates of BOD, COD and TSS in these plants are around 42 - 44% and the average removal rates are reported to be 66%, 61% and 65% respectively. The enhanced removal of BOD (97%), COD (98%) and TSS has been reported in STPs in conjunction with post treatment facilities such as facultative aerated lagoons, aeration tanks and polishing ponds.

  12. Assessment of Aesthetic Quality on Soil and Water Conservation Engineering Using the Scenic Beauty Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Hsien Peng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan has rich natural landscapes, but the sensitive geology and concentrated rainfall have resulted in frequent sediment hazards. Thus, various stream control works are established in watersheds to secure midstream and downstream citizens’ lives and properties. Taking care of slope safety and natural landscapes has become a primary issue for soil and water conservation engineering. The scenic preference beauty estimation method (SBE in psychophysics, which was proposed by Daniel and Boster in 1976, is utilized herein to evaluate the scenic aesthetics of stream control engineering in watersheds. It aims to discuss various landscape factors (water body, vegetation in the aesthetic preference and differences of various artificial structures in a watershed under people’s psychology. First, pictures and images related to soil and water conservation engineering are collected, and an in-situ investigation is performed to determine the pictures and images for discussion and design of the relevant questionnaire. The scenic aesthetics evaluation results are standardized with RMRATE, a computer program for analyzing rating judgments, of the United States Department of Agriculture, and then transformed into SBE values to compare the difference of various engineering structures in scenic aesthetics. The results reveal that flowing waterscape elements and the coverage of vegetation on the surrounding artificial structure volume in images present positive effects on the public overall scenic aesthetics. This study is expected to provide engineering designers with reference for considering a design integrating engineering structure with natural landscapes.

  13. WATER NETWORK INTEGRATION IN RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main process industries in Cuba is that of the sugarcane. Among the characteristics of this industry is the high demand of water in its processes. In this work a study of water integration was carried out from the different operations of the production process of raw sugar, in order to reduce the fresh water consumption. The compound curves of sources and demands were built, which allowed the determination of the minimum water requirement of the network (1587,84 m3/d, as well as the amount of effluent generated (0,35 m3/tcane.The distribution scheme of fresh water and water reuse among different operations were obtained from the nearest neighbor algorithm. From considering new quality constrains was possible to eliminate the external water consumption, as well as to reduce the amount of effluent in a 37% in relation to the initial constrains.

  14. Natural Circulation Characteristics of an Integral Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junli Gou; Suizheng Qiu; Guanghui Su; Dounan Jia

    2006-01-01

    Natural circulation potential is of great importance to the inherent safety of a nuclear reactor. This paper presents a theoretical investigation on the natural circulation characteristics of an integrated pressurized water reactor. Through numerically solved the one-dimensional model, the steady-state single phase conservative equations for the primary circuit and the steady-state two-phase drift-flux conservative equations for the secondary side of the once-through steam generator, the natural circulation characteristics are studied. Based on the preliminary calculation analysis, it is found that natural circulation mass flow rate is proportional to the exponential function of the power, and the value of the exponent is related to working conditions of the steam generator secondary side. The higher height difference between the core center and the steam generator center is favorable to the heat removal capacity of the natural circulation. (authors)

  15. Energy conservation in Newmark based time integration algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Energy balance equations are established for the Newmark time integration algorithm, and for the derived algorithms with algorithmic damping introduced via averaging, the so-called a-methods. The energy balance equations form a sequence applicable to: Newmark integration of the undamped equations...... of motion, an extended form including structural damping, and finally the generalized form including structural as well as algorithmic damping. In all three cases the expression for energy, appearing in the balance equation, is the mechanical energy plus some additional terms generated by the discretization...

  16. Nature protection in Greece: an appraisal of the factors shaping integrative conservation and policy effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, Kostas; Vogiatzakis, Ioannis N.

    2006-01-01

    The proliferation of designated areas following the implementation of Natura 2000 in Greece has initiated changes in the protected area design and conservation policy making aiming at delivering action for biodiversity and integrative planning on a wider landscape. Following the sustainability concept, an integrative approach cannot realistically take place simply by extending the protected area and designations. The paper addresses public involvement and inter-sectoral coordination as major procedural elements of integrative management and evaluates the nature and strength of their negative or positive influences on the fulfillment of an integrative vision of nature conservation. A review of the history of protected areas and administration developments in Greece provide useful input in the research. The analysis has shown that the selected network of Natura 2000 sites has been superimposed upon the existing system and resulted in duplication of administrative effort and related legislation. As a result the overall picture of protected areas in the country appears complex, confusing and fragmented. Major failures to integrated conservation perspective can be traced to structural causes rooted in politico-economic power structures of mainstream policy and in a rather limited political commitment to conservation. It is concluded that greater realisation of integrated conservation in Greece necessitates policy reforms related mainly to sectoral legal frameworks to promote environmentalism as well as an increased effort by the managing authorities to facilitate a broader framework of public dialogue and give local communities incentives to sustainably benefit from protected areas

  17. Water Conservation Study. U.S. Army Alaska (USARAK) Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The purpose of this water conservation study is to conduct a limited site survey and evaluate energy use and savings, estimate construction costs and water savings and provide a cost-to-savings ratio...

  18. Water Conservation Study, U.S. Army Alaska (USARAK), Ft. Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to conduct a limited site survey and evaluate energy use and savings, estimate construction costs and water savings and provide a cost-to-savings ratio...

  19. Conserved water-mediated H-bonding dynamics of catalytic Asn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Extensive energy minimization and molecular dynamics simulation studies up to 2 ns ... Conserved water in molecular recognition; MD simulation; plant cysteine protease ..... Mustata G and Briggs J M 2004 Cluster analysis of water molecules.

  20. The Value of Recycling on Water Conservation 2nd Edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bales, Shannon Nicole [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, aluminum, copper, plastic, compost, and ceiling tiles. It will discuss the use of water in the process of harvesting, manufacturing, and recycling these materials. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL, it will discuss the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2012 through 2013 and how much water has been saved by recycling .

  1. Impact of numerical choices on water conservation in the E3SM Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of total water is an important numerical feature for global Earth system models. Even small conservation problems in the water budget can lead to systematic errors in century-long simulations. This study quantifies and reduces various sources of water conservation error in the atmosphere component of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model. Several sources of water conservation error have been identified during the development of the version 1 (V1 model. The largest errors result from the numerical coupling between the resolved dynamics and the parameterized sub-grid physics. A hybrid coupling using different methods for fluid dynamics and tracer transport provides a reduction of water conservation error by a factor of 50 at 1° horizontal resolution as well as consistent improvements at other resolutions. The second largest error source is the use of an overly simplified relationship between the surface moisture flux and latent heat flux at the interface between the host model and the turbulence parameterization. This error can be prevented by applying the same (correct relationship throughout the entire model. Two additional types of conservation error that result from correcting the surface moisture flux and clipping negative water concentrations can be avoided by using mass-conserving fixers. With all four error sources addressed, the water conservation error in the V1 model becomes negligible and insensitive to the horizontal resolution. The associated changes in the long-term statistics of the main atmospheric features are small. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to show that the magnitudes of the conservation errors in early V1 versions decrease strongly with temporal resolution but increase with horizontal resolution. The increased vertical resolution in V1 results in a very thin model layer at the Earth's surface, which amplifies the conservation error associated with the surface moisture flux correction. We note

  2. 77 FR 12076 - Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Integrated Water Resource Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... water conservation and market reallocation elements. The plan elements include projects and actions... Conservation (agricultural water and municipal/ domestic conservation); and 7. Market-Based Reallocation of Water Resources (institutional improvements to facilitate market-based water transfers). Public...

  3. Water conservation benefits of urban heat mitigation: can cooling strategies reduce water consumption in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas are at the forefront of climate mitigation and adaptation efforts given their high concentration of people, industry, and infrastructure. Many cities globally are seeking strategies to counter the consequences of both a hotter and drier climate. While urban heat mitigation strategies have been shown to have beneficial effects on health, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions, their implications for water conservation have not been widely examined. Here we show that broad implementation of cool roofs, an urban heat mitigation strategy, not only results in significant cooling of air temperature, but also meaningfully decreases outdoor water consumption by reducing evaporative and irrigation water demands. Based on a suite of satellite-supported, multiyear regional climate simulations, we find that cool roof adoption has the potential to reduce outdoor water consumption across the major metropolitan areas in California by up to 9%. Irrigation water savings per capita, induced by cool roofs, range from 1.8 to 15.4 gallons per day across 18 counties examined. Total water savings in Los Angeles county alone is about 83 million gallons per day. While this effect is robust across the 15 years examined (2001-2015), including both drought and non-drought years, we find that cool roofs are most effective during the hottest days of the year, indicating that they could play an even greater role in reducing outdoor water use in a hotter future climate. We further show that this synergistic relationship between heat mitigation and water conservation is asymmetrical - policies that encourage direct reductions in irrigation water use can lead to substantial regional warming, potentially conflicting with heat mitigation efforts designed to counter the effects of the projected warming climate.

  4. 78 FR 41390 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the Commission and... License. b. Project No.: 14327-000. c. Date filed: June 26, 2013. d. Applicant: Pershing County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydro Power Project. f. Location: At the existing U.S...

  5. The Effects of a Water Conservation Instructional Unit on the Values Held by Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Andrew; Tomera, Audrey

    1977-01-01

    Sixth grade students were divided into two groups. Students in one group received instruction on water conservation using expository and discovery activities. The students in the control group received none. Results gave evidence that students' values could be changed by this mode of water conservation instruction. (MA)

  6. Financial efficiency of major soil and water conservation measures in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Graaff, de J.; Hella, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on steep slopes of West Usambara mountains. However, the adoption by farmers of the recommended soil and water conservation measures is low and soil erosion continues to be a problem. It

  7. Rethinking soil and water conservation in a changing society : a case study in eastern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D.

    2000-01-01

    Soil and water conservation is at the top of development agendas in Africa. Virtually every project related to agriculture or the environment has a soil and water conservation component to it and environmental protection plans are being drawn up by African governments in which soil and

  8. Water conservation and reuse using the Water Sources Diagram method for batch process: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources management has been an important factor for the sustainability of industrial processes, since there is a growing need for the development of methodologies aimed at the conservation and rational use of water. The objective of this work was to apply the heuristic-algorithmic method called Water Sources Diagram (WSD, which is used to define the target of minimum water consumption, to batch processes. Scenarios with reuse of streams were generated and evaluated with application of the method from the data of water quantity and concentration of contaminants in the operations. Two case studies aiming to show the reduction of water consumption and wastewater generation, and final treatment costs besides investment in storage tanks, were presented. The scenarios showed great promising, achieving reduction up to 45% in water consumption and wastewater generation, and a reduction of around 37% on cost of storage tanks, without the need to allocate regeneration processes. Thus, the WSD method showed to be a relevant and flexible alternative regarding to systemic tools aimed at minimizing the consumption of water in industrial processes, playing an important role within a program of water resources management.

  9. Using Water Footprints to Identify Alternatives for Conserving Local Water Resources in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Marrin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a management tool for addressing water consumption issues, footprints have become increasingly utilized on scales ranging from global to personal. A question posed by this paper is whether water footprint data that are routinely compiled for particular regions may be used to assess the effectiveness of actions taken by local residents to conserve local water resources. The current California drought has affected an agriculturally productive region with large population centers that consume a portion of the locally produced food, and the state’s arid climate demands a large volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports most of its food products, enough is consumed within the state so that residents shifting their food choices and/or habits could save as much or more local blue water as their reduction of household or office water use. One of those shifts is reducing the intake of animal-based products that require the most water of any food group on both a gravimetric and caloric basis. Another shift is reducing food waste, which represents a shared responsibility among consumers and retailers, however, consumer preferences ultimately drive much of this waste.

  10. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, David C; Lukacs, Paul M; Blakesley, Jennifer A; Skorkowsky, Robert C; Klute, David S; Hahn, Beth A; Dreitz, Victoria J; George, T Luke; Hanni, David J

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1) coordination across organizations and regions, 2) meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3) rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17). We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri) in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1) determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2) estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous statistical

  11. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Pavlacky

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1 coordination across organizations and regions, 2 meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3 rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17. We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1 determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2 estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous

  12. Development of a landscape integrity model framework to support regional conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Leroy J; Hartmann, Heidi M

    2018-01-01

    Land managers increasingly rely upon landscape assessments to understand the status of natural resources and identify conservation priorities. Many of these landscape planning efforts rely on geospatial models that characterize the ecological integrity of the landscape. These general models utilize measures of habitat disturbance and human activity to map indices of ecological integrity. We built upon these modeling frameworks by developing a Landscape Integrity Index (LII) model using geospatial datasets of the human footprint, as well as incorporation of other indicators of ecological integrity such as biodiversity and vegetation departure. Our LII model serves as a general indicator of ecological integrity in a regional context of human activity, biodiversity, and change in habitat composition. We also discuss the application of the LII framework in two related coarse-filter landscape conservation approaches to expand the size and connectedness of protected areas as regional mitigation for anticipated land-use changes.

  13. Climate change and integrated water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, Nurul Amin

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: In the Bangladesh Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP), Millennium Development Goals and other donor driven initiatives, two vital areas linked with poverty and ecosystem survival seem to be either missing or are being neglected: (a) transboundary water use and (b) coastal area poverty and critical ecosystems vulnerable due to climate change. Since the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) goals and PRSP are integrated, it is necessary that the countrys WSSD goals and PRSP should also be in harmony. All should give the recognition of Ganges Brahmaputra and Meghna as international basins and the approach should be taken for regional sustainable and integrated water resource management involving all co-riparian countries. The principle of low flow in the international rivers during all seasons should be ensured. All stakeholders should have a say and work towards regional cooperation in the water sector as a top priority. The energy sector should be integrated with water. The Indian River Linking project involving international rivers should be seriously discussed at all levels including the parliament so that voice of Bangladesh is concerted and information shared by all concerned. One of the most critical challenges Bangladesh faces is the management of water resources during periods of water excesses and acute scarcity. It is particularly difficult when only 7% of the catchments areas of the very international rivers, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna are in Bangladesh while 97% is outside Bangladesh where unfortunately, Bangladesh has no control on upstream diversion and water use. The UN Conference on Environment and Development in its Agenda 21 emphasizes the importance of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). The core point of IWRM is that is development of all aspects of entire basin in a basin wide approach, that all relevant agencies of the government and water users must be involved in the planning process and

  14. Household Welfare, Investment in Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security: Evidence from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabubo-Mariara, J.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.; Atieno, R.; Mwabu, G.

    2006-01-01

    In Kenya, conservation and sustainable utilization of the environment and natural resources form an integral part of national planning and poverty reduction efforts. However, weak environmental management practices are a major impediment to agricultural productivity growth. This study was motivated

  15. Water conservation through trade: the case of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprint of Kenya from both production and consumption perspectives and estimates the country’s virtual water export and import. Kenya’s virtual water export related to trade in agricultural products was 4.1 km3/y; its virtual water import was 4.0 km3/y. The

  16. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  17. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  18. Predicting compliance with an information-based residential outdoor water conservation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Adam C.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Kaiser, Ronald A.

    2016-05-01

    Residential water conservation initiatives often involve some form of education or persuasion intended to change the attitudes and behaviors of residential consumers. However, the ability of these instruments to change attitudes toward conservation and their efficacy in affecting water use remains poorly understood. In this investigation the authors examine consumer attitudes toward complying with a persuasive water conservation program, the extent to which those attitudes predict compliance, and the influence of environmental contextual factors on outdoor water use. Results indicate that the persuasive program was successful in developing positive attitudes toward compliance, and that those attitudes predict water use. However, attitudinal variables explain a relatively small proportion of the variance in objectively measured water use behavior. Recommendations for policy are made stressing the importance of understanding both the effects of attitudes and environmental contextual factors in behavior change initiatives in the municipal water sector.

  19. Applicability evaluation on the conservative metal-water reaction(MWR) model implemented into the SPACE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk Ho; You, Sung Chang; Kim, Han Gon

    2011-01-01

    The SBLOCA (Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident) evaluation methodology for the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) is under development using the SPACE code. The goal of the development of this methodology is to set up a conservative evaluation methodology in accordance with Appendix K of 10CFR50 by the end of 2012. In order to develop the Appendix K version of the SPACE code, the code modification is considered through implementation of the code on the required evaluation models. For the conservative models required in the SPACE code, the metal-water reaction (MWR) model, the critical flow model, the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) model and the post-CHF model must be implemented in the code. At present, the integration of the model to generate the Appendix K version of SPACE is in its preliminary stage. Among them, the conservative MWR model and its code applicability are introduced in this paper

  20. An approach to industrial water conservation--a case study involving two large manufacturing companies based in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agana, Bernard A; Reeve, Darrell; Orbell, John D

    2013-01-15

    This study presents the application of an integrated water management strategy at two large Australian manufacturing companies that are contrasting in terms of their respective products. The integrated strategy, consisting of water audit, pinch analysis and membrane process application, was deployed in series to systematically identify water conservation opportunities. Initially, a water audit was deployed to completely characterize all water streams found at each production site. This led to the development of a water balance diagram which, together with water test results, served as a basis for subsequent enquiry. After the water audit, commercially available water pinch software was utilized to identify possible water reuse opportunities, some of which were subsequently implemented on site. Finally, utilizing a laboratory-scale test rig, membrane processes such as UF, NF and RO were evaluated for their suitability to treat the various wastewater streams. The membranes tested generally showed good contaminant rejection rates, slow flux decline rates, low energy usage and were well suited for treatment of specific wastewater streams. The synergy between the various components of this strategy has the potential to reduce substantial amounts of Citywater consumption and wastewater discharge across a diverse range of large manufacturing companies. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-symplectic integrators: numerical schemes for Hamiltonian PDEs that conserve symplecticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Thomas J.; Reich, Sebastian

    2001-06-01

    The symplectic numerical integration of finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems is a well established subject and has led to a deeper understanding of existing methods as well as to the development of new very efficient and accurate schemes, e.g., for rigid body, constrained, and molecular dynamics. The numerical integration of infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems or Hamiltonian PDEs is much less explored. In this Letter, we suggest a new theoretical framework for generalizing symplectic numerical integrators for ODEs to Hamiltonian PDEs in R2: time plus one space dimension. The central idea is that symplecticity for Hamiltonian PDEs is directional: the symplectic structure of the PDE is decomposed into distinct components representing space and time independently. In this setting PDE integrators can be constructed by concatenating uni-directional ODE symplectic integrators. This suggests a natural definition of multi-symplectic integrator as a discretization that conserves a discrete version of the conservation of symplecticity for Hamiltonian PDEs. We show that this approach leads to a general framework for geometric numerical schemes for Hamiltonian PDEs, which have remarkable energy and momentum conservation properties. Generalizations, including development of higher-order methods, application to the Euler equations in fluid mechanics, application to perturbed systems, and extension to more than one space dimension are also discussed.

  2. The conservative behaviour of fluorescein | Smith | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Failure to account for fluorescein absorbance changes with pH may be responsible for some of the apparent non-conservative behaviour of this easily detectable tracer compound. While it is possible to calculate an accurate absorptivity value for fluorescein at every pH, this calculation is not necessary if the sample pH is ...

  3. Sampling procedure, receipt and conservation of water samples to determine environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Navarro, E.; Payeras, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present document informs about essential goals, processes and contents that the subgroups Sampling and Samples Preparation and Conservation believe they should be part of the procedure to obtain a correct sampling, receipt, conservation and preparation of samples of continental, marine and waste water before qualifying its radioactive content.

  4. Modeling Integrated Water-User Decisions with Intermittent Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.; Rosenberg, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present an economic-engineering method to estimate urban water use demands with intermittent water supplies. A two-stage, probabilistic optimization formulation includes a wide variety of water supply enhancement and conservation actions that individual households can adopt to meet multiple water quality uses with uncertain water availability. We embed the optimization in Monte-Carlo simulations to show aggregate effects at a utility (citywide) scale for a population of user conditions and decisions. Parametric analysis provides derivations of supply curves to subsidize conservation, demand responses to alternative pricing, and customer willingness-to-pay to avoid shortages. Results show a good empirical fit for the average and distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Additional outputs give likely market penetration rates for household conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies required to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, market, and finance conservation programs and interpret a demand curve with block pricing.

  5. Conserving Our Environment. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P9 SIS unit focuses on: (1) basic ecological and conservation concepts; (2) problems and complexities of…

  6. Conserving Our Health. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P9 SIS unit deals with conserving health, focusing on such body processes as breathing, digestion, excretion,…

  7. A conservative quaternion-based time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    A conservative time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations is presented in a purely algebraic form in terms of the four quaternions components and the four conjugate momentum variables via Hamilton’s equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric set of eight...

  8. Integral Pressurized Water Reactor Simulator Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides detailed explanations of the theoretical concepts that the simulator users have to know to gain a comprehensive understanding of the physics and technology of integral pressurized water reactors. It provides explanations of each of the simulator screens and various controls that a user can monitor and modify. A complete description of all the simulator features is also provided. A detailed set of exercises is provided in the Exercise Handbook accompanying this publication.

  9. ­­Drought, water conservation, and water demand rebound in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N.

    2017-12-01

    There is growing recognition that dynamic community values, preferences, and water use behaviors are important drivers of water demand in addition to external factors such as temperature and precipitation. Water demand drivers have been extensively studied, yet they have traditionally been applied to models that assume static conditions and usually do not account for potential societal changes in response to increased scarcity awareness. For example, following a period of sustained low demand such as during a drought, communities often increase water use during a hydrologically wet period, a phenomenon known as "rebounding" water use. Yet previous experiences show the extent of this rebound is not a straightforward function of policy and efficiency improvements, but may also reflect short-term or long-lasting change in community behavior, which are not easily captured by models that assume stationarity. In this study we explore cycles of decreased water demand during drought and subsequent water use rebound observed in California in recent decades. We have developed a novel dynamic system model for water demand in three diverse but interconnected service areas in the San Francisco Bay Area, exposing local trends of changing water use behaviors and long-term impacts on water demand since 1980 to the present. In this model, we apply the concept of social memory, defined as a community's inherited knowledge about hazardous events or degraded environmental conditions from past experiences. While this concept has been applied to further conceptual understanding of socio-hydrologic systems in response to hydrological extremes, to the best of our knowledge this the first study to incorporate social memory to model the water demand rebound phenomenon and to use such a model in the examination of changing dynamics validated by historical data. In addition, we take a closer look at water demand during the recent historic drought in California from 2012-16, and relate our

  10. 76 FR 39091 - San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender On October 27, 1981... \\1\\ to the San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District (District) for the Lopez... and Water Conservation District, 17 FERC ] 62,113 (1981). On October 24, 2005, the District filed an...

  11. 77 FR 74559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment (DHE... necessary for residential water heaters, because the existing test procedures for those products already...

  12. Using Home Irrigation Users' Perceptions to Inform Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Lamm, Alexa J.; Rumble, Joy N.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Targeted agricultural education programs can play a role in solving complex water issues. This article applies importance-performance analysis to examine dimensions of water resources that may inform local water conservation campaigns in the United States. The purpose of this study was to generate a deep understanding of home irrigation users'…

  13. Documentation of 50% water conservation in a single process at a beef abattoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef slaughter is water intensive due to stringent food safety requirements. We conducted a study at a commercial beef processor to demonstrate water conservation by modifying the mechanical head wash. We documented the initial nozzle configuration (112 nozzles), water pressure (275 kPa), and flowra...

  14. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... proposed to amend, where appropriate, its test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating... notes that the test procedure and metric for residential water heaters currently address and incorporate...

  15. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  16. Documentation of 50% water conservation in a single process at a beef abattoir. Meat Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef slaughter is water intensive due to stringent food safety requirements. We conducted a study at a commercial beef processor to demonstrate water conservation by modifying the mechanical head wash. We documented the initial nozzle configuration (112 nozzles), water pressure (275 kPa), and flowra...

  17. Soil and Water Conservation Prioritization Using Geospatial Technology – a Case Study of Part of Subarnarekha Basin, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Changing patterns of land use and land cover have exploited the natural resources. Soil, water and forests are degraded, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Deforestation in recent years has led to changes in the environment and more of soil erosion and loss of potable water. In order to conserve and sustainably use soil and water, a watershed management approach is necessary. It helps in restoring water by increasing the infiltration and reducing the erosion of soil. Such measures should be propagated in rainfall deficit areas. The present study has attempted to study the upper watershed part of Subarnarekha basin in Jharkhand state of India. Remote sensing satellite data (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS 2013 was used for delineation of the land use/land cover and vegetation index maps. Several thematic layers like slope, drainage and rainfall were integrated to achieve a priority area map using spatial multicriteria decision making. It delineated high medium and low priority areas within the watershed for soil and water conservation. The high priority area was 16.63% of the total study area. Further, the causes were analysed and conservation measures proposed.

  18. 78 FR 67336 - Habitat Conservation Plan for the United Water Conservation District, Santa Clara River Watershed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... listed fish, by significantly impairing essential behavioral patterns, including breeding, feeding, and... degradation where it actually kills or injures fish or wildlife by significantly impairing essential... biological resources, land use, air quality, water quality, water resources, socio-economics, climate, and...

  19. Integrating policy, disintegrating practice: water resources management in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Rahm, Dianne

    Botswana is generally regarded as an African ‘success story’. Nearly four decades of unabated economic growth, multi-party democracy, conservative decision-making and low-levels of corruption have made Botswana the darling of the international donor community. One consequence of rapid and sustained economic development is that water resources use and demands have risen dramatically in a primarily arid/semi-arid environment. Policy makers recognize that supply is limited and that deliberate steps must be taken to manage demand. To this end, and in line with other members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Botswana devised a National Water Master Plan (NWMP) and undertook a series of institutional and legal reforms throughout the 1990s so as to make water resources use more equitable, efficient and sustainable. In other words, the stated goal is to work toward Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in both policy and practice. However, policy measures have had limited impact on de facto practice. This paper reflects our efforts to understand the disjuncture between policy and practice. The information presented here combines a review of primary and secondary literatures with key informant interviews. It is our view that a number of constraints-cultural, power political, managerial-combine to hinder efforts toward sustainable forms of water resources use. If IWRM is to be realized in the country, these constraints must be overcome. This, however, is no small task.

  20. Will farmers save water? A theoretical analysis of groundwater conservation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of agricultural irrigation systems has generated significant increases in food production and farm income. However, unplanned and unconstrained groundwater use could also cause serious consequences. To extend the economic life of groundwater, water conservation issues have become the...

  1. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION POLICY APPROACHES IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA. (R825761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSoil and water conservation policies and programs in developed countries in North America, Europe, and Australia are examined in the context of their effectiveness for addressing environmental degradation associated with technology-intensive agricultural syste...

  2. Presentation: Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation was given by Dr. James Johnson at the STAR Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices Kick-off Meeting and Webinar held on Oct. 26-27, 2016.

  3. A staggered conservative scheme for every Froude number in rapidly varied shallow water flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling, G. S.; Duinmeijer, S. P. A.

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes a numerical technique that in essence is based upon the classical staggered grids and implicit numerical integration schemes, but that can be applied to problems that include rapidly varied flows as well. Rapidly varied flows occur, for instance, in hydraulic jumps and bores. Inundation of dry land implies sudden flow transitions due to obstacles such as road banks. Near such transitions the grid resolution is often low compared to the gradients of the bathymetry. In combination with the local invalidity of the hydrostatic pressure assumption, conservation properties become crucial. The scheme described here, combines the efficiency of staggered grids with conservation properties so as to ensure accurate results for rapidly varied flows, as well as in expansions as in contractions. In flow expansions, a numerical approximation is applied that is consistent with the momentum principle. In flow contractions, a numerical approximation is applied that is consistent with the Bernoulli equation. Both approximations are consistent with the shallow water equations, so under sufficiently smooth conditions they converge to the same solution. The resulting method is very efficient for the simulation of large-scale inundations.

  4. A high-order relaxation method with projective integration for solving nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafitte, Pauline; Melis, Ward; Samaey, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    We present a general, high-order, fully explicit relaxation scheme which can be applied to any system of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple dimensions. The scheme consists of two steps. In a first (relaxation) step, the nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law is approximated by a kinetic equation with stiff BGK source term. Then, this kinetic equation is integrated in time using a projective integration method. After taking a few small (inner) steps with a simple, explicit method (such as direct forward Euler) to damp out the stiff components of the solution, the time derivative is estimated and used in an (outer) Runge-Kutta method of arbitrary order. We show that, with an appropriate choice of inner step size, the time step restriction on the outer time step is similar to the CFL condition for the hyperbolic conservation law. Moreover, the number of inner time steps is also independent of the stiffness of the BGK source term. We discuss stability and consistency, and illustrate with numerical results (linear advection, Burgers' equation and the shallow water and Euler equations) in one and two spatial dimensions.

