WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated vehicle aerodynamic

  1. Aerodynamics of flapping-wing Micro-Air-Vehicle : An integrated experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.

    2016-01-01

    The interest in Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) has stimulated continuous research activities, in view of their potential in civilian and military applications. An autonomous MAV with dedicated onboard sensors would be capable of executing mission in closed environments, such as surveillance, in door

  2. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    engine model. HYFIM performs the aerodynamic analysis of forebodies and inlet characteristics of RBCC powered SSTO launch vehicles. HYFIM is applicable to the analysis of the ramjet/scramjet engine operations modes (Mach 3-12), and provides estimates of parameters such as air capture area, shock-on-lip Mach number, design Mach number, compression ratio, etc., based on a basic geometry routine for modeling axisymmetric cones, 2-D wedge geometries. HYFIM also estimates the variation of shock layer properties normal to the forebody surface. The thermal protection system (TPS) is directly linked to determination of the vehicle moldline and the shaping of the trajectory. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. The need to analyze vehicle forebody and engine inlet is critical to be able to design the RBCC vehicle. To adequately determine insulation masses for an RBCC vehicle, the hypersonic aerodynamic environment and aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thicknesses that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle

  3. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B

    2007-01-04

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag

  4. Aerodynamic Problems of Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Chol Chou

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available The airflow along the surface of a launch vehicle together with vase flow of clustered nozzles cause problems which may affect the stability or efficiency of the entire vehicle. The problem may occur when the vehicle is on the launching pad or even during flight. As for such problems, local steady-state loads, overall steady-state loads, buffet, ground wind loads, base heating and rocket-nozzle hinge moments are examined here specifically.

  5. Aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid vehicles: A guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A typical present-day subcompact electric hybrid vehicle (EHV), operating on an SAE J227a D driving cycle, consumes up to 35% of its road energy requirement overcoming aerodynamic resistance. The application of an integrated system design approach, where drag reduction is an important design parameter, can increase the cycle range by more than 15%. This guidebook highlights a logic strategy for including aerodynamic drag reduction in the design of electric and hybrid vehicles to the degree appropriate to the mission requirements. Backup information and procedures are included in order to implement the strategy. Elements of the procedure are based on extensive wind tunnel tests involving generic subscale models and full-scale prototype EHVs. The user need not have any previous aerodynamic background. By necessity, the procedure utilizes many generic approximations and assumptions resulting in various levels of uncertainty. Dealing with these uncertainties, however, is a key feature of the strategy.

  6. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewicz, P.; Kulak, M.; Karczewski, M.

    2014-08-01

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  7. Aerodynamic analysis of an isolated vehicle wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leśniewicz, P; Kulak, M; Karczewski, M

    2014-01-01

    Increasing fuel prices force the manufacturers to look into all aspects of car aerodynamics including wheels, tyres and rims in order to minimize their drag. By diminishing the aerodynamic drag of vehicle the fuel consumption will decrease, while driving safety and comfort will improve. In order to properly illustrate the impact of a rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body, precise analysis of an isolated wheel should be performed beforehand. In order to represent wheel rotation in contact with the ground, presented CFD simulations included Moving Wall boundary as well as Multiple Reference Frame should be performed. Sliding mesh approach is favoured but too costly at the moment. Global and local flow quantities obtained during simulations were compared to an experiment in order to assess the validity of the numerical model. Results of investigation illustrates dependency between type of simulation and coefficients (drag and lift). MRF approach proved to be a better solution giving result closer to experiment. Investigation of the model with contact area between the wheel and the ground helps to illustrate the impact of rotating wheel aerodynamics on the car body.

  8. Membrane wing aerodynamics for micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yongsheng; Shyy, Wei; Viieru, Dragos; Zhang, Baoning

    2003-10-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a wing deteriorates considerably as the Reynolds number decreases from 10 6 to 10 4. In particular, flow separation can result in substantial change in effective airfoil shape and cause reduced aerodynamic performance. Lately, there has been growing interest in developing suitable techniques for sustained and robust flight of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with a wingspan of 15 cm or smaller, flight speed around 10 m/ s, and a corresponding Reynolds number of 10 4-10 5. This paper reviews the aerodynamics of membrane and corresponding rigid wings under the MAV flight conditions. The membrane wing is observed to yield desirable characteristics in delaying stall as well as adapting to the unsteady flight environment, which is intrinsic to the designated flight speed. Flow structures associated with the low Reynolds number and low aspect ratio wing, such as pressure distribution, separation bubble and tip vortex are reviewed. Structural dynamics in response to the surrounding flow field is presented to highlight the multiple time-scale phenomena. Based on the computational capabilities for treating moving boundary problems, wing shape optimization can be conducted in automated manners. To enhance the lift, the effect of endplates is evaluated. The proper orthogonal decomposition method is also discussed as an economic tool to describe the flow structure around a wing and to facilitate flow and vehicle control.

  9. Computational Aerodynamic Modeling of Small Quadcopter Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Ventura Diaz, Patricia; Boyd, D. Douglas; Chan, William M.; Theodore, Colin R.

    2017-01-01

    High-fidelity computational simulations have been performed which focus on rotor-fuselage and rotor-rotor aerodynamic interactions of small quad-rotor vehicle systems. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on overset grids using high-order accurate schemes, dual-time stepping, low Mach number preconditioning, and hybrid turbulence modeling. Computational results for isolated rotors are shown to compare well with available experimental data. Computational results in hover reveal the differences between a conventional configuration where the rotors are mounted above the fuselage and an unconventional configuration where the rotors are mounted below the fuselage. Complex flow physics in forward flight is investigated. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that understanding of interactional aerodynamics can be an important factor in design decisions regarding rotor and fuselage placement for next-generation multi-rotor drones.

  10. Aerodynamic resistance reduction of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The generation of an EHV aerodynamic data base was initiated by conducting full-scale wind tunnel tests on 16 vehicles. Zero-yaw drag coefficients ranged from a high of 0.58 for a boxey delivery van and an open roadster to a low of about 0.34 for a current 4-passenger prototype automobile which was designed with aerodynamics as an integrated parameter. Characteristic effects of aspect ratio or fineness ratio which might appear if electric vehicle shape proportions were to vary significantly from current automobiles were identified. Some preliminary results indicate a 5 to 10% variation in drag over the range of interest. Effective drag coefficient wind-weighting factors over J227a driving cycles in the presence of annual mean wind fields were identified. Such coefficients, when properly weighted, were found to be from 5 to 65% greater than the zero-yaw drag coefficient in the cases presented. A vehicle aerodynamics bibliography of over 160 entries, in six general categories is included.

  11. Aerodynamic results of wind tunnel tests on a 0.010-scale model (32-QTS) space shuttle integrated vehicle in the AEDC VKF-40-inch supersonic wind tunnel (IA61)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daileda, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Plotted and tabulated aerodynamic coefficient data from a wind tunnel test of the integrated space shuttle vehicle are presented. The primary test objective was to determine proximity force and moment data for the orbiter/external tank and solid rocket booster (SRB) with and without separation rockets firing for both single and dual booster runs. Data were obtained at three points (t = 0, 1.25, and 2.0 seconds) on the nominal SRB separation trajectory.

  12. Progress in vehicle aerodynamics and thermal management. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Jochen (ed.) [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Kraftfahrwesen und Verbrennungsmotoren (IVK); Forschungsinstitut fuer Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren (FKFS), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Vehicle aerodynamics and thermal management are subjects of increasing importance for automotive development especially regarding the necessity to reduce the energy consumption of the vehicle as well as the need to improve ist comfort. This book is intended for engineers, physicists, and mathematicians who work on vehicle aerodynamics. It is also addressed to people in research organizations, at universities and agencies. It may be of interest to technical journalists and to students. (orig.)

  13. Novel Aerodynamic Design for Formula SAE Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentongo, Samuel; Carter, Austin; Cecil, Christopher; Feier, Ioan

    2017-11-01

    This paper identifies and evaluates the design characteristics of a novel airfoil that harnesses the Magnus Effect, applying a moving-surface boundary-layer control (MSBC) method to a Formula SAE Vehicle. The MSBC minimizes adverse pressure gradient and delays boundary layer separation through the use of a conveyor belt that interacts with the airfoil boundary layer. The MSBC allows dynamic control of the aerodynamic coefficients by variation of the belt speed, minimizing drag in high speed straights and maximizing downforce during vehicle cornering. A conveyer belt wing measuring approximately 0.9 x 0.9m in planform was designed and built to test the mechanical setup for such a MSBC wing. This study follows the relationship between inputted power and outputted surface velocity, with the goal being to maximize speed output vs. power input. The greatest hindrance to maximizing speed output is friction among belts, rollers, and stationary members. The maximum belt speed achieved during testing was 5.9 m/s with a power input of 48.8 W, which corresponds to 45.8 N of downforce based on 2D CFD results. Ongoing progress on this project is presented. United States Air Force Academy.

  14. Modeling Powered Aerodynamics for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Aerodynamic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Robinson, Philip E.; Wilson, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the aerodynamics of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) has presented many technical challenges to the developers of the Orion aerodynamic database. During a launch abort event, the aerodynamic environment around the LAV is very complex as multiple solid rocket plumes interact with each other and the vehicle. It is further complicated by vehicle separation events such as between the LAV and the launch vehicle stack or between the launch abort tower and the crew module. The aerodynamic database for the LAV was developed mainly from wind tunnel tests involving powered jet simulations of the rocket exhaust plumes, supported by computational fluid dynamic simulations. However, limitations in both methods have made it difficult to properly capture the aerodynamics of the LAV in experimental and numerical simulations. These limitations have also influenced decisions regarding the modeling and structure of the aerodynamic database for the LAV and led to compromises and creative solutions. Two database modeling approaches are presented in this paper (incremental aerodynamics and total aerodynamics), with examples showing strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the unique problems presented to the database developers by the large data space required for modeling a launch abort event illustrate the complexities of working with multi-dimensional data.

  15. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. Concepts are presented for morphing aircraft, to enable the aircraft to...

  16. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft are...

  17. Numerical study of aerodynamic effects on road vehicles lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernat, Mihail Victor; Cernat Bobonea, Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance analysis of road vehicles depends on the study of engine intake and cooling flow, internal ventilation, tire cooling, and overall external flow as the motion of air around a moving vehicle affects all of its components in one form or another. Due to the complex geometry of these, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flow and lifting surface shapes. The present study, however focuses on the effects of external aerodynamics only, and in particular on the flow over the lifting surfaces of a common compact car, designed especially for this study.

  18. Aerodynamic Reconstruction Applied to Parachute Test Vehicle Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Leonard D.; Ray, Eric S.; Truong, Tuan H.

    2013-01-01

    The aerodynamics, both static and dynamic, of a test vehicle are critical to determining the performance of the parachute cluster in a drop test and for conducting a successful test. The Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is conducting tests of NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) parachutes at the Army Yuma Proving Ground utilizing the Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV). The PTV shape is based on the MPCV, but the height has been reduced in order to fit within the C-17 aircraft for extraction. Therefore, the aerodynamics of the PTV are similar, but not the same as, the MPCV. A small series of wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamics cases were run to modify the MPCV aerodynamic database for the PTV, but aerodynamic reconstruction of the flights has proven an effective source for further improvements to the database. The acceleration and rotational rates measured during free flight, before parachute inflation but during deployment, were used to con rm vehicle static aerodynamics. A multibody simulation is utilized to reconstruct the parachute portions of the flight. Aerodynamic or parachute parameters are adjusted in the simulation until the prediction reasonably matches the flight trajectory. Knowledge of the static aerodynamics is critical in the CPAS project because the parachute riser load measurements are scaled based on forebody drag. PTV dynamic damping is critical because the vehicle has no reaction control system to maintain attitude - the vehicle dynamics must be understood and modeled correctly before flight. It will be shown here that aerodynamic reconstruction has successfully contributed to the CPAS project.

  19. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  20. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  1. Benefits of high aerodynamic efficiency to orbital transfer vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. G.; Norris, R. B.; Paris, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The benefits and costs of high aerodynamic efficiency on aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV) are analyzed. Results show that a high lift to drag (L/D) AOTV can achieve significant velocity savings relative to low L/D aerobraked OTV's when traveling round trip between low Earth orbits (LEO) and alternate orbits as high as geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Trajectory analysis is used to show the impact of thermal protection system technology and the importance of lift loading coefficient on vehicle performance. The possible improvements in AOTV subsystem technologies are assessed and their impact on vehicle inert weight and performance noted. Finally, the performance of high L/D AOTV concepts is compared with the performances of low L/D aeroassisted and all propulsive OTV concepts to assess the benefits of aerodynamic efficiency on this class of vehicle.

  2. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  3. Mesh Optimization for Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Gaylard; Essam F Abo-Serie; Nor Elyana Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Mesh optimization strategy for estimating accurate drag of a ground vehicle is proposed based on examining the effect of different mesh parameters.  The optimized mesh parameters were selected using design of experiment (DOE) method to be able to work in a...

  4. Influence of stationary vehicles on bridge aerodynamic and aeroelastic coefficients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Stanislav; Buljac, A.; Kozmar, H.; Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Macháček, Michael; Král, Radomil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 05016012. ISSN 1084-0702 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : wind-vehicle-bridge system * cable-supported bridge * bridge aerodynamics and aeroelasticity * stationary vehicles * wind tunnel tests Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 1.476, year: 2016 http://ascelibrary.org/doi/full/10.1061/%28ASCE%29BE.1943-5592.0001017

  5. Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Braking for a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanuri, Jaya Krishna

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to observe the effect of an air brake on the aerodynamics of a ground vehicle and also to study the influence of change in the parameters like the velocity of the vehicle, the angle of inclination, height, and position of the air brake on the aerodynamics of the vehicle body. The test subject used is an Ahmed body which is a generic 3D car body as it retains all the aerodynamic characteristics of a ground vehicle. Numerical investigation has been carried out by RNG k-ɛ turbulence model. Results are presented in terms of streamlines and drag coefficient to understand the influence of pertinent parameters on flow physics. It is found that with the use of an air brake, though the drag coefficient remains more or less constant with velocity, it increases with the increase in height and angle of inclination of the air brake. But the effect of position of air brake on the coefficient of drag is surprising since for certain heights of the air brake the drag coefficient is maximum at the foremost point and as the air brake moves towards the rear it is first observed to decrease and then increase. It is also observed that with the increase in height of the air brake the drag coefficient monotonically decreases as the position of the air brake is moved towards the rear. Taguchi method has been employed with L16 orthogonal array to obtain the optimal configuration for the air brake. For each of the selected parameters, four different levels have been chosen to obtain the maximum drag coefficient value. The study could provide an invaluable database for the optimal design of an airbrake for a ground vehicle.

  6. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

  7. Aerodynamic vibrations of a maglev vehicle running on flexible guideways under oncoming wind actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, J. D.

    2010-05-01

    This paper intends to present a computational framework of aerodynamic analysis for a maglev (magnetically levitated) vehicle traveling over flexible guideways under oncoming wind loads. The guideway unit is simulated as a series of simple beams with identical span and the maglev vehicle as a rigid car body supported by levitation forces. To carry out the interaction dynamics of maglev vehicle/guideway system, this study adopts an onboard PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller based on Ziegler-Nicholas (Z-N) method to control the levitation forces. Interaction of wind with high-speed train is a complicated situation arising from unsteady airflow around the train. In this study, the oncoming wind loads acting on the running maglev vehicle are generated in temporal/spatial domain using digital simulation techniques that can account for the moving effect of vehicle's speed and the spatial correlation of stochastic airflow velocity field. Considering the motion-dependent nature of levitation forces and the non-conservative characteristics of turbulent airflows, an iterative approach is used to compute the interaction response of the maglev vehicle/guideway coupling system under wind actions. For the purpose of numerical simulation, this paper employs Galerkin's method to convert the governing equations containing a maglev vehicle into a set of differential equations in generalized systems, and then solve the two sets of differential equations using an iterative approach with the Newmark method. From the present investigation, the aerodynamic forces may result in a significant amplification on acceleration amplitude of the running maglev vehicle at higher speeds. For this problem, a PID+LQR (linear quadratic regulator) controller is proposed to reduce the vehicle's acceleration response for the ride comfort of passengers.

  8. Control of maglev vehicles with aerodynamic and guideway disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Karl; Mark, Steve; Caswell, Ruth; Mccallum, Duncan

    1994-01-01

    A modeling, analysis, and control design methodology is presented for maglev vehicle ride quality performance improvement as measured by the Pepler Index. Ride quality enhancement is considered through active control of secondary suspension elements and active aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the train. To analyze and quantify the benefits of active control, the authors have developed a five degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model suitable for describing a large class of maglev vehicles, including both channel and box-beam guideway configurations. Elements of this modeling capability have been recently employed in studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). A perturbation analysis about an operating point, defined by vehicle and average crosswind velocities, yields a suitable linearized state space model for multivariable control system analysis and synthesis. Neglecting passenger compartment noise, the ride quality as quantified by the Pepler Index is readily computed from the system states. A statistical analysis is performed by modeling the crosswind disturbances and guideway variations as filtered white noise, whereby the Pepler Index is established in closed form through the solution to a matrix Lyapunov equation. Data is presented which indicates the anticipated ride quality achieved through various closed-loop control arrangements.

  9. The influence of vehicle aerodynamic and control response characteristics on driver-vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, A. A.; Repa, B. S.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of changes in understeer, control sensitivity, and location of the lateral aerodynamic center of pressure (c.p.) of a typical passenger car on the driver's opinion and on the performance of the driver-vehicle system were studied in a moving-base driving simulator. Twelve subjects with no prior experience on the simulator and no special driving skills performed regulation tasks in the presence of both random and step wind gusts.

  10. Wheel arch aerodynamics of a modern road vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsley, S.; Aroussi, A.

    2003-01-01

    A geometrically faithful model of the Aston Martin V12 Vanquish was formed in 3D CAD and used to perform an extensive CFD study into the airflow in and around the wheel arch of the vehicle. Parameters such as spin ratio, ground clearance, vertical and horizontal insertion into the wheel arch and the yaw angles experienced during cornering, were all under investigation. The additional aim of the research was to validate or refute the use of CFD as a tool in this complex area of fluid flow. This research serves to highlight a number of problems and potential solutions in the use of CFD. Meshing problems can be eliminated with increased computational power and suggestions have been made to improve the modeling of rotating boundaries that include radial features such as wheel spokes. Much of the CFD data ties well with previously conducted experimental work, if not numerically then in trend. Without additional physical validation however, it is difficult to ascertain the overall accuracy and usefulness of the remaining results, which have not yet been conducted in physical reality. Despite its limitations, the use of CFD permitted an extensive analysis in a comparatively short length of time and served to highlight potential areas for increased scrutiny. As an example, results from the final yaw angle case drew attention to a potential concern for aerodynamic destabilisation of the vehicle during cornering, generating lift on the front arch of the car that is already lifted due to cornering forces and body roll. (author)

  11. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  12. Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.

  13. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A; Tanaka, Y

    2011-01-01

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s −1 , operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10 5 or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4–3.0 g and a wingspan of 10–12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  14. The influence of aerodynamic forces on the vehicle bodywork of railway traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin ARSENE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the driving speed in railway system requires a comprehensive analysis on the vehicle aerodynamics, on the manner in which the performance is affected or related to the additional loads on various components. The aerodynamic forces have a greater impact in the case of medium and high values of the relative velocity of the air flow near the vehicle. This paper aims to analyze the loads caused by the aerodynamic forces on the bodywork of the electric locomotive, of 5100 kW LE 060 EA type. In this respect, the bodywork and the chassis of locomotive were modelled in a 3D format; then a series of air flow simulations were performed for different values of the vehicle velocity ranging between 0 km/h and 200 km/h.

  15. Wind Tunnel Testing on Crosswind Aerodynamic Forces Acting on Railway Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Bin; Nam, Seong-Won; You, Won-Hee

    This study is devoted to measure the aerodynamic forces acting on two railway trains, one of which is a high-speed train at 300km/h maximum operation speed, and the other is a conventional train at the operating speed 100km/h. The three-dimensional train shapes have been modeled as detailed as possible including the inter-car, the upper cavity for pantograph, and the bogie systems. The aerodynamic forces on each vehicle of the trains have been measured in the subsonic wind tunnel with 4m×3m test section of Korea Aerospace Research Institute at Daejeon, Korea. The aerodynamic forces and moments of the train models have been plotted for various yaw angles and the characteristics of the aerodynamic coefficients has been discussed relating to the experimental conditions.

  16. Computational Prediction of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of SSTO Vehicle Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Keiichiro, FUJIMOTO; Kozo, FUJI

    2003-01-01

    Flow-fields around basic SSTO-rocket configurations are numerically simulated by the Navier-Stokes computations. The study starts with the simulations of the Apollo-type configuration, in which the simulated results arecomparing with NASA's experiments and the capability of CFD approach is discussed.Computed aerodynamic coeffcients of Apollo configuration agree well with the experiments at subsonic, transonic and supersonic regime at all angles of attack and the present computational approach...

  17. Vehicle-to-Grid Integration | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicle-to-Grid Integration Vehicle-to-Grid Integration NREL's research stands at the forefront of vehicle charging station Our work focuses on building the infrastructure and integration needed for benefit each other. Electric Vehicles NREL's research on electric vehicle (EV) grid integration examines

  18. Effects of aerodynamic properties on thermomanagement in a motor vehicle; Die Auswirkung aerodynamischer Eigenschaften auf das Thermomanagement eines Kraftfahrzeuges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, S. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The effects of aerodynamics on thermomanagement are overproportionally important especially in high-performance or low-consumption vehicles. Thermomanagement includes air flow through the vehicle in the context of cooling and aerodynamics. The contribution presents some examples. To make use of the potential for consumption reduction, aerodynamic experiments and thermomanagement should be integrated already in the very first design stages. New aerodynamic simulation techniques as well as virtual simulation methods will be employed here. [German] Die Verknuepfung von Aerodynamik und Thermomanagement wird vor allem bei Fahrzeugkonzepten mit hoher Leistung oder Fahrzeugen mit geringem Verbrauch ueberproportional wichtig. Ein Teilbereich des Thermomanagement betrifft den mit der Kuehlung und der Aerodynamik verknuepften Bereich der Fahrzeugdurchstroemung. Exemplarisch werden im Beitrag einige Beispiele dieser Verknuepfung dargestellt. Zunaechst der Einfluss der Durchstroemung zur Umstroemung, mit einer Aufgliederung der durch die Durchstroemung verursachten Luftwiderstandseinfluesse. Ausgehend von aktuellen Widerstandsanteilen der Kuehlluft im Cw-Wert, wird zusammen mit der Betrachtung des Waermestromes und einem Simulationsmodell fuer ein Kuehlsystem der minimale Anteil der Kuehlluft im Widerstand ermittelt. Das Verbrauchspotential durch die Optimierung der Verluste in der Durchstroemung und die Optimierung der aerodynamischen Form liegt bei einem Anteil von ca. 50% des Kuehlluftanteiles im Cw-Wert. Umgerechnet auf den Verbrauch (ohne die Aggregate anzupassen) ergibt sich damit fuer den MVEGII-Zyklus ein Potential von ca. 1% Verbrauchseinsparung. Abgeleitetes Ziel muss es deshalb sein, fruehe Entwicklungsphasen begleitend mit Versuchen, die eine realistische Durchstroemung und Aussenumstroemung des Fahrzeuges ermoeglichen, zu entwickeln. Neue Simulationstechniken seitens der Aerodynamik mit Messungen an Fahrzeugen mit drehenden Raedern und bewegtem Unterboden sowie

  19. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a box-shaped vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The intent of the present experiment is to define a near optimum value of drag coefficient for a high volume type of vehicle through the use of a boattail, on a vehicle already having rounded front corners and an underbody seal, or fairing. The results of these tests will constitute a baseline for later follow-on studies to evaluate candidate methods of obtaining afterbody drag coefficients approaching the boattail values, but without resorting to such impractical afterbody extensions. The current modifications to the box-shaped vehicle consisted of a full and truncated boattail in conjunction with the faired and sealed underbody. Drag results from these configurations are compared with corresponding wind tunnel results of a 1/10 scale model. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) and the corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged up to 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power based on the vehicles length which includes the boattail. A simple coast-down technique was used to define drag.

  20. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Technologies Testing of Heavy-Duty Vocational Vehicles and a Dry Van Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thornton, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study focused on two accepted methods for quantifying the benefit of aerodynamic improvement technologies on vocational vehicles: the coastdown technique, and on-road constant speed fuel economy measurements. Both techniques have their advantages. Coastdown tests are conducted over a wide range in speed and allow the rolling resistance and aerodynamic components of road load force to be separated. This in turn allows for the change in road load and fuel economy to be estimated at any speed, as well as over transient cycles. The on-road fuel economy measurements only supply one lumped result, applicable at the specific test speed, but are a direct measurement of fuel usage and are therefore used in this study as a check on the observed coastdown results. Resulting coefficients were then used to populate a vehicle model and simulate expected annual fuel savings over real-world vocational drive cycles.

  1. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-01-01

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model

  2. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  3. Fault-tolerant control with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and RCS jets for hypersonic reentry vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fault-tolerant strategy for hypersonic reentry vehicles with mixed aerodynamic surfaces and reaction control systems (RCS under external disturbances and subject to actuator faults. Aerodynamic surfaces are treated as the primary actuator in normal situations, and they are driven by a continuous quadratic programming (QP allocator to generate torque commanded by a nonlinear adaptive feedback control law. When aerodynamic surfaces encounter faults, they may not be able to provide sufficient torque as commanded, and RCS jets are activated to augment the aerodynamic surfaces to compensate for insufficient torque. Partial loss of effectiveness and stuck faults are considered in this paper, and observers are designed to detect and identify the faults. Based on the fault identification results, an RCS control allocator using integer linear programming (ILP techniques is designed to determine the optimal combination of activated RCS jets. By treating the RCS control allocator as a quantization element, closed-loop stability with both continuous and quantized inputs is analyzed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Aerodynamic drag reduction of a simplified squareback vehicle using steady blowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlewood, R.P. [LaVisionUK Ltd, Grove, Oxon (United Kingdom); Passmore, M.A. [Loughborough University, Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    A large contribution to the aerodynamic drag of a vehicle arises from the failure to fully recover pressure in the wake region, especially on squareback configurations. A degree of base pressure recovery can be achieved through careful shape optimisation, but the freedom of an automotive aerodynamicist to implement significant shape changes is limited by a variety of additional factors such styling, ergonomics and loading capacity. Active flow control technologies present the potential to create flow field modifications without the need for external shape changes and have received much attention in previous years within the aeronautical industry and, more recently, within the automotive industry. In this work the influence of steady blowing applied at a variety of angles on the roof trailing edge of a simplified 1/4 scale squareback style vehicle has been investigated. Hot-wire anemometry, force balance measurements, surface pressure measurements and PIV have been used to investigate the effects of the steady blowing on the vehicle wake structures and the resulting body forces. The energy consumption of the steady jet is calculated and is used to deduce an aerodynamic drag power change. Results show that overall gains can be achieved; however, the large mass flow rate required restricts the applicability of the technique to road vehicles. Means by which the mass flow rate requirements of the jet may be reduced are discussed and suggestions for further work put forward. (orig.)

  5. Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B

    2007-10-25

    One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.

  6. Integration of an Advanced Cryogenic Electric Propulsion System (ACEPS) to Aerodynamically Efficient Subsonic Transport Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal defines innovative aerodynamic concepts and technology goals aimed at vehicle efficiency for future subsonic aircraft in the 2020 -- 2030 timeframe....

  7. Design Of An Aerodynamic Measurement System For Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Velázquez-Araque

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and validation of a measurement system for aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles. An aerodynamic balance was designed in order to measure the lift, drag forces and pitching moment for different airfoils. During the design process, several aspects were analyzed in order to produce an efficient design, for instance the range of changes of the angle of attack with and a small increment and the versatility of being adapted to different type of airfoils, since it is a wire balance it was aligned and calibrated as well. Wind tunnel tests of a two dimensional NACA four digits family airfoil and four different modifications of this airfoil were performed to validate the aerodynamic measurement system. The modification of this airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. Therefore, four different locations along the cord line for this blowing outlet were analyzed. This analysis involved the aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients curves as a function of the angle of attack experimentally for the situation where the engine of the aerial vehicle is turned off, called the no blowing condition, by means of wind tunnel tests. The experiments were performed in a closed circuit wind tunnel with an open test section. Finally, results of the wind tunnel tests were compared with numerical results obtained by means of computational fluid dynamics as well as with other experimental references and found to be in good agreement.

  8. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Revised Target Drone Vehicle at Mach Numbers from 1.60 to 2.86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, A. B., Jr.; Babb, C. Donald

    1968-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a revised target drone vehicle through a Mach number range from 1.60 to 2.86. The vehicle had canard surfaces and a swept clipped-delta wing with twin tip-mounted vertical tails.

  9. Hypersonic and Supersonic Static Aerodynamics of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonov, Artem A.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Vannorman, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of continuum static aerodynamics of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV). The method is derived from earlier work for Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars Path Finder (MPF) and the appropriate additions are made in the areas where physics are different from what the prior entry systems would encounter. These additions include the considerations for the high angle of attack of MSL EV, ablation of the heatshield during entry, turbulent boundary layer, and other aspects relevant to the flight performance of MSL. Details of the work, the supporting data and conclusions of the investigation are presented.

  10. A Cost-Effective Tracking Algorithm for Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Maneuver Based on Modified Aerodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to defend the hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV, a cost-effective single-model tracking algorithm using Cubature Kalman filter (CKF is proposed in this paper based on modified aerodynamic model (MAM as process equation and radar measurement model as measurement equation. In the existing aerodynamic model, the two control variables attack angle and bank angle cannot be measured by the existing radar equipment and their control laws cannot be known by defenders. To establish the process equation, the MAM for HGV tracking is proposed by using additive white noise to model the rates of change of the two control variables. For the ease of comparison several multiple model algorithms based on CKF are presented, including interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, adaptive grid interacting multiple model (AGIMM algorithm and hybrid grid multiple model (HGMM algorithm. The performances of these algorithms are compared and analyzed according to the simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the proposed tracking algorithm based on modified aerodynamic model has the best tracking performance with the best accuracy and least computational cost among all tracking algorithms in this paper. The proposed algorithm is cost-effective for HGV tracking.

  11. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models......Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  12. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  13. Project, Aerodynamic, Thermal and Ballistic Analysis of a Lifting-Body Reentry Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to assess the prospects for an increasingly maneuverable reentry vehicle (RV of class "lifting body". In this regard, a project aerodynamic thermal and ballistic analysis has been conducted and the results have been compared with some well-known projects of the RV of the same class, made both in our country and abroad.The project analysis begins with finding a position of the "lifting body" vehicle in the classification system. Said classification distribution allows correct formulation of requirements for the conceptual structure of an aerospace vehicle at the initial stage of design in terms of system positions, since just the initial phase of the design often determines the success of the whole program.Then the paper compares design characteristics of the RV of class "lifting body" with vehicles such as X-15 rocket plane, the orbiter "Space Shuttle», M2-F2, HL-10, SV-5, and NASP "Hermes". It also gives a comparative estimate of the "lifting body" RV mass in a wide range of dimensions. The paper shows the sustainability of various landing complexes with reference to the Russian experience in developing the RV " Soyuz", and the conditions for using the vehicles of class "lifting body" in space programs.The aerodynamic analysis uses method for the approximate Newtonian theory to calculate aerodynamic characteristics of the perspective RV of class "lifting body" in the hypersonic descent phase. To obtain the desired aerodynamic performance and reduce balancing weight is contemplated a possibility to provide balance by introducing additional boards. The ballistic analysis considers four modes of descent:1. zero roll descent;2. maximum cross-range descent without restriction;3. maximum cross-range descent with restriction of maximum overload and maximum temperature;4. ballistic descent.To calculate the RV ballistic characteristics a system of equations of the vehicle motion in the atmosphere is used. The vehicle

  14. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Illustration of a house with a in the garage, is connected via a power cord to a household outlet. A sustainable transportation sustainable transportation technologies to increase the capacity, efficiency, and stability of the grid

  15. A comparison of electric vehicle integration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Kempton, Willett

    2012-01-01

    .g. utilization of electric vehicles for ancillary services. To arrive at standardized solutions, it is helpful to analyze the market integration and utilization concepts, architectures and technologies used in a set of state-of-the art electric vehicle demonstration projects. The goal of this paper......It is widely agreed that an intelligent integration of electric vehicles can yield benefits for electric vehicle owner, power grid, and the society as a whole. Numerous electric vehicle utilization concepts have been investigated ranging from the simple e.g. delayed charging to the more advanced e...... is to highlight different approaches to electric vehicle integration in three such projects and describe the underlying technical components which should be harmonized to support interoperability and a broad set of utilization concepts. The projects investigated are the American University of Delaware's V2G...

  16. Integrated NTP Vehicle Radiation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Jarvis; Rodriquez, Mitchell

    2018-01-01

    The development of a nuclear thermal propulsion stage requires consideration for radiation emitted from the nuclear reactor core. Applying shielding mass is an effective mitigating solution, but a better alternative is to incorporate some mitigation strategies into the propulsion stage and crew habitat. In this way, the required additional mass is minimized and the mass that must be applied may in some cases be able to serve multiple purposes. Strategies for crew compartment shielding are discussed that reduce dose from both engine and cosmic sources, and in some cases may also serve to reduce life support risks by permitting abundant water reserves. Early consideration for integrated mitigation solutions in a crewed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) vehicle will enable reduced radiation burden from both cosmic and nuclear sources, improved thrust-to-weight ratio or payload capacity by reducing 'dead mass' of shielding, and generally support a more robust risk posture for a NTP-powered Mars mission by permitting shorter trip times and increased water reserves

  17. Integrated NTP Vehicle Radiation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Jarvis A.; Rodriquez, Mitchell A.

    2018-01-01

    The development of a nuclear thermal propulsion stage requires consideration for radiation emitted from the nuclear reactor core. Applying shielding mass is an effective mitigating solution, but a better alternative is to incorporate some mitigation strategies into the propulsion stage and crew habitat. In this way, the required additional mass is minimized and the mass that must be applied may in some cases be able to serve multiple purposes. Strategies for crew compartment shielding are discussed that reduce dose from both engine and cosmic sources, and in some cases may also serve to reduce life support risks by permitting abundant water reserves. Early consideration for integrated mitigation solutions in a crewed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) vehicle will enable reduced radiation burden from both cosmic and nuclear sources, improved thrust-to-weight ratio or payload capacity by reducing 'dead mass' of shielding, and generally support a more robust risk posture for a NTP-powered Mars mission by permitting shorter trip times and increased water reserves.

  18. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  19. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan; Majidi, Majid; Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties

  20. Aerodynamic Analyses and Database Development for Ares I Vehicle First Stage Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Pei, Jing; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Holland, Scott D.; Covell, Peter F.; Klopfer, Goetz, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the aerodynamic analysis and database development for the first stage separation of the Ares I A106 Crew Launch Vehicle configuration. Separate databases were created for the first stage and upper stage. Each database consists of three components: isolated or free-stream coefficients, power-off proximity increments, and power-on proximity increments. The power-on database consists of three parts, all plumes firing at nominal conditions, the one booster deceleration motor out condition, and the one ullage settling motor out condition. The isolated and power-off incremental databases were developed using wind tunnel test data. The power-on proximity increments were developed using CFD solutions.

  1. Contribution to the study of nonstationary aerodynamic forces in problems of interest for Micro-Air Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Alcántara, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation is the quantitative characterization of the contributions of individual fluid elements (vortices) to aerodynamic forces, explaining and quantifying the mechanisms by which both drag and lift are generated. For this purpose, a vorticity forces formulation was used to the two problems addressed in this thesis. Thus, a novel physical point of view of the flow dynamics is provided which is expected to be useful for the Micro-Air Vehicles (MAVs) design. Firstl...

  2. Integrated System Test Approaches for the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Charles

    2008-01-01

    NASA is maturing test and evaluation plans leading to flight readiness of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. Key development, qualification, and verification tests are planned . Upper stage engine sea-level and altitude testing. First stage development and qualification motors. Upper stage structural and thermal development and qualification test articles. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA). Upper stage green run testing. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing (IVGVT). Aerodynamic characterization testing. Test and evaluation supports initial validation flights (Ares I-Y and Orion 1) and design certification.

  3. Integrated aerodynamic-structural design of a forward-swept transport wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Grossman, Bernard; Kao, Pi-Jen; Polen, David M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of composite materials is having a profound effect on aircraft design. Since these materials permit the designer to tailor material properties to improve structural, aerodynamic and acoustic performance, they require an integrated multidisciplinary design process. Futhermore, because of the complexity of the design process, numerical optimization methods are required. The utilization of integrated multidisciplinary design procedures for improving aircraft design is not currently feasible because of software coordination problems and the enormous computational burden. Even with the expected rapid growth of supercomputers and parallel architectures, these tasks will not be practical without the development of efficient methods for cross-disciplinary sensitivities and efficient optimization procedures. The present research is part of an on-going effort which is focused on the processes of simultaneous aerodynamic and structural wing design as a prototype for design integration. A sequence of integrated wing design procedures has been developed in order to investigate various aspects of the design process.

  4. Error Estimate of the Ares I Vehicle Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics Based on Turbulent Navier-Stokes Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Ghaffari, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for the Ares I class of vehicles, along with the associated error estimate derived from an iterative convergence grid refinement, are presented. Computational results are based on the unstructured grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver USM3D, with an assumption that the flow is fully turbulent over the entire vehicle. This effort was designed to complement the prior computational activities conducted over the past five years in support of the Ares I Project with the emphasis on the vehicle s last design cycle designated as the A106 configuration. Due to a lack of flight data for this particular design s outer mold line, the initial vehicle s aerodynamic predictions and the associated error estimates were first assessed and validated against the available experimental data at representative wind tunnel flow conditions pertinent to the ascent phase of the trajectory without including any propulsion effects. Subsequently, the established procedures were then applied to obtain the longitudinal aerodynamic predictions at the selected flight flow conditions. Sample computed results and the correlations with the experimental measurements are presented. In addition, the present analysis includes the relevant data to highlight the balance between the prediction accuracy against the grid size and, thus, the corresponding computer resource requirements for the computations at both wind tunnel and flight flow conditions. NOTE: Some details have been removed from selected plots and figures in compliance with the sensitive but unclassified (SBU) restrictions. However, the content still conveys the merits of the technical approach and the relevant results.