  5. Socio-economic aspects of water conservation with reference to Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    To achieve optimum water conservation and improved water use efficiency, a water conservation enabling environment is needed that includes: 1. Education and training, improvement of management systems and public incentives: these measures allow increase from 20 to 30 % water resources .2. irrigation management transfer to users, management of supply infrastructure and an optimised resource policy to arrive at 60 to 80 % of the potential; 3. further research of the public and the private sector to utilise fully the whole available potential. Pakistan's water-resources have been diminishing at an alarming rate, due to further increase of population, per capita water availability in Pakistan goes down below 1,000 m/sup 3/, that means Pakistan is nearing conditions of chronic water-stress. The quality of water is also deteriorating with time. To improve the situation, potential of socio economic factors can be mobilized like population stabilization, community involvement, fair water distribution, application of water harvesting and water conservation at the community level, application of non- structural solutions, for example pricing of water, to develop water management institutions, public education and awareness are essential. Selection of appropriate low cost technology is a pre-requisite for widespread project implementation, planner should consider both traditional and modern technologies. The price of water determines largely the investments justified to avoid water losses. (author)

  6. Water hammer characteristics of integral pressurized water reactor primary loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Qiaolin; Qiu, Suizheng; Lu, Wei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Xiao, Zejun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water hammer models developed for IPWR primary loop using MOC. • Good agreement between the developed code and the experiment. • The good agreement between WAHAP and Flowmaster can validate the equations in WAHAP. • The primary loop of IPWR suffers from slight water hammer impact. -- Abstract: The present work discussed the single-phase water hammer phenomenon, which was caused by the four-pump-alternate startup in an integral pressurized water reactor (IPWR). A new code named water hammer program (WAHAP) was developed independently based on the method of characteristic to simulate hydraulic transients in the primary system of IPWR and its components such as reactor core, once-through steam generators (OTSG), the main coolant pumps and so on. Experimental validation for the correctness of the equations and models in WAHAP was carried out and the models fit the experimental data well. Some important variables were monitored including transient volume flow rates, opening angle of valve disc and pressure drop in valves. The water hammer commercial software Flowmaster V7 was also employed to compare with WAHAP and the good agreement can validate the equations in WAHAP. The transient results indicated that the primary loop of IPWR suffers from slight water hammer impact under pump switching conditions

  7. Water hammer characteristics of integral pressurized water reactor primary loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Qiaolin [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, Suizheng, E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Lu, Wei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Xiao, Zejun [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Water hammer models developed for IPWR primary loop using MOC. • Good agreement between the developed code and the experiment. • The good agreement between WAHAP and Flowmaster can validate the equations in WAHAP. • The primary loop of IPWR suffers from slight water hammer impact. -- Abstract: The present work discussed the single-phase water hammer phenomenon, which was caused by the four-pump-alternate startup in an integral pressurized water reactor (IPWR). A new code named water hammer program (WAHAP) was developed independently based on the method of characteristic to simulate hydraulic transients in the primary system of IPWR and its components such as reactor core, once-through steam generators (OTSG), the main coolant pumps and so on. Experimental validation for the correctness of the equations and models in WAHAP was carried out and the models fit the experimental data well. Some important variables were monitored including transient volume flow rates, opening angle of valve disc and pressure drop in valves. The water hammer commercial software Flowmaster V7 was also employed to compare with WAHAP and the good agreement can validate the equations in WAHAP. The transient results indicated that the primary loop of IPWR suffers from slight water hammer impact under pump switching conditions.

  8. Integrated water resources management using engineering measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The management process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) consists of aspects of policies/strategies, measures (engineering measures and non-engineering measures) and organizational management structures, etc., among which engineering measures such as reservoirs, dikes, canals, etc., play the backbone that enables IWRM through redistribution and reallocation of water in time and space. Engineering measures are usually adopted for different objectives of water utilization and water disaster prevention, such as flood control and drought relief. The paper discusses the planning and implementation of engineering measures in IWRM of the Changjiang River, China. Planning and implementation practices of engineering measures for flood control and water utilization, etc., are presented. Operation practices of the Three Gorges Reservoir, particularly the development and application of regulation rules for flood management, power generation, water supply, ecosystem needs and sediment issues (e.g. erosion and siltation), are also presented. The experience obtained in the implementation of engineering measures in Changjiang River show that engineering measures are vital for IWRM. However, efforts should be made to deal with changes of the river system affected by the operation of engineering measures, in addition to escalatory development of new demands associated with socio-economic development.

  9. Integrated water resources management using engineering measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The management process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM consists of aspects of policies/strategies, measures (engineering measures and non-engineering measures and organizational management structures, etc., among which engineering measures such as reservoirs, dikes, canals, etc., play the backbone that enables IWRM through redistribution and reallocation of water in time and space. Engineering measures are usually adopted for different objectives of water utilization and water disaster prevention, such as flood control and drought relief. The paper discusses the planning and implementation of engineering measures in IWRM of the Changjiang River, China. Planning and implementation practices of engineering measures for flood control and water utilization, etc., are presented. Operation practices of the Three Gorges Reservoir, particularly the development and application of regulation rules for flood management, power generation, water supply, ecosystem needs and sediment issues (e.g. erosion and siltation, are also presented. The experience obtained in the implementation of engineering measures in Changjiang River show that engineering measures are vital for IWRM. However, efforts should be made to deal with changes of the river system affected by the operation of engineering measures, in addition to escalatory development of new demands associated with socio-economic development.

  10. Thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation water recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Winkler, H. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    The recently developed Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) offers a highly competitive approach to water recovery from waste fluids for future on-orbit stations such as the Space Operations Center. Low power, compactness and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem that combines a hollow fiber membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump. The hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts other than pumps and an accumulator, thus solving problems inherent in other reclamation subsystem designs. In an extensive test program, over 850 hours of operation were accumulated during which time high quality product water was recovered from both urine and wash water at an average steady state production rate of 2.2 pounds per hour.

  11. Integrated action planning for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of highland aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunting, Stuart W.; Luo, S.; Cai, K.

    2016-01-01

    The need for enhanced environmental planning and management for highland aquatic resources is described and rationale for integrated action planning presented. Past action planning initiatives for biodiversity conservation and wetland management are reviewed. A reflective account is given...... of integrated action planning from five sites in China, India and Vietnam. Eight planning phases are described encompassing: stakeholder assessment and partner selection; rapport building and agreement on collaboration; integrated biodiversity, ecosystem services, livelihoods and policy assessment; problem...... analysis and target setting; strategic planning; planning and organisation of activities; coordinated implementation and monitoring; evaluation and revised target-setting. The scope and targeting of actions was evaluated using the DPSIR framework and compatibility with biodiversity conservation and socio...

  12. New Positive and Negative Hierarchies of Integrable Differential-Difference Equations and Conservation Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyue; Zhao Qiulan

    2009-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.

  13. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, manage, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the global water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the Global Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.

  14. Integrating In-Situ and Ex-Situ Data Management Processes for Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin R. Schwartz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for a “one plan approach” for conservation strategies that integrate in-situ and ex-situ management processes. Zoological institutions contribute directly to threatened species conservation through paradigms, such as reintroduction, head-starting, supplementation, or rescue/rehabilitation/release. This in-situ/ex-situ integration necessitates collaboration at all levels of conservation action including planning, implementation, monitoring and assessment to drive adaptive management processes. Each component is dependent on the availability and accuracy of data for evidence to facilitate evaluation and adaptive management processes. The Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS, managed by Species360, is a centralized web-based information system used in zoological institutions worldwide to pool life history, behavior and health data and facilitate animal husbandry, health, and breeding management processes. Currently used for few integrated conservation programs, ZIMS is an innovative tool that offers a new opportunity to link data management processes for animals that spend a part of their lives under human care and part in their natural environment and has great potential for use in managed wild populations.

  15. Number-conserving random phase approximation with analytically integrated matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotoku, M.; Schmid, K.W.; Gruemmer, F.; Faessler, A.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper a number conserving random phase approximation is derived as a special case of the recently developed random phase approximation in general symmetry projected quasiparticle mean fields. All the occurring integrals induced by the number projection are performed analytically after writing the various overlap and energy matrices in the random phase approximation equation as polynomials in the gauge angle. In the limit of a large number of particles the well-known pairing vibration matrix elements are recovered. We also present a new analytically number projected variational equation for the number conserving pairing problem

  16. SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysanova, V; Wechsung, F; Arnold, J; Srinivasan, R; Williams, J

    2000-12-01

    The model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was developed in order to provide a comprehensive GIS-based tool for hydrological and water quality modelling in mesoscale and large river basins (from 100 to 10,000 km{sup 2}), which can be parameterised using regionally available information. The model was developed for the use mainly in Europe and temperate zone, though its application in other regions is possible as well. SWIM is based on two previously developed tools - SWAT and MATSALU (see more explanations in section 1.1). The model integrates hydrology, vegetation, erosion, and nutrient dynamics at the watershed scale. SWIM has a three-level disaggregation scheme 'basin - sub-basins - hydrotopes' and is coupled to the Geographic Information System GRASS (GRASS, 1993). A robust approach is suggested for the nitrogen and phosphorus modelling in mesoscale watersheds. SWIM runs under the UNIX environment. Model test and validation were performed sequentially for hydrology, crop growth, nitrogen and erosion in a number of mesoscale watersheds in the German part of the Elbe drainage basin. A comprehensive scheme of spatial disaggregation into sub-basins and hydrotopes combined with reasonable restriction on a sub-basin area allows performing the assessment of water resources and water quality with SWIM in mesoscale river basins. The modest data requirements represent an important advantage of the model. Direct connection to land use and climate data provides a possibility to use the model for analysis of climate change and land use change impacts on hydrology, agricultural production, and water quality. (orig.)

  17. Integrating network ecology with applied conservation: a synthesis and guide to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N; Blüthgen, Nico

    2015-07-10

    Ecological networks are a useful tool to study the complexity of biotic interactions at a community level. Advances in the understanding of network patterns encourage the application of a network approach in other disciplines than theoretical ecology, such as biodiversity conservation. So far, however, practical applications have been meagre. Here we present a framework for network analysis to be harnessed to advance conservation management by using plant-pollinator networks and islands as model systems. Conservation practitioners require indicators to monitor and assess management effectiveness and validate overall conservation goals. By distinguishing between two network attributes, the 'diversity' and 'distribution' of interactions, on three hierarchical levels (species, guild/group and network) we identify seven quantitative metrics to describe changes in network patterns that have implications for conservation. Diversity metrics are partner diversity, vulnerability/generality, interaction diversity and interaction evenness, and distribution metrics are the specialization indices d' and [Formula: see text] and modularity. Distribution metrics account for sampling bias and may therefore be suitable indicators to detect human-induced changes to plant-pollinator communities, thus indirectly assessing the structural and functional robustness and integrity of ecosystems. We propose an implementation pathway that outlines the stages that are required to successfully embed a network approach in biodiversity conservation. Most importantly, only if conservation action and study design are aligned by practitioners and ecologists through joint experiments, are the findings of a conservation network approach equally beneficial for advancing adaptive management and ecological network theory. We list potential obstacles to the framework, highlight the shortfall in empirical, mostly experimental, network data and discuss possible solutions. Published by Oxford University

  18. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  19. Understanding youth motivation for water onion (Crinum thaianum J. Schulze conservation in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttasun Athihirunwong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Onion is an aquatic plant endemic to the coastal plains of southern Thailand. The species is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List. Despite rapidly declining stocks, the species is not protected under any Thai legislation nor under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. At the local level, Water Onion is protected and conserved by young people and adults for various socio-economic reasons. The study explored the participation and underlying conservation motivations of 312 youths in Kapoe district, Ranong province. Using principal component analysis, the youth's motivation for Water Onion conservation was classified into four categories: pro-social, pro-nature, social image, and extrinsic. The results from a logit regression indicated that pro-nature is one of the key motivational factors enhancing actual youth participation in the protection and conservation of Water Onion. It is important for policy makers to understand the effects of various types of motivation on different policy mechanisms in order to craft more effective policies that can further enhance youth participation in conservation initiatives. Keywords: biodiversity conservation, endemic species, pro-nature motivation, water onion, youth

  20. Strategies of water conservation in southern African frogs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three approaches which anurans have adopted in response to water ... seen migrating along a path towards the dam, the weather being overcast after light rain .... (1967) has shown that Bufo regularis has an endogenous activity rhythm.

  1. Innovations in Agriculture in Oregon: Farmers Irrigation District Improves Water Quality, Maximizes Water Conservation, and Generates Clean, Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hood River Farmers Irrigation District used $36.2 million in CWSRF loans for a multiple-year endeavor to convert the open canal system to a piped, pressurized irrigation system to maximize water conservation and restore reliable water delivery to crops

  2. Give Water a Hand. School Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  3. Give Water a Hand. Community Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  4. Give Water a Hand. Home Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water and water conservation within the home while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  5. Improving cross-sector policy integration and co-operation in support of freshwater conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available agricultural resources), and integrated development planning (MacKay & Ashton 2004). Of special importance is the coordination between land-related and water-related sectors because freshwater ecosystems are affected by activities that happen throughout...

  6. Determinants of Household Water Conservation Retrofit Activity: A Discrete Choice Model Using Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T. A.; Wright, M. B.

    1990-02-01

    Economic analyses of residential water demand have typically concentrated on price and income elasticities. In the short run a substantial change in water prices might induce only small changes in consumption levels. As time passes, however, households will have the opportunity to "retrofit" existing water-using equipment to make it less water-intensive. This produces medium- to long-run demand elasticities that are higher than short-run studies suggest. We examine responses to water conservation questions appearing on the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's 1983 residential energy survey. We find that households' decisions to install shower retrofit devices are influenced by the potential to save money on water heating bills. We attribute toilet retrofit decisions more to noneconomic factors which might be characterized as "general conservation mindedness." The endogeneity of these retrofit decisions casts some doubt on the results of studies of individual households that treat voluntary retrofits as exogenous.

  7. Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Brown, Christopher J; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia L; Chauvenet, Alienor; Champion, Curtis; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Dell, Anthony I; Donelson, Jennifer M; Evengård, Birgitta; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Jarzyna, Marta A; Lee, Emma; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mitchell, Nicola; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Possingham, Hugh; Pulsifer, Peter; Reynolds, Mark; Scheffers, Brett R; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Twiname, Samantha; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wapstra, Erik; Wernberg, Thomas; Pecl, Gretta T

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Sands, Ronald; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2010-11-30

    We developed a modeling capability to understand how water is allocated within a river basin and examined present and future water allocations among agriculture, energy production, other human requirements, and ecological needs. Water is an essential natural resource needed for food and fiber production, household and industrial uses, energy production, transportation, tourism and recreation, and the functioning of natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic climate change and population growth are anticipated to impose unprecedented pressure on water resources during this century. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers have pioneered the development of integrated assessment (IA) models for the analysis of energy and economic systems under conditions of climate change. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort led to the development of a modeling capability to evaluate current and future water allocations between human requirements and ecosystem services. The Water Prototype Model (WPM) was built in STELLA®, a computer modeling package with a powerful interface that enables users to construct dynamic models to simulate and integrate many processes (biological, hydrological, economics, sociological). A 150,404-km2 basin in the United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest region served as the platform for the development of the WPM. About 60% of the study basin is in the state of Washington with the rest in Oregon. The Columbia River runs through the basin for 874 km, starting at the international border with Canada and ending (for the purpose of the simulation) at The Dalles dam. Water enters the basin through precipitation and from streamflows originating from the Columbia River at the international border with Canada, the Spokane River, and the Snake River. Water leaves the basin through evapotranspiration, consumptive uses (irrigation, livestock, domestic, commercial, mining, industrial, and off-stream power generation), and streamflow

  9. 77 FR 38795 - Dolores Water Conservancy District; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14426-000] Dolores Water... Comments and Motions To Intervene On May 10, 2012, Dolores Water Conservancy District, Colorado, filed an... the Plateau Creek Pumped Storage Project to be located on Plateau Creek, near the town of Dolores...

  10. 77 FR 35377 - Dolores Water Conservancy District; Notice of Completing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14328-000] Dolores Water... Comments and Motions To Intervene On May 10, 2012, Dolores Water Conservancy District, Colorado, filed an... the Plateau Creek Pumped Storage Project to be located on Plateau Creek, near the town of Dolores...

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Critical Thinking Style and Water Conservation Behavior: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    In the past several years Cooperative Extension has focused on developing educational programs that address water conservation, specifically for individuals using exorbitant amounts of water, with limited success. However, few research studies have examined how the way people think, including their critical thinking styles, can be used to inform…

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Encourage Water Conservation among Extension Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Chaudhary, Anil; Warner, Laura A.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Israel, Glenn D.; Rumble, Joy N.; Cantrell, Randall A.

    2017-01-01

    Extension professionals can play a role in addressing water scarcity issues by helping home landscape irrigation users to conserve water. This study used survey research to examine the relationship between several variables, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, personal norms, demographic factors, and past…

  13. Empirical Evidence in Support of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Serna, Victoria Faubion

    2016-01-01

    Based on results from a 2008 research study of regional citizen knowledge concerning watershed issues, a water conservation education program was designed and implemented. Findings from the initial study demonstrated program success as evidenced by knowledge gain and willingness to "commit" to water saving behaviors in 94% of students. A…

  14. Using Theory to Inform Water Conservation in Business Communities: Formative Research from a Chamber Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarge, Melanie A.; Daggett, Samantha; VanDyke, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to collect formative information for the development of theoretically driven water conservation communication efforts targeting the business sector of water users. Members from a West Texas Chamber of Commerce were recruited for participation in an online survey. Questionnaire responses were collected from 176 commercial…

  15. 26 CFR 1.175-1 - Soil and water conservation expenditures; in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Soil and water conservation expenditures; in general. 1.175-1 Section 1.175-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.175-1 Soil and water conservatio...

  16. Water conservation and hydrological transitions in cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, George M.; Hess, David J.; Gilligan, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Cities across the world have had to diversify and expand their water supply systems in response to demand growth, groundwater depletion and pollution, and instability and inadequacy of regional surface freshwater sources. In the U.S., these problems plague not only the arid Western cities but increasingly also cities in the Eastern portions of the country. Although cities continue to seek out new sources of water via Promethean projects of long-distance supply systems, desalinization plants, and the recharge of aquifers with surface water, they also pursue water conservation because of its low cost and other benefits. We examine water conservation as a complex sociotechnical system comprising interactions of political, sociodemographic, economic, and hydroclimatological factors. We provide quantitative data on the factors that affect more and less advanced transitions in water conservation regimes, and we show that water stress and other hydrological data can only partially predict the transition. We also provide qualitative case studies to identify institutional and political barriers to more advanced water conservation regimes. This interdisciplinary, mixed methods approach typifies the need for knowledge that informs hydrologists about how their research may or may not be adopted by decision-makers.

  17. Economic benefits of combining soil and water conservation measures with nutrient management in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouédraogo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient limitation is the main cause of per capita decline in crop production in the Sahel, where water shortage also limits an efficient use of available nutrients. Combining soil and water conservation measures with locally available nutrient inputs may optimize crop production and economic

  18. Financial viability of soil and water conservation technologies in northwestern Ethiopian highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Akalu; Rolker, D.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is a major threat to food security, environmental sustainability and prospects for rural development in Ethiopia. Successive governments have promoted various soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in order to reduce the effects of land degradation, but adoption rates vary

  19. Energy-conserving mechanisms as adaptation to undernutrition and water deprivation in the African Zebu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, V.A.; King, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In a study designed to simulate pastoral cattle management practices on marginal and rangelands in Kenya, the physiological adaptations for energy conservation were investigated in African Zebu cattle during a period of undernutrition and water deprivation. In experimental design, the food available to cattle was restricted to 50% of maintenance, watering reduced to every 2 d and distances walked increased from 8 to 16 km/d. Restricting food for nearly 3 months resulted in a 13-14% weight loss in cattle. A 2-day watering regime did not decrease food intake. Cattle that walked the longer distances lost slightly more weight but not significantly more. There was a significant overall reduction in water requirements. Slowing water turnover is seen as adaptive in a water-limited environment. The water turnover rate was determined using the tritiated water dilution technique. Higher solar intensities increased water turnover somewhat, as did extending walking distances. The resting metabolic rate of cattle on restricted food and water was reduced to 30% below that of well-fed and daily watered cattle. This reduction in metabolic requirements would result in conserving energy in dry seasons. Cattle became more thermolabile when offered smaller quantities of food. A heat debt was incurred at night and sweating rates were regulated at low levels during the day, resulting in heat storage. It is suggested that this is a mechanism by which energy is conserved through increasing thermogenesis to maintain body temperature within the normal range

  20. Water and Agriculture in the Western U.S.: Conservation, Reallocation, and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, William B.

    Water conservation has long been an unqualified good in the western United States. But when westerners have said “conservation,” they have usually meant reservoir storage to prevent water from escaping downstream before it could be diverted and put to beneficial use. They took particular umbrage when the Carter Administration defined it to mean water demand management, a way of avoiding or postponing the construction of reservoirs. To oppose reservoir development in the West most certainly is to defy the conventional wisdom and to court political extinction. It is to brand oneself as daft or disloyal as well.

  1. Integrating authentic scientific research in a conservation course–based undergraduate research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Amanda E.; Corral, Lucia; Dauer, Jenny M.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2018-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have been developed to overcome barriers including students in research. However, there are few examples of CUREs that take place in a conservation and natural resource context with students engaging in field research. Here, we highlight the development of a conservation-focused CURE integrated to a research program, research benefits, student self-assessment of learning, and perception of the CURE. With the additional data, researchers were able to refine species distribution models and facilitate management decisions. Most students reported gains in their scientific skills, felt they had engaged in meaningful, real-world research. In student reflections on how this experience helped clarify their professional intentions, many reported being more likely to enroll in graduate programs and seek employment related to science. Also interesting was all students reported being more likely to talk with friends, family, or the public about wildlife conservation issues after participating, indicating that courses like this can have effects beyond the classroom, empowering students to be advocates and translators of science. Field-based, conservation-focused CUREs can create meaningful conservation and natural resource experiences with authentic scientific teaching practices.

  2. Lessons for integrated household energy conservation policies from an intervention study in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kua, H.W.; Wong, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for a community energy conservation program in the southwest district of Singapore, a pilot intervention study was conducted between August and November 2008 to study the effectiveness of tailored information and feedback in promoting household conservation. A sample of 125 households was involved in the study, of which 63 were the control group. Both self-reported behavioral changes and actual energy reductions were measured and any Hawthorne effect was identified. It was found that self-reported behavioral changes were strongly correlated to the level of trust in the energy conservation information given, the need for ease in practicing the recommended conservation measures and feeling of satisfaction in executing the measures; these results differ from several past studies on energy interventions. 60.7% of those who reported behavioral changes actually reduced energy consumption. Reasons were found and discussed. Lessons from this intervention study can be applied to design integrated policies aimed at promoting energy conservation in households. - Highlights: ► Energy intervention was implemented on 125 households. ► Outreach instruments included stickers, pamphlets and counseling. ► Self-reported behavioral and actual reductions were recorded. ► Self-reported behavioral change was only correlated to trust of information given. ► It was also correlated to ease of actions and feeling of satisfaction from actions.

  3. Integrating the simulation of domestic water demand behaviour to an urban water model using agent based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutiva, Ifigeneia; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The urban water system's sustainable evolution requires tools that can analyse and simulate the complete cycle including both physical and cultural environments. One of the main challenges, in this regard, is the design and development of tools that are able to simulate the society's water demand behaviour and the way policy measures affect it. The effects of these policy measures are a function of personal opinions that subsequently lead to the formation of people's attitudes. These attitudes will eventually form behaviours. This work presents the design of an ABM tool for addressing the social dimension of the urban water system. The created tool, called Urban Water Agents' Behaviour (UWAB) model, was implemented, using the NetLogo agent programming language. The main aim of the UWAB model is to capture the effects of policies and environmental pressures to water conservation behaviour of urban households. The model consists of agents representing urban households that are linked to each other creating a social network that influences the water conservation behaviour of its members. Household agents are influenced as well by policies and environmental pressures, such as drought. The UWAB model simulates behaviour resulting in the evolution of water conservation within an urban population. The final outcome of the model is the evolution of the distribution of different conservation levels (no, low, high) to the selected urban population. In addition, UWAB is implemented in combination with an existing urban water management simulation tool, the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT) in order to create a modelling platform aiming to facilitate an adaptive approach of water resources management. For the purposes of this proposed modelling platform, UWOT is used in a twofold manner: (1) to simulate domestic water demand evolution and (2) to simulate the response of the water system to the domestic water demand evolution. The main advantage of the UWAB - UWOT model

  4. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy: an integrated approach for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Bhavisha P; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2017-07-01

    Biological diversity is depleting at an alarming rate. Additionally, a vast amount of biodiversity still remains undiscovered. Taxonomy has been serving the purpose of describing, naming, and classifying species for more than 250 years. DNA taxonomy and barcoding have accelerated the rate of this process, thereby providing a tool for conservation practice. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy have their own inherent merits and demerits. The synergistic use of both methods, in the form of integrative taxonomy, has the potential to contribute to biodiversity conservation in a pragmatic timeframe and overcome their individual drawbacks. In this review, we discuss the basics of both these methods of biological identification (traditional taxonomy and DNA barcoding), the technical advances in integrative taxonomy, and future trends. We also present a comprehensive compilation of published examples of integrative taxonomy that refer to nine topics within biodiversity conservation. Morphological and molecular species limits were observed to be congruent in ∼41% of the 58 source studies. The majority of the studies highlighted the description of cryptic diversity through the use of molecular data, whereas research areas like endemism, biological invasion, and threatened species were less discussed in the literature.

  5. Drops of energy: conserving urban water to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanchun; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Haikun; Bi, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Water and energy are two essential resources of modern civilization and are inherently linked. Indeed, the optimization of the water supply system would reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal water sector. This research measured the climatic cobenefit of water conservation based on a water flow analysis. The results showed that the estimated energy consumption of the total water system in Changzhou, China, reached approximately 10% of the city's total energy consumption, whereas the industrial sector was found to be more energy intensive than other sectors within the entire water system, accounting for nearly 70% of the total energy use of the water system. In addition, four sustainable water management scenarios would bring the cobenefit of reducing the total energy use of the water system by 13.9%, and 77% of the energy savings through water conservation was indirect. To promote sustainable water management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China would require its water price system, both for freshwater and recycled water, to be reformed.

  6. Modeling integrated water user decisions in intermittent supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David E.; Tarawneh, Tarek; Abdel-Khaleq, Rania; Lund, Jay R.

    2007-07-01

    We apply systems analysis to estimate household water use in an intermittent supply system considering numerous interdependent water user behaviors. Some 39 household actions include conservation; improving local storage or water quality; and accessing sources having variable costs, availabilities, reliabilities, and qualities. A stochastic optimization program with recourse decisions identifies the infrastructure investments and short-term coping actions a customer can adopt to cost-effectively respond to a probability distribution of piped water availability. Monte Carlo simulations show effects for a population of customers. Model calibration reproduces the distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Parametric analyses suggest economic and demand responses to increased availability and alternative pricing. It also suggests potential market penetration for conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, and finance conservation.

  7. Variable-Volume Flushing (V-VF) device for water conservation in toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Louis J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty five percent of residential indoor water used is flushed down the toilet. Five out of six flushes are for liquid waste only, which requires only a fraction of the water needed for solid waste. Designers of current low-flush toilets (3.5-gal. flush) and ultra-low-flush toilets (1.5-gal. flush) did not consider the vastly reduced amount of water needed to flush liquid waste versus solid waste. Consequently, these toilets are less practical than desired and can be improved upon for water conservation. This paper describes a variable-volume flushing (V-VF) device that is more reliable than the currently used flushing devices (it will not leak), is simple, more economical, and more water conserving (allowing one to choose the amount of water to use for flushing solid and liquid waste).

  8. Public Versus Private: Does It Matter for Water Conservation? Insights from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallis, Giorgos; Ray, Isha; Fulton, Julian; McMahon, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This article asks three connected questions: First, does the public view private and public utilities differently, and if so, does this affect attitudes to conservation? Second, do public and private utilities differ in their approaches to conservation? Finally, do differences in the approaches of the utilities, if any, relate to differences in public attitudes? We survey public attitudes in California toward (hypothetical but plausible) voluntary and mandated water conservation, as well as to price increases, during a recent period of shortage. We do this by interviewing households in three pairs of adjacent public and private utilities. We also survey managers of public and private urban water utilities to see if they differ in their approaches to conservation and to their customers. On the user side we do not find pronounced differences, though a minority of customers in all private companies would be more willing to conserve or pay higher prices under a public operator. No respondent in public utility said the reverse. Negative attitudes toward private operators were most pronounced in the pair marked by a controversial recent privatization and a price hike. Nonetheless, we find that California’s history of recurrent droughts and the visible role of the state in water supply and drought management undermine the distinction between public and private. Private utilities themselves work to underplay the distinction by stressing the collective ownership of the water source and the collective value of conservation. Overall, California’s public utilities appear more proactive and target-oriented in asking their customers to conserve than their private counterparts and the state continues to be important in legitimating and guiding conservation behavior, whether the utility is in public hands or private.

  9. Integrating multiple distribution models to guide conservation efforts of an endangered toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Michael L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species’ ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species’ current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  10. Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

    2013-08-01

    Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. What is conservation physiology? Perspectives on an increasingly integrated and essential science†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Sack, Lawren; Franklin, Craig E.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Beardall, John; Wikelski, Martin; Chown, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    species, refinement of resource management strategies to minimize impacts, and evaluation of restoration plans. This concept of conservation physiology emphasizes the basis, importance, and ecological relevance of physiological diversity at a variety of scales. Real advances in conservation and resource management require integration and inter-disciplinarity. Conservation physiology and its suite of tools and concepts is a key part of the evidence base needed to address pressing environmental challenges. PMID:27293585

  12. Dealing with Drought: Decoupling Climatic and Management-Related Drivers of Water Conservation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, A.; Rippy, M.; Grant, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    As global populations grow, cities in drought prone regions of the world such as California and South East Australia are faced with escalating water scarcity and water security challenges. The management approaches geared towards addressing these challenges are diverse. Given the myriad of possible approaches and the tendency to apply them in combination, successful management actions can be difficult to identify. Background climactic variability further complicates the story, making transfer of management lessons from one drought stressed region to another difficult. Here we use Melbourne, a city of 4.3 million people in South East Australia that recently faced and overcame a > 10 year "Millennium" drought, as a test case for evaluating the relative importance of various management-related and climactic factors in driving reductions in municipal water consumption (~60% in 12 years). Our analysis suggests that Melbourne's declining municipal consumption cannot be explained by potable substitution alone, as reductions in municipal consumption were not matched by increased use of alternative sources (e.g., urban rain or recycled water). Thus, water conservation behavior (not source switching) may be responsible for the majority of demand reduction in Melbourne. Interestingly, while voluntary or mandatory water restrictions appear to have substantially altered the rate of change of consumption near the end of Melbourne's Millennium drought (e.g., forcing a period of intense conservation), overall conservation behavior precedes these restrictions. This suggests that other rapidly implemented (and hither too unquantified) management approaches such as advertising or newspapers may have driven water conservation behavior early in the drought. Climatic factors, particularly precipitation may also have influenced conservation behavior; changes in precipitation were significantly positively correlated with changes in water consumption at a lag of 18 months. Similar

  13. Waste minimization through process optimization/integration and resource management at eco-friendly Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nageshri, Jagdish; Gupta, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy Water Board has celebrated 2003 as Environmental Conservation Year captivating a range of enviro-friendly measures. This article attempts to give a brief overview of the outcome of systems and adapted procedures for waste minimization through process integration and resource management at Heavy Water Plants

  14. Biosocial Conservation: Integrating Biological and Ethnographic Methods to Study Human-Primate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Fairet, Emilie; Shutt, Kathryn; Waters, Siân; Bell, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation is one of the grand challenges facing society. Many people interested in biodiversity conservation have a background in wildlife biology. However, the diverse social, cultural, political, and historical factors that influence the lives of people and wildlife can be investigated fully only by incorporating social science methods, ideally within an interdisciplinary framework. Cultural hierarchies of knowledge and the hegemony of the natural sciences create a barrier to interdisciplinary understandings. Here, we review three different projects that confront this difficulty, integrating biological and ethnographic methods to study conservation problems. The first project involved wildlife foraging on crops around a newly established national park in Gabon. Biological methods revealed the extent of crop loss, the species responsible, and an effect of field isolation, while ethnography revealed institutional and social vulnerability to foraging wildlife. The second project concerned great ape tourism in the Central African Republic. Biological methods revealed that gorilla tourism poses risks to gorillas, while ethnography revealed why people seek close proximity to gorillas. The third project focused on humans and other primates living alongside one another in Morocco. Incorporating shepherds in the coproduction of ecological knowledge about primates built trust and altered attitudes to the primates. These three case studies demonstrate how the integration of biological and social methods can help us to understand the sustainability of human-wildlife interactions, and thus promote coexistence. In each case, an integrated biosocial approach incorporating ethnographic data produced results that would not otherwise have come to light. Research that transcends conventional academic boundaries requires the openness and flexibility to move beyond one's comfort zone to understand and acknowledge the legitimacy of "other" kinds of knowledge. It is

  15. Using Personal Water Footprints to Identify Consumer Food Choices that Influence the Conservation of Local Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    As the global demand for water and food escalates, the emphasis is on supply side factors rather than demand side factors such as consumers, whose personal water footprints are dominated (>90%) by food. Personal footprints include the water embedded in foods that are produced locally as well as those imported, raising the question of whether local shifts in people's food choices and habits could assist in addressing local water shortages. The current situation in California is interesting in that drought has affected an agriculturally productive region where a substantial portion of its food products are consumed by the state's large population. Unlike most agricultural regions where green water is the primary source of water for crops, California's arid climate demands an enormous volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports many of its food products, enough is consumed in-state so that residents making relatively minor shifts their food choices could save as much local blue water as their implementing more drastic reductions in household water use (comprising food group on both a caloric and gravimetric basis. Another change is wasting less food, which is a shared responsibility among consumers, producers and retailers; however, consumers' actions and preferences ultimately drive much of the waste. Personal water footprints suggest a role for individuals in conserving local water resources that is neither readily obvious nor a major focus of most conservation programs.

  16. Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunink, J E; Droogers, P; Kauffman, S; Mwaniki, B M; Bouma, J

    2012-11-30

    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to encourage upstream farmers to invest in soil and water conservation practices which will positively effect upstream and downstream water availability. Quantitative information on water and sediment fluxes is crucial as a basis for such financial schemes. A pilot design project in the large and strategically important Upper-Tana Basin in Kenya has the objective to develop a methodological framework for this purpose. The essence of the methodology is the integration and use of a collection of public domain tools and datasets: the so-called Green water and Blue water Assessment Toolkit (GBAT). This toolkit was applied in order to study different options to implement GWC in agricultural rainfed land for the pilot study. Impact of vegetative contour strips, mulching, and tied ridges were determined for: (i) three upstream key indicators: soil loss, crop transpiration and soil evaporation, and (ii) two downstream indicators: sediment inflow in reservoirs and groundwater recharge. All effects were compared with a baseline scenario of average conditions. Thus, not only actual land management was considered but also potential benefits of changed land use practices. Results of the simulations indicate that especially applying contour strips or tied ridges significantly reduces soil losses and increases groundwater recharge in the catchment. The model was used to build spatial expressions of the proposed management practices in order to assess their effectiveness. The developed procedure allows exploring the effects of soil conservation measures in a catchment to support the implementation of GWC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Water Conservancy Projects on River Network Connectivity, A Case of Luanhe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Connectivity is one of the most important characteristics of a river, which is derived from the natural water cycle and determine the renewability of river water. The water conservancy project can change the connectivity of natural river networks, and directly threaten the health and stability of the river ecosystem. Based on the method of Dendritic Connectivity Index (DCI), the impacts from sluices and dams on the connectivity of river network are deeply discussed herein. DCI quantitatively evaluate the connectivity of river networks based on the number of water conservancy facilities, the connectivity of fish and geographical location. The results show that the number of water conservancy facilities and their location in the river basin have a great influence on the connectivity of the river network. With the increase of the number of sluices and dams, DCI is decreasing gradually, but its decreasing range is becoming smaller and smaller. The dam located in the middle of the river network cuts the upper and lower parts of the whole river network, and destroys the connectivity of the river network more seriously. Therefore, this method can be widely applied to the comparison of different alternatives during planning of river basins and then provide a reference for the site selection and design of the water conservancy project and facility concerned.

  18. Update of Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmordie, Katherine; Solana, Amy E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2005-09-08

    This updated market assessment for capturing water conservation opportunities in the Federal sector is based on a new analytical approach that utilizes newly available data and technologies. The new approach fine-tunes the original assessment by using actual Federal water use, which is now tracked by DOE (as compared to using estimated water use). Federal building inventory data is also used to disseminate water use by end-use technology in the Federal sector. In addition, this analysis also examines the current issues and obstacles that face performance contracting of water efficiency projects at Federal sites.

  19. Natural Fostering in Fritillaria cirrhosa: Integrating herbal medicine production with biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are generally regarded as a power tool to conserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, few protected areas could address three crucial problems simultaneously, namely funding, public participation and rural living. Here, we introduced a new protective approach, Natural Fostering, which integrated herbal medicine production with community conservation. The principles of Natural Fostering adopted species–species interaction at community level. Most effective chemical components of herbal medicine are derived from such interaction. Fritillaria cirrhosa was selected as an economic botany, one of herbal medicines, to carry out Natural Fostering. Community habitats, herbal medicine production, funding and income of local family were investigated to verify the feasibility of Natural Fostering for biodiversity. We found the density of plant populations and the annual average personal income of rural people increased. F. cirrhosa production could provide sufficient funds for sustainable conservation. Local people gradually changed their life style of wild collection and overgrazing, instead of herbal medicine production. The fostering area set up a good sustainable economic cycle. Natural Fostering can be presented as an effective and pragmatic way to conserve biological diversity and sustainable utilization of traditional medicinal resources.

  20. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  1. Integrating between Malay culture and conservation in Green campus program: Best practices from Universitas Riau, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwondo, Darmadi, Yunus, Mohd.

    2017-11-01

    Green campus program (GCP) is a policy to optimize the role of the University of Riau in implementing sustainable development. Green campus development is done by integrating Malay culture and conservation in every implementation of the program. We identify the biophysical, economic and socio-cultural characteristics as well as the problems encountered in the campus environment. This study uses desk study, survey, and focus group discussion (FGD). GCP analysis is divided into several stages, namely assess problem, design, implementation, monitor, evaluate and adjust. Bina Widya Campus of Universitas Riau has a good biodiversity of flora and fauna with species characteristics in lowland tropical forest ecosystems. Plant species of the Dipterocarpaceae family are the dominant species, whereas fauna is from reptile, leaves, and mammals. Efforts to maintain and enhance species diversity are undertaken by designing and constructing Arboretum and Ecoedupark for the ex situ conservation of flora and fauna. The enrichment of species is carried out by planting vegetation types that are closely related to Malay culture. On the other hand, the management of the green campus faces challenges in the diverse perceptions of stakeholders with low levels of academic participation. Economically the existence of the campus provides a multiplier effect on the emergence of various economic activities of the community around the campus. Implementation of green university campus of Riau University by integrating Melayu culture and conservation contributes to the creation of green open space which is increasingly widespread and able to support sustainable development, especially in Pekanbaru City.

  2. Thailand Environment Monitor : Integrated Water Resources Management - A Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Water is everyone's business. Beside a necessity for living, water has implications on public health and, most importantly, can cause social conflicts. This is because water is limited, is difficult to control, and can easily be polluted. The Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) process is considered worldwide as a means to reduce social conflicts from competing water needs as well ...

  3. Study on the Strategies for the Soil and Water Resource Con-servation of Slopeland in Taiwan in Response to the Extreme Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Global climate change results in extreme weather, especially ex-treme precipitation in Taiwan. Though the total amount of precipi-tation remains unchanged, the frequency of rainfall return period increases which affects slopeland and causes sediment disaster. In Taiwan, slopeland occupies about 73% of national territory. Under harsh environmental stress, soil and water conservation of slope-land becomes more important. In response to the trends of global-ization impacts of climate change, long term strategic planning be-comes more necessary. This study reviewed international practices and decision making process about soil and water conservation of slopeland; and conducted the compilation and analysis of water and soil conservation related research projects in Taiwan within the past five years. It is necessary for Taiwan to design timely adaptive strategies about conducting the all-inclusive conservation of na-tional territory, management and business operation of watershed based on the existing regulation with the effects of extreme weather induced by climate change and the changes of social-economic en-vironments. In order to realize the policy vision of "Under the premise of multiple uses, operating the sustainable business and management of the water and soil resources in the watershed through territorial planning in response to the climate and so-cial-economic environment change". This study concluded the future tasks for soil and water con-servation: 1.Design and timely amend strategies for soil and wand water conservation in response to extreme weather. 2. Strengthen the planning and operating of the land management and integrated conservation of the water and soil resources of key watershed. 3. Manage and operate the prevention of debris flow disaster and large-scale landslide. 4. Formulate polices, related regulations and assessment indicators of soil and water conservation. 5. Maintain the biodiversity of the slopeland and reduce the ecological footprint

  4. A class of conservative Hamiltonians with exactly integrable discrete two-dimensional parametric maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikande, Alain M; Njumbe, E Epie

    2010-01-01

    A class of discrete conservative Hamiltonians with completely integrable two-dimensional (2D) mappings is constructed whose generic models are three families of non-integrable discrete Hamiltonians with on-site potentials whose double-well shapes vary. Unlike the discrete 2D mappings associated with the generic models, which all display pitchfork bifurcations towards randomly pinned states with chaotic features, for the derived models the pitchfork bifurcation leads to fixed points always surrounded by periodic trajectories. A nonlinear stability analysis reveals a finite crossover on the bifurcation line at which the pitchfork transition takes the maps from regular real periodic trajectories towards a regime dominated by a cluster of periodic point trajectories representing the allowed real solutions. The rich variety of structures displayed by the new class of discrete maps, combined with their complete integrability, offer rich perspectives for theoretical modelling of a wide class of systems undergoing structural instabilities without noticeable chaotic precursors.

  5. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  6. Integrating factors and conservation theorems for Hamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁杰; 乔永芬; 刘洋

    2002-01-01

    We present a general approach to the construction of conservation laws for variable mass nonholonomic noncon-servative systems. First, we give the definition of integrating factors, and we study in detail the necessary conditionsfor the existence of the conserved quantities. Then, we establish the conservation theorem and its inverse theorem forHamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems. Finally,we give an example to illustrate the application of the results.

  7. Conservative integration of rigid body motion by quaternion parameters with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    An angular momentum and energy‐conserving time integration algorithm for rigid body rotation is formulated in terms of the quaternion parameters and the corresponding four‐component conjugate momentum vector via Hamilton's equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric...... these equations via the set of momentum equations. Initially, the normalization of the quaternion array is introduced via a Lagrange multiplier. However, this Lagrange multiplier can be expressed explicitly in terms of the gradient of the external load potential, and elimination of the Lagrange multiplier from...... the final format leaves only an explicit projection applied to the external load potential gradient. An algorithm is developed by forming a finite increment of the Hamiltonian. This procedure identifies the proper selection of increments and mean values, and leads to an algorithm with conservation...

  8. Water Use and Conservation on a Free-Stall Dairy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne L. Le Riche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock watering can represent as much as 20% of total agricultural water use in areas with intensive dairy farming. Due to an increased emphasis on water conservation for the agricultural sector, it is important to understand the current patterns of on-farm water use. This study utilized in situ water meters to measure the year-round on-farm pumped water (i.e., blue water on a ~419 lactating cow confined dairy operation in Eastern Ontario, Canada. The average total water use for the farm was 90,253 ± 15,203 L day−1 and 33,032 m3 annually. Water use was divided into nutritional water (68%, parlour cleaning and operation (14%, milk pre-cooling (15%, barn cleaning, misters and other uses (3%. There was a positive correlation between total monthly water consumption (i.e., nutritional water and average monthly temperature for lactating cows, heifers, and calves (R2 = 0.69, 0.84, and 0.85, respectively. The blue water footprint scaled by milk production was 6.19 L kg−1 milk or 6.41 L kg−1 fat-and-protein corrected milk (FPCM including contributions from all animal groups and 5.34 L kg−1 milk (5.54 L kg−1 FPCM when excluding the water consumption of non-lactating animals. By applying theoretical water conservation scenarios we show that a combination of strategies (air temperature reduction, complete recycling of milk-cooling water, and modified cow preparation protocol could achieve a savings of 6229 m3 annually, a ~19% reduction in the total annual water use.

  9. The water economy of South American desert rodents: from integrative to molecular physiological ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Gallardo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Rodents from arid and semi-arid habitats live under conditions where the spatial and temporal availability of free water is limited, or scarce, thus forcing these rodents to deal with the problem of water conservation. The response of rodents to unproductive desert environments and water deficits has been intensively investigated in many deserts of the world. However, current understanding of the cellular, systemic and organismal physiology of water economy relies heavily on short-term, laboratory-oriented experiments, which usually focus on responses at isolated levels of biological organization. In addition, studies in small South American mammals are scarce. Indeed xeric habitats have existed in South America for a long time and it is intriguing why present day South American desert rodents do not show the wide array of adaptive traits to desert life observed for rodents on other continents. Several authors have pointed out that South American desert rodents lack physiological and energetic specialization for energy and water conservation, hypothesizing that their success is based more on behavioral and ecological strategies. We review phenotypic flexibility and physiological diversity in water flux rate, urine osmolality, and expression of water channels in South American desert-dwelling rodents. As far as we know, this is the first review of integrative studies at cellular, systemic and organismal levels. Our main conclusion is that South American desert rodents possess structural as well as physiological systems for water conservation, which are as remarkable as those found in "classical" rodents inhabiting other desert areas of the world.

  10. A Regional Assessment of the Effects of Conservation Practices on In-stream Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.; Alexander, R. B.; Arnold, J.; Norfleet, L.; Robertson, D. M.; White, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), initiated by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), has the goal of quantifying the environmental benefits of agricultural conservation practices. As part of this effort, detailed farmer surveys were compiled to document the adoption of conservation practices. Survey data showed that up to 38 percent of cropland in the Upper Mississippi River basin is managed to reduce sediment, nutrient and pesticide loads from agricultural activities. The broader effects of these practices on downstream water quality are challenging to quantify. The USDA-NRCS recently reported results of a study that combined farmer surveys with process-based models to deduce the effect of conservation practices on sediment and chemical loads in farm runoff and downstream waters. As a follow-up collaboration, USGS and USDA scientists conducted a semi-empirical assessment of the same suite of practices using the USGS SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) modeling framework. SPARROW is a hybrid statistical and mechanistic stream water quality model of annual conditions that has been used extensively in studies of nutrient sources and delivery. In this assessment, the USDA simulations of the effects of conservation practices on loads in farm runoff were used as an explanatory variable (i.e., change in farm loads per unit area) in a component of an existing a SPARROW model of the Upper Midwest. The model was then re-calibrated and tested to determine whether the USDA estimate of conservation adoption intensity explained a statistically significant proportion of the spatial variability in stream nutrient loads in the Upper Mississippi River basin. The results showed that the suite of conservation practices that NRCS has catalogued as complete nutrient and sediment management are a statistically significant feature in the Midwestern landscape associated with phosphorous runoff and delivery to downstream waters

  11. Integrating stakeholder input into water policy development and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural water use is becoming an issue in much of the South due to population growth. Results of projects evaluating the impacts of conservation strategies aimed at reallocating or extending the life of water supplies are being met with great skepticism by stakeholder groups. In order to gain a...

  12. On the case of Goryachev-Chaplygin and new examples of integrable conservative systems on S^2

    OpenAIRE

    Selivanova, E. N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a class of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral cubic in momenta. We prove that this class of systems consists off the case of Goryachev-Chaplygin, the one-parameter family of systems which has been found by the author in the previous paper (dg-ga/9711005) and a new two-parameter family of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral cubic in momenta.

  13. The Strategy of Water Resources Conservation in Regunung Village, Tengaran Subdistrict, Semarang District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puatin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Water resource conservation is a required activity to do in in Regunung Village, Tengaran Subdistrict, Semarang District because this area is potentially dried and has often experienced the lack of clean water even though the water resource conservation is vegetatively conducted. The resecarh is conducted from June to August 2014. The purpose of this research is to analyze the strategy of water resource conservation in Regunung Village by analyze the social-economy condition and physical condition. The method used to gain data is obeservation and direct measuring including vegetation analysis, the data analysis of the citra condition of the changing of the land; the crossed tabulation analysis and Marcov Chain for the projection of the cahinging of the land use; the technique of interview using questioners to know the participation of community; the secondary data analysis, FGD to determine the strategy of water resource conservation with SWOT analysis. The population of this research is the people of Regunung Village. Respondent is purposively determined by the number of respondent based on Slovin formula, while the FGD informant is purposively determined. The result of the research shows that the condition of Regunung Village is located at discharged area CAT Salatiga with the various level of elevation and the type of soil is latosol. The changing of the use of land happening since 1991 - 2014. The vegetation condition shows that the planting method used in Regunung Village is Agroforestry. The index of diversity for three in Regunung Village is at the low level (0,8. The result of the social-economy condition research shows that the majority people's income is less than Rp. 1.000.000,00 and the level of participation is on placation level. The Water Resource Conservation Strategy suggested is the diversification strategy.

  14. Effects of terracing on soil and water conservation in China: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Die; Wei, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Terracing has long been considered a powerful strategy for soil and water conservation. However, the efficiency is limited by many factors, such as climate, soil properties, topography, land use, population and socioeconomic status. The aim of this critical review was to discuss the effects of terracing on soil and water conservation in China, using a systematic approach to select peer-reviewed articles published in English and Chinese. 46 individual studies were analyzed, involving six terracing structures (level terraces, slope-separated terraces, slope terraces, reverse-slope terraces, fanya juu terraces and half-moon terraces), a wide geographical range (Northeastern China, Southeastern hilly areas, Southwestern mountain areas and Northwestern-central China), and six land use types (forest, crop trees, cropland, shrub land, grassland and bare land) as well as a series of slope gradients ranging from 3° to 35°. Statistical meta-analysis with runoff for 593 observations and sediment for 636 observations confirmed that terracing had a significant effect on water erosion control. In terms of different terrace structures, runoff and sediment reduction were uppermost on slope-separated terraces. Land use in terraces also played a crucial role in the efficiency of conservation, and tree crops and forest were detected as the most powerful land covers in soil and water conservation due to large aboveground biomass and strong root systems below the ground, which directly reduces the pressure of terraces on rainwater redistribution. In addition, a significant positive correlation between slope gradients (3° 15° and 16° 35°) and terracing efficiency on soil and water conservation was observed. This study revealed the effectiveness and variation of terracing on water erosion control on the national scale, which can serve as a scientific basis to land managers and decision-makers.

  15. Measuring, understanding and implementing (or at least trying) soil and water conservation in agricultural areas in Mediterranean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Burguet, María; Castillo, Carlos; de Luna, Elena; Guzmán, Gema; Lora, Ángel; Lorite, Ignacio; Mora, José; Pérez, Rafael; Soriano, María A.; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    these strategies under predicted climate change scenarios in a few decades from now. The models are also used to evaluate historical erosion rates, and the long-term impact of soil erosion on olive yield due to the loss of soil profile. This is our second major line of research. Our their key line of research is the analysis of gully erosion processes, from field based observation to evaluation at regional scale, and the development of cost-effective strategies for gully control at farm scale. This includes the testing of some of these strategies with farmers. We integrate the use of vegetation in gully erosion control strategies to enhance biodiversity and landscape values; both severely degraded in many agricultural areas in the Mediterranean. The fourth, and last, major line of research is the development or improvement of technologies for soil erosion studies. Among them is the use of rainfall simulations, laboratory flumes, photoreconstruction techniques for 3D model, improved sampling devices, etc. Within this line we have improved the use of sediment tracers to understand the processes of sediment mobilization within the landscape, or at plot scale. This greatly improves our understanding of erosion processes and the actual effectiveness of erosion control strategies. The results of these lines of research are put together in the form of Good Agricultural Practices, and technical notes, software, for implementation by farmers and technicians working at the fields that are disseminated through seminars, cooperation with government and non-government agencies and other documents such as videos or web sites. In this communication we mention some of the our research in order to highlight the major problems and questions that are faced when trying to develop viable soil and water conservation techniques, specially the need for transdisciplinary research and the cooperation, form the start, with key stakeholders, specially farmers.

  16. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  17. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  18. Influence of soil and water conservation techniques on yield of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the application of soil and water conservation techniques in relation to yield of small-holder swamp rice farmers in Imo State, Nigeria in 2009. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the farmer were described, their influence on the application of the techniques examined and relationship of ...

  19. Every Drop Counts: Students Develop Public Service Announcements on the Importance of Water Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Nina Christiane; Hull, Mary Margaret

    2002-01-01

    In today's fast-paced, technological world, it is a constant battle for teachers to find new and exciting ways to challenge and engage their students. One success story involves a unique collaborative project that focuses on water resources and conservation in which students design public service announcements (PSAs) to be produced and aired on…

  20. Extending the economic life of the Ogallala Aquifer with water conservation policies in the Texas panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continued decline in the availability of water from the Ogallala Aquifer in the Texas Panhandle has led to an increased interest in conservation policies designed to extend the life of the aquifer and sustain rural economies. Four counties were chosen for evaluation. This study evaluates the eff...

  1. The Design and Development of a Simulation to Teach Water Conservation to Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Information and Communications Technology (ICT) plays a dominant role in enhancing teaching and learning. Similar advances have been made in the use of multimedia in the classroom. These advances are coupled with newer developmental tools and techniques. This paper examines the design and development of a simulation on water conservation. Science…

  2. Design and Implementation of a Research-Informed Water Conservation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ruthanne; Coe, Alice; Klaver, Irene; Dickson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Informed by the results of a baseline research study of regional citizen knowledge and understanding concerning watershed issues, a team of university faculty and classroom teachers designed and implemented a water conservation education program to address lacking areas of watershed knowledge. The authors developed age-appropriate, hands-on…

  3. Eco-hydrological Responses to Soil and Water Conservation in the Jinghe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H.; Jia, Y.; Qiu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Jinghe River Basin is one of the most serious soil erosion areas in the Loess Plateau. Many measures of soil and water conservation were applied in the basin. Terrestrial ecosystem model BIOME-BGC and distributed hydrological model WEP-L were used to build eco-hydrological model and verified by field observation and literature values. The model was applied in the Jinghe River Basin to analyze eco-hydrological responses under the scenarios of vegetation type change due to soil and water conservation polices. Four scenarios were set under the measures of conversion of cropland to forest, forestation on bare land, forestation on slope wasteland and planting grass on bare land. Analysis results show that the soil and water conservation has significant effects on runoff and the carbon cycle in the Jinghe River Basin: the average annual runoff would decrease and the average annual NPP and carbon storage would increase. Key words: soil and water conservation; conversion of cropland to forest; eco-hydrology response; the Jinghe River Basin

  4. Modeling the effect of three soil and water conservation practices in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Meijerink, G.W.; Mosugu, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Severe land degradation affects the livelihood of many farmers in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Various soil and water conservation practices have been proposed to reduce land degradation and to improve the quality of the natural resource base but quantitative information on their

  5. A pragmatic approach to modelling soil and water conservation measures with a cathment scale erosion model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.; Tenge, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce soil erosion, soil and water conservation (SWC) methods are often used. However, no method exists to model beforehand how implementing such measures will affect erosion at catchment scale. A method was developed to simulate the effects of SWC measures with catchment scale erosion models.

  6. Soil variability and effectiveness of soil and water conservation in the Sahel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hien, F.G.; Rietkerk, M.; Stroosnijder, L.

    1997-01-01

    Sahelian sylvopastoral lands often degrade into bare and crusted areas where regeneration of soil and vegetation is impossible in the short term unless soil and water conservation measures are implemented. Five combinations of tillage with and without mulch on three crust type/soil type combinations

  7. The Effect of Strategic Message Selection on Residents' Intent to Conserve Water in the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Rumble, Joy; Martin, Emmett; Lamm, Alexa J.; Cantrell, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Changing individuals' behaviors is a critical challenge for Extension professionals who encourage good irrigation practices and technologies for landscape water conservation. Multiple messages were used to influence two predictors of behavioral intent informed by the theory of planned behavior, Florida residents' (N = 1,063) attitude and perceived…

  8. 75 FR 27926 - Notice of Availability of Interpretive Rule on the Applicability of Current Water Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-NOA-0016] Notice of Availability of Interpretive Rule on the Applicability of Current Water Conservation Standards for Showerheads; Request for Comments AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments. SUMMARY...

  9. Factors influencing adoption of soil and water conservation measures in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodnar, F.; Graaff, de J.

    2003-01-01

    A soil and water conservation (SWC) extension programme, promoting erosion control measures and soil fertility measures, has been going on in southern Mali since 1986. Five factors that influence farmer adoption of SWC measures were analysed: land pressure, cotton-growing area, possession of

  10. Using Soil and Water Conservation Contests for Extension: Experiences from the Bolivian Mountain Valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, A.; Graaff, de J.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) contests among farmer groups were organized in five rural villages in the Bolivian mountain valleys. The contests were aimed at quickly achieving widespread sustainable results. This article analyzes the effectiveness of these contests as an extension tool. Mixed

  11. Participatory appraisal for farm-level soil and water conservation planning in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on the steep slopes of Usambara Mountains. The need for SWC has resulted in the development and promotion of several SWC measures by both governmental and non-governmental programmes.

  12. Does land tenure security matter for investment in soil and water conservation? Evidence from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabubo-Mariara, J.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of tenure security and other factors on investment in soil and water conservation (SWC) in Kenya. Factor analysis, step-wise regression and reduced form model approaches are used to explain the willingness, likelihood and intensity of adoption of SWC investments.