  5. Investigation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre

    2005-01-01

    This report is to present the work that was performed during the summer in the Advance Computing Application office. The NFFP (NASA Faculty Fellow Program) had ten summer faculty members working on IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. The objective of this project was two-fold: 1) to become familiar with IVHM concepts and key demonstrated IVHM technologies; and 2) to integrate the research that has been performed by IVHM faculty members into the MASTLAB (Marshall Avionic Software Test Lab). IVHM is a NASA-wide effort to coordinate, integrate and apply advanced software, sensors and design technologies to increase the level of intelligence, autonomy, and health state of future vehicles. IVHM is an important concept because it is consistent with the current plan for NASA to go to the moon, mars, and beyond. In order for NASA to become more involved in deep exploration, avionic systems will need to be highly adaptable and autonomous.

  6. Implicit Unstructured Computational Aerodynamics on Many-Integrated Core Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.

    2014-05-04

    This research aims to understand the performance of PETSc-FUN3D, a fully nonlinear implicit unstructured grid incompressible or compressible Euler code with origins at NASA and the U.S. DOE, on many-integrated core architecture and how a hybridprogramming paradigm (MPI+OpenMP) can exploit Intel Xeon Phi hardware with upwards of 60 cores per node and 4 threads per core. For the current contribution, we focus on strong scaling with many-integrated core hardware. In most implicit PDE-based codes, while the linear algebraic kernel is limited by the bottleneck of memory bandwidth, the flux kernel arising in control volume discretization of the conservation law residuals and the preconditioner for the Jacobian exploits the Phi hardware well.

  7. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  8. A Large-Scale Design Integration Approach Developed in Conjunction with the Ares Launch Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, John W.; Shirley, Michael C.; Kinard, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for performing large-scale design integration, taking a classical 2D drawing envelope and interface approach and applying it to modern three dimensional computer aided design (3D CAD) systems. Today, the paradigm often used when performing design integration with 3D models involves a digital mockup of an overall vehicle, in the form of a massive, fully detailed, CAD assembly; therefore, adding unnecessary burden and overhead to design and product data management processes. While fully detailed data may yield a broad depth of design detail, pertinent integration features are often obscured under the excessive amounts of information, making them difficult to discern. In contrast, the envelope and interface method results in a reduction in both the amount and complexity of information necessary for design integration while yielding significant savings in time and effort when applied to today's complex design integration projects. This approach, combining classical and modern methods, proved advantageous during the complex design integration activities of the Ares I vehicle. Downstream processes, benefiting from this approach by reducing development and design cycle time, include: Creation of analysis models for the Aerodynamic discipline; Vehicle to ground interface development; Documentation development for the vehicle assembly.

  9. Unstructured Computational Aerodynamics on Many Integrated Core Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.

    2016-06-08

    Shared memory parallelization of the flux kernel of PETSc-FUN3D, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh Euler flow code previously studied for distributed memory and multi-core shared memory, is evaluated on up to 61 cores per node and up to 4 threads per core. We explore several thread-level optimizations to improve flux kernel performance on the state-of-the-art many integrated core (MIC) Intel processor Xeon Phi “Knights Corner,” with a focus on strong thread scaling. While the linear algebraic kernel is bottlenecked by memory bandwidth for even modest numbers of cores sharing a common memory, the flux kernel, which arises in the control volume discretization of the conservation law residuals and in the formation of the preconditioner for the Jacobian by finite-differencing the conservation law residuals, is compute-intensive and is known to exploit effectively contemporary multi-core hardware. We extend study of the performance of the flux kernel to the Xeon Phi in three thread affinity modes, namely scatter, compact, and balanced, in both offload and native mode, with and without various code optimizations to improve alignment and reduce cache coherency penalties. Relative to baseline “out-of-the-box” optimized compilation, code restructuring optimizations provide about 3.8x speedup using the offload mode and about 5x speedup using the native mode. Even with these gains for the flux kernel, with respect to execution time the MIC simply achieves par with optimized compilation on a contemporary multi-core Intel CPU, the 16-core Sandy Bridge E5 2670. Nevertheless, the optimizations employed to reduce the data motion and cache coherency protocol penalties of the MIC are expected to be of value for CFD and many other unstructured applications as many-core architecture evolves. We explore large-scale distributed-shared memory performance on the Cray XC40 supercomputer, to demonstrate that optimizations employed on Phi hybridize to this context, where each of

  10. Unstructured Computational Aerodynamics on Many Integrated Core Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.; Kaushik, Dinesh K.; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Shared memory parallelization of the flux kernel of PETSc-FUN3D, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh Euler flow code previously studied for distributed memory and multi-core shared memory, is evaluated on up to 61 cores per node and up to 4 threads per core. We explore several thread-level optimizations to improve flux kernel performance on the state-of-the-art many integrated core (MIC) Intel processor Xeon Phi “Knights Corner,” with a focus on strong thread scaling. While the linear algebraic kernel is bottlenecked by memory bandwidth for even modest numbers of cores sharing a common memory, the flux kernel, which arises in the control volume discretization of the conservation law residuals and in the formation of the preconditioner for the Jacobian by finite-differencing the conservation law residuals, is compute-intensive and is known to exploit effectively contemporary multi-core hardware. We extend study of the performance of the flux kernel to the Xeon Phi in three thread affinity modes, namely scatter, compact, and balanced, in both offload and native mode, with and without various code optimizations to improve alignment and reduce cache coherency penalties. Relative to baseline “out-of-the-box” optimized compilation, code restructuring optimizations provide about 3.8x speedup using the offload mode and about 5x speedup using the native mode. Even with these gains for the flux kernel, with respect to execution time the MIC simply achieves par with optimized compilation on a contemporary multi-core Intel CPU, the 16-core Sandy Bridge E5 2670. Nevertheless, the optimizations employed to reduce the data motion and cache coherency protocol penalties of the MIC are expected to be of value for CFD and many other unstructured applications as many-core architecture evolves. We explore large-scale distributed-shared memory performance on the Cray XC40 supercomputer, to demonstrate that optimizations employed on Phi hybridize to this context, where each of

  11. The Nikola project intelligent electric vehicle integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Marinelli, Mattia; Olesen, Ole Jan

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) has certain properties that elevate its relevance to the smart grid. If EV integration is to meet its potential in supporting an economic and secure power system and at the same time lower the operating costs for the owner, it is necessary to thoroughly and systematically...... investigate the value-adding services that an EV may provide. The Danish Nikola project defines EV services as the act of influencing the timing, rate and direction of the power and energy exchanged between the EV battery and the grid to yield benefits for user, system, and society. This paper describes...

  12. Electric vehicle equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2013-08-13

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for interfacing an electric vehicle with an electric power grid are disclosed. An exemplary apparatus may include a station communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE), a vehicle communication port for interfacing with a vehicle management system (VMS), and a processor coupled to the station communication port and the vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVSE via the station communication port, receive EVSE attributes from the EVSE, and issue commands to the VMS to manage power flow between the electric vehicle and the EVSE based on the EVSE attributes. An electric vehicle may interface with the grid by establishing communication with the EVSE, receiving the EVSE attributes, and managing power flow between the EVE and the grid based on the EVSE attributes.

  13. The Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis Experience: Reconnecting With Technical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Very early in the Space Launch Initiative program, a small team of engineers at MSFC proposed a process for performing system-level assessments of a launch vehicle. Aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a smart buyer, the Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis (VIPA) team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and previous integration attempts is that VIPA a process using experienced people from various disciplines, which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. The foundations of VIPA s process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to target early detailed analysis toward identifying significant systems issues. This process is driven by the T-model for technical integration. VIPA s approach to performing system-level technical integration is discussed in detail. The VIPA process significantly enhances the development and monitoring of realizable project requirements. VIPA s assessment validates the concept s stated performance, identifies significant issues either with the concept or the requirements, and then reintegrates these issues to determine impacts. This process is discussed along with a description of how it may be integrated into a program s insight and review process. The VIPA process has gained favor with both engineering and project organizations for being responsive and insightful

  14. Inviscid/Boundary-Layer Aeroheating Approach for Integrated Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2017-01-01

    A typical entry vehicle design depends on the synthesis of many essential subsystems, including thermal protection system (TPS), structures, payload, avionics, and propulsion, among others. The ability to incorporate aerothermodynamic considerations and TPS design into the early design phase is crucial, as both are closely coupled to the vehicle's aerodynamics, shape and mass. In the preliminary design stage, reasonably accurate results with rapid turn-representative entry envelope was explored. Initial results suggest that for Mach numbers ranging from 9-20, a few inviscid solutions could reasonably sup- port surface heating predictions at Mach numbers variation of +/-2, altitudes variation of +/-10 to 20 kft, and angle-of-attack variation of +/- 5. Agreement with Navier-Stokes solutions was generally found to be within 10-15% for Mach number and altitude, and 20% for angle of attack. A smaller angle-of-attack increment than the 5 deg around times for parametric studies and quickly evolving configurations are necessary to steer design decisions. This investigation considers the use of an unstructured 3D inviscid code in conjunction with an integral boundary-layer method; the former providing the flow field solution and the latter the surface heating. Sensitivity studies for Mach number, angle of attack, and altitude, examine the feasibility of using this approach to populate a representative entry flight envelope based on a limited set of inviscid solutions. Each inviscid solution is used to generate surface heating over the nearby trajectory space. A subset of a considered in this study is recommended. Results of the angle-of-attack sensitivity studies show that smaller increments may be needed for better heating predictions. The approach is well suited for application to conceptual multidisciplinary design and analysis studies where transient aeroheating environments are critical for vehicle TPS and thermal design. Concurrent prediction of aeroheating

  15. Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horton, William

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model GVSI is a top-level analysis tool designed to support engineering tradeoff studies and vehicle design optimization efforts...

  16. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test key findings report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This document presents key findings from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Transportat...

  17. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test, methodology and results report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    "This document presents the methodology and results from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michi...

  18. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : light vehicle platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to : perform analysis of data collected from the light vehicle platform field operational test of the : Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progr...

  19. Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  20. Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  1. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  2. Shape optimization of turbine blades with the integration of aerodynamics and heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajadas J. N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary optimization procedure, with the integration of aerodynamic and heat transfer criteria, has been developed for the design of gas turbine blades. Two different optimization formulations have been used. In the first formulation, the maximum temperature in the blade section is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint is imposed on the blade average temperature and a lower bound constraint is imposed on the blade tangential force coefficient. In the second formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. In both formulations, bounds are imposed on the velocity gradients at several points along the surface of the airfoil to eliminate leading edge velocity spikes which deteriorate aerodynamic performance. Shape optimization is performed using the blade external and coolant path geometric parameters as design variables. Aerodynamic analysis is performed using a panel code. Heat transfer analysis is performed using the finite element method. A gradient based procedure in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique is used for optimization. The results obtained using both optimization techniques are compared with a reference geometry. Both techniques yield significant improvements with the multiobjective formulation resulting in slightly superior design.

  3. Wind tunnel experiments on flow separation control of an Unmanned Air Vehicle by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kang; Liang Hua

    2016-01-01

    Plasma flow control (PFC) is a new kind of active flow control technology, which can improve the aerodynamic performances of aircrafts remarkably. The flow separation control of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (NDPAA) is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experimental results show that the applied voltages for both the nanosecond discharge and the millisecond discharge are nearly the same, but the current for nanosecond discharge (30 A) is much bigger than that for millisecond discharge (0.1 A). The flow field induced by the NDPAA is similar to a shock wave upward, and has a maximal velocity of less than 0.5 m/s. Fast heating effect for nanosecond discharge induces shock waves in the quiescent air. The lasting time of the shock waves is about 80 μs and its spread velocity is nearly 380 m/s. By using the NDPAA, the flow separation on the suction side of the UAV can be totally suppressed and the critical stall angle of attack increases from 20° to 27° with a maximal lift coefficient increment of 11.24%. The flow separation can be suppressed when the discharge voltage is larger than the threshold value, and the optimum operation frequency for the NDPAA is the one which makes the Strouhal number equal one. The NDPAA is more effective than the millisecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (MDPAA) in boundary layer flow control. The main mechanism for nanosecond discharge is shock effect. Shock effect is more effective in flow control than momentum effect in high speed flow control. (paper)

  4. Adaptive Command Filtered Integrated Guidance and Control for Hypersonic Vehicle with Magnitude, Rate and Bandwidth Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel integrated guidance and control (IGC method for hypersonic vehicle in terminal phase. Firstly, the system model is developed with a second order actuator dynamics. Then the back-stepping controller is designed hierarchically with command filters, where the first order command filters are implemented to construct the virtual control input with ideal states predicted by an adaptive estimator, and the nonlinear command filter is designed to produce magnitude, rate and bandwidth limited control surface deflection finally tracked by a terminal sliding mode controller with finite convergence time. Through a series of 6-DOF numerical simulations, it’s indicated that the proposed method successfully cancels out the large aerodynamics coefficient uncertainties and disturbances in hypersonic flight under limited control surface deflection. The contribution of this paper lies in the application and determination of nonlinear integrated design of guidance and control system for hypersonic vehicle.

  5. Improved Re-Configurable Sliding Mode Controller for Reusable Launch Vehicle of Second Generation Addressing Aerodynamic Surface Failures and Thrust Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.

    2002-01-01

    In this report we present a time-varying sliding mode control (TV-SMC) technique for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) attitude control in ascent and entry flight phases. In ascent flight the guidance commands Euler roll, pitch and yaw angles, and in entry flight it commands the aerodynamic angles of bank, attack and sideslip. The controller employs a body rate inner loop and the attitude outer loop, which are separated in time-scale by the singular perturbation principle. The novelty of the TVSMC is that both the sliding surface and the boundary layer dynamics can be varied in real time using the PD-eigenvalue assignment technique. This salient feature is used to cope with control command saturation and integrator windup in the presence of severe disturbance or control effector failure, which enhances the robustness and fault tolerance of the controller. The TV-SMC is developed and tuned up for the X-33 sub-orbital technology demonstration vehicle in launch and re-entry modes. A variety of nominal, dispersion and failure scenarios have tested via high fidelity 6DOF simulations using MAVERIC/SLIM simulation software.

  6. In-flight icing on unmanned aerial vehicle and its aerodynamic penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilder, K.; Yuan, W.

    2017-06-01

    A numerical prediction of ice accretion on HQ309, SD7032, and SD7037 airfoils and its aerodynamic penalties is described. Ice accretion prediction on a three-dimensional (3D) swept wing is also presented. In addition to airflow and drop trajectory solvers, NRC's (National Research Council) original, 3D, morphogenetic icing modeling approach has been used. The analysis was performed for a wide range of icing conditions identi¦ed in the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Appendix C icing envelope. They cover a range of drop sizes, air temperatures, and liquid water contents. For selected icing conditions, the resulting decrease in lift and increase in drag have been calculated.

  7. Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-02

    Engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Dedicated to renewable and energy-efficient solutions, the VTIF showcases technologies and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for EV components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and industry partners.

  8. Aerodynamic multi-objective integrated optimization based on principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangtao HUANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on improved multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm with principal component analysis (PCA methodology, an efficient high-dimension multi-objective optimization method is proposed, which, as the purpose of this paper, aims to improve the convergence of Pareto front in multi-objective optimization design. The mathematical efficiency, the physical reasonableness and the reliability in dealing with redundant objectives of PCA are verified by typical DTLZ5 test function and multi-objective correlation analysis of supercritical airfoil, and the proposed method is integrated into aircraft multi-disciplinary design (AMDEsign platform, which contains aerodynamics, stealth and structure weight analysis and optimization module. Then the proposed method is used for the multi-point integrated aerodynamic optimization of a wide-body passenger aircraft, in which the redundant objectives identified by PCA are transformed to optimization constraints, and several design methods are compared. The design results illustrate that the strategy used in this paper is sufficient and multi-point design requirements of the passenger aircraft are reached. The visualization level of non-dominant Pareto set is improved by effectively reducing the dimension without losing the primary feature of the problem.

  9. Pellet bed reactor for nuclear propelled vehicles: Part 2: Missions and vehicle integration trades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloulakos, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    Mission and vehicle integration tradeoffs involving the use of the pellet bed reactor (PBR) for nuclear powered vehicles is discussed, with much of the information being given in viewgraph form. Information is given on propellant tank geometries, shield weight requirements for conventional tank configurations, effective specific impulse, radiation mapping, radiation dose rate after shutdown, space transfer vehicle design data, a Mars mission summary, sample pellet bed nuclear orbit transfer vehicle mass breakdown, and payload fraction vs. velocity increment

  10. Pellet bed reactor for nuclear propelled vehicles: Part 2: Missions and vehicle integration trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloulakos, V. E.

    1991-01-01

    Mission and vehicle integration tradeoffs involving the use of the pellet bed reactor (PBR) for nuclear powered vehicles is discussed, with much of the information being given in viewgraph form. Information is given on propellant tank geometries, shield weight requirements for conventional tank configurations, effective specific impulse, radiation mapping, radiation dose rate after shutdown, space transfer vehicle design data, a Mars mission summary, sample pellet bed nuclear orbit transfer vehicle mass breakdown, and payload fraction vs. velocity increment.

  11. Unsteady Aerodynamic Investigation of the Propeller-Wing Interaction for a Rocket Launched Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of propeller-wing interaction for the rocket launched UAV have been investigated numerically by means of sliding mesh technology. The corresponding forces and moments have been collected for axial wing placements ranging from 0.056 to 0.5D and varied rotating speeds. The slipstream generated by the rotating propeller has little effects on the lift characteristics of the whole UAV. The drag can be seen to remain unchanged as the wing's location moves progressively closer to the propeller until 0.056D away from the propeller, where a nearly 20% increase occurred sharply. The propeller position has a negligible effect on the overall thrust and torque of the propeller. The efficiency affected by the installation angle of the propeller blade has also been analyzed. Based on the pressure cloud and streamlines, the vortices generated by propeller, propeller-wing interaction, and wing tip have also been captured and analyzed.

  12. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability

  13. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  14. High-Fidelity Computational Aerodynamics of Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura Diaz, Patricia; Yoon, Seokkwan

    2018-01-01

    High-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been carried out for several multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Three vehicles have been studied: the classic quadcopter DJI Phantom 3, an unconventional quadcopter specialized for forward flight, the SUI Endurance, and an innovative concept for Urban Air Mobility (UAM), the Elytron 4S UAV. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on overset grids using high-order accurate schemes, dual-time stepping, and a hybrid turbulence model. The DJI Phantom 3 is simulated with different rotors and with both a simplified airframe and the real airframe including landing gear and a camera. The effects of weather are studied for the DJI Phantom 3 quadcopter in hover. The SUI En- durance original design is compared in forward flight to a new configuration conceived by the authors, the hybrid configuration, which gives a large improvement in forward thrust. The Elytron 4S UAV is simulated in helicopter mode and in airplane mode. Understanding the complex flows in multi-rotor vehicles will help design quieter, safer, and more efficient future drones and UAM vehicles.

  15. IVHM Framework for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre; Trevino, Luis C.; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, this framework integrates technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear that IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives. These systems include the following: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle Mission Planning, Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented

  16. Integration of Rotor Aerodynamic Optimization with the Conceptual Design of a Large Civil Tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Coupling of aeromechanics analysis with vehicle sizing is demonstrated with the CAMRAD II aeromechanics code and NDARC sizing code. The example is optimization of cruise tip speed with rotor/wing interference for the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) concept design. Free-wake models were used for both rotors and the wing. This report is part of a NASA effort to develop an integrated analytical capability combining rotorcraft aeromechanics, structures, propulsion, mission analysis, and vehicle sizing. The present paper extends previous efforts by including rotor/wing interference explicitly in the rotor performance optimization and implicitly in the sizing.

  17. FLYWHEEL BASED KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS (KERS) INTEGRATED IN VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS MATHEWS; NISHANTH D

    2013-01-01

    Today, many hybrid electric vehicles have been developed in order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels; unfortunately these vehicles require electrochemical batteries to store energy, with high costs as well as poor conversion efficiencies. By integrating flywheel hybrid systems, these drawbacks can be overcome and can potentially replace battery powered hybrid vehicles cost effectively. The paper will explain the engineering, mechanics of the flywheel system and it’s working in detail. ...

  18. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicovich, David

    material and energy consumption profiles of tall building. To date, the increasing use of light-weight and high-strength materials in tall buildings, with greater flexibility and reduced damping, has increased susceptibility to dynamic wind load effects that limit the gains afforded by incorporating these new materials. Wind, particularly fluctuating wind and its interaction with buildings induces two main responses; alongwind - in the direction of the flow and crosswind - perpendicular to the flow. The main risk associated with this vulnerability is resonant oscillations induced by von-Karman-like vortex shedding at or near the natural frequency of the structure caused by flow separation. Dynamic wind loading effects often increase with a power of wind speed greater than 3, thus increasingly, tall buildings pay a significant price in material to increase the natural frequency and/or the damping to overcome this response. In particular, crosswind response often governs serviceability (human habitability) design criteria of slender buildings. Currently, reducing crosswind response relies on a Solid-based Aerodynamic Modification (SAM), either by changing structural or geometric characteristics such as the tower shape or through the addition of damping systems. While this approach has merit it has two major drawbacks: firstly, the loss of valuable rentable areas and high construction costs due to increased structural requirements for mass and stiffness, further contributing towards the high consumption of non-renewable resources by the commercial building sector. For example, in order to insure human comfort within an acceptable range of crosswind response induced accelerations at the top of a building, an aerodynamically efficient plan shape comes at the expense of floor area. To compensate for the loss of valuable area compensatory stories are required, resulting in an increase in wind loads and construction costs. Secondly, a limited, if at all, ability to adaptively

  19. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    . This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...

  20. Risk Informed Design Using Integrated Vehicle Rapid Assessment Tools

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A successful proof of concept was performed in FY 2012 integrating the Envision tool for parametric estimates of vehicle mass and the Rapid Response Risk Assessment...

  1. Efficiency improvement for vehicle powertrains using energy integration techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    The main design criteria for the modern sustainable development of vehicle powertrains are the high energy efficiency of the conversion system, the competitive cost and the lowest possible environmental impacts. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the energy services for mobility and comfort are integrated. The energy integration of the mobility and the comfort service is a...

  2. Aerodynamic control of NASP-type vehicles through vortex manipulation. Volume 3: Wing rock experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Smith, Brooke C.; Kramer, Brian R.; Ng, T. Terry; Ong, Lih-Yenn; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Free-to-roll tests were conducted in water and wind tunnels in an effort to investigate the mechanisms of wing rock on a NASP-type vehicle. The configuration tested consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. In the water tunnel test, extensive flow visualization was performed and roll angle histories were obtained. In the wind tunnel test, the roll angle, forces and moments, and limited forebody and wing surface pressures were measured during the wing rock motion. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 deg and 30 deg. In general, the experiments confirmed that the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. The variation of roll acceleration (determined from the second derivative of the roll angle time history) with roll angle clearly slowed the energy balance necessary to sustain the limit cycle oscillation. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetrices are created, causing the model to stop at a non-zero roll angle. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the fore body was demonstrated to be a potentially effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  3. Integration of CFD and Experimental Results at VKI in Low-Speed Aerodynamic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    erosion in wind tunnel behind the building Today, almost all modern Antartic stations have undergone aerodynamic studies at different stages of design...2] J. Sanz Rodrigo, C. Gorle, J. van Beeck, P. Planquart: Aerodynamic Design of the Princess Elizabeth Antartic Research Station, 17th

  4. Multifeature Fusion Vehicle Detection Algorithm Based on Choquet Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based multivehicle detection plays an important role in Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS and Blind Spot Detection Systems (BSDS. The performance of these systems depends on the real-time capability, accuracy, and robustness of vehicle detection methods. To improve the accuracy of vehicle detection algorithm, we propose a multifeature fusion vehicle detection algorithm based on Choquet integral. This algorithm divides the vehicle detection problem into two phases: feature similarity measure and multifeature fusion. In the feature similarity measure phase, we first propose a taillight-based vehicle detection method, and then vehicle taillight feature similarity measure is defined. Second, combining with the definition of Choquet integral, the vehicle symmetry similarity measure and the HOG + AdaBoost feature similarity measure are defined. Finally, these three features are fused together by Choquet integral. Being evaluated on public test collections and our own test images, the experimental results show that our method has achieved effective and robust multivehicle detection in complicated environments. Our method can not only improve the detection rate but also reduce the false alarm rate, which meets the engineering requirements of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS.

  5. Aggregation server for grid-integrated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2015-05-26

    Methods, systems, and apparatus for aggregating electric power flow between an electric grid and electric vehicles are disclosed. An apparatus for aggregating power flow may include a memory and a processor coupled to the memory to receive electric vehicle equipment (EVE) attributes from a plurality of EVEs, aggregate EVE attributes, predict total available capacity based on the EVE attributes, and dispatch at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid. Power flow may be aggregated by receiving EVE operational parameters from each EVE, aggregating the received EVE operational parameters, predicting total available capacity based on the aggregated EVE operational parameters, and dispatching at least a portion of the total available capacity to the grid.

  6. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities - Phase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    payload, 10,300 lb gross vehicle weight. The Expanded Capacity Vehicle (ECV, 1993-present) has a 6.5 liter turbo diesel Bolt on armor required...installed by the maintenance unit. A proposed ECV2 (not currently in production) has an improved 6.5 liter turbo diesel engine, a new transmission...frame (3 piece welded), integral “A” armor with attachment points for “B” armor kit, increased cab space (14 cubic feet), enhanced 6500 turbo diesel

  7. Intelligent Electric Vehicle Integration - Domain Interfaces and Supporting Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach

    This thesis seeks to apply the field of informatics to the intelligent integration of electric vehicles into the power system. The main goal is to release the potential of electric vehicles in relation to a reliable, economically efficient power system based on renewables. To make intelligent EV...... and services in which the electric vehicle may be best suited to participate. The next stakeholder investigated is the distribution system operator representing the low voltage grid. The challenge is assessed by considering a number of grid impacts studies. Next, a set of grid congestion mitigation strategies...

  8. Integrated optimization on aerodynamics-structure coupling and flight stability of a large airplane in preliminary design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhe WANG

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary phase is significant during the whole design process of a large airplane because of its enormous potential in enhancing the overall performance. However, classical sequential designs can hardly adapt to modern airplanes, due to their repeated iterations, long periods, and massive computational burdens. Multidisciplinary analysis and optimization demonstrates the capability to tackle such complex design issues. In this paper, an integrated optimization method for the preliminary design of a large airplane is proposed, accounting for aerodynamics, structure, and stability. Aeroelastic responses are computed by a rapid three-dimensional flight load analysis method combining the high-order panel method and the structural elasticity correction. The flow field is determined by the viscous/inviscid iteration method, and the cruise stability is evaluated by the linear small-disturbance theory. Parametric optimization is carried out using genetic algorithm to seek the minimal weight of a simplified plate-beam wing structure in the cruise trim condition subject to aeroelastic, aerodynamic, and stability constraints, and the optimal wing geometry shape, front/rear spar positions, and structural sizes are obtained simultaneously. To reduce the computational burden of the static aeroelasticity analysis in the optimization process, the Kriging method is employed to predict aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices of different aerodynamic shapes. The multidisciplinary analyses guarantee computational accuracy and efficiency, and the integrated optimization considers the coupling effect sufficiently between different disciplines to improve the overall performance, avoiding the limitations of sequential approaches utilized currently. Keywords: Aeroelasticity, Integrated optimization, Multidisciplinary analysis, Large airplane, Preliminary design

  9. Advances in Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management and Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demands for vehicle dynamic performance, economy, safety and comfort, and with ever stricter laws concerning energy conservation and emissions, vehicle power systems are becoming much more complex. To pursue high efficiency and light weight in automobile design, the power system and its vehicle integrated thermal management (VITM system have attracted widespread attention as the major components of modern vehicle technology. Regarding the internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV, its integrated thermal management (ITM mainly contains internal combustion engine (ICE cooling, turbo-charged cooling, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR cooling, lubrication cooling and air conditioning (AC or heat pump (HP. As for electric vehicles (EVs, the ITM mainly includes battery cooling/preheating, electric machines (EM cooling and AC or HP. With the rational effective and comprehensive control over the mentioned dynamic devices and thermal components, the modern VITM can realize collaborative optimization of multiple thermodynamic processes from the aspect of system integration. Furthermore, the computer-aided calculation and numerical simulation have been the significant design methods, especially for complex VITM. The 1D programming can correlate multi-thermal components and the 3D simulating can develop structuralized and modularized design. Additionally, co-simulations can virtualize simulation of various thermo-hydraulic behaviors under the vehicle transient operational conditions. This article reviews relevant researching work and current advances in the ever broadening field of modern vehicle thermal management (VTM. Based on the systematic summaries of the design methods and applications of ITM, future tasks and proposals are presented. This article aims to promote innovation of ITM, strengthen the precise control and the performance predictable ability, furthermore, to enhance the level of research and development (R&D.

  10. Fitting aerodynamics and propulsion into the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick J.; Whitehead, Allen H., Jr.; Chapman, Gary T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of an airbreathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, in particular the problems of aerodynamics and propulsion integration, is examined. The boundary layer transition on constant pressure surfaces at hypersonic velocities, and the effects of noise on the transition are investigated. The importance of viscosity, real-gas effects, and drag at hypersonic speeds is discussed. A propulsion system with sufficient propulsive lift to enhance the performance of the vehicle is being developed. The difficulties of engine-airframe integration are analyzed.

  11. Merging mobility and energy vision with hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle infrastructure integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yiming; Chowdhury, Mashrur; Ma Yongchang; Pisu, Pierluigi

    2012-01-01

    As the U.S. federal government is seeking useful applications of Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration (VII) and encouraging a greener and more efficient automobile industry, this paper demonstrated a path to meet the national transportation goal via VII. An impact study was conducted in a midsize U.S. metropolitan area on the potential of utilizing VII communication in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) operations by simulating a VII-enabled vehicle framework for both conventional HEV and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The data collection and communication capability of the VII system allowed the prediction of speed profiles at the vehicle level with an average error rate of 13.2%. With the prediction, at the individual vehicle level, VII technology allowed PHEV and HEV to achieve additional benefits with an approximately 3% decrease in total energy consumption and emission. At the network level, the benefit–cost analysis indicated that the benefit–cost ratios for PHEV and HEV of the VII vehicle network exceed one at the fleet penetration rate of 20% and 30%, respectively. Our findings encourage to support public and private investments in VII infrastructure and its integration with HEV and PHEV in order to reap the increased energy savings from these vehicles. - Highlights: ► A VII-HEV/PHEV framework was simulated for a midsized U.S. metropolitan area. ► A VII-based prediction algorithm was developed for the framework. ► Significant improvement in energy efficiency and emission was achieved at single vehicle level. ► Network analysis was conducted to show cost-effectiveness of this framework.

  12. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  13. A Framework for Integration of IVHM Technologies for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Mike

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of IIVM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the effected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  14. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  15. EDISON – Study on optimal grid integration of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foosnæs, Anders Holm; Andersen, Claus Amtrup; Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both individual car owners, and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  16. Integrated vehicle dynamics control using State Dependent Riccati Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, B.; Mansvelders, R.; Vermeer, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a State Dependent Riccati Equations (SDRE) solution for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC). The SDRE approach is a nonlinear variant of the well known Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and implements a quadratic cost function optimization. A modified version of this

  17. Nonlinear Analysis and Intelligent Control of Integrated Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing and more stringent requirements for advanced vehicle integration, including vehicle dynamics and control, traditional control and optimization strategies may not qualify for many applications. This is because, among other factors, they do not consider the nonlinear characteristics of practical systems. Moreover, the vehicle wheel model has some inadequacies regarding the sideslip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load, and velocity. In this paper, an adaptive neural wheel network is introduced, and the interaction between the lateral and vertical dynamics of the vehicle is analyzed. By means of nonlinear analyses such as the use of a bifurcation diagram and the Lyapunov exponent, the vehicle is shown to exhibit complicated motions with increasing forward speed. Furthermore, electric power steering (EPS and active suspension system (ASS, which are based on intelligent control, are used to reduce the nonlinear effect, and a negotiation algorithm is designed to manage the interdependences and conflicts among handling stability, driving smoothness, and safety. Further, a rapid control prototype was built using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform dSPACE and used to conduct a real vehicle test. The results of the test were consistent with those of the simulation, thereby validating the proposed control.

  18. Electric vehicles and large-scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Hu, Weihao; Lund, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    with this imbalance and to reduce its high dependence on oil production. For this reason, it is interesting to analyse the extent to which transport electrification can further the renewable energy integration. This paper quantifies this issue in Inner Mongolia, where the share of wind power in the electricity supply...... was 6.5% in 2009 and which has the plan to develop large-scale wind power. The results show that electric vehicles (EVs) have the ability to balance the electricity demand and supply and to further the wind power integration. In the best case, the energy system with EV can increase wind power...... integration by 8%. The application of EVs benefits from saving both energy system cost and fuel cost. However, the negative consequences of decreasing energy system efficiency and increasing the CO2 emission should be noted when applying the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV). The results also indicate...

  19. INS integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bazakos, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The use of inertial navigation system (INS) measurements to enhance the quality and robustness of motion analysis techniques used for obstacle detection is discussed with particular reference to autonomous vehicle navigation. The approach to obstacle detection used here employs motion analysis of imagery generated by a passive sensor. Motion analysis of imagery obtained during vehicle travel is used to generate range measurements to points within the field of view of the sensor, which can then be used to provide obstacle detection. Results obtained with an INS integrated motion analysis approach are reviewed.

  20. Integration of virtual control units in the total vehicle simulation; Integration virtueller Steuergeraete in die Gesamtfahrzeugsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppa, Andreas; Lund, Christoph [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In this article the simulation of information and energetics of vehicles with model-integration of electronic control units (ECU) in a simulation, based on the coupling of physical and control components of the total vehicle are investigated. For that simplified models of ECU's, simulating the functionally of the real ECU's, were used. The integration of virtual EUC's in models of full vehicles makes it possible to simulate the energetics for different driving cycles in a realistic way. By better simulation results an evaluation of physical components and the amount of functions are possible. In the area of the thermal management of vehicles by this analyses and optimizations of functions become possible. This article shows the advantages of embedding virtual ECU's in simulations of full vehicles. (orig.)

  1. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  2. Airframe Integration Trade Studies for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Wu, Chauncey; Rivers, Kevin; Martin, Carl; Smith, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Future launch vehicles must be lightweight, fully reusable and easily maintained if low-cost access to space is to be achieved. The goal of achieving an economically viable Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is not easily achieved and success will depend to a large extent on having an integrated and optimized total system. A series of trade studies were performed to meet three objectives. First, to provide structural weights and parametric weight equations as inputs to configuration-level trade studies. Second, to identify, assess and quantify major weight drivers for the RLV airframe. Third, using information on major weight drivers, and considering the RLV as an integrated thermal structure (composed of thrust structures, tanks, thermal protection system, insulation and control surfaces), identify and assess new and innovative approaches or concepts that have the potential for either reducing airframe weight, improving operability, and/or reducing cost.

  3. Integrated development of light armored vehicles based on wargaming simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarini, Marc; Rapanotti, John

    2004-08-01

    Vehicles are evolving into vehicle networks through improved sensors, computers and communications. Unless carefully planned, these complex systems can result in excessive crew workload and difficulty in optimizing the use of the vehicle. To overcome these problems, a war-gaming simulator is being developed as a common platform to integrate contributions from three different groups. The simulator, OneSAF, is used to integrate simplified models of technology and natural phenomena from scientists and engineers with tactics and doctrine from the military and analyzed in detail by operations analysts. This approach ensures the modelling of processes known to be important regardless of the level of information available about the system. Vehicle survivability can be improved as well with better sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid or destroy threats. To improve threat detection and reliability, Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) designs are based on three complementary sensor technologies including: acoustics, visible and infrared optics and radar. Both active armour and softkill countermeasures are considered. In a typical scenario, a search radar, providing continuous hemispherical coverage, detects and classifies the threat and cues a tracking radar. Data from the tracking radar is processed and an explosive grenade is launched to destroy or deflect the threat. The angle of attack and velocity from the search radar can be used by the soft-kill system to carry out an infrared search and track or an illuminated range-gated scan for the threat platform. Upon detection, obscuration, countermanoeuvres and counterfire can be used against the threat. The sensor suite is completed by acoustic detection of muzzle blast and shock waves. Automation and networking at the platoon level contribute to improved vehicle survivability. Sensor data fusion is essential in avoiding catastrophic failure of the DAS. The modular DAS components can be used with Light Armoured

  4. Aerodynamic Analyses and Database Development for Lift-Off/Transition and First Stage Ascent of the Ares I A106 Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Pei, Jing; Covell, Peter F.; Favaregh, Noah M.; Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hanke, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, in partnership with NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and NASA Ames Research Center, was involved in the aerodynamic analyses, testing, and database development for the Ares I A106 crew launch vehicle in support of the Ares Design and Analysis Cycle. This paper discusses the development of lift-off/transition and ascent databases. The lift-off/transition database was developed using data from tests on a 1.75% scale model of the A106 configuration in the NASA Langley 14x22 Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The power-off ascent database was developed using test data on a 1% A106 scale model from two different facilities, the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel and the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The ascent database was adjusted for differences in wind tunnel and flight Reynolds numbers using USM3D CFD code. The aerodynamic jet interaction effects due to first stage roll control system were modeled using USM3D and OVERFLOW CFD codes.

  5. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  6. Integration of regenerative shock absorber into vehicle electric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxiao; Li, Peng; Xing, Shaoxu; Kim, Junyoung; Yu, Liangyao; Zuo, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Regenerative/Energy harvesting shock absorbers have a great potential to increase fuel efficiency and provide suspension damping simultaneously. In recent years there's intensive work on this topic, but most researches focus on electricity extraction from vibration and harvesting efficiency improvement. The integration of electricity generated from regenerative shock absorbers into vehicle electric system, which is very important to realize the fuel efficiency benefit, has not been investigated. This paper is to study and demonstrate the integration of regenerative shock absorber with vehicle alternator, battery and in-vehicle electrical load together. In the presented system, the shock absorber is excited by a shaker and it converts kinetic energy into electricity. The harvested electricity flows into a DC/DC converter which realizes two functions: controlling the shock absorber's damping and regulating the output voltage. The damping is tuned by controlling shock absorber's output current, which is also the input current of DC/DC converter. By adjusting the duty cycles of switches in the converter, its input impedance together with input current can be adjusted according to dynamic damping requirements. An automotive lead-acid battery is charged by the DC/DC converter's output. To simulate the working condition of combustion engine, an AC motor is used to drive a truck alternator, which also charges the battery. Power resistors are used as battery's electrical load to simulate in-vehicle electrical devices. Experimental results show that the proposed integration strategy can effectively utilize the harvested electricity and power consumption of the AC motor is decreased accordingly. This proves the combustion engine's load reduction and fuel efficiency improvement.