  13. Social and economic factors for adoption of soil and water conservation in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Graaff, de J.; Hella, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is one of the major constraints to agricultural production in many parts of the Tanzanian highlands. Although several soil and water conservation technologies have been developed and promoted, the adoption of many recommended measures is minimal and soil erosion continues to

  14. promoting integrated water resources management in south west

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1, 2 SOUTH WEST REGIONAL CENTRE FOR NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES CAPACITY BUILDING NETWORK,. FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF ... that an integrated approach to water resource development and management offers the best ...

  15. Framework for local government to implement integrated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... Integrated water resource management (IWRM) is such a process and it ..... procedures. The WSDP consists of 10 business elements (see Table. 1). ..... Origin, volume and quality of raw water available from each source.

  16. SESSION V: INTEGRATED APPROACHES IN LAND AND WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SESSION V: INTEGRATED APPROACHES IN LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT RESEARCH/LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS AND POLICY - Socioeconomic implications of improved forage species on smallholder farms in Kenya.

  17. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment

  18. On certain two-dimensional conservative mechanical systems with a cubic second integral

    CERN Document Server

    Yehia, H M

    2002-01-01

    In a previous paper (Yehia H M 1986 J. Mec. Theor. Appl. 5 55-71) we have introduced a method for constructing integrable conservative two-dimensional mechanical systems whose second integral of motion is polynomial in the velocities. This method has proved successful in constructing a multitude of irreversible systems (involving gyroscopic forces) with a second quadratic integral (Yehia H M 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 197-221). The objective of this paper is to apply the same method for the systematic construction of mechanical systems with a cubic integral. As in our previous works, the configuration space is not assumed to be a Euclidean plane. This widens the range of applicability of the results to diverse mechanical systems to include such problems as rigid body dynamics. Several new reversible and irreversible integrable systems are obtained. Some of these systems generalize previously known ones by introducing additional parameters which may change either or both of the configuration manifold and t...

  19. Conservative multi-implicit integral deferred correction methods with adaptive mesh refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    In most models of reacting gas dynamics, the characteristic time scales of chemical reactions are much shorter than the hydrodynamic and diffusive time scales, rendering the reaction part of the model equations stiff. Moreover, nonlinear forcings may introduce into the solutions sharp gradients or shocks, the robust behavior and correct propagation of which require the use of specialized spatial discretization procedures. This study presents high-order conservative methods for the temporal integration of model equations of reacting flows. By means of a method of lines discretization on the flux difference form of the equations, these methods compute approximations to the cell-averaged or finite-volume solution. The temporal discretization is based on a multi-implicit generalization of integral deferred correction methods. The advection term is integrated explicitly, and the diffusion and reaction terms are treated implicitly but independently, with the splitting errors present in traditional operator splitting methods reduced via the integral deferred correction procedure. To reduce computational cost, time steps used to integrate processes with widely-differing time scales may differ in size. (author)

  20. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  1. [Application of biotope mapping model integrated with vegetation cover continuity attributes in urban biodiversity conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Qiu, Ling; Chen, Cun-gen

    2010-09-01

    Based on the biotope classification system with vegetation structure as the framework, a modified biotope mapping model integrated with vegetation cover continuity attributes was developed, and applied to the study of the greenbelts in Helsingborg in southern Sweden. An evaluation of the vegetation cover continuity in the greenbelts was carried out by the comparisons of the vascular plant species richness in long- and short-continuity forests, based on the identification of woodland continuity by using ancient woodland indicator species (AWIS). In the test greenbelts, long-continuity woodlands had more AWIS. Among the forests where the dominant trees were more than 30-year-old, the long-continuity ones had a higher biodiversity of vascular plants, compared with the short-continuity ones with the similar vegetation structure. The modified biotope mapping model integrated with the continuity features of vegetation cover could be an important tool in investigating urban biodiversity, and provide corresponding strategies for future urban biodiversity conservation.

  2. Contribution of the Land and Water Development Division of FAO to soil and water conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, F.I.

    1980-01-01

    The Land and Water Development Division of FAO has played an active role in promoting soil conservation measures. It has provided advice and expert assistance to many countries and is involved in more than fifty field programmes related to soil conservation. It conducts seminars, workshops, and training courses and provides fellowships for individuals. Technical and education material has been published. Maps have been developed showing the present degradation and risk of degradation in Africa and methodology used in assessment of soil degradation is outlined. (author)

  3. PRIORITY AREAS FOR FOREST CONSERVATION, AIMING AT THE MAINTENANCE OF WATER RESOURCES, THROUGH THE MULTICRITERIA EVALUATION1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A M Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Replacing the original land cover by other land uses, especially when it is associated with inadequate management practices, can cause changes in runoff and rainwater infiltration. This can result in above normal levels of soil erosion and sediment-carrying to the rivers and streams. The original land cover conservation in the watersheds is, therefore, essential for the maintenance of its water resources. In this context, the main objective of this study was to prioritize areas for forest conservation in two watersheds, aiming at maintaining the water availability, in terms of quantity and quality, for the public supply. The watersheds were selected considering their regional importance and because they are similar in terms of land use / land cover. The study was developed in the Multicriteria Evaluation (MCE context, which permits the integration of different landscape characteristics (i.e. factors, in order to obtain a solution for the decision-making process. The following criteria were selected by considering the expert's opinions: slope, flow accumulation, aspect, and land use / land cover. Their relative importance (i.e. factor weight was defined through the Pairwise Comparison Method. The criteria maps units were normalized by a common scale and then aggregated through an MCE method named Weighted Linear Combination (WLC. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the criteria contribution on the final map. The watershed 1 was classified in approximately 14% of its area as very high priority; 27% as high; 19% as medium; 21% as low; and 18% as very low. The watershed 2 obtained, respectively, 17%; 29%; 17%; 21%; e 17%. We conclude that the WLC method supports the definition of priority areas for forest conservation in the watersheds, in order to have an appropriate design of actions for forest conservation.

  4. Integrating Laser Scanner and Bim for Conservation and Reuse: "the Lyric Theatre of Milan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utica, G.; Pinti, L.; Guzzoni, L.; Bonelli, S.; Brizzolari, A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper underlines the importance to apply a methodology that integrates the Building Information Modeling (BIM), Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and the Laser Scanner tool in conservation and reuse projects. As it is known, the laser scanner technology provides a survey of the building object which is more accurate rather than that carried out using traditional methodologies. Today most existing buildings present their attributes in a dispersed way, stored and collected in paper documents, in sheets of equipment information, in file folders of maintenance records. In some cases, it is difficult to find updated technical documentation and the research of reliable data can be a cost and time-consuming process. Therefore, this new survey technology, embedded with BIM systems represents a valid tool to obtain a coherent picture of the building state. The following case consists in the conservation and reuse project of Milan Lyric Theatre, started in 2013 from the collaboration between the Milan Polytechnic and the Municipality. This project first attempts to integrate these new techniques which are already professional standards in many other countries such as the US, Norway, Finland, England and so on. Concerning the methodology, the choice has been to use BIM software for the structured analysis of the project, with the aim to define a single code of communication to develop a coherent documentation according to rules in a consistent manner and in tight schedules. This process provides the definition of an effective and efficient operating method that can be applied to other projects.

  5. Ana3 is a conserved protein required for the structural integrity of centrioles and basal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Naomi R; Dobbelaere, Jeroen; Wainman, Alan; Gergely, Fanni; Raff, Jordan W

    2009-11-02

    Recent studies have identified a conserved "core" of proteins that are required for centriole duplication. A small number of additional proteins have recently been identified as potential duplication factors, but it is unclear whether any of these proteins are components of the core duplication machinery. In this study, we investigate the function of one of these proteins, Drosophila melanogaster Ana3. We show that Ana3 is present in centrioles and basal bodies, but its behavior is distinct from that of the core duplication proteins. Most importantly, we find that Ana3 is required for the structural integrity of both centrioles and basal bodies and for centriole cohesion, but it is not essential for centriole duplication. We show that Ana3 has a mammalian homologue, Rotatin, that also localizes to centrioles and basal bodies and appears to be essential for cilia function. Thus, Ana3 defines a conserved family of centriolar proteins and plays an important part in ensuring the structural integrity of centrioles and basal bodies.

  6. Integrating Ecological and Social Ranges of Variability in Conservation of Biodiversity: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally L. Duncan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical range of variability has been proposed as a concept that can be used by forest land managers to guide conservation of ecosystem functions and biodiversity conservation. The role of humans in historical range of variability has remained somewhat murky and unsettled, even though it is clear that humans have been, are, and will continue to be forces of disturbance and recovery in forested landscapes. We attempt to develop concepts that integrate the ecological and social forces affecting landscape variability. Toward that end, we present a conceptual framework that places "range of variability" into a broader context and integrates the ecological and social forces affecting landscapes past, present, and future. We use two terms to aid us in understanding the utility of historical range of variability as a context and future range of variability as a point of comparison: (1 the ecological range of variability is the estimated range of some ecological condition as a function of the biophysical and social forces affecting the area and (2 the social range of variability is the range of an ecological condition that society finds acceptable at a given time. We find it is important to recognize that future range of variability represents a constantly emerging and changing set of conditions, and that the more humans push a system to depart from its historical range of variabiloity domain, the less likely it becomes that historical range of variability processes will prove useful as benchmarks in recovering a system.

  7. Integrating Traditional and Evolutionary Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation: a Population Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan J. Fraser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their dual importance in the assessment of endangered/threatened species, there have been few attempts to integrate traditional ecological knowledge (TEK and evolutionary biology knowledge (EBK at the population level. We contrasted long-term aboriginal TEK with previously obtained EBK in the context of seasonal migratory habits and population biology of a salmonid fish, brook charr, (Salvelinus fontinalis inhabiting a large, remote postglacial lake. Compilation of TEK spanning four decades involved analytical workshops, semidirective interviews, and collaborative fieldwork with local aboriginal informants and fishing guides. We found that TEK complemented EBK of brook charr by providing concordant and additional information about (1 population viability; (2 breeding areas and migration patterns of divergent populations; and (3 the behavioral ecology of populations within feeding areas; all of which may ultimately affect the maintenance of population diversity. Aboriginal concerns related to human pressures on this species, not revealed by EBK, also help to focus future conservation initiatives for divergent populations and to encourage restoration of traditional fishing practices. However, relative to EBK, the relevance of TEK to salmonid biodiversity conservation was evident mainly at a smaller spatial scale, for example, that of individual rivers occupied by populations or certain lake sectors. Nevertheless, EBK was only collected over a 4-yr period, so TEK provided an essential long-term temporal window to evaluate population differences and persistence. We concluded that, despite different conceptual underpinnings, spatially and temporally varying TEK and EBK both contribute to the knowledge base required to achieve sustainability and effective biodiversity conservation planning for a given species. Such integration may be particularly relevant in many isolated regions, where intraspecific diversity can go unrecognized due to sparse

  8. Joint optimization scheduling for water conservancy projects in complex river networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we simulated water flow in a water conservancy project consisting of various hydraulic structures, such as sluices, pumping stations, hydropower stations, ship locks, and culverts, and developed a multi-period and multi-variable joint optimization scheduling model for flood control, drainage, and irrigation. In this model, the number of sluice holes, pump units, and hydropower station units to be opened were used as decision variables, and different optimization objectives and constraints were considered. This model was solved with improved genetic algorithms and verified using the Huaian Water Conservancy Project as an example. The results show that the use of the joint optimization scheduling led to a 10% increase in the power generation capacity and a 15% reduction in the total energy consumption. The change in the water level was reduced by 0.25 m upstream of the Yundong Sluice, and by 50% downstream of pumping stations No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4. It is clear that the joint optimization scheduling proposed in this study can effectively improve power generation capacity of the project, minimize operating costs and energy consumption, and enable more stable operation of various hydraulic structures. The results may provide references for the management of water conservancy projects in complex river networks.

  9. Conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff using riparian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prabodh; Singh, Shipra

    2012-01-01

    Three riparian plant species viz. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Saccharum bengalensis Retz. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. were selected from the riparian zone of Kali river at Aligarh to conduct the surface runoff experiment to compare their conservation efficiencies for soil, water and nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen). Experimental plots were prepared on artificial slopes in botanical garden and on natural slopes on study site. Selected riparian plant species showed the range of conservation values for soil and water from 47.11 to 95.22% and 44.06 to 72.50%, respectively on artificial slope and from 44.53 to 95.33% and 48.36 to 73.15%, respectively on natural slope. Conservation values for phosphorus and nitrogen ranged from 40.83 to 88.89% and 59.78 to 82.22%, respectively on artificial slope and from 50.01 to 90.16% and 68.07 to 85.62%, respectively on natural slope. It was observed that Cynodon dactylon was the most efficient riparian species in conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff.

  10. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response...

  11. Integral parameters for characterizing water, energy, and aeration properties of soilless plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamindu Deepagoda, T. K. K.; Chen Lopez, Jose Choc; Møldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Tuller, Markus

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade there has been a significant shift in global agricultural practice. Because the rapid increase of human population poses unprecedented challenges to production of an adequate and economically feasible food supply for undernourished populations, soilless greenhouse production systems are regaining increased worldwide attention. The optimal control of water availability and aeration is an essential prerequisite to successfully operate plant growth systems with soilless substrates such as aggregated foamed glass, perlite, rockwool, coconut coir, or mixtures thereof. While there are considerable empirical and theoretical efforts devoted to characterize water retention and aeration substrate properties, a holistic, physically-based approach considering water retention and aeration concurrently is lacking. In this study, the previously developed concept of integral water storage and energy was expanded to dual-porosity substrates and an analog integral oxygen diffusivity parameter was introduced to simultaneously characterize aeration properties of four common soilless greenhouse growth media. Integral parameters were derived for greenhouse crops in general, as well as for tomatoes. The integral approach provided important insights for irrigation management and for potential optimization of substrate properties. Furthermore, an observed relationship between the integral parameters for water availability and oxygen diffusivity can be potentially applied for the design of advanced irrigation and management strategies to ensure stress-free growth conditions, while conserving water resources.

  12. Integrating Science and Land Management for the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in Southwestern Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Heilman, P.; Nearing, M.; Speath, K.; Hernandez, M.; Wei, H.; Holifield-Collins, C.; Kautz, M.; Nichols, M.; Barlow, J.; Guertin, P.; Burns, S.; Stone, J. J.; Weltz, M.; Metz, L.; Norfleet, L.; Duriancik, L.; Johnson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Farm Bill legislation enacted by Congress in 2002 directed the U.S. Department of Agriculture to assess of the benefits and efficacy of conservation practices provided by a variety of USDA programs. Benefits include improved agricultural production, reduction of erosion and associated nutrient losses, improved water quality, improved soil resilience, and improved habitat among others. To conduct the assessment, the USDA initiated CEAP or the Conservation Effects Assessment Project in 2003, which included a national assessment complemented by small watershed studies. The national assessment started in eastern and midwestern cultivated croplands and has now progressed to western rangelands. This presentation will discuss the challenges of assessing the effects of rangeland conservation practices in a period of unusually hot and dry climatic conditions in the Cienega Creek Watershed (CCW) located southeast of Tucson, Arizona. As is common in the western U.S., the CCW consists of a patchwork of private and public lands in the west with much of the public lands leased for grazing cattle. The watershed also has high recreational value and provides many ecosystem services, including wildlife habitat qualities and flood protection to Tucson. A combination of monitoring, modeling, and remote sensing was utilized in the assessment. Conservation spending in the watershed ramped up in 1997. However, the 16-year period from 1997-2012 contains almost half of the 23 driest seasons (lowest 20 percentile) from the 117-year observed precipitation record. Initial results indicate that Landsat remotely sensed images can be effectively used to estimate both green and senescent canopy cover. This enabled detection of the impacts of drought and changes in canopy cover from practices such as prescribed fire and mechanical brush removal. Cienega Creek Watershed - Land Ownership

  13. 78 FR 35951 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ...] Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant... grasshopper (Trimerotropis infantilis), and will address associated impacts and conservation measures for the... lawful activities associated with the operation and maintenance of the existing Graham Hill Water...

  14. Integrated Rural-Urban Water Management for Climate Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are serious short- and long-term consequences on human health, physical assets, economic ... To work, adaptive climate-proof integrated urban water management must extend throughout the whole catchment, an approach known as integrated water resource management. ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  15. Water conservation and improved production efficiency using closed-loop evaporative cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetta, C. [Niagara Blower Co., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described wet surface air coolers (WSAC) that can be used in refineries and hydrocarbon processing plants to address water use issues. These closed-loop evaporative cooling systems are a cost-effective technology for both heat transfer and water conservation. WSACs can help deliver required cooling water temperatures and improve plant performance while using water streams currently considered to be unusable with conventional towers and heat exchangers. WSACs are versatile and can provide solutions to water use, water quality, and outlet temperature. The benefits of the WSAC include capital cost savings, reduced system pressures, lower carbon footprint, and the ability to use poor quality water as makeup. Water makeup can be blowdown from other equipment, plant effluent, reclaimed water, produced water, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) wastewater, and even seawater. Units can be manufactured with a wide variety of materials depending on water quality, water treatment, and cycles of concentration. This paper also provided comparisons to other alternative technologies, capital and operating cost savings, and site specific case studies. Two other system designs can accommodate closed-loop heat transfer applications, notably an open tower with a heat exchanger and a dry, air-cooled system. A WSAC system is an efficient and effective heat rejection technology for several reasons. The WSAC cooler or condenser utilizes latent cooling, which is far more efficient than sensible cooling. This means that a WSAC system can cool the same heat load with a smaller footprint than all-dry systems. 6 figs.

  16. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  17. Effects of soil and water conservation on crop productivity: Evidences from Anjenie watershed, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgo, Enyew; Teshome, Akalu

    2014-05-01

    Widespread soil and water conservation activities have been implemented in many parts of eastern Africa to control soil erosion by water and improve land productivity for the last few decades. Following the 1974 severe drought, soil and water conservation became more important to Ethiopia and the approach shifted to watershed based land management initiatives since the 1980s. To capture long-term impacts of these initiatives, a study was conducted in Anjenie Watershed of Ethiopia, assessing fanya juu terraces and grass strips constructed in a pilot project in 1984, and which are still functional nearly 30 years later. Data were collected from government records, field observations and questionnaire surveys administered to 60 farmers. Half of the respondents had terraced farms in the watershed former project area (with terrace technology) and the rest were outside the terraced area. The crops assessed were teff, barley and maize. Cost-benefit analyses were used to determine the economic benefits with and without terraces, including gross and net profit values, returns on labour, water productivity and impacts on poverty. The results indicated that soil and water conservation had improved crop productivity. The average yield on terraced fields was 0.95 t ha-1 for teff (control 0.49), 1.86 t ha-1 for barley (control 0.61), and 1.73 t ha-1 for maize (control 0.77). The net benefit was significantly higher on terraced fields, recording US 20.9 (US -112 control) for teff, US 185 (US -41 control) for barley and US -34.5 (US - 101 control) ha-1 yr-1 for maize. The returns on family labour were 2.33 for barley, 1.01 for teff, and 0.739 US per person-day for maize grown on terraced plots, compared to US 0.44, 0.27 and 0.16 per person-day for plots without terraces, respectively. Using a discount rate of 10%, the average net present value (NPV) of barley production with terrace was found to be about US 1542 over a period of 50 years. In addition, the average financial

  18. Armenia : Towards Integrated Water Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the challenges in the water sector faced by Armenia today, and outline options for management and allocation of its water resources in the future, considering the need for a stable, transparent apublic sector management framework and sustainable resource use for long-term private investment and job creation, and for appropriate balances among water...

  19. Preliminary review of fisheries conservation gains within BC Hydro's water use planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, C.; Clayton, G.; Lewis, R.; Louie, R.; McAdam, S.; McFarlane, S.; Munro, J.; Ptolemy, R.; Werring, J.; Wightman, C.

    2004-05-01

    In 1998, the Government of British Columbia requested that BC Hydro review the water use and operating conditions of its power generation facilities. A water use plan (WUP) was to be produced for each of the facilities. As a supporter of processes that improve water management, Watershed Watch has been actively involved in British Columbia's WUP process. In the past 4 years, it has participated in the Coquitlam-Buntzen WUP consultative committee, the Coquitlam fish technical committee, the First Nations WUP committee, the fisheries advisory team on WUP, and the green hydro working group. Watershed Watch commissioned Quadra Planning Consultants to prepare this first independent assessment of the largest water restoration project undertaken in British Columbia. This report is an overview level analysis of the results thus far, of the WUP process from a fisheries conservation perspective, including First Nations expectations and interests related to fisheries. It focuses on the fish conservation gains that result from the WUP initiative. The report also examines how successfully the WUP incorporate First Nations' traditional ecological knowledge. An environmental lawyer examined whether the WUP process satisfies the expectations of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This report indicates that the WUP has improved the knowledge base and better defined the flow requirements for fish conservation at BC Hydro facilities. The outcomes for fish conservation have been mostly positive. The following 7 operating alternatives were recommended: reduced flows; rapid flow fluctuation; adequate flushing flows; altered water quality; entrainment of fish; flow diversion; and, reservoir drawdown. An ongoing monitoring program was also recommended. 11 refs., 16 tabs., 1 appendix

  20. Water Conservation in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in Relation to Carbon Dioxide Dark Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, G G; Chaturvedi, S N

    1975-03-01

    The succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poel. var Tom Thumb was treated on long and short photoperiods for 6 weeks during which short day plants developed thicker leaves, flowered prolifically, and exhibited extensive net dark fixation of carbon dioxide. In contrast, long day plants remained vegetative and did not develop thicker leaves or exhibit net carbon dioxide dark fixation. When examined after the photoperiodic state described, long day plants showed approximately three times more water loss over a 10-day period than short day plants. Water loss is similar during light and dark periods for short day plants but long day plants exhibited two times more water loss during the day than at night. The latter plants also lost three and one-half times more water during the light period than short day plants. The water conservation by short day plants is correlated with conditions of high carbon dioxide dark fixation and effects of its related Crassulacean acid metabolism on stomatal behavior.

  1. Competing Air Quality and Water Conservation Co-benefits from Power Sector Decarbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W.; Wagner, F.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Ramana, M. V.; Zhai, H.; Small, M.; Zhang, X.; Dalin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Decarbonizing the power sector can reduce fossil-based generation and associated air pollution and water use. However, power sector configurations that prioritize air quality benefits can be different from those that maximize water conservation benefits. Despite extensive work to optimize the generation mix under an air pollution or water constraint, little research has examined electricity transmission networks and the choice of which fossil fuel units to displace in order to achieve both environmental objectives simultaneously. When air pollution and water stress occur in different regions, the optimal transmission and displacement decisions still depend on priorities placed on air quality and water conservation benefits even if low-carbon generation planning is fixed. Here we use China as a test case, and develop a new optimization framework to study transmission and displacement decisions and the resulting air quality and water use impacts for six power sector decarbonization scenarios in 2030 ( 50% of national generation is low carbon). We fix low-carbon generation in each scenario (e.g. type, location, quantity) and vary technology choices and deployment patterns across scenarios. The objective is to minimize the total physical costs (transmission costs and coal power generation costs) and the estimated environmental costs. Environmental costs are estimated by multiplying effective air pollutant emissions (EMeff, emissions weighted by population density) and effective water use (Weff, water use weighted by a local water stress index) by their unit economic values, Vem and Vw. We are hence able to examine the effect of varying policy priorities by imposing different combinations of Vem and Vw. In all six scenarios, we find that increasing the priority on air quality co-benefits (higher Vem) reduces air pollution impacts (lower EMeff) at the expense of lower water conservation (higher Weff); and vice versa. Such results can largely be explained by differences

  2. Conserved patterns of integrated developmental plasticity in a group of polyphenic tropical butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Erik; Osbaldeston, Dave; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Brattström, Oskar; Aduse-Poku, Kwaku; Brakefield, Paul M

    2017-02-27

    Developmental plasticity is thought to have profound macro-evolutionary effects, for example, by increasing the probability of establishment in new environments and subsequent divergence into independently evolving lineages. In contrast to plasticity optimized for individual traits, phenotypic integration, which enables a concerted response of plastic traits to environmental variability, may affect the rate of local adaptation by constraining independent responses of traits to selection. Using a comparative framework, this study explores the evolution of reaction norms for a variety of life history and morphological traits across five related species of mycalesine butterflies from the Old World tropics. Our data indicate that an integrated response of a suite of key traits is shared amongst these species. Interestingly, the traits that make up the functional suite are all known to be regulated by ecdysteroid signalling in Bicyclus anynana, one of the species included in this study, suggesting the same underlying hormonal regulator may be conserved within this group of polyphenic butterflies. We also detect developmental thresholds for the expression of alternative morphs. The phenotypic plasticity of a broad suite of morphological and life history traits is integrated and shared among species from three geographically independent lineages of mycalesine butterflies, despite considerable periods of independent evolution and exposure to disparate environments. At the same time, we have detected examples of evolutionary change where independent traits show different patterns of reaction norms. We argue that the expression of more robust phenotypes may occur by shifting developmental thresholds beyond the boundaries of the typical environmental variation.

  3. Integrative Governance of Environmental Water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin: Evolving Challenges and Emerging Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Mattson, Zachary; Lynch, Amanda H

    2017-07-01

    Integration, a widely promoted response to the multi-scale complexities of social-environmental sustainability, is diversely and sometimes poorly conceptualized. In this paper we explore integrative governance, which we define as an iterative and contextual process for negotiating and advancing the common interest. We ground this definition in a discussion of institutional factors conditioning integrative governance of environmental water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. The Murray-Darling Basin is an iconic system of social-ecological complexity, evocative of large-scale conservation challenges in other developed arid river basins. Our critical assessment of integrative governance practices in that context emerges through analysis of interviews with policy participants and documents pertaining to environmental water management in the tri-state area of southwestern New South Wales, northwestern Victoria, and the South Australian Riverland. We identify four linked challenges: (i) decision support for developing socially robust environmental water management goals, (ii) resource constraints on adaptive practice, (iii) inter-state differences in participatory decision-making and devolution of authority, and (iv) representative inclusion in decision-making. Our appraisal demonstrates these as pivotal challenges for integrative governance in the common interest. We conclude by offering a perspective on the potential for supporting integrative governance through the bridging capacity of Australia's Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder.

  4. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.; Meeuwsen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance. The KW IWTS was designed to treat basin water and maintain basin clarity during fuel retrieval, washing, and packaging activities in the KW Basin. The original design was based on a mission that was limited to handling of KW Basin fuel. The use of the IWTS was extended by the decision to transfer KE fuel to KW to be cleaned and packaged using KW systems. The use was further extended for the packaging of two more Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing legacy fuel and scrap. Planning is now in place to clean and package Knock Out Pot (KOP) Material in MCOs using these same systems. Some washing of KOP material in the Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) is currently being done to remove material that is too small or too large to be included in the KOP Material stream. These plans will require that the IWTS remain operational through a campaign of as many as 30 additional MCOs, and has an estimated completion date in 2012. Recent operation of the IWTS during washing of canisters of KOP Material has been impacted by low pressure readings at the inlet of the P4 Booster Pump. The system provides a low pressure alarm at 10 psig, and low-low pressure interlock at 5 psig. The response to these low readings has been to lower total system flow to between 301 and 315 gpm. In addition, the IWTS operator has been required to operate the system in manual mode and make frequent adjustments to the P4 booster pump speed during PCM washes. The preferred mode of operation is to establish a setpoint of 317 gpm for the P4 pump speed and run IWTS in semi-automatic mode. Based on hydraulic modeling compared to field data presented in this report, the low P4 inlet pressure is attributed to restrictions in the 2-inch KOP inlet hose and in the KOP itself

  5. Challenges of communicating integrated water resource management in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimbe, S.; Manzungu, E.

    2003-01-01

    With the promulgation of the 1998 Water Act the Government of Zimbabwe took a decisive step to reform the country's water sector, to bring it in line with contemporary socio-political realities obtaining in the country, and in tune with the philosophy of integrated water resources management.