  7. Research of the launch vehicle design made of composite materials under the aerodynamic, thermal and acoustic loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydovich Denis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental research of the carbon composite material sample of payload fairing half structural element was carried out under different types of loading. Mathematical and physical modeling of the sample loading using aerodynamic flow was conducted. Heat loading was researched by the method of a thermal analysis during which typical heat dots corresponding to the changes in the sample structure were determined. Ultrasonic influence on the sample characteristics was considered. As a result, the value of heat leak to the structure surface while moving in the atmospheric phase of the descent was determined.

  8. Achieving integrated convoys: cargo unmanned ground vehicle development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zych, Noah; Silver, David; Stager, David; Green, Colin; Pilarski, Thomas; Fischer, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    The Cargo UGV project was initiated in 2010 with the aim of developing and experimenting with advanced autonomous vehicles capable of being integrated unobtrusively into manned logistics convoys. The intent was to validate two hypotheses in complex, operationally representative environments: first, that unmanned tactical wheeled vehicles provide a force protection advantage by creating standoff distance to warfighters during ambushes or improvised explosive device attacks; and second, that these UGVs serve as force multipliers by enabling a single operator to control multiple unmanned assets. To assess whether current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicle technology was sufficiently capable to permit resupply missions to be executed with decreased risk and reduced manpower, and to assess the effect of UGVs on customary convoy tactics, the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise sponsored Oshkosh Defense and the National Robotics Engineering Center to equip two standard Marine Corps cargo trucks for autonomous operation. This paper details the system architecture, hardware implementation, and software modules developed to meet the vehicle control, perception, and planner requirements compelled by this application. Additionally, the design of a custom human machine interface and an accompanying training program are described, as is the creation of a realistic convoy simulation environment for rapid system development. Finally, results are conveyed from a warfighter experiment in which the effectiveness of the training program for novice operators was assessed, and the impact of the UGVs on convoy operations was observed in a variety of scenarios via direct comparison to a fully manned convoy.

  9. Inertial navigation sensor integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bhanu, Bir

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on INS integrated motion analysis is described. Results were obtained with a maximally passive system of obstacle detection (OD) for ground-based vehicles and rotorcraft. The OD approach involves motion analysis of imagery acquired by a passive sensor in the course of vehicle travel to generate range measurements to world points within the sensor FOV. INS data and scene analysis results are used to enhance interest point selection, the matching of the interest points, and the subsequent motion-based computations, tracking, and OD. The most important lesson learned from the research described here is that the incorporation of inertial data into the motion analysis program greatly improves the analysis and makes the process more robust.

  10. Electric vehicle integration in a real-time market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro

    with an externally simulated model of the power grid, it is be possible, in real-time, to simulate the impact of EV charging and help to identify bottlenecks in the system. In EDISON the vehicles are aggregated using an entity called a Virtual Power Plant (VPP); a central server monitoring and controlling...... the distributed energy resources registered with it, in order to make them appear as a single producer in the eyes of the market. Although the concept of a VPP is used within the EcoGrid EU project, the idea of more individual control is introduced through a new proposed real-time electricity market, where......This project is rooted in the EDISON project, which dealt with Electrical Vehicle (EV) integration into the existing power grid, as well as with the infrastructure needed to facilitate the ever increasing penetration of fluctuating renewable energy resources like e.g. wind turbines. In the EDISON...

  11. Control strategies for power distribution networks with electric vehicles integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie

    of electrical energy. A smart grid can also be dened as an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it - generators, consumers and those that do both - in order to eciently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies. This thesis focuses...... of the ii market. To build a complete solution for integration of EVs into the distribution network, a price coordinated hierarchical scheduling system is proposed which can well characterize the involved actors in the smart grid. With this system, we demonstrate that it is possible to schedule the charging......Demand side resources, like electric vehicles (EVs), can become integral parts of a smart grids because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. EVs can be used to balance the intermittent renewable energy resources such as wind and solar...

  12. Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    congestion management scenario within electric distribution networks •optimal EV charging management with the fleet operator concept and smart charging management •EV battery technology, modelling and tests •the use of EVs for balancing power fluctuations from renewable energy sources, looking at power......Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets...... of the technologies for EV integration, this volume is informative for research professors and graduate students in power systems; it will also appeal to EV manufacturers, regulators, EV market professionals, energy providers and traders, mobility providers, EV charging station companies, and policy makers....

  13. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section 571.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG fuel...

  14. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability...... from the driving time periods to show how many cars are available for charging and discharging in each time period. The obtained EV availability data are in one hour time periods and one quarter time periods for different study purposes. The EV availability data of one hour time period are to be used...

  15. Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear in a Battery Electrical Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV......) and the background for the specifications are elaborated. Simulated as well as measured results of rotational losses of the first and second version are compared. The efficiency of the new design is investigated and compared to three direct drive motors in a few operating points and the MIPMG v.2 seems superior when...

  16. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  17. Advanced Data Mining and Deployment for Integrated Vehicle Health Management and the Space Vehicle Lifecycle, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a successful Phase 1 project for NASA SBIR topic A1.05, "Data Mining for Integrated Vehicle Health Management," Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) demonstrated...

  18. Aerodynamic potpourri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Included are: (1) a fixed wake aerodynamic model of the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine; (2) experimental results that suggest the existence of a laminar flow Darrieus vertical axis turbine; (3) a simple aerodynamic model for the turbulent windmill/vortex ring state of horizontal axis rotors; and (4) a yawing moment of a rigid hub horizontal axis wind turbine that is related to blade coning.

  19. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  20. Analysis for Large Scale Integration of Electric Vehicles into Power Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoru

    2011-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) provide a significant opportunity for reducing the consumption of fossil energies and the emission of carbon dioxide. With more and more electric vehicles integrated in the power systems, it becomes important to study the effects of EV integration on the power systems......, especially the low and middle voltage level networks. In the paper, the basic structure and characteristics of the electric vehicles are introduced. The possible impacts of large scale integration of electric vehicles on the power systems especially the advantage to the integration of the renewable energies...... are discussed. Finally, the research projects related to the large scale integration of electric vehicles into the power systems are introduced, it will provide reference for large scale integration of Electric Vehicles into power grids....

  1. The Integrated Computational Environment for Airbreathing Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Modeling and Design Evaluation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated computational environment for multidisciplinary, physics-based simulation and analyses of airbreathing hypersonic flight vehicles will be developed....

  2. Influence of Reynolds Number on the Unsteady Aerodynamics of Integrated Aggressive Intermediate Turbine Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongrui; Liu, Jun; Ji, Lucheng; Du, Qiang; Liu, Guang; Wang, Pei

    2018-06-01

    The ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan engine attracts more and more attention in modern commercial engine due to advantages of high efficiency and low Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC). One of the characteristics of ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan is the intermediate turbine duct which guides the flow leaving high pressure turbine (HPT) to low pressure turbine (LPT) at a larger diameter, and this kind of design will lead to aggressive intermediate turbine duct (AITD) design concept. Thus, it is important to design the AITD without any severe loss. From the unsteady flow's point of view, in actual operating conditions, the incoming wake generated by HPT is unsteady which will take influence on boundary layer's transition within the ITD and LPT. In this paper, the three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamics of an AITD taken from a real engine is studied. The results of fully unsteady three-dimensional numerical simulations, performed with ANSYS-CFX (RANS simulation with transitional model), are critically evaluated against experimental data. After validation of the numerical model, the physical mechanisms inside the flow channel are analyzed, with an aim to quantify the sensitivities of different Reynolds number effect on both the ITD and LPT nozzle. Some general physical mechanisms can be recognized in the unsteady environment. It is recognized that wake characteristics plays a crucial role on the loss within both the ITD and LPT nozzle section, determining both time-averaged and time-resolved characteristics of the flow field. Meanwhile, particular attention needs to be paid to the unsteady effect on the boundary layer of LPT nozzle's suction side surface.

  3. SINS/CNS Nonlinear Integrated Navigation Algorithm for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celestial Navigation System (CNS has characteristics of accurate orientation and strong autonomy and has been widely used in Hypersonic Vehicle. Since the CNS location and orientation mainly depend upon the inertial reference that contains errors caused by gyro drifts and other error factors, traditional Strap-down Inertial Navigation System (SINS/CNS positioning algorithm setting the position error between SINS and CNS as measurement is not effective. The model of altitude azimuth, platform error angles, and horizontal position is designed, and the SINS/CNS tightly integrated algorithm is designed, in which CNS altitude azimuth is set as measurement information. GPF (Gaussian particle filter is introduced to solve the problem of nonlinear filtering. The results of simulation show that the precision of SINS/CNS algorithm which reaches 130 m using three stars is improved effectively.

  4. INTEGRATING UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLES IN THE ROMANIAN NATIONAL AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Alina Catinca POP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the Romanian civil airspace brings us back to the 1920's, when the first aircraft started to fly over the Romanian sky. Little did the legislators at that time know how to create the proper legal framework for the use of such machines so that all aspects related to their use be covered, as well as identify all potential risks and effects. Nowadays, UAVs are the new aircraft and it is a challenge for the legislators to properly identify the legal framework so that the safety and security of civil aviation are not affected. The paper will address the challenges the regulator faces in the integration of the UAVs in the Romanian civil airspace, developments and issues raised by the current regulation, as well as aspects related to the national regulations expected to enter into force at the end of 2015, beginning of 2016.

  5. Damage Adaptation Using Integrated Structural, Propulsion, and Aerodynamic Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR Phase I plan of research seeks to develop and demonstrate an integrated architecture designed to compensate for combined propulsion, airframe,...

  6. Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroth, Edmund C.; Pallix, Joan

    2006-01-01

    To achieve NASA's ambitious Integrated Space Transportation Program objectives, aerospace systems will implement a variety of new concept in health management. System level integration of IVHM technologies for real-time control and system maintenance will have significant impact on system safety and lifecycle costs. IVHM technologies will enhance the safety and success of complex missions despite component failures, degraded performance, operator errors, and environment uncertainty. IVHM also has the potential to reduce, or even eliminate many of the costly inspections and operations activities required by current and future aerospace systems. This presentation will describe the array of NASA programs participating in the development of IVHM technologies for NASA missions. Future vehicle systems will use models of the system, its environment, and other intelligent agents with which they may interact. IVHM will be incorporated into future mission planners, reasoning engines, and adaptive control systems that can recommend or execute commands enabling the system to respond intelligently in real time. In the past, software errors and/or faulty sensors have been identified as significant contributors to mission failures. This presentation will also address the development and utilization of highly dependable sohare and sensor technologies, which are key components to ensure the reliability of IVHM systems.

  7. Integral inverter/battery charger for use in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmesch, D.

    1983-01-01

    The design and test results of a thyristor based inverter/charger are discussed. A battery charger is included integral to the inverter by using a subset of the inverter power circuit components. The resulting charger provides electrical isolation between the vehicle propulsion battery and ac line and is capable of charging a 25 kWh propulsion battery in 8 hours from a 220 volt ac line. The integral charger employs the inverter commutation components at a resonant ac/dc isolated converter rated at 3.6 kW. Charger efficiency and power factor at an output power of 3.6 kW are 86% and 95% respectively. The inverter, when operated with a matching polyphase ac induction motor and nominal 132 volt propulsion battery, can provide a peak shaft power of 34 kW (45 ph) during motoring operation and 45 kW (60 hp) during regeneration. Thyristors are employed for the inverter power switching devices and are arranged in an input-commutated topology. This configuration requires only two thyristors to commutate the six main inverter thyristors. Inverter efficiency during motoring operation at motor shaft speeds above 450 rad/sec (4300 rpm) is 92-94% for output power levels above 11 KW (15 hp). The combined ac inverter/charger package weighs 47 kg (103 lbs).

  8. Thermal/structural/optical integrated design for optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaopeng; Yang, Hongtao; Mei, Chao; Wu, Dengshan; Shi, Kui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology and the promotion of many local wars in the world, altitude optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle is more widely applied in the airborne remote sensing, measurement and detection. In order to obtain high quality image of the aero optical remote sensor, it is important to analysis its thermal-optical performance on the condition of high speed and high altitude. Especially for the key imaging assembly, such as optical window, the temperature variation and temperature gradient can result in defocus and aberrations in optical system, which will lead to the poor quality image. In order to improve the optical performance of a high speed aerial camera optical window, the thermal/structural/optical integrated design method is developed. Firstly, the flight environment of optical window is analyzed. Based on the theory of aerodynamics and heat transfer, the convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The temperature distributing of optical window is simulated by the finite element analysis software. The maximum difference in temperature of the inside and outside of optical window is obtained. Then the deformation of optical window under the boundary condition of the maximum difference in temperature is calculated. The optical window surface deformation is fitted in Zernike polynomial as the interface, the calculated Zernike fitting coefficients is brought in and analyzed by CodeV Optical Software. At last, the transfer function diagrams of the optical system on temperature field are comparatively analyzed. By comparing and analyzing the result, it can be obtained that the optical path difference caused by thermal deformation of the optical window is 138.2 nm, which is under PV ≤1 4λ . The above study can be used as an important reference for other optical window designs.

  9. Purifier-integrated methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaesung; Kim, Il-soo; Choi, Keun-Sup

    We developed a compact, 3-kW, purifier-integrated modular reformer which becomes the building block of full-scale 30-kW or 50-kW methanol fuel processors for fuel cell vehicles. Our proprietary technologies regarding hydrogen purification by composite metal membrane and catalytic combustion by washcoated wire-mesh catalyst were combined with the conventional methanol steam-reforming technology, resulting in higher conversion, excellent quality of product hydrogen, and better thermal efficiency than any other systems using preferential oxidation. In this system, steam reforming, hydrogen purification, and catalytic combustion all take place in a single reactor so that the whole system is compact and easy to operate. Hydrogen from the module is ultrahigh pure (99.9999% or better), hence there is no power degradation of PEMFC stack due to contamination by CO. Also, since only pure hydrogen is supplied to the anode of the PEMFC stack, 100% hydrogen utilization is possible in the stack. The module produces 2.3 Nm 3/h of hydrogen, which is equivalent to 3 kW when PEMFC has 43% efficiency. Thermal efficiency (HHV of product H 2/HHV of MeOH in) of the module is 89% and the power density of the module is 0.77 kW/l. This work was conducted in cooperation with Hyundai Motor Company in the form of a Korean national project. Currently the module is under test with an actual fuel cell stack in order to verify its performance. Sooner or later a full-scale 30-kW system will be constructed by connecting these modules in series and parallel and will serve as the fuel processor for the Korean first fuel cell hybrid vehicle.

  10. Application Program Interface for the Orion Aerodynamics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip E.; Thompson, James

    2013-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Aerodynamic Database has been developed to provide the developers of software an easily implemented, fully self-contained method of accessing the CEV Aerodynamic Database for use in their analysis and simulation tools. The API is programmed in C and provides a series of functions to interact with the database, such as initialization, selecting various options, and calculating the aerodynamic data. No special functions (file read/write, table lookup) are required on the host system other than those included with a standard ANSI C installation. It reads one or more files of aero data tables. Previous releases of aerodynamic databases for space vehicles have only included data tables and a document of the algorithm and equations to combine them for the total aerodynamic forces and moments. This process required each software tool to have a unique implementation of the database code. Errors or omissions in the documentation, or errors in the implementation, led to a lengthy and burdensome process of having to debug each instance of the code. Additionally, input file formats differ for each space vehicle simulation tool, requiring the aero database tables to be reformatted to meet the tool s input file structure requirements. Finally, the capabilities for built-in table lookup routines vary for each simulation tool. Implementation of a new database may require an update to and verification of the table lookup routines. This may be required if the number of dimensions of a data table exceeds the capability of the simulation tools built-in lookup routines. A single software solution was created to provide an aerodynamics software model that could be integrated into other simulation and analysis tools. The highly complex Orion aerodynamics model can then be quickly included in a wide variety of tools. The API code is written in ANSI C for ease of portability to a wide variety of systems. The

  11. A Unified Methodology for Aerospace Systems Integration Based on Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Aerodynamics Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camberos, Jose A; Nomura, Shohei; Stewart, Jason; Figliola, Richard

    2004-01-01

    .... The objective of this project is to relate work-potential losses (exergy destruction) to the aerodynamics forces in an attempt to validate a new design methodology based on the second law of thermodynamic...

  12. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  13. Influence of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Driving Dynamics of Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, J.; Stickel, T.; Sagan, E.; Schwarz, M.; Wall, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with CFD-Methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared to steady state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore innovative vehicle concepts like electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve...

  14. Innovative Vehicle Concept for the Integration of Alternative Power Trains

    OpenAIRE

    Steinle, Philipp; Kriescher, Michael; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The Institute of Vehicle Concepts is developing a safe, modularisable vehicle concept in rib and space frame design for tomorrow’s vehicles with alternative power trains. The vehicle can be powered either by a fuel cell system, a free-piston linear generator developed at the DLR, or a traction battery. Taking into account the given boundary conditions, the challenge is to design a body structure that is light and performs well in the event of an accident. The rib and space fra...

  15. A Concept of Operations for an Integrated Vehicle Health Assurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Ross, Richard W.; Berger, David E.; Lekki, John D.; Mah, Robert W.; Perey, Danie F.; Schuet, Stefan R.; Simon, Donald L.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    This document describes a Concept of Operations (ConOps) for an Integrated Vehicle Health Assurance System (IVHAS). This ConOps is associated with the Maintain Vehicle Safety (MVS) between Major Inspections Technical Challenge in the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies (VSST) Project within NASA s Aviation Safety Program. In particular, this document seeks to describe an integrated system concept for vehicle health assurance that integrates ground-based inspection and repair information with in-flight measurement data for airframe, propulsion, and avionics subsystems. The MVS Technical Challenge intends to maintain vehicle safety between major inspections by developing and demonstrating new integrated health management and failure prevention technologies to assure the integrity of vehicle systems between major inspection intervals and maintain vehicle state awareness during flight. The approach provided by this ConOps is intended to help optimize technology selection and development, as well as allow the initial integration and demonstration of these subsystem technologies over the 5 year span of the VSST program, and serve as a guideline for developing IVHAS technologies under the Aviation Safety Program within the next 5 to 15 years. A long-term vision of IVHAS is provided to describe a basic roadmap for more intelligent and autonomous vehicle systems.

  16. The importance of grid integration for achievable greenhouse gas emissions reductions from alternative vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Alternative vehicles must appropriately interface with the electric grid and renewable generation to contribute to decarbonization. This study investigates the impact of infrastructure configurations and management strategies on the vehicle–grid interface and vehicle greenhouse gas reduction potential with regard to California's Executive Order S-21-09 goal. Considered are battery electric vehicles, gasoline-fueled plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles, and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles. Temporally resolved models of the electric grid, electric vehicle charging, hydrogen infrastructure, and vehicle powertrain simulations are integrated. For plug-in vehicles, consumer travel patterns can limit the greenhouse gas reductions without smart charging or energy storage. For fuel cell vehicles, the fuel production mix must be optimized for minimal greenhouse gas emissions. The plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle has the largest potential for emissions reduction due to smaller battery and fuel cells keeping efficiencies higher and meeting 86% of miles on electric travel keeping the hydrogen demand low. Energy storage is required to meet Executive Order S-21-09 goals in all cases. Meeting the goal requires renewable capacities of 205 GW for plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles and battery electric vehicle 100s, 255 GW for battery electric vehicle 200s, and 325 GW for fuel cell vehicles. - Highlights: • Consumer travel patterns limit greenhouse gas reductions with immediate charging. • Smart charging or energy storage are required for large greenhouse gas reductions. • Fuel cells as a plug-in vehicle range extender provided the most greenhouse gas reductions. • Energy storage is required to meet greenhouse gas goals regardless of vehicle type. • Smart charging reduces the required energy storage size for a given greenhouse gas goal

  17. Integrating a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle with vehicle-to-grid technology, photovoltaic power and a residential building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robledo, C.B.; Oldenbroek, V.D.W.M.; Abbruzzese, F.; van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a demonstration project, including building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) solar panels, a residential building and a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) for combined mobility and power generation, aiming to achieve a net zero-energy residential building

  18. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  19. Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis, the VIPA Experience: Reconnecting with Technical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Today's NASA is facing significant challenges and changes. The Exploration initiative indicates a large increase in projects with limited increase in budget. The Columbia report has criticized NASA for its lack of insight and technical integration impacting its ability to provide safety. The Aldridge report is advocating NASA find new ways of doing business. Very early in the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program a small team of engineers at MSFC were asked to propose a process for performing a system level assessment of a launch vehicle. The request was aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a "smart buyer." Out of this effort the VIPA team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and many integration attempts is that VIPA focuses on using experienced people from various disciplines and a process which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. Most previous attempts have focused on developing an all encompassing software tool. In addition, VIPA anchored its process formulation in the experience of its members and in early developmental Space Shuttle experience. The primary reference for this is NASA-TP-2001-210092, "Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned," and discussions with its authors. The foundations of VIPA's process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to drive detailed analysis earlier in the design process. Analyses and techniques typically done in later design phases, are brought forward using improved computing technology. The intent is to allow the identification of significant sensitivities, trades, and design issues much earlier in the program. This process is driven by the T-model for Technical Integration described in the aforementioned reference. VIPA's approach to performing system level technical integration is discussed in detail. Proposed definitions are offered to clarify this discussion and the general systems integration dialog. VIPA

  20. ZEUS-DO: A Design Oriented CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Capability for Flight Vehicle Multidisciplinary Configuration Shape Optimization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CFD-based design-oriented (DO) steady/unsteady aerodynamic analysis tools for Aeroelastic / Aeroservoelastic (AE/ASE) evaluation lag significantly behind other...

  1. Large Scale System Safety Integration for Human Rated Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.

    2005-12-01

    Since the 1960s man has searched for ways to establish a human presence in space. Unfortunately, the development and operation of human spaceflight vehicles carry significant safety risks that are not always well understood. As a result, the countries with human space programs have felt the pain of loss of lives in the attempt to develop human space travel systems. Integrated System Safety is a process developed through years of experience (since before Apollo and Soyuz) as a way to assess risks involved in space travel and prevent such losses. The intent of Integrated System Safety is to take a look at an entire program and put together all the pieces in such a way that the risks can be identified, understood and dispositioned by program management. This process has many inherent challenges and they need to be explored, understood and addressed.In order to prepare truly integrated analysis safety professionals must gain a level of technical understanding of all of the project's pieces and how they interact. Next, they must find a way to present the analysis so the customer can understand the risks and make decisions about managing them. However, every organization in a large-scale project can have different ideas about what is or is not a hazard, what is or is not an appropriate hazard control, and what is or is not adequate hazard control verification. NASA provides some direction on these topics, but interpretations of those instructions can vary widely.Even more challenging is the fact that every individual/organization involved in a project has different levels of risk tolerance. When the discrete hazard controls of the contracts and agreements cannot be met, additional risk must be accepted. However, when one has left the arena of compliance with the known rules, there can be no longer be specific ground rules on which to base a decision as to what is acceptable and what is not. The integrator must find common grounds between all parties to achieve

  2. An Integrative Approach to Accurate Vehicle Logo Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Pan

    2013-01-01

    required for many applications in intelligent transportation systems and automatic surveillance. The task is challenging considering the small target of logos and the wide range of variability in shape, color, and illumination. A fast and reliable vehicle logo detection approach is proposed following visual attention mechanism from the human vision. Two prelogo detection steps, that is, vehicle region detection and a small RoI segmentation, rapidly focalize a small logo target. An enhanced Adaboost algorithm, together with two types of features of Haar and HOG, is proposed to detect vehicles. An RoI that covers logos is segmented based on our prior knowledge about the logos’ position relative to license plates, which can be accurately localized from frontal vehicle images. A two-stage cascade classier proceeds with the segmented RoI, using a hybrid of Gentle Adaboost and Support Vector Machine (SVM, resulting in precise logo positioning. Extensive experiments were conducted to verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  3. High-Energy Laser Weapon Integration with Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hafften, Michael; Stratton, Robert

    2004-01-01

    .... The architecture of an electric, solid-state HEL weapon system would likely be based upon a hybrid electric vehicle that provides a common electrical power source for the propulsion and weapon subsystems...

  4. Environmentally friendly traffic management system using integrated road-vehicle system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmod, M.M.; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    Local habitability is coming under increasing pressure from harmful traffic emissions. This emission is strongly correlated to the characteristics and dynamics of traffic: type of vehicle, speed, acceleration and deceleration. This paper investigates the use of integrated road-vehicle systems for

  5. Integrating Pavement Crack Detection and Analysis Using Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS

  6. Platform Innovations and System Integration for Unmanned Air, Land and Sea Vehicles Symposium. Technical Evaluation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Decuypere, Roland; Selegan, David

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the Research and Technology Organization (RTO) of NATO organized a joint symposium on Platform Innovations and System Integration for Unmanned Air, Land and Sea Vehicles which met from 14-18 May 2007 in Florence Italy...

  7. Vehicle infrastructure integration (VII) based road-condition warning system for highway collision prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    As a major ITS initiative, the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) program is to revolutionize : transportation by creating an enabling communication infrastructure that will open up a wide range of : safety applications. The road-condition warn...

  8. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  9. Vehicle-Level Reasoning Systems: Integrating System-Wide data to Estimate Instantaneous Health State

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the primary goals of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) is to detect, diagnose, predict, and mitigate adverse events during the flight of an...

  10. Integrated methodology for production related risk management of vehicle electronics (IMPROVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, Stefan Rafael

    2006-01-01

    This scientific work is designated to provide an innovative and integrated conceptional approach to improve the assembly quality of automotive electronics. This is achieved by the reduction and elimination of production related risks of automotive electronics and the implementation of a sustainable solution process. The focus is the development and implementation of an integrated technical risk management approach for automotive electronics throughout the vehicle life cycle and the vehicle pr...

  11. Robust localisation of automated guided vehicles for computer-integrated manufacturing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As industry moves toward an era of complete automation and mass customisation, automated guided vehicles (AGVs are used as material handling systems. However, the current techniques that provide navigation, control, and manoeuvrability of automated guided vehicles threaten to create bottlenecks and inefficiencies in manufacturing environments that strive towards the optimisation of part production. This paper proposes a decentralised localisation technique for an automated guided vehicle without any non-holonomic constraints. Incorporation of these vehicles into the material handling system of a computer-integrated manufacturing environment would increase the characteristics of robustness, efficiency, flexibility, and advanced manoeuvrability.

  12. Plug-in electric vehicles integrating fluctuating renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallinger, David

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines a method to model plug-in electric vehicles as part of the power system and presents results for the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance the fluctuating electricity generation of renewable energy sources. The scientific contribution includes: - A novel approach to characterizing fluctuating generation. This allows the detailed comparison of results from energy analysis and is the basis to describe the effect of electricity from renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles on the power system. - The characterization of mobile storage, which includes the description of mobility behavior using probabilities and battery discharging costs. - The introduction of an agent-based simulation approach, coupling energy markets and distributed grids using a price-based mechanism design. - The description of an agent with specific driving behavior, battery discharging costs and optimization algorithm suitable for real plug-in vehicles and simulation models. - A case study for a 2030 scenario describing the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance generation from renewable energy sources in California and Germany.

  13. Potential Analysis of Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) have been considered as distributed energy resources (DER) to handle the fluctuation from renewable energy resources (RES), especially the wind power. The intelligent management of EV charging and discharging can achieve the goal of providing up and down regulating power...

  14. Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, B M; Albatsh, F; Faris, W F; Chebil, J

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment

  15. Vehicle state estimation using GPS/IMU integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Mangnus, J.; Kostić, D.; Nijmeijer, H.; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2011-01-01

    New driver support systems require knowledge of the vehicle position with great accuracy and reliability. Satellite navigation (GNSS) is generally insufficiently accurate for positioning and as an alternative to using a ground station, combinations with high quality motion sensors are used in

  16. Smart integration of electric vehicles in an energy community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negeri, E.; Baken, N.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing penetrations of renewable distributed generations (DGs) and electrified vehicles (EVs), the volatility of the renewable sources and the huge load of the EVs induce tremendous challenges for the power grid. The two technologies also have considerable synergetic potential to alleviate

  17. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  18. IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Early work was performed to apply data base technology in support of the management of engineering data in the design and manufacturing environments. The principal objective of the IPAD project is to develop a computer software system for use in the design of aerospace vehicles. Two prototype systems are created for this purpose. Relational Information Manager (RIM) is a successful commercial product. The IPAD Information Processor (IPIP), a much more sophisticated system, is still under development.

  19. Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-30

    number of stowed kills Same basic load lasts longer range Gun/ammo parameters impact system weight, under - armor volume requirements Round volume...internal volume is reduced, the model assumes that the crew’s ability to operate while under armor will be impaired. If the size of a vehicle crew is...changing swept volume will alter under armor volume requirements for the total system; if system volume is fixed, changing swept volume will

  20. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  1. Direct Yaw Control of Vehicle using State Dependent Riccati Equation with Integral Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDHU, F.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct yaw control of four-wheel vehicles using optimal controllers such as the linear quadratic regulator (LQR and the sliding mode controller (SMC either considers only certain parameters constant in the nonlinear equations of vehicle model or totally neglect their effects to obtain simplified models, resulting in loss of states for the system. In this paper, a modified state-dependent Ricatti equation method obtained by the simplification of the vehicle model is proposed. This method overcomes the problem of the lost states by including state integrals. The results of the proposed system are compared with the sliding mode slip controller and state-dependent Ricatti equation method using high fidelity vehicle model in the vehicle simulation software package, Carsim. Results show 38% reduction in the lateral velocity, 34% reduction in roll and 16% reduction in excessive yaw by only increasing the fuel consumption by 6.07%.

  2. Natural aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scorer, R S

    1958-01-01

    Natural Aerodynamics focuses on the mathematics of any problem in air motion.This book discusses the general form of the law of fluid motion, relationship between pressure and wind, production of vortex filaments, and conduction of vorticity by viscosity. The flow at moderate Reynolds numbers, turbulence in a stably stratified fluid, natural exploitation of atmospheric thermals, and plumes in turbulent crosswinds are also elaborated. This text likewise considers the waves produced by thermals, transformation of thin layer clouds, method of small perturbations, and dangers of extra-polation.Thi

  3. Integration of Disaster Detection and Warning System for a Smart Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For firefighters and rescuers, the disaster relief works are difficulty performed in the tunnels because of their constricted space. To reduce the losses of accident, the safety of tunnels and factories should be ordinarily kept under surveillance. Hence, a multisensor based smart tracked vehicle is designed for the application of autonomous detection and surveillance in this paper. Besides, multisensors, communication modules, wireless cameras, an electronic compass, and a GPS module are installed in the vehicle. The key feature is the integration of disaster detection and warning systems so that the vehicle can move autonomously. Furthermore, a LabVIEW graphical programming software is applied to design a human machine interface (HMI and integrate all systems such that the vehicle can be guided by High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSHPA based remote control. Moreover, basic stamp microcontrollers are utilized as its control kernel such that the remote monitoring and control system (RMCS can be constructed successfully.

  4. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  5. An Integrated Model of Motion, Steering, Positioning and Stabilization of an Unmanned Autonomous Maritime Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Gerigk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the aim of an interdisciplinary research is presented. The research method is introduced. An object the unmanned autonomous maritime vehicle is briefly described. The key research problem concerns a combined model of the vehicle motion including the loads of lift and hydrodynamic nature. The model takes into account the gravity and displacement forces, resistance and thrust forces, lift and other hydrodynamic forces. One of the major research tasks is to precisely predict the position of the vehicle. To do that an integrated model of acquiring, analyzing and processing the signals is necessary. The processed signals may then be used for the precise steering of the vehicle. The vehicle should be equipped with a stabilization system. Some information on an integrated steering, positioning and stabilization system of the vehicle is briefly presented in the paper. Such the system enables to obtain a fully autonomous vehicle. Some information on the propulsion and underwater energy supply systems are presented in the paper, too.

  6. Aerodynamics of magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetz, Joseph A.; Marchman, James F., III

    1996-01-01

    High-speed (500 kph) trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. One area of many that will need advanced research is the aerodynamics of such MAGLEV (Magnetic Levitation) vehicles. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. This talk will deal with the aerodynamic design of MAGLEV vehicles with emphasis on wind tunnel testing. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft. Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. Test results for a variety of MAGLEV vehicle configurations will be presented. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics, structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost.

  7. Nonlinear reset integrator control design: Application to the active suspension control of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Acho Zuppa, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We present an unexampled reset integrator control design based on the Clegg integrator system. Using an appropriate mathematical model of our Clegg integrator controller, stability proof of the closed-loop system applied to the vibration control problem of a second-order system is shown without invoking hybrid system theory. Furthermore, we illustrate the pplicability of our controller, from the numerical experiment point of view, to the suspension vibration control of vehicles.

  8. An Integrated Multifunctional Bidirectional AC/DC and DC/DC Converter for Electric Vehicles Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liwen Pan; Chengning Zhang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an on-board vehicular battery charger that integrates bidirectional AC/DC converter and DC/DC converter to achieve high power density for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The integrated charger is able to transfer electrical energy between the battery pack and the electric traction system and to function as an AC/DC battery charger. The integrated charger topology is presented and the design of passive components is discussed. The control schemes are developed for m...

  9. Simulation on a car interior aerodynamic noise control based on statistical energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Dengfeng; Ma, Zhengdong

    2012-09-01

    How to simulate interior aerodynamic noise accurately is an important question of a car interior noise reduction. The unsteady aerodynamic pressure on body surfaces is proved to be the key effect factor of car interior aerodynamic noise control in high frequency on high speed. In this paper, a detail statistical energy analysis (SEA) model is built. And the vibra-acoustic power inputs are loaded on the model for the valid result of car interior noise analysis. The model is the solid foundation for further optimization on car interior noise control. After the most sensitive subsystems for the power contribution to car interior noise are pointed by SEA comprehensive analysis, the sound pressure level of car interior aerodynamic noise can be reduced by improving their sound and damping characteristics. The further vehicle testing results show that it is available to improve the interior acoustic performance by using detailed SEA model, which comprised by more than 80 subsystems, with the unsteady aerodynamic pressure calculation on body surfaces and the materials improvement of sound/damping properties. It is able to acquire more than 2 dB reduction on the central frequency in the spectrum over 800 Hz. The proposed optimization method can be looked as a reference of car interior aerodynamic noise control by the detail SEA model integrated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and sensitivity analysis of acoustic contribution.

  10. Aerodynamics and Control of Quadrotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangura, Moses

    Quadrotors are aerial vehicles with a four motor-rotor assembly for generating lift and controllability. Their light weight, ease of design and simple dynamics have increased their use in aerial robotics research. There are many quadrotors that are commercially available or under development. Commercial off-the-shelf quadrotors usually lack the ability to be reprogrammed and are unsuitable for use as research platforms. The open-source code developed in this thesis differs from other open-source systems by focusing on the key performance road blocks in implementing high performance experimental quadrotor platforms for research: motor-rotor control for thrust regulation, velocity and attitude estimation, and control for position regulation and trajectory tracking. In all three of these fundamental subsystems, code sub modules for implementation on commonly available hardware are provided. In addition, the thesis provides guidance on scoping and commissioning open-source hardware components to build a custom quadrotor. A key contribution of the thesis is then a design methodology for the development of experimental quadrotor platforms from open-source or commercial off-the-shelf software and hardware components that have active community support. Quadrotors built following the methodology allows the user access to the operation of the subsystems and, in particular, the user can tune the gains of the observers and controllers in order to push the overall system to its performance limits. This enables the quadrotor framework to be used for a variety of applications such as heavy lifting and high performance aggressive manoeuvres by both the hobby and academic communities. To address the question of thrust control, momentum and blade element theories are used to develop aerodynamic models for rotor blades specific to quadrotors. With the aerodynamic models, a novel thrust estimation and control scheme that improves on existing RPM (revolutions per minute) control of

  11. On integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into existing power system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galus, Matthias D.; Zima, Marek; Andersson, Goeran

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent one option for the electrification of private mobility. In order to efficiently integrate PHEVs into power systems, existing organizational structures need to be considered. Based on procedures of power systems planning and operation, actors are identified whose operational activities will be affected by PHEV integration. Potential changes and challenges in the actors' long- and short term planning activities are discussed. Further, a PHEV operation state description is developed which defines vehicle operation states from the power system point of view integrating uncontrolled, controlled recharging and vehicle to grid (V2G) utilization in one single framework. Future PHEV managing entities, such as aggregators, can use this framework for planning and operation activities including load management and V2G. This operational state description could provide a solution for future short term planning challenges of PHEVs and an aegis for various routes of current research, which to date have been weakly linked to each other.

  12. Predicted Aerodynamic Characteristics of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Having a 25% Integral-Type Trailing Edge Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional ARC2D Navier-Stokes flow solver analyses were conducted to predict the sectional aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped NACA-0015 airfoil section. To facilitate the analyses and the generation of the computational grids, the airfoil with the deflected trailing edge flap was treated as a single element airfoil with no allowance for a gap between the flap's leading edge and the base of the forward portion of the airfoil. Generation of the O-type computational grids was accomplished using the HYGRID hyperbolic grid generation program. Results were obtained for a wide range of Mach numbers, angles of attack and flap deflections. The predicted sectional lift, drag and pitching moment values for the airfoil were then cast in tabular format (C81) to be used in lifting-line helicopter rotor aerodynamic performance calculations. Similar were also generated for the flap. Mathematical expressions providing the variation of the sectional lift and pitching moment coefficients for the airfoil and for the flap as a function of flap chord length and flap deflection angle were derived within the context of thin airfoil theory. The airfoil's sectional drag coefficient were derived using the ARC2D drag predictions for equivalent two dimensional flow conditions.

  13. Integration of Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Danish Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Thøgersen, Paul; Møller, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as one of the important components of the future intelligent grids. Their role as energy storages in the electricity grid could provide local sustainable solutions to support more renewable energy. In order to estimate the extent of interaction of EVs...... in the electricity grid operation, a careful examination in the local electricity system is essential. This paper investigates the degree of EV penetration and its key influence on the low voltage distribution grids. Three detailed models of residential grids in Denmark are considered as test cases in this study...... it is shown that there is enough head-space on the transformer capacity which can be used to charge many EVs during a day. The overall transformer capability of handling EV loads varies between 6-40% for peak and minimum demand hours, which is dependent on the robustness of the grids. The voltage drops...

  14. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  15. Comparison of the energy and environmental impact by integrating a H_2 vehicle and an electric vehicle into a zero-energy building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Sunliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrating a commercial-scale H_2 vehicle (HV) or electric vehicle (EV) into a ZEB. • Simultaneously fulfilling net-zero energy building and absolute-zero energy vehicle. • Energy performance comparison between the ZEBs with HV, EV, and no vehicle. • The energy matching-enhancing solutions for integrating the HV or EV with the ZEB. • Solutions for improving the matching and relieving the negative impact on the grid. - Abstract: The boundary extension of a zero-energy building to integrate a new energy vehicle will facilitate the realization of the target set by the EU 2050 roadmap. In this study, either a hydrogen vehicle (HV) or an electric vehicle (EV) is integrated into a renewable-supported building system with appropriate control strategies. The focused variables in this study are renewable energy capacities, vehicle system options, extents to utilize vehicle storages for domestic purposes, and the Excess REe-HW recharging strategies. The analysing aspects include the energy and environmental impact as well as the energy matching and the grid interactions. The results show that the annual net-zero energy/emission balance can be met by a 16, 12, and 12 kW rated wind turbine, or by a 195.8, 160.2, and 142.4 m"2 PV, for the building with the HV, the EV and no vehicle (NV), respectively. The building with the HV will be more demanding in meeting the balance due to the less efficient HV system than that with the EV. Moreover, better matching for the zero-energy system can be achieved by relieving the condition to discharge the vehicle storages for domestic usages and by using the Excess REe-HW recharging strategy. However, their negative effect will be a slight increase in the annual net-energy consumption, due to an increased loss from both the HV/EV integrated system and the thermal storage.

  16. aerodynamics and heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Rajadas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary optimization procedure, with the integration of aerodynamic and heat transfer criteria, has been developed for the design of gas turbine blades. Two different optimization formulations have been used. In the first formulation, the maximum temperature in the blade section is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint is imposed on the blade average temperature and a lower bound constraint is imposed on the blade tangential force coefficient. In the second formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. In both formulations, bounds are imposed on the velocity gradients at several points along the surface of the airfoil to eliminate leading edge velocity spikes which deteriorate aerodynamic performance. Shape optimization is performed using the blade external and coolant path geometric parameters as design variables. Aerodynamic analysis is performed using a panel code. Heat transfer analysis is performed using the finite element method. A gradient based procedure in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique is used for optimization. The results obtained using both optimization techniques are compared with a reference geometry. Both techniques yield significant improvements with the multiobjective formulation resulting in slightly superior design.

  17. On-Orbit Engineering and Vehicle Integration Poster Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerdinger, Madison

    2014-01-01

    One of the duties of the MER Managers is getting the consoles to review and sign Electronic Flight Notes (EFN) and Mission Action Requests (Chit) before they are due. Chits and EFNs and are accessible through the Mission Control Center - Houston (MCC-H) Gateway. Chits are the official means of documenting questions and answers, technical direction, real-time changes to Flight Rules (FR) and procedures, request for analysis, etc. between various consoles concerning on-orbit operations. EFNs are documents used by the Flight Control Team (FCT) to communicate precise details between console positions and manage real time changes to FR and Systems Operation Data File (SODF) procedures. On GMT 2013/345 the External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) on the Columbus (COL) Moderate Temperature Loop (MTL) Interface Heat Exchanger (IFHX) shut down due to low temperatures. Over the next couple of days, the core temperature of COL MT IFHX dropped due to the failure of the Flow Control Valve (FCV). After the temperature drop was discovered, heaters were turned on to bring the temperatures back to nominal. After the incident occurred, a possible freeze threat was discovered that could have ruptured the heat exchanger. The COL MT IFHX rupturing would be considered a catastrophic failure and potentially result in a loss of the vehicle and/or the lives of the International Space Station (ISS) crew members

  18. Vehicle scheduling schemes for commercial and emergency logistics integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models.

  19. Exploration of dispatch model integrating wind generators and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Ibn Saif, A.U.N.; Nguyen, P.H.; Torbaghan, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel business model for the BRPs is analyzed. • Imbalance cost of wind generation is considered in the UC-ED model. • Smart charging of EVs is included into the UC-ED problem to mitigate the imbalance cost. • Effects of smart charging on generation cost, CO 2 emissions and total network load are assessed. - Abstract: In recent years, the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity generation mix has been expanding rapidly. However, limited predictability of the RES poses challenges for traditional scheduling and dispatching mechanisms based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED). This paper presents an advanced UC-ED model to incorporate wind generators as RES-based units alongside conventional centralized generators. In the proposed UC-ED model, an imbalance cost is introduced reflecting the wind generation uncertainty along with the marginal generation cost. The proposed UC-ED model aims to utilize the flexibility of fleets of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to optimally compensate for the wind generation uncertainty. A case study with 15 conventional units and 3 wind farms along with a fixed-sized PEV fleet demonstrates that shifting of PEV fleets charging at times of high wind availability realizes generation cost savings. Nevertheless, the operational cost saving incurred by controlled charging appears to diminish when dispatched wind energy becomes considerably larger than the charging energy of PEV fleets. Further analysis of the results reveals that the effectiveness of PEV control strategy in terms of CO 2 emission reduction is strongly coupled with generation mix and the proposed control strategy is favored in cases where less pollutant-based plants like nuclear and hydro power are profoundly dominant.

  20. Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Martin; Jutte, Christine; Mangalam, Arun

    2011-01-01

    A Distributed Aerodynamic Sensing and Processing (DASP) toolbox was designed and fabricated for flight test applications with an Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW) mounted under the fuselage of an F-15B on the Flight Test Fixture (FTF). DASP monitors and processes the aerodynamics with the structural dynamics using nonintrusive, surface-mounted, hot-film sensing. This aerodynamic measurement tool benefits programs devoted to static/dynamic load alleviation, body freedom flutter suppression, buffet control, improvement of aerodynamic efficiency through cruise control, supersonic wave drag reduction through shock control, etc. This DASP toolbox measures local and global unsteady aerodynamic load distribution with distributed sensing. It determines correlation between aerodynamic observables (aero forces) and structural dynamics, and allows control authority increase through aeroelastic shaping and active flow control. It offers improvements in flutter suppression and, in particular, body freedom flutter suppression, as well as aerodynamic performance of wings for increased range/endurance of manned/ unmanned flight vehicles. Other improvements include inlet performance with closed-loop active flow control, and development and validation of advanced analytical and computational tools for unsteady aerodynamics.

  1. Experimental investigation on an integrated thermal management system with heat pipe heat exchanger for electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Huiming; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guiying; Qin, Fei; Tian, Changqing; Yan, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    An integrated thermal management system combining a heat pipe battery cooling/preheating system with the heat pump air conditioning system is presented to fulfill the comprehensive energy utilization for electric vehicles. A test bench with battery heat pipe heat exchanger and heat pump air conditioning for a regular five-chair electric car is set up to research the performance of this integrated system under different working conditions. The investigation results show that as the system is d...

  2. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Liwen; Zhang, Chengning

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge cir...

  3. Taxonomy of Conflict Detection and Resolution Approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in an Integrated Airspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.; van Kampen, E.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a taxonomy of Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) operation in an integrated airspace. Possible approaches for UAVs are surveyed and broken down based on their types of surveillance, coordination, maneuver, and autonomy. The

  4. Preventing Distribution Grid Congestion by Integrating Indirect Control in a Hierarchical Electric Vehicles Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical management system is proposed to integrate electric vehicles (EVs) into a distribution grid. Three types of actors are included in the system: Distribution system operators (DSOs), Fleet operators (FOs) and EV owners. In contrast to a typical hierarchical control sys...

  5. Integrated powertrain control for hybrid electric vehicles with electric variable transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Foster, D.L.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The electric variable transmission (EVT) offers a powersplit for hybrid electric vehicles by integrating two motor/ generator sets into one electric machine. This double rotor concept implements a continuously variable transmission between the engine and the driveline, including the possibility for

  6. Integration between electric vehicle charging and micro-cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Canelli, Michele; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction between an MCHP system and EV charging is investigated. • A parametric analysis with respect to daily driving distance of the EV is performed. • Dynamic simulations are carried out considering two different climates. • Two EV charging strategies are analyzed to maximize the self-consumed electricity. • The impact of EVs on electric grid and economic feasibility of MCHP can be improved. - Abstract: In the near future the diffusion of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) could play an important role in the reduction of emissions and oil dependency associated with the transport sector. However this technology could have a big impact on the electric network because EVs require a considerable amount of electricity. In order to meet the growing load due to the diffusion of EVs, the construction of new infrastructures will be required. The introduction of micro-cogeneration systems could represent a key factor in the reduction of the negative effects on the electric network related to EVs charging. The EVs are often driven during the day and recharged during the night; so the overnight charge of the EVs allows to reduce the amount of electricity exported to the grid. In this way the economic benefits associated with the introduction of micro-cogenerator system (Micro Combined Heat and Power, MCHP), that depend on the economic value of the “produced” electricity, can be improved. At the same time the impact of EVs charge on the electric network can be reduced when electricity is provided by MCHP. In this paper the interaction between an MCHP system, the EV charging and a typical semidetached house is investigated by means of dynamic simulations. The analysis is carried out in two different locations (Torino and Napoli) in order to evaluate the effects of climatic conditions on the system performance. A parametric analysis with respect to the daily driving distance of the EV is carried out in order to highlight the effect of this

  7. ZEUS-DO: A Design Oriented CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Capability for Flight Vehicle Multidisciplinary Configuration Shape Optimization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In practically all air-vehicle MDO studies to date involving configuration shape optimization, dynamic Aeroservoelastic constraints had to be left out. Flutter, gust...

  8. The integration of electrical axle drives in hybrid vehicle and electric vehicles; Die Integration elektrischer Achsantriebe in Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Heinz [hofer eds GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In the following contribution the advantages of a high integrated electrical axle module will be explained. Furthermore different electrical machines will be introduced and the specific operational behavior will be described. After a short introduction regarding the utilization of electrical machines some proposals regarding the gear ratio will be given. At the end a novel hybrid transmission with electrical power split will be introduced. (orig.)

  9. Modeling of Electric Vehicles (EVs) for EV Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to successfully integrate EVs into power systems, it is necessary to develop a detailed EV model considering both the EV users’ driving requirements and the battery charging and discharging characteristics. A generic EV model was proposed which takes into account charging and discharging...... characteristics of EV batteries, the driving distance per trip and the availability of EVs for charging and providing grid service. The charging and discharging characteristics of EV batteries were used to determine the upper and lower limits of the state of charge (SOC) of EV batteries and to calculate...... the charging and discharging power. The driving distance per trip and availability of EVs were used to reflect the driving requirements and to implement intelligent charging and discharging management....

  10. Simulating the value of electric-vehicle-grid integration using a behaviourally realistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinetz, Michael; Axsen, Jonn; Peters, Jotham; Crawford, Curran

    2018-02-01

    Vehicle-grid integration (VGI) uses the interaction between electric vehicles and the electrical grid to provide benefits that may include reducing the cost of using intermittent renwable electricity or providing a financial incentive for electric vehicle ownerhip. However, studies that estimate the value of VGI benefits have largely ignored how consumer behaviour will affect the magnitude of the impact. Here, we simulate the long-term impact of VGI using behaviourally realistic and empirically derived models of vehicle adoption and charging combined with an electricity system model. We focus on the case where a central entity manages the charging rate and timing for participating electric vehicles. VGI is found not to increase the adoption of electric vehicles, but does have a a small beneficial impact on electricity prices. By 2050, VGI reduces wholesale electricity prices by 0.6-0.7% (0.7 MWh-1, 2010 CAD) relative to an equivalent scenario without VGI. Excluding consumer behaviour from the analysis inflates the value of VGI.

  11. Ares I Integrated Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing approach that NASA is developing for the Ares I launch vehicle. NASA is planning a complete series of development, qualification and verification tests. These include: (1) Upper stage engine sea-level and altitude testing (2) First stage development and qualification motors (3) Upper stage structural and thermal development and qualification test articles (4) Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA) (5) Upper stage green run testing (6) Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing (IVGVT) and (7) Aerodynamic characterization testing.

  12. Monocular Camera/IMU/GNSS Integration for Ground Vehicle Navigation in Challenging GNSS Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Akos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF. Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations.

  13. Monocular camera/IMU/GNSS integration for ground vehicle navigation in challenging GNSS environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tianxing; Guo, Ningyan; Backén, Staffan; Akos, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations.

  14. Monocular Camera/IMU/GNSS Integration for Ground Vehicle Navigation in Challenging GNSS Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tianxing; Guo, Ningyan; Backén, Staffan; Akos, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations. PMID:22736999

  15. Integrated Markov-neural reliability computation method: A case for multiple automated guided vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazlollahtabar, Hamed; Saidi-Mehrabad, Mohammad; Balakrishnan, Jaydeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrated Markovian and back propagation neural network approaches to compute reliability of a system. While states of failure occurrences are significant elements for accurate reliability computation, Markovian based reliability assessment method is designed. Due to drawbacks shown by Markovian model for steady state reliability computations and neural network for initial training pattern, integration being called Markov-neural is developed and evaluated. To show efficiency of the proposed approach comparative analyses are performed. Also, for managerial implication purpose an application case for multiple automated guided vehicles (AGVs) in manufacturing networks is conducted. - Highlights: • Integrated Markovian and back propagation neural network approach to compute reliability. • Markovian based reliability assessment method. • Managerial implication is shown in an application case for multiple automated guided vehicles (AGVs) in manufacturing networks

  16. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS for Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS. A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications.

  17. Design of integrated autopilot/autothrottle for NASA TSRV airplane using integral LQG methodology. [transport systems research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Isaac; Benson, Russell A.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle control system has been developed for the NASA transport system research vehicle using a two-degree-of-freedom approach. Based on this approach, the feedback regulator was designed using an integral linear quadratic regulator design technique, which offers a systematic approach to satisfy desired feedback performance requirements and guarantees stability margins in both control and sensor loops. The resulting feedback controller was discretized and implemented using a delta coordinate concept, which allows for transient free controller switching by initializing all controller states to zero and provides a simple solution for dealing with throttle limiting cases.

  18. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2003-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic air- breathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjetkcramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demon- strate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and develop ment cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  19. Integration of electric drive vehicles in the Danish electricity network with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    /conventional) which are likely to fuel these cars. The study was carried out considering the Danish electricity network state around 2025, when the EDV penetration levels would be significant enough to have an impact on the power system. Some of the interesting findings of this study are - EDV have the potential......This paper presents the results of a study carried out to examine the feasibility of integrating electric drive vehicles (EDV) in the Danish electricity network which is characterised by high wind power penetration. One of the main aims of this study was to examine the effect of electric drive...... vehicles on the Danish electricity network, wind power penetration and electricity market. In particular the study examined the effect of electric drive vehicles on the generation capacity constraints, load curve, cross border transmission capacity and the type of generating sources (renewable...

  20. Analysis of the wind influence on the aerodynamic drag in the case of a certain emplacement of the pantograph on the electric rail vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin ARSENE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The wind gusts with high speed can negative affect the operation of the railway electric vehicles. These vehicles can achieve high performances, as long as the power supply is ensured, without discontinuities or interruptions in the process. This work aims at conducting an analysis regarding the wind influence with regard to the energy collector placed on the vehicle bodywork taking in account a certain positioning of the active pantograph. To this end, in a first step, the EP3 pantograph which was raised to its maximum working height was 3-D modeled. As regards the simulation, we consider the case in which the equipment is placed on the vehicle so that the angle formed by the articulation of the arms is pointing in the direction of the air flow. The simulation is carried out for different points of the angles ranging between [0o, 180o] at the relative velocity of the fluid of 0m / s, 10m / s, 20m / s and 30m / s.

  1. Integrating small satellite communication in an autonomous vehicle network: A case for oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, André G. C.; Ferreira, António Sérgio; Costa, Maria; Nodar-López, Diego; Aguado Agelet, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    Small satellites and autonomous vehicles have greatly evolved in the last few decades. Hundreds of small satellites have been launched with increasing functionalities, in the last few years. Likewise, numerous autonomous vehicles have been built, with decreasing costs and form-factor payloads. Here we focus on combining these two multifaceted assets in an incremental way, with an ultimate goal of alleviating the logistical expenses in remote oceanographic operations. The first goal is to create a highly reliable and constantly available communication link for a network of autonomous vehicles, taking advantage of the small satellite lower cost, with respect to conventional spacecraft, and its higher flexibility. We have developed a test platform as a proving ground for this network, by integrating a satellite software defined radio on an unmanned air vehicle, creating a system of systems, and several tests have been run successfully, over land. As soon as the satellite is fully operational, we will start to move towards a cooperative network of autonomous vehicles and small satellites, with application in maritime operations, both in-situ and remote sensing.

  2. Flexible interaction of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots for efficient wind integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Golshan, M.E.H.; Shafie-khah, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactive incorporation of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots is investigated. • Flexible energy and reserve services are provided by electric vehicle parking lots. • Uncertain characterization of electric vehicle owners’ behavior is taken into account. • Coordinated operation of parking lots can facilitate wind power integration. - Abstract: The increasing share of uncertain wind generation has changed traditional operation scheduling of power systems. The challenges of this additional variability raise the need for an operational flexibility in providing both energy and reserve. One key solution is an effective incorporation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the power system operation process. To this end, this paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming market-clearing model considering the network constraints to achieve the optimal scheduling of conventional units as well as PEV parking lots (PLs) in providing both energy and reserve services. Different from existing works, the paper pays more attention to the uncertain characterization of PLs takes into account the arrival/departure time of PEVs to/from the PL, the initial state of charge (SOC) of PEVs, and their battery capacity through a set of scenarios in addition to wind generation scenarios. The results reveal that although the cost saving as a consequence of incorporating PL to the grid is below 1% of total system cost, however, flexible interactions of PL in the energy and reserve markets can promote the integration of wind power more than 13.5%.

  3. Integrated scheduling of renewable generation and electric vehicles parking lot in a smart microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarmand, Masoud; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated operation of renewable generation and electric vehicles is presented. • The capability of electric vehicles in providing reserve has been analyzed. • A new electric vehicles charging/discharging management system is proposed. • The technical features of electric vehicle’s batteries are considered. - Abstract: Integration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) into the electric power system may bring up many technical issues. The power system may put at risk the security and reliability of operation due to intermittent nature of renewable generation and uncontrolled charging/discharging procedure of EVs. In this paper, an energy resources management model for a microgrid (MG) is proposed. The proposed method considers practical constraints, renewable power forecasting errors, spinning reserve requirements and EVs owner satisfaction. A case study with a typical MG including 200 EVs is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed energy resource scheduling method satisfies financial and technical goals of parking lot as well as the security and economic issues of MG. Moreover, EV owners could earn profit by discharging their vehicles’ batteries or providing the reserve capacity and finally have desired State Of Charge (SOC) in the departure time

  4. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  5. Bio-Inspired Integrated Sensing and Control Flapping Flight for Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    high Reynolds numbers. However, their analysis was restricted to calculating the aerodynamic moments arising from the use of cant-angle winglets ...Bourdin, and M. Friswell, “Experimental investigation into articulated winglet effects on flying wing surface pressure aerodynamics ,” Journal of Aircraft...derivation and simulation results of PDE- based control laws for controlling the deformation of flexible wings to achieve a net aerodynamic force or

  6. Performance Characteristics of a Modularized and Integrated PTC Heating System for an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hyuk Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A modularized positive temperature coefficient heating system has controller-integrated heater modules. Such a heating system that uses a high-voltage power of 330 V was developed in the present study for use in electric vehicles. Four heater modules and one controller with an input power of 5.6 kW were integrated in the modularized system, which was designed for improved heating power density and light weight compared to the conventional heating system, in which the controller is separated. We experimentally investigated the performance characteristics, namely, the heating capacity, energy efficiency, and pressure drop, of a prototype of the developed heating system and found it to have satisfactory performance. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of heating systems for electric vehicles.

  7. Torque Split Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles with an Integrated Starter Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Zhumu; Gao, Aiyun; Wang, Xiaohong; Song, Xiaona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a torque split strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles with an integrated starter generator (ISG-PHEV) by using fuzzy logic control. By combining the efficiency map and the optimum torque curve of the internal combustion engine (ICE) with the state of charge (SOC) of the batteries, the torque split strategy is designed, which manages the ICE within its peak efficiency region. Taking the quantified ICE torque, the quantified SOC of the batteries, and the quantified I...

  8. In-vehicle human factors for integrated multi-function systems: Making ITS user-friendly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F.; Scott, S.

    1998-04-01

    As more and more Intelligent Transportation System in-vehicle equipment enters the general consumer market, the authors are about to find out how different design engineers are from ordinary drivers. Driver information systems are being developed and installed in vehicles at an ever-increasing rate. These systems provide information on diverse topics of concern and convenience to the driver, such as routing and navigation, emergency and collision warnings, and a variety of motorists services, or yellow pages functions. Most of these systems are being developed and installed in isolation from each other, with separate means of gathering the information and of displaying it to the driver. The current lack of coordination among on-board systems threatens to create a situation in which different messages on separate displays will be competing with each other for the drivers attention. Urgent messages may go unnoticed, and the number of messages may distract the driver from the most critical task of controlling the vehicle. Thus, without good human factors design and engineering for integrating multiple systems in the vehicle, consumers may find ITS systems confusing and frustrating to use. The current state of the art in human factors research and design for in-vehicle systems has a number of fundamental gaps. Some of these gaps were identified during the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative Human Factors Technology Workshop, sponsored by the US Department of Transportation, in Troy, Michigan, December 10--11, 1997. One task for workshop participants was to identify needed research areas or topics relating to in-vehicle human factors. The top ten unmet research needs from this workshop are presented. Many of these gaps in human factors research knowledge indicate the need for standardization in the functioning of interfaces for safety-related devices such as collision avoidance systems (CAS) and adaptive cruise controls (ACC). Such standards and guidelines will serve to make

  9. Vehicle underbody fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz; McCallen, Rose

    2010-11-09

    A vehicle underbody fairing apparatus for reducing aerodynamic drag caused by a vehicle wheel assembly, by reducing the size of a recirculation zone formed under the vehicle body immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly. The fairing body has a tapered aerodynamic surface that extends from a front end to a rear end of the fairing body with a substantially U-shaped cross-section that tapers in both height and width. Fasteners or other mounting devices secure the fairing body to an underside surface of the vehicle body, so that the front end is immediately downstream of the vehicle wheel assembly and a bottom section of the tapered aerodynamic surface rises towards the underside surface as it extends in a downstream direction.

  10. Enveloping Aerodynamic Decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Kerry T. (Inventor); Aaron, Kim M. (Inventor); McRonald, Angus D. (Inventor); Gates, Kristin L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An inflatable aerodynamic deceleration method and system is provided for use with an atmospheric entry payload. The inflatable aerodynamic decelerator includes an inflatable envelope and an inflatant, wherein the inflatant is configured to fill the inflatable envelope to an inflated state such that the inflatable envelope surrounds the atmospheric entry payload, causing aerodynamic forces to decelerate the atmospheric entry payload.

  11. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed. PMID:27973431

  12. Integrated operation of electric vehicles and renewable generation in a smart distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram; Siano, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The contribution of electric vehicles to provide the reserve capacity is analyzed. • Decentralized energy and reserve scheduling in a distribution system is presented. • The integrated operation of renewable generation and electric vehicles is proposed. - Abstract: Distribution system complexity is increasing mainly due to technological innovation, renewable Distributed Generation (DG) and responsive loads. This complexity makes difficult the monitoring, control and operation of distribution networks for Distribution System Operators (DSOs). In order to cope with this complexity, a novel method for the integrated operational planning of a distribution system is presented in this paper. The method introduces the figure of the aggregator, conceived as an intermediate agent between end-users and DSOs. In the proposed method, energy and reserve scheduling is carried out by both aggregators and DSO. Moreover, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as responsive loads that can participate in ancillary service programs by providing reserve to the system. The efficiency of the proposed method is evaluated on an 84-bus distribution test system. Simulation results show that the integrated scheduling of EVs and renewable generators can mitigate the negative effects related to the uncertainty of renewable generation

  13. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-12-12

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  14. Multi-agents Based Modelling for Distribution Network Operation with Electric Vehicle Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Zong, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EV) can become integral part of a smart grid because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. To integrate EVs smoothly into the power systems, a multi-agents system (MAS) with hierarchical organization structure...... and its role is to manage the distribution network safely by avoiding grid congestions and using congestion prices to coordinate the energy schedule of VPPs. VPP agents belong to the middle level and their roles are to manage the charge periods of the EVs. EV agents sit in the bottom level...

  15. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in a regional wind-thermal power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeransson, Lisa; Karlsson, Sten; Johnsson, Filip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates consequences of integrating plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a wind-thermal power system supplied by one quarter of wind power and three quarters of thermal generation. Four different PHEV integration strategies, with different impacts on the total electric load profile, have been investigated. The study shows that PHEVs can reduce the CO 2 -emissions from the power system if actively integrated, whereas a passive approach to PHEV integration (i.e. letting people charge the car at will) is likely to result in an increase in emissions compared to a power system without PHEV load. The reduction in emissions under active PHEV integration strategies is due to a reduction in emissions related to thermal plant start-ups and part load operation. Emissions of the power sector are reduced with up to 4.7% compared to a system without PHEVs, according to the simulations. Allocating this emission reduction to the PHEV electricity consumption only, and assuming that the vehicles in electric mode is about 3 times as energy efficient as standard gasoline operation, total emissions from PHEVs would be less than half the emissions of a standard car, when running in electric mode.

  16. An Integrated Multifunctional Bidirectional AC/DC and DC/DC Converter for Electric Vehicles Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an on-board vehicular battery charger that integrates bidirectional AC/DC converter and DC/DC converter to achieve high power density for application in electric vehicles (EVs. The integrated charger is able to transfer electrical energy between the battery pack and the electric traction system and to function as an AC/DC battery charger. The integrated charger topology is presented and the design of passive components is discussed. The control schemes are developed for motor drive system and battery-charging system with a power pulsation reduction circuit. Simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink and experiments on a 30-kW motor drive and 3.3-kW AC/DC charging prototype validate the performance of the proposed technology. In addition, power losses, efficiency comparison and thermal stress for the integrated charger are illustrated. The results of the analyses show the validity of the advanced integrated charger for electric vehicles.

  17. A High-Power Wireless Charging System Development and Integration for a Toyota RAV4 Electric Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Seiber, Larry Eugene [ORNL; White, Cliff P [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Several wireless charging methods are underdevelopment or available as an aftermarket option in the light-duty automotive market. However, there are not many studies detailing the vehicle integrations, particularly a complete vehicle integration with higher power levels. This paper presents the development, implementation, and vehicle integration of a high-power (>10 kW) wireless power transfer (WPT)-based electric vehicle (EV) charging system for a Toyota RAV4 vehicle. The power stages of the system are introduced with the design specifications and control systems including the active front-end rectifier with power factor correction (PFC), high frequency power inverter, high frequency isolation transformer, coupling coils, vehicle side full-bridge rectifier and filter, and the vehicle battery. The operating principles of the control, communications, and protection systems are also presented in addition to the alignment and the driver interface system. The physical limitations of the system are also defined that would prevent the system operating at higher levels. The experiments are carried out using the integrated vehicle and the results obtained to demonstrate the system performance including the stage-by-stage efficiencies with matched and interoperable primary and secondary coils.

  18. A novel integrated chassis controller for full drive-by-wire vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pan; Tomizuka, Masayoshi; Zong, Changfu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a systematic design with multiple hierarchical layers is adopted in the integrated chassis controller for full drive-by-wire vehicles. A reference model and the optimal preview acceleration driver model are utilised in the driver control layer to describe and realise the driver's anticipation of the vehicle's handling characteristics, respectively. Both the sliding mode control and terminal sliding mode control techniques are employed in the vehicle motion control (MC) layer to determine the MC efforts such that better tracking performance can be attained. In the tyre force allocation layer, a polygonal simplification method is proposed to deal with the constraints of the tyre adhesive limits efficiently and effectively, whereby the load transfer due to both roll and pitch is also taken into account which directly affects the constraints. By calculating the motor torque and steering angle of each wheel in the executive layer, the total workload of four wheels is minimised during normal driving, whereas the MC efforts are maximised in extreme handling conditions. The proposed controller is validated through simulation to improve vehicle stability and handling performance in both open- and closed-loop manoeuvres.

  19. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  20. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  1. Integrated guidance and control design of a flight vehicle with side-window detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu ZHENG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the guidance and control problem of a flight vehicle with side-window detection. In order to guarantee the target remaining in the seeker's sight of view, the line of sight and the attitude of the flight vehicle should be under some constraints caused by the side-window, which leads to coupling between the guidance and the attitude dynamics model. To deal with the side-window constraints and the coupling, a novel Integrated Guidance and Control (IGC design approach is proposed. Firstly, the relative motion equations are derived in the body-Line of Sight (LOS coordinate system. And the guidance and control problem of the flight vehicle is formulated into an IGC problem with state constraints. Then, based on the singular perturbation method, the IGC problem is decomposed into the control design of the quasi-steady-state subsystem and the boundary-layer subsystem which can be designed separately. Finally, the receding horizon control is applied to the control design for the two subsystems. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Keywords: Integrated guidance and control, Receding horizon control, Side-window detection, Singular perturbation, Terminal guidance

  2. Experimental Verification of a Vehicle Localization based on Moving Horizon Estimation Integrating LRS and Odometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaeta, Kuniyuki; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma

    2016-01-01

    Localization is an important function for the robots to complete various tasks. For localization, both internal and external sensors are used generally. The odometry is widely used as the method based on the internal sensors, but it suffers from cumulative errors. In the method using the laser range sensor (LRS) which is a kind of external sensor, the estimation accuracy is affected by the number of available measurement data. In our previous study, we applied moving horizon estimation (MHE) to the vehicle localization for integrating the LRS measurement data and the odometry information where the weightings of them are balanced relatively adapting to the number of the available LRS measurement data. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed localization method is verified through both numerical simulations and experiments using a 1/10 scale vehicle. The verification is conducted in the situations where the vehicle position cannot be localized uniquely on a certain direction using the LRS measurement data only. We achieve accurate localization even in such a situation by integrating the odometry and LRS based on MHE. We also show the superiority of the method through comparisons with a method using extended Kalman filter (EKF). (paper)

  3. A large-scale computer facility for computational aerodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, F.R.; Balhaus, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The combination of computer system technology and numerical modeling have advanced to the point that computational aerodynamics has emerged as an essential element in aerospace vehicle design methodology. To provide for further advances in modeling of aerodynamic flow fields, NASA has initiated at the Ames Research Center the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program. The objective of the Program is to develop a leading-edge, large-scale computer facility, and make it available to NASA, DoD, other Government agencies, industry and universities as a necessary element in ensuring continuing leadership in computational aerodynamics and related disciplines. The Program will establish an initial operational capability in 1986 and systematically enhance that capability by incorporating evolving improvements in state-of-the-art computer system technologies as required to maintain a leadership role. This paper briefly reviews the present and future requirements for computational aerodynamics and discusses the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Program objectives, computational goals, and implementation plans

  4. Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

    1953-01-01

    Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

  5. Cloud-based shaft torque estimation for electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Guichen

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve oscillation damping control performance as well as gear shift quality of electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system, a cloud-based shaft torque estimation scheme is proposed in this paper by using measurable motor and wheel speed signals transmitted by wireless network. It can help reduce computational burden of onboard controllers and also relief network bandwidth requirement of individual vehicle. Considering possible delays during signal wireless transmission, delay-dependent full-order observer design is proposed to estimate the shaft torque in cloud server. With these random delays modeled by using homogenous Markov chain, robust H∞ performance is adopted to minimize the effect of wireless network-induced delays, signal measurement noise as well as system modeling uncertainties on shaft torque estimation error. Observer parameters are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities, and simulation results using acceleration test and tip-in, tip-out test demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed shaft torque observer design.

  6. Low Reynolds number airfoil aerodynamic loads determination via line integral of velocity obtained with particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.; Su, Y.Y. [McGill University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The small magnitude lift forces generated by both a NACA 0012 airfoil and a thin flat plate at Re = 29,000 and 54,000 were determined through the line integral of velocity, obtained with particle image velocimetry, via the application of the Kutta-Joukowsky theorem. Surface pressure measurements of the NACA0012 airfoil were also obtained to validate the lift coefficient C{sub l}. The bound circulation was found to be insensitive to the size and aspect ratio of the rectangular integration loop for pre-stall angles. The present C{sub l} data were also found to agree very well with the surface pressure-determined lift coefficient for pre-stall conditions. A large variation in C{sub l} with the loop size and aspect ratio for post-stall conditions was, however, observed. Nevertheless, the present flat-plate C{sub l} data were also found to collectively agree with the published force-balance measurements at small angles of attack, despite the large disparity exhibited among the various published data at high angles. Finally, the ensemble-averaged wake velocity profiles were also used to compute the drag coefficient and, subsequently, the lift-to-drag ratio. (orig.)

  7. Aerodynamic Drag Scoping Work.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voskuilen, Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Erickson, Lindsay Crowl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knaus, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This memo summarizes the aerodynamic drag scoping work done for Goodyear in early FY18. The work is to evaluate the feasibility of using Sierra/Low-Mach (Fuego) for drag predictions of rolling tires, particularly focused on the effects of tire features such as lettering, sidewall geometry, rim geometry, and interaction with the vehicle body. The work is broken into two parts. Part 1 consisted of investigation of a canonical validation problem (turbulent flow over a cylinder) using existing tools with different meshes and turbulence models. Part 2 involved calculating drag differences over plate geometries with simple features (ridges and grooves) defined by Goodyear of approximately the size of interest for a tire. The results of part 1 show the level of noise to be expected in a drag calculation and highlight the sensitivity of absolute predictions to model parameters such as mesh size and turbulence model. There is 20-30% noise in the experimental measurements on the canonical cylinder problem, and a similar level of variation between different meshes and turbulence models. Part 2 shows that there is a notable difference in the predicted drag on the sample plate geometries, however, the computational cost of extending the LES model to a full tire would be significant. This cost could be reduced by implementation of more sophisticated wall and turbulence models (e.g. detached eddy simulations - DES) and by focusing the mesh refinement on feature subsets with the goal of comparing configurations rather than absolute predictivity for the whole tire.

  8. A program to compute three-dimensional subsonic unsteady aerodynamic characteristics using the doublet lattic method, L216 (DUBFLX). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, M.; Harrison, B. A.

    1979-01-01

    The program input presented consists of configuration geometry, aerodynamic parameters, and modal data; output includes element geometry, pressure difference distributions, integrated aerodynamic coefficients, stability derivatives, generalized aerodynamic forces, and aerodynamic influence coefficient matrices. Optionally, modal data may be input on magnetic file (tape or disk), and certain geometric and aerodynamic output may be saved for subsequent use.

  9. Combustion Efficiency, Flameout Operability Limits and General Design Optimization for Integrated Ramjet-Scramjet Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbagwu, Chukwuka Chijindu

    High speed, air-breathing hypersonic vehicles encounter a varied range of engine and operating conditions traveling along cruise/ascent missions at high altitudes and dynamic pressures. Variations of ambient pressure, temperature, Mach number, and dynamic pressure can affect the combustion conditions in conflicting ways. Computations were performed to understand propulsion tradeoffs that occur when a hypersonic vehicle travels along an ascent trajectory. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition methods were applied for the reduction of flamelet chemistry data in an improved combustor model. Two operability limits are set by requirements that combustion efficiency exceed selected minima and flameout be avoided. A method for flameout prediction based on empirical Damkohler number measurements is presented. Operability limits are plotted that define allowable flight corridors on an altitude versus flight Mach number performance map; fixed-acceleration ascent trajectories were considered for this study. Several design rules are also presented for a hypersonic waverider with a dual-mode scramjet engine. Focus is placed on ''vehicle integration" design, differing from previous ''propulsion-oriented" design optimization. The well-designed waverider falls between that of an aircraft (high lift-to-drag ratio) and a rocket (high thrust-to-drag ratio). 84 variations of an X-43-like vehicle were run using the MASIV scramjet reduced order model to examine performance tradeoffs. Informed by the vehicle design study, variable-acceleration trajectory optimization was performed for three constant dynamic pressures ascents. Computed flameout operability limits were implemented as additional constraints to the optimization problem. The Michigan-AFRL Scramjet In-Vehicle (MASIV) waverider model includes finite-rate chemistry, applied scaling laws for 3-D turbulent mixing, ram-scram transition and an empirical value of the flameout Damkohler number. A reduced-order modeling approach is justified

  10. NASA Iced Aerodynamics and Controls Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Gene

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the state of current research in the area of aerodynamics and aircraft control with ice conditions by the Aviation Safety Program, part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls Project (IRAC). Included in the presentation is a overview of the modeling efforts. The objective of the modeling is to develop experimental and computational methods to model and predict aircraft response during adverse flight conditions, including icing. The Aircraft icing modeling efforts includes the Ice-Contaminated Aerodynamics Modeling, which examines the effects of ice contamination on aircraft aerodynamics, and CFD modeling of ice-contaminated aircraft aerodynamics, and Advanced Ice Accretion Process Modeling which examines the physics of ice accretion, and works on computational modeling of ice accretions. The IRAC testbed, a Generic Transport Model (GTM) and its use in the investigation of the effects of icing on its aerodynamics is also reviewed. This has led to a more thorough understanding and models, both theoretical and empirical of icing physics and ice accretion for airframes, advanced 3D ice accretion prediction codes, CFD methods for iced aerodynamics and better understanding of aircraft iced aerodynamics and its effects on control surface effectiveness.

  11. Integrated Vehicle Health Management Project-Modeling and Simulation for Wireless Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.; Mueller, Carl H.; Griner, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the efforts in modeling and simulating electromagnetic transmission and reception as in a wireless sensor network through a realistic wing model for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management project at the Glenn Research Center. A computer model in a standard format for an S-3 Viking aircraft was obtained, converted to a Microwave Studio software format, and scaled to proper dimensions in Microwave Studio. The left wing portion of the model was used with two antenna models, one transmitting and one receiving, to simulate radio frequency transmission through the wing. Transmission and reception results were inconclusive.

  12. Impact and Cost Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Integration on Medium Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin; Pineau, Ulysse

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the impact of electric vehicle (EV) integration on medium voltage (MV) distribution networks and the cost evaluation of replacing the overloaded grid components. A number of EV charging scenarios have been studied. A 10 kV grid from the Bornholm Island...... in the city area has been used to carry out case studies. The case study results show that the secondary transformers are the bottleneck of the MV distribution networks and the increase of EV penetration leads to the overloading of secondary transformers. The cost of the transformer replacement has been...

  13. Multi-agent based modeling for electric vehicle integration in a distribution network operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a multi-agent based modeling technology for simulating and operating a hierarchical energy management of a power distribution system with focus on EVs integration. The proposed multi-agent system consists of four types of agents: i) Distribution system...... operator (DSO) technical agent and ii) DSO market agents that both belong to the top layer of the hierarchy and their roles are to manage the distribution network by avoiding grid congestions and using congestion prices to coordinate the energy scheduled; iii) Electric vehicle virtual power plant agents...