  6. Multiobjective decision-making in integrated water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, H.G.; Pouwels, I.H.M.; Pouwels, I.H.M.; Witter, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, decision-making by water authorities in the Netherlands is largely based on intuition. Their tasks were, after all, relatively few and straight-forward. The growing number of tasks, together with the new integrated approach on water management issues, however, induces water

  7. Infinitely many conservation laws for two integrable lattice hierarchies associated with a new discrete Schroedinger spectral problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zuo-nong; Tam, Hon-Wah; Ding, Qing

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, by means of considering matrix form of a new Schroedinger discrete spectral operator equation, and constructing opportune time evolution equations, and using discrete zero curvature representation, two discrete integrable lattice hierarchies proposed by Boiti et al. [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 (2003) 139] are re-derived. From the matrix Lax representations, we demonstrate the existence of infinitely many conservation laws for the two lattice hierarchies and give the corresponding conserved densities and the associated fluxes by means of formulae. Thus their integrability is further confirmed. Specially we obtain the infinitely many conservation laws for a new discrete version of the KdV equation. A connection between the conservation laws of the discrete KdV equation and the ones of the KdV equation is discussed by two examples

  8. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  9. Integration of 3d Models and Diagnostic Analyses Through a Conservation-Oriented Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, A.; Achille, C.; Tommasi, C.; Fassi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In the recent years, mature technologies for producing high quality virtual 3D replicas of Cultural Heritage (CH) artefacts has grown thanks to the progress of Information Technologies (IT) tools. These methods are an efficient way to present digital models that can be used with several scopes: heritage managing, support to conservation, virtual restoration, reconstruction and colouring, art cataloguing and visual communication. The work presented is an emblematic case of study oriented to the preventive conservation through monitoring activities, using different acquisition methods and instruments. It was developed inside a project founded by Lombardy Region, Italy, called "Smart Culture", which was aimed to realise a platform that gave the users the possibility to easily access to the CH artefacts, using as an example a very famous statue. The final product is a 3D reality-based model that contains a lot of information inside it, and that can be consulted through a common web browser. In the end, it was possible to define the general strategies oriented to the maintenance and the valorisation of CH artefacts, which, in this specific case, must consider the integration of different techniques and competencies, to obtain a complete, accurate and continuative monitoring of the statue.

  10. Higher conserved charges and integrability for spinning strings in AdS5 x S5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engquist, Johan

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an infinite number of local commuting charges for classical solutions of the string sigma model on AdS 5 x S 5 associated with a certain circular three-spin solution spinning with large angular momenta in three orthogonal directions on the five-sphere. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find agreement to one-loop with the tower of conserved higher charges in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory associated with the dual composite single-trace operator in the highest weight representation (J 1 ,J 2 ,J 2 ) of SO(6). The agreement can be explained by the presence of integrability on both sides of the duality. (author)

  11. Integrated Conservation of the Cantonese Opera Art Museum and Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cantonese Opera, as the sole cultural heritage of Guangdong Province of China so far, which was included in the World Intangible Cultural Heritage List by the UNESCO, bears the cultural memory of the Lingnan region and as well as the overseas Chinese worldwide. Located in the core historic urban area – Enning Road of Guangzhou, the Cantonese Opera Art Museum is designed in Lingnan traditional garden manner, through going deep into the Cantonese opera culture, Lingnan traditional garden culture and Lingnan cultural spirit. The design highlights the integrated conservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, to protect living history and build the historical environment and place spirit for the intangible cultural heritage. The Cantonese Opera Art Museum is not only a tangible space for exhibition, study, education and display of the Cantonese Opera art, but also a cultural space with the Lingnan cultural memory, gathering the Lingnan intangible heritage and closely linked with current life of successors and ordinary people.

  12. Energy-Integrating Master Plan for the City of Atlantic City, New Jersey: energy conservation element. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The Master Plan describes a coordinated energy-conservation effort for the City, the effective application and ultimate success of which depend primarily on the active involvement of the City government and its functional departments. Following an introductory section, Section XXI, Community Energy Determinants, describes the natural and man-made environment, growth and energy profiles, and the institutional environment. Additional sections are entitled: Energy-Conservation Options (passive energy options and active energy-conservation options); Energy Integration; Community Energy Management; Energy-Conservation Implementation Plan; and an appendix containing an energy-related glossary, a directory to various sources of information on energy conservation, various technical documents, a copy of the National Energy Act, and a bibliography. (MCW)

  13. An Integrated Analysis of Changes in Water Stress in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, T.; Lehner, B.; Alcamo, J.

    2002-01-01

    Future changes in water availability with climate change and changes in water use due to socio-economic development are to occur in parallel. In an integrated analysis we bring together these aspects of global change in a consistent manner, and analyse the water stress situation in Europe. We find...... that today high water stress exists in one-fifth of European river basin area. Under a scenario projection, increases in water use throughout Eastern Europe are accompanied by decreases in water availability in most of Southern Europe--combining these trends leads to a marked increase in water stress...

  14. SIMULTANEOUS INTEGRATION OF WATER AND ENERGY: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Process Integration (PI is a tool that for over forty years has demonstrated its strength to provide optimal solutions to complex problems. The interaction of exchange systems of energy and water networks is a typical case of such problems. The gradual increase in the consumption of water and energy has determined the development of methodologies that take into account the simultaneous integration of these resources. This paper aims to present a literature review related to the simultaneous integration of water and energy. First, general items related to this research field are presented, emphasizing the approaches to simultaneous integration (Pinch Analysis and Mathematical Programming. Some recent cases of studies, demonstrating the strength of these tools mainly focus to sugar industry, are also presented. Finally some of the challenges to be faced by the simultaneous integration of water and energy for the diversification of the Cuban sugar industry are presented.

  15. Integrating factors and conservation theorems for Hamilton‘s canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonmic nonconservative dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁杰; 刘洋; 等

    2002-01-01

    We present a general approach to the construction of conservation laws for variable mass noholonmic nonconservative systems.First,we give the definition of integrating factors,and we study in detail the necessary conditions for the existence of the conserved quantities,Then,we establish the conservatioin theorem and its inverse theorem for Hamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonocnservative dynamical systems.Finally,we give an example to illustrate the application of the results.

  16. Integrated Bird Conservation along the Pacific Coast of North America: An Action Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg Elliott; Bob Altman; Wendy Easton; Ricardo Estrella; Geoffrey Geupel; Mary Chase; Ellie Cohen; Ann Chrisney

    2005-01-01

    Scientists and managers representing the continental bird conservation plans explored the status of conservation planning and implementation for birds along the Pacific coast of North America. The theme of the session, "using common currencies to advance bird conservation," emphasized the components of bird conservation shared among the major initiatives,...

  17. Impact of water environmental change and migration of radionuclides on hokutolite conservation in Peito (Taiwan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Tsai, T.L.; Lung, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical factors (including pH, redox potential, content of total organic compound (TOC) and major ions) and U/Th-series radionuclides in the hot-spring water environment of Peito were determined to investigate the impact of environmental change and migration of radionuclides in water on conserving the precious mineral, hokutolite, in Peito (Taiwan). The activity concentrations of U/Th increased with E h and those of Cl - and SO 4 2- . 234 U/ 238 U ratios were nearly > 1 ascribed to Szilard-Chalmers effect and α-recoil. 230 Th/ 234 U ratios were 228 Ra and 226 Ra activities were governed by pH, E h and SO 4 2- concentration. Disequilibria of 228 Th/ 228 Ra and 228 Ra/ 232 Th were evident attributed to complexation of Th with major anions and co-precipitation of radium with (Ba,Pb)SO 4 . Alpha-recoil caused the enrichment of 228 Ra and apparent disequilibrium of 232 Th/ 228 Th. A mechanism illustrating the radiochemistry involving the formation of hokutolite in Peito was derived accordingly. The water environment of the studied area was found apparently changed in light of the variation of temperature, TOC and concentration ratio of Ba/Pb, which resulted from the channeling of hot spring water and the release of household waste water. The water environmental change can thus hinder the migration of radionuclides as well as the formation of hokutolite so that the performance of hokutolite conservation can be decreased. Immediate enactment of regulations for conserving hokutolite in Peito was therefore suggested in this research. (orig.)

  18. Prioritizing Urban Habitats for Connectivity Conservation: Integrating Centrality and Ecological Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poodat, Fatemeh; Arrowsmith, Colin; Fraser, David; Gordon, Ascelin

    2015-09-01

    Connectivity among fragmented areas of habitat has long been acknowledged as important for the viability of biological conservation, especially within highly modified landscapes. Identifying important habitat patches in ecological connectivity is a priority for many conservation strategies, and the application of 'graph theory' has been shown to provide useful information on connectivity. Despite the large number of metrics for connectivity derived from graph theory, only a small number have been compared in terms of the importance they assign to nodes in a network. This paper presents a study that aims to define a new set of metrics and compares these with traditional graph-based metrics, used in the prioritization of habitat patches for ecological connectivity. The metrics measured consist of "topological" metrics, "ecological metrics," and "integrated metrics," Integrated metrics are a combination of topological and ecological metrics. Eight metrics were applied to the habitat network for the fat-tailed dunnart within Greater Melbourne, Australia. A non-directional network was developed in which nodes were linked to adjacent nodes. These links were then weighted by the effective distance between patches. By applying each of the eight metrics for the study network, nodes were ranked according to their contribution to the overall network connectivity. The structured comparison revealed the similarity and differences in the way the habitat for the fat-tailed dunnart was ranked based on different classes of metrics. Due to the differences in the way the metrics operate, a suitable metric should be chosen that best meets the objectives established by the decision maker.

  19. Dignity-conserving care actions in palliative care: an integrative review of Swedish research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstäde, Carina Werkander; Blomberg, Karin; Benzein, Eva; Östlund, Ulrika

    2018-03-01

    Previous research has proposed that persons in need of palliative care often have a loss of functions and roles that affects social and existential self-image. Moreover, these individuals also commonly suffer from complex multisymptoms. This, together with the situation of facing an impending death, can lead to a loss of dignity. Therefore, supporting these persons' dignity is a crucial challenge for professional nurses. The 'Dignity Care Intervention' addresses the multidimensionality of dignity by identifying patients' dignity-related concerns and suggests care actions to address them. At the present, the Dignity Care Intervention is adapted for implementation in Swedish care settings. Because expressions of dignity are influenced by culture, and an overview of care actions in a Swedish context is lacking, this integrative review aimed to find suggestions from Swedish research literature on what kind of care actions can preserve dignity. An integrative literature review was conducted using the databases SwePub and SweMed+. Articles published from 2006 to 2015 and theses published from 2000 to 2015 were searched for using the terms 'dignity' and 'palliative care'. Result sections of articles and theses were reviewed for dignity-conserving care actions synthesised by thematic analysis and categorised under themes and subthemes in Chochinov's model of dignity. Fifteen articles and 18 theses were included together providing suggestions of care actions in all themes and subthemes in the dignity model. Suggested care actions included listening, communication, information, symptom control, facilitating daily living and including patients in decision-making. Additionally, nurses' perceptiveness towards the patients was a core approach. The review offers culturally relevant suggestions on how to address specific dignity-related concerns. The adapted Dignity Care Intervention will be a way for Swedish nurses to provide person-centred palliative care that will conserve

  20. Lakefront Property Owners' Willingness to Accept Easements for Conservation of Water Quality and Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohner, Joel K.; Lupi, Frank; Taylor, William W.

    2018-03-01

    Lakes provide valuable ecosystem services such as food, drinking water, and recreation, but shoreline development can degrade riparian habitats and lake ecosystems. Easement contracts for specific property rights can encourage conservation practices for enhanced water quality, fish habitat, and wildlife habitat, yet little is known about the easement market. We surveyed inland lake shoreline property owners in Michigan to assess supply of two conservation easements (in riparian and in littoral zones) and identified property and property owner characteristics influencing potential enrollment. Respondents were significantly less likely to enroll in littoral easements if they indicated there was social pressure for manicured lawns and more likely to enroll if they had more formal education, shoreline frontage, naturally occurring riparian plants, ecological knowledge, or if the lake shoreline was more developed. Enrollment in easements in the riparian zone was significantly less likely if property owners indicated social pressure for manicured lawns, but more likely if they had more formal education, naturally occurring riparian plants, or shoreline frontage. When payments were low (conservation outcomes for water quality and habitat.

  1. Coordinating for Arctic Conservation: Implementing Integrated Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring, Data Management and Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M.; Svoboda, M.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are experiencing growing pressure from various stressors (e.g. development, climate change, contaminants, etc.) while established research and monitoring programs remain largely uncoordinated, lacking the ability to effectively monitor, understand and report on biodiversity trends at the circumpolar scale. The maintenance of healthy arctic ecosystems is a global imperative as the Arctic plays a critical role in the Earth's physical, chemical and biological balance. A coordinated and comprehensive effort for monitoring arctic ecosystems is needed to facilitate effective and timely conservation and adaptation actions. The Arctic's size and complexity represents a significant challenge towards detecting and attributing important biodiversity trends. This demands a scaled, pan-arctic, ecosystem-based approach that not only identifies trends in biodiversity, but also identifies underlying causes. It is critical that this information be made available to generate effective strategies for adapting to changes now taking place in the Arctic—a process that ultimately depends on rigorous, integrated, and efficient monitoring programs that have the power to detect change within a "management" time frame. To meet these challenges and in response to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment's recommendation to expand and enhance arctic biodiversity monitoring, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Working Group of the Arctic Council launched the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP). The CBMP is led by Environment Canada on behalf of Canada and the Arctic Council. The CBMP is working with over 60 global partners to expand, integrate and enhance existing arctic biodiversity research and monitoring efforts to facilitate more rapid detection, communication and response to significant trends and pressures. Towards this end, the CBMP has established three Expert Monitoring Groups representing major Arctic

  2. Eight years of Conservation Agriculture-based cropping systems research in Eastern Africa to conserve soil and water and mitigate effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Tesfay; Nyssen, Jan; Govaerts, Bram; Lanckriet, Sil; Baudron, Frédéric; Deckers, Jozef; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    In Ethiopia, repeated plowing, complete removal of crop residues at harvest, aftermath grazing of crop fields and occurrence of repeated droughts have reduced the biomass return to the soil and aggravated cropland degradation. Conservation Agriculture (CA)-based resource conserving cropping systems may reduce runoff and soil erosion, and improve soil quality, thereby increasing crop productivity. Thus, a long-term tillage experiment has been carried out (2005 to 2012) on a Vertisol to quantify - among others - changes in runoff and soil loss for two local tillage practices, modified to integrate CA principles in semi-arid northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were (i) derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, ploughed only once at planting by refreshing the furrow from 2005 to 2012 and 30% standing crop residue retention, (ii) terwah+ (TER+) with furrows made at 1.5 m interval, plowed once at planting, 30% standing crop residue retention and fresh broad beds, and (iii) conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three plain tillage operations and complete removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plough mahresha and wheat, teff, barley and grass pea were grown. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year onwards (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weeds in CA plots. Runoff and soil loss were measured daily. Soil water content was monitored every 6 days. Significantly different (pconstitute a field rainwater and soil conservation improvement strategy that enhances crop and economic productivity and reduces siltation of reservoirs, especially under changing climate. The reduction in draught power requirement would enable a reduction in oxen density and crop residue demand for livestock feed, which would encourage smallholder

  3. MoGIRE: A Model for Integrated Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, A.; Leenhardt, D.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change and growing water needs have resulted in many parts of the world in water scarcity problems that must by managed by public authorities. Hence, policy-makers are more and more often asked to define and to implement water allocation rules between competitive users. This requires to develop new tools aiming at designing those rules for various scenarios of context (climatic, agronomic, economic). If models have been developed for each type of water use however, very few integrated frameworks link these different uses, while such an integrated approach is a relevant stake for designing regional water and land policies. The lack of such integrated models can be explained by the difficulty of integrating models developed by very different disciplines and by the problem of scale change (collecting data on large area, arbitrate between the computational tractability of models and their level of aggregation). However, modelers are more and more asked to deal with large basin scales while analyzing some policy impacts at very high detailed levels. These contradicting objectives require to develop new modeling tools. The CALVIN economically-driven optimization model developed for managing water in California is a good example of this type of framework, Draper et al. (2003). Recent reviews of the literature on integrated water management at the basin level include Letcher et al. (2007) or Cai (2008). We present here an original framework for integrated water management at the river basin scale called MoGIRE ("Modèle pour la Gestion Intégrée de la Ressource en Eau"). It is intended to optimize water use at the river basin level and to evaluate scenarios (agronomic, climatic or economic) for a better planning of agricultural and non-agricultural water use. MoGIRE includes a nodal representation of the water network. Agricultural, urban and environmental water uses are also represented using mathematical programming and econometric approaches. The model then

  4. Assessment of the effectiveness of soil and water conservation measures in reducing runoff and soil loss: establishment of a European database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetens, W.; Vanmaercke, M.; Poesen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is recognised as a major soil degradation process that requires a global approach. Large regions all over the world are in need of integrated conservation strategies that sustainable prevent and remediate soil erosion. therefore, quantitative and globally interpretable data are needed in support of models and decision making. the effects of various soil and water conservation techniques (SWCT) on runoff and soil loss in Europe have been extensively studied over the last 60 years. Runoff plots are the most widely used measurement technique to study the effects of SWCT on runoff and soil loss by water erosion. Hence, many data are available. However, the insights gained hereby remain mostly local and often qualitative whereas the full potential of the available data is not exploited yet. This is mainly due to the fragmentation of knowledge and extrapolation difficulties inherently linked with this type of data. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. Outdoor water use and water conservation opportunities in Virginia Beach, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, John R.

    2010-01-01

    How much water do you use to water your lawn, wash your car, or fill your swimming pool? Your answers to these questions have important implications for water supplies in the City of Virginia Beach. To help find the answers, the City cooperated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Old Dominion University to learn more about seasonal outdoor water use. In the summer of 2008 the USGS surveyed city residents and asked detailed questions about their outdoor water use. This fact sheet describes what was learned in the survey.

  6. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Zhang, Shao-long; Zhang, Meng-jie; Li, Xing-hua

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2) area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 0.12×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min), the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h and 4.91×10(-2) m(3)/m(2)/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  7. Modeling the impact of soil and water conservation on surface and ground water based on the SCS and Visual MODFLOW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Soil and water conservation measures can impact hydrological cycle, but quantitative analysis of this impact is still difficult in a watershed scale. To assess the effect quantitatively, a three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW with a surface runoff model-the Soil Conservation Service (SCS were calibrated and applied based on the artificial rainfall experiments. Then, three soil and water conservation scenarios were simulated on the sand-box model to assess the effect of bare slope changing to grass land and straw mulching on water volume, hydraulic head, runoff process of groundwater and surface water. Under the 120 mm rainfall, 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, 5 m(2 area, 3° slope conditions, the comparative results indicated that the trend was decrease in surface runoff and increase in subsurface runoff coincided with the land-use converted from bare slope to grass land and straw mulching. The simulated mean surface runoff modulus was 3.64×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed values were 1.54×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h and 0.12×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. Compared to the bare slope, the benefits of surface water reduction were 57.8% and 92.4% correspondingly. At the end of simulation period (T = 396 min, the simulated mean groundwater runoff modulus was 2.82×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the bare slope scenario, while the observed volumes were 3.46×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h and 4.91×10(-2 m(3/m(2/h in the lawn and straw mulching scenarios respectively. So the benefits of groundwater increase were 22.7% and 60.4% correspondingly. It was concluded that the soil and water conservation played an important role in weakening the surface runoff and strengthening the underground runoff. Meanwhile the quantitative analysis using a modeling approach could provide a thought for the study in a watershed scale to help decision-makers manage water resources.

  8. Surface water ponding on clayey soils managed by conventional and conservation tillage in boreal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. ALAKUKKU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface water ponding and crop hampering due to soil wetness was monitored in order to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage practices and perennial grass cover on soil infiltrability for five years in situ in gently sloping clayey fields. Thirteen experimental areas, each having three experimental fields, were established in southern Finland. The fields belonged to: autumn mouldboard ploughing (AP, conservation tillage (CT and perennial grass in the crop rotation (PG. In the third year, direct drilled (DD fields were established in five areas. Excluding PG, mainly spring cereals were grown in the fields. Location and surface area of ponded water (in the spring and autumn as well as hampered crop growth (during June-July were determined in each field by using GPS devices and GIS programs. Surface water ponding or crop hampering occurred when the amount of rainfall was clearly greater than the long-term average. The mean of the relative area of the ponded surface water, indicating the risk of surface runoff, and hampered crop growth was larger in the CT fields than in the AP fields. The differences between means were, however, not statistically significant. Complementary soil physical measurements are required to investigate the reasons for the repeated surface water ponding.;

  9. Using Social Marketing Principles to Understand an Extension Audience’s Landscape Water Conservation Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Warner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial amount of water is applied to Florida landscapes, and encouraging water conservation through irrigation practices has been identified as a priority programming area where there is great opportunity to positively affect the state’s water resources. Florida Extension addresses this priority area through educational programming. Social marketing has been identified as a promising approach to changing behaviors that influence environmental issues, such as water-saving irrigation technologies and practices. This approach recognizes that there are barriers that prevent individuals from engaging in positive behavior changes. This study evaluated an irrigation seminar using a retrospective pretest-posttest design that incorporated elements of a social marketing intercept survey. Thirty-four attendees participated and primarily represented green industry professional and government sectors. Study objectives were to evaluate the workshop and describe the audience using social marketing principles for future program planning based on audience research. The audience rated their descriptive norms, a strong predictor of behavioral change, lower than their injunctive norms, a less robust predictor. The majority planned to adopt at least one water-conservation best management practice as a result of the workshop. We make recommendations for applying social marketing principles to Extension programming.

  10. iSPUW: integrated sensing and prediction of urban water for sustainable cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S. J.; Nazari, B.; Habibi, H.; Norouzi, A.; Nabatian, M.; Seo, D. J.; Bartos, M. D.; Kerkez, B.; Lakshman, L.; Zink, M.; Lee, J.

    2016-12-01

    Many cities face tremendous water-related challenges in this Century of the City. Urban areas are particularly susceptible not only to excesses and shortages of water but also to impaired water quality. To addresses these challenges, we synergistically integrate advances in computing and cyber-infrastructure, environmental modeling, geoscience, and information science to develop integrative solutions for urban water challenges. In this presentation, we describe the various efforts that are currently ongoing in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW) area for iSPUW: real-time high-resolution flash flood forecasting, inundation mapping for large urban areas, crowdsourcing of water observations in urban areas, real-time assimilation of crowdsourced observations for street and river flooding, integrated control of lawn irrigation and rainwater harvesting for water conservation and stormwater management, feature mining with causal discovery for flood prediction, and development of the Arlington Urban Hydroinformatics Testbed. Analyzed is the initial data of sensor network for water level and lawn monitoring, and cellphone applications for crowdsourcing flood reports. New data assimilation approaches to deal with categorical and continuous observations are also evaluated via synthetic experiments.

  11. The use of an integrated variable fuzzy sets in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qingtai; Liu, Jia; Li, Chuanzhe; Yu, Xinzhe; Wang, Yang

    2018-06-01

    Based on the evaluation of the present situation of water resources and the development of water conservancy projects and social economy, optimal allocation of regional water resources presents an increasing need in the water resources management. Meanwhile it is also the most effective way to promote the harmonic relationship between human and water. In view of the own limitations of the traditional evaluations of which always choose a single index model using in optimal allocation of regional water resources, on the basis of the theory of variable fuzzy sets (VFS) and system dynamics (SD), an integrated variable fuzzy sets model (IVFS) is proposed to address dynamically complex problems in regional water resources management in this paper. The model is applied to evaluate the level of the optimal allocation of regional water resources of Zoucheng in China. Results show that the level of allocation schemes of water resources ranging from 2.5 to 3.5, generally showing a trend of lower level. To achieve optimal regional management of water resources, this model conveys a certain degree of accessing water resources management, which prominently improve the authentic assessment of water resources management by using the eigenvector of level H.

  12. From GCM Output to Local Hydrologic and Ecological Impacts: Integrating Climate Change Projections into Conservation Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.; Micheli, L.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of climate change resilience, vulnerability, and adaptation options require downscaling of GCM outputs to local scales, and conversion of temperature and precipitation forcings into hydrologic and ecological responses. Recent work in the San Francisco Bay Area, and California demonstrate a practical approach to this process. First, climate futures (GCM x Emissions Scenario) are screened using cluster analysis for seasonal precipitation and temperature, to select a tractable subset of projections that still represent the range of climate projections. Second, monthly climate projections are downscaled to 270m and the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) applied, to generate fine-scale recharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration (AET), and climatic water deficit (CWD) accounting for soils, bedrock geology, topography, and local climate. Third, annual time-series are used to derive 30-year climatologies and recurrence intervals of extreme events (including multi-year droughts) at the scale of small watersheds and conservation parcels/networks. We take a "scenario-neutral" approach where thresholds are defined for system "failure," such as water supply shortfalls or drought mortality/vegetation transitions, and the time-window for hitting those thresholds is evaluated across all selected climate projections. San Francisco Bay Area examples include drought thresholds (CWD) for specific vegetation-types that identify leading/trailing edges and local refugia, evaluation of hydrologic resources (recharge and runoff) provided by conservation lands, and productivity of rangelands (AET). BCM outputs for multiple futures are becoming available to resource managers through on-line data extraction tools. This approach has wide applicability to numerous resource management issues.

  13. Soil tillage conservation and its effect on erosion control, water management and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Dr.; Gus, Dr.; Bogdan, Dr.; Moraru, Dr.; Pop, Dr.; Clapa, Dr.; Pop, Drd.

    2009-04-01

    fuel for preparing the germination bed. Presently it is necessary a change concerning the concept of conservation practices and a new approach regarding the control of erosion. The real conservation of soil must be expanded beyond the traditional understanding of soil erosion. The real soil conservation is represented by carbon management. We need to focus to another level concerning conservation by focusing on of soil quality. Carbon management is necessary for a complex of matters including soil, water management, field productivity, biological fuel and climatic change. Profound research is necessary in order to establish the carbon sequestration practices and their implementation impact.

  14. Social and Structural Patterns of Drought-Related Water Conservation and Rebound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Ajami, Newsha

    2017-12-01

    Water use practices and conservation are the result of complex sociotechnical interactions of political, economic, hydroclimatic, and social factors. While the drivers of water demand have been extensively studied, they have traditionally been applied to models that assume stationary relationships between these various factors, and usually do not account for potential societal changes in response to increased scarcity awareness. For example, following a period of sustained low demand such as during a drought, communities often increase water use during a hydrologically wet period, a phenomenon known as "rebounding" water use. Previous experiences show the extent of this rebound is not a straightforward function of policy and efficiency improvements, but may also reflect short-term or long-lasting change in community behavior, which are not easily captured by models that assume stationarity. In this work, we develop a system dynamics model to represent water demand as a function of both structural and social factors. We apply this model to the analysis of three diverse water utilities in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1980 and 2017, identifying drought response trends and drivers over time. Our model is consistent with empirical patterns and historical context of water use in California, and provides important insights on the rebound phenomenon that can be extended to other locations. This comparative assessment indicates that policies, public outreach, and better data availability have played a key role in raising public awareness of water scarcity, especially with the raise of the internet era in recent years.

  15. A simple flow-concentration modelling method for integrating water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple flow-concentration modelling method for integrating water quality and ... flow requirements are assessed for maintenance low flow, drought low flow ... the instream concentrations of chemical constituents that will arise from different ...

  16. Climate proofing water and sanitation services and applying integrated water resource management in slums

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis assesses how climate change impacts water resources and communities and reviews how the resource can be managed in an integrated manner for small water and sanitation providers. This thesis was based upon a 10 month Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) between Cranfield University and Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP). The aim of the project was to assess the opportunities and vulnerabilities presented by climate change and how Integrated Water Resource ...

  17. Engineering and economic evaluation of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, M.C.

    1976-11-01

    The results are presented of a design and cost study for wet/dry tower systems used in conjunction with 1000 MWe nuclear power plants to reject waste heat while conserving water. Design and cost information for wet/dry tower systems are presented, and these cooling system alternatives are compared with wet and dry tower systems to determine whether the wet/dry tower concept is an economically viable alternative. The wet/dry cooling tower concept investigated is one which combines physically separated wet towers and dry towers into an operational unit. In designing the wet/dry tower, a dry cooling tower is sized to carry the plant heat load at low ambient temperatures, and a separate wet tower is added to augment the heat rejection of the dry tower at higher ambient temperatures. These wet/dry towers are designed to operate with a conventional low back pressure turbine commercially available today. The component wet and dry towers are state-of-the-art designs. From this study it was concluded that: wet/dry cooling systems can be designed to provide a significant economic advantage over dry cooling yet closely matching the dry tower's ability to conserve water, a wet/dry system which saves as much as 99 percent of the make-up water required by a wet tower can maintain that economic advantage, and therefore, for power plant sites where water is in short supply, wet/dry cooling is the economic choice over dry cooling

  18. Conserved hydrogen bonds and water molecules in MDR HIV-1 protease substrate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhigang [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Harbor Hospital Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Yong [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Yedidi, Ravikiran S. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dewdney, Tamaria G. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Reiter, Samuel J. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Brunzelle, Joseph S. [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Kovari, Iulia A. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Kovari, Ladislau C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-12-19

    Success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anti-HIV therapy is severely compromised by the rapidly developing drug resistance. HIV-1 protease inhibitors, part of HAART, are losing their potency and efficacy in inhibiting the target. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) was selected for the present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. The nine crystal structures of MDR769 HIV-1 protease substrate hepta-peptide complexes were analyzed in order to reveal the conserved structural elements for the purpose of drug design against MDR HIV-1 protease. Our structural studies demonstrated that highly conserved hydrogen bonds between the protease and substrate peptides, together with the conserved crystallographic water molecules, played a crucial role in the substrate recognition, substrate stabilization and protease stabilization. Additionally, the absence of the key flap-ligand bridging water molecule might imply a different catalytic mechanism of MDR769 HIV-1 protease compared to that of wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease.