  14. The Integration of GPS Navigator Device with Vehicles Tracking System for Rental Cars Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Omarah O. Alharaki; Fahad S. Alaieri; Akram M. Zeki

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to integrate the GPS tracking system (tracking device and web-based application) with GPS navigator for rental cars, allowing the company to use various applications to monitor and manage the cars. This is enable the firms and customers to communicate with each other via the GPS navigator. The system should be developed by applying new features in GPS tracking application devices in vehicles. This paper also proposes new features that can be applied to the GPS Navi...

  15. Integration of passive driver-assistance systems with on-board vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V. V.; Poddubko, S. N.

    2018-02-01

    Implementation in OIAS such functions as driver’s state monitoring and high-precision calculation of the current navigation coordinates of the vehicle, modularity of the OIAS construction and the possible increase in the functionality through integration with other onboard systems has a promising development future. The development of intelligent transport systems and their components allows setting and solving fundamentally new tasks for the safety of human-to-machine transport systems, and the automatic analysis of heterogeneous information flows provides a synergistic effect. The analysis of cross-modal information exchange in human-machine transport systems, from uniform methodological points of view, will allow us, with an accuracy acceptable for solving applied problems, to form in real time an integrated assessment of the state of the basic components of the human-to-machine system and the dynamics in changing situation-centered environment, including the external environment, in their interrelations.

  16. Numerical Modeling of Pressurization of Cryogenic Propellant Tank for Integrated Vehicle Fluid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok K.; LeClair, Andre C.; Hedayat, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of pressurization of a cryogenic propellant tank for the Integrated Vehicle Fluid (IVF) system using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The IVF propulsion system, being developed by United Launch Alliance, uses boiloff propellants to drive thrusters for the reaction control system as well as to run internal combustion engines to develop power and drive compressors to pressurize propellant tanks. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been running tests to verify the functioning of the IVF system using a flight tank. GFSSP, a finite volume based flow network analysis software developed at MSFC, has been used to develop an integrated model of the tank and the pressurization system. This paper presents an iterative algorithm for converging the interface boundary conditions between different component models of a large system model. The model results have been compared with test data.

  17. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  18. Integration Assessment of Visiting Vehicle Induced Electrical Charging of the International Space Station Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leonard; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Galofaro, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) undergoes electrical charging in low Earth orbit (LEO) due to positively biased, exposed conductors on solar arrays that collect electrical charges from the space plasma. Exposed solar array conductors predominately collect negatively charged electrons and thus drive the metal ISS structure electrical ground to a negative floating potential (FP) relative to plasma. This FP is variable in location and time as a result of local ionospheric conditions. ISS motion through Earth s magnetic field creates an addition inductive voltage up to 20 positive and negative volts across ISS structure depending on its attitude and location in orbit. ISS Visiting Vehicles (VVs), such as the planned Orion crew exploration vehicle, contribute to the ISS plasma charging processes. Upon physical contact with ISS, the current collection properties of VVs combine with ISS. This is an ISS integration concern as FP must be controlled to minimize arcing of ISS surfaces and ensure proper management of extra vehicular activity crewman shock hazards. This report is an assessment of ISS induced charging from docked Orion vehicles employing negatively grounded, 130 volt class, UltraFlex (ATK Space Systems) solar arrays. To assess plasma electron current collection characteristics, Orion solar cell test coupons were constructed and subjected to plasma chamber current collection measurements. During these tests, coupon solar cells were biased between 0 and 120 V while immersed in a simulated LEO plasma. Tests were performed using several different simulated LEO plasma densities and temperatures. These data and associated theoretical scaling of plasma properties, were combined in a numerical model which was integrated into the Boeing Plasma Interaction Model. It was found that the solar array design for Orion will not affect the ISS FP by more than about 2 V during worst case charging conditions. This assessment also motivated a trade study to determine

  19. Electro-thermal analysis and integration issues of lithium ion battery for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, L.H.; Ye, Y.; Tay, A.A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled the electrical and thermal behavior of the Li-ion battery. • We validated the simulation results with experimental studies. • We compared the thermal performance of different size of cylindrical cells. • We investigated the integration issues of cylindrical cells into battery pack. - Abstract: Electrical and thermal characteristics of lithium-ion battery packs in electric vehicles in different operating conditions are important in order to design the battery pack thermal management system. In this work, electrical and thermal behaviors of different size of LiFePO 4 cylindrical cells are investigated under various operating conditions. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data under various operating modes. Due to the large thermal resistance of layered active material in a Li-ion cell, the temperature difference in the radial direction is significantly correlated with a diameter of cell and I t -rates. Compared with natural convection, strong forced convection will reduce the temperature uniformity in the cell and accelerate the thermal aging rate. Lastly, integration issues of the cells into a battery pack are discussed from mechanical, electrical, thermal, control and monitoring, manufacturing and maintenance aspects. These issues could impact the performance, cost, driving range and life cycle of the battery pack in electric vehicles

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel System Integrity Research : Electrical Isolation Test Procedure Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) establish minimum levels for vehicle safety, and manufacturers of motor vehicle and equipment items must comply with these standards. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) contra...

  1. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  2. Integrated traction control strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with improvement of economy and longitudinal driving stability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS) for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by means of the optimized torque distribution. On low adhesion roads, a sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm is implemented to guarantee the wheel slip ratio around the optimal slip ratio po...

  3. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge circuit suffers from ripple power pulsating at second-order line frequency, and a scheme of active ripple compensation circuit has been explored to solve this second-order ripple problem, in which a pair of power switches shared traction mode, a ripple energy storage capacitor, and an energy transfer inductor. Simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink validated the eligibility of the proposed topology. The integrated charger can work as a 70 kW motor drive circuit or a converter with an active ripple compensation circuit for 3 kW charging the battery. The impact of the proposed topology and control strategy on the integrated charger power losses, efficiency, power density, and thermal performance has also been analysed and simulated.

  4. Experimental investigation on an integrated thermal management system with heat pipe heat exchanger for electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Huiming; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Guiying; Qin, Fei; Tian, Changqing; Yan, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated thermal management system is proposed for electric vehicle. • The parallel branch of battery chiller can supply additional cooling capacity. • Heat pipe performance on preheating mode is better than that on cooling mode. • Heat pipe heat exchanger is a feasible choice for battery thermal management. - Abstract: An integrated thermal management system combining a heat pipe battery cooling/preheating system with the heat pump air conditioning system is presented to fulfill the comprehensive energy utilization for electric vehicles. A test bench with battery heat pipe heat exchanger and heat pump air conditioning for a regular five-chair electric car is set up to research the performance of this integrated system under different working conditions. The investigation results show that as the system is designed to meet the basic cabinet cooling demand, the additional parallel branch of battery chiller is a good way to solve the battery group cooling problem, which can supply about 20% additional cooling capacity without input power increase. Its coefficient of performance for cabinet heating is around 1.34 at −20 °C out-car temperature and 20 °C in-car temperature. The specific heat of the battery group is tested about 1.24 kJ/kg °C. There exists a necessary temperature condition for the heat pipe heat exchanger to start action. The heat pipe heat transfer performance is around 0.87 W/°C on cooling mode and 1.11 W/°C on preheating mode. The gravity role makes the heat transfer performance of the heat pipe on preheating mode better than that on cooling mode.

  5. Single-Phase Boost Inverter-Based Electric Vehicle Charger With Integrated Vehicle to Grid Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe Abeywardana, Damith Buddika; Acuna, Pablo; Hredzak, Branislav

    2018-01-01

    Vehicle to grid (V2G) reactive power compensation using electric vehicle (EV) onboard chargers helps to ensure grid power quality by achieving unity power factor operation. However, the use of EVs for V2G reactive power compensation increases the second-order harmonic ripple current component...... from the grid, exposes the EV battery to these undesirable ripple current components for a longer period and discharges the battery due to power conversion losses. This paper presents a way to provide V2G reactive power compensation through a boost inverter-based single stage EV charger and a DC...

  6. A spring-mass-damper system dynamics-based driver-vehicle integrated model for representing heterogeneous traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munigety, Caleb Ronald

    2018-04-01

    The traditional traffic microscopic simulation models consider driver and vehicle as a single unit to represent the movements of drivers in a traffic stream. Due to this very fact, the traditional car-following models have the driver behavior related parameters, but ignore the vehicle related aspects. This approach is appropriate for homogeneous traffic conditions where car is the major vehicle type. However, in heterogeneous traffic conditions where multiple vehicle types are present, it becomes important to incorporate the vehicle related parameters exclusively to account for the varying dynamic and static characteristics. Thus, this paper presents a driver-vehicle integrated model hinged on the principles involved in physics-based spring-mass-damper mechanical system. While the spring constant represents the driver’s aggressiveness, the damping constant and the mass component take care of the stability and size/weight related aspects, respectively. The proposed model when tested, behaved pragmatically in representing the vehicle-type dependent longitudinal movements of vehicles.

  7. Simulation and control element design for a coupled aerodynamic/magnetic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E

    1982-11-01

    Aerodynamic effects are among the many problems raised by the Maglev technique and its industrial application, but until recently they were only regarded as disturbances. Theoretical studies as well as model experiments in wind and water tunnels were only interested in optimizing the shape of the vehicle cell. The most important goals of development were low sensitivity to side-wind and a neutral aerodynamic design of the vehicle nose. The present paper investigates the aerodynamic effects by means of extended models. Aerodynamic effects on the elevation control system are considered by a suitable control element structure.

  8. Integrated control of lateral and vertical vehicle dynamics based on multi-agent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Chen, Long; Yun, Chaochun; Jiang, Haobin; Chen, Yuexia

    2014-03-01

    The existing research of the integrated chassis control mainly focuses on the different evaluation indexes and control strategy. Among the different evaluation indexes, the comprehensive properties are usually not considered based on the non-linear superposition principle. But, the control strategy has some shortages on tyre model with side-slip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load and velocity. In this paper, based on belief, desire and intention(BDI)-agent model framework, the TYRE agent, electric power steering(EPS) agent and active suspension system(ASS) agent are proposed. In the system(SYS) agent, the coordination mechanism is employed to manage interdependences and conflicts among other agents, so as to improve the flexibility, adaptability, and robustness of the global control system. Due to the existence of the simulation demand of dynamic performance, the vehicle multi-body dynamics model is established by SIMPACK. And then the co-simulation analysis is conducted to evaluate the proposed multi-agent system(MAS) controller. The simulation results demonstrate that the MAS has good effect on the performance of EPS and ASS. Meantime, the better road feeling for the driver is provided considering the multiple and complex driving traffic. Finally, the MAS rapid control prototyping is built to conduct the real vehicle test. The test results are consistent to the simulation results, which verifies the correctness of simulation. The proposed research ensures the driving safety, enhances the handling stability, and improves the ride comfort.

  9. Passive Sensor Integration for Vehicle Self-Localization in Urban Traffic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes an accurate vehicular positioning system which can achieve lane-level performance in urban canyons. Multiple passive sensors, which include Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers, onboard cameras and inertial sensors, are integrated in the proposed system. As the main source for the localization, the GNSS technique suffers from Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS propagation and multipath effects in urban canyons. This paper proposes to employ a novel GNSS positioning technique in the integration. The employed GNSS technique reduces the multipath and NLOS effects by using the 3D building map. In addition, the inertial sensor can describe the vehicle motion, but has a drift problem as time increases. This paper develops vision-based lane detection, which is firstly used for controlling the drift of the inertial sensor. Moreover, the lane keeping and changing behaviors are extracted from the lane detection function, and further reduce the lateral positioning error in the proposed localization system. We evaluate the integrated localization system in the challenging city urban scenario. The experiments demonstrate the proposed method has sub-meter accuracy with respect to mean positioning error.

  10. Aerodynamic models for high-amplitude, low reynolds flapping airfoils

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Tirado, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a new aerodynamic model of insect-like flapping flight for micro air vehicles has been developed. The New Predicted Aerodynamic Model (NPAM) was based on the model described by Weis-Fogh model in Energetics of Hovering Flight in Hummingbirds and Drosophila. In order to achieved the NPAM some variations were introduced regarding the geometry of the problem under study and also some improvements was done to the theory developed by Weis-Fogh. To have the required ...

  11. Driving pattern analysis of Nordic region based on the national travel surveys for electric vehicle integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Christensen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    to the power system. This paper presents a methodology to transform driving behavior of persons into the one of cars in order to analyze the driving pattern of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys. In the proposed methodology, a statistical process is used to obtain the driving behavior......EVs show great potential to cope with the intermittency of renewable energy sources (RES) and provide demand side flexibility required by the smart grid.On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. Large scale integration of EVs will probably have substantial impacts...... of cars by grouping the survey respondents according to the driving license number and car number and mapping the households with similar characteristics. The proposed methodology was used to carry out the driving pattern analysis in the Nordic region. The detailed driving requirements and the charging...

  12. Numerical Modeling of an Integrated Vehicle Fluids System Loop for Pressurizing a Cryogenic Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, A. C.; Hedayat, A.; Majumdar, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of the pressurization loop of the Integrated Vehicle Fluids (IVF) system using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The IVF propulsion system, being developed by United Launch Alliance to reduce system weight and enhance reliability, uses boiloff propellants to drive thrusters for the reaction control system as well as to run internal combustion engines to develop power and drive compressors to pressurize propellant tanks. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted tests to verify the functioning of the IVF system using a flight-like tank. GFSSP, a finite volume based flow network analysis software developed at MSFC, has been used to support the test program. This paper presents the simulation of three different test series, comparison of numerical prediction and test data and a novel method of presenting data in a dimensionless form. The paper also presents a methodology of implementing a compressor map in a system level code.

  13. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles - Energy systems analysis and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, K.

    2013-09-15

    This PhD investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing research, the main focus is put on individual heat pumps in the residential sector (one-family houses) and the possibilities for flexible operation, using the heat storage options available. Several energy systems analyses are performed using the energy system models, Balmorel, developed at the former TSO, ElkraftSystem, and, EnergyPLAN, developed at Aalborg University. The Danish energy system towards 2030, with wind power penetrations of up to 60 %, is used as a case study in most of the analyses. Both models have been developed further, resulting in an improved representation of individual heat pumps and heat storages. An extensive model add-on for Balmorel renders it possible to optimise investment and operation of individual heat pumps and different types of heat storages, in integration with the energy system. Total costs of the energy system are minimised in the optimisation. The add-on incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various different heat storage options: intelligent heat storage in the building structure for houses with radiator heating and floor heating, respectively, heat accumulation tanks on the space heating circuit, as well as hot water tanks. In EnergyPLAN, some of the heat storage options have been modelled in a technical optimisation that minimises fuel consumption of the energy system and utilises as much wind power as possible. The energy systems analyses reveal that in terms of supporting wind power integration, the installation of individual heat pumps is an important step, while adding heat storages to the heat pumps is less influential. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only moderate system benefits can be gained. Hereof, the main system benefit is that the need for peak/reserve capacity investments can be reduced through peak load shaving; in

  14. A New Algorithm for ABS/GPS Integration Based on Fuzzy-Logic in Vehicle Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amin Zadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available GPS based vehicle navigation systems have difficulties in tracking vehicles in urban canyons due to poor satellite availability. ABS (Antilock Brake System Navigation System consists of self-contained optical encoders mounted on vehicle wheels that can continuously provide accurate short-term positioning information. In this paper, a new concept regarding GPS/ABS integration, based on Fuzzy Logic is presented. The proposed algorithm is used to identify GPS position accuracy based on environment and vehicle dynamic knowledge. The GPS is used as reference during the time it is in a good condition and replaced by ABS positioning system when GPS information is unreliable. We compare our proposed algorithm with other common algorithm in real environment. Our results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the stability and reliability of ABS/GPS navigation system.

  15. Aerodynamic loads on buses due to crosswind gusts: extended analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugge, Lars; Juhlin, Magnus

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this work is to use inverse simulations on measured vehicle data in order to estimate the aerodynamic loads on a bus when exposed to crosswind situations. Tyre forces, driver input, wind velocity and vehicle response were measured on a typical coach when subjected to natural crosswind gusts. Based on these measurements and a detailed MBS vehicle model, the aerodynamic loads were estimated through inverse simulations. In order to estimate the lift force, roll and pitch moments in addition to the lateral force and yaw moment, the simulation model was extended by also incorporating the estimation of the vertical road disturbances. The proposed method enables the estimation of aerodynamic loads due to crosswind gusts without using a full scale wind tunnel adapted for crosswind excitation.

  16. Aerodynamics and Hovering Control of LTA Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    not at all the usual terminology for Magnus Force which is usually thought of as arising from viscous effects when cylinder or sphere is rotating and...Number for Circular Cylinders 9 Ratio of the Drag Coefficient of a Circular Cylinder 29 of Finite Length to That of a Cylincer of Infinite Length as...Application of Non-Linear Drag 82 30 Directional Stability Derivative 83 31 Center of Lateral Pressure Location 84 32 Dihedral Effect Derivative 85 v Figures

  17. Efficient integration of plug-in electric vehicles via reconfigurable microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousi-Fard, Abdollah; Khodaei, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the viability of the reconfigurable microgrids (RMGs) in facilitating the integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The reconfiguration ability of microgrids, which is enabled by the use of remotely controlled switches (RCSs), will support the high penetration of PEVs and renewable distributed generators (DGs) while reducing the total operation cost and potentially enhance microgrid reliability. The objective of the proposed optimal scheduling problem is to minimize the total cost of power supply by distributed energy resources (DERs) and upstream network energy exchange, battery degradation cost in PEVs, cost of switching during the reconfiguration, and expected customer interruption costs as a reliability index. To address the high level of the uncertainties in the problem, a scenario-based stochastic framework is devised to capture the uncertainties associated with the charging and discharging values of PEVs, number of PEVs in each fleet, time of the daily trips for PEVs, hourly load consumption, hourly output power of renewable DGs, and hourly market price. The satisfying performance and merits of the proposed model are examined on a test microgrid. - Highlights: • Introduction of reconfigurable microgrids for providing flexible structure to manage electric loads. • Assessing the effects of the reconfiguration on the integration of PEVs. • Introduction of a stochastic framework for reducing operation and reliability costs in microgrids. • Introduction of a smart charge/discharge scheme for PEVs based on V2G during the reconfiguration.

  18. Integration of sampling based battery state of health estimation method in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkurt, Celil; Camci, Fatih; Atamuradov, Vepa; Odorry, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of a prototype system with full charge discharge cycling capability. • Presentation of SoH estimation results for systems degraded in the lab. • Discussion of integration alternatives of the presented method in EVs. • Simulation model based on presented SoH estimation for a real EV battery system. • Optimization of number of battery cells to be selected for SoH test. - Abstract: Battery cost is one of the crucial parameters affecting high deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs) negatively. Accurate State of Health (SoH) estimation plays an important role in reducing the total ownership cost, availability, and safety of the battery avoiding early disposal of the batteries and decreasing unexpected failures. A circuit design for SoH estimation in a battery system that bases on selected battery cells and its integration to EVs are presented in this paper. A prototype microcontroller has been developed and used for accelerated aging tests for a battery system. The data collected in the lab tests have been utilized to simulate a real EV battery system. Results of accelerated aging tests and simulation have been presented in the paper. The paper also discusses identification of the best number of battery cells to be selected for SoH estimation test. In addition, different application options of the presented approach for EV batteries have been discussed in the paper.

  19. New Integrated Testing System for the Validation of Vehicle-Snow Interaction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    are individual wheel speeds, accelerator pedal position, vehicle speed, yaw rate, lateral acceleration, steering wheel angle and brake ...forces and moments at each wheel center, vehicle body slip angle , speed, acceleration, yaw rate, roll, and pitch. The profilometer has a 3-D scanning...Stability Program. The test vehicle provides measurements that include three forces and moments at each wheel center, vehicle body slip angle , speed

  20. Integration of Vehicle-to-Grid in Western Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    capabilities of large power plants in the future, demands for new balancing solutions like Vehicle-to-Grid systems. In this article, aggregated electric vehicle based battery storage representing a Vehicle-to-Grid system is modelled for the use in long term dynamic power system simulations. Further...... Transmission) control areas are significantly minimized by the faster up and down regulation characteristics of the electric vehicle battery storage....

  1. Optimal Vehicle Design Using the Integrated System and Cost Modeling Tool Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Space Vehicle Costing ( ACEIT ) • New Small Sat Model Development & Production Cost O&M Cost Module  Radiation Exposure  Radiation Detector Response...Reliability OML Availability Risk l l Tools CEA, SRM Model, POST, ACEIT , Inflation Model, Rotor Blade Des, Microsoft Project, ATSV, S/1-iABP...space STK, SOAP – Specific mission • Space Vehicle Design (SMAD) • Space Vehicle Propulsion • Orbit Propagation • Space Vehicle Costing ( ACEIT ) • New

  2. Aerodynamic Flight-Test Results for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Ali, Aliyah N.; Bui, Trong T.; Ellsworth, Joel C.; Garcia, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of compliant flaps installed onto a modified Gulfstream III airplane were investigated. Analyses were performed prior to flight to predict the aerodynamic effects of the flap installation. Flight tests were conducted to gather both structural and aerodynamic data. The airplane was instrumented to collect vehicle aerodynamic data and wing pressure data. A leading-edge stagnation detection system was also installed. The data from these flights were analyzed and compared with predictions. The predictive tools compared well with flight data for small flap deflections, but differences between predictions and flight estimates were greater at larger deflections. This paper describes the methods used to examine the aerodynamics data from the flight tests and provides a discussion of the flight-test results in the areas of vehicle aerodynamics, wing sectional pressure coefficient profiles, and air data.

  3. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  4. Integrated Traction Control Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Improvement of Economy and Longitudinal Driving Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated traction control strategy (ITCS for distributed drive electric vehicles. The purpose of the proposed strategy is to improve vehicle economy and longitudinal driving stability. On high adhesion roads, economy optimization algorithm is applied to maximize motors efficiency by means of the optimized torque distribution. On low adhesion roads, a sliding mode control (SMC algorithm is implemented to guarantee the wheel slip ratio around the optimal slip ratio point to make full use of road adhesion capacity. In order to avoid the disturbance on slip ratio calculation due to the low vehicle speed, wheel rotational speed is taken as the control variable. Since the optimal slip ratio varies according to different road conditions, Bayesian hypothesis selection is utilized to estimate the road friction coefficient. Additionally, the ITCS is designed for combining the vehicle economy and stability control through three traction allocation cases: economy-based traction allocation, pedal self-correcting traction allocation and inter-axles traction allocation. Finally, simulations are conducted in CarSim and Matlab/Simulink environment. The results show that the proposed strategy effectively reduces vehicle energy consumption, suppresses wheels-skid and enhances the vehicle longitudinal stability and dynamic performance.

  5. Technical challenges for electric power industries due to grid-integrated electric vehicles in low voltage distributions: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, Ahmed M.A.; Muttaqi, Kashem M.; Sutanto, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIVs) as mobile storage systems are briefly discussed. • Comparative analysis on electric vehicles (EVs) and charging systems are provided. • It is necessary to coordinate the GIVs to minimize its impacts on power grid. • A proper load model of EVs that predicts the realistic system behavior is required. • Offering a dual tariff by grid utilities is needed as a way to reduce peak load. - Abstract: Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIVs) are promising technologies for future Smart Grid (SG) and offer the potential to reduce the environmental impact of vehicles. The large scale deployment of GIVs without proper control of the time to charge the vehicles can result in unexpected challenges. This can lead to a disruptive impact on the current power distribution systems and in particular its substantial impacts in building power energy systems. Therefore, a proper model that predicts the realistic system behavior is required to analysis the true effects of introducing GIVs in the power grid. This paper presents a review of existing studies on GIV systems, their modeling techniques and their effects on power grids. Following a brief overview of the common types of electric vehicles (EVs) with their charging systems, a review of their impact on the low voltage distribution systems will be analyzed. The comprehensive review presented in this paper reveals that the impact of GIVs on power distribution systems can be quantified using the aspects of EVs, such as vehicle penetration, charging time, charging characteristics, driving patterns, transportation network. GIV studies are expected to be more popular in future years with the development of EV technologies and the government support to electricity utilities. Thereby, these factors will reduce the cost of energy to charge EV and enhance the practical implications of GIVs

  6. Effect of static shape deformation on aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinghui; Lin, Guiping; Bu, Xueqin; Fu, Shiming; Chao, Yanmeng

    2017-07-01

    The inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (IAD), which allows heavier and larger payloads and offers flexibility in landing site selection at higher altitudes, possesses potential superiority in next generation space transport system. However, due to the flexibilities of material and structure assembly, IAD inevitably experiences surface deformation during atmospheric entry, which in turn alters the flowfield around the vehicle and leads to the variations of aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics. In the current study, the effect of the static shape deformation on the hypersonic aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of a stacked tori Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) is demonstrated and analyzed in detail by solving compressible Navier-Stokes equations with Menter's shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The deformed shape is obtained by structural modeling in the presence of maximum aerodynamic pressure during entry. The numerical results show that the undulating shape deformation makes significant difference to flow structure. In particular, the more curved outboard forebody surface results in local flow separations and reattachments in valleys, which consequently yields remarkable fluctuations of surface conditions with pressure rising in valleys yet dropping on crests while shear stress and heat flux falling in valleys yet rising on crests. Accordingly, compared with the initial (undeformed) shape, the corresponding differences of surface conditions get more striking outboard, with maximum augmentations of 379 pa, 2224 pa, and 19.0 W/cm2, i.e., 9.8%, 305.9%, and 101.6% for the pressure, shear stress and heat flux respectively. Moreover, it is found that, with the increase of angle of attack, the aerodynamic characters and surface heating vary and the aeroheating disparities are evident between the deformed and initial shape. For the deformable HIAD model investigated in this study, the more intense surface conditions and changed flight

  7. A novel technique for optimal integration of active steering and differential braking with estimation to improve vehicle directional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaeinejad, Hossein; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Rafatnia, Sadra

    2018-06-11

    This study deals with the enhancement of directional stability of vehicle which turns with high speeds on various road conditions using integrated active steering and differential braking systems. In this respect, the minimum usage of intentional asymmetric braking force to compensate the drawbacks of active steering control with small reduction of vehicle longitudinal speed is desired. To this aim, a new optimal multivariable controller is analytically developed for integrated steering and braking systems based on the prediction of vehicle nonlinear responses. A fuzzy programming extracted from the nonlinear phase plane analysis is also used for managing the two control inputs in various driving conditions. With the proposed fuzzy programming, the weight factors of the control inputs are automatically tuned and softly changed. In order to simulate a real-world control system, some required information about the system states and parameters which cannot be directly measured, are estimated using the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). Finally, simulations studies are carried out using a validated vehicle model to show the effectiveness of the proposed integrated control system in the presence of model uncertainties and estimation errors. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New Integrated Multilevel Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Flexible Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chun; Wu, Jianhua; Hu, Yihua

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multilevel converter of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) fed by a modular front-end circuit for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Several operating modes can be achieved by changing the on-off states of the switches in the front-end circuit......, the battery can be charged by the external AC source or generator when the vehicle is in standstill condition. The SRM-based PHEV can operate at different speeds by coordinating power flow from the generator and battery. Simulation in MATLAB/Simulink and experiments on a three-phase 12/8 SRM confirm...

  9. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design with Transition Prediction, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enhance aerodynamic design capabilities, Desktop Aeronautics proposes to significantly improve upon the integration (performed in Phase 1) of a new sweep/taper...

  10. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design with Transition Prediction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To enhance aerodynamic design capabilities, Desktop Aeronautics proposes to combine a new sweep/taper integrated-boundary-layer (IBL) code that includes transition...

  11. Tactical missile aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsch, Michael J. (Editor); Nielsen, Jack N. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on tactical missile aerodynamics discusses autopilot-related aerodynamic design considerations, flow visualization methods' role in the study of high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, low aspect ratio wing behavior at high angle-of-attack, supersonic airbreathing propulsion system inlet design, missile bodies with noncircular cross section and bank-to-turn maneuvering capabilities, 'waverider' supersonic cruise missile concepts and design methods, asymmetric vortex sheding phenomena from bodies-of-revolution, and swept shock wave/boundary layer interaction phenomena. Also discussed are the assessment of aerodynamic drag in tactical missiles, the analysis of supersonic missile aerodynamic heating, the 'equivalent angle-of-attack' concept for engineering analysis, the vortex cloud model for body vortex shedding and tracking, paneling methods with vorticity effects and corrections for nonlinear compressibility, the application of supersonic full potential method to missile bodies, Euler space marching methods for missiles, three-dimensional missile boundary layers, and an analysis of exhaust plumes and their interaction with missile airframes.

  12. The impact of aerodynamics on fuel consumption in railway applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan TARUS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main consequence of on air flow surrounding a moving train resides in the aerodynamic drag and a certain pressure distribution on the frontal and lateral surfaces of the vehicle. The actual value of the aerodynamic drag (if pre-determined may lead to a more accurate design of the whole locomotive power transmission. The aerodynamic drag may be estimated by using two specific experiments: the traction method and the free launch method. While the first one uses highly complex equipment, the second is easier to use due to the relative low number of devices required. The present work’s main goal is to illustrate the importance of aerodynamic design of the railway vehicles, as their performances are influenced by the aerodynamic drag. In order to illustrate the influence of the aerodynamic shape of o locomotive body, we have chosen the latest diesel model available on the local market, the Class 621 EGM locomotives, currently in service at the national passenger railway operator, CFR Călători SA.

  13. An integrated optimization approach for a hybrid energy system in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Chien-Hsun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Second-order control-oriented dynamics for a battery/supercapacitor EV is modeled. ► Multiple for-loop programming and global searchwith constraints are main design principles of integrated optimization algorithm (IOA). ► Optimal hybridization is derived based on maximizing energy storage capacity. ► Optimal energy management in three EV operation modes is searched based on minimizing total consumed power. ► Simulation results prove that 6+% of total energy is saved by the IOA method. -- Abstract: This paper develops a simple but innovative integrated optimization approach (IOA) for deriving the best solutions of component sizing and control strategies of a hybrid energy system (HES) which consists of a lithium battery and a supercapacitor module. To implement IOA, a multiple for-loop structure with a preset cost function is needed to globally calculate the best hybridization and energy management of the HES. For system hybridization, the optimal size ratio is evaluated by maximizing the HES energy stored capacity at various costs. For energy management, the optimal power distribution combined with a three-mode rule-based strategy is searched to minimize the total consumed energy. Combining above two for-loop structures and giving a time-dependent test scenario, the IOA is derived by minimizing the accumulated HES power. Simulation results show that 6% of the total HES energy can be saved in the IOA case compared with the original system in two driving cycles: ECE and UDDS, and two vehicle weights, respectively. It proves that the IOA effectively derives the maximum energy storage capacity and the minimum energy consumption of the HES at the same time. Experimental verification will be carried out in the near future.

  14. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering Development of Advanced High Strength Steel for Lightweight Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hector, Jr., Louis G. [General Motors, Warren, MI (United States); McCarty, Eric D. [United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP), Southfield, MI (United States)

    2017-07-31

    The goal of the ICME 3GAHSS project was to successfully demonstrate the applicability of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for the development and deployment of third generation advanced high strength steels (3GAHSS) for immediate weight reduction in passenger vehicles. The ICME approach integrated results from well-established computational and experimental methodologies to develop a suite of material constitutive models (deformation and failure), manufacturing process and performance simulation modules, a properties database, as well as the computational environment linking them together for both performance prediction and material optimization. This is the Final Report for the ICME 3GAHSS project, which achieved the fol-lowing objectives: 1) Developed a 3GAHSS ICME model, which includes atomistic, crystal plasticity, state variable and forming models. The 3GAHSS model was implemented in commercially available LS-DYNA and a user guide was developed to facilitate use of the model. 2) Developed and produced two 3GAHSS alloys using two different chemistries and manufacturing processes, for use in calibrating and validating the 3GAHSS ICME Model. 3) Optimized the design of an automotive subassembly by substituting 3GAHSS for AHSS yielding a design that met or exceeded all baseline performance requirements with a 30% mass savings. A technical cost model was also developed to estimate the cost per pound of weight saved when substituting 3GAHSS for AHSS. The project demonstrated the potential for 3GAHSS to achieve up to 30% weight savings in an automotive structure at a cost penalty of up to $0.32 to $1.26 per pound of weight saved. The 3GAHSS ICME Model enables the user to design 3GAHSS to desired mechanical properties in terms of strength and ductility.

  15. Torque Split Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles with an Integrated Starter Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhumu Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a torque split strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles with an integrated starter generator (ISG-PHEV by using fuzzy logic control. By combining the efficiency map and the optimum torque curve of the internal combustion engine (ICE with the state of charge (SOC of the batteries, the torque split strategy is designed, which manages the ICE within its peak efficiency region. Taking the quantified ICE torque, the quantified SOC of the batteries, and the quantified ICE speed as inputs, and regarding the output torque demanded on the ICE as an output, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC with relevant fuzzy rules has been developed to determine the optimal torque distribution among the ICE, the ISG, and the electric motor/generator (EMG effectively. The simulation results reveal that, compared with the conventional torque control strategy which uses rule-based controller (RBC in different driving cycles, the proposed FLC improves the fuel economy of the ISG-PHEV, increases the efficiency of the ICE, and maintains batteries SOC within its operation range more availably.

  16. An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

  17. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  18. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  19. In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform: from drones to birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas F; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2015-03-06

    Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on experiments with tethered robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here, we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for non-intrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is accurate. We subsequently validated the method with a quadcopter that is suspended in the AFP and generates unsteady thrust profiles. These independent measurements confirm that the AFP is indeed accurate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the AFP by studying aerodynamic weight support of a freely flying bird in vivo. These measurements confirm earlier findings based on kinematics and flow measurements, which suggest that the avian downstroke, not the upstroke, is primarily responsible for body weight support during take-off and landing.

  20. Block4Forensic: An Integrated Lightweight Blockchain Framework for Forensics Applications of Connected Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Cebe, Mumin; Erdin, Enes; Akkaya, Kemal; Aksu, Hidayet; Uluagac, Selcuk

    2018-01-01

    Today's vehicles are becoming cyber-physical systems that do not only communicate with other vehicles but also gather various information from hundreds of sensors within them. These developments help create smart and connected (e.g., self-driving) vehicles that will introduce significant information to drivers, manufacturers, insurance companies and maintenance service providers for various applications. One such application that is becoming crucial with the introduction of self-driving cars ...

  1. Autocommander: A Supervisory Controller for Integrated Guidance and Control for the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. E.; Lawrence, D. A.; Zhu, J. J.; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical architecture for integrated guidance and control that achieves risk and cost reduction for NASA's 2d generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). Guidance, attitude control, and control allocation subsystems that heretofore operated independently will now work cooperatively under the coordination of a top-level autocommander. In addition to delivering improved performance from a flight mechanics perspective, the autocommander is intended to provide an autonomous supervisory control capability for traditional mission management under nominal conditions, G&C reconfiguration in response to effector saturation, and abort mode decision-making upon vehicle malfunction. This high-level functionality is to be implemented through the development of a relational database that is populated with the broad range of vehicle and mission specific data and translated into a discrete event system model for analysis, simulation, and onboard implementation. A Stateflow Autocoder software tool that translates the database into the Stateflow component of a Matlab/Simulink simulation is also presented.

  2. The simulation methods based on 1D/3D collaborative computing for the vehicle integrated thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Pengyu; Gao, Qing; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1D/3D collaborative computing simulation method for vehicle thermal management. • Analyzing the influence of the thermodynamic systems and the engine compartment geometry on the vehicle performance. • Providing the basis for the matching energy consumptions of thermodynamic systems in the underhood. - Abstract: The vehicle integrated thermal management containing the engine cooling circuit, the air conditioning circuit, the turbocharged inter-cooled circuit, the engine lubrication circuit etc. is the important means of enhancing power performance, promoting economy, saving energy and reducing emission. In this study, a 1D/3D collaborative simulation method is proposed with the engine cooling circuit and air conditioning circuit being the research object. The mathematical characterizations of the multiple thermodynamic systems are achieved by 1D calculation and the underhood structure is described by 3D simulation. Through analyzing the engine compartment integrated heat transfer process, the model of the integrated thermal management system is formed after coupling the cooling circuit and air conditioning circuit. This collaborative simulation method establishes structured correlation of engine-cooling and air conditioning thermal dissipation in the engine compartment, comprehensively analyzing the engine working process and air condition operational process in order to research the interaction effect of them. In the calculation examples, to achieve the integrated optimization of multiple thermal systems design and performance prediction, by describing the influence of system thermomechanical parameters and operating duty to underhood heat transfer process, performance evaluation of the engine cooling circuit and the air conditioning circuit are realized.

  3. Investigation of Combined Low-Angled Jets and Variable Wall Geometry for Hypersonic Aerodynamic Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowersox, Rodney

    2004-01-01

    The principal objective of the present research proposal was to investigate, experimentally and numerically, the use of jets to actively control the aerodynamic forces for high-speed flight vehicles...

  4. M109 Family of Vehicles, Paladin Integrated Management (PIM): Operational Assessment of the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT and E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation M109 Family of Vehicles, Paladin Integrated Management (PIM) Operational Assessment of the... operational suitability, test adequacy, and survivability of the M109 Family of Vehicles (FoV), known as Paladin Integrated Management (PIM) Self...prevent the M109A7 SPH-equipped unit from completing its mission. The Paladin Integrated Management (PIM) Initial Operational Test and Evaluation

  5. Solving Algebraic Riccati Equation Real Time for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, A; Corno, M.; Bonsen, B.; Holweg, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparison study of different computational methods to implement State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) based control in real time for a vehicle dynamics control application. Vehicles are mechatronic systems with nonlinear dynamics. One of the promising nonlinear control

  6. Model-based eco-driving and integrated powertrain control for (hybrid) electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, T.; Spronkmans, S.; Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is engaged in research, development and testing of a range of technologies relating to hybrid and electric vehicle energy management and performance. The impact of driver behaviour on vehicle energy consumption is a significant

  7. Research on the impacts of large-scale electric vehicles integration into power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuankun; Zhang, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Because of its special energy driving mode, electric vehicles can improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the pollution to the environment, which is being paid more and more attention. But the charging behavior of electric vehicles is random and intermittent. If the electric vehicle is disordered charging in a large scale, it causes great pressure on the structure and operation of the power grid and affects the safety and economic operation of the power grid. With the development of V2G technology in electric vehicle, the study of the charging and discharging characteristics of electric vehicles is of great significance for improving the safe operation of the power grid and the efficiency of energy utilization.

  8. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Shahid

    Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number ‘3’ and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks

  9. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul

    Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.

  10. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles – Energy systems analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten

    The fluctuating and only partly predictable nature of wind challenges an effective integration of large wind power penetrations. This PhD thesis investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing...... in an energy system context. Energy systems analyses reveal that the heat pumps can even without flexible operation contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only...... moderate additional benefits are achieved. Hereof, the main benefit is that the need for investing in peak/reserve capacities can be reduced through peak load shaving. It is more important to ensure flexible operation of electric vehicles than of individual heat pumps, due to differences in the load...

  11. Design, Analysis and Qualification of Elevon for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. B.; Suresh, R.; Krishnadasan, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrator is configured as a winged body vehicle, designed to fly in hypersonic, supersonic and subsonic regimes. The vehicle will be boosted to hypersonic speeds after which the winged body separates and descends using aerodynamic control. The aerodynamic control is achieved using the control surfaces mainly the rudder and the elevon. Elevons are deflected for pitch and roll control of the vehicle at various flight conditions. Elevons are subjected to aerodynamic, thermal and inertial loads during the flight. This paper gives details about the configuration, design, qualification and flight validation of elevon for Reusable Launch Vehicle.

  12. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  13. Flexible micro flow sensor for micro aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Que, Ruiyi; Liu, Peng

    2017-12-01

    This article summarizes our studies on micro flow sensors fabricated on a flexible polyimide circuit board by a low-cost hybrid process of thin-film deposition and circuit printing. The micro flow sensor has merits of flexibility, structural simplicity, easy integrability with circuits, and good sensing performance. The sensor, which adheres to an object surface, can detect the surface flow around the object. In our study, we install the fabricated micro flow sensors on micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) to detect the surface flow variation around the aircraft wing and deduce the aerodynamic parameters of the MAVs in flight. Wind tunnel experiments using the sensors integrated with the MAVs are also conducted.

  14. IPAD applications to the design, analysis, and/or machining of aerospace structures. [Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, C. L.; Dovi, A. R.; Kurtze, W. L.; Storaasli, O. O.

    1981-01-01

    A computer software system for the processing and integration of engineering data and programs, called IPAD (Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design), is described. The ability of the system to relieve the engineer of the mundane task of input data preparation is demonstrated by the application of a prototype system to the design, analysis, and/or machining of three simple structures. Future work to further enhance the system's automated data handling and ability to handle larger and more varied design problems are also presented.

  15. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  16. LV-IMLI: Integrated MLI/Aeroshell for Cryogenic Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic propellants have the highest energy density of any rocket fuel, and are used in most NASA and commercial launch vehicles to power their ascent. Cryogenic...

  17. Vehicle infrastructure integration (VII) : exploring the application of disruptive technology to assist older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the approach and findings of a research project aimed at the evaluation of : an inter-vehicle communications scheme for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs). : Because of the size, frequency, and expected number of receivers of pe...

  18. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  19. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot Transonic wind tunnel (IA613A), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e. top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  20. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e., top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  1. Comparison of advanced aerodynamic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliam, M.; Cline, S.; Lawton, S.; Crawford, C. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems; Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Sustainable Systems Design Laboratory

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the development of aerodynamic tools for designing sweep and out-of-plane curvatures for wind turbine blades. Potential flow and vortex methods are used to simulate individual vortex elements at the blade and in the wake, and are appropriate modelling tools are both out-of-plane and sweep curvatures. Centrifugal pumping, hub loss, and turbulent wake models are used to correct the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, where a blade's wake is modelled as a momentum balance between the far upstream and downstream. Wake shape can be numerically solved using the vortex theory. Wake vorticity is then integrated to characterize rotor conditions. Potential flow and vortex methods are used to account for the influence of the rotor and to model the wake structure. Details of experimental studies and validation test cases using the modelling methods were provided. tabs., figs.

  2. Human factors considerations for the integration of unmanned aerial vehicles in the National Airspace System : an analysis of reports submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Successful integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations into the National Airspace System requires the identification and mitigation of operational risks. This report reviews human factors issues that have been identified in operational as...

  3. Improving Multisensor Positioning of Land Vehicles with Integrated Visual Odometry for Next-Generation Self-Driving Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Tahsin Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For their complete realization, autonomous vehicles (AVs fundamentally rely on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to provide positioning and navigation information. However, in area such as urban cores, parking lots, and under dense foliage, which are all commonly frequented by AVs, GNSS signals suffer from blockage, interference, and multipath. These effects cause high levels of errors and long durations of service discontinuity that mar the performance of current systems. The prevalence of vision and low-cost inertial sensors provides an attractive opportunity to further increase the positioning and navigation accuracy in such GNSS-challenged environments. This paper presents enhancements to existing multisensor integration systems utilizing the inertial navigation system (INS to aid in Visual Odometry (VO outlier feature rejection. A scheme called Aided Visual Odometry (AVO is developed and integrated with a high performance mechanization architecture utilizing vehicle motion and orientation sensors. The resulting solution exhibits improved state covariance convergence and navigation accuracy, while reducing computational complexity. Experimental verification of the proposed solution is illustrated through three real road trajectories, over two different land vehicles, and using two low-cost inertial measurement units (IMUs.

  4. Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Paul Breckenridge

    2007-05-01

    Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be

  5. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  6. Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Joseph J S

    2016-01-01

    Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...

  7. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations......-Raphson method, andsolutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs.The model has been validated against published measurementson various fan configurations,comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotatingfan unit and a stator-rotor-stator stage.Comparisons of local...... and integrated propertiesshow that the computed results agree well with the measurements.Integrating a rotor-only version of the aerodynamic modelwith an algorithm for numerical designoptimization, enables the finding of an optimum fan rotor.The angular velocity of the rotor, the hub radius and the spanwise...

  8. ISOLATED AERODYNAMIC SURFACE CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENUŞ Marilena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to present a few steps for calculating the dynamics of flight. From an organizational perspective, the paper is structured in three parts. The first part provides essential information that needs to be taken into account when designing an aircraft wing. The second part presents the basic steps in the wing design procedure and finally, the third part contains the diagrams in which one can find the aerodynamic coefficient of a specifying wing.

  9. Uncertainty Propagation in Hypersonic Vehicle Aerothermoelastic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorte, Nicolas Etienne

    Hypersonic vehicles face a challenging flight environment. The aerothermoelastic analysis of its components requires numerous simplifying approximations. Identifying and quantifying the effect of uncertainties pushes the limits of the existing deterministic models, and is pursued in this work. An uncertainty quantification framework is used to propagate the effects of identified uncertainties on the stability margins and performance of the different systems considered. First, the aeroelastic stability of a typical section representative of a control surface on a hypersonic vehicle is examined. Variability in the uncoupled natural frequencies of the system is modeled to mimic the effect of aerodynamic heating. Next, the stability of an aerodynamically heated panel representing a component of the skin of a generic hypersonic vehicle is considered. Uncertainty in the location of transition from laminar to turbulent flow and the heat flux prediction is quantified using CFD. In both cases significant reductions of the stability margins are observed. A loosely coupled airframe--integrated scramjet engine is considered next. The elongated body and cowl of the engine flow path are subject to harsh aerothermodynamic loading which causes it to deform. Uncertainty associated with deformation prediction is propagated to the engine performance analysis. The cowl deformation is the main contributor to the sensitivity of the propulsion system performance. Finally, a framework for aerothermoelastic stability boundary calculation for hypersonic vehicles using CFD is developed. The usage of CFD enables one to consider different turbulence conditions, laminar or turbulent, and different models of the air mixture, in particular real gas model which accounts for dissociation of molecules at high temperature. The system is found to be sensitive to turbulence modeling as well as the location of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Real gas effects play a minor role in the

  10. Design of a high-torque machine with two integrated motors axes reducing the electric vehicle consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chaieb

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The motorization of electric vehicle needs to work at a constant power on a wide range of speed. In order to be able to satisfy these requirements, we describe in this paper a solution, which consists in modifying of a simple structure of a permanent magnet motor by a double rotor structure integrating two motor axes into the same machine. This article describes, then, a design methodology of a permanent magnet motor with double rotor, radial flux, and strong starting torque for electric vehicles. This work consists on the analytical dimensioning of the motor by taking into account several operation constraints followed by a modelling by the finite elements method. This study is followed by the comparison between this motor and a motor with one rotor. A global model of the motor- converter is developed for the purpose to answer several optimisation problems

  11. Assessment of the State of the Art of Integrated Vehicle Health Management Technologies as Applicable to Damage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies assessed the state of the art in current integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) aircraft technologies. These are the technologies that are used for assessing vehicle health at the system and subsystem level. This study reports on how these technologies are employed by major military and commercial platforms for detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation. Over 200 papers from five conferences from the time period of 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. Over 30 of these IVHM technologies are then mapped into the 17 different adverse event damage conditions identified in a previous study. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IVHM Project.

  12. A novel integrated approach for path following and directional stability control of road vehicles after a tire blow-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Hong; Guo, Konghui; Cao, Dongpu

    2017-09-01

    The path following and directional stability are two crucial problems when a road vehicle experiences a tire blow-out or sudden tire failure. Considering the requirement of rapid road vehicle motion control during a tire blow-out, this article proposes a novel linearized decoupling control procedure with three design steps for a class of second order multi-input-multi-output non-affine system. The evaluating indicators for controller performance are presented and a performance related control parameter distribution map is obtained based on the stochastic algorithm which is an innovation for non-blind parameter adjustment in engineering implementation. The analysis on the robustness of the proposed integrated controller is also performed. The simulation studies for a range of driving conditions are conducted, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  13. Integrated planning of electric vehicles routing and charging stations location considering transportation networks and power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Arias

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EVs represent a significant option that contributes to improve the mobility and reduce the pollution, leaving a future expectation in the merchandise transportation sector, which has been demonstrated with pilot projects of companies operating EVs for products delivering. In this work a new approach of EVs for merchandise transportation considering the location of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs and the impact on the Power Distribution System (PDS is addressed. This integrated planning is formulated through a mixed integer non-linear mathematical model. Test systems of different sizes are designed to evaluate the model performance, considering the transportation network and PDS. The results show a trade-off between EVs routing, PDS energy losses and EVCSs location.

  14. Maximized integration of photovoltaics into distribution grids using smart charging strategies for electric vehicles; Maximierte PV-Integration in Niederspannungsnetzen durch intelligente Nutzung von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeschel, Martin; Scherfke, Stefan; Schuette, Steffen; Appelrath, H Juergen; Sonnenschein, Michael [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany). Bereich Energie

    2011-07-01

    An ICT-based integration of electric vehicles (EV) offers a promising potential on the distribution grid level, especially regarding synergies with renewable and distributed energy systems. Of special interest are (a) the charging of EV with electric power from renewable energy sources and (b) a preferentially local usage of feed-in from distributed energy systems. Regarding a systemic analysis of electromobility, a stable and reliable operation of the electric power grid is a major constraint for the integration of EV and maximized usage of renewable energy. In the model project GridSurfer, we conducted simulation-based analyses on the integration of EV. In this contribution, we present results from an analysis of future Smart-Grid-scenarios with special regard to rural areas and distribution grids in north-western Germany. (orig.)

  15. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Large Scale Wind Power Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    In the recent years, the electric vehicles (EVs) have drawn great attention world wide as a feasible solution for clean transportation. The electric vehicle technology is not new as it was introduced in the mid 19th century. The low battery capacity, driving range and superior gasoline cars had...... resulted in the demise of electric cars in the 1930s. However, with the advancement of new high density battery technologies and power electronic converters, it is now viable to produce electric cars of higher efficiency and driving range. The performance and durability of the battery technology...... is improving on a rapid scale and the battery cost is also reducing which could enable the electric cars to be competitive in the market. The electric vehicles could also benefit the electricity sector in supporting more renewable energy which is also one of the most important driving forces in its promotion...

  16. Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging and grid integration apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadh, Rajit; Mal, Siddhartha; Prabhu, Shivanand; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Sheikh, Omar; Chung, Ching-Yen; He, Lei; Xiao, Bingjun; Shi, Yiyu

    2015-05-05

    An expert system manages a power grid wherein charging stations are connected to the power grid, with electric vehicles connected to the charging stations, whereby the expert system selectively backfills power from connected electric vehicles to the power grid through a grid tie inverter (if present) within the charging stations. In more traditional usage, the expert system allows for electric vehicle charging, coupled with user preferences as to charge time, charge cost, and charging station capabilities, without exceeding the power grid capacity at any point. A robust yet accurate state of charge (SOC) calculation method is also presented, whereby initially an open circuit voltage (OCV) based on sampled battery voltages and currents is calculated, and then the SOC is obtained based on a mapping between a previously measured reference OCV (ROCV) and SOC. The OCV-SOC calculation method accommodates likely any battery type with any current profile.

  17. Means to estimate the influence of user variables on a smart integration of electric vehicles into the future energy grid; Methoden zur Bestimmung des Nutzereinflusses auf eine intelligente Integration von Elektrofahrzeugen in das zukuenftige Energienetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahnel, Ulf J.J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Psychologie; Benoit, Pascal; Goelz, Sebastian; Kohrs, Robert [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Spada, Hans [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Psychologie

    2012-07-01

    A smart integration of electric vehicles into the future energy grid guarantees for matching energy demand and supply. To sufficiently integrate electric vehicles into the energy grid, it is necessary to maximize the vehicles' availability for intelligent charging processes. However, the availability highly depends on the motivation and skills of their users. Future drivers have to decide whether they want to initiate direct or intelligent charging processes. In case of intelligent charging processes, the systems require information about upcoming departure times and trip lengths. Inaccurate user predictions may reduce vehicles' availability for intelligent charging processes or may lead to insufficient battery levels. In the present paper, we investigate the influence of user variables on electric vehicles' availability for smart integration. We use data from psychological research that allows for comparing mobility predictions with actual mobility. We further technologically interpret data and display means to account for user variables in future charging scenarios. (orig.)

  18. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles in European countries using integrated modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seixas, J.; Simões, S.; Dias, L.; Kanudia, A.; Fortes, P.; Gargiulo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered alternatives to internal combustion engines due to their energy efficiency and contribution to CO 2 mitigation. The adoption of EVs depends on consumer preferences, including cost, social status and driving habits, although it is agreed that current and expected costs play a major role. We use a partial equilibrium model that minimizes total energy system costs to assess whether EVs can be a cost-effective option for the consumers of each EU27 member state up to 2050, focusing on the impact of different vehicle investment costs and CO 2 mitigation targets. We found that for an EU-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction cap of 40% and 70% by 2050 vis-à-vis 1990 emissions, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are cost-effective in the EU only by 2030 and only if their costs are 30% lower than currently expected. At the EU level, vehicle costs and the capability to deliver both short- and long-distance mobility are the main drivers of BEV deployment. Other drivers include each state’s national mobility patterns and the cost-effectiveness of alternative mitigation options, both in the transport sector, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) or biofuels, and in other sectors, such as renewable electricity. - Highlights: • Electric vehicles were assessed through the minimization of the total energy systems costs. • EU climate policy targets could act as a major driver for PHEV adoption. • Battery EV is an option before 2030 if costs will drop by 30% from expected costs. • EV deployment varies per country depending on each energy system configuration. • Incentives at the country level should consider specific cost-effectiveness factors

  19. Integration of a Folding Electric two-wheeler vehicle for a future commuting transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Bjami Freyr; Larsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    The paper issues the development, building and testing of a Folding Electric Motorbike, a lightweight, low cost and all-electric two-wheeler vehicle taking full advantage on today's city infrastructure. The technology offers drivers to combine transportation methods, lowering cost, and greenhouse......-electric two-wheeler vehicle taking full advantage on today's city infrastructure is very prospective. The alpha-prototype was successfully constructed and is considered to be ready for further laboratory testing and test driving before continuations on a fully designed beta-prototype....

  20. Aerodynamic Noise An Introduction for Physicists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Tarit

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic Noise extensively covers the theoretical basis and mathematical modeling of sound, especially the undesirable sounds produced by aircraft. This noise could come from an aircraft’s engine—propellers, fans, combustion chamber, jets—or the vehicle itself—external surfaces—or from sonic booms. The majority of the sound produced is due to the motion of air and its interaction with solid boundaries, and this is the main discussion of the book. With problem sets at the end of each chapter, Aerodynamic Noise is ideal for graduate students of mechanical and aerospace engineering. It may also be useful for designers of cars, trains, and wind turbines.

  1. Fairing Well: Aerodynamic Truck Research at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. From Shoebox to Bat Truck and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In 1973 engineers at Dryden began investigating ways to reduce aerodynamic drag on land vehicles. They began with a delivery van whose shape they changed dramatically, finally reducing its aerodynamic drag by more than 5 percent. They then turned their attention to tracator-trailers, modifying a cab-over and reducing its aerodynamic drag by nearly 25 percent. Further research identified additional areas worth attention, but in the intervening decades few of those changes have appeared.

  2. Integrated systems and modules for engine cooling and vehicle air-conditioning; Integrierte Systeme und Module zur Motorkuehlung und Innenraumklimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, M.; Kern, J.; Kampf, H. [Behr GmbH (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    The high level of function and quality achieved today in modern vehicles cannot be simply increased by the isolated development of advanced single components alone. By contrast, the holistic optimization of systems opens up new potential. Modern cooling modules and integrated HVAC systems by Behr GmbH and Co. combine several components to form a single compact module whose integrated parts are perfectly matched to each other. Developing complete cockpits at such a high level of integration is another step towards advancing the system concept. Understanding a holistic system allows engineers to develop concepts for an efficient thermal management in the cooling system and to improve ecological compatibility of the vehicle air-conditioning system by using suitable simulation tools. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die gesamtheitliche Optimierung von Systemen eroeffnet neue Potentiale in der Automobilentwicklung. Moderne Kuehlmodule und integrierte Heiz-/Klimageraete der Behr GmbH and Co. fassen zahlreiche Komponenten zu einem kompakten Modul zusammen, dessen Einzelteile aufeinander abgestimmt sind. Die Entwicklung vollstaendiger Cockpits mit einem hohen Integrationsgrad fuehrt den Systemgedanken konsequent weiter. Das Verstaendnis des gesamten Systems erlaubt im Verbund mit geeigneten Simulationswerkzeugen die Entwicklung von Konzepten fuer ein effizientes Thermomanagement im Kuehlsystem und fuer die Verbesserung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit der Kaelteanlage. (orig.)

  3. An Enhanced Error Model for EKF-Based Tightly-Coupled Integration of GPS and Land Vehicle's Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamat, Tashfeen B; Atia, Mohamed M; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-09-22

    Reduced inertial sensor systems (RISS) have been introduced by many researchers as a low-cost, low-complexity sensor assembly that can be integrated with GPS to provide a robust integrated navigation system for land vehicles. In earlier works, the developed error models were simplified based on the assumption that the vehicle is mostly moving on a flat horizontal plane. Another limitation is the simplified estimation of the horizontal tilt angles, which is based on simple averaging of the accelerometers' measurements without modelling their errors or tilt angle errors. In this paper, a new error model is developed for RISS that accounts for the effect of tilt angle errors and the accelerometer's errors. Additionally, it also includes important terms in the system dynamic error model, which were ignored during the linearization process in earlier works. An augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) is designed to incorporate tilt angle errors and transversal accelerometer errors. The new error model and the augmented EKF design are developed in a tightly-coupled RISS/GPS integrated navigation system. The proposed system was tested on real trajectories' data under degraded GPS environments, and the results were compared to earlier works on RISS/GPS systems. The findings demonstrated that the proposed enhanced system introduced significant improvements in navigational performance.

  4. GTX Reference Vehicle Structural Verification Methods and Weight Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Dunn, P. W.

    2002-01-01

    The design of a single-stage-to-orbit air breathing propulsion system requires the simultaneous development of a reference launch vehicle in order to achieve the optimal mission performance. Accordingly, for the GTX study a 300-lb payload reference vehicle was preliminarily sized to a gross liftoff weight (GLOW) of 238,000 lb. A finite element model of the integrated vehicle/propulsion system was subjected to the trajectory environment and subsequently optimized for structural efficiency. This study involved the development of aerodynamic loads mapped to finite element models of the integrated system in order to assess vehicle margins of safety. Commercially available analysis codes were used in the process along with some internally developed spreadsheets and FORTRAN codes specific to the GTX geometry for mapping of thermal and pressure loads. A mass fraction of 0.20 for the integrated system dry weight has been the driver for a vehicle design consisting of state-of-the-art composite materials in order to meet the rigid weight requirements. This paper summarizes the methodology used for preliminary analyses and presents the current status of the weight optimization for the structural components of the integrated system.

  5. Integrated energy and advanced thermal management system for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) featuring a fuel source engine and an energy storage source battery play an important role in improving fuel efficiency compared with its conventional counterparts. In view of the drawbacks of the existing research neglecting the thermal aspects when it comes to

  6. Electric vehicles integration within low voltage electricity networks & possibilities for distribution energy loss reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Veldman, E.; Kling, W.L.; Gibescu, M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    With the prospect of an increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) on the road, domestic charging will be the most obvious way to recharge the vehicles’ batteries. However, this can have adverse impacts to low voltage (LV) distribution grids such as high current demand, increased 3-phase load

  7. Supporting involvement of electric vehicles in distribution grids: Lowering the barriers for a proactive integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Zecchino, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Increasing environmental concerns are driving an evolution of the energy system in which electric vehicles (EVs) play an important role. Still, as the EV number increases, the adverse impact of charging is observed more widely, especially at the low-voltage level where high EV concentrations cause...

  8. Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    -VPPs, considering the case of EVs charging and discharging. The three mechanisms include: (1) a market-based approach; (2) a pro-rata approach; and (3) a newly-proposed constrained market-based approach. A case study considering a 37-bus distribution network and high penetration of electric vehicles is presented...

  9. Autonomous Conflict Detection and Resolution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : On integration into the Airspace System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the commercial values of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), defined as devices that are capable of sustainable flights in the atmosphere that do not require to have a human (pilot) on-board, become widely recognized thanks to the advancement of technology in materials, sensors,

  10. Zero Rare-Earth Magnet Integrated Starter-Generator Development for Military Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    platform. – Support of on-board hybrid electric features such as regenerative braking , torque assist and stop-start operation. 14 August 2013 4...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES GROUND VEHICLE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM (GVSETS), SET FOR AUG. 21-22, 2013 14. ABSTRACT Briefing Charts

  11. Dynamic stability of an aerodynamically efficient motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amrit; Limebeer, David J. N.

    2012-08-01

    Motorcycles exhibit two potentially dangerous oscillatory modes known as 'wobble' and 'weave'. The former is reminiscent of supermarket castor shimmy, while the latter is a low frequency 'fish-tailing' motion that involves a combination of rolling, yawing, steering and side-slipping motions. These unwanted dynamic features, which can occur when two-wheeled vehicles are operated at speed, have been studied extensively. The aim of this paper is to use mathematical analysis to identify important stability trends in the on-going design of a novel aerodynamically efficient motorcycle known as the ECOSSE Spirit ES1. A mathematical model of the ES1 is developed using a multi-body dynamics software package called VehicleSim [Anon, VehicleSim Lisp Reference Manual Version 1.0, Mechanical Simulation Corporation, 2008. Available at http://www.carsim.com]. This high-fidelity motorcycle model includes realistic tyre-road contact geometry, a comprehensive tyre model, tyre relaxation and a flexible frame. A parameter set representative of a modern high-performance machine and rider is used. Local stability is investigated via the eigenvalues of the linearised models that are associated with equilibrium points of interest. A comprehensive study of the effects of frame flexibilities, acceleration, aerodynamics and tyre variations is presented, and an optimal passive steering compensator is derived. It is shown that the traditional steering damper cannot be used to stabilise the ES1 over its entire operating speed range. A simple passive compensator, involving an inerter is proposed. Flexibility can be introduced deliberately into various chassis components to change the stability characteristics of the vehicle; the implications of this idea are studied.

  12. Nonlinear Constrained Adaptive Backstepping Tracking Control for a Hypersonic Vehicle with Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control problem of a flexible hypersonic vehicle is presented, where input saturation and aerodynamic uncertainty are considered. A control-oriented model including aerodynamic uncertainty is derived for simple controller design due to the nonlinearity and complexity of hypersonic vehicle model. Then it is separated into velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem. On the basis of the integration of robust adaptive control and backstepping technique, respective controller is designed for each subsystem, where an auxiliary signal provided by an additional dynamic system is used to compensate for the control saturation effect. Then to deal with the “explosion of terms” problem inherent in backstepping control, a novel first-order filter is proposed. Simulation results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive backstepping control scheme.

  13. Aerodynamic analysis of formula student car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, Mohammad Arief; Ubaidillah, Nugraha, Arga Ahmadi; Wijayanta, Agung Tri; Naufal, Brian Aqif

    2018-02-01

    Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) is a contest between ungraduated students to create a high-performance formula student car that completes the regulation. Body and the other aerodynamic devices are significant because it affects the drag coefficient and the down force of the car. The drag coefficient is a measurement of the resistance of an object in a fluid environment, a lower the drag coefficient means it will have a less drag force. Down force is a force that pushes an object to the ground, in the car more down force means more grip. The objective of the research was to study the aerodynamic comparison between the race vehicle when attached to the wings and without it. These studies were done in three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation method using the Autodesk Flow Design software. These simulations were done by conducted in 5 different velocities. The results of those simulations are by attaching wings on race vehicle has drag coefficient 0.728 and without wings has drag coefficient 0.56. Wings attachment will decrease the drag coefficient about 23 % and also the contour pressure and velocity were known at these simulations.

  14. A Novel Control Algorithm for Integration of Active and Passive Vehicle Safety Systems in Frontal Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wallner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates an approach to integrate active and passive safety systems of passenger cars. Worldwide, the introduction of Integrated Safety Systems and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS is considered to continue the today

  15. Leading-Edge Flow Sensing for Aerodynamic Parameter Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Aditya

    The identification of inflow air data quantities such as airspeed, angle of attack, and local lift coefficient on various sections of a wing or rotor blade provides the capability for load monitoring, aerodynamic diagnostics, and control on devices ranging from air vehicles to wind turbines. Real-time measurement of aerodynamic parameters during flight provides the ability to enhance aircraft operating capabilities while preventing dangerous stall situations. This thesis presents a novel Leading-Edge Flow Sensing (LEFS) algorithm for the determination of the air -data parameters using discrete surface pressures measured at a few ports in the vicinity of the leading edge of a wing or blade section. The approach approximates the leading-edge region of the airfoil as a parabola and uses pressure distribution from the exact potential-ow solution for the parabola to _t the pressures measured from the ports. Pressures sensed at five discrete locations near the leading edge of an airfoil are given as input to the algorithm to solve the model using a simple nonlinear regression. The algorithm directly computes the inflow velocity, the stagnation-point location, section angle of attack and lift coefficient. The performance of the algorithm is assessed using computational and experimental data in the literature for airfoils under different ow conditions. The results show good correlation between the actual and predicted aerodynamic quantities within the pre-stall regime, even for a rotating blade section. Sensing the deviation of the aerodynamic behavior from the linear regime requires additional information on the location of ow separation on the airfoil surface. Bio-inspired artificial hair sensors were explored as a part of the current research for stall detection. The response of such artificial micro-structures can identify critical ow characteristics, which relate directly to the stall behavior. The response of the microfences was recorded via an optical microscope for

  16. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy. The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Poul H.; Rask, Morten; Mathews, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A new business model for accelerating the introduction of electric vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market for co-ordinated production and consumption of renewable energy. The innovative contribution of the model rests in its ability to combine two problems and thereby solve them in a fresh way. One problem derives from utilizing power grids with a substantial increase in renewable electric energy production (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage devices for electricity, thus enabling a fresh approach to evening out of fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources, while drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This integrated solution carries many other associated benefits, amongst which are the possibility of introducing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) distributed power generation; introducing IT intelligence to the grid, and creating virtual power plants from distributed sources; and providing new applications for carbon credits in the decarbonisation of the economy. The countries and regions that have signed on to this model and are working to introduce it in 2009-2011 include Israel, Denmark, Australia, and in the US, the Bay Area cities and the state of Hawaii. (author)

  17. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Feasibility Study of a Building-Integrated PV Manager to Power a Last-Mile Electric Vehicle Sharing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the largest single sources of air pollution in urban areas. This paper analyzes a model of solar-powered vehicle sharing system using building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV, resulting in a zero-emission and zero-energy mobility system for last-mile employee transportation. As a case study, an electric bicycle sharing system between a public transportation hub and a work center is modeled mathematically and optimized in order to minimize the number of pickup trips to satisfy the demand, while minimizing the total energy consumption of the system. The whole mobility system is fully powered with BIPV-generated energy. Results show a positive energy balance in e-bike batteries and pickup vehicle batteries in the worst day of the year regarding solar radiation. Even in this worst-case scenario, we achieve reuse rates of 3.8 people per bike, using actual data. The proposed system manages PV energy using only the batteries from the electric vehicles, without requiring supportive energy storage devices. Energy requirements and PV generation have been analyzed in detail to ensure the feasibility of this approach.

  19. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seiel, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report

  20. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin O L

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  1. Quality Control Algorithms and Proposed Integration Process for Wind Profilers Used by Launch Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Impact of winds to space launch vehicle include Design, Certification Day-of-launch (DOL) steering commands (1)Develop "knockdowns" of load indicators (2) Temporal uncertainty of flight winds. Currently use databases from weather balloons. Includes discrete profiles and profile pair datasets. Issues are : (1)Larger vehicles operate near design limits during ascent 150 discrete profiles per month 110-217 seasonal 2.0 and 3.5-hour pairs Balloon rise time (one hour) and drift (up to 100 n mi) Advantages of the Alternative approach using Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) are: (1) Obtain larger sample size (2) Provide flexibility for assessing trajectory changes due to winds (3) Better representation of flight winds.

  2. A fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system for spacecraft integrated vehicle health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.

  3. Development of an Integrated Cooling System Controller for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid electrical bus employs both a turbo diesel engine and an electric motor to drive the vehicle in different speed-torque scenarios. The cooling system for such a vehicle is particularly power costing because it needs to dissipate heat from not only the engine, but also the intercooler and the motor. An electronic control unit (ECU has been designed with a single chip computer, temperature sensors, DC motor drive circuit, and optimized control algorithm to manage the speeds of several fans for efficient cooling using a nonlinear fan speed adjustment strategy. Experiments suggested that the continuous operating performance of the ECU is robust and capable of saving 15% of the total electricity comparing with ordinary fan speed control method.

  4. Autonomous Conflict Detection and Resolution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: On integration into the Airspace System

    OpenAIRE

    Jenie, Y.I.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the commercial values of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), defined as devices that are capable of sustainable flights in the atmosphere that do not require to have a human (pilot) on-board, become widely recognized thanks to the advancement of technology in materials, sensors, computation, and telemetry. As UAVs are becoming cheaper and more user-friendly, many companies are motivated to incorporate them in their everyday business, such as for delivery services, journalisms,...

  5. A matheuristic for transfer synchronization through integrated timetabling and vehicle scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, João Paiva; van der Hurk, Evelien; Roberti, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Long transfer times often add unnecessary inconvenience to journeys in public transport systems. Synchronizing relevant arrival and departure times through small timetable modifications could reduce excess transfer times, but may also directly affect the operational costs, as the timetable defines...... the set of feasible vehicle schedules. Therefore better results in terms of passenger service, operational costs, or both, could be obtained by solving these problems simultaneously....

  6. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  7. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  8. Integrated Aero-Servo-Thermo-Propulso-Elasticity (ASTPE) for Hypersonic Scramjet Vehicle Design/Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-04

    flattening parameter of 0.0033528. In UPTOP, the vehicle’s geocentric latitude, geodetic latitude and longitude (both over an inertial and rotating planet...5sin2 A) (l-5sin2^) 3-3 where J2 = 1.08263x10°, re is the equatorial radius of the Earth, and X is the geocentric latitude. UPTOP incorporates two...computational cost associated with this effectiveness. 3.3.2 Objective Function Calculation Objective and constraint function calculations depend on

  9. An integrated control strategy for the composite braking system of an electric vehicle with independently driven axles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengchun; Liu, Wei; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2016-08-01

    For an electric vehicle with independently driven axles, an integrated braking control strategy was proposed to coordinate the regenerative braking and the hydraulic braking. The integrated strategy includes three modes, namely the hybrid composite mode, the parallel composite mode and the pure hydraulic mode. For the hybrid composite mode and the parallel composite mode, the coefficients of distributing the braking force between the hydraulic braking and the two motors' regenerative braking were optimised offline, and the response surfaces related to the driving state parameters were established. Meanwhile, the six-sigma method was applied to deal with the uncertainty problems for reliability. Additionally, the pure hydraulic mode is activated to ensure the braking safety and stability when the predictive failure of the response surfaces occurs. Experimental results under given braking conditions showed that the braking requirements could be well met with high braking stability and energy regeneration rate, and the reliability of the braking strategy was guaranteed on general braking conditions.

  10. An economic analysis of used electric vehicle batteries integrated into commercial building microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Sebastian; Dallinger, David [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems; Gomez, Tomas; Momber, Ilan [Madrid Univ. (Spain); Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Current policies in the U.S. and other countries are trying to stimulate electric transportation deployment. Consequently, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption will presumably spread among vehicle users. With the increased diffusion of PEVs, lithium-ion batteries will also enter the market on a broad scale. However, their costs are still high and ways are needed to optimally deploy vehicle batteries in order to account for the higher initial outlay. This study analyzed the possibility of extending the lifecycle of PEV batteries to a secondary, stationary application. Battery usage can be optimized by installing used battery packs in buildings' microgrids. Employed as decentralized storage, batteries can be used for a microgrid's power supply and provide ancillary services (A/S). This scenario has been modeled with the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which identifies optimal equipment combinations to meet microgrid requirements at minimum cost, carbon footprint, or other criteria. Results show that used PEV batteries can create significant monetary value if subsequently used for stationary applications. (orig.)

  11. Visualization of numerically simulated aerodynamic flow fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hian, Q.L.; Damodaran, M.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe the development and the application of an interactive integrated software to visualize numerically simulated aerodynamic flow fields so as to enable the practitioner of computational fluid dynamics to diagnose the numerical simulation and to elucidate essential flow physics from the simulation. The input to the software is the numerical database crunched by a supercomputer and typically consists of flow variables and computational grid geometry. This flow visualization system (FVS), written in C language is targetted at the Personal IRIS Workstations. In order to demonstrate the various visualization modules, the paper also describes the application of this software to visualize two- and three-dimensional flow fields past aerodynamic configurations which have been numerically simulated on the NEC-SXIA Supercomputer. 6 refs

  12. Aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth with flexible wings: a computational approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Insect wings are deformable structures that change shape passively and dynamically owing to inertial and aerodynamic forces during flight. It is still unclear how the three-dimensional and passive change of wing kinematics owing to inherent wing flexibility contributes to unsteady aerodynamics and energetics in insect flapping flight. Here, we perform a systematic fluid-structure interaction based analysis on the aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth, Manduca, with an integrated comp...

  13. A FMM-FFT accelerated hybrid volume surface integral equation solver for electromagnetic analysis of re-entry space vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Yü cel, Abdulkadir C.; Gomez, Luis J.; Liu, Yang; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Space vehicles that re-enter the atmosphere often experience communication blackout. The blackout occurs when the vehicle becomes engulfed in plasma produced by interactions between the vehicle surface and the atmosphere. The plasma often

  14. Numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.; Ballhaus, W.F. Jr.; Bailey, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program is designed to provide a leading-edge computational capability to the aerospace community. It was recognized early in the program that, in addition to more advanced computers, the entire computational process ranging from problem formulation to publication of results needed to be improved to realize the full impact of computational aerodynamics. Therefore, the NAS Program has been structured to focus on the development of a complete system that can be upgraded periodically with minimum impact on the user and on the inventory of applications software. The implementation phase of the program is now under way. It is based upon nearly 8 yr of study and should culminate in an initial operational capability before 1986. The objective of this paper is fivefold: 1) to discuss the factors motivating the NAS program, 2) to provide a history of the activity, 3) to describe each of the elements of the processing-system network, 4) to outline the proposed allocation of time to users of the facility, and 5) to describe some of the candidate problems being considered for the first benchmark codes

  15. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    surrogate model, which captures the relationships between input variables and responses into regression equations. Depending on the dimensionality of the problem and the fidelity of the code for which a surrogate model is being created, the initial DOE can itself be computationally prohibitive to run. Cokriging, a modeling approach from the field of geostatistics, provides a desirable compromise between computational expense and fidelity. To do this, cokriging leverages a large body of data generated by a low fidelity analysis, combines it with a smaller set of data from a higher fidelity analysis, and creates a kriging surrogate model with prediction fidelity approaching that of the higher fidelity analysis. When integrated into a multidisciplinary environment, a disciplinary analysis module employing cokriging can raise the analysis fidelity without drastically impacting the expense of design iterations. This is demonstrated through the creation of an aerodynamics analysis module in NASA s OpenMDAO framework. Aerodynamic analyses including Missile DATCOM, APAS, and USM3D are leveraged to create high fidelity aerodynamics decks for parametric vehicle geometries, which are created in NASA s Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). Several trade studies are performed to examine the achieved level of model fidelity, and the overall impact to vehicle design is quantified.

  16. Integrated synoptic surveys using an autonomous underwater vehicle and manned boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional surface-water surveys are being combined with autonomous technology to produce integrated surveys of bathymetry, water quality, and velocity in inland lakes and reservoirs. This new technology provides valuable, high-resolution, integrated data that allow a systems-based approach to understanding common environmental problems. This fact sheet presents several example applications of integrated surveys within inland lakes and coastal Lake Michigan and Lake Erie.

  17. Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.

  18. Two-vehicle injury severity models based on integration of pavement management and traffic engineering factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ximiao; Huang, Baoshan; Yan, Xuedong; Zaretzki, Russell L; Richards, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The severity of traffic-related injuries has been studied by many researchers in recent decades. However, the evaluation of many factors is still in dispute and, until this point, few studies have taken into account pavement management factors as points of interest. The objective of this article is to evaluate the combined influences of pavement management factors and traditional traffic engineering factors on the injury severity of 2-vehicle crashes. This study examines 2-vehicle rear-end, sideswipe, and angle collisions that occurred on Tennessee state routes from 2004 to 2008. Both the traditional ordered probit (OP) model and Bayesian ordered probit (BOP) model with weak informative prior were fitted for each collision type. The performances of these models were evaluated based on the parameter estimates and deviances. The results indicated that pavement management factors played identical roles in all 3 collision types. Pavement serviceability produces significant positive effects on the severity of injuries. The pavement distress index (PDI), rutting depth (RD), and rutting depth difference between right and left wheels (RD_df) were not significant in any of these 3 collision types. The effects of traffic engineering factors varied across collision types, except that a few were consistently significant in all 3 collision types, such as annual average daily traffic (AADT), rural-urban location, speed limit, peaking hour, and light condition. The findings of this study indicated that improved pavement quality does not necessarily lessen the severity of injuries when a 2-vehicle crash occurs. The effects of traffic engineering factors are not universal but vary by the type of crash. The study also found that the BOP model with a weak informative prior can be used as an alternative but was not superior to the traditional OP model in terms of overall performance.