  19. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... corresponded to the levels in the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers... provides a brief history of DOE's more recent test procedure rulemakings related to residential water... performance (e.g., such as ambient air temperature, ambient relative humidity, and inlet water temperature...

  20. Three-Dimensional Conformal Simultaneously Integrated Boost Technique for Breast-Conserving Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Dolsma, Wil V.; Maduro, John H.; Korevaar, Erik W.; Hollander, Miranda; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the target coverage and normal tissue dose with the simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) and the sequential boost technique in breast cancer, and to evaluate the incidence of acute skin toxicity in patients treated with the SIB technique. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early-stage left-sided breast cancer underwent breast-conserving radiotherapy using the SIB technique. The breast and boost planning target volumes (PTVs) were treated simultaneously (i.e., for each fraction, the breast and boost PTVs received 1.81 Gy and 2.3 Gy, respectively). Three-dimensional conformal beams with wedges were shaped and weighted using forward planning. Dose-volume histograms of the PTVs and organs at risk with the SIB technique, 28 x (1.81 + 0.49 Gy), were compared with those for the sequential boost technique, 25 x 2 Gy + 8 x 2 Gy. Acute skin toxicity was evaluated for 90 patients treated with the SIB technique according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Results: PTV coverage was adequate with both techniques. With SIB, more efficiently shaped boost beams resulted in smaller irradiated volumes. The mean volume receiving ≥107% of the breast dose was reduced by 20%, the mean volume outside the boost PTV receiving ≥95% of the boost dose was reduced by 54%, and the mean heart and lung dose were reduced by 10%. Of the evaluated patients, 32.2% had Grade 2 or worse toxicity. Conclusion: The SIB technique is proposed for standard use in breast-conserving radiotherapy because of its dose-limiting capabilities, easy implementation, reduced number of treatment fractions, and relatively low incidence of acute skin toxicity

  1. Limited benefit of inversely optimised intensity modulation in breast conserving radiotherapy with simultaneously integrated boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Dolsma, Wil V.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Korevaar, Erik W.; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Maduro, John H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine whether in breast-conserving radiotherapy (RT) with simultaneously integrated boost (SIB), application of inversely planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT-SIB) instead of three-dimensional RT (3D-CRT-SIB) has benefits that justify the additional costs, and to evaluate whether a potential benefit of IMRT-SIB depends on specific patient characteristics. Material and methods: 3D-CRT-SIB and various IMRT-SIB treatment plans were constructed and optimised for 30 patients with early stage left-sided breast cancer. Coverage of planning target volumes (PTVs) and dose delivered to organs at risk (OARs) were determined for each plan. Overlap between heart and breast PTV (OHB), size of breast and boost PTVs and boost location were examined in their ability to identify patients that might benefit from IMRT-SIB. Results: All plans had adequate PTV coverage. IMRT-SIB generally reduced dose levels delivered to heart, lungs, and normal breast tissue relative to 3D-CRT-SIB. However, IMRT-SIB benefit differed per patient. For many patients, comparable results were obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB, while patients with OHB > 1.4 cm and a relatively large boost PTV volume (>125 cm 3 ) gained most from the use of IMRT-SIB. Conclusions: In breast-conserving RT, results obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB and IMRT-SIB are generally comparable. Patient characteristics could be used to identify patients that are most likely to benefit from IMRT-SIB.

  2. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  3. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 [3084-AB15] Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Energy Labeling Rule) AGENCY: Federal Trade...'') in 1979,\\1\\ pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA).\\2\\ The Rule requires...

  4. Advancing Land-Sea Conservation Planning: Integrating Modelling of Catchments, Land-Use Change, and River Plumes to Prioritise Catchment Management and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Ban, Natalie C.; Brodie, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to river loads of nutrients and sediments pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems. Ongoing land-use change can further increase these loads, and amplify the impacts of land-based threats on vulnerable marine ecosystems. Consequently, there is a need to assess these threats and prioritise actions to mitigate their impacts. A key question regarding prioritisation is whether actions in catchments to maintain coastal-marine water quality can be spatially congruent with actions for other management objectives, such as conserving terrestrial biodiversity. In selected catchments draining into the Gulf of California, Mexico, we employed Land Change Modeller to assess the vulnerability of areas with native vegetation to conversion into crops, pasture, and urban areas. We then used SedNet, a catchment modelling tool, to map the sources and estimate pollutant loads delivered to the Gulf by these catchments. Following these analyses, we used modelled river plumes to identify marine areas likely influenced by land-based pollutants. Finally, we prioritised areas for catchment management based on objectives for conservation of terrestrial biodiversity and objectives for water quality that recognised links between pollutant sources and affected marine areas. Our objectives for coastal-marine water quality were to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges from anthropic areas, and minimise future increases in coastal sedimentation and eutrophication. Our objectives for protection of terrestrial biodiversity covered species of vertebrates. We used Marxan, a conservation planning tool, to prioritise interventions and explore spatial differences in priorities for both objectives. Notable differences in the distributions of land values for terrestrial biodiversity and coastal-marine water quality indicated the likely need for trade-offs between catchment management objectives. However, there were priority areas that contributed to both sets of objectives. Our

  5. Advancing Land-Sea Conservation Planning: Integrating Modelling of Catchments, Land-Use Change, and River Plumes to Prioritise Catchment Management and Protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G Álvarez-Romero

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes to river loads of nutrients and sediments pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems. Ongoing land-use change can further increase these loads, and amplify the impacts of land-based threats on vulnerable marine ecosystems. Consequently, there is a need to assess these threats and prioritise actions to mitigate their impacts. A key question regarding prioritisation is whether actions in catchments to maintain coastal-marine water quality can be spatially congruent with actions for other management objectives, such as conserving terrestrial biodiversity. In selected catchments draining into the Gulf of California, Mexico, we employed Land Change Modeller to assess the vulnerability of areas with native vegetation to conversion into crops, pasture, and urban areas. We then used SedNet, a catchment modelling tool, to map the sources and estimate pollutant loads delivered to the Gulf by these catchments. Following these analyses, we used modelled river plumes to identify marine areas likely influenced by land-based pollutants. Finally, we prioritised areas for catchment management based on objectives for conservation of terrestrial biodiversity and objectives for water quality that recognised links between pollutant sources and affected marine areas. Our objectives for coastal-marine water quality were to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges from anthropic areas, and minimise future increases in coastal sedimentation and eutrophication. Our objectives for protection of terrestrial biodiversity covered species of vertebrates. We used Marxan, a conservation planning tool, to prioritise interventions and explore spatial differences in priorities for both objectives. Notable differences in the distributions of land values for terrestrial biodiversity and coastal-marine water quality indicated the likely need for trade-offs between catchment management objectives. However, there were priority areas that contributed to both

  6. Advancing Land-Sea Conservation Planning: Integrating Modelling of Catchments, Land-Use Change, and River Plumes to Prioritise Catchment Management and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Brodie, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to river loads of nutrients and sediments pose a significant threat to marine ecosystems. Ongoing land-use change can further increase these loads, and amplify the impacts of land-based threats on vulnerable marine ecosystems. Consequently, there is a need to assess these threats and prioritise actions to mitigate their impacts. A key question regarding prioritisation is whether actions in catchments to maintain coastal-marine water quality can be spatially congruent with actions for other management objectives, such as conserving terrestrial biodiversity. In selected catchments draining into the Gulf of California, Mexico, we employed Land Change Modeller to assess the vulnerability of areas with native vegetation to conversion into crops, pasture, and urban areas. We then used SedNet, a catchment modelling tool, to map the sources and estimate pollutant loads delivered to the Gulf by these catchments. Following these analyses, we used modelled river plumes to identify marine areas likely influenced by land-based pollutants. Finally, we prioritised areas for catchment management based on objectives for conservation of terrestrial biodiversity and objectives for water quality that recognised links between pollutant sources and affected marine areas. Our objectives for coastal-marine water quality were to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges from anthropic areas, and minimise future increases in coastal sedimentation and eutrophication. Our objectives for protection of terrestrial biodiversity covered species of vertebrates. We used Marxan, a conservation planning tool, to prioritise interventions and explore spatial differences in priorities for both objectives. Notable differences in the distributions of land values for terrestrial biodiversity and coastal-marine water quality indicated the likely need for trade-offs between catchment management objectives. However, there were priority areas that contributed to both sets of objectives. Our

  7. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  8. Save water or save wildlife? Water use and conservation in the central Sierran foothill oak woodlands of California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Huntsinger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More frequent drought is projected for California. As water supplies constrict, and urban growth and out-migration spread to rural areas, trade-offs in water use for agriculture, biodiversity conservation, fire hazard reduction, residential development, and quality of life will be exacerbated. The California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, state listed as "Threatened," depends on leaks from antiquated irrigation district irrigation systems for much of its remnant small wetland habitat in the north central Sierra Nevada foothills. Residents of the 1295 km² foothill habitat distribution of the Black Rail were surveyed about water use. Results show that the most Black Rail habitat is owned by those purchasing water to irrigate pasture, a use that commonly creates wetlands from leaks and tailwater. Promoting wildlife, agricultural production, and preventing wildfire are common resident goals that call for abundant and inexpensive water; social and economic pressures encourage reduction in water use and the repair of leaks that benefit wildlife and greenery. Broad inflexible state interventions to curtail water use are likely to create a multitude of unintended consequences, including loss of biodiversity and environmental quality, and alienation of residents as valued ecosystem services literally dry up. Adaptive and proactive policies are needed that consider the linkages in the social-ecological system, are sensitive to local conditions, prevent landscape dewatering, and recognize the beneficial use of water to support ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat. Much Black Rail habitat is anthropogenic, created at the nexus of local governance, plentiful water, agricultural practices, historical events, and changing land uses. This history should be recognized and leveraged rather than ignored in a rush to "save" water by unraveling the social-ecological system that created the landscape. Policy and governance needs to identify

  9. Some difficulties and inconsistencies when using habit strength and reasoned action variables in models of metered household water conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Bradley S; Martin, John F; Pearce, Meryl; Willis, Eileen

    2013-01-30

    Research employing household water consumption data has sought to test models of water demand and conservation using variables from attitude theory. A significant, albeit unrecognised, challenge has been that attitude models describe individual-level motivations while consumption data is recorded at the household level thereby creating inconsistency between units of theory and measurement. This study employs structural equation modelling and moderated regression techniques to addresses the level of analysis problem, and tests hypotheses by isolating effects on water conservation in single-person households. Furthermore, the results question the explanatory utility of habit strength, perceived behavioural control, and intentions for understanding metered water conservation in single-person households. For example, evidence that intentions predict water conservation or that they interact with habit strength in single-person households was contrary to theoretical expectations. On the other hand, habit strength, self-reports of past water conservation, and perceived behavioural control were good predictors of intentions to conserve water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water Capture Device Signal Integration Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Kathryn J.; Hartnett, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    I am a junior in electrical engineering at Arizona State University, and this is my second internship at Johnson Space Center. I am an intern in the Command and Data Handling Branch of Avionics Division (EV2), my previous internship was also in EV2. During my previous internship I was assigned to the Water Capture Device payload, where I designed a prototype circuit board for the electronics system of the payload. For this internship, I have come back to the Water Capture Device project to further the work on the electronics design I completed previously. The Water Capture Device is an experimental payload to test the functionality of two different phase separators aboard the International Space Station (ISS). A phase separator sits downstream of a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) and separates the water from the air particles for environmental control on the ISS. With changing CHX technology, new phase separators are required. The goal of the project is to develop a test bed for the two phase separators to determine the best solution.

  11. Costs, tariffs and electric power conservation: integrated purpose for the solution of the distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, R.

    1992-01-01

    The relations between costs and prices theory of energy with electricity conservation are discussed, analysing the demand characteristics by electricity and the importance of their knowledge for defining a politics for conservation. The theoretic treatment of the question is considered, mentioning the paper of the clients and the distributors, and the methodology used for energy conservation. (C.G.C.)

  12. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  13. Evaluation of water conservation capacity of loess plateau typical mountain ecosystems based on InVEST model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xizhi; Zuo, Zhongguo; Xiao, Peiqing

    2017-06-01

    With increasing demand for water resources and frequently a general deterioration of local water resources, water conservation by forests has received considerable attention in recent years. To evaluate water conservation capacities of different forest ecosystems in mountainous areas of Loess Plateau, the landscape of forests was divided into 18 types in Loess Plateau. Under the consideration of the factors such as climate, topography, plant, soil and land use, the water conservation of the forest ecosystems was estimated by means of InVEST model. The result showed that 486417.7 hm2 forests in typical mountain areas were divided into 18 forest types, and the total water conservation quantity was 1.64×1012m3, equaling an average of water conversation quantity of 9.09×1010m3. There is a great difference in average water conversation capacity among various forest types. The water conservation function and its evaluation is crucial and complicated issues in the study of ecological service function in modern times.

  14. Assessment of the conservation priority status of South African estuaries for use in management and water allocation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turpie, JK

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The future health and productivity of South Africa's approximately 250 estuaries is dependent on two main factors; management and freshwater inputs. Both management and water allocation decisions involve trade-offs between conservation and various...

  15. Integrating Sacred Knowledge for Conservation: Cultures and Landscapes in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchu Xu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available China is undergoing economic growth and expansion to a free market economy at a scale and pace that are unprecedented in human history. This is placing great pressure on the country's environment and cultural diversity. This paper examines a number of case histories in China, focusing on the culturally varied and ecologically diverse southwest region of the country. We show how developments in recent Chinese history have devalued and in some cases eliminated indigenous knowledge and practices in the quest to strengthen the centralized state. Despite these changes, more than 30 ethnic minorities live in southwest China. For generations these peoples have maintained landscapes through traditional land use and cultural practices. This indigenous knowledge places a high value on protecting forests, landscapes, and water catchments while preserving biodiversity. These values are maintained through religious beliefs, hunting taboos, and the protection of sacred sites. We advocate a conservation policy for China that includes the indigenous knowledge and values needed to maintain the environment and the traditional cultures themselves. There are seminal signs that the government is beginning to support indigenous cultures in China. The Organic Law of 1998 granted villages the legal right to self-government and gave indigenous communities greater responsibility for land and resource use. Traditional and indigenous cultural products have also developed a market and an economic value within a growing tourism industry. In many cases, however, indigenous people remain isolated from major land-use and conservation decisions that are the result of centrally planned policy. Meanwhile, frequent oscillations in forest policy and land tenure insecurity since the 1950s have led to the erosion of many local institutions and the loss of indigenous knowledge. We suggest that the long-term viability of the environment requires an interactive approach that involves

  16. Data resources for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Garman, Steven L.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this report were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA). The WLCI is a long-term science based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale in southwest Wyoming while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. The IA is an integrated synthesis and analysis of WLCI resource values based on best available data and information collected from multiple agencies and organizations. It is a support tool for landscape-scale conservation planning and evaluation, and a data and analysis resource that can be used for addressing specific management questions. The IA analysis was conducted using a Geographic Information System in a raster (that is, a grid) environment using a cell size of 30 meters. To facilitate the interpretation of the data in a regional context, mean values were summarized and displayed at the subwatershed unit (WLCI subwatersheds were subset from the National Hydrography Dataset, Hydrologic Unit Code 12/Level 6). A dynamic mapping platform, accessed via the WLCI webpage at http://www.wlci.gov is used to display the mapped information, and to access underlying resource values that were combined to produce the final mapped results. The raster data used in the IA are provided here for use by interested parties to conduct additional analyses and can be accessed via the WLCI webpage. This series contains 74 spatial data sets: WLCI subwatersheds (vector) and 73 geotiffs (raster) that are segregated into the major categories of Multicriteria Index (including Resource Index and Condition), Change Agents, and Future Change. The Total Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Multicriteria Index and the Terrestrial Multicriteria Index. The Aquatic Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Resource Index and the Aquatic Condition. The Aquatic Resource Index is composed of the

  17. Seasonal changes in plant-water relations influence patterns of leaf display in Miombo woodlands: evidence of water conservative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinya, Royd; Malhi, Yadvinder; Brown, Nick D; Fisher, Joshua B; Brodribb, Timothy; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2018-06-15

    Water availability has frequently been linked to seasonal leaf display in seasonally dry ecosystems, but there have been few ecohydrological investigations of this link. Miombo woodland is a dominant seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem type in southern Africa; however, there are few data on the relationship between seasonal dynamics in plant-water relations and patterns of leaf display for Miombo woodland. Here we investigate this relationship among nine key Miombo woodland tree species differing in drought tolerance ability and leaf phenology. Results of this study showed that seasonal patterns of leaf phenology varied significantly with seasonal changes in stem water relations among the nine species. Leaf shedding coincided with the attainment of seasonal minimum stem water potential. Leaf flush occurred following xylem rehydration at the peak of the dry season suggesting that endogenous plant factors play a pivotal role in seasonal leaf display in this forest type. Drought-tolerant deciduous species suffered significantly higher seasonal losses in xylem hydraulic conductivity than the drought-intolerant semi-evergreen tree species (P water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests selects for water conservative traits that protect the vulnerable xylem transport system. Therefore, seasonal rhythms in xylem transport dictate patterns of leaf display in seasonally dry tropical forests.

  18. Climate change impacts on water availability in the Red River Basin and critical areas for future water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani Sabzi, H.; Moreno, H. A.; Neeson, T. M.; Rosendahl, D. H.; Bertrand, D.; Xue, X.; Hong, Y.; Kellog, W.; Mcpherson, R. A.; Hudson, C.; Austin, B. N.

    2017-12-01

    Previous periods of severe drought followed by exceptional flooding in the Red River Basin (RRB) have significantly affected industry, agriculture, and the environment in the region. Therefore, projecting how climate may change in the future and being prepared for potential impacts on the RRB is crucially important. In this study, we investigated the impacts of climate change on water availability across the RRB. We used three down-scaled global climate models and three potential greenhouse gas emission scenarios to assess precipitation, temperature, streamflow and lake levels throughout the RRB from 1961 to 2099 at a spatial resolution of 1/10°. Unit-area runoff and streamflow were obtained using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model applied across the entire basin. We found that most models predict less precipitation in the western side of the basin and more in the eastern side. In terms of temperature, the models predict that average temperature could increase as much as 6°C. Most models project slightly more precipitation and streamflow values in the future, specifically in the eastern side of the basin. Finally, we analyzed the projected meteorological and hydrologic parameters alongside regional water demand for different sectors to identify the areas on the RRB that will need water-environmental conservation actions in the future. These hotspots of future low water availability are locations where regional environmental managers, water policy makers, and the agricultural and industrial sectors must proactively prepare to deal with declining water availability over the coming decades.

  19. European water law in transition: the challenge of integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van

    2005-01-01

    European and domestic national water law have witnessed a number of developments, which can be described as the development from a national territorial approach towards a transnational integrated approach. Initially, Dutch water law for example, sought to offer protection against flooding. More

  20. Emergence of Integrated Water Resources Management : Measuring implementation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, M.; Khanh, N.T.; Witter, M.; Rutten, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the changes in laws and regulations, such as the revised Law on Water Resources in 2012, have sought to provide a legal framework for the internationally recognized practices of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Vietnam. With IWRM being a novel approach for Vietnam, it would

  1. The influence of conservation tillage methods on soil water regimes in semi-arid southern Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupangwa, W.; Twomlow, S.; Walker, S.

    Planting basins and ripper tillage practices are major components of the recently introduced conservation agriculture package that is being extensively promoted for smallholder farming in Zimbabwe. Besides preparing land for crop planting, these two technologies also help in collecting and using rainwater more efficiently in semi-arid areas. The basin tillage is being targeted for households with limited or no access to draught animals while ripping is meant for smallholder farmers with some draught animal power. Trials were established at four farms in Gwanda and Insiza in southern Zimbabwe to determine soil water contributions and runoff water losses from plots under four different tillage treatments. The tillage treatments were hand-dug planting basins, ripping, conventional spring and double ploughing using animal-drawn implements. The initial intention was to measure soil water changes and runoff losses from cropped plots under the four tillage practices. However, due to total crop failure, only soil water and runoff were measured from bare plots between December 2006 and April 2007. Runoff losses were highest under conventional ploughing. Planting basins retained most of the rainwater that fell during each rainfall event. The amount of rainfall received at each farm significantly influenced the volume of runoff water measured. Runoff water volume increased with increase in the amount of rainfall received at each farm. Soil water content was consistently higher under basin tillage than the other three tillage treatments. Significant differences in soil water content were observed across the farms according to soil types from sand to loamy sand. The basin tillage method gives a better control of water losses from the farmers’ fields. The planting basin tillage method has a greater potential for providing soil water to crops than ripper, double and single conventional ploughing practices.

  2. Adaptation Strategies of Soil and Water Conservation in Taiwan for Extreme Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Cheng-Yu; Hsieh, Ting-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Due to global climate change, the impact caused by extreme climate has become more and more compelling. In Taiwan, the total rainfall stays in the same level, but it brings along changes to rain types. The rainfall with high recurrence interval happens frequently, leading to soil loss of slope-land, and it may further result in flooding and sediment hazards. Although Taiwan is a small island, the population density is ranked at the second highest around the world. Moreover, third-fourth of Taiwan is slope-land, so the soil and water conservation is rather important. This study is based on the international trend analysis approach to review the related researches worldwide and 264 research projects in Taiwan. It indicates that under the pressure of extreme climate and social economic changes, it has higher possibility of slope-land to face the impacts from extreme rainfall events, and meanwhile, the carrying capacity of slope-land is decreasing. The experts' brainstorming meetings were held three times, and it concluded the current problems of soil and water conservation and the goal in 2025 for sustainable resources. Also, the 20-year weather data set was adopted to screen out 3 key watersheds with the potential of flooding (Puzih River Watershed), droughts (Xindian River Watershed), and sediment hazards (Chishan River Watershed) according to the moisture index, and further, to propose countermeasures in order to realize the goal in 2025, which is "regarding to climate and socioeconomic changes, it is based on multiple use to manage watershed resources for avoiding disasters and sustaining soil and water conservation." Keyword: Extreme climate, International trend analysis, Brainstorming, Key watershed

  3. Predicting improved optical water quality in rivers resulting from soil conservation actions on land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, J R; Davies-Colley, R J; Hughes, A O; Matthaei, C D

    2017-12-15

    Deforestation in New Zealand has led to increased soil erosion and sediment loads in rivers. Increased suspended fine sediment in water reduces visual clarity for humans and aquatic animals and reduces penetration of photosynthetically available radiation to aquatic plants. To mitigate fine-sediment impacts in rivers, catchment-wide approaches to reducing soil erosion are required. Targeting soil conservation for reducing sediment loads in rivers is possible through existing models; however, relationships between sediment loads and sediment-related attributes of water that affect both ecology and human uses of water are poorly understood. We present methods for relating sediment loads to sediment concentration, visual clarity, and euphotic depth. The methods require upwards of twenty concurrent samples of sediment concentration, visual clarity, and euphotic depth at a river site where discharge is measured continuously. The sediment-related attributes are related to sediment concentration through regressions. When sediment loads are reduced by soil conservation action, percentiles of sediment concentration are necessarily reduced, and the corresponding percentiles of visual clarity and euphotic depth are increased. The approach is demonstrated on the Wairua River in the Northland region of New Zealand. For this river we show that visual clarity would increase relatively by approximately 1.4 times the relative reduction of sediment load. Median visual clarity would increase from 0.75m to 1.25m (making the river more often suitable for swimming) after a sediment load reduction of 50% associated with widespread soil conservation on pastoral land. Likewise euphotic depth would increase relatively by approximately 0.7 times the relative reduction of sediment load, and the median euphotic depth would increase from 1.5m to 2.0m with a 50% sediment load reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  5. Water conservation implications for decarbonizing non-electric energy supply: A hybrid life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyuan; Wang, Can; Shi, Lei; Cai, Wenjia; Zhang, Lixiao

    2018-08-01

    Low-carbon transition in the non-electric energy sector, which includes transport and heating energy, is necessary for achieving the 2 °C target. Meanwhile, as non-electric energy accounts for over 60% of total water consumption in the energy supply sector, it is vital to understand future water trends in the context of decarbonization. However, few studies have focused on life-cycle water impacts for non-electric energy; besides, applying conventional LCA methodology to assess non-electric energy has limitations. In this paper, a Multi-Regional Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment (MRHLCA) model is built to assess total CO 2 emissions and water consumption of 6 non-electric energy technologies - transport energy from biofuel and gasoline, heat supply from natural gas, biogas, coal, and residual biomass, within 7 major emitting economies. We find that a shift to natural gas and residual biomass heating can help economies reduce 14-65% CO 2 and save more than 21% water. However, developed and developing economies should take differentiated technical strategies. Then we apply scenarios from IMAGE model to demonstrate that if economies take cost-effective 2 °C pathways, the water conservation synergy for the whole energy supply sector, including electricity, can also be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bound water at protein-protein interfaces: partners, roles and hydrophobic bubbles as a conserved motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa H Ahmed

    Full Text Available There is a great interest in understanding and exploiting protein-protein associations as new routes for treating human disease. However, these associations are difficult to structurally characterize or model although the number of X-ray structures for protein-protein complexes is expanding. One feature of these complexes that has received little attention is the role of water molecules in the interfacial region.A data set of 4741 water molecules abstracted from 179 high-resolution (≤ 2.30 Å X-ray crystal structures of protein-protein complexes was analyzed with a suite of modeling tools based on the HINT forcefield and hydrogen-bonding geometry. A metric termed Relevance was used to classify the general roles of the water molecules.The water molecules were found to be involved in: a (bridging interactions with both proteins (21%, b favorable interactions with only one protein (53%, and c no interactions with either protein (26%. This trend is shown to be independent of the crystallographic resolution. Interactions with residue backbones are consistent for all classes and account for 21.5% of all interactions. Interactions with polar residues are significantly more common for the first group and interactions with non-polar residues dominate the last group. Waters interacting with both proteins stabilize on average the proteins' interaction (-0.46 kcal mol(-1, but the overall average contribution of a single water to the protein-protein interaction energy is unfavorable (+0.03 kcal mol(-1. Analysis of the waters without favorable interactions with either protein suggests that this is a conserved phenomenon: 42% of these waters have SASA ≤ 10 Å(2 and are thus largely buried, and 69% of these are within predominantly hydrophobic environments or "hydrophobic bubbles". Such water molecules may have an important biological purpose in mediating protein-protein interactions.

  7. Breast Conserving Treatment for Breast Cancer: Dosimetric Comparison of Sequential versus Simultaneous Integrated Photon Boost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Van Parijs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast conserving surgery followed by whole breast irradiation is widely accepted as standard of care for early breast cancer. Addition of a boost dose to the initial tumor area further reduces local recurrences. We investigated the dosimetric benefits of a simultaneously integrated boost (SIB compared to a sequential boost to hypofractionate the boost volume, while maintaining normofractionation on the breast. Methods. For 10 patients 4 treatment plans were deployed, 1 with a sequential photon boost, and 3 with different SIB techniques: on a conventional linear accelerator, helical TomoTherapy, and static TomoDirect. Dosimetric comparison was performed. Results. PTV-coverage was good in all techniques. Conformity was better with all SIB techniques compared to sequential boost (P = 0.0001. There was less dose spilling to the ipsilateral breast outside the PTVboost (P = 0.04. The dose to the organs at risk (OAR was not influenced by SIB compared to sequential boost. Helical TomoTherapy showed a higher mean dose to the contralateral breast, but less than 5 Gy for each patient. Conclusions. SIB showed less dose spilling within the breast and equal dose to OAR compared to sequential boost. Both helical TomoTherapy and the conventional technique delivered acceptable dosimetry. SIB seems a safe alternative and can be implemented in clinical routine.

  8. Breast conserving treatment for breast cancer: dosimetric comparison of sequential versus simultaneous integrated photon boost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parijs, Hilde; Reynders, Truus; Heuninckx, Karina; Verellen, Dirk; Storme, Guy; De Ridder, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery followed by whole breast irradiation is widely accepted as standard of care for early breast cancer. Addition of a boost dose to the initial tumor area further reduces local recurrences. We investigated the dosimetric benefits of a simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) compared to a sequential boost to hypofractionate the boost volume, while maintaining normofractionation on the breast. For 10 patients 4 treatment plans were deployed, 1 with a sequential photon boost, and 3 with different SIB techniques: on a conventional linear accelerator, helical TomoTherapy, and static TomoDirect. Dosimetric comparison was performed. PTV-coverage was good in all techniques. Conformity was better with all SIB techniques compared to sequential boost (P = 0.0001). There was less dose spilling to the ipsilateral breast outside the PTVboost (P = 0.04). The dose to the organs at risk (OAR) was not influenced by SIB compared to sequential boost. Helical TomoTherapy showed a higher mean dose to the contralateral breast, but less than 5 Gy for each patient. SIB showed less dose spilling within the breast and equal dose to OAR compared to sequential boost. Both helical TomoTherapy and the conventional technique delivered acceptable dosimetry. SIB seems a safe alternative and can be implemented in clinical routine.

  9. Instrumentation and control strategies for an integral pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several vendors have recently been actively pursuing the development of integral pressurized water reactors (iPWRs that range in power levels from small to large reactors. Integral reactors have the features of minimum vessel penetrations, passive heat removal after reactor shutdown, and modular construction that allow fast plant integration and a secure fuel cycle. The features of an integral reactor limit the options for placing control and safety system instruments. The development of instrumentation and control (I&C strategies for a large 1,000 MWe iPWR is described. Reactor system modeling—which includes reactor core dynamics, primary heat exchanger, and the steam flashing drum—is an important part of I&C development and validation, and thereby consolidates the overall implementation for a large iPWR. The results of simulation models, control development, and instrumentation features illustrate the systematic approach that is applicable to integral light water reactors.

  10. A systematic survey of the integration of animal behavior into conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Carroll, Scott; Fisher, Robert N.; Mesnick, Sarah L.; Owen, Megan A.; Saltz, David; St. Claire, Colleen Cassady; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    The role of behavioral ecology in improving wildlife conservation and management has been the subject of much recent debate. We aim to answer two foundational questions about the current use of behavioral knowledge in conservation: 1. To what extent is behavioral knowledge used in wildlife conservation and management? 2. How does the use of behavior differ among conservation fields in both frequency and types of use? To answer these questions, we searched the literature for intersections between key fields of animal behavior and conservation biology and created a systematic ‘heat’ map to visualize relative efforts. Our analysis challenges previous suggestions that there is little association between the fields of behavioral ecology and conservation and reveals tremendous variation in the use of different behaviors in conservation. For instance, some behaviors, such as foraging and dispersal, are commonly considered, but other behaviors such as learning, social or anti-predatory behaviors are hardly considered. Our analysis suggests that in many cases awareness of the importance of behavior does not translate into applicable management tools. We recommend that researchers should focus on developing research in underutilized intersections of behavior and conservation themes for which preliminary work show a potential for improving conservation and management, on translating behavioral theory into applicable and testable predictions, and on creating systematic reviews to summarize the behavioral evidence within the behavior-conservation intersections for which many studies exist.

  11. Integrated oil sands tailings pond water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed research currently being conducted to treat oil sands tailings pond water (TPW). The treatment of TPW is challenged by the high level of naphthenic acids (NAs), the slow settling rate of fine particulate materials, and the complex chemistry of the water. The treatment process consisted of bioflocculation, sludge blanket assisted clarification, ozonation, and oil sands coke assisted hybrid biodegradation. The aggregation and adsorption process bound small particles and cells together while also ensuring the passive uptake of pollutants using microbial masses. The mixed liquor then passed through a sludge blanket to ensure enhanced particle capture. An ozonation process was used to increase the biodegradability of the TPW as well as to increase the biodegradability of the residual NAs after ozonation. The process used a hybrid bioreactor that consisted of both suspended and fixed microbial communities. The coke served as a biofilm carrier for the waste. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the efficiency and capability of the process. tabs., figs.

  12. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  13. Spatiotemporal dynamics of surface water networks across a global biodiversity hotspot—implications for conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulbure, Mirela G; Broich, Mark; Kininmonth, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The concept of habitat networks represents an important tool for landscape conservation and management at regional scales. Previous studies simulated degradation of temporally fixed networks but few quantified the change in network connectivity from disintegration of key features that undergo naturally occurring spatiotemporal dynamics. This is particularly of concern for aquatic systems, which typically show high natural spatiotemporal variability. Here we focused on the Swan Coastal Plain, a bioregion that encompasses a global biodiversity hotspot in Australia with over 1500 water bodies of high biodiversity. Using graph theory, we conducted a temporal analysis of water body connectivity over 13 years of variable climate. We derived large networks of surface water bodies using Landsat data (1999–2011). We generated an ensemble of 278 potential networks at three dispersal distances approximating the maximum dispersal distance of different water dependent organisms. We assessed network connectivity through several network topology metrics and quantified the resilience of the network topology during wet and dry phases. We identified ‘stepping stone’ water bodies across time and compared our networks with theoretical network models with known properties. Results showed a highly dynamic seasonal pattern of variability in network topology metrics. A decline in connectivity over the 13 years was noted with potential negative consequences for species with limited dispersal capacity. The networks described here resemble theoretical scale-free models, also known as ‘rich get richer’ algorithm. The ‘stepping stone’ water bodies are located in the area around the Peel-Harvey Estuary, a Ramsar listed site, and some are located in a national park. Our results describe a powerful approach that can be implemented when assessing the connectivity for a particular organism with known dispersal distance. The approach of identifying the surface water bodies that act as

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of surface water networks across a global biodiversity hotspot—implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulbure, Mirela G.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Broich, Mark

    2014-11-01

    The concept of habitat networks represents an important tool for landscape conservation and management at regional scales. Previous studies simulated degradation of temporally fixed networks but few quantified the change in network connectivity from disintegration of key features that undergo naturally occurring spatiotemporal dynamics. This is particularly of concern for aquatic systems, which typically show high natural spatiotemporal variability. Here we focused on the Swan Coastal Plain, a bioregion that encompasses a global biodiversity hotspot in Australia with over 1500 water bodies of high biodiversity. Using graph theory, we conducted a temporal analysis of water body connectivity over 13 years of variable climate. We derived large networks of surface water bodies using Landsat data (1999-2011). We generated an ensemble of 278 potential networks at three dispersal distances approximating the maximum dispersal distance of different water dependent organisms. We assessed network connectivity through several network topology metrics and quantified the resilience of the network topology during wet and dry phases. We identified ‘stepping stone’ water bodies across time and compared our networks with theoretical network models with known properties. Results showed a highly dynamic seasonal pattern of variability in network topology metrics. A decline in connectivity over the 13 years was noted with potential negative consequences for species with limited dispersal capacity. The networks described here resemble theoretical scale-free models, also known as ‘rich get richer’ algorithm. The ‘stepping stone’ water bodies are located in the area around the Peel-Harvey Estuary, a Ramsar listed site, and some are located in a national park. Our results describe a powerful approach that can be implemented when assessing the connectivity for a particular organism with known dispersal distance. The approach of identifying the surface water bodies that act as

  15. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Water Conservation Area: A Case Study of Dongjiang River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Fanbin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate economic compensation from downstream to upstream watershed is important to solve China’s social and economic imbalances between regions and can potentially enhance water resources protection and ecological security. The study analyzes the implementation of ecological compensation policy and related legal basis under ecological compensation mechanism theory and practice patterns, based on current natural environment and socio-economic development of national origin in Dongjiang water conservation areas. Under the principle of “Users pay”, the Dongjiang River is the subject of ecological compensation and recipient. By using the “cost-benefit analysis” and “cost method of industrial development opportunity”, we estimate that the total ecological compensation amounted to 513.35 million yuan. When estimated by the indicators such as water quantity, water quality and water use efficiency, we establish the “environmental and ecological protection cost sharing model” and measure the total cost of protecting downstream watershed areas, the Guangdong Province, is about 108.61 million yuan. The implementation of the Dongjiang source region that follows the principles of ecological compensation and approaches are also designed

  17. Water Conservation in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in Relation to Carbon Dioxide Dark Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, George G.; Chaturvedi, S. N.

    1975-01-01

    The succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poel. var Tom Thumb was treated on long and short photoperiods for 6 weeks during which short day plants developed thicker leaves, flowered prolifically, and exhibited extensive net dark fixation of carbon dioxide. In contrast, long day plants remained vegetative and did not develop thicker leaves or exhibit net carbon dioxide dark fixation. When examined after the photoperiodic state described, long day plants showed approximately three times more water loss over a 10-day period than short day plants. Water loss is similar during light and dark periods for short day plants but long day plants exhibited two times more water loss during the day than at night. The latter plants also lost three and one-half times more water during the light period than short day plants. The water conservation by short day plants is correlated with conditions of high carbon dioxide dark fixation and effects of its related Crassulacean acid metabolism on stomatal behavior. PMID:16659116

  18. U.S. Geological Survey programs and investigations related to soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a rich tradition of collecting hydrologic data, especially for fluxes of water and suspended sediment, that provide a foundation for studies of soil and water conservation. Applied and basic research has included investigations of the effects of land use on rangelands, croplands, and forests; hazards mapping; derivation of flood and drought frequency, and other statistics related to streamflow and reservoir storage; development and application of models of rainfall-runoff relations, chemical quality, and sediment movement; and studies of the interactive processes of overland and channel flow with vegetation. Networks of streamgaging stations and (or) sampling sites within numerous drainage basins are yielding information that extends databases and enhances the ability to use those data for interpretive studies.

  19. Effects of integration time on in-water radiometric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Davide; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Kajiyama, Tamito

    2018-03-05

    This work investigates the effects of integration time on in-water downward irradiance E d , upward irradiance E u and upwelling radiance L u profile data acquired with free-fall hyperspectral systems. Analyzed quantities are the subsurface value and the diffuse attenuation coefficient derived by applying linear and non-linear regression schemes. Case studies include oligotrophic waters (Case-1), as well as waters dominated by Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Non-Algal Particles (NAP). Assuming a 24-bit digitization, measurements resulting from the accumulation of photons over integration times varying between 8 and 2048ms are evaluated at depths corresponding to: 1) the beginning of each integration interval (Fst); 2) the end of each integration interval (Lst); 3) the averages of Fst and Lst values (Avg); and finally 4) the values weighted accounting for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of water (Wgt). Statistical figures show that the effects of integration time can bias results well above 5% as a function of the depth definition. Results indicate the validity of the Wgt depth definition and the fair applicability of the Avg one. Instead, both the Fst and Lst depths should not be adopted since they may introduce pronounced biases in E u and L u regression products for highly absorbing waters. Finally, the study reconfirms the relevance of combining multiple radiometric casts into a single profile to increase precision of regression products.

  20. Integrating Science & Management: Florida Scrub-Jay Conservation along the Central Florida's Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David R.

    2018-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays are a species listed under the Endangered Species Act. The NASA Ecology program has been a partner for conservation, recovery, and translocation across the species range. The objectives of this talk are to update members of the Archie Carr Working Group recovery, conservation, and translocation activities and describe how the Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge and nearby conservation lands relate to species recovery actions.

  1. Coordinating water conservation efforts through tradable credits: A proof of concept for drought response in the San Francisco Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Ajami, Newsha; Sun, Yujie

    2017-09-01

    Water utilities are increasingly relying on water efficiency and conservation to extend the availability of supplies. Despite spatial and institutional interdependency of many utilities, these demand-side management initiatives have traditionally been tackled by individual utilities operating in isolation. In this study, we introduce a policy framework for water conservation credits that enables collaboration at the regional scale. Under the proposed approach, utilities have the flexibility to invest in water conservation measures that are appropriate for their specific service area. When utilities have insufficient capacity for local cost-effective measures, they may opt to purchase credits, contributing to fund subsidies for utilities that do have that capacity and can provide the credits, while the region as a whole benefits from more reliable water supplies. This work aims to provide insights on the potential impacts of a water conservation credit policy framework when utilities are given the option to collaborate in their efforts. We model utility decisions as rational cost-minimizing actors subject to different decision-making dynamics and water demand scenarios, and demonstrate the institutional characteristics needed for the proposed policy to be effective. We apply this model to a counterfactual case study of water utility members of the Bay Area Water Supply and Conservation Agency in California during the drought period of June 2015 to May 2016. Our scenario analysis indicates that when the institutional structure and incentives are appropriately defined, water agencies can achieve economic benefits from collaborating in their conservation efforts, especially if they coordinate more closely in their decision-making.

  2. Hydroeconomic modeling to support integrated water resources management in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus

    resources. In this context, the PhD study focused on development of approaches to inform integrated water resources management to cope with multiple and coupled challenges faced in China. The proposed method is to formulate river water management as a joint hydroeconomic optimization problem that minimizes...... the system and allowed overdraft in dry years in return for increased recharge in wet years. Further, cost-effective recovery of an overdrafted groundwater aquifer was demonstrated. The third implementation assessed interactions of water resources and water quality management. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...... problem with a single surface water reservoir state variable. A comparison of different management scenarios was used to evaluate how the South-to-North Water Transfer Project will impact optimal water resources management. Scenarios with unregulated groundwater pumping at realistic pumping costs verified...

  3. The Evaluation of Water Conservation for Municipal and Industrial Water Supply: Illustrative Examples. Water Conservation and Supply Information Transfer and Analysis Program. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    measures. In other words, discussion of such issues is often, indeed usually, more successful in leading to the identification and delineation of basic ...discussion of urban growth reveals a basic dichotomy of values that runs through the Atlanta sample; various groups of influence align themselves on one side...leak detection, land use policies, ratemaking policy, and tax incentives or subsidies. Available data on unaccounted-for water indicate that the

  4. The water-energy nexus at water supply and its implications on the integrated water and energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalkhali, Masoumeh; Westphal, Kirk; Mo, Weiwei

    2018-09-15

    Water and energy are highly interdependent in the modern world, and hence, it is important to understand their constantly changing and nonlinear interconnections to inform the integrated management of water and energy. In this study, a hydrologic model, a water systems model, and an energy model were developed and integrated into a system dynamics modeling framework. This framework was then applied to a water supply system in the northeast US to capture its water-energy interactions under a set of future population, climate, and system operation scenarios. A hydrologic model was first used to simulate the system's hydrologic inflows and outflows under temperature and precipitation changes on a weekly-basis. A water systems model that combines the hydrologic model and management rules (e.g., water release and transfer) was then developed to dynamically simulate the system's water storage and water head. Outputs from the water systems model were used in the energy model to estimate hydropower generation. It was found that critical water-energy synergies and tradeoffs exist, and there is a possibility for integrated water and energy management to achieve better outcomes. This analysis also shows the importance of a holistic understanding of the systems as a whole, which would allow utility managers to make proactive long-term management decisions. The modeling framework is generalizable to other water supply systems with hydropower generation capacities to inform the integrated management of water and energy resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of soil and water conservation on rehabilitation of degraded lands and crop productivity in Maego watershed, North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam Yaebiyo Dimtsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many soil and water conservation (SWC measures were undertaken to decrease land degradation in Ethiopia. However, evaluation of their performance is essential to understand their success or failure and readjusting accordingly in the future planning.  Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of SWC measures in rehabilitation of degraded watershed and increase crop productivity in Maego watershed, Ethiopia. Seventy six sample plots were randomly taken from treated and untreated sub-watersheds for woody species and soil sampling. Crops yield was measured on top side, middle zone and below side of SWC structures. There were significantly higher woody species density and diversity, total nitrogen (TN, soil organic matter (SOM and soil moisture in the treated uncultivated land than the untreated one. The highest tree and sapling species density and diversity, TN and SOM were recorded on the exclosure part of the treated sub-watershed. Landscape position affected soil fertility, but has no effect on woody species density and diversity. The highest barley and wheat yield was measured on top side of SWC structures. Therefore, physical SWC structures should be integrated with exclosure to enhance rehabilitation of degraded watersheds/landscapes. Integration of biological SWC measures that improve soil fertility are essential on the cultivated land of the watershed. Most of the existing SWC structures, especially the old ones are filled with accumulated sediment, so maintenance is needed.

  6. Capacitive Sensors and Breakthrough Curves in Automated Irrigation for Water and Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy Hussein, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Shortness of water resources is the dominant criterion that dampens agricultural expansion in Egypt. Ten times population increase was recorded versus twice increase in the cultivated area during the last 100 years. Significant increase in freshwater supply is not expected in the near future. Consequently, a great deal of water-conservation is required to ameliorate water-use efficiency and to protect soils against sodicity under the prevailing arid-zone conditions. Modern irrigation (pivot, drip and sprinkling) was introduced during the last three decades in newly cultivated lands. However, this was done without automated watering. Moreover, dynamic chemical profile data is lacking in the cultivated lands. These current water conditions are behind this work. Two experimental procedures were used for a conjunctive goal of water and soil conservation. The first procedure used the resonance of analog-oscillators (relative permittivity sensors) based on capacitive Frequency Domain Reflectometry, FDR. Commercially available FDR sensors were calibrated for three soil textures, and solenoids were used to automatically turn on and off irrigation pipes in three experimental plots (via low power AC latching-valves on relay solid-state boards connected to sensors; the valve got closed when soil became sufficiently moist near saturation and opened before reaching wilting point as the relay contacts were defined by variable-resistor on board after sensor calibration). This article reports the results of sensor mV readings versus soil-moisture in the linear parts of calibration diagrams, for known moisture contents from wilting point to saturation, fitted as "power-law of dielectric mixing". The results showed close to optimum watering at soil-surface in the nursery beds when the sensors were sampled every 10 minutes to update the relays. This work is planned to extend to different sensors and drippers for soils with field crops / fruit trees to account for aspects of concern

  7. The Role of Conserved Waters in Conformational Transitions of Q61H K-ras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Priyanka; Sayyed-Ahmad, Abdallah; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the stability and functional role of long-residence water molecules in the Q61H variant of the signaling protein K-ras, we analyzed all available Ras crystal structures and conformers derived from a series of independent explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations totaling 1.76 µs. We show that the protein samples a different region of phase space in the presence and absence of several crystallographically conserved and buried water molecules. The dynamics of these waters is coupled with the local as well as the global motions of the protein, in contrast to less buried waters whose exchange with bulk is only loosely coupled with the motion of loops in their vicinity. Aided by two novel reaction coordinates involving the distance (d) between the Cα atoms of G60 at switch 2 and G10 at the P-loop and the N-Cα-C-O dihedral (ξ) of G60, we further show that three water molecules located in lobe1, at the interface between the lobes and at lobe2, are involved in the relative motion of residues at the two lobes of Q61H K-ras. Moreover, a d/ξ plot classifies the available Ras x-ray structures and MD-derived K-ras conformers into active GTP-, intermediate GTP-, inactive GDP-bound, and nucleotide-free conformational states. The population of these states and the transition between them is modulated by water-mediated correlated motions involving the functionally critical switch 2, P-loop and helix 3. These results suggest that water molecules act as allosteric ligands to induce a population shift among distinct switch 2 conformations that differ in effector recognition. PMID:22359497

  8. THE SOCIALIZING OF WATER CONSERVATION THROUGH COUNSELING AND BIOPORI HOLE MAKING (LBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    puti renosori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The high population density in the devotion location, causing groundwater getting a much needed, but its condition now is dwindling due to lack of land infiltration. It is caused by the high of land conversion therefore the land becomes water resistant. Many residents who buy clean water during the dry season but when in the rainy season many puddles in the yard and the street due to the capacity of the drainage is not enough anymore. Furthermore, the rainwater runoff in the area contributed to the flooding in the Rancaekek and Jatinangor area. To resolve this issue is done counseling in order to change the rainwater management paradigm that only distributes as soon as possible to maximize their absorption into the drainage channel in a way to invite people to make LRB. LRB  chosen because it is one of the appropriate technology that is easy to do, relatively cheap, environmentally friendly and is an effective way to conserve underground water can overcome the water crisis, and contribute significantly to reducing flood donations. Residents with making LRB have benefits to eliminate the puddles in the yard and the street, and further can be groundwater reserves. Because the LRB can be filled with organic waste, which can be turned into compost, then the other benefits are be able to improve the processing of organic waste into compost.

  9. Phosphorus fractionation and distribution in sediments from wetlands and canals of a water conservation area in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingren Wang; Yuncong Li; Ying. Ouyang

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) fractionation and distribution in sediments are of great concern in the Florida Everglades ecosystem because potential eutrophication of surface waters usually results from P external loading and stability. Intact core sediment samples were collected to a depth of 35 cm from wetlands and canals across Water Conservation Area 3 (WCA‐3) of the Florida...

  10. Evaluation of soil and water conservation measures in a semi-arid river basin in Tunisia using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Merguellil catchment (Central Tunisia) is a typical Mediterranean semi-arid basin which suffers from regular water shortage aggravated by current droughts. During the recent decades the continuous construction of small and large dams and Soil and Water Conservation Works (i.e. Contour ridges) ha...

  11. The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration, and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants discharge into receiving water bodies and enhance local and ...

  12. Conserved water-mediated hydrogen bond network between TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII in 7TM receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Rie; Hansen, Louise Valentin; Mokrosinski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Five highly conserved polar residues connected by a number of structural water molecules together with two rotamer micro-switches, TrpVI:13 and TyrVII:20, constitute an extended hydrogen bond network between the intracellular segments of TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII of 7TM receptors. Molecular dynamics...... to apparently function as a catching trap for water molecules. Mutational analysis of the beta2-adrenergic receptor demonstrated that the highly conserved polar residues of the hydrogen bond network were all important for receptor signaling but served different functions, some dampening constitutive activity...... (AsnI:18, AspII:10, and AsnVII:13), whereas others (AsnVII:12 and AsnVII:16) located one helical turn apart and sharing a water molecule were shown to be essential for agonist-induced signaling. It is concluded that the conserved water hydrogen bond network of 7TM receptors constitutes an extended...

  13. Decision support for integrated water-energy planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Castillo, Cesar; Hart, William Eugene; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-10-01

    Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While water and energy use are tightly coupled, planning and management of these fundamental resources are rarely treated in an integrated fashion. Toward this need, a decision support framework has been developed that targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. The framework integrates analysis and optimization capabilities to identify trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., national, state, county, watershed, NERC region). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. Ultimately, this open and interactive modeling framework provides a tool for evaluating competing policy and technical options relevant to the energy-water nexus.

  14. [Heavy metals in environmental media around drinking water conservation area of Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gui-Tao; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Zhang, Cui; Bi, Chun-Juan; Cheng, Chen; Teng, Ji-Yan; Shen, Jun; Wang, Dong-Qi; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2008-07-01

    The levels of heavy metals in Shanghai drinking water conservation area were determined, and the spatial distributions and main sources of heavy metals were investigated. Moreover, the ecological risk assessment of heavy metals was conducted. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The average concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and As in road dust were 0.80, 0.23, 148.45, 127.52, 380.57, 63.17, 250.38 and 10.37 mg x kg(-1) respectively. In terms of the pollution level, the values of soils were relatively lower, with the mean contents of 0.16 (Cd), 0.33 (Hg), 30.14 (Pb), 30.66 (Cu), 103.79 (Zn), 24.04 (Ni), 65.75 (Cr) and 6.31 mg x kg(-1) (As) severally; meanwhile the average levels of heavy metals in vegetables were 0.010 (Cd), 0.016 (Hg), 0.36 (Pb), 12.80 (Cu), 61.69 (Zn), 2.04 (Ni), 2.41 (Cr) and 0.039 mg x kg(-1) (As) respectively. (2) Semivariogram and multivariate analysis indicated that heavy metals pollution of soils was induced by anthropogenic activities mostly, and the pollutants produced by traffic were the major source of heavy metals in road dust. (3) The order for heavy metal enrichment coefficients of vegetables was as following: Zn (0.589) > Cu (0.412) > 0.102 (Ni) > Cd (0.059) > Cr (0.061) > Hg (0.056) > Pb (0.012) > As (0.007), and the results indicated that Cd and Zn in vegetables were mainly from the soils, and the other metals were probably from the pollutants in the atmosphere. (4) Sediments in drinking water conservation area were probably derived from soils around; however, there was no significant relationship between heavy metals contents of them. (5) The results of ecological risk assessment of heavy metals showed that heavy metals in soils were in no-warning to warning situation, and warning to light-warning situation for road dust and vegetables. The fuzzy synthesis judgment for all the environmental media around drinking water conservation area was warning to light-warning.

  15. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  16. Development of a household waste treatment subsystem, volume 1. [with water conservation features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresko, T. M.; Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The domestic waste treatment subsystem was developed to process the daily liquid and non-metallic solid wastes provided by a family of four people. The subsystem was designed to be connected to the sewer line of a household which contained water conservation features. The system consisted of an evaporation technique to separate liquids from solids, an incineration technique for solids reduction, and a catalytic oxidizer for eliminating noxious gases from evaporation and incineration processes. All wastes were passed through a grinder which masticated the solids and deposited them in a settling tank. The liquids were transferred through a cleanable filter into a holding tank. From here the liquids were sprayed into an evaporator and a spray chamber where evaporation occurred. The resulting vapors were processed by catalytic oxidation. Water and latent energy were recovered in a combination evaporator/condenser heat exchanger. The solids were conveyed into an incinerator and reduced to ash while the incineration gases were passed through the catalytic oxidizer along with the processed water vapor.

  17. Geomorphic and Hydrological challenges in Africa: implications for soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Expected scenarios of climate change and population growth confront Africa with various important challenges related to food, water and energy security. Many of these challenges are closely linked to the impacts of soil erosion and other geomorphic processes, such as reduced crop yields, sedimentation of reservoirs and reduced freshwater quality. Despite the urgency and extent of many of these challenges, the causes and dynamics of these processes and their impacts remain severely understudied. This becomes apparent when the availability of e.g. soil erosion and catchment sediment export measurements for Africa is compared to that of other continents. Nonetheless, a substantial amount of geomorphic research has been conducted in Africa. Many of this work dates back from several decades ago, and were often only reported in 'gray literature' (e.g. internal reports). Here we present an overview of our current state of knowledge on soil erosion and its implications in Africa. We discuss which geomorphic process rate measurements are currently available and what can be learned from these with respect to the challenged raised above. We especially focus on our current understanding about the effectiveness of soil and water conservation techniques at various spatial and temporal scales. Based on specific case-studies (e.g. in Ethiopia and Uganda) and a meta-analysis of previous work, we highlight some research gaps, research needs and research opportunities when aiming to use Africa's soil and water resources sustainably and efficiently.

  18. Chilean central valley beekeeping as socially inclusive conservation practice in a social water scarcity context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eduardo Trujillo Bilbao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Through an ethnographic approach that complements conversations, tours and surveys of productive characterization is that the present study aims to approach the domestic beekeeping in the valley of Colliguay, Quilpué, fifth region of Chile. This is an activity that emerges as a result of deep transformations detonated by the neoliberalization of nature in general and water in particular. That is why it seeks to contextualize the situation of water scarcity that displaced livestock and put in place the bees. All of this through a political ecology lens. It is discussed how to achieve an anthropological reading of the ecological scenarios that denaturalize metabolic fractures in an area with a threatened presence of native forest. It is discovered that the outsider is the material and symbolic responsible of an increase in water stress and a key element in the social relations of confrontation of the valley. It is then related how bees have diverted the attention of their human counterparts to the affection and care of the forest that allows them to live, thus reinforcing the idea of a socially inclusive conservation.

  19. Water. Seychelles Integrated Science. [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P7 SIS unit focuses on: (1) the importance of water in students' daily lives; (2) the need to purify drinking…

  20. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological tools were developed to study the water quality in Cochin harbour, a complex aquatic ecosystems, through the integration of microbiological monitoring (faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas species) and heavy metal contamination (lead, cadmium and mercury). One way ANOVA indicates statistically significant ...

  1. Piloting a method to evaluate the implementation of integrated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 41, No 5 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A methodology with a set of principles, change areas and measures was developed as a performance assessment tool. ... Keywords: Integrated water resource management, Inkomati River Basin, South Africa, Swaziland ...

  2. Integrated Nutrient and Water Management for Sustainable Food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrated Nutrient and Water Management for Sustainable Food Production in the Sahel (CIFSRF). In the Sahel, agricultural production is strictly limited by drought and low soil fertility. In 2005 and 2010, these two factors led to food scarcity in Niger. However, innovative technologies such as microdose fertilization ...

  3. The Water Turbine: An Integrative STEM Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Michael E.; Deck, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Water turbines have long been used to make work easier for humans while minimizing energy consumption. They are not only used in small- and large-scale operations, but also provide a great context for Integrative STEM education. Students can begin to understand the technological processes available by designing, building, and testing different…

  4. Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: Supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunink, J.E.; Droogers, P.; Kauffman, J.H.; Mwaniki, B.M.; Bouma, J.