  19. Influence of Different Diffuser Angle on Sedan's Aerodynamic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingjun; Zhang, Rui; Ye, Jian; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Zhiming

    The aerodynamic characteristics have a great influence on the fuel economics and the steering stability of a high speed vehicle. The underbody rear diffuser is one of important aerodynamic add-on devices. The parameters of the diffuser, including the diffuser angle, the number and the shape of separators, the shape of the end plate and etc, will affect the underbody flow and the wake. Here, just the influence of the diffuser angle was investigated without separator and the end plate. The method of Computational Fluid Dynamics was adopted to study the aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified sedan with a different diffuser angle respectively. The diffuser angle was set to 0°, 3°, 6°, 9.8° and 12° respectively. The diffuser angle of the original model is 9.8°. The conclusions were drawn that when the diffuser angle increases, the underbody flow and especially the wake change greatly and the pressure change correspondingly; as a result, the total aerodynamic drag coefficients of car first decrease and then increases, while the total aerodynamic lift coefficients decrease.

  20. Pilot vehicle interface on the advanced fighter technology integration F-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, W. H.; Smith, W. B.; Howard, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on the work load aspects of the pilot vehicle interface in regard to the new technologies tested during AMAS Phase II. Subjects discussed in this paper include: a wide field-of-view head-up display; automated maneuvering attack system/sensor tracker system; master modes that configure flight controls and mission avionics; a modified helmet mounted sight; improved multifunction display capability; a voice interactive command system; ride qualities during automated weapon delivery; a color moving map; an advanced digital map display; and a g-induced loss-of-consciousness and spatial disorientation autorecovery system.

  1. Probabilistic Constrained Load Flow Considering Integration of Wind Power Generation and Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John)

    2009-01-01

    A new formulation and solution of probabilistic constrained load flow (PCLF) problem suitable for modern power systems with wind power generation and electric vehicles (EV) demand or supply is represented. The developed stochastic model of EV demand/supply and the wind power generation model...... are incorporated into load flow studies. In the resulted PCLF formulation, discrete and continuous control parameters are engaged. Therefore, a hybrid learning automata system (HLAS) is developed to find the optimal offline control settings over a whole planning period of power system. The process of HLAS...

  2. Vehicle-Level Reasoning Systems: Integrating System-Wide Data to Estimate the Instantaneous Health State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Mylaraswmay, Dinkar; Mah, Robert W.; Cooper, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    At the aircraft level, a Vehicle-Level Reasoning System (VLRS) can be developed to provide aircraft with at least two significant capabilities: improvement of aircraft safety due to enhanced monitoring and reasoning about the aircrafts health state, and also potential cost savings by enabling Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). Along with the benefits of CBM, an important challenge facing aviation safety today is safeguarding against system and component failures and malfunctions. Faults can arise in one or more aircraft subsystem their effects in one system may propagate to other subsystems, and faults may interact.

  3. VOLTTRON™: An Agent Platform for Integrating Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haack, Jereme N.; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Pratt, Richard M.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2013-12-06

    The VOLTTRON™ platform provides a secure environment for the deployment of intelligent applications in the smart grid. VOLTTRON design is based on the needs of control applications running on small form factor devices, namely security and resource guarantees. Services such as resource discovery, secure agent mobility, and interacting with smart and legacy devices are provided by the platform to ease the development of control applications and accelerate their deployment. VOLTTRON platform has been demonstrated in several different domains that influenced and enhanced its capabilities. This paper will discuss the features of VOLTTRON and highlight its usage to coordinate electric vehicle charging with home energy usage

  4. Non-isolated integrated motor drive and battery charger based on the split-phase PM motor for plug-in vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Guillén, Isabel; Bermejo Fernández, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    In electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, the utility grid charges the vehicle battery through a battery charger. Different solutions have been proposed to reduce the size and cost of the charger. One solution to achieve this is to include the devices used in the traction circuit in the charger circuit; this is called an integrated motor drive and battery charger. A split-phase PM motor, a motor with double set of windings, gives the opportunity to implement different wind...

  5. Drones for aerodynamic and structural testing /DAST/ - A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, H. N.; Eckstrom, C. V.

    1978-01-01

    A program for providing research data on aerodynamic loads and active control systems on wings with supercritical airfoils in the transonic speed range is described. Analytical development, wind tunnel tests, and flight tests are included. A Firebee II target drone vehicle has been modified for use as a flight test facility. The program currently includes flight experiments on two aeroelastic research wings. The primary purpose of the first flight experiment is to demonstrate an active control system for flutter suppression on a transport-type wing. Design and fabrication of the wing are complete and after installing research instrumentation and the flutter suppression system, flight testing is expected to begin in early 1979. The experiment on the second research wing - a fuel-conservative transport type - is to demonstrate multiple active control systems including flutter suppression, maneuver load alleviation, gust load alleviation, and reduce static stability. Of special importance for this second experiment is the development and validation of integrated design methods which include the benefits of active controls in the structural design.

  6. Integration and Validation of a Thermal Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Wolfe, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J. [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Levin, Michael [Ford Motor Company; Demitroff, Danrich [Ford Motor Company; Shaikh, Furqan [Ford Motor Company

    2017-03-01

    It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work.The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements. The final system development for EV implementation has occurred on a mid-range EV and has been evaluated for its capability to extend the driving range. Both simulated driving in a climatic tunnel and actual road testing have been carried out. The ePATHS has demonstrated its ability to supply the entire cabin heating needs for a round trip commute totaling 46 minutes, including 8 hours of parking, at an ambient temperature of -10°C.

  7. Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs represents an operational challenge to system operators, mainly at the distribution level by introducing congestion and voltage drop problems. To solve these potential problems, a two-level coordination approach is proposed in this study. An aggregation entity, i.e., an EV virtual power plant (EV-VPP, is used to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO and EV owners considering the decentralized electricity market structure. In level I, to prevent the line congestion and voltage drop problems, the EV-VPP internally respects the line and voltage constraints when making optimal charging schedules. In level II, to avoid power transformer congestion problems, this paper investigates three different coordination mechanisms, or power transformer capacity allocation mechanisms, between the DSO and the EV-VPPs, considering the case of EVs charging and discharging. The three mechanisms include: (1 a market-based approach; (2 a pro-rata approach; and (3 a newly-proposed constrained market-based approach. A case study considering a 37-bus distribution network and high penetration of electric vehicles is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed coordination mechanism, comparing with the existing ones.

  8. Design, construction and integration of hybrid drive components in commercial vehicles. The MAN hybrid drive truck TGL 12.220; Auslegung, Aufbau und Integration von Hybrid-Antriebskomponenten im Nutzfahrzeug. Der MAN Hybrid-Verteiler-Lkw TGL 12.220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschl, Stefan; Hipp, Eberhand; Doebereiner, Rolf [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In contrast to the passenger car the drive train of commercial vehicles is designed basically in view of a maximum efficiency, because the fuel consumption has a determining portion in the vehicle operating expenses of the operators. The pay load of the vehicle also has a high value, in particular in the small and middle segment from 8 t of total weight. In view of pollutant issues the environmental zones which may be also driven by commercial vehicles only from a certain pollutant class were already furnished by many local authority districts. Additional demands for a purely, emission free electric short distance operation can result from suitable emission editions in bigger towns in future. MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG meet these topical challenges with the development of a hybriddelivery truck of the 12 t - class. At this the aim is to meet to the demands after low CO{sub 2} issue and purely electric operation by a powerful battery system and the recuperation of brake energy. For the integration of the hybrid components in the vehicle it was respected to preserve the pay load of the vehicle without limiting the functionality. The dimensioning of the hybrid drive train for a delivery truck vehicle, the vehicle integration and the effects on the lifecycle economics are lighted up in the following. (orig.)

  9. Aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth with flexible wings: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao

    2012-02-22

    Insect wings are deformable structures that change shape passively and dynamically owing to inertial and aerodynamic forces during flight. It is still unclear how the three-dimensional and passive change of wing kinematics owing to inherent wing flexibility contributes to unsteady aerodynamics and energetics in insect flapping flight. Here, we perform a systematic fluid-structure interaction based analysis on the aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth, Manduca, with an integrated computational model of a hovering insect with rigid and flexible wings. Aerodynamic performance of flapping wings with passive deformation or prescribed deformation is evaluated in terms of aerodynamic force, power and efficiency. Our results reveal that wing flexibility can increase downwash in wake and hence aerodynamic force: first, a dynamic wing bending is observed, which delays the breakdown of leading edge vortex near the wing tip, responsible for augmenting the aerodynamic force-production; second, a combination of the dynamic change of wing bending and twist favourably modifies the wing kinematics in the distal area, which leads to the aerodynamic force enhancement immediately before stroke reversal. Moreover, an increase in hovering efficiency of the flexible wing is achieved as a result of the wing twist. An extensive study of wing stiffness effect on aerodynamic performance is further conducted through a tuning of Young's modulus and thickness, indicating that insect wing structures may be optimized not only in terms of aerodynamic performance but also dependent on many factors, such as the wing strength, the circulation capability of wing veins and the control of wing movements.

  10. Darrieus rotor aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, P. C.

    1982-05-01

    A summary of the progress of modeling the aerodynamic effects on the blades of a Darrieus wind turbine is presented. Interference is discussed in terms of blade/blade wake interaction and improvements in single and multiple stream tube models, of vortex simulations of blades and their wakes, and a hybrid momentum/vortex code to combine fast computation time with interference-describing capabilities. An empirical model has been developed for treating the properties of dynamic stall such as airfoil geometry, Reynolds number, reduced frequency, angle-of-attack, and Mach number. Pitching circulation has been subjected to simulation as potential flow about a two-dimensional flat plate, along with applications of the concepts of virtual camber and virtual incidence, with a cambered airfoil operating in a rectilinear flowfield. Finally, a need to develop a loading model suitable for nonsymmetrical blade sections is indicated, as well as blade behavior in a dynamic, curvilinear regime.

  11. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  12. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  13. Introduction to transonic aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, Roelof

    2015-01-01

    Written to teach students the nature of transonic flow and its mathematical foundation, this book offers a much-needed introduction to transonic aerodynamics. The authors present a quantitative and qualitative assessment of subsonic, supersonic, and transonic flow around bodies in two and three dimensions. The book reviews the governing equations and explores their applications and limitations as employed in modeling and computational fluid dynamics.  Some concepts, such as shock and expansion theory, are examined from a numerical perspective. Others, including shock-boundary-layer interaction, are discussed from a qualitative point of view. The book includes 60 examples and more than 200 practice problems. The authors also offer analytical methods such as Method of Characteristics (MOC) that allow readers to practice with the subject matter.  The result is a wealth of insight into transonic flow phenomena and their impact on aircraft design, including compressibility effects, shock and expansion waves, sho...

  14. Cable Aerodynamic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth

    to a categorization of the different control technics together with an identification of two key mechanisms for reduction of the design drag force. During this project extensive experimental work examining the aerodynamics of the currently used cable surface modifications together with new innovative proposals have...... been conducted. The two current prevailing systems consisting of helically filleted cables and cables with a pattern-indented surface were directly compared under the same conditions and both applications were found with attractive properties. The pattern-indented surface maintained a low supercritical...... of reducing the intensity of the axial flow and disrupting the near wake flow structures. Similar studies during wet conditions with artificial simulation of light rain in the wind tunnel showed that the plain cable suffered from severe rain-wind induced vibrations. But despite the presence of both upper...

  15. Object Oriented Programmable Integrated Circuit (OOPic) Upgrade and Evaluation for Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    ...). Sensors with the OOPic, and the XBee Wireless Suite were included in the integration. Tests were conducted, including range and time operation analysis for wireless communications for comparison with the legacy BL2000 microcontroller...

  16. National platform electromobility. Interims report of the working group 1 propulsion technology and vehicle integration; Nationale Plattform Elektromobilitaet. Zwischenbericht der Arbeitsgruppe 1 Antriebstechnologie und Fahrzeugintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusinger, Josefin [Koordinierungsstelle der Industrie fuer die Nationale Plattform Elektromobilitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The working group ''Propulsion technology and vehicle integration'' investigates electrical and electrified powertrains for the employment in passenger cars and commercial vehicles regarding to the goals of the national platform electrical mobility. Apart from the optimization of the architecture and the gradual physical integration of the components into drive modules the material research for new magnetic materials, for the surface refinement and basic research for the semiconductor technology/physics is a further compelling condition for long-term successes in the area of electric drives. Parallel to the increase of unit productions the degree of automation has to be improved significantly. The costs are to be affected positively by large numbers of unit productions. A bundling, acceleration and promotion of the activities from the research to the development in competence centres and landmark projects for the propulsion technology and vehicle integration are recommended. This is to be used by means of the existing instruments of the industrial community research.

  17. Technical evaluation report, AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Symposium on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics was to provide an update of the stae-of-the-art with respect to the prediction, simulation, and measurement of the effects of icing, anti-icing fluids, and various precipitation on the aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicles. Sessions were devoted to introductory and survey papers and icing certification issues, to analytical and experimental simulation of ice frost contamination and its effects of aerodynamics, and to the effects of heavy rain and deicing/anti-icing fluids.

  18. ISAC - A tool for aeroservoelastic modeling and analysis. [Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M., Jr.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the capabilities of the Interaction of Structures, Aerodynamics, and Controls (ISAC) system of program modules. The major modeling, analysis, and data management components of ISAC are identified. Equations of motion are displayed for a Laplace-domain representation of the unsteady aerodynamic forces. Options for approximating a frequency-domain representation of unsteady aerodynamic forces with rational functions of the Laplace variable are shown. Linear time invariant state-space equations of motion that result are discussed. Model generation and analyses of stability and dynamic response characteristics are shown for an aeroelastic vehicle which illustrate some of the capabilities of ISAC as a modeling and analysis tool for aeroelastic applications.

  19. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Technology Development Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Wright, Henry S.; Wusk, Mary E.; Hughes, Monica F.

    2013-01-01

    The successful flight of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE)-3 has further demonstrated the potential value of Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology. This technology development effort is funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). This paper provides an overview of a multi-year HIAD technology development effort, detailing the projects completed to date and the additional testing planned for the future.

  20. An SCR inverter with an integral battery charger for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmeach, D.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating an onboard battery charger into the inverter previously developed under a NASA contract is successfully demonstrated. The rated output power of the resulting isolated battery charger is 3.6 kW at 220 Vac with an 86 percent efficiency and a 95 percent power factor. Also achieved are improved inverter efficiency (from 90 to 93 percent at 15 kW motor shaft power), inverter peak power capability (from 26 to 34 kW), and reduced weight and volume of the combined inverter/charger package (47 kg, 49 x 44 x 24 cm). Some major conclusions are that using the inverter commutation circuitry to perform the battery charging function is advantageous, and that the input-commutated thyristor inverter has the potential to be an excellent inverter and battery charger for use in electric vehicle applications.

  1. Integration of electric vehicles with optimum sized storage for grid connected photo-voltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulabh Sachan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of energy storage by means of battery/EV is exceedingly expected in event of energy blackouts. Different advantages incorporate sparing the cash in purchasing top time power and support the grid when grid power is deficit against the load demand. In this paper, ideal size of energy storage in a grid associated photovoltaic (PV framework is proposed. The methodology of energy flow choice is produced with the appraisal on accessibility of PV yield control and the load demand. The energy flow decision is changed by peak and off peak hours to shorten the functional cost of the grid associated PV framework with storage. Naturally, the quantities of electric vehicles that can be associated are resolved.

  2. Electric vehicle charging to support renewable energy integration in a capacity constrained electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Examination of EV charging in a wind rich area with transmission constraints. • Multiple survey instruments to determine transportation needs, when charging occurs. • Simple charging, time-of-day scheduled, and ideal smart charging investigated. • Export power peaks reduced by 2% with TOD, 10% with smart charging 10% of fleet. • Smart charging EVs enables enough added wind capacity to power the fleet. - Abstract: Digby, Nova Scotia, is a largely rural area with a wealth of renewable energy resources, principally wind and tidal. Digby’s electrical load is serviced by an aging 69 kV transmission line that often operates at the export capacity limit because of a local wind energy converter (WEC) field. This study examines the potential of smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) to achieve two objectives: (1) add load so as to increase export capacity; (2) charge EVs using renewable energy. Multiple survey instruments were used to determine transportation energy needs and travel timing. These were used to create EV charging load timeseries based on “convenience”, “time-of-day”, and idealized “smart” charging. These charging scenarios were evaluated in combination with high resolution data of generation at the wind field, electrical flow through the transmission system, and electricity load. With a 10% adoption rate of EVs, time-of-day charging increased local renewable energy usage by 20% and enables marginal WEC upgrading. Smart charging increases charging by local renewable energy by 73%. More significantly, it adds 3 MW of load when power exports face constraints, allowing enough additional renewable electricity generation capacity to fully power those vehicles.

  3. Integrity monitoring of vehicle positioning in urban environment using RTK-GNSS, IMU and speedometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed; Kubo, Nobuaki

    2017-05-01

    Continuous and trustworthy positioning is a critical capability for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). To achieve continuous positioning, methods such as global navigation satellite systems real-time kinematic (RTK), Doppler-based positioning, and positioning using low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) with car speedometer data are combined in this study. To ensure reliable positioning, the system should have integrity monitoring above a certain level, such as 99%. Achieving this level when combining different types of measurements that have different characteristics and different types of errors is a challenge. In this study, a novel integrity monitoring approach is presented for the proposed integrated system. A threat model of the measurements of the system components is discussed, which includes both the nominal performance and possible fault modes. A new protection level is presented to bound the maximum directional position error. The proposed approach was evaluated through a kinematic test in an urban area in Japan with a focus on horizontal positioning. Test results show that by integrating RTK, Doppler with IMU/speedometer, 100% positioning availability was achieved. The integrity monitoring availability was assessed and found to meet the target value where the position errors were bounded by the protection level, which was also less than an alert level, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Integrity monitoring of vehicle positioning in urban environment using RTK-GNSS, IMU and speedometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed; Kubo, Nobuaki

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and trustworthy positioning is a critical capability for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). To achieve continuous positioning, methods such as global navigation satellite systems real-time kinematic (RTK), Doppler-based positioning, and positioning using low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) with car speedometer data are combined in this study. To ensure reliable positioning, the system should have integrity monitoring above a certain level, such as 99%. Achieving this level when combining different types of measurements that have different characteristics and different types of errors is a challenge. In this study, a novel integrity monitoring approach is presented for the proposed integrated system. A threat model of the measurements of the system components is discussed, which includes both the nominal performance and possible fault modes. A new protection level is presented to bound the maximum directional position error. The proposed approach was evaluated through a kinematic test in an urban area in Japan with a focus on horizontal positioning. Test results show that by integrating RTK, Doppler with IMU/speedometer, 100% positioning availability was achieved. The integrity monitoring availability was assessed and found to meet the target value where the position errors were bounded by the protection level, which was also less than an alert level, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (paper)

  5. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-02-11

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

  6. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  7. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Malaver

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

  8. Active integration of electric vehicles in the distribution network - theory, modelling and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina

    an attractive asset for the distribution system operator (DSO). This thesis investigates how EVs can mitigate the self-induced adverse effects and actively help the distribution grid operation, either autonomously or in coordination, e.g., with an EV aggregator. The general framework for EV integration...

  9. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gülçat, Ülgen

    2010-01-01

    This introduction to the principles of unsteady aerodynamics covers all the core concepts, provides readers with a review of the fundamental physics, terminology and basic equations, and covers hot new topics such as the use of flapping wings for propulsion.

  10. Naval Aerodynamics Test Facility (NATF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NATF specializes in Aerodynamics testing of scaled and fullsized Naval models, research into flow physics found on US Navy planes and ships, aerosol testing and...

  11. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an entry and descent technology to enhance and enable robotic and scientific missions to destinations with atmospheres.The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic...

  12. Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.

  13. Aerodynamic improvement of a delta wing in combination with leading edge flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadateru Ishide

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various studies of micro air vehicle (MAV and unmanned air vehicle (UAV have been reported from wide range points of view. The aim of this study is to research the aerodynamic improvement of delta wing in low Reynold’s number region to develop an applicative these air vehicle. As an attractive tool in delta wing, leading edge flap (LEF is employed to directly modify the strength and structure of vortices originating from the separation point along the leading edge. Various configurations of LEF such as drooping apex flap and upward deflected flap are used in combination to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics in the delta wing. The fluid force measurement by six component load cell and particle image velocimetry (PIV analysis are performed as the experimental method. The relations between the aerodynamic superiority and the vortex behavior around the models are demonstrated.

  14. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  15. Dynamic soaring: aerodynamics for albatrosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Albatrosses have evolved to soar and glide efficiently. By maximizing their lift-to-drag ratio L/D, albatrosses can gain energy from the wind and can travel long distances with little effort. We simplify the difficult aerodynamic equations of motion by assuming that albatrosses maintain a constant L/D. Analytic solutions to the simplified equations provide an instructive and appealing example of fixed-wing aerodynamics suitable for undergraduate demonstration

  16. Aerodynamical calculation of turbomachinery bladings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruehauf, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Various flow models are presented in comparison to one another, these flow models being obtained from the basic equations of turbomachinery aerodynamics by means of a series of simplifying assumptions on the spatial distribution of the flow quantities. The simplifying assumptions are analysed precisely. With their knowledge it is possible to construct more accurate simplified flow models, which are necessary for the efficient aerodynamical development of highperformance turbomachinery bladings by means of numerical methods. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  17. Artificial intelligent decision support for low-cost launch vehicle integrated mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, Gerard P.; Schultz, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI) Expert Systems applied to low cost space expendable launch vehicle systems are reviewed. This study is in support of the joint USAF/NASA effort to define the next generation of a heavy-lift Advanced Launch System (ALS) which will provide economical and routine access to space. The significant technical goals of the ALS program include: a 10 fold reduction in cost per pound to orbit, launch processing in under 3 weeks, and higher reliability and safety standards than current expendables. Knowledge-based system techniques are being explored for the purpose of automating decision support processes in onboard and ground systems for pre-launch checkout and in-flight operations. Issues such as: satisfying real-time requirements, providing safety validation, hardware and Data Base Management System (DBMS) interfacing, system synergistic effects, human interfaces, and ease of maintainability, have an effect on the viability of expert systems as a useful tool.

  18. REAL-TIME MONITORING SYSTEM USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE INTEGRATED WITH SENSOR OBSERVATION SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Witayangkurn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS and Sensor Service Grid (SSG to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

  19. Integration of vehicle yaw stabilisation and rollover prevention through nonlinear hierarchical control allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberding, Matthäus B.; Tjønnås, Johannes; Johansen, Tor A.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents an approach to rollover prevention that takes advantage of the modular structure and optimisation properties of the control allocation paradigm. It eliminates the need for a stabilising roll controller by introducing rollover prevention as a constraint on the control allocation problem. The major advantage of this approach is the control authority margin that remains with a high-level controller even during interventions for rollover prevention. In this work, the high-level control is assigned to a yaw stabilising controller. It could be replaced by any other controller. The constraint for rollover prevention could be replaced by or extended to different control objectives. This work uses differential braking for actuation. The use of additional or different actuators is possible. The developed control algorithm is computationally efficient and suitable for low-cost automotive electronic control units. The predictive design of the rollover prevention constraint does not require any sensor equipment in addition to the yaw controller. The method is validated using an industrial multi-body vehicle simulation environment.

  20. Enabling Technologies for Smart Grid Integration and Interoperability of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus

    Conventional, centralized power plants are being replaced by intermittent, distributed renewable energy sources, thus raising the concern about the stability of the power grid in its current state. All the while, electrification of all forms of transportation is increasing the load...... for successful EV integration into the smart grid, as a smart, mobile distributed energy resource. The work is split into three key topics: enabling technologies, grid service applications and interoperability issues. The current state of e-mobility technologies is surveyed. Technologies and protocols...... EVs to not only mitigate their own effects on the grid, but also provide value to grid operators, locally as well as system wide. Finally, it is shown that active integration of EVs into the smart grid, is not only achievable, but is well on its way to becoming a reality....

  1. Utilization of a Vehicle Integrated Intelligence (V(INT)2) System in Armor Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    weaknesses or deficiencies in the plan such as blind spots or fire integration plans likely to result in either overkill or underkill (e.g., gaps). The...movement is used with this formation. 108 A PL TI.I TK2 . *Thiso~ A oiiaini sdweee h Figue 5-4. CmbatWedg PLL PS I 10 M4w ;ok *Thi modificatio isue-heee-h

  2. Simulating Dynamic Vehicle Maneuvers Using Finite Elements For Use In Design Of Integrated Composite Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Nicholas Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Formula SAE (FSAE) chassis systems are increasing being manufactured with integrated composite structures in an effort to increase the performance of the system while decreasing weight. The increased use of composite structures requires more details of the loading conditions and evaluation metrics than the mild steel structures they are replacing. The prototypical FSAE steel space frame chassis designs are heavily structured around the mandated safety rules that doubled as mostly satisfactory...

  3. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  4. Wind turbine aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    The need for clean, renewable electricity in remote communities of Canada and the world was discussed in this presentation. The University of Waterloo Wind Energy Laboratory (WEL) performs research in a large scale indoor environment on wind turbines, blade aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. A key area of research involves developing turbines for remote off-grid communities where climatic conditions are challenging. This presentation outlined research that is underway on wind energy and off-grid renewable energy systems. Many communities in Canada and remote communities in the rest of the world are not connected to the grid and are dependent on other means to supply electrical energy to their community. Remote communities in northern Canada have no road access and diesel is the dominant source of electrical energy for these communities. All of the community supply of diesel comes from brief winter road access or by air. The presentation discussed existing diesel systems and the solution of developing local renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and solar power. Research goals, wind energy activities, experimental equipment, and the results were also presented. Research projects have been developed in wind energy; hydrogen generation/storage/utilization; power electronics/microgrid; and community engagement. figs.

  5. Aerodynamics of badminton shuttlecocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aekaansh; Desai, Ajinkya; Mittal, Sanjay

    2013-08-01

    A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock considered is in the range of 25-50 m/s. The relative contribution of various parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.

  6. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  7. Integration of the virtual model of a Stewart platform with the avatar of a vehicle in a virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2016-08-01

    The development of methods of computer aided design and engineering allows conducting virtual tests, among others concerning motion simulation of technical means. The paper presents a method of integrating an object in the form of a virtual model of a Stewart platform with an avatar of a vehicle moving in a virtual environment. The area of the problem includes issues related to the problem of fidelity of mapping the work of the analyzed technical mean. The main object of investigations is a 3D model of a Stewart platform, which is a subsystem of the simulator designated for driving learning for disabled persons. The analyzed model of the platform, prepared for motion simulation, was created in the “Motion Simulation” module of a CAD/CAE class system Siemens PLM NX. Whereas the virtual environment, in which the moves the avatar of the passenger car, was elaborated in a VR class system EON Studio. The element integrating both of the mentioned software environments is a developed application that reads information from the virtual reality (VR) concerning the current position of the car avatar. Then, basing on the accepted algorithm, it sends control signals to respective joints of the model of the Stewart platform (CAD).

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment

  9. New Look at Nonlinear Aerodynamics in Analysis of Hypersonic Panel Flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simply supported plate fluttering in hypersonic flow is investigated considering both the airflow and structural nonlinearities. Third-order piston theory is used for nonlinear aerodynamic loading, and von Karman plate theory is used for modeling the nonlinear strain-displacement relation. The Galerkin method is applied to project the partial differential governing equations (PDEs into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs in time, which is then solved by numerical integration method. In observation of limit cycle oscillations (LCO and evolution of dynamic behaviors, nonlinear aerodynamic loading produces a smaller positive deflection peak and more complex bifurcation diagrams compared with linear aerodynamics. Moreover, a LCO obtained with the linear aerodynamics is mostly a nonsimple harmonic motion but when the aerodynamic nonlinearity is considered more complex motions are obtained, which is important in the evaluation of fatigue life. The parameters of Mach number, dynamic pressure, and in-plane thermal stresses all affect the aerodynamic nonlinearity. For a specific Mach number, there is a critical dynamic pressure beyond which the aerodynamic nonlinearity has to be considered. For a higher temperature, a lower critical dynamic pressure is required. Each nonlinear aerodynamic term in the full third-order piston theory is evaluated, based on which the nonlinear aerodynamic formulation has been simplified.

  10. Costs and Operating Dynamics of Integrating Distributed Energy Resources in Commercial and Industrial Buildings with Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Robert Joseph

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions have increased the pressure to shift energy conversion paradigms from current forms to more sustainable methods, such as through the use of distributed energy resources (DER) at industrial and commercial buildings. This dissertation is concerned with the optimal design and dispatch of a DER system installed at an industrial or commercial building. An optimization model that accurately captures typical utility costs and the physical constraints of a combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is designed to size and operate a DER system at a building. The optimization model is then used with cooperative game theory to evaluate the financial performance of a CCHP investment. The CCHP model is then modified to include energy storage, solar powered generators, alternative fuel sources, carbon emission limits, and building interactions with public and fleet PEVs. Then, a separate plugin electric vehicle (PEV) refueling model is developed to determine the cost to operate a public Level 3 fast charging station. The CCHP design and dispatch results show the size of the building load and consistency of the thermal loads are critical to positive financial performance. While using the CCHP system to produce cooling can provide savings, heat production drives positive financial performance. When designing the DER system to reduce carbon emissions, the use of renewable fuels can allow for a gas turbine system with heat recovery to reduce carbon emissions for a large university by 67%. Further reductions require large photovoltaic installations coupled with energy storage or the ability to export electricity back to the grid if costs are to remain relatively low. When considering Level 3 fast charging equipment, demand charges at low PEV travel levels are sufficiently high to discourage adoption. Integration of the equipment can reduce demand charge costs only if the building maximum demand does not coincide

  11. Results of a jet plume effects test on Rockwell International integrated space shuttle vehicle using a vehicle 5 configuration 0.02-scale model (88-OTS) in the 11 by 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (IA19), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of jet plume effects test IA19 using a vehicle 5 configuration integrated space shuttle vehicle 0.02-scale model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 x 11-foot leg of the unitary plan wind tunnel. The jet plume power effects on the integrated vehicle static pressure distribution were determined along with elevon, main propulsion system nozzle, and solid rocket booster nozzle effectiveness and elevon hinge moments.

  12. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling for the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle: AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph; Seidel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural-aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report.propulsion system dynamics, the structural dynamics, and aerodynamics.

  13. What contribution of the electric-powered vehicle to the ecological transition in France? Environmental issues and integration perspectives of mobility and energy ecosystems. The electric-powered vehicle in the ecological transition in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheron, Marie; Gilbert-d'Halluin, Abrial; Schuller, Aurelien; Bailleul, Esther; Beretta, Joseph; Castelli, Marie; Bouteille, Adrien; Marie, Francois; Crohas, Jean-Baptiste; Lacout, Beatrice; Siret, Clemence; Limousin, Lorelei; Mignon, Herve; Colombo, Emanuele; Pasquier, Maxime; Osset, Philippe; Beaudard, Cecile; Bauchot, Dephine; Cluzel, Celine; Payet, Jerome; Teulon, Helene

    2017-12-01

    A large deployment of plug-in vehicles in France can contribute to reduce the climate impact of cars while reaching the ambitions of the French energy transition law. According to this technical report, launched by the ECF and Fondation pour l'Homme et la Nature, vehicle to grid and Second life batteries can accelerate the deployment of renewable energy sources (RES) and ensure better grid stability. The project was conducted over 18 months with the input from the French's automotive sector, battery suppliers, transmission system operators and environmental NGOs, and was underpinned by energy modeling by Carbon 4. The project team built a balanced evidence base on the contribution of EVs towards transport decarbonization and to RES integration in France by 2030. The project also identified the key levers to reduce the remaining impacts on the environment via life cycle analysis on five indicators (Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Abiotic Depletion, Eutrophication Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential). The analysis shows today, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of a small Battery Electric Vehicle (e.g. Zoe - 22 kWh) is 70% less than the GWP of a small gasoline car. The GWP of a large BEV is 57% less than the GWP of large diesel car. In 2030, the gap between Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) is reduced due to the mild-hybridization of ICE vehicles but BEVs still have less life cycle emissions. Recycling is an important element to reduce life-cycle impacts of large BEVs and should be incentivized. On average, a 30% increase of the battery recycling mass rate leads to a 14% decrease of the overall EV's GWP. BEVs contribute to renewable energies integration. In case the infrastructure is in place, the use of vehicle-to-grid services can ensure grid stabilization, in particular during peak demand. The technical V2G potential for an average Winter day of 1.3 million vehicles (30

  14. Numerical simulation of hypersonic flight experiment vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Yukimitsu; Yoshioka, Minako; 山本 行光; 吉岡 美菜子

    1994-01-01

    Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of Hypersonic FLight EXperiment (HYFLEX vehicle were investigated by numerical simulations using Navier-Stokes CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code of NAL. Numerical results were compared with experimental data obtained at Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at NAL. In order to investigate real flight aerodynamic characteristics. numerical calculations corresponding to the flight conditions suffering from maximum aero thermodynamic heating were also made and the d...

  15. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Pad Abort Test Vehicle (PATV) II Attitude Control System (ACS) Integration and Pressurization Subsystem Dynamic Random Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.

  16. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  17. Discrete vortex method simulations of aerodynamic admittance in bridge aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Larsen, Allan

    , and to determine aerodynamic forces and the corresponding flutter limit. A simulation of the three-dimensional bridge responseto turbulent wind is carried out by quasi steady theory by modelling the bridge girder as a line like structure [2], applying the aerodynamic load coefficients found from the current version......The meshless and remeshed Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) has been widely used in academia and by the industry to model two-dimensional flow around bluff bodies. The implementation “DVMFLOW” [1] is used by the bridge design company COWI to determine and visualise the flow field around bridge sections...

  18. Recent topics on aerodynamic noise; Kuriki soon ni kansuru saikin no wadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    For measures to deal with aerodynamic noise, recent subjects were put in order and some examples of the studies were introduced in this paper. Aerodynamic noise can be classified into rotational aerodynamic noise such as jet engine fans or helicopter rotors and general aerodynamic noise such as high speed jet noise, high speed air flow inside piping, and external noise from vehicles, cars and aeroplanes. The aerodynamic noise of the air flow radiated from a wind tunnel exit was caused more or less by the pressure fluctuation of a boundary layer in a high frequency wave region. In checking the noise generated from a difference in level, projection, cavity, opening, etc., of a high speed vehicle in a wind tunnel test, the noise was louder in the case of a difference in level where the downstream side was raised. The finding was similar with projections. In the rear of a super sonic choke part, a strong flow was generated and became a violent noise source when a flow was overexpanded and a pressure was recovered with a sonic boom. However, the noise was greatly reduced by installing a porous material such as a porous metal immediately behind the choke part. An active control of noise was carried out by changing a sound field characteristic against aerodynamic self-excited noise with a speaker. 32 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Enhanced integrated converter. Combined cabled-connected and inductive charging of electric vehicles; Hoeher integrierter Stromrichter. Kombiniert kabelgebundenes und induktives Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Marco; Barth, Heike; Braun, Martin [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The main goal of the German energy concept is the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions in which regenerative energy and electromobility play a pioneering role. Large emission reductions can be made through the use of electric vehicles charged with renewable energy, where the battery acts as mobile storage unit. Current charging systems only allow for cable based charging. New developments now permit vehicle battery charging via contactless, inductive methods. Using the same power electronics and inductors, a new, higher integrated inverter is capable of both single and three phase charging as well as inductive charging. (orig.)

  20. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gülçat, Ülgen

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references.   The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.

  1. Inflatable Re-Entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) Design Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.; Starr, Brett R.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Lindell, Michael C.; Player, Charles J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    2005-01-01

    Inflatable aeroshells offer several advantages over traditional rigid aeroshells for atmospheric entry. Inflatables offer increased payload volume fraction of the launch vehicle shroud and the possibility to deliver more payload mass to the surface for equivalent trajectory constraints. An inflatable s diameter is not constrained by the launch vehicle shroud. The resultant larger drag area can provide deceleration equivalent to a rigid system at higher atmospheric altitudes, thus offering access to higher landing sites. When stowed for launch and cruise, inflatable aeroshells allow access to the payload after the vehicle is integrated for launch and offer direct access to vehicle structure for structural attachment with the launch vehicle. They also offer an opportunity to eliminate system duplication between the cruise stage and entry vehicle. There are however several potential technical challenges for inflatable aeroshells. First and foremost is the fact that they are flexible structures. That flexibility could lead to unpredictable drag performance or an aerostructural dynamic instability. In addition, durability of large inflatable structures may limit their application. They are susceptible to puncture, a potentially catastrophic insult, from many possible sources. Finally, aerothermal heating during planetary entry poses a significant challenge to a thin membrane. NASA Langley Research Center and NASA's Wallops Flight Facility are jointly developing inflatable aeroshell technology for use on future NASA missions. The technology will be demonstrated in the Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE). This paper will detail the development of the initial IRVE inflatable system to be launched on a Terrier/Orion sounding rocket in the fourth quarter of CY2005. The experiment will demonstrate achievable packaging efficiency of the inflatable aeroshell for launch, inflation, leak performance of the inflatable system throughout the flight regime, structural

  2. Definition, technology readiness, and development cost of the orbit transfer vehicle engine integrated control and health monitoring system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.

    1991-01-01

    An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.

  3. Thermal Performance of Motor and Inverter in an Integrated Starter Generator System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If the integrated starter generator (ISG motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and inverter, and then carried out both a model analysis and an experiment on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system under various operating conditions. As the outdoor temperature increased from 25 °C to 95 °C, the coil temperature of the air-cooled motor increased by about 82 °C. Under the harsh-air condition of 95 °C, the coil of the air-cooled motor increased to a maximum temperature of about 158.5 °C. We also determined that the temperature of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET chip in the liquid-cooled inverter increased to a maximum temperature of about 96.8 °C under a coolant flow rate of 4 L/min and a coolant temperature of 65 °C. The observed thermal performance of the ISG motor and inverter using the proposed cooling structures was found to be sufficient for heat loads under various real driving conditions for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV.

  4. Electromagnetic-Thermal Integrated Design Optimization for Hypersonic Vehicle Short-Time Duty PM Brushless DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High reliability is required for the permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PM-BLDCM in an electrical pump of hypersonic vehicle. The PM-BLDCM is a short-time duty motor with high-power-density. Since thermal equilibrium is not reached for the PM-BLDCM, the temperature distribution is not uniform and there is a risk of local overheating. The winding is a main heat source and its insulation is thermally sensitive, so reducing the winding temperature rise is the key to the improvement of the reliability. In order to reduce the winding temperature rise, an electromagnetic-thermal integrated design optimization method is proposed. The method is based on electromagnetic analysis and thermal transient analysis. The requirements and constraints of electromagnetic and thermal design are considered in this method. The split ratio and the maximum flux density in stator lamination, which are highly relevant to the windings temperature rise, are optimized analytically. The analytical results are verified by finite element analysis (FEA and experiments. The maximum error between the analytical and the FEA results is 4%. The errors between the analytical and measured windings temperature rise are less than 8%. It can be proved that the method can obtain the optimal design accurately to reduce the winding temperature rise.

  5. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  6. The aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we present state-of-the-art of research in wind turbine aerodynamics. We start be giving a brief historical review and a survey over aerodynamic research in wind energy. Next, we focus on some recent research results obtained by our wind energy group at Department of Mechanical...... Engineering at DTU. In particular, we show some new results on the classical problem of the ideal rotor and present a series of new results from an on-going research project dealing with the modelling and simulation of turbulent flow structures in the wake behind wind turbines....

  7. Feasibility of Determining Aerodynamic Coefficients for a NASA Apollo Body With the Use of Telemetry Data From Free Flight Range Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Topper, Benjamin; Brown, T. G; Bukowski, Edward; Davis, Bradford S; Hall, Rex A; Muller, Peter C; Vong, Timothy T; Brandon, Fred J

    2007-01-01

    ... s) Langley Research Center to perform a free-flight experiment with telemetry (TM) instrumented sub-scaled re-entry vehicle in order to determine the feasibility of using TM to obtain aerodynamic coefficients...

  8. Engineering models in wind energy aerodynamics : Development, implementation and analysis using dedicated aerodynamic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of aerodynamics is of major importance for the successful deployment of wind energy. As a matter of fact there are two aerodynamic areas in the wind energy technology: Rotor aerodynamics and wind farm aerodynamics. The first subject considers the flow around the rotor and the second

  9. Aerodynamic Limits on Large Civil Tiltrotor Sizing and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C W.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor (2nd generation, or LCTR2) is a useful reference design for technology impact studies. The present paper takes a broad view of technology assessment by examining the extremes of what aerodynamic improvements might hope to accomplish. Performance was analyzed with aerodynamically idealized rotor, wing, and airframe, representing the physical limits of a large tiltrotor. The analysis was repeated with more realistic assumptions, which revealed that increased maximum rotor lift capability is potentially more effective in improving overall vehicle efficiency than higher rotor or wing efficiency. To balance these purely theoretical studies, some practical limitations on airframe layout are also discussed, along with their implications for wing design. Performance of a less efficient but more practical aircraft with non-tilting nacelles is presented.

  10. Ground effect aerodynamics of racing cars

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Toet, Willem; Zerihan, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    We review the progress made during the last thirty years on ground effect aerodynamics associated with race cars, in particular open wheel race cars. Ground effect aerodynamics of race cars is concerned with generating downforce, principally via low pressure on the surfaces nearest to the ground. The “ground effected” parts of an open wheeled car's aerodynamics are the most aerodynamically efficient and contribute less drag than that associated with, for example, an upper rear wing. Whilst dr...

  11. Network integration modelling of feeder and BRT(bus rapid transit) to reduce the usage of private vehicles in Palembang’s suburban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur'afalia, D.; Afifa, F.; Rubianto, L.; Handayeni, K. D. M. E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the optimal feeder network route that integrates with BRT (Bus Rapid Transit). Palembang, a high growing population city with unresolved transportation demand sector. BRT as main public transportation could not fulfill people’s demand in transportation, especially in Alang-Alang Lebar sub-district. As an impact, the usage of private vehicles increases along the movement toward the city center. The concept of Network Integration that integrates feeder network with BRT is expected to be a solution to suppress the rate of private vehicles’ usage and to improve public transportation service, so that the use of BRT will be increased in the suburban area of Palembang. The method used to identifying the optimal route using Route Analysis method is route analysis using Tranetsim 0.4. The best route is obtained based on 156 movement samples. The result is 58,7% from 199 mobility’s potency of private vehicle usage’s can be reduced if there is a feeder network’s route in Alang-Alang Lebar’s sub-district. From the result, the existance of integration between feeder network and BRT is potential enough to reduce the usage of private vehicles and supports the sustainability of transportation mobility in Palembang City.

  12. Aerodynamic Aspects of Wind Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the most important aerodynamic research topics in the field of wind energy. Wind turbine aerodynamics concerns the modeling and prediction of aerodynamic forces, such as performance predictions of wind farms, and the design of specific parts of wind turbines, such as rotor...

  13. Wind Turbine Aerodynamics from an Aerospace Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Garrel, Arne; ten Pas, Sebastiaan; Venner, Cornelis H.; van Muijden, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    The current challenges in wind turbine aerodynamics simulations share a number of similarities with the challenges that the aerospace industry has faced in the past. Some of the current challenges in the aerospace aerodynamics community are also relevant for today’s wind turbine aerodynamics

  14. Aerodynamic models for a Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunie, P.; Beguier, C.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Delclaux, F.

    1982-11-01

    Various models proposed for the aerodynamics of Darrieus wind turbines are reviewed. The magnitude of the L/D ratio for a Darrieus rotor blade is dependent on the profile, the Re, boundary layer characteristics, and the three-dimensional flow effects. The aerodynamic efficiency is theoretically the Betz limit, and the interference of one blade with another is constrained by the drag force integrated over all points on the actuator disk. A single streamtube model can predict the power available in a Darrieus, but the model lacks definition of the flow structure and the cyclic stresses. Techniques for calculating the velocity profiles and the consequent induced velocity at the blades are presented. The multiple streamtube theory has been devised to account for the repartition of the velocity in the rotor interior. The model has been expanded as the double multiple streamtube theory at Sandia Laboratories. Futher work is necessary, however, to include the effects of dynamic decoupling at high rotation speeds and to accurately describe blade behavior.

  15. An integrated multi-population genetic algorithm for multi-vehicle task assignment in a drift field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Xiaoshan; Yan, Weisheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Cao, Ming

    This paper investigates the task assignment problem for a team of autonomous aerial/marine vehicles driven by constant thrust and maneuvering in a planar lateral drift field. The aim is to minimize the total traveling time in order to guide the vehicles to deliver a number of customized sensors to a

  16. Travel intensity and climate policy: The influence of different mobility futures on the diffusion of battery integrated vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The importance of a focus on mobility and the kilometres travelled using light duty vehicles is reflected in the persistence of strong demand for personal mobility and emissions that tend to be linked with population and economic growth. Simulation results using the WITCH model show that changes in the kilometres driven per year using light duty vehicles have a notable impact on investments related to the development of battery related technologies. As a result, different mobility futures have notably different optimal vehicle fleet compositions. As climate policy becomes more stringent, achieving abatement with increased mobility implies large investments in battery related technologies in comparison to the 2010 level. The model results also show that the Electric Vehicles Initiative goal of a 2% share of vehicles in 2020 could be achieved with climate policy in place. However, notable cost reductions and the removal of barriers to diffusion will need to continue for the EVI goal to be achieved. - Highlights: • Travel intensity of GDP at the national level shows signs of stability over an extended period. • Different mobility futures imply notably different optimal vehicle fleet compositions. • As climate policy becomes more stringent, investments in battery related technologies increase substantially. • The model results show that the Electric Vehicles Initiative goal of a 2% share of vehicles in 2020 could be achieved. • Cost reductions and the removal of barriers to diffusion will need to continue for the EVI goal to be achieved

  17. A FMM-FFT accelerated hybrid volume surface integral equation solver for electromagnetic analysis of re-entry space vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.

    2014-07-01

    Space vehicles that re-enter the atmosphere often experience communication blackout. The blackout occurs when the vehicle becomes engulfed in plasma produced by interactions between the vehicle surface and the atmosphere. The plasma often is concentrated in a relatively thin shell around the vehicle, with higher densities near its nose than rear. A less structured, sometimes turbulent plasma wake often trails the vehicle. The plasma shell severely affects the performance of side-mounted antennas as it alters their characteristics (frequency response, gain patterns, axial ratio, and impedance) away from nominal, free-space values, sometimes entirely shielding the antenna from the outside world. The plasma plume/turbulent wake similarly affect the performance of antennas mounted at the back of the vehicle. The electromagnetic characteristics of the thin plasma shell and plume/turbulent wake heavily depend on the type of re-entry trajectory, the vehicle\\'s speed, angles of attack, and chemical composition, as well as environmental conditions. To analyze the antennas\\' performance during blackout and to design robust communication antennas, efficient and accurate simulation tools for charactering the antennas\\' performance along the trajectory are called for.

  18. Optimal vehicle control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.A.; Scheepers, B.T.M.; Maurice, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Safety Department of TNO (Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research) investigates the application of modern control methods in the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC) field, as a strategic research topic of the Beyond Safe framework. The aim of IVDC is to

  19. POEMS in Newton's Aerodynamic Frustum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Jaime Cruz; Tetlalmatzi-Montiel, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The golden mean is often naively seen as a sign of optimal beauty but rarely does it arise as the solution of a true optimization problem. In this article we present such a problem, demonstrating a close relationship between the golden mean and a special case of Newton's aerodynamical problem for the frustum of a cone. Then, we exhibit a parallel…

  20. The aerodynamics of sailing apparel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.; Van Deursen, B.; Howe, C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the effect of changes in sailing apparel on aerodynamic drag, starting from the assumption that drag reduction of sailing apparel will increase the speed of an Olympic class sailing boat (in this case the Laser, a single-handed Olympic dinghy), mainly on upwind courses. Due to the

  1. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 2: Integrated loss of vehicle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology to a Space Shuttle environment, particularly to the potential of losing the Shuttle during nominal operation is addressed. The different related concerns are identified and combined to determine overall program risks. A fault tree model is used to allocate system probabilities to the subsystem level. The loss of the vehicle due to failure to contain energetic gas and debris, to maintain proper propulsion and configuration is analyzed, along with the loss due to Orbiter, external tank failure, and landing failure or error.

  2. Cumulative Metamodeling with Uncertainty Estimation: a New Approach to Optimization of Highly Integrated Flight Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future adaptive, smart air vehicles will continually tune themselves using sophisticated on-board health management and on-the-fly optimization of performance...

  3. Pikalert(R) System Vehicle Data Translator (VDT) Utilizing Integrated Mobile Observations Pikalert VDT Enhancements, Operations, & Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-24

    The Pikalert System provides high precision road weather guidance. It assesses current weather and road conditions based on observations from connected vehicles, road weather information stations, radar, and weather model analysis fields. It also for...

  4. New approach to enhance and evaluate the performance of vehicle-infrastructure integration and its communication systems, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Initial research studied the use of wireless local area networks (WLAN) protocols in Inter-Vehicle Communications : (IVC) environments. The protocols performance was evaluated in terms of measuring throughput, jitter time and : delay time. This re...

  5. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 10th, Palo Alto, CA, June 22-24, 1992, Technical Papers. Pts. 1 AND 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to vortex physics and aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; STOL/VSTOL/rotors; missile and reentry vehicle aerodynamics; CFD as applied to aircraft; unsteady aerodynamics; supersonic/hypersonic aerodynamics; low-speed/high-lift aerodynamics; airfoil/wing aerodynamics; measurement techniques; CFD-solvers/unstructured grid; airfoil/drag prediction; high angle-of-attack aerodynamics; and CFD grid methods. Particular attention is given to transonic-numerical investigation into high-angle-of-attack leading-edge vortex flow, prediction of rotor unsteady airloads using vortex filament theory, rapid synthesis for evaluating the missile maneuverability parameters, transonic calculations of wing/bodies with deflected control surfaces; the static and dynamic flow field development about a porous suction surface wing; the aircraft spoiler effects under wind shear; multipoint inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils, turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows; numerical investigation of tail buffet on the F-18 aircraft; the surface grid generation in a parameter space; and the flip flop nozzle extended to supersonic flows

  6. Aerodynamic Engine/Airframe Integration for High Performance Aircraft and Missiles (L’Integration Aerodynamique des Moteurs et des Cellules dans les Avions et les Missiles a Hautes Performances)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    baisse du niveas da plateau supersonique (Fig.9). L’onde de choc DCZ 0,30 0068avance de 1% dc Ia corde ci cc dilplacement ye rilperesic sur toute CX 104...propulsion component, which is very helpful for a better understanding of the underlying pheno- mena and finding possible areas of improve- men t.I...of excessive, and for a plane and plug nozzle of a hypersonic aircraft, for probably prohibitive, fine meshes. It has to be men - a highly integrated

  7. Life-cycle energy optimisation : A proposed methodology for integrating environmental considerations early in the vehicle engineering design process

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.; Göransson, Peter; Funazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Edlund, Stefan; Gunnarsson, Cecilia; Lundow, Jan-Olov; Cerin, Pontus; Cameron, Christopher J.; Wennhage, Per; Potting, José

    2016-01-01

    To enable the consideration of life cycle environmental impacts in the early stages of vehicle design, a methodology using the proxy of life cycle energy is proposed in this paper. The trade-offs in energy between vehicle production, operational performance and end-of-life are formulated as a mathematical problem, and simultaneously balanced with other transport-related functionalities, and may be optimised. The methodology is illustrated through an example design study, which is deliberately...

  8. The Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aerodynamics and systems: Description and analysis. [maneuver control and gust alleviators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, D., II; Daughaday, H.; Dittenhauser, J.; Rynaski, E.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamics, control system, instrumentation complement and recording system of the USAF Total In/Flight Simulator (TIFS) airplane are described. A control system that would allow the ailerons to be operated collectively, as well as, differentially to entrance the ability of the vehicle to perform the dual function of maneuver load control and gust alleviation is emphasized. Mathematical prediction of the rigid body and the flexible equations of longitudinal motion using the level 2.01 FLEXSTAB program are included along with a definition of the vehicle geometry, the mass and stiffness distribution, the calculated mode frequencies and mode shapes, and the resulting aerodynamic equations of motion of the flexible vehicle. A complete description of the control and instrumentation system of the aircraft is presented, including analysis, ground test and flight data comparisons of the performance and bandwidth of the aerodynamic surface servos. Proposed modification for improved performance of the servos are also presented.

  9. Development of an aerodynamic measurement system for hypersonic rarefied flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, T; Fujita, K; Suzuki, T

    2015-01-01

    A hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) has lately been developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in order to improve the prediction of rarefied aerodynamics. Flow characteristics of hypersonic rarefied flows have been investigated experimentally and numerically. By conducting dynamic pressure measurements with pendulous models and pitot pressure measurements, we have probed flow characteristics in the test section. We have also improved understandings of hypersonic rarefied flows by integrating a numerical approach with the HRWT measurement. The development of the integration scheme between HRWT and numerical approach enables us to estimate the hypersonic rarefied flow characteristics as well as the direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamics. Consequently, this wind tunnel is capable of generating 25 mm-core flows with the free stream Mach number greater than 10 and Knudsen number greater than 0.1.

  10. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Ifju, P G; Saellstroem, E; Ukeiley, L

    2011-01-01

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  11. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Ifju, P G [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, MAE-A 231, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Saellstroem, E; Ukeiley, L, E-mail: diccidwp@ufl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Shalimar, FL 32579 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  12. Uncertainty Quantification in Numerical Aerodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.; Liu, Dishi; Schillings, Claudia; Schulz, Volker

    2017-01-01

    In numerical section we compares five methods, including quasi-Monte Carlo quadrature, polynomial chaos with coefficients determined by sparse quadrature and gradient-enhanced version of Kriging, radial basis functions and point collocation polynomial chaos, in their efficiency in estimating statistics of aerodynamic performance upon random perturbation to the airfoil geometry [D.Liu et al '17]. For modeling we used the TAU code, developed in DLR, Germany.

  13. Aerodynamic instability: A case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The identification, diagnosis, and final correction of complex machinery malfunctions typically require the correlation of many parameters such as mechanical construction, process influence, maintenance history, and vibration response characteristics. The progression is reviewed of field testing, diagnosis, and final correction of a specific machinery instability problem. The case history presented addresses a unique low frequency instability problem on a high pressure barrel compressor. The malfunction was eventually diagnosed as a fluidic mechanism that manifested as an aerodynamic disturbance to the rotor assembly.

  14. Geometry Modeling and Adaptive Control of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Tyler Joseph

    Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles have the potential to provide global reach and affordable access to space. Recent technological advancements have made scramjet-powered flight achievable, as evidenced by the successes of the X-43A and X-51A flight test programs over the last decade. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles present unique modeling and control challenges in large part due to the fact that scramjet propulsion systems are highly integrated into the airframe, resulting in strongly coupled and often unstable dynamics. Additionally, the extreme flight conditions and inability to test fully integrated vehicle systems larger than X-51 before flight leads to inherent uncertainty in hypersonic flight. This thesis presents a means to design vehicle geometries, simulate vehicle dynamics, and develop and analyze control systems for hypersonic vehicles. First, a software tool for generating three-dimensional watertight vehicle surface meshes from simple design parameters is developed. These surface meshes are compatible with existing vehicle analysis tools, with which databases of aerodynamic and propulsive forces and moments can be constructed. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics simulation model which incorporates this data is presented. Inner-loop longitudinal and lateral control systems are designed and analyzed utilizing the simulation model. The first is an output feedback proportional-integral linear controller designed using linear quadratic regulator techniques. The second is a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) which augments this baseline linear controller with an adaptive element. The performance and robustness of each controller are analyzed through simulated time responses to angle-of-attack and bank angle commands, while various uncertainties are introduced. The MRAC architecture enables the controller to adapt in a nonlinear fashion to deviations from the desired response, allowing for improved tracking performance, stability, and

  15. Inverse Force Determination on a Small Scale Launch Vehicle Model Using a Dynamic Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Christina L.; Powell, Jessica M.; Ross, James C.

    2017-01-01

    A launch vehicle can experience large unsteady aerodynamic forces in the transonic regime that, while usually only lasting for tens of seconds during launch, could be devastating if structural components and electronic hardware are not designed to account for them. These aerodynamic loads are difficult to experimentally measure and even harder to computationally estimate. The current method for estimating buffet loads is through the use of a few hundred unsteady pressure transducers and wind tunnel test. Even with a large number of point measurements, the computed integrated load is not an accurate enough representation of the total load caused by buffeting. This paper discusses an attempt at using a dynamic balance to experimentally determine buffet loads on a generic scale hammer head launch vehicle model tested at NASA Ames Research Center's 11' x 11' transonic wind tunnel. To use a dynamic balance, the structural characteristics of the model needed to be identified so that the natural modal response could be and removed from the aerodynamic forces. A finite element model was created on a simplified version of the model to evaluate the natural modes of the balance flexures, assist in model design, and to compare to experimental data. Several modal tests were conducted on the model in two different configurations to check for non-linearity, and to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the model. The experimental results were used in an inverse force determination technique with a psuedo inverse frequency response function. Due to the non linearity, the model not being axisymmetric, and inconsistent data between the two shake tests from different mounting configuration, it was difficult to create a frequency response matrix that satisfied all input and output conditions for wind tunnel configuration to accurately predict unsteady aerodynamic loads.

  16. A comprehensive study of economic unit commitment of power systems integrating various renewable generations and plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhile; Li, Kang; Niu, Qun; Xue, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new UCsRP problem with flexible integrations is established. • A novel multi-zone sampling method is proposed for scenarios generation. • A meta-heuristic solving tool is introduced for solving the UCsRP problem. • A comprehensive study is conducted considering multiple weathers and seasons. • The economic effects of various scenarios are evaluated and compared. - Abstract: Significant penetration of renewable generations (RGs) and mass roll-out of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will pay a vital role in delivering the low carbon energy future and low emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) that are responsible for the global climate change. However, it is of considerable difficulties to precisely forecast the undispatchable and intermittent wind and solar power generations. The uncoordinated charging of PEVs imposes further challenges on the unit commitment in modern grid operations. In this paper, all these factors are comprehensively investigated for the first time within a novel hybrid unit commitment framework, namely UCsRP, which considers a wide range of scenarios in renewable generations and demand side management of dispatchable PEVs load. UCsRP is however an extremely challenging optimisation problem not only due to the large scale, mixed integer and nonlinearity, but also due to the double uncertainties relating to the renewable generations and PEV charging and discharging. In this paper, a meta-heuristic solving tool is introduced for solving the UCsRP problem. A key to improve the reliability of the unit commitment is to generate a range of scenarios based on multiple distributions of renewable generations under different prediction errors and extreme predicted value conditions. This is achieved by introducing a novel multi-zone sampling method. A comprehensive study considering four different cases of unit commitment problems with various weather and season scenarios using real power system data are conducted and solved, and smart

  17. Aerodynamic Influence of Added Surfaces on the Performance Characteristics of a Sports Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangadurai, Murugan; Kumar, Rajesh; Rana, Subhas Chandra; Chatterjee, Dipankar

    2018-05-01

    External aerodynamics plays a vital role in designing high-speed vehicles since a reduction in drag and positive lift generation are principal concerns in vehicle aerodynamics to ensure superior performance, comfort, and vehicle stability. In the present study, the effect of added surfaces such as NACA 2412 wings and wedge type spoiler at the rear end of a sports car are examined in detail using three-dimensional numerical simulations substantiated with lab scale experiments. The simulations are performed by solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a realizable k-ɛ turbulence model using ANSYS Fluent software for Reynolds numbers 9.1 × 106, 1.37 × 107 and 1.82 × 107. The results obtained from simulations are validated with the experiments performed on a scale down model at the low-speed wind tunnel using a six component external pyramidal balance. The variation in the wake flow field of the vehicles with different added surfaces are demonstrated using pressure and velocity contours, velocity vectors at the rear end, and the turbulent kinetic energy distribution plots. It is observed that the positive lift coefficient of the base model is reduced drastically by incorporating a single wing at the rear end of the vehicle. The aerodynamics coefficients obtained from different configurations suggest that the two wing configuration has lesser drag than the wedge type spoiler though, the negative lift is higher with a wedge than the two wing configuration.

  18. A Reduced-Complexity Investigation of Blunt Leading-Edge Separation Motivated by UCAV Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckring, James M.; Boelens, Okko J.

    2015-01-01

    A reduced complexity investigation for blunt-leading-edge vortical separation has been undertaken. The overall approach is to design the fundamental work in such a way so that it relates to the aerodynamics of a more complex Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) concept known as SACCON. Some of the challenges associated with both the vehicle-class aerodynamics and the fundamental vortical flows are reviewed, and principles from a hierarchical complexity approach are used to relate flow fundamentals to system-level interests. The work is part of roughly 6-year research program on blunt-leading-edge separation pertinent to UCAVs, and was conducted under the NATO Science and Technology Organization, Applied Vehicle Technology panel.

  19. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem; Barszcz, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (ISHM) systems are used to detect, assess, and isolate functional failures in order to improve safety of space systems such as Orbital Space Planes (OSPs). An ISHM system, as a whole, consists of several subsystems that monitor different components of an OSP including: Spacecraft, Launch Vehicle, Ground Control, and the International Space Station. In this research, therefore, we propose a new methodology to design and optimize ISHM as a distributed system with multiple disciplines (that correspond to different subsystems of OSP safety). A paramount amount of interest has been given in the literature to the multidisciplinary design optimization of problems with such architecture (as will be reviewed in the full paper).

  20. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.

  1. Preliminary Studies on Aerodynamic Control with Direct Current Discharge at Hypersonic Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasumasa; Takama, Yoshiki; Imamura, Osamu; Watanuki, Tadaharu; Suzuki, Kojiro

    A new idea of an aerodynamic control device for hypersonic vehicles using plasma discharges is presented. The effect of DC plasma discharge on a hypersonic flow is examined with both experiments and CFD analyses. It is revealed that the surface pressure upstream of plasma area significantly increases, which would be preferable in realizing a new aerodynamic control devices. Such pressure rise is also observed in the result of analyses of the Navier-Stokes equations with energy addition that simulates the Joule heating of a plasma discharge. It is revealed that the pressure rise due to the existence of the plasma discharge can be qualitatively explained as an effect of Joule heating.

  2. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

  3. Scaling Flight Tests of Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    wind tunnel experiments, the wind tunnel remains one of the most widely used, useful tools in the field of aerodynamics. Other Scaled Vehicles and...propensity of automobiles. In other research carried out at the University of Delft, Netherlands, the project DAVINCI was developed for

  4. Unsteady Aerodynamics of Deformable Thin Airfoils

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, William Paul

    2009-01-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic theories are essential in the analysis of bird and insect flight. The study of these types of locomotion is vital in the development of flapping wing aircraft. This paper uses potential flow aerodynamics to extend the unsteady aerodynamic theory of Theodorsen and Garrick (which is restricted to rigid airfoil motion) to deformable thin airfoils. Frequency-domain lift, pitching moment and thrust expressions are derived for an airfoil undergoing harmonic oscillations and def...

  5. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy: The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Mathews, John A.; Rask, Morten

    2009-01-01

    A new business model for accelerating the introduction of Electric Vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market...... (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage...

  6. Aerodynamics of Reentry Vehicle Clipper at Descent Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Yu. P.; Reshetin, A. G.; Dyadkin, A. A.; Petrov, N. K.; Simakova, T. V.; Tokarev, V. A.

    2005-02-01

    From Gagarin spacecraft to reusable orbiter Buran, RSC Energia has traveled a long way in the search for the most optimal and, which is no less important, the most reliable spacecraft for manned space flight. During the forty years of space exploration, in cooperation with a broad base of subcontractors, a number of problems have been solved which assure a safe long stay in space. Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft were replaced with Soyuz supporting a crew of three. During missions to a space station, it provides crew rescue capability in case of a space station emergency at all times (the spacecraft life is 200 days).The latest modification of Soyuz spacecraft -Soyuz TMA -in contrast to its predecessors, allows to become a space flight participant to a person of virtually any anthropometric parameters with a mass of 50 to 95 kg capable of withstanding up to 6 g load during descent. At present, Soyuz TMA spacecraft are the state-of-the-art, reliable and only means of the ISS crew delivery, in-flight support and return. Introduced on the basis of many years of experience in operation of manned spacecraft were not only the principles of deep redundancy of on-board systems and equipment, but, to assure the main task of the spacecraft -the crew return to Earth -the principles of functional redundancy. That is, vital operations can be performed by different systems based on different physical principles. The emergency escape system that was developed is the only one in the world that provides crew rescue in case of LV failure at any phase in its flight. Several generations of space stations that have been developed have broadened, virtually beyond all limits, capabilities of man in space. The docking system developed at RSC Energia allowed not only to dock spacecraft in space, but also to construct in orbit various complex space systems. These include large space stations, and may include in the future the in-orbit construction of systems for the exploration of the Moon and Mars.. Logistics spacecraft Progress have been flying regularly since 1978. The tasks of these unmanned spacecraft include supplying the space station with all the necessities for long-duration missions, such as propellant for the space station propulsion system, crew life support consumables, scientific equipment for conducting experiments. Various modifications of the spacecraft have expanded the space station capabilities. 1988 saw the first, and, much to our regret, the last flight of the reusable orbiter Buran.. Buran could deliver to orbit up to 30 tons of cargo, return 20 tons to Earth and have a crew of up to 10. However, due to our country's economic situation the project was suspended.

  7. Aerodynamics of the EXPERT Re-Entry Ballistic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonov, A. M.; Adamov, N. P.; Mazhul, I. I.; Vasenyov, L. G.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Muylaert, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002 till now, experimental studies of the EXPERT reentry capsule have been performed in ITAM SB RAS wind tunnels. These studies have been performed in consecutive ISTC project No. 2109, 3151, and currently ongoing project No. 3550. The results of earlier studies in ITAM wind tunnels can be found in [1-4]. The present paper describes new data obtained for the EXPERT model.

  8. Unsteady Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    l o f ex perimental s cience t here is a t ension b etween small/cheap/simple/readily-accessible experimental apparatus on the one hand, and...backscatter p ortable system f rom Measu rement S cience E nterprises, Inc55 was demonstrated, f inding a turbulence i ntensity of 0.4% a t flow

  9. Aerodynamic properties of turbulent combustion fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, C. C.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    Flow fields involving turbulent flames in premixed gases under a variety of conditions are modeled by the use of a numerical technique based on the random vortex method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and a flame propagation algorithm to trace the motion of the front and implement the Huygens principle, both due to Chorin. A successive over-relaxation hybrid method is applied to solve the Euler equation for flows in an arbitrarily shaped domain. The method of images, conformal transformation, and the integral-equation technique are also used to treat flows in special cases, according to their particular requirements. Salient features of turbulent flame propagation in premixed gases are interpreted by relating them to the aerodynamic properties of the flow field. Included among them is the well-known cellular structure of flames stabilized by bluff bodies, as well as the formation of the characteristic tulip shape of flames propagating in ducts. In its rudimentary form, the mechanism of propagation of a turbulent flame is shown to consist of: (1) rotary motion of eddies at the flame front, (2) self-advancement of the front at an appropriate normal burning speed, and (3) dynamic effects of expansion due to exothermicity of the combustion reaction. An idealized model is used to illustrate these fundamental mechanisms and to investigate basic aerodynamic features of flames in premixed gases. The case of a confined flame stabilized behind a rearward-facing step is given particular care and attention. Solutions are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental results, especially with respect to global properties such as the average velocity profiles and reattachment length.

  10. Long-term energy planning of Croatian power system using multi-objective optimization with focus on renewable energy and integration of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prebeg, Pero; Gasparovic, Goran; Krajacic, Goran; Duic, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of supply side long-term energy planning of large power system. • Integration of renewable sources and electrical vehicles in large power system. • Multi-level, multi-objective optimization for a design of energy system. • Historical river flow data analysis for modeling of aggregated hydropower potential. - Abstract: Due to the stochastic nature and variability of renewable energy sources (RES), it is necessary to integrate still expensive storage capacities into an energy system with a high share of RES and to model appropriate energy market. The study presented here considers all energy carriers, however, only the electricity carrier is modeled in detail, with notion taken for the heating demand that is covered but without proper modeling of storage. A proposed two-level approach with multi-objective optimization on the global level, was used to design a Croatian Energy System (CES), where electric vehicles (EVs) are integrated to serve as battery storage in Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) mode, for a scenario between 2015 and 2050. In addition, case study includes nine aggregated hydro power plants, one for each river basin in Croatia. Also, case study includes solar and wind power plants modeled for six locations in Croatia: Osijek, Zagreb, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split and Dubrovnik. The resulting Pareto front suggests that with assumed future costs of fuels and technology certain level of conventional energy sources will have to remain in the energy system to take into the account unfavourable weather conditions and to cover heating demand, which also results in significantly lower load factors for those power plants. Also, variants with more RES share have lower total energy system load factor and significantly higher installed capacity.

  11. Integrated powertrain control for optimizing CO2-NOx emission trade-off in heavy duty hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Spronkmans, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Energy management in modern vehicles typically relates to optimizing the powerflow in the (hybrid) powertrain, whereas emission management is associated with the combustion engine and its aftertreatment system. To achieve maximum performance in both fuel economy and hazardous emissions, the concept

  12. Active tuned mass damper in vehicles. Integrated mass and energy balance; Mechatronische Schwingungstilger in Fahrzeugen. Ganzheitliche Massen- und Energiebilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granzow, Sebastian

    2012-04-02

    The number of mechatronic automotive applications is growing rapidly and becoming more and more important. On the other hand, the automotive industry is faced with the ambitious challenge to significantly reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions. The vehicle mass is as a part of the driving resistance is a starting point. New innovative approaches are required for lightweight constructions. Taking the two aspects together, this leads inevitably to the question: Is it possible to support automotive lightweight construction by using mechatronic systems? The Mechatronic vibration absorber is a combination of a mechanical oscillating system with an electronically controllable force component. This allows a broadband and situation-dependent influence of vehicle vibration behavior. Mechatronic vibration absorbers are suitable to compensate a loss of riding comfort due to a reduction of the body mass. Essential for this is a multidisciplinary simulation environment. The mechatronic vibration absorber, including appropriate control systems, the nonlinear chassis and the elastic body characteristics, inclusive of mutual interactions are mapped in the simulation environment Matlab. In addition to the representation of the oscillating vehicle the determination of the total energy requirements is necessary. To achieve a CO{sub 2}-reduction target, the overall energy balance of lightweight and the electrical vibration absorber energy, which is offered by the vehicle, is required. The question of the real vibration absorber energy needs to be discussed in the context of the individual driving behavior. Ultimately, the overall energy balance is inherently dependent of the individual driving behavior.

  13. NUMERICAL PREDICTION MODELS FOR AIR POLLUTION BY MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work involves: 1 development of 3D numerical models that allow calculating the process of air pollution by motor vehicles emissions; 2 creation of models which would allow predicting the air pollution level in urban areas. Methodology. To solve the problem upon assessing the level of air pollution by motor vehicles emissions fundamental equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer are used. For the solution of differential equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer finite-difference methods are used. For the numerical integration of the equation for the velocity potential the method of conditional approximations is applied. The equation for the velocity potential written in differential form, splits into two equations, where at each step of splitting an unknown value of the velocity potential is determined by an explicit scheme of running computation, while the difference scheme is implicit one. For the numerical integration of the emissions dispersion equation in the atmosphere applies the implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme of splitting. Emissions from the road are modeled by a series of point sources of given intensity. Developed numerical models form is the basis of the created software package. Findings. 3D numerical models were developed; they belong to the class of «diagnostic models». These models take into account main physical factors that influence the process of dispersion of harmful substances in the atmosphere when emissions from vehicles in the city occur. Based on the constructed numerical models the computational experiment was conducted to assess the level of air pollution in the street. Originality. Authors have developed numerical models that allow to calculate the 3D aerodynamics of the wind flow in urban areas and the process of mass transfer emissions from the highway. Calculations to determine the area of contamination, which is formed near the buildings, located along the highway were

  14. Lyapunov Based-Distributed Fuzzy-Sliding Mode Control for Building Integrated-DC Microgrid with Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed control strategy based on Fuzzy-Sliding Mode Control (FSMC) for power control of an infrastructure integrated with a DC-Microgrid, which includes photovoltaic, fuel cell and energy storage systems with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs). In order to implement...... the proposed control strategy, first a general nonlinear modeling of a DC-Microgrid based on related DC-DC converters to each DC power sources is introduced. Secondly, a power management strategy based on fuzzy control for regulating the power flow between the hybrid DC sources, PEVs is proposed. Third...

  15. Laser assisted aerodynamic isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. van den

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the efficiency of conventional aerodynamic isotope seperation can be improved by two orders of magnitude with the aid of a relatively weak cw infrared laser which is used to induce isotopically selective condensation. Overall isotope enrichment factors in excess of 2 are obtained as compared to about 1.02 in the conventional seperation. Sulphur isotopes in SF 6 as well as Silicon isotopes in SiF 4 and Bromine isotopes in CF 3 Br are seperated on a laboratory scale. Infrared vibrational predissociation by itself and in combination with isotopically selective condensation are also shown to be effective new ways of isotope separation. (orig.) [de

  16. Elemental study of aerodynamic profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanero, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    In teaching fluid Mechanics, it would be convenient to provide the students with simple theoretical tools which allow them to deal with real and of technological interest situations. For instance, the apparently simple fluid motion around wing sections of arbitrary shape can not be overcome by using the mathematical methods available for students. In this article we present a simple theoretical procedure to analyze this problem. In the proposed method the role played by the analytical and numerical calculations are greatly reduced in order to emphasize the purely aerodynamic concepts. (Author) 3 refs. 001ES0100130

  17. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  18. Variable Camber Continuous Aerodynamic Control Surfaces and Methods for Active Wing Shaping Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamic control apparatus for an air vehicle improves various aerodynamic performance metrics by employing multiple spanwise flap segments that jointly form a continuous or a piecewise continuous trailing edge to minimize drag induced by lift or vortices. At least one of the multiple spanwise flap segments includes a variable camber flap subsystem having multiple chordwise flap segments that may be independently actuated. Some embodiments also employ a continuous leading edge slat system that includes multiple spanwise slat segments, each of which has one or more chordwise slat segment. A method and an apparatus for implementing active control of a wing shape are also described and include the determination of desired lift distribution to determine the improved aerodynamic deflection of the wings. Flap deflections are determined and control signals are generated to actively control the wing shape to approximate the desired deflection.

  19. Heat Transfer Analysis of Thermal Protection Structures for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Wang, Zhijin; Hou, Tianjiao

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to develop an analytical approach to study the heat transfer problem of thermal protection systems (TPS) for hypersonic vehicles. Laplace transform and integral method are used to describe the temperature distribution through the TPS subject to aerodynamic heating during flight. Time-dependent incident heat flux is also taken into account. Two different cases with heat flux and radiation boundary conditions are studied and discussed. The results are compared with those obtained by finite element analyses and show a good agreement. Although temperature profiles of such problems can be readily accessed via numerical simulations, analytical solutions give a greater insight into the physical essence of the heat transfer problem. Furthermore, with the analytical approach, rapid thermal analyses and even thermal optimization can be achieved during the preliminary TPS design.

  20. AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 8th, Portland, OR, Aug. 20-22, 1990, Technical Papers. Parts 1 ampersand 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in CFD methods and their validation, vortices and vortical flows, STOL/VSTOL aerodynamics, boundary layer transition and separation, wing airfoil aerodynamics, laminar flow, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics, CFD for wing airfoil and nacelle applications, wind tunnel testing, flight testing, missile aerodynamics, unsteady flow, configuration aerodynamics, and multiple body/interference flows. Attention is given to the numerical simulation of vortical flows over close-coupled canard-wing configuration, propulsive lift augmentation by side fences, road-vehicle aerodynamics, a shock-capturing method for multidimensional flow, transition-detection studies in a cryogenic environment, a three-dimensional Euler analysis of ducted propfan flowfields, multiple vortex and shock interaction at subsonic and supersonic speeds, and a Navier-Stokes simulation of waverider flowfields. Also discussed are the induced drag of crescent-shaped wings, the preliminary design aerodynamics of missile inlets, finite wing lift prediction at high angles-of-attack, optimal supersonic/hypersonic bodies, and adaptive grid embedding for the two-dimensional Euler equations