    2012-01-01

    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to

  5. Give Water a Hand. Farm and Ranch Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation on a farm or ranch, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  6. Novel Agricultural Conservation System with Sustained Yield and Decreased Water, Nutrient, Energy, and Carbon Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Shukla, S.; Holt, N.; Hendricks, G.; Sishodia, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are conventionally grown in raised bed plasticulture (RBP), a high intensity, high input, and high output production system. In 2016, the fresh market plasticulture industry covered 680,000 ha in the US, producing crops (e.g. tomato, peppers, melons, and strawberries) valued at ten billion dollars. To meet the increasing future demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and sustain the production potential of croplands, a transformation of the conventional food-water-energy nexus is essential. A novel agricultural conservation system, compact bed geometry, has been proposed to shift the paradigm in RBP, sustaining yield and decreasing inputs (e.g. water, nutrients, energy, and carbon). Compact bed geometries fit the shape of the wetting front created when water is applied through drip irrigation on the production soil, creating a taller (23-30 cm) and thinner bed (66-41 cm). Two seasons of tomato (single row) and pepper (double row) production, in the environmentally fragile watershed of the Florida Everglades, highlight the potential impact of compact bed geometry on environmental sustainability in agricultural production. No difference in plant growth or yield was detected, with a reduction of 5-50% in irrigation water, up to 20% less N application, 12% less P, 20% less K, and 5-15% less carbon dioxide emissions. The hydrologic benefits of compact bed geometry include 26% less runoff generation, decreased need for active drainage pumping, and increased residence time for irrigation water within the bed, overall decreasing instances of nutrient leaching. A water related co-benefit observed was a reduction in the occurrences of Phytophthora capsici in pepper, which has the potential to reduce yield by as much as 70%. Non-water co-benefits include up to a 250/ ha reduction in production cost, with the potential to save the industry 200 million dollars annually. This economic benefit has led to rapid industry adoption, with more than 20

  7. GSFLOW - Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model Based on the Integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R. Steven; Prudic, David E.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The need to assess the effects of variability in climate, biota, geology, and human activities on water availability and flow requires the development of models that couple two or more components of the hydrologic cycle. An integrated hydrologic model called GSFLOW (Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW) was developed to simulate coupled ground-water and surface-water resources. The new model is based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW). Additional model components were developed, and existing components were modified, to facilitate integration of the models. Methods were developed to route flow among the PRMS Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) and between the HRUs and the MODFLOW finite-difference cells. This report describes the organization, concepts, design, and mathematical formulation of all GSFLOW model components. An important aspect of the integrated model design is its ability to conserve water mass and to provide comprehensive water budgets for a location of interest. This report includes descriptions of how water budgets are calculated for the integrated model and for individual model components. GSFLOW provides a robust modeling system for simulating flow through the hydrologic cycle, while allowing for future enhancements to incorporate other simulation techniques.

  8. NASA Remote Sensing Technologies for Improved Integrated Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lee, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts for improved Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and international community to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. Key objectives of this talk will highlight NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs with their objective to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management in national and international applications. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. The presentation will also demonstrate how NASA is a major contributor to water tasks and activities in GEOSS (Global Earth Observing System of Systems) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations).

  9. The implications of drought and water conservation on the reuse of municipal wastewater: Recognizing impacts and identifying mitigation possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quynh K; Jassby, David; Schwabe, Kurt A

    2017-11-01

    As water agencies continue to investigate opportunities to increase resilience and local water supply reliability in the face of drought and rising water scarcity, water conservation strategies and the reuse of treated municipal wastewater are garnering significant attention and adoption. Yet a simple water balance thought experiment illustrates that drought, and the conservation strategies that are often enacted in response to it, both likely limit the role reuse may play in improving local water supply reliability. For instance, as a particular drought progresses and agencies enact water conservation measures to cope with drought, influent flows likely decrease while influent pollution concentrations increase, particularly salinity, which adversely affects wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) costs and effluent quality and flow. Consequently, downstream uses of this effluent, whether to maintain streamflow and quality, groundwater recharge, or irrigation may be impacted. This is unfortunate since reuse is often heralded as a drought-proof mechanism to increase resilience. The objectives of this paper are two-fold. First, we illustrate-using a case study from Southern California during its most recent drought- how drought and water conservation strategies combine to reduce influent flow and quality and, subsequently, effluent flow and quality. Second, we use a recently developed regional water reuse decision support model (RWRM) to highlight cost-effective strategies that can be implemented to mitigate the impacts of drought on effluent water quality. While the solutions we identify cannot increase the flow of influent or effluent coming into or out of a treatment plant, they can improve the value of the remaining effluent in a cost-effective manner that takes into account the characteristics of its demand, whether it be for landscaping, golf courses, agricultural irrigation, or surface water augmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges of Integrated Water Resources Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased demands for water and land in Indonesia as a consequence of the population growth and economic development has reportedly have been accelerated from the year to year. The spatial and temporal variability of human induced hydrological changes in a river basin could affect quality and quantity of water. The challenge is that integrated water resources management (IWRM should cope with complex issues of water in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner, without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Even though the government of Indonesia has adopted new paradigm for water resources management by the enactment of Law No. 7/2004 on water resources, the implementation of IWRM may face the technical and managerial challenges. This paper briefly reviews the implementation of IWRM and related principles and provides an overview of potential water-related issues and progress towards implementation of IWRM in Indonesia. The availability of water and a broader range of water-related issues are identified. The recommended actions for improving the future IWRM are suggested. Challenges to improve the capacity buildings of IWRM related to enabling environment, institutional frameworks and management instruments are verified to contribute to the future directions for efficient problem-solving ability.

  11. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  12. Sensitivity of Sump Water Temperature to Containment Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This paper is focused on the containment behavior analysis in the above described cases using GOTHIC-IST (generation of thermal-hydraulic information for containments, industry standard toolset). GOTHIC-IST version 7.2a is an integrated, general purpose thermal-hydraulics software package for design, licensing, safety and operating analysis of nuclear power plant containments and other confinement buildings. In this study, we perform the sensitivity the sump water temperature to containment integrity. For 35% RIH break accident with the malfunction of spray system, local air coolers, ECC(emergency core cooling) pump and heat exchanger, the peak pressure at boiler room do not exceed the design pressure 124kPa(g) of the containment and containment integrity is secured. If accompanied the malfunction of heat exchanger or pump in the time of low pressure safety injection, of ECCS, it will be one of the aggravating factors to the integrity of core and containment.

  13. Social Diffusion of Water Conservation: A Study of Residential Turf Rebate Programs in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, K.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Feldman, D.

    2017-12-01

    From 2011 to 2017, the combination of record low precipitation and extreme warm temperatures resulted in the most severe drought in California's written history. In April 2015, Governor Jerry Brown issued an executive order mandating a statewide 25% reduction in potable urban water usage. Under such circumstances, outdoor watering is an obvious target for restriction, because it can account for a large fraction of total domestic water usage, up to 50% in the arid southwest [Syme et. al 2004, Cameron et. al 2012]. In this study we analyzed one such effort, in which the Irvine Ranch Water District (IRWD) in Orange County (California) offered a financial incentive through a turf rebate program to encourage Irvine residents to replace turf grass with drought tolerant landscaping. We focused specifically on the number of residents who applied to the turf rebate program. Our hypothesis was that the observed application rate (number of applicants per month) is influenced by a combination of (a) financial incentives issued by IRWD, (b) drought awareness, and (c) the fraction of neighbors that have already applied to the program (a phenomenon that can be described quantitatively through models of social contagion or social diffusion [Karsai et. al 2014]). Our preliminary results indicate that applications to the program occurred in geographic "hot spots", consistent with the idea that early adopters may have influenced neighbors to retrofit their lawns. We are currently evaluating the geographic, demographic, and temporal drivers that influence the rate of spontaneous adoption, the rate of adoption under influence, and the total size of the susceptible population. Overall, our goal is to identify the key factors that contribute to early rapid uptake of conservation behavior, and the rapid diffusion of that behavior through the community.

  14. Integrated Methodology for Estimating Water Use in Mediterranean Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Zalidis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural use is by far the largest consumer of fresh water worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, where it has reached unsustainable levels, thus posing a serious threat to water resources. Having a good estimate of the water used in an agricultural area would help water managers create incentives for water savings at the farmer and basin level, and meet the demands of the European Water Framework Directive. This work presents an integrated methodology for estimating water use in Mediterranean agricultural areas. It is based on well established methods of estimating the actual evapotranspiration through surface energy fluxes, customized for better performance under the Mediterranean conditions: small parcel sizes, detailed crop pattern, and lack of necessary data. The methodology has been tested and validated on the agricultural plain of the river Strimonas (Greece using a time series of Terra MODIS and Landsat 5 TM satellite images, and used to produce a seasonal water use map at a high spatial resolution. Finally, a tool has been designed to implement the methodology with a user-friendly interface, in order to facilitate its operational use.

  15. Effort to Increase Oil Palm Production through Application Technique of Soil and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Murtilaksono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out at block 375, 415, and 414 (block 1, 2, and 3 Afdeling III, Mangement Unit of Rejosari, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VII, Lampung from June 2005 until December 2007. Objective of the study is to examine the effect of soil and water conservation measurement, namely bund terrace and silt pit that are combined with retarded-water hole on production of oil palm. Sampled trees of each block were randomly selected as much as 36 trees. Parameters of vegetative growth (additional new frond, total of frond, number of new bunch, production (number of bunch, fresh fruit bunch (TBS, and average of bunch weigh (RBT were observed and recorded every two weeks. Production of palm oil of each block was also recorded every harvesting schedule of Afdeling. Tabular data were analyzed descriptively by logical comparison among the blocks as result of application of bund terrace and silt pit. Although the data of sampled trees were erratic, bund terrace and silt pit generally increasing number of frond, number of bunch, average of bunch weight, and fresh fruit bunch. Bund terrace gived the highest production of TBS (25.2 t ha-1 compared to silt pit application (23.6 t ha-1, and it has better effect on TBS than block control (20.8 t ha-1. Aside from that, RBT is the highest (21 kg at bund terrace block compared to silt pit block (20 kg and control block (19 kg.

  16. Thermal Hydraulic Integral Effect Tests for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, W. P.; Song, C. H.; Kim, Y. S. and others

    2005-02-15

    The objectives of the project are to construct a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility and to perform various integral effect tests for design, operation, and safety regulation of pressurized water reactors. During the first phase of this project (1997.8{approx}2002.3), the basic technology for thermal-hydraulic integral effect tests was established and the basic design of the test facility was accomplished: a full-height, 1/300-volume-scaled full pressure facility for APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor that was developed by Korean industry. Main objectives of the present phase (2002.4{approx}2005.2), was to optimize the facility design and to construct the experimental facility. We have performed following researches: 1) Optimization of the basic design of the thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility for PWRs - ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) - Reduced height design for APR1400 (+ specific design features of KSNP safety injection systems) - Thermal-hydraulic scaling based on three-level scaling methodology by Ishii et al. 2) Construction of the ATLAS facility - Detailed design of the test facility - Manufacturing and procurement of components - Installation of the facility 3) Development of supporting technology for integral effect tests - Development and application of advanced instrumentation technology - Preliminary analysis of test scenarios - Development of experimental procedures - Establishment and implementation of QA system/procedure.

  17. Integrating soil conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops: impacts on soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Martin A; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Reddy, Krishna N

    2008-04-01

    Conservation practices often associated with glyphosate-resistant crops, e.g. limited tillage and crop cover, improve soil conditions, but only limited research has evaluated their effects on soil in combination with glyphosate-resistant crops. It is assumed that conservation practices have similar benefits to soil whether or not glyphosate-resistant crops are used. This paper reviews the impact on soil of conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops, and presents data from a Mississippi field trial comparing glyphosate-resistant and non-glyphosate-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under limited tillage management. Results from the reduced-tillage study indicate differences in soil biological and chemical properties owing to glyphosate-resistant crops. Under continuous glyphosate-resistant maize, soils maintained greater soil organic carbon and nitrogen as compared with continuous non-glyphosate-resistant maize, but no differences were measured in continuous cotton or in cotton rotated with maize. Soil microbial community structure based on total fatty acid methyl ester analysis indicated a significant effect of glyphosate-resistant crop following 5 years of continuous glyphosate-resistant crop as compared with the non-glyphosate-resistant crop system. Results from this study, as well as the literature review, indicate differences attributable to the interaction of conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crop, but many are transient and benign for the soil ecosystem. Glyphosate use may result in minor effects on soil biological/chemical properties. However, enhanced organic carbon and plant residues in surface soils under conservation practices may buffer potential effects of glyphosate. Long-term field research established under various cropping systems and ecological regions is needed for critical assessment of glyphosate-resistant crop and conservation practice interactions. Copyright (c) 2008 by John Wiley & Sons

  18. Integrating the avoidance of forest degradation into systematic conservation planning in the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.; Barlow, J.; Thompson, J.; Berenguer, E.; Aragão, L. E.; Lees, A.; Lennox, G.; Brancalion, P.; Ferraz, S.; Moura, N.; Oliveira, V. H.; Louzada, J.; Solar, R.; Nunes, S.; Parry, L.; Fonseca, T.; Garrett, R.; Vieira, I.; MacNally, R.; Gardner, T.

    2017-12-01

    Undisturbed forests are becoming increasingly rare in the tropics. The area of forest degraded by some form of disturbance, such as logging or fire, in the Brazilian Amazon now greatly exceeds that which had been deforested. Yet forest policy in the Amazon, as elsewhere in the tropics, remains overwhelmingly focused curbing the rate of forest loss without considering impacts on forest quality. We use a unique data set from the Sustainable Amazon Network (RAS), in the eastern Brazilian Amazon to assess the impacts of forest disturbance on biodiversity and assess the benefits of including avoided degradation measures in conservation planning. Biodiversity data on trees and fauna from two large regions, Santarém and Paragominas, were combined with remote sensing data to model biodiversity patterns as well as estimates of above-ground carbon stocks across a range of land-use types and forest conditions. We found that impact of forest disturbance on biodiversity loss in the state of Pará equates to double that lost from deforestation alone, -the equivalent of losing 92,000-139,000 km2 of primary forest. We found a strong positive relationship between increasing carbon stocks and higher biodiversity in varyingly disturbed forests. Simulations demonstrated that a carbon-focused conservation strategy is least effective at conserving biodiversity in the least disturbed forests, highlighting the importance of on-the-ground biodiversity surveys to prioritise conservation investments in the most species rich forests. We explored trade-offs among management actions to guide priorities for habitat protection, avoided degradation and restoration and found that where restoration imposes significant opportunity and implementation costs, efforts to avoid and reverse the degradation of existing forests can deliver greater returns on investment for biodiversity conservation. Systemic planning of forest management options at regional scales can substantially improve biodiversity

  19. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, Philip W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment

  20. Development of an Integrated Water and Wind Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, D. C.; Ascough, J. C.; Wagner, L. E.; Geter, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Prediction technologies for soil erosion by the forces of wind or water have largely been developed independently from one another, especially within the United States. Much of this has been due to the initial creation of equations and models which were empirical in nature (i.e., Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wind Erosion Equation) and based upon separate water erosion or wind erosion plot and field measurements. Additionally, institutional organizations in place typically divided research efforts and funding to unique wind or water erosion research and modeling projects. However, during the past 20 years computer technologies and erosion modeling have progressed to the point where it is now possible to merge physical process-based computer simulation models into an integrated water and wind erosion prediction system. In a physically- based model, many of the processes which must be simulated for wind and water erosion computations are the same, e.g., climate, water balance, runoff, plant growth, etc. Model components which specifically deal with the wind or water detachment, transport and deposition processes are those that must differ, as well as any necessary parameterization of input variables (e.g., adjusted soil erodibilities, critical shear stresses, etc.) for those components. This presentation describes current efforts towards development of a combined wind and water erosion model, based in part upon technologies present in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) models. Initial efforts during the past two years have resulted in modular modeling components that allow for prediction of infiltration, surface runoff, and water erosion at a hillslope scale within an Object Modeling System. Additional components currently in development include wind detachment at a single field point, continuous water balance, and unified plant growth. Challenges in this project are many, and include adequate field

  1. Designing monitoring for conservation impact assessment in water funds in Latin America: an approach to address water-data scarcity (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. L.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Ziv, G.; Wolny, S.; Vogl, A. L.; Tallis, H.; Bremer, L.

    2013-12-01

    The risk of water scarcity is a rising threat in a rapidly changing world. Communities and investors are using the new institution of water funds to enact conservation practices in watersheds to bolster a clean, predictable water supply for multiple stakeholders. Water funds finance conservation activities to support water-related ecosystem services, and here we relate our work to develop innovative approaches to experimental design of monitoring programs to track the effectiveness of water funds throughout Latin America. We highlight two examples: the Fund for the Protection of Water (FONAG), in Quito, Ecuador, and Water for Life, Agua por la Vida, in Cali, Colombia. Our approach is meant to test whether a) water funds' restoration and protection actions result in changes in water quality and/or quantity at the site scale and the subwatershed scale, and b) the suite of investments for the whole water fund reach established goals for improving water quality and/or quantity at the basin scale or point of use. Our goal is to create monitoring standards for ecosystem-service assessment and clearly demonstrate translating those standards to field implementation in a statistically robust and cost-effective way. In the gap between data-intensive methods requiring historic, long-term water sampling and more subjective, ad hoc assessments, we have created a quantitative, land-cover-based approach to pairing conservation activity with appropriate controls in order to determine the impact of water-fund actions. To do so, we use a statistical approach in combination with open-source tools developed by the Natural Capital Project to optimize water funds' investments in nature and assess ecosystem-service provision (Resource Investment Optimization System, RIOS, and InVEST). We report on the process of identifying micro-, subwatershed or watershed matches to serve as controls for conservation 'impact' sites, based on globally-available land cover, precipitation, and soil data

  2. Impact of oil prices, economic diversification policies and energy conservation programs on the electricity and water demands in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Michael; Alsayegh, Osamah A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the influences of oil revenue and government's policies toward economic developments and energy efficiency on the electricity and water demands. A Kuwait-specific electricity and water demand model was developed based on historic data of oil income, gross domestic product (GDP), population and electric load and water demand over the past twelve years (1998–2010). Moreover, the model took into account the future mega projects, annual new connected loads and expected application of energy conservation programs. It was run under six circumstances representing the combinations of three oil income scenarios and two government action policies toward economic diversification and energy conservation. The first government policy is the status quo with respect to economic diversification and applying energy conservation programs. The second policy scenario is the proactive strategy of raising the production of the non-oil sector revenue and enforcing legislations toward energy demand side management and conservation. In the upcoming 20 years, the average rates of change of the electric load and water demand increase are 0.13 GW and 3.0 MIGD, respectively, per US dollar oil price increase. Moreover, through proactive policy, the rates of average load and water demand decrease are 0.13 GW and 2.9 MIGD per year, respectively. - Highlights: • Kuwait-specific electricity and water demand model is presented. • Strong association between oil income and electricity and water demands. • Rate of change of electric load per US dollar oil price change is 0.13 GW. • Rate of change of water demand per US dollar oil price change is 3.0 MIGD. • By 2030, efficiency lowers electric load and water demand by 10 and 6%, respectively

  3. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2012. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2012, the standards saved an estimated 3.6 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $51.4 billion. The average household saved $347 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2012 was 198 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2070 amount to 179 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,104 billion and $1,390 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.8 trillion gallons in 2012, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2040 of 54 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2012 from reduced water use amounted to $13 billon.

  4. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2015. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2015, the standards saved an estimated 4.49 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 5% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $63.4 billion. The average household saved $320 in operating costs as a result of residential appliance standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2015 was 238 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4.3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 216.9 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,627 billion and $1,887 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2015 and estimated cumulative water savings by 2090 amount to 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2015 from reduced water use amounted to $12 billon.

  5. Challenges of communicating integrated water resource management in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimbe, Simbiso; Manzungu, Emmanuel

    With the promulgation of the 1998 Water Act the Government of Zimbabwe took a decisive step to reform the country’s water sector, to bring it in line with contemporary socio-political realities obtaining in the country, and in tune with the philosophy of integrated water resources management. Researchers have reported a lack of awareness of the reforms, particularly among the black communities, who were considered not just as one of the target of the reforms, but the beneficiaries. This paper analyses why this has been the case. The paper makes a case for differentiating communication from information dissemination. Information refers to a set of data packaged for delivery to a receiver while communication involves a dialogue. This paper critiques communication strategies used to communicate water reforms in Zimbabwe, applying recent developments in communication theories. The argument in the paper is that there was a failure to communicate although there was some success in dissemination information about the reforms. If the situation is to be reversed then methods that involve audience analysis may have to be used. Such methods tend to be expensive and time consuming--however, there is no substitute to this if integrated water resources management is to be institutionalised among the various stakeholders.

  6. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  7. Integrated assessment, water resources, and science-policy communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, E.G.R.; Akhtar, M.K.; McBean, G.A.; Simonovic, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional climate change modeling neglects the role of feedbacks between different components of society-biosphere-climate system. Yet, such interconnections are critical. This paper describes an alternative, Integrated Assessment (IA) model that focuses on feedbacks not only within individual elements of the society-biosphere-climate system, but also on their interconnections. The model replicates the relevant dynamics of nine components of the society-biosphere- climate system at the sectoral, or single-component, level: climate, carbon cycle, hydrological cycle, water demand, water quality, population, land use, energy and economy. The paper discusses the role of the model in science-policy dialogue. (author)

  8. Towards integrated solutions for water, energy, and land using an integrated nexus modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Humanity has already reached or even exceeded the Earth's carrying capacity. Growing needs for food, energy and water will only exacerbate existing challenges over the next decades. Consequently, the acceptance of "business as usual" is eroding and we are being challenged to adopt new, more integrated, and more inclusive development pathways that avoid dangerous interference with the local environment and global planetary boundaries. This challenge is embodied in the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which endeavor to set a global agenda for moving towards more sustainable development strategies. To improve and sustain human welfare, it is critical that access to modern, reliable, and affordable water, energy, and food is expanded and maintained. The Integrated Solutions for Water, Energy, and Land (IS-WEL) project has been launched by IIASA, together with the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). This project focuses on the water-energy-land nexus in the context of other major global challenges such as urbanization, environmental degradation, and equitable and sustainable futures. It develops a consistent framework for looking at the water-energy-land nexus and identify strategies for achieving the needed transformational outcomes through an advanced assessment framework. A multi-scalar approach are being developed that aims to combine global and regional integrated assessment tools with local stakeholder knowledge in order to identify robust solutions to energy, water, food, and ecosystem security in selected regions of the world. These are regions facing multiple energy, water and land use challenges and rapid demographic and economic changes, and are hardest hit by increasing climate variability and change. This project combines the global integrated assessment model (MESSAGE) with the global land (GLOBIOM) and water (Community Water Model) model respectively, and the integrated

  9. Urban water metabolism efficiency assessment: integrated analysis of available and virtual water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Long; Vause, Jonathan; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Resolving the complex environmental problems of water pollution and shortage which occur during urbanization requires the systematic assessment of urban water metabolism efficiency (WME). While previous research has tended to focus on either available or virtual water metabolism, here we argue that the systematic problems arising during urbanization require an integrated assessment of available and virtual WME, using an indicator system based on material flow analysis (MFA) results. Future research should focus on the following areas: 1) analysis of available and virtual water flow patterns and processes through urban districts in different urbanization phases in years with varying amounts of rainfall, and their environmental effects; 2) based on the optimization of social, economic and environmental benefits, establishment of an indicator system for urban WME assessment using MFA results; 3) integrated assessment of available and virtual WME in districts with different urbanization levels, to facilitate study of the interactions between the natural and social water cycles; 4) analysis of mechanisms driving differences in WME between districts with different urbanization levels, and the selection of dominant social and economic driving indicators, especially those impacting water resource consumption. Combinations of these driving indicators could then be used to design efficient water resource metabolism solutions, and integrated management policies for reduced water consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  11. A second-order, unconditionally positive, mass-conserving integration scheme for biochemical systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Bruggeman (Frank); H. Burchard; B. Kooi; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBiochemical systems are bound by two mathematically-relevant restrictions. First, state variables in such systems represent non-negative quantities, such as concentrations of chemical compounds. Second, biochemical systems conserve mass and energy. Both properties must be reflected in

  12. Environmental and Conservation Volunteering as Workplace Integrated Learning for University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rowena H.; van Etten, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    This research paper introduces the concept and practice of tertiary sciences students doing environmental volunteering, also known as conservation volunteering, as a core part of their course. First year Natural Sciences students at Edith Cowan University do five days environmental volunteer work with community groups as a practicum, currently…

  13. Integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for a gravitational field with the absolute parallelism structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown the description of gravitational field in the riemannian space-time by means of the absolute parallelism structure makes it possible to formulate an integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for gravitational field, by imposing on the energy-momentum tensor the condition of vanishing of the covariant divergence (in the sense of the absolute parallelism). As a result of taking into account covariant constraints for the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the Lagrangian density turns out to be not geometrised anymore and leads to the unambiguous conservation law of the type mentioned in the N-body problem. Covariant field equations imply the existence of the special euclidean coordinates outside of static neighbourhoods of gravitationing bodies. In these coordinates determined by the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the linear approximation is not connected with any noncovariant assumptions

  14. Integrated urban water management for residential areas: a reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A B; Argue, J R

    2009-01-01

    Global concern over growing urban water demand in the face of limited water resources has focussed attention on the need for better management of available water resources. This paper takes the "fit for purpose" concept and applies it in the development of a model aimed at changing current practices with respect to residential planning by integrating reuse systems into the design layout. This residential reuse model provides an approach to the design of residential developments seeking to maximise water reuse. Water balance modelling is used to assess the extent to which local water resources can satisfy residential demands with conditions based on the city of Adelaide, Australia. Physical conditions include a relatively flat topography and a temperate climate, with annual rainfall being around 500 mm. The level of water-self-sufficiency that may be achieved within a reuse development in this environment is estimated at around 60%. A case study is also presented in which a conventional development is re-designed on the basis of the reuse model. Costing of the two developments indicates the reuse scenario is only marginally more expensive. Such costings however do not include the benefit to upstream and downstream environments resulting from reduced demand and discharges. As governments look to developers to recover system augmentation and environmental costs the economics of such approaches will increase.

  15. Estimating the impacts of conservation on ecosystem services and poverty by integrating modeling and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Nelson, Joanna L; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Nolte, Christoph; Sims, Katharine R E

    2015-06-16

    Scholars have made great advances in modeling and mapping ecosystem services, and in assigning economic values to these services. This modeling and valuation scholarship is often disconnected from evidence about how actual conservation programs have affected ecosystem services, however. Without a stronger evidence base, decision makers find it difficult to use the insights from modeling and valuation to design effective policies and programs. To strengthen the evidence base, scholars have advanced our understanding of the causal pathways between conservation actions and environmental outcomes, but their studies measure impacts on imperfect proxies for ecosystem services (e.g., avoidance of deforestation). To be useful to decision makers, these impacts must be translated into changes in ecosystem services and values. To illustrate how this translation can be done, we estimated the impacts of protected areas in Brazil, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand on carbon storage in forests. We found that protected areas in these conservation hotspots have stored at least an additional 1,000 Mt of CO2 in forests and have delivered ecosystem services worth at least $5 billion. This aggregate impact masks important spatial heterogeneity, however. Moreover, the spatial variability of impacts on carbon storage is the not the same as the spatial variability of impacts on avoided deforestation. These findings lead us to describe a research program that extends our framework to study other ecosystem services, to uncover the mechanisms by which ecosystem protection benefits humans, and to tie cost-benefit analyses to conservation planning so that we can obtain the greatest return on scarce conservation funds.

  16. Integrated inspection programs at Bruce Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    Quality pressure boundary maintenance and an excellent loss prevention record at Bruce Heavy Water Plant are the results of the Material and Inspection Unit's five inspection programs. Experienced inspectors are responsible for the integrity of the pressure boundary in their own operating area. Inspectors are part of the Technical Section, and along with unit engineering staff, they provide technical input before, during, and after the job. How these programs are completed, and the results achieved, are discussed. 5 figs., 1 appendix

  17. Integrated inspection programs at Bruce Heavy Water Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K C [Ontario Hydro, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Quality pressure boundary maintenance and an excellent loss prevention record at Bruce Heavy Water Plant are the results of the Material and Inspection Unit`s five inspection programs. Experienced inspectors are responsible for the integrity of the pressure boundary in their own operating area. Inspectors are part of the Technical Section, and along with unit engineering staff, they provide technical input before, during, and after the job. How these programs are completed, and the results achieved, are discussed. 5 figs., 1 appendix.

  18. Computation and Analysis of High Rocky Slope Safety in a Water Conservancy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated method, covering the actual monitoring analysis, practical geological model, and theoretical mathematical simulation model, is systematically proposed and successfully applied. Deformation characteristic of a unique high rocky slope was firstly analyzed from multiple angles and multiple layers by changeable elevations and distances. Arrangements of monitoring points were listed and monitoring equipment was designed to comprise a complete monitoring system. Present larger displacement was concluded for bottom larger displacement caused by water erosion and middle larger displacement formed by seepage. Temporal and spatial displacements rule study of multiple-points linkage effects with water factor proved this conclusion. To better excavate useful message and analyze the deep rule from the practical monitoring data, the slope geological model was conducted and rock mechanic parameters were researched. Finally, a unique three-dimensional finite element model was applied to approach the structure character using numerical simulations. The corresponding strength criterion was used to determine the safety coefficient by selecting a typical section. Subsequently, an integrated three-dimensional finite element model of the slope and dam was developed and more detailed deformation evolution mechanism was revealed. This study is expected to provide a powerful and systematic method to analyze very high, important, and dangerous slopes.

  19. Determinants of adoption and continued use of stone terraces for soil and water conservation in an Ethiopian highland watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsalu, A.; Graaff, de J.

    2007-01-01

    In the Ethiopian highlands, land degradation resulting from soil erosion and nutrient depletion is a serious environmental and socio-economic problem. Although soil and water conservation techniques have extensively been introduced over the past decades, sustained use of the measures was not as

  20. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Akalu; Graaff, de J.; Kassie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands