WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated swine production

  1. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  2. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment.

  3. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pasture and on swine with poor body condition compared to zero grazing, and on swine with ... Many countries practice different kinds of production approaches. ... farms with an average herd size of 29 swine were sampled by random sam-.

  4. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  5. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  6. Economic losses to Iberian swine production from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2011-01-01

    Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the spring–summer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...

  7. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  8. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  9. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply

  10. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  11. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Herrera-Ibatá

    Full Text Available The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs. Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF and Classical swine fever (CSF introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3. Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF. This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products. The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products, is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.

  12. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins in poultry and swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lagha, Amel; Haas, Bruno; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2017-04-11

    The routine use of antibiotics in agriculture has contributed to an increase in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens in animals that can potentially be transmitted to humans. In 2000, the World Health Organization identified resistance to antibiotics as one of the most significant global threats to public health and recommended that the use of antibiotics as additives in animal feed be phased out or terminated, particularly those used to treat human infections. Research is currently being carried out to identify alternative antimicrobial compounds for use in animal production. A number of studies, mostly in vitro, have provided evidence indicating that bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin, may be promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics in poultry and swine production. This review provides an update on bacteriocins and their potential for use in the poultry and swine industries.

  13. Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Valérie; Nehmé, Benjamin; Mériaux, Anne; Massé, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Hog production has been substantially intensified in Eastern Canada. Hogs are now fattened in swine confinement buildings with controlled ventilation systems and high animal densities. Newly designed buildings are equipped with conventional manure handling and management systems, shallow or deep litter systems, or source separation systems to manage the large volumes of waste. However, the impacts of those alternative production systems on bioaerosol concentrations within the barns have never been evaluated. Bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected with various apparatuses. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes, as a total (culturable and nonculturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and molds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed nonstatistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with

  14. A systemic integrative framework to describe comprehensively a swine health system, Flanders as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Gimeno, Cristina; Dewulf, Jeroen; Maes, Dominiek; Wauters, Erwin

    2018-06-01

    A well-functioning swine health system is crucial to ensure a sustainable pig production. Yet, little attention has been paid to understand it. The objective of this study was to unravel the complexity of a swine health system by using a systems-thinking approach for the case of Flanders (Northern part of Belgium). To that end, qualitative interviews were held with 33 relevant stakeholders. A hybrid thematic analysis was conducted which consisted of two phases. First, an inductive thematic analysis was conducted and second, the resulting themes were classified into the building blocks of a systemic framework. This framework combined a structural and a functional analysis that allowed to identify the key actors and their functions. Additionally, a transformational analysis was performed to evaluate how structures and the entire swine health system enable or disable functions. Findings revealed that the Flemish swine health system presents several merits such as the synchronization of policies and sector's agreements to reduce the antimicrobial use in the pig sector and the presence of a rich network of universities and research institutes that contribute to the education of health professionals. Nevertheless, several systemic failures were observed at different levels such as the lack of a good professional body representing the swine veterinarians, the tradition that veterinary advice is provided for 'free' by feed mill companies, and the shortage of reliable farm productivity data. Both latter failures may hinder swine practitioners to provide integrative advice. While few veterinarians are remunerated per hour or per visit by farmers, the most common business model used by veterinarians is largely based on the sale of medicines. Thus, veterinarians encounter often a conflict of interest when advising on preventive vaccinations and, in turn, farmers distrust their advice. On a positive note, alternatives to the traditional business model were suggested by both

  15. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  16. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g −1 VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L −1 . Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L −1 . The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g −1 VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s −1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield

  17. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychodemographic profile of stockpeople working on independent and integrated swine breeding farms in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, A; D'Allaire, S; Bigras-Poulin, M; Ward, R

    1996-01-01

    As a part of a larger study, the psychodemographic profile of Quebec pig stockpeople was described based on a sample of 48 persons working on independent farms randomly selected in the Richelieu-Saint-Hyacinthe region, and on a convenience sample of 38 others employed by 5 organizations of integrated swine production chosen among the largest ones in Québec. The 2 groups of stockpeople were described separately because of the differences between the 2 types of production. Demographic data (age, sex, level of education, training and experience in swine production, seniority on the farm) were obtained through a face-to-face interview. The personality profile was assessed using a standard personality test (French translation of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire). Both the stockpersons on independent farms and those employed by the organizations were more reserved, emotionally stable, serious, conscientious, unsentimental, controlled, introverted, and less anxious than the average person in the general population. However, multivariate analyses revealed some differences between these two groups of stock-persons (P = 0.021) as well as between the employees of the different organizations (P = 0.0038). These differences in personality profiles may reflect differences in working conditions, particularly regarding the human relationships, and in corporate cultures of the organizations. PMID:8904659

  19. Recovery and removal of nutrients from swine wastewater by using a novel integrated reactor for struvite decomposition and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiming; Xiao, Dean; Liu, Jiahui; Hou, Li; Ding, Li

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, struvite decomposition was performed by air stripping for ammonia release and a novel integrated reactor was designed for the simultaneous removal and recovery of total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) and total orthophosphate (PT) from swine wastewater by internal struvite recycling. Decomposition of struvite by air stripping was found to be feasible. Without supplementation with additional magnesium and phosphate sources, the removal ratio of TAN from synthetic wastewater was maintained at >80% by recycling of the struvite decomposition product formed under optimal conditions, six times. Continuous operation of the integrated reactor indicated that approximately 91% TAN and 97% PT in the swine wastewater could be removed and recovered by the proposed recycling process with the supplementation of bittern. Economic evaluation of the proposed system showed that struvite precipitation cost can be saved by approximately 54% by adopting the proposed recycling process in comparison with no recycling method. PMID:25960246

  20. Changes in the use of antimicrobials and the effects on productivity of swine farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    -Antimicrobial consumption by Danish swine farms from 1992 to 2008 was determined and evaluated in light of policies to regulate antimicrobial consumption, changes in disease patterns, and productivity data. Trend analyses of productivity data were conducted before and after a ban on use of antimicrobial growth promoters......Objective-To evaluate changes in antimicrobial consumption and productivity by Danish swine farms during 1992 to 2008. Sample Population-All Danish swine farms for antimicrobial consumption data and a representative sample of Danish swine herds for productivity data. Procedures...... of antimicrobials in 1994 and termination of AGP use by January 2000. Pig production increased from 18.4 to 271 million pigs, and the mean number of pigs per sow per year raised for slaughter increased from 21 in 1992 to 25 in 2007 Average daily gain for weaning ( 35 kg) pigs was higher...

  1. COMPARISON OF AN INNOVATIVE NONLINEAR ALGORITHM TO CLASSICAL LEAST SQUARES FOR ANALYZING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTRA COLLECTED AT A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FTIR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric gases at an integrated swine production facility. The concentration-pathlength products of the target gases at this site often exceeded th...

  2. Anaerobic digestion of chicken feather with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Massé, Daniel I; McAllister, Tim A; Beaulieu, Carole; Ungerfeld, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of chicken feathers with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge was assessed in two separate experiments. Ground feathers without any pre-treatment were added to 42-L digesters inoculated with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge, representing 37% and 23% of total solids, respectively and incubated at 25°C in batch mode. Compared to the control without feather addition, total CH(4) production increased by 130% (Pswine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. Mixed liquor NH(4)N concentration increased (Pdigestion to 6.9 and 3.5 g/L at the end of digestion in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. The fraction of proteolytic microorganisms increased (Pdigestion from 12.5% to 14.5% and 11.3% to 13.0% in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters with feather addition, respectively, but decreased in the controls. These results are reflective of feather digestion. Feather addition did not affect CH(4) yields of the swine manure digesters (P=0.082) and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters (P=0.21), indicating that feathers can be digested together with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge without negatively affecting the digestion of swine manure and slaughterhouse sludge. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  4. Comparative activity of some veterinary pharmaceutical products in swine dysentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, T. Romeo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the diseases that cause great damage in the pig breeding farms, Brachyspyra swine dysentery has a special importance because involve great losses both by growth failure and high mortality andsignificant costs to the prevention and control. The study was conducted in a swine farm in Timis County, where the disease was originally identified in autumn of year 2009. Cumulative adverse conditions have affected the rate of morbidity and mortality. Themost common clinical developments in the unit were usually acute and subacute. Research included: a comparative study of the effectiveness of tiamulin fumarate, hydrogenated and dimetridazole powder in sick acute and subacute forms in piglets, at the weaning period; the comparative study of efficiency in therapy of soluble tiamulin (the tiamulin fumarate-hydrogenated and of the injection of piglets effective and the study of growth indicators: average daily gain.Experiment IGroup I consisted in 15 piglets with an average weight per lot of 7.60 kg/head (batch weight: 114kg received p.o. dimetridazole insoluble powder (Romvac Bucharest, mixed in feed, for 5 days dose of 25 mg/kg.bw. During the observation, two mortalities were recorded, representing 13.33% of the treated lot. Other animals from the group were clinically cured, the signs of the disease gradually disappeared, and the temperature returned to normal enteric symptoms. The observation period after the 21 days of experiment, the batchweight was 114.2 kg, corresponding to growth registered 95.5 g/head/day.Group II, of 15 pigs with enteritis clinical signs, have had an average weight per lot of 7.48 kg/head, and he has undergone treatment with tiamulin product (Novartis Animal Health soluble granules, in drinking water. Treatments were performed for 5 consecutive days at a dose of 60 mg/liter of drinking water. In this group, diarrhea symptoms decreased and general status of the animals gradually improved, no mortality was recorded five days

  5. Codigestion of Taihu blue algae with swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Wang, Shouquan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Codigestion of blue algae with swine manure has the highest CH 4 yield at ISR 2.0. • pH, TAN, N-NH 3 and VFAs confirmed the appropriate stability of the codigestion. • 35.44% VS reduction was achieved by codigestion of blue algae with swine manure. • Three key enzyme characteristics demonstrated the higher efficiencies of codigestion. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of Taihu blue algae and its codigestion with swine manure was evaluated at different inoculum substrate ratios (ISRs) from 0.5 to 3.0. Results showed that codigestion of blue algae with swine manure led to the highest methane (CH 4 ) production of 212.7 mL g −1 VS at ISR 2.0, while digestion of blue algae inoculated with granular sludge brought out the optimized CH 4 production of 73.5 mL g −1 VS at ISR 3.0. The values of pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), free ammonia nitrogen (N-NH 3 ) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) showed no significant difference between the digestion and codigestion, confirming the appropriate stability of the two batch anaerobic processes. Closer examination of VS removal rates and key enzymes variation proved codigestion had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation, which demonstrated that AD of blue algae with swine manure was a promising technology for both solid wastes treatment and renewable-energy production

  6. Recycling the Wastewater from Swine Farm for Soilless Culture Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadang, Nattayana; Vasanaand, Nimnuan; Intaravichai, Pantipa; Chattay, Patchariya; Thipvisaid Na Tawan

    2006-09-01

    Swine farm wastewater was used in solution for hydroponics. The solution comprised swine farm wastewater influent and chemical nutrients. Water spinaches were selected for planting in foam containers. The sizes of the container were 50 x 42 x 16 centimeters. In this experiment, the ratios of influent and chemical nutrient solution were 3:1 and 1:1. The result shows that the growth of water spinaches from both solutions are almost the same. The weight of them is 78.3 and 77.3 grams each, respectively. Consequently, the result was expanded to the experiment in the field. The solution comprised swine farm wastewater influent and chemical nutrients at the ratio 1:1 was used for planting 6 kinds of vegetables. They were planted in the area of 7.2 x 2.0 meters. it was found that the weight of Chinese cabbage and Chinese white cabbage are highly significant difference when growing in chemical nutrient solution compared with growing in the solution of wastewater influent and chemical nutrient at the ratio 1:1. Moreover, water spinaches which planted in chemical nutrient solution gave the significant difference while 3 kinds of as lads gave no significant difference.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of semi-intensive method of swine production:a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected by means of structured questionnaire administered on twenty-one farms practicing semi-intensive technique of swine production with the aid of cluster sampling technique. Data collected was subjected to various measures of return on investment viz: Gross Margin, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Net Present Value, ...

  8. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal... any live swine, and uses only pork or pork products which originate in regions listed in paragraph (a... paying all costs for such inspections (it is anticipated that such inspections will occur up to four...

  9. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Veterinary Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Exclusive License: Veterinary Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines AGENCY: National Institutes....7. The invention relates to compositions and methods of use as Veterinary Influenza Vaccines... to humans. This technology describes DNA vaccines against influenza serotypes H5N1, H1N1, H3N2, and...

  10. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine, pork, or pork products and shipstores, airplane meals, and baggage containing pork or pork products, other than those articles regulated under parts 95 or 96 of this chapter, may not be imported...

  11. Use estimates of in-feed antimicrobials in swine production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Michael D; Bush, Eric J; Morrison, Robert B; Singer, Randall S; Snelson, Harry

    2012-03-01

    When considering the development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, comparing gross use estimates of different antimicrobials is of little value due to differences in potencies, duration of activity, relative effect on target and commensal bacteria, and mechanisms of resistance. However, it may be valuable to understand quantities of different antimicrobials used in different ages of swine and for what applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to construct an estimate of antimicrobial use through the feed in swine production in the United States. Estimates were based on data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Swine 2006 Study and from a 2009 survey of swine-exclusive practitioners. Inputs consisted of number of pigs in a production phase, feed intake per day, dose of the antimicrobial in the feed, and duration of administration. Calculations were performed for a total of 102 combinations of antimicrobials (n=17), production phases (n=2), and reasons for use (n=3). Calculations were first conducted on farm-level data, and then extrapolated to the U.S. swine population. Among the nursery phase estimates, chlortetracycline had the largest estimate of use, followed by oxytetracycline and tilmicosin. In the grower/finisher phase, chlortetracycline also had the largest use estimate, followed by tylosin and oxytetracycline. As an annual industry estimate for all phases, chlortetracycline had the highest estimated use at 533,973 kg. The second and third highest estimates were tylosin and oxytetracycline with estimated annual uses of 165,803 kg and 154,956 kg, respectively. The estimates presented here were constructed to accurately reflect available data related to production practices, and to provide an example of a scientific approach to estimating use of compounds in production animals.

  12. Effect of Australian zeolite on methane production and ammonium removal during anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesinghe, D. Thushari N.; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Scales, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    acidogenesis due to the high N contents of swine manure considerably reduce CH4 yield. The reduction of N during anaerobic digestion by the addition of zeolite improves CH4 production and reduces potential environmental threats associated with ammonia (NH3) emissions from anaerobic digestion of swine manure....... The main objective of this study was to determine the optimum Australian zeolite dose that produces maximum NH4 + recovery at optimum CH4 production. In laboratory experiments, swine manure was treated with natural and sodium zeolites at 0, 10, 40, 70, 100 mg/L and digested anaerobically for 60 days....... Natural zeolite at a dose of 40 g/L resulted in the largest increase (29%) in total CH4 yield from swine manure compared to the nil zeolite treatments. The lag phase of digestion was decreased with increasing zeolite doses up to 100 g/L. Natural and sodium zeolites at a dose of 100 g/L reduced NH4 + by 50...

  13. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  14. Biodigester economic viability for electrical power production using biogas from swine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: ricardogc@fca.unesp.br; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2008-07-01

    The increase of energy use in agriculture and the raising prices of electricity demand studies on alternate sources of energy and improvement on biogas use efficiency so that agricultural activities become more competitive. Biogas production through anaerobic biodigestion represents an important breakthrough for the problem of swine waste and energy availability for rural areas. This work aimed to analyze the economy on biodigester investment for electrical power production using biogas from anaerobic biodigestion of swine waste. Two factors were used for this evaluation: the cost of electrical power production through biogas and time for equipment investment return. Results show that investment return time can be only 2.45 years for electrical power at peak time. (author)

  15. Tracing heavy metals in 'swine manure - maggot - chicken' production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen

    2017-08-21

    With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.

  16. Effect of alkaline microwaving pretreatment on anaerobic digestion and biogas production of swine manure

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Yu; Yihuan Deng; Hongyu Liu; Chunping Yang; Bingwen Wu; Guangming Zeng; Li Lu; Fumitake Nishimura

    2017-01-01

    Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Resul...

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from commercial probiotic products used in cattle and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Giok, Felicia; Shi, Xiaorong; Soto, Jose; Narayanan, Sanjeev K; Tokach, Mike D; Apley, Mike D; Nagaraja, T G

    2018-04-03

    Probiotics, an antibiotic alternative, are widely used as feed additives for performance benefits in cattle and swine production systems. Among bacterial species contained in probiotics, Enterococcus faecium is common. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), particularly multidrug resistance, is a common trait among enterococci because of their propensity to acquire resistance and horizontally transfer AMR genes. Also, E. faecium is an opportunistic pathogen, and in the United States, it is the second most common nosocomial pathogen. There has been no published study on AMR and virulence potential in E. faecium contained in probiotic products used in cattle and swine in the United States. Therefore, our objectives were to determine phenotypic susceptibilities or resistance to antimicrobials, virulence genes (asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl) and assess genetic diversity of E. faecium isolated from commercial products. Twenty-two commercially available E. faecium-based probiotic products used in cattle (n = 13) and swine (n = 9) were procured and E. faecium was isolated and species confirmed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations was done by micro-broth dilution method using National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems Gram-positive Sensititre panel plate (CMV3AGPF), and categorization of strains as susceptible or resistant was as per Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute's guidelines. E. faecium strains from 7 products (3 for swine and 4 for cattle) were pan-susceptible to the 16 antimicrobials tested. Strains from 15 products (6 for swine and 9 for cattle) exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial and a high proportion of strains was resistant to lincomycin (10/22), followed by tetracycline (4/22), daptomycin (4/22), ciprofloxacin (4/22), kanamycin (3/22), and penicillin (2/22). Four strains were multidrug resistant, with resistant phenotypes ranging from 3 to 6 antimicrobials or class. None of the E

  18. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) as non-antibiotic production enhancers for use in swine production: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lili; Zhen, Yuhong; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of in-feed antibiotics for growth and disease prevention in livestock production has been under severe scrutiny. The use and misuse of in-feed antibiotics has led to problems with drug residues in animal products and increased bacterial resistance. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) have attracted considerable attention as an alternative to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages over mammalian IgG such...

  19. PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT SYMPOSIUM: Measurement and mitigation of reactive nitrogen species from swine and poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W; Capelari, M

    2017-05-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production. Systems and practices associated with dry manure handling and bedded systems emit more NH than NO. Results from a turkey grow-out study estimated that just under 1% of consumed N was emitted as NO from housing, compared with just under 11% emitted as NH. Despite generally less NO emissions from animal housing compared with crop field emissions, NO emissions from housing are often greater than estimated. Lagoon systems emit more NO than either slurry or deep pit swine systems. Deep pit swine buildings emit only one-third the NO that is emitted from deep bedded swine systems. Laying hen, broiler chicken, and turkey buildings emit over 4 times as much NO as swine housing, on a weight-adjusted basis. Critical control points for mitigation center on: 1) reducing the amount of N excreted and, therefore, excreted N available for loss to air or water during housing, manure storage, or following land application of manures; 2) capturing excreted N to prevent release of N-containing compounds to air, water, or soil resources; or 3) conversion or treatment of N-containing compounds to non-reactive N gas.

  20. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products. In... from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region must meet the following conditions: (1) The pork or pork products...

  1. Economic feasibility of biogas production in swine farms using time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Luis Rockenbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to measure the economic feasibility and the time needed to return capital invested for the installation of a swine manure treatment system, these values originated the sale of carbon credits and/or of compensation of electric energy in swine farms, using the Box-Jenkins forecast models. It was found that the use of biogas is a viable option in a large scale with machines that operate daily for 10h or more, being the return period between 70 to 80 months. Time series analysis models are important to anticipate the series under study behavior, providing the swine breeder/investor means to reduce the financial investment risk as well as helping to decrease the production costs. Moreover, this process can be seen as another source of income and enable the breeder to be self-sufficient in the continuous supply of electric energy, which is very valuable nowadays considering that breeders are now increasingly using various technologies.

  2. 76 FR 7721 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... for the 6 BIPs in Slovenia. BVIS veterinary inspectors are present at the BIPs during working hours, but do not conduct inspections outside normal working hours without prior notice. Slovenian road... Slovenia to the region of the European Union that we recognize as a low-risk region for classical swine...

  3. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (pdigesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production system representative. In the event of oral notification, written confirmation shall be given as... within a swine production system. Swine moving within a swine production system to other than slaughter... identified in a valid swine production health plan for that swine production system. (2) The swine production...

  5. Effect of alkaline microwaving pretreatment on anaerobic digestion and biogas production of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Deng, Yihuan; Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Chunping; Wu, Bingwen; Zeng, Guangming; Lu, Li; Nishimura, Fumitake

    2017-05-10

    Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Results showed that the manure disintegration degree was maximized of 63.91% at energy input of 54 J/g and pH of 12.0, and variance analysis indicated that pH value played a more important role in the pretreatment than in energy input. Anaerobic digestion results demonstrated that MW-A pretreatment not only significantly increased cumulative biogas production, but also shortened the duration for a stable biogas production rate. Therefore, the alkaline microwaving pretreatment could become an alternative process for effective treatment of swine manure.

  6. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resistance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.; Chee-Sanford, J.; Maxwell, Susan; Aminov, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as a growth promoter in 2000. It is estimated that ca. 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in urine and feces. The extensive use of antibiotics in swine production has resulted in antibiotic resistance in many intestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in swine feces, resulting in dissemination of resistance genes into the environment.To assess the impact of manure management on groundwater quality, groundwater samples have been collected near two swine confinement facilities that use lagoons for manure storage and treatment. Several key contaminant indicators-including inorganic ions, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes-were analyzed in groundwater collected from the monitoring wells. Chloride, ammonium, potassium, and sodium were predominant inorganic constituents in the manure samples and served as indicators of groundwater contamination. Based on these analyses, shallow groundwater has been impacted by lagoon seepage at both sites. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) was used to measure the dissolved concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in groundwater and manure. Although tetracyclines were regularly used at both facilities, they were infrequently detected in manure samples and then at relatively trace concentrations. Concentrations of all tetracyclines and their breakdown products in the groundwater sampled were generally less than 0.5 ??g/L.Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes that originated from the lagoons. Applying PCR to genomic DNA extracted from the lagoon and

  7. Enterobacteria associated with houseflies (Musca domestica) as an infection risk indicator in swine production farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelin, V; Fongaro, G; Pastore, J B; Engel, F; Reimers, M A; Viancelli, A

    2018-04-23

    Houseflies (Musca domestica) spend part of their life development on animal or human manure. Manure is high in pathogenic microbes; thus, houseflies have been known as a mechanical vector for various important zoonotic diseases. Therefore, the present study showcases captured houseflies from intensive swine production regions (which are areas of high manure concentration) in Southern Brazil, and analyses their bodies' to the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. and the sensitivity of these bacteria to various antibiotics. Additionally, Quantitative Microbiology Risk Assessment was performed simulating the contamination of lettuce by flies' bacteria and subsequent lettuce consumption by an adult human being. Houseflies were captured in swine buildings and farm houses from five farms. E. coli quantification values ranged from 10 4 to 10 6 CFU/20 flies, and all sampling sites had positive results from bacteria presence in the collected houseflies. On the other hand, Salmonella sp. presence was observed in only three farms, where the quantification ranged from 10 2 to 10 5 CFU/20 flies. The bacteria showed to be resistant to at least two from the four tested antibiotics (ampicillin, Cefalotin, Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin) antibiotics used in human or veterinary medicine. Infection probability analyses showed risk of human infection by E.coli, indicating possible transmission of zoonotic pathogens through flies. In this context, it was possible to conclude that there is a need for flies control, especially in swine farms where zoonotic pathogens can be abundant, to minimize the health impact of the vectorization of enteric bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  9. Potential for methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure with winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño, B; Molinuevo, B; García-González, M C

    2011-03-01

    This work examines the methane production potential for the anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure (SM) with winery wastewater (WW). Batch and semi-continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments revealed that the highest specific methane yield was 348 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added, obtained at 85.4% of WW and 0.7 g COD g(-1)VS. Specific methane yield from SM alone was 27 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added d(-1). Furthermore, specific methane yields were 49, 87 and 107 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added d(-1) for the reactors co-digesting mixtures with 10% WW, 25% WW and 40% WW, respectively. Co-digestion with 40% WW improved the removal efficiencies up to 52% (TCOD), 132% (SCOD) and 61% (VSS) compared to SM alone. These results suggest that methane can be produced very efficiently by the co-digestion of swine manure with winery wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced methane productivity from swine manure fibers by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before anaerobic digestion of the manure. Thus, manure solid and liquid fractions could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane...... production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. One of the challenges of this approach is that the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to digest and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. In the present study, aqueous...... ammonia soaking (AAS) was investigated as a pretreatment method to disrupt lignocellulosic structure and increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. It was proven that AAS broke down the lignocellulosic structure dissolving approximately the 35% of lignin and maintaining cellulose...

  11. Nutrient recovery from swine waste and protein biomass production using duckweed ponds (Landoltia punctata): southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important countries in pork production worldwide, ranking third. This activity has an important role in the national economic scenario. However, the fast growth of this activity has caused major environmental impacts, especially in developing countries. The large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in pig manure has caused ecological imbalances, with eutrophication of major river basins in the producing regions. Moreover, much of the pig production in developing countries occurs on small farms, and therefore causes diffuse pollution. Therefore, duckweed pond have been successfully used in the swine waste polishing, generating further a biomass with high protein content. The present study evaluated the efficiency of two full scale duckweed ponds for the polishing of a small pig farm effluent, biomass yield and crude protein (CP) content. Duckweed pond series received the effluent from a biodigester-storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3)/day (chemical oxygen demand rate = 186 kg/ha day) produced by 300 animals. After 1 year a great improvement of effluent quality was observed, with removal of 96% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and 89% of total phosphorus (TP), on average. Nitrogen removal rate is one of the highest ever found (4.4 g TKN/m(2) day). Also, the dissolved oxygen rose from 0.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The two ponds produced together over 13 tons of fresh biomass (90.5% moisture), with 35% of CP content, which represents a productivity of 24 tonsCP/ha year. Due to the high rate of nutrient removal, and also the high protein biomass production, duckweed ponds revealed, under the presented conditions, a great potential for the polishing and valorization of swine waste. Nevertheless, this technology should be better exploited to improve the sustainability of small pig farms in order to minimize the impacts of this activity on the environment.

  12. Short communication: Stability and integrity of classical swine fever virus RNA stored at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarys Relova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide cooperation between laboratories working with classical swine fever virus (CSFV requires exchange of virus isolates. For this purpose, shipment of CSFV RNA is a safe alternative to the exchange of infectious material. New techniques using desiccation have been developed to store RNA at room temperature and are reported as effective means of preserving RNA integrity. In this study, we evaluated the stability and integrity of dried CSFV RNA stored at room temperature. First, we determined the stability of CSFV RNA covering CSFV genome regions used typically for the detection of viral RNA in diagnostic samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. To this end, different concentrations of in vitro-transcribed RNAs of the 5’-untranslated region and of the NS5B gene were stored as dried RNA at 4, 20, and 37oC for two months. Aliquots were analyzed every week by CSFV-specific quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neither the RNA concentration nor the storage temperature did affect CSFV RNA yields at any of the time evaluated until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, it was possible to recover infectious CSFV after transfection of SK-6 cells with dried viral RNA stored at room temperature for one week. The full-length E2 of CSFV was amplified from all the recovered viruses, and nucleotide sequence analysis revealed 100% identity with the corresponding sequence obtained from RNA of the original material. These results show that CSFV RNA stored as dried RNA at room temperature is stable, maintaining its integrity for downstream analyses and applications.

  13. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union.

  14. Impact of swine reproductive technologies on pig and global food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies are in widespread use for commercial pork operations [Riesenbeck, Reprod Domest Anim 46:1-3, 2011] while others are in limited use in specific segments of the industry [Knox, Reprod Domest Anim 46:4-6, 2011]. Significant changes in the efficiency of pork production have occurred as a direct result of the use of reproductive technologies that were intended to improve the transfer of genes important for food production [Gerrits et al., Theriogenology 63:283-299, 2005]. While some technologies focused on the efficiency of gene transfer, others addressed fertility and labor issues. Among livestock species, pig reproductive efficiency appears to have achieved exceptionally high rates of performance (PigCHAMP 2011) [Benchmark 2011, Ames, IA, 12-16]. From the maternal side, this includes pigs born per litter, farrowing rate, as well as litters per sow per year. On the male side, boar fertility, sperm production, and sows served per sire have improved as well [Knox et al., Theriogenology, 70:1202-1208, 2008]. These shifts in the efficiency of swine fertility have resulted in the modern pig as one of the most efficient livestock species for global food production. These reproductive changes have predominantly occurred in developed countries, but data suggests transfer and adoption of these in developing countries as well (FAO STAT 2009; FAS 2006) [World pig meat production: food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2009; FAS, 2006) Worldwide Pork Production, 2006]. Technological advancements in swine reproduction have had profound effects on industry structure, production, efficiency, quality, and profitability. In

  15. Fermentative hydrogen production from liquid swine manure with glucose supplement using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao

    2009-12-01

    The idea of coupling renewable energy production and agricultural waste management inspired this thesis. The production of an important future fuel---hydrogen gas---from high strength waste stream-liquid swine manure---using anaerobic treatment processes makes the most sustainable sense for both wastewater utilization and energy generation. The objectives of this thesis were to develop a fermentation process for converting liquid swine manure to hydrogen and to maximize hydrogen productivity. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) systems were constructed to carry out this fermentation process, and seed sludge obtained from a dairy manure anaerobic digester and pretreated by nutrient acclimation, heat and pH treatment was used as inoculum. High system stability was indicated by a short startup period of 12 days followed by stable hydrogen production, and successful sludge granulation occurred within 23 days of startup at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 hours. Operation at a progressively decreasing HRT from 24 to 8h gave rise to an increasing biogas production rate from 15.2-34.4L/d, while good linear relationships were observed between both total biogas and hydrogen production rates correlated to HRT, with R2 values of 0.993 and 0.997, respectively. The maximum hydrogen yield of 1.63 mol-H 2/mol-hexose-feed occurred at HRT of 16h, while the HRT of 12h was highly suggested to achieve both high production rate and efficient yield. Hexose utilization efficiencies over 98%, considerable hydrogen production rate up to 14.3 L/d and hydrogen percentage of off-gas up to 43% (i.e., a CO 2/H2 ratio of 1.2) with the absence of CH4 production throughout the whole course of experiment at a pH of 5.0 strongly validated the feasibility of the fermentative H2 production from liquid swine manure using an ASBR system. Ethanol as well as acetic, butyric and valeric acids were produced in the system accompanying the hydrogen production, with acetic acid being the dominant

  16. The power of product integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K B; Fujimoto, T

    1990-01-01

    In the dictionary, integrity means wholeness, completeness, soundness. In products, integrity is the source of sustainable competitive advantage. Products with integrity perform superbly, provide good value, and satisfy customers' expectations in every respect, including such intangibles as their look and feel. Consider this example from the auto industry. In 1987, Mazda put a racy four-wheel steering system in a five-door family hatchback. Honda introduced a comparable system in the Prelude, a sporty, two-door coupe. Most of Honda's customers installed the new technology; Mazda's system sold poorly. Potential customers felt the fit--or misfit--between the car and the new component, and they responded accordingly. Companies that consistently develop products with integrity are coherent, integrated organizations. This internal integrity is visible at the level of strategy and structure, in management and organization, and in the skills, attitudes, and behavior of individual designers, engineers, and operators. Moreover, these companies are integrated externally: customers become part of the development organization. Integrity starts with a product concept that describes the new product from the potential customer's perspective--"pocket rocket" for a sporty, subcompact car, for example. Whether the final product has integrity will depend on two things: how well the concept satisfies potential customers' wants and needs and how completely the concept has been embodied in the product's details. In the most successful development organizations, "heavyweight" product managers are responsible for leading both tasks, as well as for guiding the creation of a strong product concept.

  17. Barriers towards integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    The basis for product development in many large industrial companies is a traditional project management method positing non-overlapping phases, independent activities, and a dedicated project team. Research findings indicate that integrated product development methods increase performance compared...

  18. Performance of the macrophyte Lemna valdiviana in tertiary pig waste treatment and its contribution to the sustainability of swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. Lapolli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to contribute to the sustainability of swine production by evaluating usage of the aquatic macrophyte Lemna valdiviana in the tertiary treatment of pig waste. Five assays (1 to 5 in triplicate were conducted using swine effluent with different COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand concentrations: 400, 550, 700, 850 and 1,000mg.L-1, respectively. The trial lasted for 21 days and the evaluated variables were: (a pollutant removal efficiency, (b biomass production and (c plant protein content under the different detention times of 7, 14 and 21 days. In general, assays 1 and 2 (CODs of 400 and 550mg.L-1 presented the best removal efficiencies under a detention time of 21 days. Regarding the purpose of both nutrient removal and production of high protein biomass, assay 3 (COD of 700mg.L-1 showed the best results under 14 days’ detention time (36.81% crude protein. It was established that the use of duckweeds in the tertiary swine waste treatment was able to provide a sustainable alternative regarding its advantages such as effluent polishing, minimization of environmental impact, and production of high protein feed.

  19. Anaerobic treatment of apple waste with swine manure for biogas production: Batch and continuous operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Apple waste (AW) was co-digested with swine manure (SM). ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield than SM only. ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield at 55 °C than at 36.5 °C. ► Modified Gompertz model best fitted to the substrates used. ► Positive synergetic effect up to 33% AW during continuous digestion. -- Abstract: This study evaluated the performance of anaerobic digesters using a mixture of apple waste (AW) and swine manure (SM). Tests were performed using both batch and continuous digesters. The batch test evaluated the gas potential, gas production rate of the AW and SM (Experiment I), and the effect of AW co-digestion with SM (33:67,% volatile solids (VSs) basis) (Experiment II) at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The first-order kinetic model and modified Gompertz model were also evaluated for methane yield. The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with different mixture ratios of AW and SM at mesophilic temperature. The ultimate biogas and methane productivity of AW in terms of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was determined to be 510 and 252 mL/g TCOD added, respectively. The mixture of AW and SM improved the biogas yield by approximately 16% and 48% at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively, compared to the use of SM only, but no significant difference was found in the methane yield. The difference between the predicted and measured methane yield was higher with a first order kinetic model (4.6–18.1%) than with a modified Gompertz model (1.2–3.4%). When testing continuous digestion, the methane yield increased from 146 to 190 mL/g TCOD added when the AW content in the feed was increased from 25% to 33% (VS basis) at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.6 g VS/L/d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days. However, the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) accumulation increased rapidly and the p

  20. Reproducible Molecularly Imprinted Piezoelectric Sensor for Accurate and Sensitive Detection of Ractopamine in Swine and Feed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfei Pan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a reproducible molecularly imprinted piezoelectric sensor for the accurate and sensitive detection of ractopamine (RAC in swine and feed products. The synthesized molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP was directly immobilized on the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM Au chip as the recognition element. The experimental parameters in the fabrication, measurement and regeneration process were evaluated in detail to produce an MIP-based piezoelectric sensor with high sensing capability. The developed piezoelectric sensor was verified to perform favorably in the RAC analysis of swine and feed products, with acceptable accuracy (recovery: 75.9–93.3%, precision [relative standard deviation (n = 3: 2.3–6.4%], and sensitivity [limit of detection: 0.46 ng g−1 (swine and 0.38 ng g−1 (feed]. This portable MIP-based chip for the piezoelectric sensing of RAC could be reused for at least 30 cycles and easily stored for a long time. These results demonstrated that the developed MIP-based piezoelectric sensor presents an accurate, sensitive and cost-effective method for the quantitative detection of RAC in complex samples. This research offers a promising strategy for the development of novel effective devices used for use in food safety analysis.

  1. Feasibility of biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yan, Xi-Luan; Fan, Jie-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Hang; Zhou, Wen-Bin

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. Batch experiments revealed that the highest specific biogas yield was 294 mL CH(4) g(-1) volatile solids added, obtained at 50% of herbal-extraction residues and 3.50 g volatile solids g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids. Specific methane yield from swine manure alone was 207 mL CH(4) g(-1) volatile solid added d(-1) at 3.50 g volatile solids g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids. Furthermore, specific methane yields were 162, 180 and 220 mL CH(4) g (-1) volatile solids added d(-1) for the reactors co-digesting mixtures with 10%, 25% and 50% herbal-extraction residues, respectively. These results suggested that biogas production could be enhanced efficiently by the anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The transport of antibiotic resistance genes and residues in groundwater near swine production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. F.; Yannarell, A. C.; Mackie, R. I.; Krapac, I. G.; Chee-Sanford, J. S.; Koike, S.

    2008-12-01

    The use of antibiotics at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for disease prevention, disease treatment, and growth promotion can contribute to the spread of antibiotic compounds, their breakdown products, and antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or the genes that confer resistance. In addition, constitutive use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels can select for antibiotic resistance among the bacteria that inhabit animal intestinal tracts, onsite manure treatment facilities, and any environments receiving significant inputs of manure (e.g. through waste lagoon leakage or fertilizer amendments to farm soils). If the antibiotic resistant organisms persist in these new environments, or if they participate in genetic exchanges with the native microflora, then CAFOs may constitute a significant reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistance to the environment at large. Our results have demonstrated that leakage from waste treatment lagoons can influence the presence and persistence of tetracycline resistance genes in the shallow aquifer adjacent to swine CAFOs, and molecular phylogeny allowed us to distinguish "native" tetracycline resistance genes in control groundwater wells from manure-associated genes introduced from the lagoon. We have also been able to detect the presence of erythromycin resistance genes in CAFO surface and groundwater even though erythromycin is strictly reserved for use in humans and thus is not utilized at any of these sites. Ongoing research, including modeling of particle transport in groundwater, will help to determine the potential spatial and temporal extent of CAFO-derived antibiotic resistance.

  3. A Novel Multi-Approach Protocol for the Characterization of Occupational Exposure to Organic Dust-Swine Production Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Monteiro, Ana; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Quintal Gomes, Anita; Viegas, Susana

    2017-12-27

    Swine production has been associated with health risks and workers' symptoms. In Portugal, as in other countries, large-scale swine production involves several activities in the swine environment that require direct intervention, increasing workers' exposure to organic dust. This study describes an updated protocol for the assessment of occupational exposure to organic dust, to unveil an accurate scenario regarding occupational and environmental risks for workers' health. The particle size distribution was characterized regarding mass concentration in five different size ranges (PM0.5, PM1, PM2.5, PM5, PM10). Bioburden was assessed, by both active and passive sampling methods, in air, on surfaces, floor covering and feed samples, and analyzed through culture based-methods and qPCR. Smaller size range particles exhibited the highest counts, with indoor particles showing higher particle counts and mass concentration than outdoor particles. The limit values suggested for total bacteria load were surpassed in 35.7% (10 out of 28) of samples and for fungi in 65.5% (19 out of 29) of samples. Among Aspergillus genera, section Circumdati was the most prevalent (55%) on malt extract agar (MEA) and Versicolores the most identified (50%) on dichloran glycerol (DG18). The results document a wide characterization of occupational exposure to organic dust on swine farms, being useful for policies and stakeholders to act to improve workers' safety. The methods of sampling and analysis employed were the most suitable considering the purpose of the study and should be adopted as a protocol to be followed in future exposure assessments in this occupational environment.

  4. A Novel Multi-Approach Protocol for the Characterization of Occupational Exposure to Organic Dust—Swine Production Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Viegas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine production has been associated with health risks and workers’ symptoms. In Portugal, as in other countries, large-scale swine production involves several activities in the swine environment that require direct intervention, increasing workers’ exposure to organic dust. This study describes an updated protocol for the assessment of occupational exposure to organic dust, to unveil an accurate scenario regarding occupational and environmental risks for workers’ health. The particle size distribution was characterized regarding mass concentration in five different size ranges (PM0.5, PM1, PM2.5, PM5, PM10. Bioburden was assessed, by both active and passive sampling methods, in air, on surfaces, floor covering and feed samples, and analyzed through culture based-methods and qPCR. Smaller size range particles exhibited the highest counts, with indoor particles showing higher particle counts and mass concentration than outdoor particles. The limit values suggested for total bacteria load were surpassed in 35.7% (10 out of 28 of samples and for fungi in 65.5% (19 out of 29 of samples. Among Aspergillus genera, section Circumdati was the most prevalent (55% on malt extract agar (MEA and Versicolores the most identified (50% on dichloran glycerol (DG18. The results document a wide characterization of occupational exposure to organic dust on swine farms, being useful for policies and stakeholders to act to improve workers’ safety. The methods of sampling and analysis employed were the most suitable considering the purpose of the study and should be adopted as a protocol to be followed in future exposure assessments in this occupational environment.

  5. Prevalence and Genotypic Characteristics of Clostridium difficile in a Closed and Integrated Human and Swine Population▿

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Keri N.; Scott, H. Morgan; Harvey, Roger B.; Norby, Bo; Hume, Michael E.; Andrews, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an apparent rise in the number of cases attributed to community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection has led researchers to explore additional sources of infection. The finding of C. difficile in food animals and retail meat has raised concern about potential food-borne and occupational exposures. The objective of this study was to compare C. difficile isolated from a closed population of healthy individuals consisting of both humans and swine in order to investigate possible fo...

  6. 7th International Seminar on Tropical Swine Production 2017 on the Occasion of the 45th Anniversary of Cuba's Swine Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 7th International Seminar on Tropical Swine Production 2017 on the Occasion of the 45th Anniversary of Cuba's Swine Research Institute. Cet article analyse les facteurs qui influencent l'adoption du Mucuna pruriens en zone cotonnière ouest du Burkina Faso. Les données ont été collectées dans 3 villages par la méthode active de recherche participative et par enquête auprès de 50 exploitations impliquées dans le développement de techniques de production du mucuna adaptées aux systèmes de production locaux. La co-construction de ces techniques s'est faite de 2005 à 2015 selon une démarche de recherche-action en partenariat. Les résultats de la régression logistique révèlent que les variables qui influent positivement la décision d'adopter sont le nombre d'actifs et de fosses fumières, le sexe, l'accès au marché, l'expérimentation du M. pruriens, la pratique de l'embouche (P<0,1 et le nombre de participation aux réunions de la plateforme d'innovation par l'exploitant (P<0,05. Par contre la quantité d'urée appliquée par hectare et le revenu de l'exploitation affectent négativement l'adoption (P<0,1. La réussite des actions de développement de la culture des légumineuses fourragères passe par la prise en compte raisonnée de ces facteurs.

  7. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... restrictions necessary to mitigate the risk of introducing CSF into the United States via pork, pork products...; and livestock demographics and marketing practices. They also provided information regarding... regions of higher risk; livestock demographics and marketing practices; vaccination against the disease(s...

  8. First detection and characterization of Salmonella spp. in poultry and swine raised in backyard production systems in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Moran, R; Rivera, D; Toledo, V; Moreno-Switt, A I; Hamilton-West, C

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile. Faecal samples were taken from swine, poultry, geese, ducks, turkeys and peacocks, as well as environmental faecal samples. Confirmation of Salmonella spp. was performed using invA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Identification of serovars was carried out using a molecular serotyping approach, where serogroups were confirmed by a multiplex PCR of Salmonella serogroup genes for five Salmonella O antigens (i.e., D, B, C1, C2-C3, and E1), along with two PCR amplifications, followed by sequencing of fliC and fljB genes. A total of 25 samples (1·4% of total samples) from 15 BPS (4·6 % of total sampled BPS) were found positive for Salmonella. Positive samples were found in poultry (chickens and ducks), swine and environmental sources. Molecular prediction of serovars on Salmonella isolated showed 52·0% of S. Typhimurium, 16·0% of S. Infantis, 16·0% S. Enteritidis, 8·0% S. Hadar, 4·0% S. Tennessee and 4·0% S. Kentucky. Poor biosecurity measures were found on sampled BPS, where a high percentage of mixed confinement systems (72·8%); and almost half of the sampled BPS with improper management of infected mortalities (e.g. selling the carcasses of infected animals for consumption). Number of birds other than chickens (P = 0·014; OR = 1·04; IC (95%) = 1·01-1·07), mixed productive objective (P = 0·030; OR = 5·35; IC (95%) = 1·24-27·59) and mixed animal replacement origin (P = 0017; OR = 5·19; IC (95%) = 1·35-20·47) were detected as

  9. An Integrated Biogas Generation System for Swine Farms%联动沼气池发酵工艺及应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官雪芳; 徐庆贤; 黄菊青; 钱蕾; 林斌

    2016-01-01

    根据可持续发展的理念,以实现资源化利用最大化为原则,针对规模化养猪场,通过设备创新和技术集成,提出了“固液分离池-联动沼气池-玻璃钢沼气储气柜”沼气发酵工艺流程,结合沼气发酵智能化控制技术,形成联动高效沼气池发酵工艺技术。通过在福建省新星种猪育种有限公司应用结果表明,该工艺技术能够显著提高沼气产量和沼气利用效率,是一种实用型生态处理技术,对发展农业循环经济有重要意义。%For sustainable agriculture to maximize resource utilization,a biogas generation technology by integrating the solids-liquid separation,methane gas generation,and fiberglass-reinforced plastic biogas storage into a system for waste treatment at swine farms was designed and evaluated. The combined system with automatic controls could be scaled up for large biogas production applications. The experimental model was implemented for observation and testing at Xinxing Pigs Breeding Co.,Ltd. in Fuj ian. The results showed significantly improved yield and utilization efficiency of biogas as compared to the conventional devices. The technology was expected to become a model for practical ecological sewage treatment for effective agricultural recycling at swine farms.

  10. Integrating Product and Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Ellen Brilhuis; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    .g. managing dependencies) and opportunities (e.g. streamlining development). This paper presents five existing reference models for technology development (TD), which were identified via a systematic literature review, where their possible integration with product development (PD) reference models......Although dual innovation projects, defined in this article as the concurrent development of products and technologies, often occur in industry, these are only scarcely supported methodologically. Limited research has been done about dual innovation projects and their inherent challenges (e...... was investigated. Based on the specific characteristics desired for dual innovation projects, such as integrated product development and coverage of multiple development stages, a set of selection criteria was employed to select suitable PD and TD reference models. The integration and adaptation of the selected...

  11. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  12. Biofilm Attached Cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Is a Developed System for Swine Wastewater Treatment and Lipid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study showed the new potential of using soluble contents and heavy metals in swine wastewater as nutrient supplements for the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa with biofilm attached method. Algae with biofilm attached cultivation grew well in unpasteurized wastewater reaching a biomass productivity of 5.03 g m−2 d−1, lipid content of 35.9% and lipid productivity of 1.80 g m−2 d−1. Chlorella grew in BG11 medium delivered lower values for each of the aforementioned parameters. The FAMEs compositions in the algae paste were mainly consisted of C16:0, C18:2, and C18:3. Algae removed NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP, and COD by 75.9, 68.4, and 74.8%, respectively. Notably, Zn2+, Cu+, and Fe2+ were removed from wastewater with a ratio of 65.71, 53.64, and 58.89%, respectively. Biofilm attached cultivation of C. pyrenoidosa in swine wastewater containing heavy metals could accumulate considerable biomass and lipid, and the removal ratio of NH4+–N, TP, COD, and as well as heavy metal were high. Treatment of wastewater with biofilm attached cultivation showed an increasingly popular for the concentration of microalgae and environmental sustainability.

  13. Biofilm Attached Cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Is a Developed System for Swine Wastewater Treatment and Lipid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Yuanzhu; Liu, Tianzhong; Liu, Defu

    2017-01-01

    This study showed the new potential of using soluble contents and heavy metals in swine wastewater as nutrient supplements for the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa with biofilm attached method. Algae with biofilm attached cultivation grew well in unpasteurized wastewater reaching a biomass productivity of 5.03 g m−2 d−1, lipid content of 35.9% and lipid productivity of 1.80 g m−2 d−1. Chlorella grew in BG11 medium delivered lower values for each of the aforementioned parameters. The FAMEs compositions in the algae paste were mainly consisted of C16:0, C18:2, and C18:3. Algae removed NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP), and COD by 75.9, 68.4, and 74.8%, respectively. Notably, Zn2+, Cu+, and Fe2+ were removed from wastewater with a ratio of 65.71, 53.64, and 58.89%, respectively. Biofilm attached cultivation of C. pyrenoidosa in swine wastewater containing heavy metals could accumulate considerable biomass and lipid, and the removal ratio of NH4+–N, TP, COD, and as well as heavy metal were high. Treatment of wastewater with biofilm attached cultivation showed an increasingly popular for the concentration of microalgae and environmental sustainability. PMID:28983302

  14. Campylobacter coli in Swine Production: Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms and Molecular Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Siddhartha; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance, to evaluate and compare the use of two genotyping methods for molecular epidemiology purposes, and to determine the genotypic diversity of Campylobacter coli of porcine origin. A total of 100 C. coli isolates from swine were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobials using the agar dilution method and genotyped using two high-resolution fingerprinting approaches: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electr...

  15. Maximising methane production in stressed fermentation systems for swine production units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D T

    1984-01-01

    For economic reasons, digestion systems must be designed to allow the most compact plant. This forces heavy organic loading and relatively short detention times. Consequently, the digestion system is operating in the region approaching instability. An investigation into the effects on methane productivity of the method used to load anaerobic digesters has shown that when operating in regions approaching stress the method of loading plays a major role in maximising energy output. Since the digestion system is designed for steady-state loading, while the actual operating conditions are dynamic, the loading of the system actually varies greatly and is never at steady state. In loading the digestion system, two methods are available. Either Volatile Solids (VS) loading concentration will vary and loading volume remain constant or loading volume will vary and VS loading concentration remain constant. The choice of which operational method is used in a digestion system already operating under heavy loading greatly affects methane productivity. The internal energy usage of the plant also is affected. Results indicate that gross methane production is approximately 33% higher and VS reduction is increased by 28% for the fermentation plant operating with a varying detention time when compared to operating the same plant with a varying loading concentration. (Refs. 14).

  16. Dark fermentation, anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells: An integrated system to valorize swine manure and rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Sciarria, Tommy Pepè; Gao, Yong Chang; Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Zanardo, Marina; Quiao, Wei; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    This work describes how dark fermentation (DF), anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial fuel cells (MFC) and solid-liquid separation can be integrated to co-produce valuable biochemicals (hydrogen and methane), bioelectricity and biofertilizers. Two integrated systems (System 1: AD+MFC, and System 2: DF+AD+MFC) are described and compared to a traditional one-stage AD system in converting a mixture (COD=124±8.1gO2kg(-1)Fresh Matter) of swine manure and rice bran. System 1 gave a biomethane yield of 182 LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, while System 2 gave L yields of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane of 27.3±7.2LH2kg(-1)COD-added and 154±14LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, respectively. A solid-liquid separation (SLS) step was applied to the digested slurry, giving solid and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction was treated via the MFC-steps, showing power densities of 12-13Wm(-3) (500Ω) and average bioelectricity yields of 39.8Whkg(-1)COD to 54.2Whkg(-1)COD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 with swine wastewater for simultaneous nutrient/COD removal and carbohydrate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Guo, Wanqian; Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Ren, Nanqi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-12-01

    Swine wastewater, containing a high concentration of COD and ammonia nitrogen, is suitable for the growth of microalgae, leading to simultaneous COD/nutrients removal from the wastewater. In this study, an isolated carbohydrate-rich microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 was adopted to perform swine wastewater treatment. Nearly 60-70% COD removal and 40-90% NH3-N removal was achieved in the mixotrophic and heterotrophic culture, depending on the dilution ratio of the wastewater, while the highest removal percentage was obtained with 20-fold diluted wastewater. Mixotrophic cultivation by using fivefold diluted wastewater resulted in the highest biomass concentration of 3.96 g/L. The carbohydrate content of the microalga grown on the wastewater can reach up to 58% (per dry weight). The results indicated that the microalgae-based wastewater treatment can efficiently reduce the nutrients and COD level, and the resulting microalgal biomass had high carbohydrate content, thereby having potential applications for the fermentative production of biofuels or chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of integrated ammonia recovery technology and nutrient status with an in-vessel composting process for swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kon; Lee, Dong Jun; Ravindran, Balsubramani; Jeong, Kwang-Hwa; Wong, Jonathan Woon-Chung; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Kwag, Jung-Hoon

    2017-12-01

    The study investigated the effect of different initial moisture (IM) content (55, 60, 65, and 70%) of composting mixtures (swine manure and sawdust) for the production of nutrient rich manure, and the recovery of ammonia through a condensation process using a vertical cylindrical in-vessel composter for 56days. The composting resulted in a significant reduction in C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC), with a slight increase in pH in all products. The NH 3 were emitted notably, and at the same time the NO 3 - -N concentration gradually increased with the reduction of NH 4 + -N in the composting mixtures. The overall results confirmed, the 65% IM showed the maximum nutritional yield, maturity and non-phytotoxic effects (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), with the results of ideal compost product in the following order of IM: 65%>60%>70%>55%. Finally, the recovered condensed ammonia contained considerable ammonium nitrogen concentrations and could be used as fertilizer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. APPLICATION OF STANDARDIZED QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES TO OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED DATA COLLECTED AT A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric eases at a concentrated swine production facility. A total of 2200 OP/FT-IR spectra were acquired along nine different monitoring paths d...

  20. Innovative swine nutrition: some present and potential applications of latest scientific findings for safe pork production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Halas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges facing animal agriculture in the 21st century is to produce safe and traceable foodstuffs of animal origin in sufficient volumes and quality besides the lowest possible load on the environment. A point to consider is how animal feeding and nutrition can contribute to the solution of this challenge. Another question is, that the results of which new scientific fields should be used in the area of innovation to achieve the desired product quality. The article answers these questions based on the latest data in the scientific literature and on the authors’ own research results. Having reviewed and processed the data, the authors drew the following conclusions: 1. The impact of climate changes on crop production and consequently on animal nutrition needs to be studied in comprehensive, systematic research programs, and based on their results animal feeding systems should be modified if necessary. 2. The role of molecular nutrition and the immunological role of nutrition for enhancing the efficiency of production will gain in importance. 3. The cooperation between nutritionists and geneticists needs to be strengthened in order to satisfy the nutrient requirements more accurately, and thus to improve the profitability of production. 4. New mathematical growth models, also incorporating the quality of animal products, need to be developed for better production estimates. 5. The integrated “from farm to fork” programs will be essential in the production of safe and high quality animal food products. Animal nutrition will play a key role in these product development and monitoring programs. 6. The production of environmentally friendly animal products will become a social imperative. Animal nutrition still has huge unexploited reserves in this field, for instance in the development of novel animal feeding systems and technologies. 7. T he practical implementation of precision nutrition can be of great help in achieving

  1. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  2. Alternatives to antibiotics as growth promoters for use in swine production: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the past two decades, an intensive amount of research has been focused on the development of alternatives to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. The most widely researched alternatives include probiotics, prebiotics, acidifiers, plant extracts and neutraceuticals such as copper and zinc. Since these additives have been more than adequately covered in previous reviews, the focus of this review will be on less traditional alternatives. The potential of antimicrobial peptides, clay minerals, egg yolk antibodies, essential oils, eucalyptus oil-medium chain fatty acids, rare earth elements and recombinant enzymes are discussed. Based on a thorough review of the literature, it is evident that a long and growing list of compounds exist which have been tested for their ability to replace antibiotics as feed additives in diets fed to swine. Unfortunately, the vast majority of these compounds produce inconsistent results and rarely equal antibiotics in their effectiveness. Therefore, it would appear that research is still needed in this area and that the perfect alternative to antibiotics does not yet exist. PMID:24034214

  3. Growing Chlorella vulgaris on thermophilic anaerobic digestion swine manure for nutrient removal and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Ren-Chuan; Addy, Min; Lu, Qian; Ren, Hong-Yan; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yu-Huan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-11-01

    Liquid swine manure was subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion, ammonia stripping and centrifugation in order to increase the available carbon sources and decrease the ammonia concentration and turbidity. Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 2714) was grown on minimally diluted (2×, 3× and 4×) autoclaved and non-autoclaved pretreated anaerobic digestion swine manure (PADSM) in a batch-culture system for 7days. Results showed that C. vulgaris (UTEX 2714) grew best on 3× PADSM media, and effectively removed NH 4 + -N, TN, TP and COD by 98.5-99.8%, 49.2-55.4%, 20.0-29.7%, 31.2-34.0% and 99.8-99.9%, 67.4-70.8%, 49.3-54.4%, 73.6-78.7% in differently diluted autoclaved and non-autoclaved PADSM, respectively. Results of chemical compositions indicated that contents of pigment, carbohydrate, protein and lipid in C. vulgaris (UTEX 2714) changed with the culture conditions. Moreover, its fatty acid profiles suggested that this alga could be used as animal feed if cultivated in autoclaved PADSM or as good-quality biodiesel feedstock if cultivated in non-autoclaved PADSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Animal welfare: concepts and practical procedures to evaluate the swine productions systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Manteca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of animal welfare have received a wide discussion by international scientific community during the last decades. The most accepted definition consider the animal welfare like a multidimensional theme, where are involved the emotion, the biological activity and the natural behavior. However, considering the clearness of this concepts, another challenge is presented, where is questioned how we can evaluate the animal welfare in commercial systems. Thus, the Welfare Quality® project gave the understanding about the welfare subjects and how we can to evaluate its in commercial farms and slaughterhouses. Then the main of this article is present the principal concepts and practical means to evaluate the animal welfare in swine, according the Welfare Quality® protocols, with the identifications of the positive and critical aspects involved.

  5. Use of coffee mucilage as a new substrate for hydrogen production in anaerobic co-digestion with swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Mario Andrés; Rodríguez Susa, Manuel; Andres, Yves

    2014-09-01

    Coffee mucilage (CM), a novel substrate produced as waste from agricultural activity in Colombia, the largest fourth coffee producer in the world, was used for hydrogen production. The study evaluated three ratios (C1-3) for co-digestion of CM and swine manure (SM), and an increase in organic load to improve hydrogen production (C4). The hydrogen production was improved by a C/N ratio of 53.4 used in C2 and C4. The average hydrogen production rate in C4 was 7.6 NL H2/LCMd, which indicates a high hydrogen potential compare to substrates such as POME and wheat starch. In this condition, the biogas composition was 0.1%, 50.6% and 39.0% of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, respectively. The butyric and acetic fermentation pathways were the main routes identified during hydrogen production which kept a Bu/Ac ratio at around 1.0. A direct relationship between coffee mucilage, biogas and cumulative hydrogen volume was established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of single versus multiple policy options on the economic feasibility of biogas energy production: Swine and dairy operations in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Bettina B.; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K.; Gordon, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The economic feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production was investigated for swine and dairy operations under Nova Scotia, Canada farming conditions, using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period (PP) economic decision criteria. In addition, the effects of selected environmental and 'green' energy policy schemes on co-generation of on-farm biogas energy production and other co-benefits from anaerobic digestion of livestock manure were investigated. Cost-efficiencies arising from economies of scale for on-farm anaerobic biogas production were found for swine farms, and less so for dairy production systems. Without incentive schemes, on-farm biogas energy production was not economically feasible across the farm size ranges studied, except for 600- and 800-sow operations. Among single policy schemes investigated, green energy credit policy schemes generated the highest financial returns, compared to cost-share and low-interest loan schemes. Combinations of multiple policies that included cost-share and green energy credit incentive schemes generated the most improvement in financial feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production, for both swine and dairy operations

  7. Integration of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomekova, A.

    2004-01-01

    The project SustelNet also deals with the possibilities of future development of DG sources. Within the project frame a quite general concept of the so-called 'equal field' for centralized and decentralized production was chosen for the better integration of DG. Its aim was to the achieve demanded level on the market in the future term (by 2020). Looking at the problem in the wider context means, that both forms of the production should be admitted on the market on the same conditions. The result of this project is a regulatory map, which actually serves as a definite regulatory strategy for more effective employment of DG sources. On the basis of the national regulatory strategies a proposition of regulatory map for EU will be launched, including some recommendations for European Commission. A few expert papers (scenario of proceeding, benchmarking, economical tools and criteria) are also output of this project. Five member states of the EU and four entering countries have been involved in this project. The final results of this procedure will be presented from April 2004 on international and national conferences, seminaries, or by means of other ways of publicity

  8. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sinha

    Full Text Available Summary: The recent outbreak of human infection with a novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus is spreading rapidly through sustained human-to-human transmission in multiple countries. Human-to-human transmission occurs by inhalation of infectious droplets and droplet nuclei, and by direct contact, which is facilitated by air and land travel and social gatherings. The most frequently reported symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, and sore throat. Detailed contact and travel histories and knowledge of viral activity in community are essential for prompt case detection by the health personnel. Real-time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis of throat swabs or lower respiratory samples is a sensitive means of diagnosis. Use of oral oseltamivir may be warranted for the treatment of severe illness. Keywords: Swine influenza, H1N1, Swine flu, Oseltamivir

  10. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...

  11. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a...

  12. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  13. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  14. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  15. Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Two Swine Production Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Krapac, I.J.; Garrigues-Jeanjean, N.; Mackie, R.I.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we used PCR typing methods to assess the presence of tetracycline resistance determinants conferring ribosomal protection in waste lagoons and in groundwater underlying two swine farms. All eight classes of genes encoding this mechanism of resistance [tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(M), tetB(P), tet(S), tet(T), and otrA] were found in total DNA extracted from water of two lagoons. These determinants were found to be seeping into the underlying groundwater and could be detected as far as 250 m downstream from the lagoons. The identities and origin of these genes in groundwater were confirmed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence analyses. Tetracycline-resistant bacterial isolates from groundwater harbored the tet(M) gene, which was not predominant in the environmental samples and was identical to tet(M) from the lagoons. The presence of this gene in some typical soil inhabitants suggests that the vector of antibiotic resistance gene dissemination is not limited to strains of gastrointestinal origin carrying the gene but can be mobilized into the indigenous soil microbiota. This study demonstrated that tet genes occur in the environment as a direct result of agriculture and suggested that groundwater may be a potential source of antibiotic resistance in the food chain.

  16. Integrative production technology theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Özdemir, Denis

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the research results of the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”, funded by the German Research Society (DFG). The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields such as engineering, material sciences, economics and social sciences. The book contains coherent deterministic models for integrative product creation chains as well as harmonized cybernetic models of production systems. The content is structured into five sections: Integrative Production Technology, Individualized Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimizing Production Systems and Collaboration Productivity.The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field of production engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  17. Cross border Classical Swine Fever control: Improving Dutch and German crisis management systems by an integrated public-private approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, O.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Schütz, V.; Brinkmann, D.; Petersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research approach is to analyse in which ways crisis management measures against Classical Swine Fever (CSF) can be improved by a public private cross border model. A core activity contains the analysis of information and communication systems: In a case study it has been

  18. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29

    about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose

  19. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF SWINE PRODUCTION CONDUCT IN THE ALTO URUGUAI CATARINENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Rocha de Miranda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a partial survey of the SPC evaluation, conducted in 2010, with swine signatory to the properties of the SPC in the microregion of Alto Uruguai Catarinense, in order to evaluate the effective implementation of corrective measures established in the Term. The survey was conducted through visits in September 2010 in 58 farmers, selected from representative sampling. For the sampling plan two basic conditions should be followed: 1 in all municipalities nineteen producers should be visited, 2 the type of contractual relationship of the pig farmers should be considered. For the average pig farmer environmental adaptations such expenses are considered significant, given remuneration of the activity is considered small. The SPC was considered of great importance for about 70% of respondents. For some pig farmers, the SPC is serving as a sort of extension of time in which the pig farmers are taking advantage to make the maximum depreciation of facilities. In the farms visited, there was being done isolation of the areas of riparian and annotation of the legal reserve, but it appears that such practice is being conducted in a bureaucratic way. The aging of pig farmers is an indisputable fact, perceiving few properties where there are possible successors. Considering the actions that are being implemented, it appears that term led to the development of numerous environmental improvements on farms. Furthermore, provided the necessary security for the pig farmers continue producing. However, it can be perceived the need for the measures envisaged are associated with effective monitoring and technical education, since some measures are being met, as merely bureaucratic, given that many producers do not understand the environmental importance of compliance with these legal requirements.

  20. Integration of transcriptome and whole genomic resequencing data to identify key genes affecting swine fat deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available Fat deposition is highly correlated with the growth, meat quality, reproductive performance and immunity of pigs. Fatty acid synthesis takes place mainly in the adipose tissue of pigs; therefore, in this study, a high-throughput massively parallel sequencing approach was used to generate adipose tissue transcriptomes from two groups of Songliao black pigs that had opposite backfat thickness phenotypes. The total number of paired-end reads produced for each sample was in the range of 39.29-49.36 millions. Approximately 188 genes were differentially expressed in adipose tissue and were enriched for metabolic processes, such as fatty acid biosynthesis, lipid synthesis, metabolism of fatty acids, etinol, caffeine and arachidonic acid and immunity. Additionally, many genetic variations were detected between the two groups through pooled whole-genome resequencing. Integration of transcriptome and whole-genome resequencing data revealed important genomic variations among the differentially expressed genes for fat deposition, for example, the lipogenic genes. Further studies are required to investigate the roles of candidate genes in fat deposition to improve pig breeding programs.

  1. Characterization of Viral Load, Viability and Persistence of Influenza A Virus in Air and on Surfaces of Swine Production Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Neira

    Full Text Available Indirect transmission of influenza A virus (IAV in swine is poorly understood and information is lacking on levels of environmental exposure encountered by swine and people during outbreaks of IAV in swine barns. We characterized viral load, viability and persistence of IAV in air and on surfaces during outbreaks in swine barns. IAV was detected in pigs, air and surfaces from five confirmed outbreaks with 48% (47/98 of oral fluid, 38% (32/84 of pen railing and 43% (35/82 of indoor air samples testing positive by IAV RT-PCR. IAV was isolated from air and oral fluids yielding a mixture of subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2. Detection of IAV RNA from air was sustained during the outbreaks with maximum levels estimated between 7 and 11 days from reported onset. Our results indicate that during outbreaks of IAV in swine, aerosols and surfaces in barns contain significant levels of IAV potentially representing an exposure hazard to both swine and people.

  2. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209 L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150 L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11 h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109 MPN (100 mL)−1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27 eggs g−1 TS. PMID:24812560

  3. Influence of zinc on biogas production and antibiotic resistance gene profiles during anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan; Gu, Jie; Zhang, Yajun

    2017-11-01

    This study determined the accumulated biogas, methane content, and absolute abundances (AAs) of 14 common antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two integrons during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure for 52days with different amounts of added zinc. The accumulated biogas increased by 51.2% and 56.0% with 125mgL -1 (L) and 1250mgL -1 (H) zinc, respectively, compared with the control with no added zinc (CK), but there was no significant difference between L and H. Compared with CK, excluding tetW and tetC, all the other ARGs detected in this study increased in the L and H reactors. However, the low concentration of zinc (L reactor) caused greater increases in the AAs of ARGs in the AD products. Redundancy analysis showed that NO 3 -N and bio-zinc significantly explained the changes in genes, where they accounted for 60.9% and 20.3% of the total variation in the environmental factors, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage with swine manure for biogas production: batch and continuous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Bhattarai, Sujala; Kim, Sang Hun; Chen, Lide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage (CCWS) with swine manure (SM). Batch and continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions (36-38°C). The batch test evaluated the effect of CCWS co-digestion with SM (SM: CCWS=100:0; 25:75; 33:67; 0:100, % volatile solids (VS) basis). The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor with SM alone and with a mixture of SM and CCWS. Batch test results showed no significant difference in biogas yield up to 25-33% of CCWS; however, biogas yield was significantly decreased when CCWS contents in feed increased to 67% and 100%. When testing continuous digestion, the biogas yield at organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ increased by 17% with a mixture of SM and CCWS (SM:CCWS=75:25) (423 mL g⁻¹ VS) than with SM alone (361 mL g⁻¹ VS). The continuous anaerobic digestion process (biogas production, pH, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and TVFA/total alkalinity ratios) was stable when co-digesting SM and CCWS (75:25) at OLR of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ and hydraulic retention time of 20 days under mesophilic conditions.

  5. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies of...

  6. Integrating product design into the supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera; Stolte, Terje; Creazza, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the research is to illustrate how companies can create competitive capabilities through integration of product design into the supply chain. In doing so the paper reveals the challenges and the opportunities that companies face when integrating product design and supply chain...... of opportunities and challenges when integrating product design and the supply chain and subsequently a step-by-step guide is developed to address these. Practical Implications: The research provides key recommendations to companies on how to create competitive capabilities by integrating product design...... into the supply chain. Originality/Value: This paper provides novel insights to both practitioners and researchers. For practitioners detailed recommendations are given on how they can maximise benefits through integrating product design into the supply chain. The RBV has been harnessed to highlight how...

  7. Integrating product design into the supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera; Stolte, Terje; Creazza, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    into the supply chain. Originality/Value: This paper provides novel insights to both practitioners and researchers. For practitioners detailed recommendations are given on how they can maximise benefits through integrating product design into the supply chain. The RBV has been harnessed to highlight how......Purpose: The aim of the research is to illustrate how companies can create competitive capabilities through integration of product design into the supply chain. In doing so the paper reveals the challenges and the opportunities that companies face when integrating product design and supply chain...... of opportunities and challenges when integrating product design and the supply chain and subsequently a step-by-step guide is developed to address these. Practical Implications: The research provides key recommendations to companies on how to create competitive capabilities by integrating product design...

  8. Game analysis of product-service integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims at defining the value creation mechanism and income distribution strategies of product-service integration in order to promote product-service integration of a firm.Design/methodology/approach: This paper conducts researches quantitatively on the coordination mechanism of product-service integration by using game theory, and uses the methods of Shapley value and Equal growth rate to further discuss income distribution strategies of product-service integration.Findings: Product-service integration increases the total income of a firm and the added value of the income decreases as the unit price demand variation coefficient of products and services increases, while decreases as the marginal cost of products increases, decreases as the marginal cost of services increases. Moreover, the findings suggest that both income distribution strategies of product-service integration based on Shapley value method and Equal growth rate method can make the product department and service department of a firm win-win and realize the pareto improvement. The choice of what kind of distribution strategy to coordinate the actions between departments depends on the department playing dominant role in the firm. Generally speaking, for a firm at the center of market, when the product department is the main contributor to firm income, the service department will choose the income distribution strategy of product-service integration based on Shapley value method; when the service department is the main contributor to firm income, the service department will choose the income distribution strategy of product-service integration based on Equal growth rate method.Research limitations/implications: This paper makes some strict assumptions such as complete information, risk neutral, linear cost function and so on and the discussion is limited to the simple relationship between product department and service department.Practical implications: Product

  9. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to African Swine Fever Within Smallholder Pig Production in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, E; Boqvist, S; Sternberg-Lewerin, S; Emanuelson, U; Ouma, E; Dione, M; Aliro, T; Crafoord, F; Masembe, C; Ståhl, K

    2017-02-01

    Uganda is a low-income country with the largest pig population in East Africa. Pig keeping has a large potential, commercially and as a tool for poverty reduction, but African swine fever (ASF) is a major hurdle for development of the sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices related to ASF in the smallholder pig production value chain in northern Uganda. The study included three separate series of participatory rural appraisals (PRA), comprising purposively selected farmers and other actors in the pig production value chain. In the PRAs, various participatory epidemiology tools were used. A total of 49 PRAs and 574 participants, representing 64 different villages, were included. The results indicate that participants were well aware of the clinical signs of ASF, routes for disease spread and measures for disease control. However, awareness of the control measures did not guarantee their implementation. A majority of middlemen and butchers acknowledged having sold live pigs, carcasses or pork they believed infected with ASF. Outbreaks of ASF had a strong negative impact on participants' socio-economic status with loss of revenue and reversal into more severe poverty. In conclusion, lack of knowledge is not what is driving the continuous circulation of ASF virus in this setting. To control ASF and reduce its impact, initiatives that stimulate changes in management are needed. Because the behaviour of all actors in the value chain is largely influenced by the deep rural poverty in the region, this needs to be combined with efforts to reduce rural poverty. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. A by-product of swine slaughtering as a protein source in broiler diets: effects on performance, composition of excreta, litter quality and on foot pad health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölln, M; Loi-Brügger, A; Kamphues, J

    2017-06-01

    Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is of great concern in poultry industry, and dietary strategies are needed to improve foot pad health because of animal welfare and economic reasons. As the main factor for the development of FPD is the DM content of litter (consisting mainly of excreta; Kamphues et al., 2011), there are different dietary approaches to influence this disease pattern. In two consecutive trials, a total of 200 broilers were kept from day 7 until the 35th day of life. They were divided into four groups at each trial and fed with one of four experimental diets, based on wheat and corn mainly, but differing in the protein source: Group 1 was fed a diet with soya bean meal (SBM) as the main protein source, whereas Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were assigned to diets with 4, 8 and 12% of a protein-rich (66.7% CP in DM) by-product of swine slaughtering [Swine Protein Meal (SPM); in exchange for SBM]. The inclusion of 12% SPM resulted in a decreased dietary potassium content of about 3 g/kg diet (Group 1 vs. 4). Increasing dietary levels of the by-product (8 and 12%) led to lowered feed intake (Group 1 vs. 4: ~10%) and weight gain (Group 1 vs. Group 4: ~8.5%). Although highest DM contents of excreta and litter were determined in Group 4, foot pad health was not influenced positively as hypothesized. Remarkable was the observed 'stickiness' of excreta when the by-product was included in the diet at increasing levels, presumably due to the high proportion of bones in the by-product. In conclusion, substituting SBM by 4% of the by-product of swine slaughtering in broiler diets did not impair performance parameters, but led to the most favourable foot pad scores in this study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Energy analysis in a swine production system with use of manure as bio fertilizer in pasture; Analise energetica em sistema de producao de suinos com aproveitamento dos dejetos como biofertilizante em pastagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Cassio V. [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil)], email: agro.cassio@hotmail.com; Campos, Alessandro T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], email: campos@deg.ufla.br; Bueno, Osmar C [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Silva, Enilson B [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia

    2009-07-01

    This work objective was to esteem the amount of energy employed in a complete cycle swine production and the energy balance of the system with utilization of the generated manure as bio fertilizer in pasture area, by using five cycles' average data, in a commercial farm in Diamantina municipal district - MG Brazil. The energy coefficient of each involved component was quantified in the productive process of finished swine, residues treatment and Brachiaria decumbens pasture production, in the form of ration, human labor, electric power, machines and equipment, fuel and lubricants, buildings, finished swine production and Brachiaria decumbens production. The average quantity of energy to produce 1 kg of alive swine was of 53.35 MJ. Of total employed energy in the system 76.03% (1,067,106.07 MJ) refers to the inputs and 23.97% (331,400 MJ) refers to the outputs, resulting in an energy efficiency coefficient of 0.31. The energy converted in swine for abate corresponded to 55.58% (184,200 MJ) of the outputs, while the pasture of Brachiaria decumbens reached a value of 44.42% (147,200 MJ). (author)

  13. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  14. Integrated Biorefinery for Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Gabriel [Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER), New York, NY (United States)

    2011-09-02

    This project has focused on very low grade fats, oil and greases found in municipal, commercial and industrial facilities around the country. These wastes are often disposed in landfills, wastewater treatment plants or farm fields or are blended illegally into animal feeds. Using any of these waste fatty materials that are unfit for human or animal nutrition as a clean alternative fuel makes good sense. This project defines the aforementioned wastes in terms of quality and prevalence in the US, then builds on specific promising pathways for utilizing these carbon neutral wastes. These pathways are discussed and researched at bench-scale, and in one instance, at pilot-scale. The three primary pathways are as follows: The production of Renewable Diesel Oil (RDO) as a stand-alone fuel or blended with standard distillate or residual hydrocarbons; The production of RDO as a platform for the further manufacture of Biodiesel utilizing acid esterification; The production of RDO as a platform for the manufacture of an ASTM Diesel Fuel using one or more catalysts to effect a decarboxylation of the carboxylics present in RDO This study shows that Biodiesel and ASTM Diesel produced at bench-scale (utilizing RDO made from grease trap waste as an input) could not meet industry specifications utilizing the technologies that were selected by the investigators. Details of these investigations are discussed in this report and will hopefully provide a starting point for other researchers interested in these pathways in future studies. Although results were inconclusive in finding ways to utilize RDO technology, in effect, as a pretreatment for commonly discussed technologies such as Biodiesel and ASTM Diesel, this study does shed light on the properties, performance and cost of utilizing waste greases directly as a retail liquid fuel (RDO). The utilization as a retail RDO as a boiler fuel, or for other such applications, is the most important finding of the study.

  15. Economies of scale in the production of swine manure Economias de escala na produção de dejetos de suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.C. Losinger

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure production on grower/finisher swine operations in the United States was examined using data from 184 grower/finisher swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1995 National Swine Study. Two methods were used: one, assuming that pigs produced 8.4% of their body weight in manure each day; another using the difference between feed fed and weight gained as a proxy variable to study manure production. Using this latter approach, a production function was developed. The function exhibited diminishing returns to scale when food waste was not fed to pigs, but constant returns to scale when food waste was included in their diets. The difference between feed fed and weight gained was lower on operations that restricted entry to employees only.A produção de dejetos em granjas de crescimento e terminação de suínos nos Estados Unidos foi avaliada utilizando dados de 184 granjas participantes de um estudo nacional de 1995 do "United States National Animal Health Monitoring System". Dois métodos foram usados: um considerando que suínos produzem 8,4% do seu peso corporal de dejetos por dia e o outro usando a diferença entre o alimento ingerido e o ganho de peso como um indicador para o estudo da produção de esterco. Através desse último procedimento, desenvolveu-se uma função de produção.

  16. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, Alexander; Caro, D.

    2016-01-01

    ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle...... in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO2 eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication...

  17. Biohydrogen from thermophilic co-fermentation of swine manure with fruit and vegetable waste: maximizing stable production without pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenca, A; Schievano, A; Perazzolo, F; Adani, F; Oberti, R

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen production by dark fermentation may suffer of inhibition or instability due to pH deviations from optimality. The co-fermentation of promptly degradable feedstock with alkali-rich materials, such as livestock wastes, may represent a feasible and easy to implement approach to avoid external adjustments of pH. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio of fruit-vegetable waste with swine manure with the aim of maximizing biohydrogen production while obtaining process stability through the endogenous alkalinity of manure. Fruit-vegetable/swine manure ratio of 35/65 and HRT of 2d resulted to give the highest production rate of 3.27 ± 0.51 L(H2)L(-1)d(-1), with a corresponding hydrogen yield of 126 ± 22 mL(H2)g(-1)(VS-added) and H2 content in the biogas of 42 ± 5%. At these operating conditions the process exhibited also one of the highest measured stability, with daily productions deviating for less than 14% from the average. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring diseases based on register data: Methods and application in the Danish swine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina

    The spread of diseases is one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. Disease spread causes considerable economic losses for the agricultural sector and constitutes trade-limiting factors, as transmission to countries free from disease should beavoided. Monitoring...

  19. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  20. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun Ho [Inzest Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun Sang [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  1. Analysis Method for Integrating Components of Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun Ho; Lee, Kun Sang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents some of the methods used to incorporate the parts constituting a product. A new relation function concept and its structure are introduced to analyze the relationships of component parts. This relation function has three types of information, which can be used to establish a relation function structure. The relation function structure of the analysis criteria was established to analyze and present the data. The priority components determined by the analysis criteria can be integrated. The analysis criteria were divided based on their number and orientation, as well as their direct or indirect characteristic feature. This paper presents a design algorithm for component integration. This algorithm was applied to actual products, and the components inside the product were integrated. Therefore, the proposed algorithm was used to conduct research to improve the brake discs for bicycles. As a result, an improved product similar to the related function structure was actually created.

  2. Towards Integrated Product and Package Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bramklev, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The global company operates from a number of locations worldwide, resulting in implications for the transport, handling and storage of product and parts transported within the company as well as between the company divisions and suppliers and/or consumers. In these companies, the package becomes a frequently used object to complement product features and achieve an effective and efficient means of logistics. In this context, it is interesting to integrate package development in the product...

  3. Asset management -- Integrated software optimizes production performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polczer, S.

    1998-01-01

    Developments in data collection and retrieval systems to allow timely cost analysis, financial reporting and production management are discussed. One of the most important new OLAP (on-line analytical processing) products is Energy Warehouse which gathers field information from various sources, allows advanced searches, and generates reports previously unavailable in other conventional financial accounting systems. Another OLAP-based system, the Canadian Upstream Energy System (CUES), was developed by the Oracle Corporation and the Calgary-based Applied Terravision Systems (ATS) Inc. CUES combines Oracle's universal data server software development tools with ATS's upstream financial, land, geotechnical and production applications. ATS also developed a product called IDPMARS (Integrated Daily Production Management Accounting Reporting System). It interfaces with CUES to link working interests, government royalties, administration, facility charges, lifting costs, transportation tooling, and customers by integrating field data collection systems with financial accounting

  4. Asset management -- Integrated software optimizes production performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.

    1998-10-01

    Developments in data collection and retrieval systems to allow timely cost analysis, financial reporting and production management are discussed. One of the most important new OLAP (on-line analytical processing) products is Energy Warehouse which gathers field information from various sources, allows advanced searches, and generates reports previously unavailable in other conventional financial accounting systems. Another OLAP-based system, the Canadian Upstream Energy System (CUES), was developed by the Oracle Corporation and the Calgary-based Applied Terravision Systems (ATS) Inc. CUES combines Oracle`s universal data server software development tools with ATS`s upstream financial, land, geotechnical and production applications. ATS also developed a product called IDPMARS (Integrated Daily Production Management Accounting Reporting System). It interfaces with CUES to link working interests, government royalties, administration, facility charges, lifting costs, transportation tooling, and customers by integrating field data collection systems with financial accounting.

  5. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until......Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...

  6. Products and environment. Report on integrated product policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The National Commission for Sustainable Development established on 16 November 1999 a subgroup which had as one of its tasks to formulate a national strategy or a strategic view on how Finland should promote integrated product policy in accordance with the requirements of sustainable development. The aim of integrated product policy is to improve the environmental friendliness of products and product systems by taking into account the environmental effects during their entire lifecycles. Its leading principles are lifecycle thinking, market-basedness, integration of environmental aspects into economic activity, and that all actors within the product chain (consumers, trade, companies) decrease the environmental consequences of their activities according to the principle of shared responsibility and to their preconditions. Political decision-making and administration should provide firms and clients with the required preconditions and i.a. remove obstacles to knowledge and promote research. In product policy, emphasis is on especially those instruments that encourage actors to develop their activities. At national level, economic instruments should be directed to domestic demand and use of products. It is often most appropriate to develop economic instruments for production and legislation and other regulation within international co-operation. (orig.)

  7. Integrated Micro Product and Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the issues of integrated micro product and technology development. The implications of the decisions in the design phase on the subsequent manufacturing processes are considered vital. A coherent process chain is a necessary prerequisite for the realisation of the industrial...... potential of micro technology....

  8. Integrating ergonomics into the product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    and production engineers regarding information sources in problem solving, communication pattern, perception of ergonomics, motivation and requests to support tools and methods. These differences and the social and organizational contexts of the development process must be taken into account when considering......A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The purpose was to elucidate conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into the product development process thereby preventing ergonomic problems at the time...... of manufacture of new products. In reality the product development process is not a rational problem solving process and does not proceed in a sequential manner as decribed in engineering models. Instead it is a complex organizational process involving uncertainties, iterative elements and negotiation between...

  9. Integrated durability process in product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompetzki, M.; Saadetian, H.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation describes the integrated durability process in product development. Each of the major components of the integrated process are described along with a number of examples of how integrated durability assessment has been used in the ground vehicle industry. The durability process starts with the acquisition of loading information, either physically through loads measurement or virtually through multibody dynamics. The loading information is then processed and characterized for further analysis. Durability assessment was historically test based and completed through field or laboratory evaluation. Today, it is common that both the test and CAE environments are used together in durability assessment. Test based durability assessment is used for final design sign-off but is also critically important for correlating CAE models, in order to investigate design alternatives. There is also a major initiative today to integrate the individual components into a process, by linking applications and providing a framework to communicate information as well as manage all the data involved in the entire process. Although a single process is presented, the details of the process can vary significantly for different products and applications. Recent applications that highlight different parts of the durability process are given. As well as an example of how integration of software tools between different disciplines (MBD, FE and fatigue) not only simplifies the process, but also significantly improves it. (author)

  10. An Integrated Membrane Process for Butenes Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Melone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iso-butene is an important material for the production of chemicals and polymers. It can take part in various chemical reactions, such as hydrogenation, oxidation and other additions owing to the presence of a reactive double bond. It is usually obtained as a by-product of a petroleum refinery, by Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC of naphtha or gas-oil. However, an interesting alternative to iso-butene production is n-butane dehydroisomerization, which allows the direct conversion of n-butane via dehydrogenation and successive isomerization. In this work, a simulation analysis of an integrated membrane system is proposed for the production and recovery of butenes. The dehydroisomerization of n-butane to iso-butene takes place in a membrane reactor where the hydrogen is removed from the reaction side with a Pd/Ag alloys membrane. Afterwards, the retentate and permeate post-processing is performed in membrane separation units for butenes concentration and recovery. Four different process schemes are developed. The performance of each membrane unit is analyzed by appropriately developed performance maps, to identify the operating conditions windows and the membrane permeation properties required to maximize the recovery of the iso-butene produced. An analysis of integrated systems showed a yield of butenes higher than the other reaction products with high butenes recovery in the gas separation section, with values of molar concentration between 75% and 80%.

  11. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  12. Minilivestock in Argentina. Integration with Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biasatti, NR.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative agricultural production can take different forms. In Argentina there is an important diversity of species available to be incorporated into production systems, giving support for the use of natural resources based on taking advantage of the regional fauna. Moreover the use of different animal species can be incorporated under the concept of the optimization of flows of energy and materials, tending to minimize the environmental impact of livestock production, and also to make more efficient use of the ingredients required for developing the activity. The integration of non-traditional species (minilivestock within the context of sustainable agricultural development was the motivation for the present study A module for raising Myocastor coypus (coypu or false nutha was developed, to which was linked a module for raising Eisenia foetida (the socalled red worm, in both cases with a dual purpose. Preliminary estimates were made of the productive aspects of both species, as well as an analysis of their integration, to understand the extent to which diversification linked with complementation tends to optimize the system.

  13. Integrated product development: Competencies meet and products arise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    and process competencies throughout the whole development process. Of course, this is easier said than done but integrating various competencies into the product development prepares the ground for a better balance and consequently more products. Databases, for instance are a good example of a tool that can...... the development process and diminish the risk of inventing sliced bread once again. Furthermore the databases may be used as a foundation for a more effective and frictionless communication across departments. The project has its starting point in case studies of three Danish food companies. A research group...

  14. Comparison of a direct-reading device to gravimetric methods for evaluating organic dust aerosols in an enclosed swine production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C D; Reynolds, S J

    2001-01-01

    The production of livestock in enclosed facilities has become an accepted practice, driven by the need for increased efficiency. Exposure to organic dusts, containing various bioactive components, has been identified an important risk factor for the high rate of lung disease found among workers in these environments. Assessment of organic dust exposure requires technical skills and instrumentation not readily available to most agricultural enterprises. Development of a simple, cost-effective method for measuring organic dust levels would be useful in evaluating and controlling exposures in these environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the direct reading MIE PDM-3 Miniram for estimating organic dust concentrations in enclosed swine production facilities. Responses from the MIE PDM-3 Miniram were compared to gravimetric methods for total and inhalable dust. Total dust determinations were conducted in accordance with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 0500. Inhalable particulate mass (IPM) sampling was conducted using SKC brand IOM (Institute of Occupational Medicine) sampling cassettes, which meet the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACGIH criteria for inhalable dust sampling. This study design also allowed for the comparison of traditional total dust method to the IPM method, in collecting organic dusts in an agricultural setting. Fifteen sets of side-by-side samples (Miniram, total dust, and IPM) were collected over a period of six months in a swine confinement building. There were statistically significant differences in the results provided by the three sampling methods. Measurements for inhalable dust exceeded those for total dust in eleven of fifteen samples. The Miniram time-weighted average (TWA) response to the organic dust was always the lower of the three methods. A high degree of correlation was found among all three methods. The Miniram performed well under

  15. Supplier integration for new product developments: antecedents for supplier integration in modular product designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Justus Erich

    2016-01-01

    Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) increasingly integrate supplier resources in new product developments (NPD) to overcome bottlenecks of resource and to create competitive advantages. At the same time, OEMs react to the new market challenges by implementing modular product designs. Despite the

  16. Integrals of products of spherical functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, O.

    1975-01-01

    Various branches of mathematical physics use integral formulas of the products of spherical functions. In quantum mechanics and in transport theory the integrals ∫sub((4π))dΩ vectorYsub(s)sup(t)(Ω vector)Ysub(l)sup(k)(Ω vector)Ysub(n)sup(m)(Ω vector), ∫sub(-1)sup(1)dμPsub(s)sup(t)(μ)Psub(l)sup(k)(μ)Psub(n)sup(m)(μ), ∫sub(-1)sup(1)dμPsub(s)(μ)Psub(l)(μ)Psub(n)(μ) are generally applied, where Ysub(α)sup(β)(Ω vector) are spherical harmonics, Psub(α)sup(β)(μ) are associated Legendre functions, and Psub(α)(μ) are Legendre polynomials. In the paper, the general procedure of calculating the integrals of the products of any combination of spherical functions is given. The procedure is referred to in a report on the boundary conditions for the cylindrical geometry in neutron transport theory for both the outer and inner cylindrical boundaries. (author)

  17. Asset management: integrated software optimizes production performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.

    1998-06-01

    Two new multi-dimensional databases, which expand the `row and column` concept of spreadsheets into multiple categories of data called dimensions, are described. These integrated software packages provide the foundation for industry players such as Poco Petroleum Ltd and Numac Energy Inc to gain a competitive advantage, by overhauling their respective data collection and retrieval systems to allow for timely cost analysis and financial reporting. Energy Warehouse, an on-line analytical processing product marketed by SysGold Ltd, is one of the software products described. It gathers various sources of information, allows advanced searches and generates reports previously unavailable in other conventional financial accounting systems. The second product discussed - the Canadian Upstream Energy System (CUES) - is an on-line analytical processing system developed by Oracle Corporation and Calgary-based Applied Terravision Systems (ATS) Inc. CUES combines Oracle`s universal data server and software development tools with ATS`s upstream financial, land, geotechnical and production applications. The software also allows for optimization of facilities, analysis of production efficiencies and comparison of performance against industry standards.

  18. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  19. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned and...

  20. Farming styles and cooperatives disputes of swine farmers under economic pressure in southern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In Southern France, the regression of swine farms and swine is ongoing. It involves reorientation of socio-professional networks, especially the farmers’ cooperatives. For understanding the various ways of maintaining swine production under the regressive circumstances, we focus on the farmers’

  1. Stereoscopic image production: live, CGI, and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Enrique

    2006-02-01

    This paper shortly describes part of the experience gathered in more than 10 years of stereoscopic movie production, some of the most common problems found and the solutions, with more or less fortune, we applied to solve those problems. Our work is mainly focused in the entertainment market, theme parks, museums, and other cultural related locations and events. In our movies, we have been forced to develop our own devices to permit correct stereo shooting (stereoscopic rigs) or stereo monitoring (real-time), and to solve problems found with conventional film editing, compositing and postproduction software. Here, we discuss stereo lighting, monitoring, special effects, image integration (using dummies and more), stereo-camera parameters, and other general 3-D movie production aspects.

  2. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...

  3. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  4. MILK PRODUCTION IN INTEGRATED SYSTEMS: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Z. Biavatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pasture degradation and thermic stress are in economic trouble for milk producers. The use of silvopastoral system (SSP is an important tool to minimize this loss, since it combines the production and conservation of natural resources, furthermore, provides the producer the potential to diversify the source of income of rural property, it is possible sale or own use of the products generated by the trees as timber, firewood and fruit. With the implementation of the SSP is possible to attenuate the effects of high temperatures caused by direct solar incidence on the animals, providing an ideal thermal comfort zone, resulting in increased production, it will expend less energy so that the animals are able to be as close as possible the necessary thermal comfort. Besides, with the adoption of this system, occurs a minor pasture degradation by promoting the formation of a microclimate favoring their establishment and maintenance, in addition to stabilizing soils, unpacked action of roots and preventing erosion. The purpose of this work was study the main aspects that affect the production of milk, proposing the use of integrated systems to minimize losses from thermal stress and degradation of pastures.

  5. Alignment of Product Models and Product State Models - Integration of the Product Lifecycle Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Kirkby, Lars Phillip; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the integration of the Product Model (PM) and the Product State Model (PCM). Focus is on information exchange from the PSM to the PM within the manufacturing of a single ship. The paper distinguishes between information and knowledge integration. The paper ...... provides some overall strategies for integrating PM and PSM. The context of this discussion is a development project at Odense Steel Shipyard....

  6. WATER NETWORK INTEGRATION IN RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main process industries in Cuba is that of the sugarcane. Among the characteristics of this industry is the high demand of water in its processes. In this work a study of water integration was carried out from the different operations of the production process of raw sugar, in order to reduce the fresh water consumption. The compound curves of sources and demands were built, which allowed the determination of the minimum water requirement of the network (1587,84 m3/d, as well as the amount of effluent generated (0,35 m3/tcane.The distribution scheme of fresh water and water reuse among different operations were obtained from the nearest neighbor algorithm. From considering new quality constrains was possible to eliminate the external water consumption, as well as to reduce the amount of effluent in a 37% in relation to the initial constrains.

  7. Technical Integration of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Young; Park, J. K.; Chang, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production systems, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production cost. For assessing the degree of attainments in comparison with the final goals of VHTR technologies in progress of researches, subdivided are the prerequisite items confirmed to the NHDD concepts. We developed and applied R and D quality management methodology to meet 'Development of Key Technologies for Nuclear Hydrogen' project. And we also distributed R and D QAM and R and D QAP to each teams and are in operation. The preconceptual flow diagrams of SI, HTSE, and HyS processes are introduced and their material and energy balances have been proposed. The hydrogen production thermal efficiencies of not only the SI process as a reference process but also the HTSE and HyS processes were also estimated. Technical feasibility assessments of SI, HTSE, and HyS processes have been carried out by using the pair-wise comparison and analytic hierarchy process, and it is revealed that the experts are considering the SI process as the most feasible process. The secondary helium pathway across the SI process is introduced. Dynamic simulation codes for the H2S04vaporizer, sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide decomposers, and HI decomposer on the secondary helium pathway and for the primary and secondary sulfuric acid distillation columns, HIx solution distillation column, and preheater for HI vapor have been developed and integrated

  8. African swine fever control and market integration in Ugandan peri-urban smallholder pig value chains: An ex-ante impact assessment of interventions and their interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Emily; Dione, Michel; Birungi, Rosemirta; Lule, Peter; Mayega, Lawrence; Dizyee, Kanar

    2018-03-01

    Pig production in peri-urban smallholder value chains in Uganda is severely constrained by impact of disease, particularly African swine fever (ASF), and the economic consequences of an inefficient pig value chain. Interventions in the form of biosecurity to control ASF disease outbreaks and pig business hub models to better link smallholder farmers to pig markets have the potential to address the constraints. However, there is a dearth of evidence of the effects of the interventions on performance and distribution of outcomes along the pig value chain. An ex-ante impact assessment utilising System Dynamics model was used to assess the impact of the interventions in peri-urban pig value chains in Masaka district. The results showed that although implementation of biosecurity interventions results in reduction of ASF outbreaks, it also leads to a 6.3% reduction in farmer profit margins per year but more than 7% increase in other value chain actors' margins. The pig business hub intervention alone results in positive margins for all value chain actors but minimal reduction in ASF outbreaks. When biosecurity and the pig business hub interventions are implemented together, the interaction effects of the interventions result in positive outcomes for both the control of ASF and improvement in farmers' margins. Farmers may therefore be unwilling to adopt biosecurity practices if implemented alone to control ASF outbreaks unless there is a corresponding financial incentive to compensate for the high costs. This has implications for policy or developing institutions to facilitate cost sharing arrangement among chain actors and/or third party subsidy to provide incentives for producers to adopt biosecurity measures. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Class 1 integrons characterization and multilocus sequence typing of Salmonella spp. from swine production chains in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Tadee, Pakpoom; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Pocharoen, Chairoj; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Patchanee, Prapas

    2015-05-01

    Pigs and pork products are well known as an important source of Salmonella, one of the major zoonotic foodborne pathogens. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health concern worldwide. Integrons are genetic elements known to have a role in the acquisition and expression of genes conferring antibiotic resistance. This study focuses on the prevalence of class 1 integrons-carrying Salmonella, the genetic diversity of strains of those organisms obtained from swine production chains in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and comparison of genetic diversity of sequence types of Salmonella from this study with pulsotypes identified in previous study. In 175 Salmonella strains, the overall prevalence of class 1 integrons-carrying-Salmonella was 14%. The gene cassettes array pattern "dfrA12-orfF-aadA2" was the most frequently observed. Most of the antimicrobial resistance identified was not associated with related gene cassettes harbored by Salmonella. Six sequence types were generated from 30 randomly selected strains detected by MLST. Salmonella at the human-animal-environment interface was confirmed. Linkages both in the farm to slaughterhouse contamination route and the horizontal transmission of resistance genes were demonstrated. To reduce this problem, the use of antimicrobials in livestock should be controlled by veterinarians. Education and training of food handlers as well as promotion of safe methods of food consumption are important avenues for helping prevent foodborne illness.

  10. 9 CFR 96.2 - Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition of casings due to African swine fever and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 96.2 Section 96.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... spongiform encephalopathy. (a) Swine casings. The importation of swine casings that originated in or were...

  11. Respiratory dysfunction in swine production facility workers: dose-response relationships of environmental exposures and pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, K J; Reynolds, S J; Whitten, P; Merchant, J A; Burmeister, L; Popendorf, W J

    1995-03-01

    Human respiratory health hazards for people working in livestock confinement buildings have been recognized since 1974. However, before comprehensive control programs can be implemented, more knowledge is needed of specific hazardous substances present in the air of these buildings, and at what concentrations they are harmful. Therefore, a medical epidemiological and exposure-response study was conducted on 207 swine producers using intensive housing systems (108 farms). Dose-response relationships between pulmonary function and exposures are reported here. Positive correlations were seen between change in pulmonary function over a work period and exposure to total dust, respirable dust, ammonia, respirable endotoxin, and the interactions of age-of-producer and dust exposure and years-of-working-in-the-facility and dust exposure. Relationships between baseline pulmonary function and exposures were not strong and therefore, not pursued in this study. The correlations between exposure and response were stronger after 6 years of exposure. Multiple regression models were used to identify total dust and ammonia as the two primary environmental predictors of pulmonary function decrements over a work period. The regression models were then used to determine exposure concentrations related to pulmonary function decrements suggestive of a health hazard. Total dust concentrations > or = 2.8 mg/m3 were predictive of a work period decrement of > or = 10% in FEV1. Ammonia concentrations of > or = 7.5 ppm were predictive of a > or = 3% work period decrement in FEV1. These predictive concentrations were similar to a previous dose-response study, which suggested 2.5 mg/m3 of total dust and 7 ppm of NH3 were associated with significant work period decrements. Therefore, dust > or = 2.8 mg/m3 and ammonia > or = 7.5 ppm should be considered reasonable evidence for guidelines regarding hazardous exposure concentrations in this work environment.

  12. Effect of Irradiated Yeast Fermented Cassava on Performance of Starter and Growing Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khammeng, Terdsak; Sanchisuriya, Pitcharat; Nontaso, Ngarmnit; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supplementation of fermented cassava with Saccharomyces sp. KKU.1 on the swine diet. The fermented products were added in the rat in at 0, 3, 6, and 9%, respectively. Thirty-two (4 week-old) crossbreed swine (Large white x Land race x Duroc) were randomly allotted according to Completely Randomize Design in two periods. Four dietary treatments and four replications (1 male and 1 female) were tested in the starting swine. Four dietary treatments and two replications (2 male and 2 female) were tested in the growing swine. The swine were tested for 6 week (August 2006-September 2006) at the swine unit, Deparment of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University. The results revealed that the fermented cassava in the diet had no affect (P>0.05) on productive performance (growth rate and feed conversion ratio) of swine in both periods.

  13. Conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Ergonomics considerations at the stage of product development in industry is a major strategy for prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses among employees at the time of manufacture of new products. This study elucidates some important conditions and possibilities for integrating...... such considerations during the product development process. Special attention is paid to the role of design and production engineers. Based on different understandings of the product development process four approaches to integration of ergonomics are outlined....

  14. Changes in the prevalence of Salmonella serovars associated swine production and correlations of avian, bovine and swine-associated serovars with human-associated serovars in the United States (1997-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C; Krull, A; Wang, C; Erdman, M; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Logue, C M; O'Connor, A M

    2018-04-23

    As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20-year observation period (1997-2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species. The secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between changes in S. enterica serovars frequently recovered from food animals and changes in S. enterica serovars associated with disease in humans. We found decreasing proportions of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, serovar Derby and serovar Heidelberg and increasing proportions of S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:-, serovar Infantis and serovar Johannesburg in swine over time. We also found positive correlations for the yearly changes in S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:-, serovar Anatum and serovar Johannesburg between swine and human data; in S. enterica Worthington between avian and human data; and in S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- between bovine and human data. We found negative correlations for the yearly changes in S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- and serovar Johannesburg between avian and human data. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Fator do plasma seminal associado à integridade de membrana de espermatozóides suínos pós-descongelamento Seminal plasma factor associated to post-thawing swine sperm membrane integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bianchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, identificaram-se polipeptídeos associados à integridade da membrana plasmática (IMP de espermatozóides suínos após o processo de congelamento/descongelamento. Por meio do perfil protéico do plasma seminal em SDS-PAGE, observou-se a presença de nove bandas polipeptídicas com pesos moleculares que variaram de 11,97 a 122,52kDa. Detectou-se que uma banda de 26,58kDa esteve associada à baixa IMP (Polypeptides associate to membrane integrity (MI of swine spermatozoa submitted to freezing and thawing were identified. The protein profile of seminal plasma analyzed by SDS-PAGE allowed the identification of nine polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 11.97 to 122.52kDa. One 26.58kDa band was associated with reduced MI (<55%. No associations among other bands and MI were observed. The 26.58kDa factor is associated with reduction of membrane integrity of swine spermatozoa after freezing and thawing.

  16. Harnessing Product Complexity: An Integrative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Orfi, Nihal Mohamed Sherif

    2011-01-01

    In today's market, companies are faced with pressure to increase variety in product offerings. While increasing variety can help increase market share and sales growth, the costs of doing so can be significant. Ultimately, variety causes complexity in products and processes to soar, which negatively impacts product development, quality, production scheduling, efficiency and more. Product variety is just one common cause of product complexity, a topic that several researchers have tackled with...

  17. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  18. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and the smaller varieties of sausage and meat food products in animal casings. EC11SE91.001 For application to calf and goat carcasses and on the larger varieties of sausage and meat food products in animal... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official marks and devices to identify...

  19. The Romanian Swine Market in the EU Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is a traditional food product for Romania, representing more than half of the annual meat consumption per capita. Swine farming is an activity mainly at full time households, ensuring subsistence, representing a source for commercial exchanges, ensuring workforce stability in the rural areas. The Romanian pork production has presented a slightly fluctuating evolution in recent years. The paper proposes a review of the domestic production, consumption, origin and price of swine sold in the Romanian market. The comunity competitive conditions, the export limitation and food crisis (horse meat scandal, spoiled meat scandal, swine fever or swine flu affected domestic production and exports. Data used in this paper represent statistical information provided by specialized national, European or global institutions, information presented in the media, journals, food industry treatises/dissertations or official information submitted by the Ministry of Agriculture.

  20. Developing engineering processes through integrated modelling of product and process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at developing an operational tool for integrated modelling of product assortments and engineering processes in companies making customer specific products. Integrating a product model in the design of engineering processes will provide a deeper understanding of the engineering...... activities as well as insight into how product features affect the engineering processes. The article suggests possible ways of integrating models of products with models of engineering processes. The models have been tested and further developed in an action research study carried out in collaboration...... with a major international engineering company....

  1. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Meilyn González Cortés; Yenisleidy Martínez Martínez; Yailet Albernas Carvajal; Raúl A. Pérez Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from...

  2. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  3. USMARC update on swine reproduction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...

  4. Achieving Customer Satisfaction through Integrated Products and Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad; Bourne, Dorota; Goffin, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Complex products such as manufacturing equipment have always needed maintenance and repair services. Increasingly, leading manufacturers are integrating products and services to generate increased revenues and achieve customer satisfaction. Designing integrated products and services requires...... a different approach to new product development and a clear understanding of how customers perceive the value they obtain from actual usage of products and services—so-called value-in-use. However, there is a lack of research on integrated products and services and how they impact customer satisfaction....... An exploratory study was undertaken to understand customers' views on integrated products and services and the value-in-use derived from such offerings. As value-in-use and its impacts are complicated concepts, a technique from psychology—Repertory Grid Technique—was used to gather data in 33 interviews...

  5. Food product design. An integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This book explains how to apply barrier technology in food production to improve product stability and the possibilities of modelling and statistics in food product design are elaborated. Attention is given to Life Cycle Assessment as a method to determine the environmental impact of a food from

  6. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches...... how it brings new insights to manufacturing companies moving to a service, value cocreation perspective....

  7. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model for a multi-product production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Wenbin; Peng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a production system that can produce multiple products alternately. Products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model is constructed, which is characterized by the delay-time concept. Two different situations are studied based on whether the unqualified products and downtime caused by the failures of the system, set-up and preventive maintenance can be ignored or not. Three cases are considered for each situation, depending on the position of the preventive maintenance epochs: the first case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at the end of each production cycle; the second case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at each set-up time of the products; and the third case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at some set-up times only, since it may not always be optimal to carry out preventive maintenance at the end of the production cycle or at each set-up time. The modeling objectives are to find the optimal number of production cycles per year and the optimal position of preventive maintenance that will maximize the expected profit per unit time. Numerical examples, using real data, are presented to illustrate the model. - Highlights: • We propose an integrated economic production quantity and preventive maintenance model. • The situation that multiple products are produced on the same system alternately is studied. • Two situations are studied based on whether the downtime and the product quality can be ignored or not. • We use enumeration method and analytical method to select the optimal preventive maintenance policy, respectively. • We use the delay-time concept to model the preventive maintenance policy

  8. Studies performed in the proper context suggest that antimicrobial use during swine and cattle production minimally impact antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (U.S.) it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of antimicrobial (AM) use leading to concerns that agricultural uses are the primary source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many studies report AMR in food-animal production settings without comp...

  9. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  10. Investigation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Yan, Jinying; Li, Hailong; Chekani, Shabnam; Liu, Loncheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Identify thermal characteristics of amine-based biogas upgrading for waste heat recovery. • Identify thermal characteristics of AD biogas production as sink for heat recovery. • Evaluation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading to improve overall energy efficiency. • Cost analysis applied for the economic feasibility of the thermal integration. • Using the principles of target design and system integration for connected thermal processes. - Abstract: Thermal integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas production with amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading has been studied to improve the overall efficiency of the intergraded system. The thermal characteristics have been investigated for industrial AD raw biogas production and amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading. The investigation provides a basic understanding for the possibilities of energy saving through thermal integration. The thermal integration is carried out through well-defined cases based on the thermal characteristics of the biogas production and the biogas upgrading. The following factors are taken into account in the case study: thermal conditions of sub-systems, material and energy balances, cost issues and main benefits. The potential of heat recovery has been evaluated to utilise the waste heat from amine-based upgrading process for the use in the AD biogas production. The results show that the thermal integration has positive effects on improving the overall energy efficiency of the integrated biogas plant. Cost analysis shows that the thermal integration is economically feasible

  11. Production of bioenergy in anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and sludge blanket (UASB) in the treatment os swine waste water; Producao de bioenergia em reatores anaerobios compartimentado (RAC) e de manta de lodo (UASB) no tratamento de efluentes de suinocultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moterani, Fabricio; Pereira, Erlon Lopes; Campos, Claudio M.M. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], email: fabricio_moterani@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biogas is obtained in the processes of degradation of organic matter by the action of bacterial consortium in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biogas production in anaerobic UASB and ABR in swine wastewater treatment. For this we used the theoretical estimated and actual production of biogas measured by anaerobic gasometers installed in the units. Methane was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and its theoretical output was 66 LCH4 kgSVT d{sup -1} and 11.9 LCH4 kgSVT d{sup -1} and 24.7 m{sup 3} d{sup -1} and 5.4 m{sup 3} d{sup -1} to ABR and UASB, respectively. Regarding the actual production of biogas in the reactor provided by the gas tank, found the values of 1,166.4 m{sup 3}; 0.1 m{sup 3}; 27.4 m{sup 3} and 12,598.5 m{sup 3} of biogas for compartments 1, 2 and 3 and ABR for the UASB reactor, respectively, totaling, production of 13,792.4 m{sup 3} in the units together, with an average of 113 m{sup 3} of biogas per day. But, it concludes with this research that the use of effluent from produce energy through biogas in swine farming is effective, which can be used in rural productive system itself. (author)

  12. Table of integrals, series, and products

    CERN Document Server

    Gradshteyn, I S; Zwillinger, Daniel; Moll, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The eighth edition of the classic Gradshteyn and Ryzhik is an updated completely revised edition of what is acknowledged universally by mathematical and applied science users as the key reference work concerning the integrals and special functions. The book is valued by users of previous editions of the work both for its comprehensive coverage of integrals and special functions, and also for its accuracy and valuable updates. Since the first edition, published in 1965, the mathematical content of this book has significantly increased due to the addition of new material, though the size of the book has remained almost unchanged. The new 8th edition contains entirely new results and amendments to the auxiliary conditions that accompany integrals and wherever possible most entries contain valuable references to their source.

  13. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  14. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in pork-meat and other processed products from the Colombian swine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gamboa Marín

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in pork carcasses, meat cuts, and meat products (“chorizo”, sausage and ham. Materials and methods. Stratified sampling was implemented in meat-processed products. We analyzed 566 (37% carcasses, 472 (31% meat cuts, and 481, (32% meat-processed products, distributed as follows: 169 (11% sausage, 163 (11% ham, and 149 (10% “chorizo”, for a total of 1519 (100% samples in a period of 18 months. The samples were processed using the ISO-17604, ISO-11290-1 and the USDA/FSIS (MLG-8.03 methods. Genus and species were confirmed by multiplex-PCR. Results. We obtained isolates of L. monocytogenes from 21 carcasses (10%, 160 (76% from meat deboning, 10 (5% from ham, 6 (3% from “chorizo”, and 13 (6% from sausage. The prevalence found was 3.7% and 33.9% in carcasses and meat deboning respectively. The prevalence in the meat-processed products was 4.03% in “chorizo”, 6.13% in ham and 7.69% in sausage. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the study was 13.82%. Conclusions. We found L. monocytogenes in different products analyzed, with particular interest in ham and sausage since both are consumed without previous heat treatment.

  15. 9 CFR 94.8 - Pork and pork products from regions where African swine fever exists or is reasonably believed to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cultures under conditions which the Administrator has determined are less stringent than those prescribed by this chapter for the importation or use of African swine fever virus or cultures into or within... amended in paragraph (a)(3)(i) by removing the citation “(a)(4)” and adding the words “(a)(5) of this...

  16. Implications of intelligent, integrated microsystems for product design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYERS, DAVID R.; MCWHORTER, PAUL J.

    2000-01-01

    Intelligent, integrated microsystems combine some or all of the functions of sensing, processing information, actuation, and communication within a single integrated package, and preferably upon a single silicon chip. As the elements of these highly integrated solutions interact strongly with each other, the microsystem can be neither designed nor fabricated piecemeal, in contrast to the more familiar assembled products. Driven by technological imperatives, microsystems will best be developed by multi-disciplinary teams, most likely within the flatter, less hierarchical organizations. Standardization of design and process tools around a single, dominant technology will expedite economically viable operation under a common production infrastructure. The production base for intelligent, integrated microsystems has elements in common with the mathematical theory of chaos. Similar to chaos theory, the development of microsystems technology will be strongly dependent on, and optimized to, the initial product requirements that will drive standardization--thereby further rewarding early entrants to integrated microsystem technology

  17. Technical Integration of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Young; Chang, J. H.; Park, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production system, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production economy. To estimate the attainments of the key technologies in progress with the performance goals of GIF, itemized are the attainment indices based on SRP published in VHTR R and D steering committee of Gen-IV. For assessing the degree of attainments in comparison with the final goals of VHTR technologies in progress of researches, subdivided are the prerequisite items conformed to the NHDD concepts established in a preconceptual design in 2005. The codes for analyzing the hydrogen production economy are developed for calculating the unit production cost of nuclear hydrogen. We developed basic R and D quality management methodology to meet design technology of VHTR's needs. By putting it in practice, we derived some problems and solutions. We distributed R and D QAP and Q and D QAM to each teams and these are in operation. Computer simulations are performed for estimating the thermal efficiency for the electrodialysis component likely to adapting as one of the hydrogen production system in Korea and EED-SI process known as the key components of the hydrogen production systems. Using the commercial codes, the process diagrams and the spread-sheets were produced for the Bunsen reaction process, Sulphuric Acid dissolution process and HI dissolution process, respectively, which are the key components composing of the SI process

  18. A Visual Interface Diagram For Mapping Functions In Integrated Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Mattias; Oliver Jespersen, Mikkel; Göhler, Simon Moritz

    2015-01-01

    In product development there is a recognized tendency towards increased functionality for each new product generation. This leads to more integrated and complex products, with the risk of development delays and quality issues as a consequence of lacking overview and transparency. The work described...... of visualizing relations between parts and functions in highly integrated mechanical products. The result is an interface diagram that supports design teams in communication, decision making and design management. The diagram gives the designer an overview of the couplings and dependencies within a product...... in this article has been conducted in collaboration with Novo Nordisk on the insulin injection device FlexTouch® as case product. The FlexTouch® reflects the characteristics of an integrated product with several functions shared between a relatively low number of parts. In this article we present a novel way...

  19. Extending product modeling methods for integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hauksdóttir, Dagný

    2013-01-01

    Despite great efforts within the modeling domain, the majority of methods often address the uncommon design situation of an original product development. However, studies illustrate that development tasks are predominantly related to redesigning, improving, and extending already existing products...... and PVM methods, in a presented Product Requirement Development model some of the individual drawbacks of each method could be overcome. Based on the UML standard, the model enables the representation of complex hierarchical relationships in a generic product model. At the same time it uses matrix....... Updated design requirements have then to be made explicit and mapped against the existing product architecture. In this paper, existing methods are adapted and extended through linking updated requirements to suitable product models. By combining several established modeling techniques, such as the DSM...

  20. New Approaches to Aluminum Integral Foam Production with Casting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Güner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integral foam has been used in the production of polymer materials for a long time. Metal integral foam casting systems are obtained by transferring and adapting polymer injection technology. Metal integral foam produced by casting has a solid skin at the surface and a foam core. Producing near-net shape reduces production expenses. Insurance companies nowadays want the automotive industry to use metallic foam parts because of their higher impact energy absorption properties. In this paper, manufacturing processes of aluminum integral foam with casting methods will be discussed.

  1. Overview of design issues in product-integrated Photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design features and characteristics of photovoltaic (PV)-powered products based on a literature study on product-integrated PV and an analysis of 90 PV-powered products executed during 2011–2013. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the current

  2. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  3. Integrated production planning and water management in the food industry: A cheese production case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulluru, Sai Jishna; Akkerman, Renzo; Hottenrott, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Efficient water management is increasingly relevant in the food industry. Exploiting water reuse opportunities in planning production activities is a key part of this. We study integrated water management and production planning in cheese production. For this, we develop a water-integrated lot

  4. Computerized integrated data base production system (COMPINDAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, D; Buerk, K [Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe, Gesellschaft fuer Wissenschaftlich-Technische Information mbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    1990-05-01

    Based on many years of experience, and with the main objective in mind to guarantee long-term database quality and efficiency of input processes, Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe is developing an integrated interactive data management systems for bibliographic and factual databases. Its concept includes the following range of applications: Subject analysis with computer-assisted classification, indexing and translation; technical procedures with online acquisition and management of literature and factual data, recording by means of optical scanning, computer-assisted bibliographic description, control and update procedures; support of the whole process by continuous surveillance of document flow. All these procedures will be performed in an integrated manner. They system is to meet high standards for flexibility, data integrity and effectiveness of system functions. Independent of the type of data, the appropriate database or the subject field to be handled, all data will be stored in one large pool. One main goal is to avoid duplication of work and redundancy of data storage. The system will work online, interactive and conversational. COMPINDAS is being established on the basis of the ADABAS as database management system for storage and retrieval. The applications are being generated by means of aDis of ASTEC in Munich. aDis is used for the definition of the data structures, checking routines, coupling processes, and the design of dialogue and batch routines including masks. (author). 7 figs.

  5. Computerized integrated data base production system (COMPINDAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, D.; Buerk, K.

    1990-05-01

    Based on many years of experience, and with the main objective in mind to guarantee long-term database quality and efficiency of input processes, Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe is developing an integrated interactive data management systems for bibliographic and factual databases. Its concept includes the following range of applications: Subject analysis with computer-assisted classification, indexing and translation; technical procedures with online acquisition and management of literature and factual data, recording by means of optical scanning, computer-assisted bibliographic description, control and update procedures; support of the whole process by continuous surveillance of document flow. All these procedures will be performed in an integrated manner. They system is to meet high standards for flexibility, data integrity and effectiveness of system functions. Independent of the type of data, the appropriate database or the subject field to be handled, all data will be stored in one large pool. One main goal is to avoid duplication of work and redundancy of data storage. The system will work online, interactive and conversational. COMPINDAS is being established on the basis of the ADABAS as database management system for storage and retrieval. The applications are being generated by means of aDis of ASTEC in Munich. aDis is used for the definition of the data structures, checking routines, coupling processes, and the design of dialogue and batch routines including masks. (author). 7 figs

  6. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from swine manure through short-term dry anaerobic digestion and its separation from nitrogen and phosphorus resources in the digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Ziwen; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of an agricultural system depends highly upon the recycling of all useful substances from agricultural wastes. This study explored the feasibility of comprehensive utilization of C, N and P resources in swine manure (SM) through short-term dry anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by dry ammonia stripping, aiming at achieving (1) effective total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and separation; (2) ammonia recovery from the digestate; and (3) preservation of high P bioavailability in the solid residue for further applications. Specifically, two ammonia stripping strategies were applied and compared in this work: (I) ammonia stripping was directly performed with the digestate from dry AD of SM (i.e. dry ammonia stripping); and (II) wet ammonia stripping was conducted by using the resultant filtrate from solid-liquid separation of the mixture of digestate and added water. Results showed that dry AD of the tested SM at 55 °C, 20% TS and unadjusted initial pH (8.6) for 8 days produced relatively high concentrations of total VFAs (94.4 mg-COD/g-VS) and ammonia-N (20.0 mg/g-VS) with high potentially bioavailable P (10.6 mg/g-TS) remained in the digestate, which was considered optimal in this study. In addition, high ammonia removal efficiencies of 96.2% and 99.7% were achieved through 3 h' dry and wet stripping (at 55 °C and initial pH 11.0), respectively, while the total VFAs concentration in the digestate/filtrate remained favorably unchanged. All experimental data from the two stripping processes well fitted to the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9916-0.9997) with comparable theoretical maximum ammonia removal efficiencies (Aeq, >90%) being obtained under the tested dry and wet stripping conditions, implying that the former was more advantageous due to its much higher volumetric total ammonia-N removal rate thus much smaller reactor volume, less energy/chemicals consumption and no foaming problems. After 8 days' dry AD and 3

  7. User Involvement as a Configurable Integrated Product Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    as a configurable integrated product delivery then the architect can – using slightly provocatively a term from the production industry – be seen a configuration manager of processes shaping our physical surroundings. Products focusing on standardisation and mass customisation of the building process rather than......Integrated product deliveries as known from the product industry are beginning to emerge in construction. These are normally considered as physical systems that can be configured and customised for a specific delivery to form part of a unique construction project and help to reduce the complexity...... relevant field for development of customisable integrated product deliveries in construction. This development and its causes challenge the traditional role of the architect as the centre point in the creation of physical wholes or entireties. If user involvement, as argued, can be considered...

  8. Rules for integrals over products of distributions from coordinate independence of path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In perturbative calculations of quantum-mechanical path integrals in curvilinear coordinates, one encounters Feynman diagrams involving multiple temporal integrals over products of distributions which are mathematically undefined. In addition, there are terms proportional to powers of Dirac δ-functions at the origin coming from the measure of path integration. We derive simple rules for dealing with such singular terms from the natural requirement of coordinate independence of the path integrals. (orig.)

  9. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation

  10. Metric integration architecture for product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, David B.

    1997-06-01

    Present-day product development endeavors utilize the concurrent engineering philosophy as a logical means for incorporating a variety of viewpoints into the design of products. Since this approach provides no explicit procedural provisions, it is necessary to establish at least a mental coupling with a known design process model. The central feature of all such models is the management and transformation of information. While these models assist in structuring the design process, characterizing the basic flow of operations that are involved, they provide no guidance facilities. The significance of this feature, and the role it plays in the time required to develop products, is increasing in importance due to the inherent process dynamics, system/component complexities, and competitive forces. The methodology presented in this paper involves the use of a hierarchical system structure, discrete event system specification (DEVS), and multidimensional state variable based metrics. This approach is unique in its capability to quantify designer's actions throughout product development, provide recommendations about subsequent activity selection, and coordinate distributed activities of designers and/or design teams across all design stages. Conceptual design tool implementation results are used to demonstrate the utility of this technique in improving the incremental decision making process.

  11. Electronic tagging and integrated product intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Martin; Weeks, Brian

    1996-03-01

    The advent of 'intelligent,' electronic data bearing tags is set to revolutionize the way industrial and retail products are identified and tracked throughout their life cycles. The dominant system for unique identification today is the bar code, which is based on printed symbology and regulated by the International Article Numbering Association. Bar codes provide users with significant operational advantages and generate considerable added value to packaging companies, product manufacturers, distributors and retailers, across supply chains in many different sectors, from retailing, to baggage handling and industrial components, e.g., for vehicles or aircraft. Electronic tags offer the potential to: (1) record and store more complex data about the product or any modifications which occur during its life cycle; (2) access (and up-date) stored data in real time in a way which does not involve contact with the product or article; (3) overcome the limitations imposed by systems which rely on line-of-sight access to stored data. Companies are now beginning to consider how electronic data tags can be used, not only to improve the efficiency of their supply chain processes, but also to revolutionize the way they do business. This paper reviews the applications and business opportunities for electronic tags and outlines CEST's strategy for achieving an 'open' standard which will ensure that tags from different vendors can co-exist on an international basis.

  12. On the logistics effects of integrated product and package design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramklev, Caroline; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2007-01-01

    obtaining error-free deliveries, saving costs and avoiding quality problems. Thus, the authors of this paper see a challenge in developing the theory and methodology for Integrated Product and Package Design. In this paper we take a first step in this direction. Firstly, we have carried out a broad review...... of literature, which shows that there is a need for research into Integrated Product and Package Design. Secondly, we have analysed three cases from industrial practice, which show that a conscious and integrated design of product and package has positive logistics effects, whereas neglecting this issue might...... result in higher costs and quality problems. On the basis of these cases we have made an initial cross-case analysis, which indicates that it is possible to develop the terminology and methodology for Integrated Product and Package Design....

  13. Integrated Product Team Effectiveness in the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monk, Gregg

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, then Secretary of Defense William Perry, directed a 'fundamental change' in the way DoD did business when he endorsed and required the use of the Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD...

  14. IOCM Aerial Photography: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (IOCM). The images were acquired from a nominal altitude of 7,500 feet above ground level (AGL), using an Applanix...

  15. Irreducible integrable theories form tensor products of conformal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.D.; Warner, N.P.

    1991-01-01

    By using Toda field theories we show that there are perturbations of direct products of conformal theories that lead to irreducible integrable field theories. The same affine Toda theory can be truncated to different quantum integrable models for different choices of the charge at infinity and the coupling. The classification of integrable models that can be obtained in this fashion follows the classification of symmetric spaces of type G/H with rank H = rank G. (orig.)

  16. A wind tunnel study of air flow near model swine confinement buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most significant and persistent environmental concerns regarding swine production is the transport of odor constituents, trace gases, and particulates from animal production and manure storage facilities. The objectives of this study were to determine how swine housing unit orientation af...

  17. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Rosario; Fernández, María Soledad; Jacob, Jens; Lucero, Nidia; Morici, Gabriel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Farace, María Isabel; Caracostantogolo, Jorge; Cavia, Regino

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels. Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights) included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported. Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid contact with other

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Lovera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels.Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported.Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid

  19. Ergonomics Integration Omproving Production Process Management in Enterprises of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Henrijs Kaļķis

    2013-01-01

    Dotoral thesis ERGONOMICS INTEGRATION IMPROVING PRODUCTION PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OF LATVIA ANNOTATION Ergonomics integration in process management has great significance in organisations` growth of productivity. It is a new approach to entrepreneurship and business strategy, where ergonomic aspects and values are taken into account in ensuring the effective process management and profitability of enterprises. This study is aimed at solution of the problem of e...

  20. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  1. Integrals over products of distributions and coordinate independence of zero-temperature path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.

    2003-01-01

    In perturbative calculations of quantum-statistical zero-temperature path integrals in curvilinear coordinates one encounters Feynman diagrams involving multiple temporal integrals over products of distributions, which are mathematically undefined. In addition, there are terms proportional to powers of Dirac δ-functions at the origin coming from the measure of path integration. We give simple rules for integrating products of distributions in such a way that the results ensure coordinate independence of the path integrals. The rules are derived by using equations of motion and partial integration, while keeping track of certain minimal features originating in the unique definition of all singular integrals in 1-ε dimensions. Our rules yield the same results as the much more cumbersome calculations in 1-ε dimensions where the limit ε→0 is taken at the end. They also agree with the rules found in an independent treatment on a finite time interval

  2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an antimicrobial air filter to avoid porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) aerosol transmission, after 16 months of exposure to a commercial swine environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, L. [Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO (United States); Pouliot, F.; Urizar, L. [Centre de developpement du porc du Quebec Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The effectiveness of Noveko's antimicrobial filter was evaluated after 16 months of exposure to commercial swine production. The experiment involved the use of a scaled model of a commercial swine facility consisting of 2 small chambers connected by a duct containing the filters. A 5 kg naive pig was placed in the reception chamber for a period of 6 hours after aerosolization with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Blood samples from pigs were collected before and after aerosolization to test for the presence of PRRSV RNA. Only blood samples were tested for PRRSV antibodies by IDEXX 2XR ELISA. None of the 9 pigs tested were found to be infected. The study showed that the technology used to integrate the antimicrobial agent into the filter fibers allows the filter combination to withstand extreme weather and endure commercial swine production for at least 16 months, and can maintain its effectiveness to avoid airborne transmission of PRRSV.

  3. Retrospective analysis of trends and production factors associated with sow mortality on swine-breeding farms in USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Y

    2000-09-01

    Of the 825 pig farms in USA that mailed in their electronic file containing production records, 604 farms were used to observe breeding-female mortality risk and related factors (herd size, lactation length, parity and season). Multiple regression was used to determine factors associated with annual mortality risk. Analyses of variance were used for comparisons of mortality risks among parity and season groups. Average annual mortality risks during the 1997 period was 5.68%. Average breeding-female inventories and average lactation length on USA farms were 733 and 18.3 days, respectively. Higher annual breeding-female mortality risk was associated with larger herd size, greater parity at farrowing and shorter lactation length (P500 females, mortality risk increases by 0.44%. Older parity was associated with higher mortality risks. Summer season was also associated with higher mortality risk. Using five-years' records on 270 farms, annual mortality risk in 1997 was higher than those of 1993 and 1994, while average breeding-female inventory increased and lactation length decreased. It is recommended that producers, especially in large herds, pay more attention to breeding females.

  4. An Integrated Methodology for Emulsified Formulated Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele

    are mixed together to determine the desired emulsified product. They are still mainly designed and analysed through trial - and - error based exper- imental techniques, therefore a systematic approach , integrating model-based as well a s experiment - based techniques, for design of these products could......The consumer oriented chemical based products are used every day by millions of people. They are structured products constituted of numerous chemicals, and many of them, especially household and personal care products, are emulsions where active ingredients, solvents, additives and surfactants...... significantly reduce both time and cost connected to product development by doing only the necessary experi- ments , and ensuring chances for innovation . The main contribution of this project i s the development of an integrated methodology for the design of emulsified formulated products. The methodology...

  5. Genetic gain and economic values of selection strategies including semen traits in three- and four-way crossbreeding systems for swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Peña, D; Knox, R V; MacNeil, M D; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2015-03-01

    Four semen traits: volume (VOL), concentration (CON), progressive motility of spermatozoa (MOT), and abnormal spermatozoa (ABN) provide complementary information on boar fertility. Assessment of the impact of selection for semen traits is hindered by limited information on economic parameters. Objectives of this study were to estimate economic values for semen traits and to evaluate the genetic gain when these traits are incorporated into traditional selection strategies in a 3-tier system of swine production. Three-way (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) and 4-way (additional paternal nucleus line D) crossbreeding schemes were compared. A novel population structure that accommodated selection for semen traits was developed. Three selection strategies were simulated. Selection Strategy I (baseline) encompassed selection for maternal traits: number of pigs born alive (NBA), litter birth weight (LBW), adjusted 21-d litter weight (A21), and number of pigs at 21 d (N21); and paternal traits: number of days to 113.5 kg (D113), backfat (BF), ADG, feed efficiency (FE), and carcass lean % (LEAN). Selection Strategy II included Strategy I and the number of usable semen doses per collection (DOSES), a function of the 4 semen traits. Selection Strategy III included Strategy I and the 4 semen traits individually. The estimated economic values of VOL, CON, MOT, ABN, and DOSES for 7 to 1 collections/wk ranged from $0.21 to $1.44/mL, $0.12 to $0.83/10 spermatozoa/mm, $0.61 to $12.66/%, -$0.53 to -$10.88/%, and $2.01 to $41.43/%, respectively. The decrease in the relative economic values of semen traits and DOSES with higher number of collections per wk was sharper between 1 and 2.33 collections/wk than between 2.33 and 7 collections/wk. The higher economic value of MOT and ABN relative to VOL and CON could be linked to the genetic variances and covariances of these traits. Average genetic gains for the maternal traits were comparable across strategies

  6. Product market integration, tax distortions and public sector size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    of product market integration for the public sector are far from straightforward. The reason is gains-from-trade effects which tend to increase the tax base and decrease the opportunity costs of public consumption (marginal utility of private consumption falls). It follows that the retrenchment view...... that product market integration inevitable leads to a downward pressure on public sector activities does not get support in a standard setting. A particularly noteworthy finding is that a country with a large public sector (strong preferences for public consumption) may benefit more by integrating......The implications of product market integration for public sector activities (transfers and public consumption) are considered in a standard setting. The analysis supports that a larger public sector (higher tax rate) tends to increase wages and worsen wage competitiveness. However, the implications...

  7. A strategy for integrated low-input potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.; Loon, van C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Current systems of potato growing use large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers; these inputs are costly and cause environmental problems. In this paper a strategy for integrated low-input potato production is developed with the aim of reducing costs, improving product quality and reducing

  8. Integrated product development and experience of communication in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Ihle; Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir. Peter van Kollenburg; Ir. H.E.V. Veenstra

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Departments at the Fontys University of Professional Education in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, offer a course which is devel-oped around the principles of Concurrent Engi-neering. Integrated Product Development (IPD) project teams are multi-disciplinary groups which develop products in

  9. Product development for catering - how to integrate issues on nutrition, quality and environment in the products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector......Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector...

  10. Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K

    2009-10-01

    Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system.

  11. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...... is equivalent to increased mobility of employment acrosscountries and thus a change in the trade-off between wages and employment faced by wagesetters. While the effects of product market integration on the trade-off between wages andemployment in general is ambiguous, it is shown that product market...... integration works like ageneral improvement in productivity via the specialization it allows through trade.Unambiguously, real wages and employment and welfare improve upon reductions in tradefrictions, and therefore workers are better off irrespective of whether the market power ofunions is enhanced or muted...

  12. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  13. EVIDENCE OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS SHEDDING IN FERAL SWINE ( SUS SCROFA) POPULATIONS OF FLORIDA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Felipe A; Sayler, Katherine A; Bounds, Courtney; Milleson, Michael P; Carr, Amanda N; Wisely, Samantha M

    2018-01-01

    :  Feral swine ( Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, US. We sampled blood, nasal, oral, and genital swabs from 551 individuals at 39 sites during 2014-16. Of the animals tested for antibody production, 224 of 436 (51%) feral swine were antibody positive while 38 of 549 feral swine (7%) tested for viral shedding were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive for PrV. The detection of PrV DNA across all the collected sample types (blood, nasal, oral, and genital [vaginal] swabs) suggested viral shedding via direct (oronasal or venereal), and potentially indirect (through carcass consumption), routes of transmission among infected and susceptible animals. Fourteen of 212 seronegative feral swine were qPCR-positive, indicating 7% false negatives in the serologic assay. Our findings suggest that serology may underestimate the actual infection risk posed by feral swine to other species and that feral swine populations in Florida are capable of shedding the virus through multiple routes.

  14. Eficiência energética de sistema de produção de suínos com tratamento dos resíduos em biodigestor Energy efficiency of swine production system with biodigestor waste treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Angonese

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar a sustentabilidade em um sistema de produção de suínos em terminação, realizou-se estudo de eficiência energética, através do acompanhamento de um lote de 120 dias, em sistema comercial, em Ouro Verde do Oeste, PR. Quantificou-se o coeficiente energético de cada componente envolvido no processo de produção e tratamento dos resíduos, por meio de biodigestor (entradas e saídas e se determinaram as matrizes de consumo energético nas formas de ração, energia elétrica, mão-de-obra, equipamentos, instalações, produção de suínos vivos, produção de biofertilizante e de biogás. Os resultados indicaram que a atividade se enquadrou nas características de um agroecossistema industrial, altamente especializado, importando grande parte da energia consumida no processo de produção e destinado à exportação, com eficiência energética de 0,38 (Jsaída/Jentrada. Da energia direta de entrada, 95,3% correspondem a ração e 4,6% a leitões. Da energia de saída, 56,8% se referem a suínos para abate, 30,1% ao biofertilizante e 13% a biogás.Aiming to assess the sustainability of a terminating swine production system, an energy efficiency study was carried out through a 120 days animal lot in a commercial system at Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The energy rate of each compound involved in the production process and waste treatment using a biodigestor (input and output was quantified. The matrixes of energy consumption were determined in the form of animal feeding, electrical energy, human labour, equipment, structures, alive swine production, biofertilizer production and biogas. The results indicated that the activity corresponded to an industrial agroecosystem, highly specialized, importing a great part of the energy consumed in the production process and applied to the exportation, with energy efficiency of 0.38 (Joutput/Jinput. In direct input energy, 95.3% correspond to animal feeding, 4

  15. 9 CFR 94.20 - Gelatin derived from horses or swine, or from ruminants that have not been in any region where...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gelatin derived from horses or swine... § 94.20 Gelatin derived from horses or swine, or from ruminants that have not been in any region where bovine spongiform encephalopathy exists. Gelatin derived from horses or swine, or from ruminants that...

  16. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  17. Prospective surveillance for influenza. virus in Chinese swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin D; Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Borkenhagen, Laura K; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-05-16

    Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza. viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Despite this risk, few studies have attempted to comprehensively study IAV ecology in swine production settings. Here, we present environmental and animal sampling data collected in the first year of an ongoing five-year prospective epidemiological study to assess IAV ecology as it relates to swine workers, their pigs, and the farm environment. From March 2015 to February 2016, we collected 396 each of environmental swab, water, bioaerosol, and fecal/slurry samples, as well as 3300 pig oral secretion samples from six farms in China. The specimens were tested with molecular assays for IAV. Of these, 46 (11.6%) environmental swab, 235 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 (5.8%) water, 20 (5.1%) bioaerosol, and 19 (4.8%) fecal/slurry specimens were positive for influenza. by qRT-PCR. Risk factors for IAV detection among collected samples were identified using bivariate logistic regression. Overall, these first year data suggest that IAV is quite ubiquitous in the swine production environment and demonstrate an association between the different types of environmental sampling used. Given the mounting evidence that some of these viruses freely move between pigs and swine workers, and that mixing of these viruses can yield progeny viruses with pandemic potential, it seems imperative that routine surveillance for novel IAVs be conducted in commercial swine farms.

  18. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model......International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  19. Microbial Ecology of Stored Swine Manure and Reduction of Emissions Using Condensed Tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management practices from large-scale swine production facilities have resulted in the increased collection and storage of manure for off-season fertilization use. Stored swine manure serves as a habitat for billions of microorganisms and is associated with the generation of odorous compounds and g...

  20. Effect of turning frequency and season on composting materials from swine high-rise facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting of swine manure has several advantages, liquid slurries are converted to solid, the total volume of material is reduced and the stabilized product is more easily transported off-site. Despite this, swine waste is generally stored, treated and applied in its liquid form. The high-rise fini...

  1. Improving occupational safety and health by integration into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The objectives were: (i) to study the product development process and the role of key actors', (ii) to identify current practice on integrating occupational safety and h...... and studies of documents. A questionnaire regarding product development tasks and occupational safety and health were distributed to 30 design and production engineers. A total of 27 completed the questionnaire corresponding to a response rate of 90 per cent.......A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The objectives were: (i) to study the product development process and the role of key actors', (ii) to identify current practice on integrating occupational safety...... and health into the development process, especially the efforts and attitudes of design and production engineers', and (iii) to identify key actors'reflections on how to improve this integration. The study was based on qualitative as well as quantitative methods including interviews, questionnaires...

  2. Integrated system of production information processing for surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Wang, S.; Zeng, Z.; Wei, J.; Ren, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept of Mining Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Based on the concept of geological statistic, mathematical program, condition simulation, system engineering, and the features and duties of each main department in surface mine production, an integrated system for surface mine production information was studied systematically and developed by using the technology of data warehousing, CAD, object-oriented and system integration, which leads to the systematizing and automating of the information management, data processing, optimization computing and plotting. In this paper, its overall object, system design, structure and functions and some key techniques were described. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. What Happens to Integrated Product Development Models with Product/Service-System Approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Product Development (IPD) has traditionally focused on the development activities relating to physical technological artefacts. With the advent of business approaches for manufacturing firms based on providing customers the utility of integrated products and services – a term dubbed...... ‘product/service-systems (PSS)’ – companies need to extend their activities to include new dimensions of development. Within the paradigm of mass production and consumption, traditional product-oriented business strategies regarded physical technological artefacts (products) as the mediators of customer...... value. Value was based on the exchange of products between a providing company and a receiving customer. The more products the company could sell, the more revenue it generated. At the point of sale the ownership and responsibility of the product was transferred from company to customer. A customer...

  4. Physical examination of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B J; Hamilton, M; Masters, P G

    1992-07-01

    Swine may be examined to evaluate a disease state or a lowered economic performance or as a herd health consultation. As much of the examination as possible should be performed without handling the animal. A thorough history, evaluation of herd records, environmental examination, and herd examination should be performed prior to the evaluation of an individual animal. All necessary equipment should be available when starting the individual examination. The animals is then restrained and examined, and necessary samples are taken. Post-mortem examinations or slaughter house evaluations are a very frequent part of a health examination on swine. All samples taken should be in accordance with the standards of the laboratory that you use. You should work closely with the laboratory to obtain the best results. Physical examination of swine can be rewarding for the veterinarian as well as the producer. The most important aspect to remember is to have enough information and the proper equipment available to handle the animals for the minimal amount of time to gain the maximum benefits. Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs are similar to domestic swine in terms of their diseases and health but are dissimilar in management; pot-bellied pigs are frequently brought to the veterinarian for individual examinations. History is the most valuable part of the examination, followed by observation. Pot-bellied pigs prefer to be held securely with a hand under the chin and rump. The examination is conducted similarly to the examination of any companion animal. Chemical restraint often is necessary for sampling or minor surgical procedures. Owners should be consulted prior to the use of any restraint. This will help win their approval and confidence when working on their pets. While performing the physical examination, look at the pig's overall health as well as specific breed characteristics. Try to stay abreast of swine vaccination recommendations; you may be consulted in this regard. Most

  5. Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Industrial production in high-wage countries like Germany is still at risk. Yet, there are many counter-examples in which producing companies dominate their competitors by not only compensating for their specific disadvantages in terms of factor costs (e.g. wages, energy, duties and taxes) but rather by minimising waste using synchronising integrativity as well as by obtaining superior adaptivity on alternating conditions. In order to respond to the issue of economic sustainability of industrial production in high-wage countries, the leading production engineering and material research scientists of RWTH Aachen University together with renowned companies have established the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”. This compendium comprises the cluster’s scientific results as well as a selection of business and technology cases, in which these results have been successfully implemented into industrial practice in close cooperation with more than 30 companies of ...

  6. Technology Epiphany and an Integrated Product and Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring how an integrated product and service contributes to achieving Innovation of Meaning (IoM or technology epiphany. Existing IoM studies have focused on intended meaning (as defined in new product development and ignored the received meaning that users reconstruct. The process by which a user assigns meaning to things can not only be static but also dynamic. This study focuses on integrated products and contexts offered by services and analyses the case of Japan’s largest manufacturer of ankle-foot orthoses. The results show that the service guides the users to reconstruct the meaning in dynamic cognitive processes and use the metaphors that contribute to the consistency between products and services.

  7. Integrating transportation and production: an international study case

    OpenAIRE

    L Bertazzi; O Zappa

    2012-01-01

    The problem we study is inspired by the real case of Mesdan S.p.A., an Italian company worldwide leader in the textile machinery sector, which has two production units with two warehouses, one located in Italy (Brescia) and the other in China (Foshan). The critical point in this logistic system is the integration between production and transportation management, given the long distance between Brescia and Foshan. Shipments are performed by the means of different types of vehicles with differe...

  8. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  9. Integrating Emotional Attachment and Sustainability in Electronic Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lobos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current models for Information and Communication Technology (ICT products encourage frequent product replacement with newer versions that offer only minor incremental improvements. This pattern, named planned obsolescence, diminishes user experience and shortens product lifespan. This paper presents the conceptual basis for a two-part integrated approach to combating planned obsolescence in ICT devices. First, design for emotional attachment, which creates products that users enjoy, value, and use for longer. Second, technological adaptability, which anticipates product upgrades and repairs as new technologies emerge. A model interdisciplinary design course in industrial design and sustainability, also described herein, trains students to apply this approach to create innovative ICT products with smaller environmental footprints.

  10. The Book Trailer Project: Media Production within an Integrated Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, Karen

    2017-01-01

    A special education co-teacher in an integrated elementary classroom describes key aspects of media literacy pedagogy for all students, including opportunities for critical analysis and creative media production. After elementary school students learned about author's craft, purpose, theme/message, three types of writing, and target audience, they…

  11. Dairy production in some selected integrated farms in Sokoto State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of eight integrated farms in four local government areas of Sokoto state in north-western Nigeria revealed the following about dairy production on such farms:breed of cattle kept, Sokoto Gudali, Friesian, and Sahiwal; average dairy herd size,69.4 head; husbandry system was largely semi-intensive; milking was ...

  12. Forest thinnings for integrated lumber and paper production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; C.T. Scott; R. Gleisner; D. Mann; D.W. Vahey; D.P. Dykstra; G.H. Quinn; L.L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Integrated lumber and paper productions using forest thinning materials from U.S. national forests can significantly reduce the cost of prescriptive thinning operations. Many of the trees removed during forest thinnings are in small-diameter classes (diameter at breast height

  13. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  14. Experimental systems of integrated and organic wheat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives and significance of integrated and organic farming are briefly discussed. In wheat production, the cropping methods involved are then described and compared to those of a conventional system. Initial results from an experimental farm at Nagele, The Netherlands, indicate that by an

  15. Integrated Facades as a Product-Service System : Business process innovation to accelerate integral product implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azcarate Aguerre, J.F.; den Heijer, A.C.; Klein, T.

    2017-01-01

    The Circular Economy (CE) attempts to realign business incentives, across all fields of human industry, to support the preservation of raw materials within closed economic loops. Within this conceptual frame, Product-Service Systems (PSS) combine the use of tangible products such as building

  16. Integral measurement of fission products capture in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Deidier, Loick.

    1979-12-01

    For the SUPERPHENIX reactor project, it was necessary to know fission products capture with about 10% accuracy in the fast breeder reactor spectra. In this purpose, integral measurements have been carried out on the main separated products by different experimental technics (oscillation, activation and irradiation methods), but particularly on irradiated fuel pins from RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to directly obtain total effect of fission products. Same tendencies have been observed for both enriched uranium fuel and LMFBR characteristic plutonium fuel. All experimental results have been introduced in CARNAVAL cross section set [fr

  17. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    of the specialization gains are similar to anincrease in labour productivity, whereas the labour market reform effectis similar to an increase in the degree of competition in the labourmarket. Wages, employment and welfare increase as a result of furtherproduct market integration. It is interesting to note......In this paper, we set up a two-country general equilibrium modelwhere trade unions have wage bargaining power. We show that adecrease in trade distortions inducing further product market integrationgives rise to specialization gains as well as a labour market reformeffect. The implications...... that the labourmarket reform effect of product market integration is achieved despitean increase in the wage level.JEL Classification: F15, J30, J50.Keywords: Trade frictions, wage formation, employment, welfaregains....

  18. System studies on Biofuel production via Integrated Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Malek, Laura; Hulteberg, Christian [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ. Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly. The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for fair techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project. Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found. In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and

  19. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease poses economic ... III and IV infect both swine and humans; and are re- ... associated with transmission in swine abattoir workers in ..... tal evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis ... A novel virus in swine is closely.

  20. Production of animal and vegetable proteins: an integrated thermal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesari, J P; Bonvehi, F; De Saint-Salvy, A; Miquel, J F

    1984-01-01

    For the optimization of our integrated farm, theoretical models using a microcomputer and experimental tests to verify these models were carried out on two research units. A test cell integrated with a greenhouse and a rock bed and a standard rock bed coupled with solar air collectors. A complete wooden house has been constructed and experimented in a remote village 200 km north of Toulouse as part of a demonstration unit. The geese and the Lemna minor (duckweed) have been selected as an animal and as a vegetable for the protein production. Some of the experimental results are reported.

  1. Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Michael; Svensson, Niclas; Fonseca, Jorge (Linkoeping Univ., Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: michael.martin@liu.se

    2011-06-15

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels may be optimized to increase the environmental performance through the concepts of industrial symbiosis. This paper offers a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits in industrial symbiosis, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods chosen

  2. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  3. Integrated preventive maintenance and production decisions for imperfect processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Nahas, Nabil; Ben-Daya, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper integrates production, maintenance, and quality for an imperfect process in a multi-period multi-product capacitated lot-sizing context. The production system is modeled as an imperfect machine, whose the status is considered to be either in-control or out-of-control. When the machine is out of control, it produces a fraction of nonconforming items. During each period, this machine is inspected and imperfect preventive maintenance activities are simultaneously performed to reduce its age, proportional to the preventive maintenance level. The objective is to minimize the total cost, while satisfying the demand for all products. Our optimization model allows for a joint selection of the optimal values of production plan, and the maintenance policy, while taking into account quality related costs. A solution algorithm is developed and illustrative numerical examples are presented. It is found that the increase in PM level leads to reductions in quality control costs. Furthermore, if the cost of performing PM is high to the point where it is not compensated for by reductions in the quality related costs, then performing PM is not justifiable. Finally, using non-periodic preventive maintenance with the possibility of different preventive maintenance levels may result in an improvement of the total cost. - Highlights: • We integrate production, maintenance, and quality. • We evaluate all the expected costs. • Our model allows for a joint selection of the optimal values. • A solution algorithm is developed. • Increasing PM level will decrease quality control costs.

  4. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  6. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO 2 eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  7. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B; Anderson, T Michael; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Adler, Peter B; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D; Buckley, Yvonne M; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; Fay, Philip A; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M H; MacDougall, Andrew S; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-01-21

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  8. Economical analysis of the use of biogas in swine production for generation of electric energy; Analise economica da utilizacao do biogas na suinocultura para geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Franco Muller; Oliveira, Paulo Armando Victoria de [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], Emails: franco@cnpsa.embrapa.br, paolive@cnpsa.embrapa.br

    2009-07-01

    The demand for alternative sources of energy has been growing in the last years in function of the variation on the prices of petroleum and the recent energy crisis. The anaerobic bio digestion can convert swine manure in biogas. In the present work it was studied the economic viability of the use of the biogas as alternative source for the generation of electric energy in different demand levels. The methodology utilized was the Net Present Value. The study showed that the utilization of biogas as electric energy source is economically feasible. The increase of the demand of electric energy, in the property, associated to the increase of the price of the electric energy, increases the economical profits and accelerates the time of return of the investments. (author)

  9. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. In...

  10. In-Feed Use of Heavy Metal Micronutrients in U.S. Swine Production Systems and Its Role in Persistence of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medardus, Julius J.; Molla, Bayleyegn Z.; Nicol, Matthew; Morrow, W. Morgan; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J.; Kazwala, Rudovick

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to characterize the role of heavy metal micronutrients in swine feed in emergence of heavy-metal-tolerant and multidrug-resistant Salmonella organisms. We conducted a longitudinal study in 36 swine barns over a 2-year period. The feed and fecal levels of Cu2+ and Zn2+ were measured. Salmonella was isolated at early and late finishing. MICs of copper sulfate and zinc chloride were measured using agar dilution. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using the Kirby-Bauer method, and 283 isolates were serotyped. We amplified pcoA and czcD genes that encode Cu2+ and Zn2+ tolerance, respectively. Of the 283 isolates, 113 (48%) showed Cu2+ tolerance at 24 mM and 164 (58%) showed Zn2+ tolerance at 8 mM. In multivariate analysis, serotype and source of isolates were significantly associated with Cu2+ tolerance (P 20 mM MICs of Cu2+ than did “other” serotypes. More than 60% of Salmonella isolates with resistance type (R-type) AmStTeKm (32 of 53) carried pcoA; only 5% with R-type AmClStSuTe carried this gene. czcD gene carriage was significantly associated with a higher Zn2+ MIC (P < 0.05). The odds of having a high Zn2+ MIC (≥8 mM) were 14.66 times higher in isolates with R-type AmClStSuTe than in those with R-type AmStTeKm (P < 0.05). The findings demonstrate strong association between heavy metal tolerance and antimicrobial resistance, particularly among Salmonella serotypes important in public health. PMID:24487542

  11. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    , it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU...... and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning...

  12. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  13. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  14. Computer integration of engineering design and production: A national opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as a purchaser of a variety of manufactured products, including complex space vehicles and systems, clearly has a stake in the advantages of computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). Two major NASA objectives are to launch a Manned Space Station by 1992 with a budget of $8 billion, and to be a leader in the development and application of productivity-enhancing technology. At the request of NASA, a National Research Council committee visited five companies that have been leaders in using CIM. Based on these case studies, technical, organizational, and financial issues that influence computer integration are described, guidelines for its implementation in industry are offered, and the use of CIM to manage the space station program is recommended.

  15. Designing Mechatronic Products - Achieving Integration by Means of Modelling Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas

    of a joint effort between mechanical, electronics and software development. Companies engaged in multi-disciplinary product development face the challenge of coordinating different engineering disciplines to pursue a synergistic effect and to avoid failures when solutions from the different engineering...... disciplines have to be combined and function in an integrated fashion. The holistic view of the product concept is sometimes missing in projects and engineering disciplines are reluctant to interact. Investigations of literature, cases from industry and practical experience are used for dissecting...

  16. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  17. Virtual Collaborative Simulation Environment for Integrated Product and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulli, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Deneb Robotics is a leader in the development of commercially available, leading edge three- dimensional simulation software tools for virtual prototyping,, simulation-based design, manufacturing process simulation, and factory floor simulation and training applications. Deneb has developed and commercially released a preliminary Virtual Collaborative Engineering (VCE) capability for Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). This capability allows distributed, real-time visualization and evaluation of design concepts, manufacturing processes, and total factory and enterprises in one seamless simulation environment.

  18. Process Integration Analysis of an Industrial Hydrogen Production Process

    OpenAIRE

    Stolten, Detlef; Grube, Thomas; Tock, Laurence; Maréchal, François; Metzger, Christian; Arpentinier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of an industrial hydrogen production process using steam methane reforming (SMR) combined with the water gas shift reaction (WGS) is analyzed using process integration techniques based on heat cascade calculation and pinch analysis with the aim of identifying potential measures to enhance the process performance. The challenge is to satisfy the high temperature heat demand of the SMR reaction by minimizing the consumption of natural gas to feed the combustion and to expl...

  19. Impacts of integration of production of black and green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huizhong; Tamas, Meszaros Matyas

    2010-01-01

    As the mandate for minimum renewable sources renders Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) an essential input for power generation, it may induce mergers between power companies of conventional and renewable sources. Such mergers enable the integrated firms to extend market power from the TGC market to the physical energy market. We find that the price of TGCs is indeed higher in the integrated market than the disintegrated market, indicating the presence of market power leveraging. However, despite higher TGC price, the total supply of electricity is greater under integration than disintegration, reflecting efficiency gains from vertical integration, which eliminates double marginalization. The thrust of this paper is that market changes induced by environmental policies will in turn affect environmental and economic regulations. For example, increased supply resulting from integration induced by the renewable source mandate may reduce the effectiveness of programs that promote energy saving behavior, but at the same time creates room for raising the minimum of renewable sources without unduly depressing production and consumption. (author)

  20. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela A. M. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.

  1. Aerobic degradation of tylosin in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Teeter, Jerold; Meyerhoff, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Tylosin, a fermentation-derived macrolide antibiotic, was tested to determine its aerobic degradation rate in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta. For chicken, excreta from a hen administered 14 C-tylosin as part of a metabolism study were used. For cattle and swine, 14 C-tylosin was added to control excreta. The formation of 14 C volatile breakdown products and 14 CO 2 was not observed throughout the study. Material balance for the cabon-14 label ranged between 94% and 104%. Initial, day-0, concentrations of tylosin-A averaged 119.52±4.39, 35.01±1.34, and 62.82±2.11 μg/g (dry weight basis) for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta samples, respectively. After 30 days, samples averaged 4.16±0.69 and 4.11±0.69 μg/g tylosin-A in cattle and swine excreta, respectively. No residues of tylosin-A or its factors were apparent in the chicken excreta samples after 30 days of incubation. In each case, tylosin declined to less than 6.5% of the initial level after 30 days. Calculated first-order half-lives under the test conditions were 6.2 days, <7.6 days, and 7.6 days for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta, respectively. The results indicate that tylosin residues degrade rapidly in animal excreta. Therefore, tylosin residues should not persist in the environment

  2. [The present epidemiological status of African swine fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, G

    1986-01-01

    At present, African swine fever (ASF) persists as an enzootic infection both on the African continent and in Europe (Portugal, Spain, and Sardinia). The recent outbreaks of ASF in Belgium and in the Netherlands have again demonstrated the threat of this disease to the swine population in Germany. The main reasons for this threat are the great tenacity of this virus and its stability in meat and meat products together with an immense tourism into these enzootic areas. Epizootiological peculiarities, such as virus replication in ticks and inapparent infections in wild boars are the reason why eradication of the disease has failed so far, especially when pigs are allowed to roam the countryside.

  3. An innovative model of integrated mentorship in film production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Miha Jambrek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author focuses on an innovative approach towards mentoring in film production. Emphasis is placed on a model of integrated mentorship in which the mentor becomes a part of the creative process. The mentor operates from within the creative process and works on an equal basis with the mentee in areas such as production, brainstorming, and problem-solving. This kind of approach assumes reciprocal learning and uses an adult education methodology in a formal pedagogical process. Our research was conducted as a participatory research observation, with participation in several short film productions at the Ljubljana High School for Media and Graphic Technology and the Artes Liberales Film Academy.

  4. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode......, switch and a white light emitting semiconductor diode. The polymer solar cell employed in this prototype presents a power conversion efficiency in the range of 2 to 3% yielding energy payback times (EPBT) in the range of 1.3–2 years. Based on this it is worthwhile to undertake a life-cycle study...

  5. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers.

  6. Integration of landslide susceptibility products in the environmental plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are one of the most destructive natural hazard that causes damages to urban area worldwide. The knowledge of where a landslide could occur is essential for the strategic management of the territory and for a good urban planning . In this contest landslide susceptibility zoning (LSZ) is crucial to provide information on the degree to which an area can be affected by future slope movements. Despite landslide susceptibility maps have been prepared extensively during the last decades, there are few examples of application is in the environmental plans (EP). In this work we present a proposal for the integration of the landslide inventory map with the following landslide susceptibility products: (i) landslide susceptibility zonation , (ii) the associated error map and (iii) the susceptibility uncertainty map. Moreover we proposed to incorporate detailed morphological studies for the evaluation of landslide risk associated to local parceling plan. The integration of all this information is crucial for the management of landslide risk in urban expansions forecasts. Municipality, province and regional administration are often not able to support the costs of landslide risk evaluation for extensive areas but should concentrate their financial resources to specific hazardous and unsafe situations defined by the result of the integration of landslide susceptibility products. Zonation and detail morphological analysis should be performed taking into account the existing laws and regulations, and could become a starting point to discuss new regulations for the landslide risk management.

  7. African Swine Fever Virus Biology and Vaccine Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Yolanda; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Richt, Juergen A

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries. The causative agent, the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that enters the cell by macropinocytosis and a clathrin-dependent mechanism. African Swine Fever Virus is able to interfere with various cellular signaling pathways resulting in immunomodulation, thus making the development of an efficacious vaccine very challenging. Inactivated preparations of African Swine Fever Virus do not confer protection, and the role of antibodies in protection remains unclear. The use of live-attenuated vaccines, although rendering suitable levels of protection, presents difficulties due to safety and side effects in the vaccinated animals. Several African Swine Fever Virus proteins have been reported to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized pigs, and vaccination strategies based on DNA vaccines and recombinant proteins have also been explored, however, without being very successful. The complexity of the virus particle and the ability of the virus to modulate host immune responses are most likely the reason for this failure. Furthermore, no permanent cell lines able to sustain productive virus infection by both virulent and naturally attenuated African Swine Fever Virus strains exist so far, thus impairing basic research and the commercial production of attenuated vaccine candidates. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  9. Composting swine slurry to reduce indicators and antibiotic resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  10. Monitoring of microbial hazards at farms, slaughterhouses, and processing lines of swine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, M J; Chung, M S; Lee, J H; Park, J

    2001-09-01

    This study was executed to investigate microbiological hazards at swine farms, slaughterhouses, dressing operations, and local markets for the application of the hazard analysis critical control point system in Korea by analyzing total aerobic plate count (APC) and presence of pathogens. Six integrated pig farms and meat packers were selected from six different provinces, and samples were collected from pig carcasses by swabbing and excision methods at the slaughterhouses, processing rooms, and local markets, respectively. APCs of water in water tanks were relatively low, 1.9 to 3.1 log10 CFU/ml; however, they were increased to 4.6 to 6.9 log10 CFU/ml when sampled from water nipples in the pigpen. APCs of feeds in the feed bins and in the pigpens were 4.4 to 5.4 and 5.2 to 6.7 log10 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium perfringens were detected from water and feed sampled in pigpens and pigpen floors. S. aureus was the most frequently detected pathogenic bacteria in slaughterhouses and processing rooms. Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica were also detected from the processing rooms of the Kyonggi, Kyongsang, and Cheju provinces. Even though APCs were maintained at the low level of 3.0 log10 CFU/g during slaughtering and processing steps, those of final pork products produced by the same companies showed relatively high numbers when purchased from the local market. These results indicated that the cold chain system for transporting and merchandising of pork products was deficient in Korea. Water supply and feed bins in swine farms and individual operations can be identified as critical control points to reduce microbiological hazards in swine farms, slaughterhouses, and processing plants.

  11. The product form for path integrals on curved manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosche, C.

    1988-03-01

    A general and simple framework for treating path integrals on curved manifolds is presented. The crucial point will be a product ansatz for the metric tensor and the quantum hamiltonian, i.e. we shall write g αβ = h αγh βγ and H = (1/2m)h αγp αp βh βγ + V + ΔV , respectively, a prescription which we shall call “product form” definition. The p α are hermitian momenta and Δ V is a well-defined quantum correction. We shall show that this ansatz, which looks quite special, is in fact - under reasonable assumptions in quantum mechanics - a very general one. We shall derive the lagrangian path integral in the “product form” definition and shall also prove that the Schro¨dinger equation can be derived from the corresponding short-time kernel. We shall discuss briefly an application of this prescription to the problem of free quantum motion on the Poincare´upper half-plane.

  12. Integration of Mobile Manipulators in an Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole; Bøgh, Simon; Schou, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the technology of autonomous mobile manipulation in a real world industrial manufacturing environment. The objective has been to obtain experience in the integration with existing equipment and determine key challenges in maturing...... reports from such a real-world industrial experiment with two mobile manipulators. Design/methodology/approach – In the experiment, autonomous industrial mobile manipulators are integrated into the actual manufacturing environment of the pump manufacturer Grundfos. The two robots together solve the task...... of producing rotors; a task constituted by several sub-tasks ranging from logistics to complex assembly. With a total duration of 10 days, the experiment includes workspace adaptation, safety regulations, rapid robot instruction and running production. Findings – With a setup time of less than one day...

  13. Economic viability for electrical power generation using biogas produced in swine grange; Viabilidade economica da utilizacao do biogas produzido em granja suinicola para geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo G. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Vale do Ribeira, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: rghantous@registro.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura S.T.; Bueno, Osmar de C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DGTA/FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], e-mails: maura@fca.unesp.br, osmar@fca.unesp.br

    2010-09-15

    Biogas production through anaerobic bio digestion represents an important breakthrough for the problem of swine waste and energy availability for rural areas. This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the economic viability of a bio integrated system installation and operation to produce electricity from swine wastes. Data for the study were collected in an agroindustry where there are plenty of agricultural activities; however the swine production activity was selected for the anaerobic digestion process because it generates a large amount of waste, with a limited provision in the environment, which characterizes a case study. The analyzed bio digester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gamester, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5.708,20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was concluded that the bio integrated system would achieve favorable economic results if the energy consumption were to 35 k W per hour a day, in average, where the net present value (NPV) is R$ 9,494.90 and the internal rate of return (IRR) is 9,34% per year. (author)

  14. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  15. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal

  16. HTGR-Integrated Coal To Liquids Production Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandrik, Anastasia M.; Wood, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the DOE's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to 'shift' the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700 C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: (1) 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66

  17. The Integration Method of Ceramic Arts in the Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuxin, Wang

    2018-03-01

    As one of the four ancient civilization countries, the firing technology of ceramic invented by China has made a great contribution to the progress and development of human society. In modern life, even the development of technology still needs the ceramics, there are large number of artists who take the ceramics as carrier active in the field of contemporary art. The ceramics can be seen everywhere in our daily life, this paper mainly discusses the integration means of ceramic art in the product design.

  18. INTEGRATED METHODOLOGY FOR PRODUCT PLANNING USING MULTI CRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Soota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated approach to multi-criteria decision problems is proposed using quality function deployment and analytical network process. The objective of the work is to rationalize and improve the method of analyzing and interpreting customer needs and technical requirements. The methodology is used to determine, prioritize engineering requirements based on customer needs for development of best product. Framework allows decision maker to decompose a complex problem in a hierarchical structure to show relationship between objective and criteria. Multi-criteria decision modeling is used for extending the hierarchy process to both dependence and feedback. A case study on bikes is presented for the proposed model.

  19. Electrical Integrity Tests during Production of the LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    de Rijk, G; Cornelis, M; Fessia, P; Miles, J; Modena, M; Molinari, G; Rinn, J; Savary, F; Vlogaert, J

    2006-01-01

    For the LHC dipoles, mandatory electrical integrity tests are performed to qualify the cold mass (CM) at four production stages: individual pole, collared coil, CM before end cover welding and final CM. A description of the measurement equipment and its recent development are presented. After passing the demands set out in the specification, the results of the tests are transmitted to CERN where they are further analyzed. The paper presents the most important results of these measurements. We also report a review of the electrical non-conformities encountered e.g. interturn shorts and quench heater failure, their diagnostic and the cures.

  20. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  1. Product architecture development enabling integrated re-design of mechanical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begelinger, R.E.; Post, E.; van Houten, F.J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Global competition forces companies to increase their competitive advantage. The design process represents an interesting area to improve the overall business performance. There are two topics involved in improving the design process. The first one is the integration of constraints from the product

  2. Numerical evaluation of integrals containing a spherical Bessel function by product integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, D.R.; Parke, W.C.; Maximon, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    A method is developed for numerical evaluation of integrals with k-integration range from 0 to infinity that contain a spherical Bessel function j/sub l/(kr) explicitly. The required quadrature weights are easily calculated and the rate of convergence is rapid: only a relatively small number of quadrature points is needed: for an accurate evaluation even when r is large. The quadrature rule is obtained by the method of product integration. With the abscissas chosen to be those of Clenshaw--Curtis and the Chebyshev polynomials as the interpolating polynomials, quadrature weights are obtained that depend on the spherical Bessel function. An inhomogenous recurrence relation is derived from which the weights can be calculated without accumulation of roundoff error. The procedure is summarized as an easily implementable algorithm. Questions of convergence are discussed and the rate of convergence demonstrated for several test integrals. Alternative procedures are given for generating the integration weights and an error analysis of the method is presented

  3. Dimensioning of the biogas production from the residential, industrial and swine matrices residues at the Vila Paciencia community, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Dimensionamento da producao de biogas a partir de residuos residenciais, industriais e de matrizes suinas na comunidade de Vila Paciencia, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edison Renato Pereira da; Navarro, Leonardo Luiz Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], e-mail: edison@ufrj.br, e-mail: leonardo.navarro@gpi.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper performs a preliminary technical analysis on the viability of thermal energy production through biogas, synthesized from solid waste coming from residences,an industrial restaurant and swine matrixes at Vila Paciencia, a needy community in Santa Cruz, west zone barrio in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The preliminary study indicates that even tough the system not be self-sustainable, the use of bio digesters is a possible solution for the problem of solid wastes destination at Via Paciencia.

  4. Integration of Titan supercomputer at OLCF with ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, Sergey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. PanDA managed resources are distributed worldwide, on hundreds of computing sites, with thousands of physicists accessing hundreds of Petabytes of data and the rate of data processing already exceeds Exabyte per year. While PanDA currently uses more than 200,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. Additional computing and storage resources are required. Therefore ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. In this talk we will describe a project aimed at integration of ATLAS Production System with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA Pilot framework for job...

  5. Integration of Titan supercomputer at OLCF with ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)643806; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Wenaus, Torre

    2017-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. PanDA managed resources are distributed worldwide, on hundreds of computing sites, with thousands of physicists accessing hundreds of Petabytes of data and the rate of data processing already exceeds Exabyte per year. While PanDA currently uses more than 200,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. Additional computing and storage resources are required. Therefore ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. In this paper we will describe a project aimed at integration of ATLAS Production System with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA Pilot framework for jo...

  6. INTEGRATED PRODUCT AND ENTERPRISE DESIGN FOR GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Du Preez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presentsan overview of the challenge to integrate product and process life cycles in maintaining global competitiveness of an enterprise and proposes IEKOS as a possible solution . It provides the reader with a framework of two virtual life cycles which create a problem solving matrix for the industrial engineer. In this matrix, bordered by the virtual enterprise life cycle and the virtual product life cycles, the business functions of analyze, design deploy and operate are predominantly functions executed by the, industrial engineer. The different phases of each life cycle serves as a framework to a virtual industrial engineering toolkit providing access to detailed functions, formats, examples and a series of software and other "tools" available to the industrial engineer.
    In conclusion a brief overview is provided of the progress of the IEKOS toolkit which is under development at the department of Industrial Engineering at Stellenbosch University.

  7. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  8. 75 FR 49524 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  9. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  10. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  11. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.

  12. Integrating mechanisms of visual guidance in naturalistic language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Moreno I; Keller, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Situated language production requires the integration of visual attention and linguistic processing. Previous work has not conclusively disentangled the role of perceptual scene information and structural sentence information in guiding visual attention. In this paper, we present an eye-tracking study that demonstrates that three types of guidance, perceptual, conceptual, and structural, interact to control visual attention. In a cued language production experiment, we manipulate perceptual (scene clutter) and conceptual guidance (cue animacy) and measure structural guidance (syntactic complexity of the utterance). Analysis of the time course of language production, before and during speech, reveals that all three forms of guidance affect the complexity of visual responses, quantified in terms of the entropy of attentional landscapes and the turbulence of scan patterns, especially during speech. We find that perceptual and conceptual guidance mediate the distribution of attention in the scene, whereas structural guidance closely relates to scan pattern complexity. Furthermore, the eye-voice span of the cued object and its perceptual competitor are similar; its latency mediated by both perceptual and structural guidance. These results rule out a strict interpretation of structural guidance as the single dominant form of visual guidance in situated language production. Rather, the phase of the task and the associated demands of cross-modal cognitive processing determine the mechanisms that guide attention.

  13. Integrated Production-Distribution Scheduling Problem with Multiple Independent Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the nonstandard parts supply chain with a public service platform for machinery integration in China. The platform assigns orders placed by a machinery enterprise to multiple independent manufacturers who produce nonstandard parts and makes production schedule and batch delivery schedule for each manufacturer in a coordinate manner. Each manufacturer has only one plant with parallel machines and is located at a location far away from other manufacturers. Orders are first processed at the plants and then directly shipped from the plants to the enterprise in order to be finished before a given deadline. We study the above integrated production-distribution scheduling problem with multiple manufacturers to maximize a weight sum of the profit of each manufacturer under the constraints that all orders are finished before the deadline and the profit of each manufacturer is not negative. According to the optimal condition analysis, we formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming model and use CPLEX to solve it.

  14. USING DEMATEL-ANP INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR DECIDING PRODUCTION STRATEGY FOR A PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan APAK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Production planning includes push, pull and hybrid production systems that production firms determine their production strategies according to many variables before starting production. The administration of this process requires experience and time. The intensity of rivalry makes this kind of decision processes important, because no firm has the luxury to waste time and to make a wrong decision. In order to solve this problem, research proposes to use integrated decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL and analytic network process (ANP together which are methods of multi-criteria decision-making models. The process being used to establish which options are found to be most acceptable for operations managers has been demonstrated how applicable it is by using the generated model in automotive industry.

  15. INTEGRATED COST MODEL FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hajduova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: All processes in the company play important role in ensuring functional integrated management system. We point out the importance of need for a systematic approach to the use of quantitative, but especially statistical methods for modelling the cost of the improvement activities that are part of an integrated management system. Development of integrated management systems worldwide leads towards building of systematic procedures of implementation maintenance and improvement of all systems according to the requirements of all the sides involved.Methodology: Statistical evaluation of the economic indicators of improvement costs and the need for a systematic approach to their management in terms of integrated management systems have become a key role also in the management of processes in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. The aim of this publication is to highlight the importance of proper implementation of statistical methods in the process of improvement costs management in the integrated management system of current market conditions and document the legitimacy of a systematic approach in the area of monitoring and analysing indicators of improvement with the aim of the efficient process management of company. We provide specific example of the implementation of appropriate statistical methods in the production of copper wire in a company Cu Drôt, a.s. This publication also aims to create a model for the estimation of integrated improvement costs, which through the use of statistical methods in the company Cu Drôt, a.s. is used to support decision-making on improving efficiency.Findings: In the present publication, a method for modelling the improvement process, by an integrated manner, is proposed. It is a method in which the basic attributes of the improvement in quality, safety and environment are considered and synergistically combined in the same improvement project. The work examines the use of sophisticated quantitative, especially

  16. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  17. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: Integrated process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerga, Ignacio R.; Zanuttini, María Soledad; Gross, Martín S.; Querini, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil obtained from Jatropha curcas fruits has high variability in its properties. • A process for biodiesel production has been developed for small scale projects. • Oil neutralization with the glycerine phase has important advantages. • The glycerine phase and the meal are adequate to produce biogas. - Abstract: Energy obtained from renewable sources has increased its participation in the energy matrix worldwide, and it is expected to maintain this tendency. Both in large and small scales, there have been numerous developments and research with the aim of generating fuels and energy using different raw materials such as alternative crops, algae and lignocellulosic residues. In this work, Jatropha curcas plantation from the North West of Argentina was studied, with the objective of developing integrated processes for low and medium sizes farms. In these cases, glycerine purification and meal detoxification processes represent a very high cost, and usually are not included in the project. Consequently, alternative uses for these products are proposed. This study includes the evaluation of the Jatropha curcas crop during two years, evaluating the yields and oil properties. The solids left after the oil extraction were evaluated as solid fuels, the glycerine and the meal were used to generate biogas, and the oil was used to produce biodiesel. The oil pretreatment was carried out with the glycerine obtained in the biodiesel production process, thus neutralizing the free fatty acid, and decreasing the phosphorous and water content

  18. Forecasting Rice Productivity and Production of Odisha, India, Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting of rice area, production, and productivity of Odisha was made from the historical data of 1950-51 to 2008-09 by using univariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models and was compared with the forecasted all Indian data. The autoregressive (p and moving average (q parameters were identified based on the significant spikes in the plots of partial autocorrelation function (PACF and autocorrelation function (ACF of the different time series. ARIMA (2, 1, 0 model was found suitable for all Indian rice productivity and production, whereas ARIMA (1, 1, 1 was best fitted for forecasting of rice productivity and production in Odisha. Prediction was made for the immediate next three years, that is, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10, using the best fitted ARIMA models based on minimum value of the selection criterion, that is, Akaike information criteria (AIC and Schwarz-Bayesian information criteria (SBC. The performances of models were validated by comparing with percentage deviation from the actual values and mean absolute percent error (MAPE, which was found to be 0.61 and 2.99% for the area under rice in Odisha and India, respectively. Similarly for prediction of rice production and productivity in Odisha and India, the MAPE was found to be less than 6%.

  19. Modeling of fission product release in integral codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidurrahman, K.; Raman, Rupak K.; Gaikwad, Avinash J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that stroke the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station in March 11, 2011 has intensified the needs of detailed nuclear safety research and with this objective all streams associated with severe accident phenomenology are being revisited thoroughly. The present paper would cover an overview of state of art FP release models being used, the important phenomenon considered in semi-mechanistic models and knowledge gaps in present FP release modeling. Capability of FP release module, ELSA of ASTEC integral code in appropriate prediction of FP release under several diversified core degraded conditions will also be demonstrated. Use of semi-mechanistic fission product release models at AERB in source-term estimation shall be briefed. (author)

  20. Information delivery manuals to integrate building product information into design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berard, Ole Bengt; Karlshøj, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Despite continuing BIM progress, professionals in the AEC industry often lack the information they need to perform their work. Although this problem could be alleviated by information systems similar to those in other industries, companies struggle to model processes and information needs...... them in information systems. BIM implies that objects are bearers of information and logic. The present study has three main aims: (1) to explore IDMs capability to capture all four perspectives, (2) to determine whether an IDM’s collaborative methodology is valid for developing standardized processes......, and (3) to ascertain whether IDM’s business rules can support the development of information and logic-bearing BIM objects. The research is based on a case study of re-engineering the bidding process for a design-build project to integrate building product manufacturers, subcontractors...

  1. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  2. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was tested in CSTR-type digesters fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretrea...

  3. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  4. Connecting Social Actors in Developing Integrated Tourism Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Marija Colarič-Jakše

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Our base of the research was the social capital and its impact on the recognition of the opportunities to innovate the tourism products by invigorating the innovative culture of tourism structures in Slovenia and stimulating the collective cooperation of the tourism stakeholders on the global market. Purpose: Our goal is to make clear the role of the civil society, private enterprises, and organizationsfrom public sector and small entrepreneurs in the creating of social capital, which is the base for the innovation of joint tourism products. Our aim was to identify the factors that stimulate the collaborative networking. Method: We investigated the cooperation networking between the tourism stakeholders with qualitative method of analysis. We conducted eight non structured interviews with tourism stakeholders and thirteen semi-structured interviews with the managers from various tourism organizations. Results: The results show that the right organization of consortium activities has the real impact on the creating of new tourism products. The results also show that the collaborative networking in the form of consortium supports the innovative processes and enables the marketing of the integral tourism products. Organization: The successful networking bases on the means of activation of the social capital, which enables the inclusion of the right stakeholders in the process of creation, translation, and implementing of the innovative ideas in the innovation process. Tourism structures in this process create various consortia form of collaboration and support in the process of acquisition of resources in the process of connecting the know-how, and in the process of the implementation of the same know-how to build the innovative tourism products. Society: Collaborative networking creates innovative culture of the tourism structures and the other structures in the society. The outcomes of the research show that Slovenian

  5. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered...

  6. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary......, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure...

  7. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  8. Process performance and product quality in an integrated continuous antibody production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Daniel J; Steinebach, Fabian; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    Continuous manufacturing is currently being seriously considered in the biopharmaceutical industry as the possible new paradigm for producing therapeutic proteins, due to production cost and product quality related benefits. In this study, a monoclonal antibody producing CHO cell line was cultured in perfusion mode and connected to a continuous affinity capture step. The reliable and stable integration of the two systems was enabled by suitable control loops, regulating the continuous volumetric flow and adapting the operating conditions of the capture process. For the latter, an at-line HPLC measurement of the harvest concentration subsequent to the bioreactor was combined with a mechanistic model of the capture chromatographic unit. Thereby, optimal buffer consumption and productivity throughout the process was realized while always maintaining a yield above the target value of 99%. Stable operation was achieved at three consecutive viable cell density set points (20, 60, and 40 × 10 6 cells/mL), together with consistent product quality in terms of aggregates, fragments, charge isoforms, and N-linked glycosylation. In addition, different values for these product quality attributes such as N-linked glycosylation, charge variants, and aggregate content were measured at the different steady states. As expected, the amount of released DNA and HCP was significantly reduced by the capture step for all considered upstream operating conditions. This study is exemplary for the potential of enhancing product quality control and modulation by integrated continuous manufacturing. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 298-307. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 76 FR 41521 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-786] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including...

  10. 75 FR 5804 - In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination To Review in... importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits and products containing same by reason of... (collectively ``Seagate''). Qimonda accuses of infringement certain LSI integrated circuits, as well as certain...

  11. 75 FR 16514 - Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor, Dallas, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,291] Maxim Integrated Products... Worker Adjustment Assistance on July 8th, 2009, applicable to workers of Maxim Integrated Products.... The workers produced integrated circuits (analog and mixed signal). Information shows that Maxim...

  12. Potential of Duckweed for Swine Wastewater Nutrient removal and Biomass Valorisation through Anaerobic Co-digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, phytodepuration has been considered an efficient technology to treat wastewaters. The present study reports a bench scale depuration assay of swine wastewater using Lemna minor. The highest observed growth rate obtained in swine wastewater was 3.1 ± 0.3 gDW m−2 day−1 and the highest nitrogen and phosphorus uptake were 140 mg N m−2 day−1 and 3.47 mg P m−2 day−1, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency in the swine wastewater assay was 58.9 ± 2.0%. Furthermore, the biomass valorisation by anaerobic co-digestion with swine wastewater was assessed. Results showed a clear improvement in specific methane production rate (around 40% when compared to mono-substrate anaerobic digestion. The highest methane specific production, 131.0 ± 0.8 mL CH4 g−1 chemical oxygen demand, was obtained with a mixture containing 100 g of duckweed per liter of pre-treated swine wastewater. The water-nutrients-energy nexus approach showed to be promising for swine waste management.

  13. Design Features of Product-Integrated PV : An Evaluation of Various Factors under Indoor Irradiance Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the field of product-integrated photovoltaics (PIPV), a term which is used for all types of products that contain solar cells in one or more of their surfaces, aiming at providing power during the product’s use. Product-integrated photovoltaics (PIPV) began to be widely

  14. Computer Aided Product Service Systems Design : Service CAD and Its integration with Life Cycle Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    Integration of product design into service design, or vice versa, is considered to bring more efficient and effective value addition. Besides EcoDesign tools and methods, a methodology to design such an integration of products and services from a systemic perspective, or product-service systems

  15. Integration of Titan supercomputer at OLCF with ATLAS Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro Megino, F.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Padolski, S.; Panitkin, S.; Wells, J.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. PanDA managed resources are distributed worldwide, on hundreds of computing sites, with thousands of physicists accessing hundreds of Petabytes of data and the rate of data processing already exceeds Exabyte per year. While PanDA currently uses more than 200,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. Additional computing and storage resources are required. Therefore ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. In this paper we will describe a project aimed at integration of ATLAS Production System with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA Pilot framework for job submission to Titan’s batch queues and local data management, with lightweight MPI wrappers to run single node workloads in parallel on Titan’s multi-core worker nodes. It provides for running of standard ATLAS production jobs on unused resources (backfill) on Titan. The system already allowed ATLAS to collect on Titan millions of core-hours per month, execute hundreds of thousands jobs, while simultaneously improving Titans utilization efficiency. We will discuss the details of the implementation, current experience with running the system, as well as future plans aimed at improvements in scalability and efficiency. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to

  16. Mountain Home Geothermal Project: geothermal energy applications in an integrated livestock meat and feed production facility at Mountain Home, Idaho. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B.; Brink, W.R.; Fisher, L.A.; Matherson, R.H.; Neilson, J.A.; Sanyal, S.K.

    1979-02-01

    The Mountain Home Geothermal Project is an engineering and economic study of a vertically integrated livestock meat and feed production facility utilizing direct geothermal energy from the KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) southeast of Mountain Home, Idaho. A system of feed production, swine raising, slaughter, potato processing and waste management was selected for study based upon market trends, regional practices, available technology, use of commercial hardware, resource characteristics, thermal cascade and mass flow considerations, and input from the Advisory Board. The complex covers 160 acres; utilizes 115 million Btu per hour (34 megawatts-thermal) of geothermal heat between 300/sup 0/F and 70/sup 0/F; has an installed capital of $35.5 million;produces 150,000 hogs per year, 28 million lbs. of processed potatoes per year, and on the order of 1000 continuous horsepower from methane. The total effluent is 200 gallons per minute (gpm) of irrigation water and 7300 tons per year of saleable high grade fertilizer. The entire facility utilizes 1000 gpm of 350/sup 0/F geothermal water. The economic analysis indicates that the complex should have a payout of owner-invested capital of just over three years. Total debt at 11% per year interest would be paid out in 12 (twelve) years.

  17. Broiler and swine production: animal welfare legislation scenario Produção de frangos de corte e suínos: cenário da legislação sobre bem-estar animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Baracat Tosi Rodrigues da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world largest meat exporter and one of the most recent demands of the import market is directed towards animal welfare. Codes, norms and legislations used in Brazil are out of date, and in most cases those adopted for both poultry and swine production are based on international standards to meet trade requirements. This research aimed to study and describe an overall scenario of the standards, norms and legislations for animal welfare items applied to broiler and swine production: rearing, handling and transportation. The critical points of these items were identified in accordance to standards and current literature on animal welfare issues, effective on January 2008. The comparison was based on given scores varying from 1-5 (very bad to very good as function of the existence of standard norms and legislations for each country and/or economic block, and for each type of demand, as well as the level of adoption by producers. When compared to counterparts Brazil detained the lowest score for all types of demands, and its mean score of norms is lower (p Brasil é o maior exportador de carne e uma das mais recentes importantes demandas do mercado importador está em torno do bem-estar animal. Os padrões, normas e legislações usadas no país são desatualizadas e, em muitos casos, estas são seguidas na produção animal são baseadas em padrões internacionais, para seguir requisitos do comércio que não atendem necessariamente o esquema brasileiro de alojamento. Esta pesquisa objetivou estudar e descrever o cenário das normas e legislações para as seguintes exigências, aplicadas a produção de frango de corte e suínos: alojamento, manejo e transporte, para subsidiar normas adequadas aplicadas às condições nacionais. Os pontos críticos destes itens foram identificados de acordo com padrões, normas de bem-estar animal e com a literatura vigente até Janeiro de 2008. A comparação foi baseada em escores atribu

  18. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  19. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  20. Cost-effective treatment of swine wastes through recovery of energy and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Adib; Aponte-Morales, Veronica; Wang, Meng; Dilbeck, Merrill; Lahav, Ori; Zhang, Qiong; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Ergas, Sarina J

    2017-11-01

    Wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are challenging to treat because they are high in organic matter and nutrients. Conventional swine waste treatment options in the U.S., such as uncovered anaerobic lagoons, result in poor effluent quality and greenhouse gas emissions, and implementation of advanced treatment introduces high costs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance and life cycle costs of an alternative system for treating swine CAFO waste, which recovers valuable energy (as biogas) and nutrients (N, P, K + ) as saleable fertilizers. The system uses in-vessel anaerobic digestion (AD) for methane production and solids stabilization, followed by struvite precipitation and ion exchange (IX) onto natural zeolites (chabazite or clinoptilolite) for nutrient recovery. An alternative approach that integrated struvite recovery and IX into a single reactor, termed STRIEX, was also investigated. Pilot- and bench-scale reactor experiments were used to evaluate the performance of each stage in the treatment train. Data from these studies were integrated into a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to assess the cost-effectiveness of various process alternatives. Significant improvement in water quality, high methane production, and high nutrient recovery (generally over 90%) were observed with both the AD-struvite-IX process and the AD-STRIEX process. The LCCA showed that the STRIEX system can provide considerable financial savings compared to conventional systems. AD, however, incurs high capital costs compared to conventional anaerobic lagoons and may require larger scales to become financially attractive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An integrated production-inventory model for food products adopting a general raw material procurement policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauza, G.; Prasetyo, H.; Amanto, B. S.

    2018-05-01

    Studies on an integrated production-inventory model for deteriorating items have been done extensively. Most of the studies define deterioration as physical depletion of some inventories over time. This definition may not represent the deterioration characteristics of food products. The quality of food production decreases over time while the quantity remains the same. Further, in the existing models, the raw material is replenished several times (or at least once) within one production cycle. In food industries, however, a food company, for several reasons (e.g., the seasonal raw materials, discounted price, etc.) sometimes will get more benefit if it orders raw materials in a large quantity. Considering this fact, this research, therefore, is aimed at developing a more representative inventory model by (i) considering the quality losses in food and (ii) adopting a general raw material procurement policy. A mathematical model is established to represent the proposed policy in which the total profit of the system is the objective function. To evaluate the performance of the model, a numerical test was conducted. The numerical test indicates that the developed model has better performance, i.e., the total profit is 2.3% higher compared to the existing model.

  2. An integrated new product development framework - an application on green and low-carbon products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lee, Amy H. I.; Kang, He-Yau

    2015-03-01

    Companies need to be innovative to survive in today's competitive market; thus, new product development (NPD) has become very important. This research constructs an integrated NPD framework for developing new products. In stage one, customer attributes (CAs) and engineering characteristics (ECs) for developing products are collected, and fuzzy interpretive structural modelling (FISM) is applied to understand the relationships among these critical factors. Based on quality function deployment (QFD), a house of quality is then built, and fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) is adopted to calculate the relative importance of ECs. In stage two, fuzzy failure mode and effects analysis (FFMEA) is applied to understand the potential failures of the ECs and to determine the importance of ECs with respect to risk control. In stage three, a goal programming (GP) model is constructed to consider the outcome from the FANP-QFD, FFMEA and other objectives, in order to select the most important ECs. Due to pollution and global warming, environmental protection has become an important topic. With both governments and consumers developing environmental consciousness, successful green and low-carbon NPD provides an important competitive advantage, enabling the survival or renewal of firms. The proposed framework is implemented in a panel manufacturing firm for designing a green and low-carbon product.

  3. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  4. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, C.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  5. Extended integration the key to future productivity leap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebler, R.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic benefits and trends in integration of information technology. The paper assesses the historical technologies of simple structure interpretation to complex three- and four-dimensional simulation. It presents historical methods of collecting and analyzing data and a hierarchy of integration that has developed. It shows the economic benefits of integrating computer data bases with multidisciplinary teams to engineer and monitor oil and gas depletion

  6. Desempenho de ovinos em terminação alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de dejetos de suínos Productive performance of confined finishing sheep supplemented with different levels of swine waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Medeiros Barreto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar o efeito de rações totais com diferentes níveis de dejetos de suínos no desempenho de ovinos confinados por 56 dias, com sete dias para adaptação e 49 para coleta de dados. Foram utilizados 32 ovinos machos não-castrados, Santa Inês, com média de sete meses de idade e peso vivo inicial de 25,2±3,9 kg, distribuídos em quatro grupos segundo o peso, seguindo-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de dejetos de suínos: T1=0%, T2=4,2%, T3=8,4% e T4=12,6%. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos para consumo de MS (89,44±1,01 gMS/UTM e 3,83±0,06% do PV, ganho de peso (200,36±0,03 gPV/animal/dia e conversão alimentar (5,73±0,50 kgMS/kgPV ganho. Os resultados para consumo de PB foram de 0,71; 0,72; 0,80 e 0,78% do PV e 16,81; 16,68; 18,53 e 18,03 gPB/UTM, e para FDN, de 1,61; 1,72; 1,91 e 1,70% PV e 35,82; 40,27 e 44,25, 38,81 gFDN/UTM, para as rações com 0; 4,2; 8,4 e 12,6% de dejetos de suínos, respectivamente. A inclusão de dejetos de suínos em até 12,6% das rações para ovinos terminados em confinamento resultou em desempenho satisfatório para ganho de peso diário e conversão alimentar. A a decisão pela utilização deste subproduto depende, portanto, do custo relativo dos demais ingredientes para formulação de rações a custo mínimo.The objective of this research was to evaluate total rations with differents levels of swine waste on the productive performance of sheep, in a feedlot system during 56 days, where seven days of adaptation and 49 days for data collect. Were utilized 32 Santa Inês hair sheep, aged seven months aproximately and with average body weight of 25.2±3.9 kg, distributed in four blocks as for body weight. A randomized complete block design, with four treatments (Swine waste levels: T1=0%, T2=4.2%, T3=8.4% and T4=12.6% was followed. No effect of treatments to dry matter intake (89.44±1.01 gDM/kgW0.75 and 3.83±0.06% of the BW

  7. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  8. Development of a swine-specific fecal pollution marker based on host differences in methanogen mcrA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnar, Jennifer A; Ufnar, David F; Wang, Shiao Y; Ellender, R D

    2007-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate methanogen diversity in animal hosts to develop a swine-specific archaeal molecular marker for fecal source tracking in surface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of swine mcrA sequences compared to mcrA sequences from the feces of five animals (cow, deer, sheep, horse, and chicken) and sewage showed four distinct swine clusters, with three swine-specific clades. From this analysis, six sequences were chosen for molecular marker development and initial testing. Only one mcrA sequence (P23-2) showed specificity for swine and therefore was used for environmental testing. PCR primers for the P23-2 clone mcrA sequence were developed and evaluated for swine specificity. The P23-2 primers amplified products in P23-2 plasmid DNA (100%), pig feces (84%), and swine waste lagoon surface water samples (100%) but did not amplify a product in 47 bacterial and archaeal stock cultures and 477 environmental bacterial isolates and sewage and water samples from a bovine waste lagoon and a polluted creek. Amplification was observed in only one sheep sample out of 260 human and nonswine animal fecal samples. Sequencing of PCR products from pig feces demonstrated 100% similarity to pig mcrA sequence from clone P23-2. The minimal amount of DNA required for the detection was 1 pg for P23-2 plasmid, 1 ng for pig feces, 50 ng for swine waste lagoon surface water, 1 ng for sow waste influent, and 10 ng for lagoon sludge samples. Lower detection limits of 10(-6) g of wet pig feces in 500 ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(-4) g of lagoon waste in estuarine water were established for the P23-2 marker. This study was the first to utilize methanogens for the development of a swine-specific fecal contamination marker.

  9. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model a system where lignocellulosic ethanol production is integrated with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. • We conduct an exergy analysis for the ethanol production in six different system operation points. • Integrated operation, district heating (DH) production and low CHP loads all increase the exergy efficiency. • Separate operation has the largest negative impact on the exergy efficiency. • Operation is found to have a significant impact on the exergy efficiency of the ethanol production. - Abstract: Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible, and a gas boiler is used as back-up when integration is not possible. The system was evaluated according to six operation points that alternate on the following three different operation parameters: Load in the CHP unit, integrated versus separate operation, and inclusion of district heating production in the ethanol facility. The calculated standard exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility varied from 0.564 to 0.855, of which the highest was obtained for integrated operation at reduced CHP load and full district heating production in the ethanol facility, and the lowest for separate operation with zero district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the

  10. Antibody levels to hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine workers, non-swine workers, swine, and murids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mark R; Correa, Maria T; Morrow, Morgan; Stebbins, Martha E; Seriwatana, Jitvimol; Webster, W David; Boak, Marshall B; Vaughn, David W

    2002-04-01

    In a cross-sectional serosurvey, eastern North Carolina swine workers (n = 165) were compared with non-swine workers (127) for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus as measured by a quantitative immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using a cutoff of 20 Walter Reed U/ml, swine-exposed subjects had a 4.5-fold higher antibody prevalence (10.9%) than unexposed subjects (2.4%). No evidence of past clinical hepatitis E or unexplained jaundice could be elicited. Swine (84) and mice (61), from farm sites in the same region as exposed subjects, were also tested. Antibody prevalence in swine (overall = 34.5%) varied widely (10.0-91.7%) according to site, but no antibody was detected in mice. Our data contribute to the accumulating evidence that hepatitis E may be a zoonosis and specifically to the concept of it as an occupational infection of livestock workers.

  11. Integration of production control and enterprise management systems in horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, Cor; Robbemond, Robbert; Kruize, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Production processes in horticulture are increasingly industrialized. Greenhouses have developed towards high-tech production plants that are highly automated by advanced systems for climate control, irrigation, crop monitoring, harvesting, internal transportation, sorting and packaging. At the

  12. Design of Sustainable Blended Products using an Integrated Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic methodology for designing blended products consisting of three stages; product design, process identification and experimental verification. The product design stage is considered in this paper. The objective of this stage is to screen and select suitable chemicals...... to be used as building blocks in the mixture design, and then to propose the blend formulations that fulfill the desired product attributes. The result is a set of blends that match the constraints, the compositions, values of the target properties and information about their miscibility. The methodology has...... been applied to design several blended products. A case study on design of blended lubricants is highlighted. The objective is to identify blended products that satisfy the product attributes with at least similar or better performance compared to conventional products....

  13. 75 FR 16837 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets...

  14. Towards product customization : An integrated order fulfillment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Lee, C.K.M.; Xu, Q.

    To stay competitive, manufacturing companies nowadays pursue product customization: and configure-to-order(CTO) has been recognized as an ideal business model to implement product customization. Due to the complexities resulting from the large number of customized products, an increased attention

  15. The integrated control of production-inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyen, van P.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate a multi-product, multi-machine production-inventory (PI) system that is characterized by: ?? relatively high and stable demand; ?? uncertainty in the precise timing of demand; ?? variability in the production process; ?? job shop routings; ?? considerable setup times

  16. Configurations of NPD : production interfaces and interface integration mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Boer, H.; Hansen, P.H.K.; Gubi, E.; Dorst, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates different configurations of the interface between new product development and production processes, including both intra–firm and inter–firm interfaces. These configurations are partly based on a process view of product innovation and partly on a structural view

  17. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2013-01-01

    produces ethanol, solid biofuel, molasses, and is able to produce district heating hot water. Considering all products equally valuable, the exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility was found to be 0.790 during integrated operation with zero district heating production, and 0.852 during integrated...

  18. Global Value Chain Integration and Productivity : Evidence from Enterprise Surveys in Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Deborah; Farole, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In order to adequately measure a firm’s participation in GVCs in this context, it is important to first identify the different forms through which GVC integration can affect domestic firms’ productivity. Integrating a country’s domestic suppliers into GVCs increases the possibility for productivity gains through exporting to a buyer abroad or supplying to a multinational in the country. Bu...

  19. Longitudinal study of distributions of similar antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serovars in pigs and their environment in two distinct swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H Morgan; Morrow, William M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were reciprocated in the farm and slaughter environment, clearly indicating an exchange of this pathogen between the pigs and their surroundings. Furthermore, the phenotypic and genotypic fingerprint profile results underscore the potential role played by environmental factors in dissemination of AR Salmonella to pigs.

  20. Financial benefit from the eradication of swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E N; Lysons, R J

    1988-03-19

    Swine dysentery was eradicated from a 270 sow herd by using medication in conjunction with cleaning and disinfection, without reducing the herd size. The feed conversion efficiency, cost per kg liveweight gain and veterinary costs in the herd were compared with similar Meat and Livestock Commission recorded herds before swine dysentery entered the farm, while it was present and after its eradication. During the four years when the disease was endemic in the herd the feed conversion efficiency deteriorated by 0.58, equivalent to 7.31 pounds per pig, the cost per kg liveweight gain was 15 per cent higher and the costs of veterinary care and medicines were 1.38 pounds per pig greater. Although there were pigs with clinical swine dysentery in the herd during the four year period, the poor production figures were attributed mainly to subclinical disease. The cost of eradicating the disease was more than 20,000 pounds but this sum was recouped within 12 months by the improved production and reduced drug usage. The chances of success of such a programme have been estimated to be between 54 and 90 per cent.

  1. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2014-01-01

    production. An exergy analysis is carried out for a modelled polygeneration system in which lignocellulosic ethanol production based on hydrothermal pretreatment is integrated in an existing combined heat and power (CHP) plant. The ethanol facility is driven by steam extracted from the CHP unit when feasible...... district heating production in the ethanol facility. The results suggest that the efficiency of integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production in CHP plants is highly dependent on operation, and it is therefore suggested that the expected operation pattern of such polygeneration system is taken......Lignocellulosic ethanol production is often assumed integrated in polygeneration systems because of its energy intensive nature. The objective of this study is to investigate potential irreversibilities from such integration, and what impact it has on the efficiency of the integrated ethanol...

  2. Constructing New Discrete Integrable Coupling System for Soliton Equation by Kronecker Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun; Zhang Hongqing

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the Kronecker product can be applied to constructing new discrete integrable coupling system of soliton equation hierarchy in this paper. A direct application to the fractional cubic Volterra lattice spectral problem leads to a novel integrable coupling system of soliton equation hierarchy. It is also indicated that the study of discrete integrable couplings by using the Kronecker product is an efficient and straightforward method. This method can be used generally

  3. Avaliação nutricional e desempenho da silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral em dietas para suínos = Nutritional evaluation and performance of cassava root silage with or without whole soybean in swine diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Alves da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar o valor nutritivo e o desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total, alimentados com dietas formuladas com silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral. No primeiro, foram utilizados 15 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas (animais subdivididas no tempo (subparcelas, totalizando cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os alimentos avaliados foram silagem de raiz de mandioca (MA, silagem de raiz de mandioca com inoculante (MI, silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral (MS e silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral com inoculante (MSI. As silagens apresentaram bons valores nutritivos e o uso de inoculante não foi efetivo para melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No segundo, foram utilizados 36 suínos mestiços, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com restrição na casualização para duas classes de peso inicial, com três tratamentos, seisrepetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em raçãotestemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja (RT e outras duas com substituição total do milho por MA e MS. Para fase de crescimento, a conversão alimentar melhorou com o uso das silagens.Conclui-se que as silagens de mandioca, contendo ou não soja integral, apresentam bons valores nutritivos e podem substituir totalmente o milho na ração de suínos nas fases de crescimento eperíodo total.Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and performance of growing and total-period swine fed cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. In the first group, 15 crossbred swine were used, in a completely randomized design with parcels (animals subdivided in time (subparcels with five treatmentsand six replications. The study evaluated cassava root silage (CA, cassava root silage with inoculant (CI, cassava root silage + whole soybean (CS and

  4. Restoring crop productivity of eroded lands through , integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) for sustained production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.U.; Ali, S.

    2005-01-01

    Crop productivity of eroded lands is very poor due to removal of top fertile soil losing organic matter and plant nutrients, with consequent exposure of the sub-soil with poor fertility status. Crop productivity of such lands needs to be restored in order to help farmers feed many mouths because of increased population and high land pressure. Three field experiments were laid out at three sites, Thana, Malakand Agency; Kabal and Matta, Swat during 2003-2004 to study the effect of integrated plant nutrient management on the yield of wheat. The fertilizer treatments consisted of farmer's practice (60-45-0 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/), recommended fertilizer rate (120-90-60 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -l/ + 5 kg Zn ha/sup -1), and combined application of organic and inorganic sources of plant nutrients (FYM at the rate of 20 t ha/sup -1/ plus 60-90-60 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + 5 kg Zn ha/sup -1/). The results obtained from these field trails showed that the combined application of FYM with NPK Zn increased the grain yield significantly over the other two treatments with an increase of 50-80% over the farmer's practice and 11 to 23 % over the recommended dose. As regards straw yields, T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/ increased the yields significantly over farmer's practice (T) at all the sites; However, T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/ at Thana and Kabal were at par with each other. As regards effect of various treatments on soil properties, organic matter content was improved at Thana and Kabal sites while at Matta the results were inconsistent. Similarly soil P and Zn contents were increased considerably in T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/ at Thana and Kabal being at par with each other. It is apparent from these results that the crop productivity of eroded lands at all the three sties was considerably restored and the soil fertility status was improved by integrated plant nutrient management. (author)

  5. Techno-economic analysis of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding biomass-based ammonia production systems. • Integration of an ammonia production process in a pulp and paper mill. • Integrated ammonia production gains higher system efficiency than stand-alone production. • The economics of an integrated production system is improved compared to stand-alone production. - Abstract: Ammonia (NH 3 ) can be produced by synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen in the Haber–Bosch process, where the economic challenge is the hydrogen production. Currently, substantial amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted from the ammonia industry since the hydrogen production is almost exclusively based on fossil feedstocks. Hydrogen produced via gasification of lignocellulosic biomass is a more environmentally friendly alternative, but the economic performance is critical. The main objective of this work was to perform a techno-economic evaluation of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification in an existing pulp and paper mill. The results were compared with a stand-alone production case to find potential technical and economic benefits deriving from the integration. The biomass gasifier and the subsequent NH 3 production were modelled using the commercial software Aspen Plus. A process integration model based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) was used to analyze the effects on the overall energy system of the pulp mill. Important modelling constraints were to maintain the pulp production and the steam balance of the mill. The results showed that the process economics and energy performance are favourable for the integrated case compared to stand-alone production. The main conclusion was however that a rather high NH 3 selling price is required to make both production cases economically feasible

  6. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for the rapid and differential diagnosis of classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Pérez, Lester J; Frías, Maria T; Rosell, Rosa; Tarradas, Joan; Núñez, José I; Ganges, Llilianne

    2009-11-18

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease causing severe economic losses in pig production almost worldwide. All pestivirus species can infect pigs, therefore accurate and rapid pestivirus detection and differentiation is of great importance to assure control measures in swine farming. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex, highly sensitive and specific RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation between CSFV and other pestivirus infections in swine. The universal and differential detection was based on primers designed to amplify a fragment of the 5' non-coding genome region for the detection of pestiviruses and a fragment of the NS5B gene for the detection of classical swine fever virus. The assay proved to be specific when different pestivirus strains from swine and ruminants were evaluated. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be as little as 0.89TCID(50). The assay analysis of 30 tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected and non-CSF infected animals and 40 standard serum samples evaluated as part of two European Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests conducted by the European Community Reference Laboratory, Hanover, Germany proved that the multiplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis for classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections in swine.

  7. O2O - Based Agricultural Products Supply Chain Process Integration Optimization Based on Internet +

    OpenAIRE

    Li Huijuan

    2017-01-01

    Traditional wholesale and retail, electricity supplier of agricultural products supply chain have many difficulties. The O2O supply chain of agricultural products of “Internet+”, committed to the integration of online and offline advantage process, has become the main direction of the agricultural products supply chain transformation. Practice operation results show that O2O supply chain can effectively play the advantages of online and offline process integration, but its further development...

  8. Water scarcity assessment of steel production in national integrated steelmaking route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was the assessment of the water scarcity in steel production in integrated steelmaking route in Poland. The main goal of Water footprint (WF is quantifying and mapping of direct and indirect water use in life cycle of product or technology. In the paper Water Scarcity Indicators (WSI for steel production and unit processes in integrated steelmaking route was performed.

  9. Production and integration of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Albert, J.; Alberti, F.; Alex, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alkire, S.; Allport, P.; Altenheiner, S.; Ancu, L. S.; Anderssen, E.; Andreani, A.; Andreazza, A.; Axen, B.; Arguin, J.; Backhaus, M.; Balbi, G.; Ballansat, J.; Barbero, M.; Barbier, G.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R.; Baudin, P.; Battaglia, M.; Beau, T.; Beccherle, R.; Bell, A.; Benoit, M.; Bermgan, A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bindi, F.; Bomben, M.; Borri, M.; Bortolin, C.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, R. G.; Breugnon, P.; Bruni, G.; Brossamer, J.; Bruschi, M.; Buchholz, P.; Budun, E.; Buttar, C.; Cadoux, F.; Calderini, G.; Caminada, L.; Capeans, M.; Carney, R.; Casse, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Červ, M.; Cervelli, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chauveau, J.; Chen, S. P.; Chu, M.; Ciapetti, M.; Cindro, V.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cobal, M.; Coelli, S.; Collot, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Dalla Betta, G. F.; Daly, C.; D'Amen, G.; Dann, N.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; DaVia, C.; David, P.; Debieux, S.; Delebecque, P.; De Lorenzi, F.; de Oliveira, R.; Dette, K.; Dietsche, W.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dinu, N.; Dittus, F.; Diyakov, D.; Djama, F.; Dobos, D.; Dondero, P.; Doonan, K.; Dopke, J.; Dorholt, O.; Dube, S.; Dzahini, D.; Egorov, K.; Ehrmann, O.; Einsweiler, K.; Elles, S.; Elsing, M.; Eraud, L.; Ereditato, A.; Eyring, A.; Falchieri, D.; Falou, A.; Fausten, C.; Favareto, A.; Favre, Y.; Feigl, S.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrere, D.; Fleury, J.; Flick, T.; Forshaw, D.; Fougeron, D.; Franconi, L.; Gabrielli, A.; Gaglione, R.; Gallrapp, C.; Gan, K. K.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gariano, G.; Gastaldi, T.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gaudiello, A.; Geffroy, N.; Gemme, C.; Gensolen, F.; George, M.; Ghislain, P.; Giangiacomi, N.; Gibson, S.; Giordani, M. P.; Giugni, D.; Gjersdal, H.; Glitza, K. W.; Gnani, D.; Godlewski, J.; Gonella, L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Gorelov, I.; Gorišek, A.; Gössling, C.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gray, H.; Gregor, I.; Grenier, P.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, A.; Gromov, V.; Grondin, D.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Guescini, F.; Guido, E.; Gutierrez, P.; Hallewell, G.; Hartman, N.; Hauck, S.; Hasi, J.; Hasib, A.; Hegner, F.; Heidbrink, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Hemperek, T.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetmánek, M.; Hinman, R. R.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Holmes, T.; Hostachy, J.; Hsu, S. C.; Hügging, F.; Husi, C.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Idarraga, J.; Ikegami, Y.; Ince, T.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Izen, J. M.; Janoška, Z.; Janssen, J.; Jansen, L.; Jeanty, L.; Jensen, F.; Jentzsch, J.; Jezequel, S.; Joseph, J.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Karagounis, M.; Kass, R.; Kastanas, A.; Kenney, C.; Kersten, S.; Kind, P.; Klein, M.; Klingenberg, R.; Kluit, R.; Kocian, M.; Koffeman, E.; Korchak, O.; Korolkov, I.; Kostyukhina-Visoven, I.; Kovalenko, S.; Kretz, M.; Krieger, N.; Krüger, H.; Kruth, A.; Kugel, A.; Kuykendall, W.; La Rosa, A.; Lai, C.; Lantzsch, K.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, D.; Lari, T.; Latorre, S.; Leyton, M.; Lindquist, B.; Looper, K.; Lopez, I.; Lounis, A.; Lu, Y.; Lubatti, H. J.; Maeland, S.; Maier, A.; Mallik, U.; Manca, F.; Mandelli, B.; Mandić, I.; Marchand, D.; Marchiori, G.; Marx, M.; Massol, N.; Mättig, P.; Mayer, J.; McGoldrick, G.; Mekkaoui, A.; Menouni, M.; Menu, J.; Meroni, C.; Mesa, J.; Michal, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mikuž, M.; Miucci, A.; Mochizuki, K.; Monti, M.; Moore, J.; Morettini, P.; Morley, A.; Moss, J.; Muenstermann, D.; Murray, P.; Nakamura, K.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, D.; Nessi, M.; Nisius, R.; Nordberg, M.; Nuiry, F.; Obermann, T.; Ockenfels, W.; Oide, H.; Oriunno, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Padilla, C.; Pangaud, P.; Parker, S.; Pelleriti, G.; Pernegger, H.; Piacquadio, G.; Picazio, A.; Pohl, D.; Polini, A.; Pons, X.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X.; Potamianos, K.; Povoli, M.; Puldon, D.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, B.; Rarbi, F.; Ragusa, F.; Rambure, T.; Richards, E.; Riegel, C.; Ristic, B.; Rivière, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; RØhne, O.; Rossi, C.; Rossi, L. P.; Rovani, A.; Rozanov, A.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rummler, A.; Ruscino, E.; Sabatini, F.; Salek, D.; Salzburger, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sannino, M.; Sanny, B.; Scanlon, T.; Schipper, J.; Schmidt, U.; Schneider, B.; Schorlemmer, A.; Schroer, N.; Schwemling, P.; Sciuccati, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Šícho, P.; Skubic, P.; Sloboda, M.; Smith, D. S.; Smith, M.; Sood, A.; Spencer, E.; Stramaglia, M.; Strauss, M.; Stucci, S.; Stugu, B.; Stupak, J.; Styles, N.; Su, D.; Takubo, Y.; Tassan, J.; Teng, P.; Teixeira, A.; Terzo, S.; Therry, X.; Todorov, T.; Tomášek, M.; Toms, K.; Travaglini, R.; Trischuk, W.; Troncon, C.; Troska, G.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsurin, I.; Tsybychev, D.; Unno, Y.; Vacavant, L.; Verlaat, B.; Vigeolas, E.; Vogt, M.; Vrba, V.; Vuillermet, R.; Wagner, W.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, R.; Watts, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, M.; Weingarten, J.; Welch, S.; Wenig, S.; Wensing, M.; Wermes, N.; Wittig, T.; Wittgen, M.; Yildizkaya, T.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.; Yi, Y.; Zaman, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zivkovic, V.; Zoccoli, A.; Zwalinski, L.

    2018-05-01

    During the shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2013-2014, an additional pixel layer was installed between the existing Pixel detector of the ATLAS experiment and a new, smaller radius beam pipe. The motivation for this new pixel layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was to maintain or improve the robustness and performance of the ATLAS tracking system, given the higher instantaneous and integrated luminosities realised following the shutdown. Because of the extreme radiation and collision rate environment, several new radiation-tolerant sensor and electronic technologies were utilised for this layer. This paper reports on the IBL construction and integration prior to its operation in the ATLAS detector.

  10. Product integrated PV: the future is design and styling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore how PV powered products have been designed in the past. For this purpose we have drawn a historical time line of the design features of PV powered products in the context of main stream design and styling. Our time frame is 1970 till 2016, focusing in first instance on

  11. Life Cycle Thinking and Integrated Product Deliveries in renovation projects: Extending the concept of Integrated Product Deliveries with Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    on renovation projects from Denmark, using different forms of IPDs for façade renovation and discusses the different stakeholder’s perspectives on life cycle thinking and their interests and values regarding sustainable building. Furthermore is the concept of Product Service Systems (PSS) as a valuable...... IPDs with regard to longevity and adaptability. CONCLUSION The new type of service-focused IPD and the related life-cycle responsibility (development, building phase, maintenance and dismantling/adaption/recycling) creates incentive to integrate life cycle thinking into the development process of IPDs......, resulting in more sustainable building solutions with a greater extend of positive environmental, economical and social impacts. The research presented will also show the importance of adaption and configuration of these complex building components by architects and planners, as they will have a great...

  12. Design and control of integrated styrene aniline production plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partenie, O.; Van der Last, V.; Sorin Bildea, C.; Altimari, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates the operational difficulties arising from simultaneously performing exothermic and endothermic reactions, and demonstrates that a plant can be built and safely operated by integrating the design and plantwide control issues. The behaviour of reactor – separation – recycle

  13. Integration of oxygen membranes for oxygen production in cement plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Søgaard, Martin; Hjuler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln...

  14. Longitudinal Study of the Persistence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Strains in Distinct Swine Production Systems on Farms, at Slaughter, and in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare and characterize the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Campylobacter in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems on farms, at slaughter, and in the environment. Fecal and environmental samples were collected from ABF farms (pigs, 1,239; environment, 797) and conventional farms (pigs, 1,650; environment, 1,325). At slaughter, we collected samples from carcasses, including postevisceration swabs, postchill swabs, and mesenteric lymph nodes from ABF systems (postevisceration swabs, 182; postchill swabs, 199; mesenteric lymph nodes, 184) and conventional systems (postevisceration swabs, 272; postchill swabs, 271; mesenteric lymph nodes, 255) at separate processing facilities. We also sampled the processing plant environment, including truck and lairage floor swab samples (ABF, 115; conventional, 90). Overall, a total of 2,908 Campylobacter isolates, including Campylobacter coli (farm, 2,557, 99.8%; slaughter, 341, 98.3%) and Campylobacter jejuni (farm, 4, 0.2%; slaughter, 6, 1.7%), were isolated in the study. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Campylobacter between ABF and conventionally raised pigs (farrowing, P = 0.20; nursery, P = 0.06; finishing, P = 0.24) and the environment (P = 0.37). At slaughter, Campylobacter was isolated from all of the stages, including postchill. The highest frequencies of resistance were exhibited against tetracycline (ABF, 48.2%; conventional, 88.3%). Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli isolates were observed in conventionally raised (17.1%) and ABF (1.2%) pigs (P = 0.11). Antimicrobial use data from conventional farms indicated significant associations between oxytetracycline use and tetracycline resistance in the nursery pigs (P = 0.01), between tiamulin exposure and azithromycin and erythromycin resistance in nursery (P < 0.01) and finishing (P < 0.01) pigs, and between enrofloxacin exposure and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in

  15. A simplified model for assessing the impact to groundwater of swine farms at regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Viterbo, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Swine manure can be an excellent source of nutrients for crop production. Several swine farms are present in the territory of Regione Umbria and more than 200.000 of swine heads are present yearly in the whole territory while some municipalities host more than 30.000 heads over a relatively limited land. Municipality with elevated number of swine heads has registered particularly higher Nitrate concentration in groundwater that requires a management plan and intervention in order to determine the maximum allowed N loads in the specific region. Use of manure and fertilizers in agricultural field produce diffuse nitrogen (N) losses that are a major cause of excessive nitrate concentrations in ground and surface waters and have been of concern since decades. Excessive nitrate concentrations in groundwater can have toxic effects when used as drinking water and cause eutrophication in surface waters. For management and environmental planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the magnitude of diffuse N losses from agricultural fields and how they are influenced by factors such as management practices, type of fertilizers -organic or inorganic - climate and soil etc. There are several methods for assessing N leaching, they span from methods based on field test to complex models that require many input data. We use a simple index method that accounts for the type of fertilizer used - inorganic, swine or cattle manure- and hydrological and hydrogeological conditions. Hydrological conditions such as infiltration rates are estimated by a fully distributed hydrological model. Data on inorganic and organic fertilization are estimated at municipal level by using the nutrient crops needs and the statistics of swine and cattle heads within the municipality. The index method has been calibrated by using groundwater concentration as a proxy of N losses from agriculture. A time series of three years of data has been analyzed. The application of the simple index method allowed to

  16. Design Features of Product-Integrated PV: An Evaluation of Various Factors under Indoor Irradiance Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolou, G.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the field of product-integrated photovoltaics (PIPV), a term which is used for all types of products that contain solar cells in one or more of their surfaces, aiming at providing power during the product’s use. Product-integrated photovoltaics (PIPV) began to be widely introduced around 2000, although the use of PV systems in products dates back to the 70s. PIPV includes products such as PV-powered boats, aircrafts, cars, bicycles, camping tents, street lights, recycling...

  17. In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looft, Torey; Johnson, Timothy A.; Allen, Heather K.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Alt, David P.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Sul, Woo Jun; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M.; Chai, Benli; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Tiedje, James M.; Stanton, Thad B.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics have been administered to agricultural animals for disease treatment, disease prevention, and growth promotion for over 50 y. The impact of such antibiotic use on the treatment of human diseases is hotly debated. We raised pigs in a highly controlled environment, with one portion of the littermates receiving a diet containing performance-enhancing antibiotics [chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and penicillin (known as ASP250)] and the other portion receiving the same diet but without the antibiotics. We used phylogenetic, metagenomic, and quantitative PCR-based approaches to address the impact of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota. Bacterial phylotypes shifted after 14 d of antibiotic treatment, with the medicated pigs showing an increase in Proteobacteria (1–11%) compared with nonmedicated pigs at the same time point. This shift was driven by an increase in Escherichia coli populations. Analysis of the metagenomes showed that microbial functional genes relating to energy production and conversion were increased in the antibiotic-fed pigs. The results also indicate that antibiotic resistance genes increased in abundance and diversity in the medicated swine microbiome despite a high background of resistance genes in nonmedicated swine. Some enriched genes, such as aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases, confer resistance to antibiotics that were not administered in this study, demonstrating the potential for indirect selection of resistance to classes of antibiotics not fed. The collateral effects of feeding subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to agricultural animals are apparent and must be considered in cost-benefit analyses. PMID:22307632

  18. Classical swine fever in India: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod Kumar; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Kumar, Amit; Yadav, Sharad Kumar

    2018-05-04

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a globally significant disease of swine caused by classical swine fever virus. The virus affects the wild boars and pigs of all age groups, leading to acute, chronic, late-onset or in-apparent course of the disease. The disease causes great economic loss to the piggery industry due to mortality, stunted growth, poor reproductive performance, and by impeding the international trade of pig and pig products. In India, CSF outbreaks are reported from most of the states wherever pig rearing is practiced and more frequently from northeast states. In spite of the highly devastating nature and frequent outbreaks, CSF remained underestimated and neglected for decades in India. The country requires rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests for an early detection of infection to limit the spread of the disease. Also, effective prophylactics are required to help in control and eradication of the disease for the development of the piggery industry. This review looks into the economic impact; epidemiology of CSF highlighting the temporal and spatial occurrence of outbreaks in the last two decades, circulation, and emergence of the virus genotypes in and around the country; and the constraints in the disease control, with the aim to update the knowledge of current status of the disease in India. The article also emphasizes the importance of the disease and the need to develop rapid specific diagnostics and effective measures to eradicate the disease.

  19. Swine manure composting by means of experimental turning equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, A; Da Borso, F; Rodar, T; Chiumenti, R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research was to test the effectiveness of a prototype of a turning machine and to evaluate the feasability of a farm-scale composting process of the solid fraction of swine manure. A qualitative evaluation of the process and final product was made by monitoring the following parameters: process temperature, oxygen concentration inside the biomass, gaseous emissions (CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O), respiration index, humification index, total and volatile solids, carbon and nitrogen, pH and microbial load. The prototype proved to be very effective from a technical-operational point of view. The composting process exhibited a typical time-history, characterised by a thermophilic phase followed by a curing phase [Chiumenti, A., Chiumenti, R., Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Goldstein, N., 2005. Modern Composting Technologies. BioCycle-JG Press, Emmaus, PA, USA]. Gas emissions from compost the windrow were more intense during the active phase of the process and showed a decreasing trend from the thermophilic to the curing phase. The final compost was characterized by good qualitative characteristics, a significant level of humification [Rossi, L., Piccinini, S., 1999. La qualità agronomica dei compost derivanti da liquami suinicoli. (Agronomic quality of swine manure compost). L'informatore Agrario 38, 29-31] and no odor emissions. This method of managing manure represents an effective, low cost approach that could be an interesting opportunity for swine farms.

  20. Análise energética em sistema de produção de suínos com aproveitamento dos desejos como biofertilizante em pastagem Energy analysis in a swine production system with use of manure as biofertilizer in pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio V. Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a quantidade de energia para a produção de suínos, em ciclo completo, e o balanço energético do sistema com reaproveitamento dos resíduos gerados como biofertilizante, em área de pastagem, utilizando dados médios de cinco ciclos, em granja comercial no município de Diamantina - MG. Quantificou-se o coeficiente energético de cada componente envolvido no processo produtivo de suínos terminados, tratamento dos resíduos e produção de pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, nas formas de ração, trabalho humano, energia elétrica, máquinas e equipamentos, combustíveis e lubrificantes, instalações, produção de suínos vivos e produção de Brachiaria decumbens. A quantidade média de energia para produzir 1 kg de suíno vivo foi de 53,35 MJ. De toda energia empregada no sistema, 76,03% (1.067.106,07 MJ referem-se às entradas e 23,97% (331.400 MJ às saídas, resultando em coeficiente de eficiência energética de 0,31. A energia transformada em suínos para abate correspondeu a 55,58% (184.200 MJ das saídas, ao passo que a pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens assumiu o valor de 44,42% (147.200 MJ.This work objective was to esteem the amount of energy employed in a complete cycle swine production and the energy balance of the system with utilization of the generated manure as biofertilizer in pasture area, by using five cycles' average data, in a commercial farm in Diamantina municipal district - MG Brazil. The energy coefficient of each involved component was quantified in the productive process of finished swine, residues treatment and Brachiaria decumbens pasture production, in the form of ration, human labor, electric power, machines and equipments, fuel and lubricants, buildings, finished swine production and Brachiaria decumbens production. The average quantity of energy to produce 1 kg of alive swine was of 53.35 MJ. Of total employed energy in the system 76.03% (1,067,106.07 MJ refers to the

  1. Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

  2. Control and Diagnosis in Integrated Product Development - Observations during the Development of an AGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, R.; Simundsson, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the integration of control and diagnosis functionalities into the development of complete systems which include mechanical, electrical and electronic subsystems. For the development of such systems the strategies, methods and tools of integrated product development have attracted significant attention during the last decades. Today, it is generally observed that product development processes of complex systems can only be successful if the activities in the different domains are well connected and synchronised and if an ongoing communication is present - an ongoing communication spanning the technical domains and also including functions such as production planning, marketing/distribution, quality assurance, service and project planning. Obviously, numerous approaches to tackle this challenge are present in scientific literature and in industrial practice, as well. Today, the functionality and safety of most products is to a large degree dependent on control and diagnosis functionalities. Still, there is comparatively little research concentrating on the integration of the development of these functionalities into the overall product development processes. The main source of insight of the presented research is the product development process of an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) which is intended to be used on rough terrain. The paper starts with a background describing Integrated Product Development. The second section deals with the product development of the sample product. The third part summarizes some insights and formulates first hypotheses concerning control and diagnosis in Integrated Product Development.

  3. Seaweed utilization for integrated bioenergy and fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele

    2016-01-01

    and processing of seaweed compared to other energies and protein production technologies. Optimization of cultivation design could reduce externalities generated by the materials use. Optimization of storage methods, e.g. drying, is necessary to reduce the total energy consumption. Improvement......Linear production systems are not environmentally sustainable since they produce waste at a higher rate than nature is able to absorb. Creation of closed-loop production processes aiming at generating zero-waste is the foundation for a circular economy. Offshore seaweed cultivation can play a key...... role to transform linear production systems into biobased circular flows. Seaweed can absorb manmade emissions to water, while producing valuable compounds that can re-enter the economic system. In the thesis, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to analyze the environmental performance...

  4. Care and pedagogical production: integration of Public Health System scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Batista Franco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Brazilian Public Health System's (Centralized Health System - SUS construction history there has been a reasonable investment in the education for the sector. However, it has been frequently noticed by health professionals and managers the fact that this investment in educational programs has not converted into change of healthcare practices. Assuming that education can be used as a tool for changes in health, the text suggests that the pedagogical practices should be directed towards the production of individuals implied with the care production. Hence it proposes to work on a field of subjectivity in addition to cognition. This work reveals the management of the Brazilian public health system and its flows of permanent education, focusing "micromanagement" to think about the context on which they structuralize the diverse scenarios of care production, treating them as Pedagogical Production Units where it would be possible to develop entailed educational methodologies to a general idea of permanent education in health.

  5. Integrated agriculture enhances farm productivity and livelihoods in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Farm productivity and Livelihoods in Agro Biodiversity. Farmers in Tamil Nadu adopted locally-adapted cassava, boosting agro-biodiversity while enhancing ... Reducing post-harvest losses in South Asia's mango orchards.

  6. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vienna R; Bevins, Sarah N

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar) densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  7. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vienna R. Brown

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  8. Productive Employment in Romania: A Major Challenge to the Integration into the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Herman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that productive employment represents an essential element of inclusive economic growth, and it can be a driving force in reducing gaps between countries (especially experienced by productivity and income in order for these to integrate into the European Union. The aim of the article is to highlight the process of integration from the perspective of productive employment and its main determinants, in Romania, in the period following accession to the EU and integration into the European economic structures, the 2007-2014 period respectively. The results of this paper highlight a low level of productive employment in Romania determined mainly by low labour productivity, low wages, high vulnerable employment, high and inefficient employment in agriculture and a low level of employment in knowledge-intensive activities. The existence of large gaps, in terms of productive employment and economic development, between Romania and the developed EU countries, as well as the existence of the highest in-work poverty risk in EU emphasizes the need to accelerate productivity growth, which requires a real structural transformation, a shift from low-productivity sectors to high-productivity sectors. However, it is very important that poor workers should significantly benefit from the gains in labour productivity. The findings of this study can be useful for policy makers in order to support the improvement of productive employment so that productive employment contributes efficiently to the real integration of Romania into the EU.

  9. Integrated Computer-aided Framework for Sustainable Chemical Product Design and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an integrated model-based framework for chemical product design and evaluation based on which the software, VPPD-Lab (The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory) has been developed. The framework allows the following options: (1) design a product using design templates...

  10. Bioinformatics prediction of swine MHC class I epitopes from Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welner, Simon; Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    an effective CTL response against PRRSV, we have taken a bioinformatics approach to identify common PRRSV epitopes predicted to react broadly with predominant swine MHC (SLA) alleles. First, the genomic integrity and sequencing method was examined for 334 available complete PRRSV type 2 genomes leaving 104...... by the PopCover algorithm, providing a final list of 54 epitopes prioritized according to maximum coverage of PRRSV strains and SLA alleles. This bioinformatics approach provides a rational strategy for selecting peptides for a CTL-activating vaccine with broad coverage of both virus and swine diversity...

  11. Integral measurements of neutron production in spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frehaut, J.; Deneuville, D.; Ledoux, X.; Lochard, J.P.; Longuet, J.L.; Petibon, E.; Alrick, K.; Bownan, D.; Cverna, F.; King, N.S.P.; Morgan, G.L.; Greene, G.; Hanson, A.; Snead, L.; Thompson, R.; Ward, T.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of neutron production for thick iron, tungsten and lead targets of different diameter prototypic for spallation systems have been made at SATURNE in an incident proton energy range from 400 MeV to 2 GeV. TIERCE code system calculations are in good agreement with experiment for iron and large diameter tungsten and lead targets. They overestimate the measured neutron production for tungsten and lead targets for diameter ≤20 cm. (author)

  12. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process....... Furthermore, it was found that methane productions rates during digestion of either swine manure alone or OME alone were much lower than the rates achieved when OME and manure were digested together. Admixing OME with manure at a concentration of 5 to 10% OME resulted in the highest methane production rates....... Using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, it was shown that codigestion of OME with swine manure (up to 50% OME) was successful with a COD reduction up to 75%. The process was adapted for degradation of OME with stepwise increase of the OME load to the UASB reactor. The results showed...

  13. Towards Integration of CAx Systems and a Multiple-View Product Modeller in Mechanical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Song

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of an integration framework and its implementation for the connexion of CAx systems and multiple-view product modelling. The integration framework is presented regarding its conceptual level and the implementation level is described currently with the connexion of a functional modeller, a multiple-view product modeller, an optimisation module and a CAD system. The integration between the multiple-view product modeller and CATIA V5 based on the STEP standard is described in detail. Finally, the presented works are discussed and future research developments are suggested. 

  14. Detection of African swine fever virus from formalin fixed and non-fixed tissues by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Luka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Formalin fixing and paraffin embedding of tissue samples is one of the techniques for preserving the structural integrity of cells for a very long time. However, extraction and analysis of genomic material from formalin fixed tissue (FFT remains a challenge despite numerous attempts to develop a more effective method. The success of polymerase chain reaction (PCR depends on the quality of DNA extract. Materials and Methods: Here we assessed the conventional method of DNA extraction from FFT for African swine fever virus (ASFV detection. The modified conventional method gave a higher quality DNA when compared with commercially available DNA extraction kits (QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit, DNeasy® Blood and Tissue Kit, and ZR Genomic DNA™ Tissue MiniPrep. Results: An average A260/A280 DNA purity of 0.86-1.68 and 3.22-5.32 μg DNA/mg for formalin fixed and non-fixed tissues, respectively using a conventional method. In a reproducible and three times repeat PCR, the ASFV DNA expected product size of 278 bp was obtained from the DNA extract of the conventional method but not from the DNA extract of the commercial kits. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the conventional method extracts ASFV genome better than commercial kit. In summary, the commercial kit extraction appeared not suitable to purify ASFV DNA from FFT. We, therefore, recommend that the use of the conventional method be considered for African swine fever DNA extraction from FFT.

  15. Using minced horseradish roots and peroxides for the deodorization of swine manure: a pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Kephart, Kenneth B; Voigt, Jean W; Dec, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    Enzymes that have proven to be capable of removing toxic compounds from water and soil may also be useful in the deodorization of animal manures. Considering that pork production in the US is a $40-billion industry with over half a million workers, odor control to protect air quality in the neighboring communities must be considered an essential part of managing livestock facilities. This pilot scale (20-120 L) study tested the use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) roots (1:10 roots to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO(2) at 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2) at 68 mM), to deodorize swine slurry taken from a 40,000-gallon storage pit at the Pennsylvania State University's Swine Center. Horseradish is known to contain large amounts of peroxidase, an enzyme that, in the presence of peroxides, can polymerize phenolic odorants and thus reduce the malodor. Twelve compounds commonly associated with malodor (seven volatile fatty acids or VFAs, three phenolic compounds and two indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Their concentration in swine slurry before and after treatment was determined by gas chromatography (GC) to assess the deodorization effect. The pilot scale testing demonstrated a complete removal of phenolic odorants (with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L(-1)) from the swine slurry, which was consistent with our previous laboratory experiments using 30-mL swine slurry samples. Horseradish could be recycled (reused) five times while retaining significant reduction in the concentration of phenolic odorants. In view of these findings, inexpensive plant materials, such as horseradish, represent a promising tool for eliminating phenolic odorants from swine slurry.

  16. Integrating artificial and human intelligence into tablet production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gams, Matjaž; Horvat, Matej; Ožek, Matej; Luštrek, Mitja; Gradišek, Anton

    2014-12-01

    We developed a new machine learning-based method in order to facilitate the manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical products, such as tablets, in accordance with the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) initiatives. Our approach combines the data, available from prior production runs, with machine learning algorithms that are assisted by a human operator with expert knowledge of the production process. The process parameters encompass those that relate to the attributes of the precursor raw materials and those that relate to the manufacturing process itself. During manufacturing, our method allows production operator to inspect the impacts of various settings of process parameters within their proven acceptable range with the purpose of choosing the most promising values in advance of the actual batch manufacture. The interaction between the human operator and the artificial intelligence system provides improved performance and quality. We successfully implemented the method on data provided by a pharmaceutical company for a particular product, a tablet, under development. We tested the accuracy of the method in comparison with some other machine learning approaches. The method is especially suitable for analyzing manufacturing processes characterized by a limited amount of data.

  17. Digestibilidades ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos de farinhas de vísceras para suínos Apparent and true ileal digestibilities of poultry by-products amino acids for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar as digestibilidades ileal aparente e verdadeira de cinco diferentes farinhas de vísceras. Foram utilizados 10 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso inicial de 34,11 ± 3,88 kg, previamente submetidos à cirurgia para implantação de cânula "T" simples. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. Ao final das duas primeiras repetições, os mesmos animais foram redistribuídos e utilizados novamente nas repetições subseqüentes. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta isenta de proteína à base de açúcar, amido, óleo e casca de arroz, tendo como única fonte protéica uma das cinco farinhas de vísceras. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente da lisina, treonina e metionina das diferentes farinhas de vísceras apresentaram variação de 63,40 a 74,01; 63,17 a 79,13 e 72,60 a 81,11%, respectivamente, e os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeiros apresentaram variação de 64,38 a 74,88; 64,31 a 80,60 e 73,07 a 81,64%, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out with the objective of determining the apparent and true ileal digestibilities of amino acids from five different poultry by-product. Ten crossbreed swines, castrated males, averaging 31.11 ± 3.88 kg were used in the experiment. The animals were previously submitted to the surgery for simple T canula implantation and, then, allotted to a randomized block design with five treatments, four replicates and one animal per experimental unit. At the end of the first and second replicates, these animals were allotted again to the treatments and used in the third and fourth replicates. The treatments consisted of a free protein diet based on sugar, starch, vegetable oil and rice peel and one of the five poultry by-product as protein source in the diet. The coefficients of apparent ileal

  18. The cholesterol system of the swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author) [fr

  19. Macro-level integrated renewable energy production schemes for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable clean energy is a prime necessity for the sustainable future existence of our planet. However, because of the resource-intensive nature, and other challenges associated with these new generation renewable energy sources, novel industrial frameworks need to be co-developed. Integrated renewable energy production schemes with foundations on resource sharing, carbon neutrality, energy-efficient design, source reduction, green processing plan, anthropogenic use of waste resources for the production green energy along with the production of raw material for allied food and chemical industries is imperative for the sustainable development of this sector especially in an emission-constrained future industrial scenario. To attain these objectives, the scope of hybrid renewable production systems and integrated renewable energy industrial ecology is briefly described. Further, the principles of Integrated Renewable Energy Park (IREP) approach, an example for macro-level energy production, and its benefits and global applications are also explored. - Research highlights: → Discusses the need for macro-level renewable energy production schemes. → Scope of hybrid and integrated industrial ecology for renewable energy production. → Integrated Renewable Energy Parks (IREPs): A macro-level energy production scheme. → Discusses the principle foundations and global applications of IREPs. → Describes the significance of IREPs in the carbon-neutral future business arena.

  20. The limits of the integration of intermittent electricity productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the issue of intermittency of renewable energies and the associated need of an available spare energy, the author states that the installed nuclear power cannot be significantly decreased by a development of photovoltaic and wind energy productions. He shows that the maximum share of renewable energy which can be used in the energy mix is its load factor. In the case of wind energy, he formulates a set of theorems which notably address the possibilities to avoid an overproduction of wind energy, the assessment of the controllable production, the maximum share of wind energy. Based on these theorems, he computes the purchase cost of wind energy and the avoided cost of nuclear production. He addresses the case of photovoltaic energy for which he outlines the perspectives and obstacles related to energy storage

  1. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  2. Eco label and integrated product policies. Supporting companies by networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, M.; Iraldo, F.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 IEFE Bocconi University (Italy) carried out a project for the diffusion of the European Commission Eco label, the certification of the environmental quality of products. What clearly emerges from this experience is that some Italian SMEs, among the most innovative and market-oriented, are prone and ready to grasp the opportunities connected with the Eco label adoption. The more these enterprises are capable of starting up a network of socio-institutional actors eager to support them in promoting the environmental quality of their products, the more they succeed in exploiting the above mentioned opportunities [it

  3. Integrating Molecular Computation and Material Production in an Artificial Subcellular Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold; Hadorn, Maik; Bönzli, Eva

    Living systems are unique in that they integrate molecular recognition and information processing with material production on the molecular scale. Pre- dominant locus of this integration is the cellular matrix, where a multitude of biochemical reactions proceed simultaneously in highly compartmen......Living systems are unique in that they integrate molecular recognition and information processing with material production on the molecular scale. Pre- dominant locus of this integration is the cellular matrix, where a multitude of biochemical reactions proceed simultaneously in highly...... compartmentalized re- action compartments that interact and get delivered through vesicle trafficking. The European Commission funded project MatchIT (Matrix for Chemical IT) aims at creating an artificial cellular matrix that seamlessly integrates infor- mation processing and material production in much the same...

  4. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2016-10-04

    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  5. CALCULATIONS OF DOUBLE IMPURITY DIFFUSION IN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bondarev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical formulae for calculating simultaneous diffusion of two impurities in silicon are presented. The formulae are based on analytical solutions of diffusion equations that have been obtained for the first time by the author while using some special mathematical functions. In contrast to usual formal mathematical approaches, new functions are determined in the process of investigation of real physical models. Algorithms involve some important relations from thermodynamics of irreversible processes and also variational thermodynamic functionals that were previously obtained by the author for transfer processes. Calculations considerably reduce the time required for development of new integrated circuits. 

  6. Integrating forest products with ecosystem services: a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Rachel. White

    2012-01-01

    Around the world forests provide a broad range of vital ecosystem services. Sustainable forest management and forest products play an important role in global carbon management, but one of the major forestry concerns worldwide is reducing the loss of forestland from development. Currently, deforestation accounts for approximately 20% of total greenhouse gas emissions....

  7. Integrated production of lactic acid and biomass on distillery stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra P; Mojović, Ljiljana V; Vukašinović-Sekulić, Maja S; Nikolić, Svetlana B; Pejin, Jelena D

    2013-09-01

    The possibilities of parallel lactic acid and biomass production in batch and fed-batch fermentation on distillery stillage from bioethanol production were studied. The highest lactic acid yield and productivity of 92.3 % and 1.49 g L(-1) h(-1) were achieved in batch fermentation with initial sugar concentration of 55 g L(-1). A significant improvement of the process was achieved in fed-batch fermentation where the concentration of lactic acid was increased to 47.6 % and volumetric productivity for 21 % over the batch process. A high number of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 viable cells of 10(9) CFU ml(-1) was attained at the end of fed-batch fermentation. The survival of 92.9 % of L. rhamnosus cells after 3 h of incubation at pH 2.5 validated that the fermentation media remained after lactic acid removal could be used as a biomass-enriched animal feed thus making an additional value to the process.

  8. Modelling the Performance of Product Integrated Photovoltaic (PIPV) Cells Indoors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Verwaal, M.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a model, which have been developed for the estimation of the PV products’ cells’ performance in an indoor environment. The model computes the efficiency and power production of PV technologies, as a function of distance from natural and artificial light sources. It intents

  9. NARAC Dispersion Model Product Integration With RadResponder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work on enhanced cooperation and interoperability of Nuclear Incident Response Teams (NIRT) is a joint effort between DHS/FEMA, DOE/NNSA and EPA. One such effort was the integration between the RadResponder Network, a resource sponsored by FEMA for the management of radiological data during an emergency, and the National Atmospheric Advisory Center (NARAC), a DOE/NNSA modeling resource whose predictions are used to aid radiological emergency preparedness and response. Working together under a FEMA-sponsored project these two radiological response assets developed a capability to read and display plume model prediction results from the NARAC computer system in the RadResponder software tool. As a result of this effort, RadResponder users have been provided with NARAC modeling predictions of contamination areas, radiological dose levels, and protective action areas (e.g., areas warranting worker protection or sheltering/evacuation) to help guide protective action decisions and field monitoring surveys, and gain key situation awareness following a radiological/nuclear accident or incident (e.g., nuclear power plant accident, radiological dispersal device incident, or improvised nuclear detonation incident). This document describes the details of this integration effort.

  10. Economics of integrated MTBE/TAME/DIPE production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA), the 1993 demand for oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, TAME, DIPE) for motor gasoline blending in PADD IV and V is estimated to total 166,000 bpd. Existing PADD IV and V oxygenate producers can only supply about 13% of this demand. The shortfall must be supplied from oxygenate producers in PADD III or from Canadian and offshore sources. This paper examines the economics of locating an integrated plant in Southwest Wyoming (PADD IV), to supply approximately 6,800 bpd of the PADD IV and V demand by producing MTBE, TAME, and DIPE from natural gas liquids (NGL). The Southwest Wyoming location offers the advantage of being closer to the PADD IV and V markets than the producers in PADD III and the availability of a relatively inexpensive NGL feedstock that has no other market than the Midwest or US Gulf Coast via MAPCO's NGL pipeline. With these location and feedstock cost advantages, the Southwest Wyoming integrated MTBE, TAME, DIPE plant offers an attractive return on investment and economics comparable to those of a World Scale, 12,500 bpd mixed butane feed MTBE plant in PADD III

  11. Cost optimization of biofuel production – The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41200836X; Hoefnagels, E.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935998; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Pettersson, Karin; Faaij, André; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations

  12. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Texas: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  13. Customer Focused Product Design Using Integrated Model of Target Costing, Quality Function Deployment and Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Target costing by integrating customer requirements, technical attributes and cost information into the product design phase and eliminating the non-value added functions, plays a vital role in different phases of the product life cycle. Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE are two techniques which can be used for applying target costing, successfully. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model of target costing, QFD and VE to explore the role of target costing in managing product costs while promoting quality specifications meeting customers’ needs. F indings indicate that the integration of target costing, QFD and VE is an essential technique in managing the costs of production process. Findings also imply that integration of the three techniques provides a competitive cost advantage to companies.

  14. Swine production characteristics and management systems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, ectoparasites of importance in the study areas were ticks, lice and mange. Smallholder farmers practised semi-intensive system of management where pigs usually scavenge for food and supplemented with cereal brans, kitchen wastes and vegetables. Farmers provide housing and veterinary services to enhance ...

  15. Certain new unified integrals associated with the product of generalized Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Agarwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our focus to presenting two very general integral formulas whose integrands are the integrand given in the Oberhettinger's integral formula and a finite product of the generalized Bessel function of the first kind, which are expressed in terms of the generalized Lauricella functions. Among a large number of interesting and potentially useful special cases of our main results, some integral formulas involving such elementary functions are also considered.

  16. Mobile Technology and CAD Technology Integration in Teaching Architectural Design Process for Producing Creative Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Hassan, Isham Shah; Ismail, Mohd Arif; Mustafa, Ramlee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of integrating the mobile and CAD technology on teaching architectural design process for Malaysian polytechnic architectural students in producing a creative product. The website is set up based on Caroll's minimal theory, while mobile and CAD technology integration is based on Brown and…

  17. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-840] Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit... States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same... No. 6,847,904 (``the '904 patent''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United...

  18. 77 FR 60721 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-840] Certain Semiconductor Integrated... certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of...,783; and 6,847,904. The complaint further alleges the existence of a domestic industry. The Commission...

  19. A participatory and integrative approach to improve productivity and ergonomics in assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Rhijn, J.W. van; Deursen, J. van; Tuinzaad, G.H.; Reijneveld, C.N.

    2003-01-01

    A participatory and integrative approach was applied to improve the productivity and ergonomics of the assembly lines in two factories, producing magnetic stop valves and office furniture, respectively. Main elements of the approach are the active participation of the company and the integration of

  20. Logistics-production, logistics-marketing and external integration: Their impact on performance

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez, Cristina; Ventura, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Highly competitive environments are leading companies to implement Supply Chain Management (SCM) to improve performance and gain a competitive advantage. SCM involves integration, co-ordination and collaboration across organisations and throughout the supply chain. It means that SCM requires internal (intraorganisational) and external (interorganisational) integration. This paper examines the Logistics-Production and Logistics- Marketing interfaces and their relation with the external integra...

  1. Design and management of production systems: Integration of human factors and ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Broberg, Ole; Hasle, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Integration of ergonomics, human factors and occupational health and safety into design and management of pro-duction systems has for years been the major strategy for professional within the field. The traditional approach based on establishing ergonomic criteria’s to be integrated into other...

  2. Evaluating Consumer Product Life Cycle Sustainability with Integrated Metrics: A Paper Towel Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated sustainability metrics provide an enriched set of information to inform decision-making. However, such approaches are rarely used to assess product supply chains. In this work, four integrated metrics—presented in terms of land, resources, value added, and stability—ar...

  3. Integrating Problem Solvers from Analogous Markets in New Product Ideation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franke, Nikolaus; Poetz, Marion; Schreier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Who provides better inputs to new product ideation tasks, problem solvers with expertise in the area for which new products are to be developed or problem solvers from “analogous” markets that are distant but share an analogous problem or need? Conventional wisdom appears to suggest that target...... market expertise is indispensable, which is why most managers searching for new ideas tend to stay within their own market context even when they do search outside their firms' boundaries. However, in a unique symmetric experiment that isolates the effect of market origin, we find evidence...... for the opposite: Although solutions provided by problem solvers from analogous markets show lower potential for immediate use, they demonstrate substantially higher levels of novelty. Also, compared to established novelty drivers, this effect appears highly relevant from a managerial perspective: we find...

  4. Workspace design: Integrating ergonomics into the design of production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The work practice of ergonomists in workplace-making processes was studied by a socio-technical framework. This resulted in the term ‘political reflective navigator’ as a conceptualization of the identified work practice and competencies. In order to strengthen the impact of ergonomists it was fo......The work practice of ergonomists in workplace-making processes was studied by a socio-technical framework. This resulted in the term ‘political reflective navigator’ as a conceptualization of the identified work practice and competencies. In order to strengthen the impact of ergonomists...... it was found that new ways and tools for influencing the design of production systems are needed. The concept of workspace design and ‘staging the workspace design’ is suggested as a new framework for seeing and guiding ergonomists when taking part in design of workplaces and production systems....

  5. Connecting Social Actors in Developing Integrated Tourism Products

    OpenAIRE

    Lea-Marija Colarič-Jakše

    2015-01-01

    Research Question: Our base of the research was the social capital and its impact on the recognition of the opportunities to innovate the tourism products by invigorating the innovative culture of tourism structures in Slovenia and stimulating the collective cooperation of the tourism stakeholders on the global market. Purpose: Our goal is to make clear the role of the civil society, private enterprises, and organizationsfrom public sector and small entrepreneurs in the creating of social cap...

  6. Enabling engineering support for integrated product and service innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Thor, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The increasing need for mobility in society alongside an intensifying concern for sustainability challenges today’s aviation industry. For companies, a Product-Service Systems (PSS) perspective puts emphasis on proving value to customers by offering a combination of hardware and services over an extended life cycle. While opening up the room for innovation, development from an extended life cycle perspective can seem daunting for companies currently focusing on development and sale of physica...

  7. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Swine slurry application and soil management on double-cropped oat/maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Adriano Bison Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The swine production in southern Brazil is concentrated in small farms that use residues as a nutrient source for crops of economic interest. This study aimed to evaluate the use of swine slurry associated with tillage systems on double-cropped oat/maize. The experiment was carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons, in Taquaruçu do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of the interaction of four swine slurry doses (no swine slurry, 20 m3 ha-1, 40 m3 ha-1 and 80 m3 ha-1 and mineral fertilization, in three tillage systems (no-tillage, chiseling and chiseling + disking. The swine slurry application on doublecropped oat/maize increased the dry matter and grain yield. The 80 m3 ha-1 dose provided a response statistically similar to the mineral fertilization recommended for maize. The interaction between the 80 m3 ha-1 dose and the immediate incorporation of slurry into the soil reduced N losses by ammonia volatilization, promoting a significant increase in maize grain yield, when grown on a clayish soil.

  9. Evaluation of swine fertilisation medium (SFM) efficiency in preserving spermatozoa quality during long-term storage in comparison to four commercial swine extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinati, P; Zannoni, A; Bernardini, C; Forni, M; Tattini, A; Seren, E; Bacci, M L

    2009-02-01

    In pig production, artificial insemination is widely carried out and the use of fresh diluted semen is predominant. For this reason, there are increasing interests in developing new extenders and in establishing the optimal storage conditions for diluted spermatozoa. In the last few decades, we utilised a homemade diluent (swine fertilisation medium (SFM)) for spermatozoa manipulation and biotechnological application as the production of transgenic pigs utilising the sperm-mediated gene transfer technique. The purpose of the present study is therefore to analyse the ability of SFM, in comparison to four commercial extenders, in preserving the quality of diluted boar semen stored at 16.5°C till 15 days. We utilised some of the main predictive tests as objectively measured motility, acrosome and sperm membrane integrity, high mitochondrial membrane potential and pH. Based on our in vitro study, SFM could be declared as a good long-term extender, able to preserve spermatozoa quality as well as Androhep Enduraguard for up to 6 to 9 days and more.

  10. Research on the performance evaluation of agricultural products supply chain integrated operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiake; Wang, Xifu; Liu, Yang

    2017-04-01

    The agricultural product supply chain integrated operation can ensure the quality and efficiency of agricultural products, and achieve the optimal goal of low cost and high service. This paper establishes a performance evaluation index system of agricultural products supply chain integration operation based on the development status of agricultural products and SCOR, BSC and KPI model. And then, we constructing rough set theory and BP neural network comprehensive evaluation model with the aid of Rosetta and MATLAB tools and the case study is about the development of agricultural products integrated supply chain in Jing-Jin-Ji region. And finally, we obtain the corresponding performance results, and give some improvement measures and management recommendations to the managers.

  11. Integration: valuing stakeholder input in setting priorities for socially sustainable egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Lee, Y; Thompson, P B; Bawden, R; Mench, J A

    2011-09-01

    Setting directions and goals for animal production systems requires the integration of information achieved through internal and external processes. The importance of stakeholder input in setting goals for sustainable animal production systems should not be overlooked by the agricultural animal industries. Stakeholders play an integral role in setting the course for many aspects of animal production, from influencing consumer preferences to setting public policy. The Socially Sustainable Egg Production Project (SSEP) involved the development of white papers on various aspects of egg production, followed by a stakeholder workshop to help frame the issues for the future of sustainable egg production. Representatives from the environmental, food safety, food retail, consumer, animal welfare, and the general farm and egg production sectors participated with members of the SSEP coordination team in a 1.5-d workshop to explore socially sustainable egg production. This paper reviews the published literature on values integration methodologies and the lessons learned from animal welfare assessment models. The integration method used for the SSEP stakeholder workshop and its outcome are then summarized. The method used for the SSEP stakeholder workshop can be used to obtain stakeholder input on sustainable production in other farm animal industries.

  12. Designing products as an integral part of choreography of interaction : the product's form as an integral part of movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, S.; Overbeeke, C.J.; Feijs, L.; Kyffin, S.; Young, B.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in design research concentrate on two themes (1) the unity of form, function and interaction and (2) the semantics of movement. The Design Movement approach incorporates unity of form, function and interaction through movement. Design Movement introduces the design of products as

  13. Integration of the Scrum methodology in mechatronic product development

    OpenAIRE

    Mauri Also, Joan Josep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate if it would be possible for a mechatronic product development team to use Scrum, an Agile Development framework with both, the students of UVIC-UCC and the company ITQ GmbH, behind the student project called Mi5. The Agile philosophy and methods have revolutionized the software development industry in the last decade, and therefore it was of interest to see if this new way of working would be applicable in other disciplines. Thus, the study focu...

  14. [Therapeutic qualities of a lente preparation of swine insulins manufactured by Pharmachem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, D; Bozadzhieva, E; Pampulov, L; Penchev, I; Uzunova, B

    1977-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of swine insulin preparation Lente, "Pharmachim" production was studied in 50 diabetics. Its hypoglycemizing activitis compared with that of standardized insulin Lente--"Novo", extract of bovine pancreas. The Bulgarian preparation was found to be very similar to the preparation Lente-Novo in its pharma-codynamic properties and could successfully be used in the diabetes melitus treatment. Insulin Lente Pharmachim is presumed to have lower antigenicity as an extract of swine pancreas, which is actually its great advantage for the therapeutic practice.

  15. Algal Hydrogen Production -- Stand Alone or Integrated System?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, Maria L.; Maness, Pin Ching; Kosourovo, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria and green algae photoproduce H2. but do so utilizing different catalysts and substrates. Green algae use reductant generate mostly by water oxidation to catalyze the reduction of protons to H2 gas, while photosynthetic bacteria catalyze H2 production from organic acids using the nitrogenase enzyme. Moreover, these two organisms utilize different regions of the solar spectrum to perform photosynthesis: green algae's light harvesting antenna is comprised of chlorophyll molecules that absorb mostly blue and red light; photosynthetic bacteria harvest blue and far-red light through their light-harvesting pigments to run its non-oxygenic photosynthetic reactions. There is thus an opportunity to increase the range of solar spectrum used to photoproduce H2 by combining the light-harvesting and catalytic properties of these two organisms in a single process. In the current manuscript, we describe an experimental system that validates this hypothesis and demonstrates quantitatively the advantages of a two organism process for production of higher amounts of H2 and thus achieving solar light conversion efficiencies.

  16. Epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z.Q.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Swine trichinellosis has been reported in 26 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities (P/A/M of China. The prevalence rate in swine varied from 0.12 % to 34.2 % in five P/A/M, from 0.01 % to 0.0001 % in other P/A/M. The seroepidemiological survey of swine trichinellosis was carried out by ELISA in seven P/A/M, the seroprevalence varied from 0.09 % to 29.63 %. The prevalence of Thchinella infection in pork sold at the market was from 0.29 % to 5.6 % in four provinces. The transmission of trichinellosis by garbage is the main features of epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China. Rat is an important reservoir in the domestic cycle of trichinellosis. The prevalence rates of T. spiralis infection in rats were from 1.98 % to 15.06 % in six provinces or autonomous regions. The treatment-prophylaxis with forage contained albendazole has been applied to the control of swine trichinellosis in Nanyang area of Henan province, the prevalence of swine trichinellosis had decreased from 32.2 % before prophylaxis to 0.12 % after prophylaxis.

  17. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs

  18. A new integrated lean manufacturing model for magnesium products

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Perricone, G.; Oppio, R.

    2009-04-01

    From an environmental point of view, lighter metals like aluminum and magnesium are unclean products to make; they require energy-intensive methods and increased greenhouse gas emissions as compared with steels. They are, however, clean to use, in particular in the transportation sector, if adequate weight savings and consequent fuel consumption reduction and CO2 reduction can be achieved to offset the initial higher energy need. In order to reduce CO2 emissions, better energy efficiency and substitution of low-carbon technologies are going to play a key role in future technical options. Modern research and development should be focused on promoting the efficient use of metallic materials according to the “dematerialization” concept design.

  19. Integrating Amazon EC2 with the CMS production framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul

    2012-01-01

    As cloud middleware and cloud providers have become more robust, various experiments with experience in Grid submission have begun to investigate the possibility of taking previously Grid-Enabled applications and making them compatible with Cloud Computing. Successful implementation will allow for dynamic scaling of the available hardware resources, providing access to peak-load handling capabilities and possibly resulting in lower costs to the experiment. Here we discuss current work within the CMS collaboration at the LHC to both perform computation on EC2, both for production and analysis use-cases. We also discuss break-even points between dedicated and cloud resources using real-world costs derived from a CMS site.

  20. Integrating Amazon EC2 with the CMS Production Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Melo, Andrew Malone

    2011-01-01

    As cloud middleware and cloud providers have become more robust, various experiments with experience in Grid submission have begun to investigate the possibility of taking previously Grid-Enabled applications and making them compatible with Cloud Computing. Successful implementation will allow for dynamic scaling of the available hardware resources, providing access to peak-load handling capabilities and possibly resulting in lower costs to the experiment. Here we discuss current work within the CMS collaboration at the LHC to both perform computation on EC2, both for production and analysis use-cases. We also discuss break-even points between dedicated and cloud resources using real-world costs derived from a CMS site.

  1. Integrated Metrics for Improving the Life Cycle Approach to Assessing Product System Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Ingwersen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle approaches are critical for identifying and reducing environmental burdens of products. While these methods can indicate potential environmental impacts of a product, current Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methods fail to integrate the multiple impacts of a system into unified measures of social, economic or environmental performance related to sustainability. Integrated metrics that combine multiple aspects of system performance based on a common scientific or economic principle have proven to be valuable for sustainability evaluation. In this work, we propose methods of adapting four integrated metrics for use with LCAs of product systems: ecological footprint, emergy, green net value added, and Fisher information. These metrics provide information on the full product system in land, energy, monetary equivalents, and as a unitless information index; each bundled with one or more indicators for reporting. When used together and for relative comparison, integrated metrics provide a broader coverage of sustainability aspects from multiple theoretical perspectives that is more likely to illuminate potential issues than individual impact indicators. These integrated metrics are recommended for use in combination with traditional indicators used in LCA. Future work will test and demonstrate the value of using these integrated metrics and combinations to assess product system sustainability.

  2. Two-loop integrals for CP-even heavy quarkonium production and decays: elliptic sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Bin; Jiang, Jun; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2018-04-01

    By employing the differential equations, we compute analytically the elliptic sectors of two-loop master integrals appearing in the NNLO QCD corrections to CP-even heavy quarkonium exclusive production and decays, which turns out to be the last and toughest part in the relevant calculation. The integrals are found can be expressed as Goncharov polylogarithms and iterative integrals over elliptic functions. The master integrals may be applied to some other NNLO QCD calculations about heavy quarkonium exclusive production, like {γ}^{\\ast}γ \\to Q\\overline{Q} , {e}+{e}-\\to γ +Q\\overline{Q} , and H/{Z}^0\\to γ +Q\\overline{Q} , heavy quarkonium exclusive decays, and also the CP-even heavy quarkonium inclusive production and decays.

  3. Supplier integration in product development: A matter of designing the project structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Danilovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In product development close collaboration between systems integrators and suppliers is important. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the work breakdown structure (WBS and work packages (WPs in product development on the possibility of carrying through the strategy of supplier involvement into collaborative practice and to investigate how supplier involvement can be improved by altering the design of collaborative WBS and WP structures. Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM is introduced in order to analyse, visualise and manage interdependencies, in terms of information exchange between the systems integrator and supplier. This article shows how DSM can support the alternative design of integrated and collaborative WBS and integrated WPs following the logic of dependencies and the flow of information in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on project and team level.

  4. On the integration of products of Whittaker functions with respect to the second index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    Several new formulas are developed that enable the evaluation of a family of definite integrals containing the product of two Whittaker W κ,μ (x)-functions. The integration is performed with respect to the second index μ, and the first index κ is permitted to have any complex value, within certain restrictions required for convergence. The method utilizes complex contour integration along with various symmetry relations satisfied by the Whittaker functions. The new results derived in this article are complementary to the previously known integrals of products of Whittaker functions, which generally treat integration with respect to either the first index κ or the primary argument x. A physical application involving radiative transport is discussed

  5. Changes in carbon footprint when integrating production of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancoli, Pedro; Ferreira, Jorge A; Bolton, Kim; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2018-02-01

    Integrating the cultivation of edible filamentous fungi in the thin stillage from ethanol production is presently being considered. This integration can increase the ethanol yield while simultaneously producing a new value-added protein-rich biomass that can be used for animal feed. This study uses life cycle assessment to determine the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in ethanol production. The result shows that the integration performs better than the current scenario when the fungal biomass is used as cattle feed for system expansion and when energy allocation is used. It performs worse if the biomass is used as fish feed. Hence, integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants combined with proper use of the fungi can lead to a reduction of GHG emissions which, considering the number of existing ethanol plants, can have a significant global impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An MILP approach to shelf life integrated planning and scheduling in scalded sausage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, H.O.; van Beek, P.; Grunow, Martin

    2006-01-01

    in which shelf life aspects are integrated into operational production planning and scheduling functions. Specifically we make use of so-called Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) models. Our research is based on an industrial case study of yogurt production. Relying on the principle of block planning...

  7. Some effects of integrated production planning in large-scale kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Integrated production planning in large-scale kitchens proves advantageous for increasing the overall quality of the food produced and the flexibility in terms of a diverse food supply. The aim is to increase the flexibility and the variability in the production as well as the focus on freshness ...

  8. Some integral representations and limits for (products of) the parabolic cylinder function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veestraeten, D.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, [Veestraeten D. On the inverse transform of Laplace transforms that contain (products of) the parabolic cylinder function. Integr Transf Spec F 2015;26:859-871] derived inverse Laplace transforms for Laplace transforms that contain products of two parabolic cylinder functions by exploiting

  9. Design of an integrated fermentation-crystallization process applied to the production of DOIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, S.; Dabkowski, M.; Groendijk, W.; Renckens, D.; De Rond, J.

    2004-01-01

    The design problem of CPD3312 was the comparison of the conventional batch (Base case) and the new integrated fermentation-crystallization process (In Situ Product Removal or ISPR case) in particular for the production of 2 tonnes 6R-dihydrooxoisophorone (DOIP) from 4-oxo-isophorone (OIP) per year.

  10. Methanol production via pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification – Techno-economic comparison of integrated vs. stand-alone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim; Marklund, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11–18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR. - Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding integration of methanol synthesis processes in a pulp and paper mill are presented. • The overall energy efficiency increases in integrated methanol production systems compared to stand-alone production units. • The economics of the integrated system improves compared to stand-alone alternatives. • Tax

  11. Process economics of renewable biorefineries: butanol and ethanol production in integrated bioprocesses from lignocellulosics and other industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides process economic details on production of butanol from lignocellulosic biomass and glycerol in integrated bioreactors where numerous unit operations are combined. In order to compare various processes, economic evaluations were performed using SuperPro Designer Software (versio...

  12. An integrated membrane system for the biocatalytic production of 3′-sialyllactose from dairy by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Morthensen, Sofie Thage

    2014-01-01

    An integrated membrane system was investigated for the production of 30-sialyllactose by an engineered sialidase using casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) and lactose as substrates. CGMP was purified by ultrafiltration (UF) to remove any small molecules present and then an enzymatic membrane reactor ...

  13. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Effects of annual crops used for fall forage production on livestock productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversification of farm enterprises is important to maintain sustainable production systems. Systems that integrate crops and livestock may prove beneficial to each enterprise. Our objectives were to determine the effects of annual crops grazed in the fall and early-winter period on cow and calf gro...

  14. Prion infectivity detected in swine challenged with chronic wasting disease via the intracerebral or oral route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of North American cervids. The potential for swine to serve as a host for the agent of chronic wasting disease is unknown. In the US, feeding of ruminant by-products to ruminants is prohibited, but feeding of rum...

  15. Antimicrobial growth promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in poultry and swine, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, M. C.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers, swine, pork, and chicken meat and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter in...

  16. 78 FR 58512 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Swine Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... respondent increased because more swine are being moved due to changes in production practices and..., a Permit to Move Restricted Animals (VS Form 1-27), a certificate of veterinary inspection (CVI), an... moved to slaughter in a means of conveyance sealed with an official seal. Since the last approval of...

  17. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy

  18. Opportunities and Barriers to Bioenergy Conversion Techniques and Their Potential Implementation on Swine Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Sharara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article are to offer a comprehensive evaluation of the opportunities and barriers for swine manure conversion technologies and to shed light on the gaps that might require further investigation to improve the applicability of these technologies. The challenges of manure management have been propagated alongside the global growth of swine production. Various technologies that target the production of energy, fuels, and bioproducts from swine manure have been reported. These technologies include pretreatments, i.e., drying, and solid separation; biological techniques, i.e., composting, anaerobic digestion, and biodrying; and thermochemical techniques, i.e., combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and carbonization. The review highlights the yields and qualities of products, i.e., energy, gaseous fuel, liquid fuel, and solid fuel, of each technology. It exhibits that the choice of a conversion technology predominantly depends on the feedstock properties, the specifics of the conversion technique, the market values of the end products as well as the local regulations. The challenges associated with the presented techniques are discussed to ameliorate research and development in these areas. The notable finding of this paper is that there is a need for full-scale research in the area of thermochemical conversion of solid-separated swine manure.

  19. 76 FR 65935 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0005] Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free States AGENCY... or birth of weak offspring, reduced milk production, and infertility. There is no economically...

  20. Integration in New Product Development: Case Study in a Large Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jugend

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Proficiency in management activities undertaken in product development processes is regarded as a key competitive advantage for companies, particularly for high-tech industrial firms, which benefit from the important competitiveness factor of launching products with a differentiated technological content. This paper’s objective was to identify, through case study, practices for integration between the roles of R & D with others involved in product development in a large Brazilian company of industrial automation. The results suggest some management practices to improve the integration in new products development, such as the use of employees from marketing with knowledge and experience previously gained from R & D activities and uses the heavyweight product manager to solve synchronization problems between product and technology development.

  1. Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Production with Case Studies from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas

    technologies appear relatively more attractive. Fruit and cocoa residue‐based biogas production in a fruit processing facility, with return of compost to pineapple farmers also proved to be a viable technology. It is recommended that relevant stakeholders explore the implementation of biogas and nutrient......The use of agricultural residues for the production of bioenergy offers tantalising prospects of reduced pollution and greater food sovereignty. Integrated food and bioenergy systems seek to optimise the joint production of food and energy. Integrated food and bioenergy systems may be evaluated...... and compared with other food and energy systems using Environmental Sustainability Assessment (ESA). This thesis investigates a range of integrated food and residuebased bioenergy production systems and provide methodological developments that are relevant for the assessment of such systems. The methodological...

  2. O2O - Based Agricultural Products Supply Chain Process Integration Optimization Based on Internet +

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huijuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wholesale and retail, electricity supplier of agricultural products supply chain have many difficulties. The O2O supply chain of agricultural products of “Internet+”, committed to the integration of online and offline advantage process, has become the main direction of the agricultural products supply chain transformation. Practice operation results show that O2O supply chain can effectively play the advantages of online and offline process integration, but its further development is still subject to the logistics, information flow of the dispersion, fracture and high cost. The integrated optimization of various regions and various enterprises and all sectors of the supply chain process is the key to optimize the process Internet plus era of agricultural products supply chain.

  3. Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels...... standards are also ambiguous depending on the parameters of the model. Keywords: Vertical product differentiation; horizontal product differentiation; market integration; duopoly; minimum quality standard. JEL: F12, F13, F14....... product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality...

  4. New prospects in EU environmental policies. The Integrated Product Policy (IPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnimeo, G.; Iraldo, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Product Policy - IPP - is becoming one of the top priorities for the European Commission within the framework of the product-oriented environmental policies. Rather than a new policy, this is an innovative approach aimed at co-originated existing and forthcoming environmental policies, in order to manage in an integrated way and minimise the impacts connected with the whole product life-cycle. The underlying life-cycle guideline requires the management of each phase by considering what happens in all the other phases. What clearly emerges from a research carried out by Iefe Bocconi is, on the one hand, the effectiveness of co-operation and networking between all the actors involved in the product environmental management within the different phases of its life cycle (policy makers, producers, retailers, consumers, NGOs, etc.) and, on the other, the opportunity of developing an integrated management of both environmental policy instruments and corporate management tools [it

  5. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lucas; Luo, Kaijian; Olivier, Alicia K; Cunningham, Fred L; Blackmon, Sherry; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Sun, Hailiang; Baroch, John; Lutman, Mark W; Quade, Bianca; Epperson, William; Webby, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive. Infection studies demonstrated that IDV-inoculated feral swine shed virus 3-5 days postinoculation and seroconverted at 21 days postinoculation; 50% of in-contact naive feral swine shed virus, seroconverted, or both. Immunohistochemical staining showed viral antigen within epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, including trachea, soft palate, and lungs. Our findings suggest that feral swine might serve an important role in the ecology of IDV.

  7. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate shall show that the entire region of origin is free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from..., Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India...

  8. Transfer prices assignment with integrated production and marketing optimization models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Parra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In decentralized organizations (today a great majority of the large multinational groups, much of the decision-making power is in its individual business units-BUs-. In these cases, the management control system (MCS uses transfer prices to coordinate actions of the BUs and to evaluate their performance with the goal of guaranteeing the whole corporation optimum. The purpose of the investigation is to design transfer prices that suit this goal. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the results of the whole company supply chain optimization models (in the presence of seasonality of demand the question is to design a mechanism that creates optimal incentives for the managers of each business unit to drive the corporation to the optimal performance. Mathematical programming models are used as a start point. Findings: Different transfer prices computation methods are introduced in this paper for decentralised organizations with two divisions (production and marketing. The methods take into account the results of the solution of the whole company supply chain optimization model, if exists, and can be adapted to the type of information available in the company. It is mainly focused on transport costs assignment. Practical implications: Using the methods proposed in this paper a decentralized corporation can implement more accurate transfer prices to drive the whole organization to the global optimum performance. Originality/value: The methods proposed are a new contribution to the literature on transfer prices with special emphasis on the practical and easy implementation in a modern corporation with several business units and with high seasonality of demand. Also, the methods proposed are very flexible and can be tuned depending on the type of information available in the company.

  9. Soil microbial properties after long-term swine slurry application to conventional and no-tillage systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, Elcio L; Machineski, Oswaldo; Hamid, Karima I A; Yada, Ines F U; Barbosa, Graziela M C; Nakatani, Andre S; Coyne, Mark S

    2014-08-15

    Swine waste can be used as an agricultural fertilizer, but large amounts may accumulate excess nutrients in soil or contaminate the surrounding environment. This study evaluated long-term soil amendment (15 years) with different levels of swine slurry to conventional (plow) tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) soils. Long-term swine slurry application did not affect soil organic carbon. Some chemical properties, such as calcium, base saturation, and aluminum saturation were significantly different within and between tillages for various application rates. Available P and microbial parameters were significantly affected by slurry addition. Depending on tillage, soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity increased up to 120 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) in all application rates. The NT system had higher microbial biomass and activity than CT at all application levels. There was an inverse relationship between the metabolic quotient (qCO2) and MBC, and the qCO2 was 53% lower in NT than CT. Swine slurry increased overall acid phosphatase activity, but the phosphatase produced per unit of microbial biomass decreased. A comparison of data obtained in the 3rd and 15th years of swine slurry application indicated that despite slurry application the CT system degraded with time while the NT system had improved values of soil quality indicators. For these Brazilian oxisols, swine slurry amendment was insufficient to maintain soil quality parameters in annual crop production without additional changes in tillage management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrating enzyme fermentation in lignocellulosic ethanol production: life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Johanna; Barta, Zsolt; Börjesson, Pål; Wallberg, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Cellulase enzymes have been reported to contribute with a significant share of the total costs and greenhouse gas emissions of lignocellulosic ethanol production today. A potential future alternative to purchasing enzymes from an off-site manufacturer is to integrate enzyme and ethanol production, using microorganisms and part of the lignocellulosic material as feedstock for enzymes. This study modelled two such integrated process designs for ethanol from logging residues from spruce production, and compared it to an off-site case based on existing data regarding purchased enzymes. Greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy balances were studied in a life-cycle assessment, and cost performance in a techno-economic analysis. The base case scenario suggests that greenhouse gas emissions per MJ of ethanol could be significantly lower in the integrated cases than in the off-site case. However, the difference between the integrated and off-site cases is reduced with alternative assumptions regarding enzyme dosage and the environmental impact of the purchased enzymes. The comparison of primary energy balances did not show any significant difference between the cases. The minimum ethanol selling price, to reach break-even costs, was from 0.568 to 0.622 EUR L -1 for the integrated cases, as compared to 0.581 EUR L -1 for the off-site case. An integrated process design could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from lignocellulose-based ethanol production, and the cost of an integrated process could be comparable to purchasing enzymes produced off-site. This study focused on the environmental and economic assessment of an integrated process, and in order to strengthen the comparison to the off-site case, more detailed and updated data regarding industrial off-site enzyme production are especially important.

  11. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic variability within a swine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Lucina Galina; Pettit, Kalie; Dos Santos, Lucas F; Tubbs, Rick; Pieters, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae genetic diversity within a swine operation comingling weaned pigs. Bronchial swabs and tracheal aspirates were collected from 3 nursery-to-finish farms. During the finishing production stages, samples were obtained from mortalities and from live coughing pigs in rooms where mortality was not observed. A total of 105 samples were examined by a M. hyopneumoniae real-time polymerase chain reaction and subjected to genetic typing using a multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) assay. The MLVA was used to identify genetic variants based on the number of repeats in 2 variable number tandem repeats loci, namely P97 and P146, thought to mediate adherence of M. hyopneumoniae to swine cilia. Four distinguishable M. hyopneumoniae variants were identified: MVLA variants 9-15, 11-21, 9-21, and 7-15. Variant 9-15 was the most prevalent, observed in 79% of rooms, and detected on all 3 farms. Variant 11-21 was present in 37% of the rooms on 2 of the 3 farms. Only one 9-21 variant was identified in 1 farm, and all samples of variant 7-15 were recovered from another farm. Based on the low prevalence and limited geographic distribution of the last 2 variants, it is hypothesized that they might be the result of in-situ recombination. All variants detected in this investigation appeared to belong to 3 clusters. Overall, a limited number of variants and clusters were identified in a system that comingles pigs from different sources, suggesting limited M. hyopneumoniae genetic variation within commercial swine production environments. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Integration of environmental approaches to strategy of production enterprises - environmentally oriented quality of production

    OpenAIRE

    Michalíková Frantika; Maras Michal; Floreková ¼ubica

    2001-01-01

    In the paper there are presented system approaches, applied in Slovak transformed production enterprises, which solve questions of closing the so called industrial cycle from the side of the wastes' producers. The production quality is connected not only with the technological chain itself and with outputs from it - the utility product, but also with the load of the life environment.The presented possibilities of the liquidation of solid energetic waste fly ashes represent a an overview of ...

  13. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for the TCC process for oil production. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a steady temperature 305 oC, and the corresponding pressure was 10.34 Mpa. Gravity settling was demonstrated to be capable of increasing the total solids content of manure from 1% to 9%. Both of the mechanical separation systems were able to produce solids with dry matter around 18% for manure, with 1% to 2% initial total solids. A significant amount of volatile solid (75.7% was also obtained from the liquid fraction using the belt press process. The oil yields of shallow pit manure solids and deep pit manure solids with belt press separation were 28.72% and 29.8% of the total volatile solids, respectively. There was no visible oil product obtained from the deep pit manure solids with centrifuge separation. It is believed that it is the volatile solid content and the other components in the manure chemical composition which mainly deter-mine the oil production.

  14. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  15. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  16. In Romania, exposure to Toxoplasma gondii occurs twice as often in swine raised for familial consumption as in hunted wild boar, but occurs rarely if ever among fattening pigs raised in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of swine husbandry practices prevail in Romania: pork for human consumption is derived from hunting wild boar, from household rearing of small numbers of backyard pigs, and from indoor, industrial production of swine raised in confinement indoors. Romania thus represents an instructive ...

  17. The key to successful management of STS operations: An integrated production planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. A.; Thomasen, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Space Transportation System operations managers are being confronted with a unique set of challenges as a result of increasing flight rates, the demand for flight manifest/production schedule flexibility and an emphasis on continued cost reduction. These challenges have created the need for an integrated production planning system that provides managers with the capability to plan, schedule, status and account for an orderly flow of products and services across a large, multi-discipline organization. With increased visibility into the end-to-end production flow for individual and parallel missions in process, managers can assess the integrated impact of changes, identify and measure the interrelationships of resource, schedule, and technical performance requirements and prioritize productivity enhancements.

  18. An integrated multi-stage supply chain inventory model with imperfect production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumita Kundu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an integrated multi-stage supply chain inventory model with the objective of cost minimization by synchronizing the replenishment decisions for procurement, production and delivery activities. The supply chain structure examined here consists of a single manufacturer with multi-buyer where manufacturer orders a fixed quantity of raw material from outside suppliers, processes the materials and delivers the finished products in unequal shipments to each customer. In this paper, we consider an imperfect production system, which produces defective items randomly and assumes that all defective items could be reworked. A simple algorithm is developed to obtain an optimal production policy, which minimizes the expected average total cost of the integrated production-inventory system.

  19. Evaluation of Container Closure System Integrity for Frozen Storage Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger; Brown, Helen; Nikoloff, Jonas; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, drug product for parenteral administration is stored in a frozen state (e.g., -20 °C or -80 °C), particularly during early stages of development of some biotech molecules in order to provide sufficient stability. Shipment of frozen product could potentially be performed in the frozen state, yet possibly at different temperatures, for example, using dry ice (-80 °C). Container closure systems of drug products usually consist of a glass vial, rubber stopper, and an aluminum crimped cap. In the frozen state, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of commonly used rubber stoppers is between -55 and -65 °C. Below their Tg, rubber stoppers are known to lose their elastic properties and become brittle, and thus potentially fail to maintain container closure integrity in the frozen state. Leaks during frozen temperature storage and transportation are likely to be transient, yet, can possibly risk container closure integrity and lead to microbial contamination. After thawing, the rubber stopper is supposed to re-seal the container closure system. Given the transient nature of the possible impact on container closure integrity in the frozen state, typical container closure integrity testing methods (used at room temperature conditions) are unable to evaluate and thus confirm container closure integrity in the frozen state. Here we present the development of a novel method (thermal physical container closure integrity) for direct assessment of container closure integrity by a physical method (physical container closure integrity) at frozen conditions, using a modified He leakage test. In this study, different container closure systems were evaluated with regard to physical container closure integrity in the frozen state to assess the suitability of vial/stopper combinations and were compared to a gas headspace method. In summary, the thermal physical container closure integrity He leakage method was more sensitive in detecting physical container closure

  20. Designing PV powered LED products - Integration of PV technology in innovative products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; de Boer, Andries; de Winter, Arjan; Haverlag, Marco; Ossenbrink Sinke, W.; Helm, P.

    2009-01-01

    This study covers the design of innovative product concepts based on a combination of PV and LED technology. The products were developed in a project that took place in 2008 and 2009 during a cooperation of the University of Twente with Philips Lighting. It is shown that surprisingly unpredictable -

  1. BIM-Integrated Construction Operation Simulation for Just-In-Time Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional construction planning, which depends on historical data and heuristic modification, prevents the integration of managerial details such as productivity dynamics. Specifically, the distance between planning and execution brings cost overruns and duration extensions. To minimize variations, this research presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-integrated simulation framework for predicting productivity dynamics at the construction planning phase. To develop this framework, we examined critical factors affecting productivity at the operational level, and then forecast the productivity dynamics. The resulting plan includes specific commands for retrieving the required information from BIM and executing operation simulations. It consists of the following steps: (1 preparing a BIM model to produce input data; (2 composing a construction simulation at the operational level; and (3 obtaining productivity dynamics from the BIM-integrated simulation. To validate our framework, we applied it to a structural steel model; this was due to the significance of steel erections. By integrating BIM with construction operation simulations, we were able to create reliable construction plans that adapted to project changes. Our results show that the developed framework facilitates the reliable prediction of productivity dynamics, and can contribute to improved schedule reliability, optimized resource allocation, cost savings associated with buffers, and reduced material waste.

  2. Sustainability of algal biofuel production using integrated renewable energy park (IREP) and algal biorefinery approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2010-01-01

    Algal biomass can provide viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel. However, for a mature commercial industry to develop, sustainability as well as technological and economic issues pertinent to algal biofuel sector must be addressed first. This viewpoint focuses on three integrated approaches laid out to meet these challenges. Firstly, an integrated algal biorefinery for sequential biomass processing for multiple high-value products is delineated to bring in the financial sustainability to the algal biofuel production units. Secondly, an integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for amalgamating various renewable energy industries established in different locations. This would aid in synergistic and efficient electricity and liquid biofuel production with zero net carbon emissions while obviating numerous sustainability issues such as productive usage of agricultural land, water, and fossil fuel usage. A 'renewable energy corridor' rich in multiple energy sources needed for algal biofuel production for deploying IREPs in the United States is also illustrated. Finally, the integration of various industries with algal biofuel sector can bring a multitude of sustainable deliverables to society, such as renewable supply of cheap protein supplements, health products and aquafeed ingredients. The benefits, challenges, and policy needs of the IREP approach are also discussed.

  3. Reduction of environmental and energy footprint of microalgal biodiesel production through material and energy integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raja; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin

    2012-03-01

    The life cycle impacts were assessed for an integrated microalgal biodiesel production system that facilitates energy- and nutrient- recovery through anaerobic digestion, and utilizes glycerol generated within the facility for additional heterotrophic biodiesel production. Results show that when external fossil energy inputs are lowered through process integration, the energy demand, global warming potential (GWP), and process water demand decrease significantly and become less sensitive to algal lipid content. When substitution allocation is used to assign additional credit for avoidance of fossil energy use (through utilization of recycled nutrients and biogas), GWP and water demand can, in fact, increase with increase in lipid content. Relative to stand-alone algal biofuel facilities, energy demand can be lowered by 3-14 GJ per ton of biodiesel through process integration. GWP of biodiesel from the integrated system can be lowered by up to 71% compared to petroleum fuel. Evaporative water loss was the primary water demand driver. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The evaluated neutron cross sections and resonance integrals of fission products with Z = 57-62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, A.F.; Pisanko, Zh.I.; Novoselov, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron cross sections at a neutron velocity of V=2200 m/s, and resonance integrals for fission products with Z=57-71 are estimated. In obtaining the recommended values the results of the neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for elements used as references were normalized in accordance with the latest adjusted values. In the course of estimation, preference was given to the more accurate methods for obtaining the measured values and to the more recent investigations

  5. The branding role that product labelling plays within integrated marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. This study focuses on empirically determining the branding role that product labelling plays as a strategic element in Integrated Marketing Communication functioning within the food and beverage industry. This research topic was selected for a number of reasons. Firstly, there is a general misconception of the definition of the term Integrated Marketing Communication. Secondly, there is also an emergence of the perception that labelling plays an important role as a strategic element i...

  6. Integrated methodology for production related risk management of vehicle electronics (IMPROVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, Stefan Rafael

    2006-01-01

    This scientific work is designated to provide an innovative and integrated conceptional approach to improve the assembly quality of automotive electronics. This is achieved by the reduction and elimination of production related risks of automotive electronics and the implementation of a sustainable solution process. The focus is the development and implementation of an integrated technical risk management approach for automotive electronics throughout the vehicle life cycle and the vehicle pr...

  7. The evaluated neutron cross sections and resonance integrals of fission products with Z=63-71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, A.F.; Pisanko, Zh.I.; Novoselov, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron cross sections at a neutron velocity of V=2200 m/s, and the resonance integrals for fission products with Z=63-71 are estimated. In obtaining the recommended values the results were normalized of the neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for elements used as references in accordance with the latest adjusted values. In the course of estimation, preference was given to the more accurate measuring methods and the more recent investigations. Scientific publications up to 1975 have been used

  8. INTEGRATION OF TRADE AND DISINTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Feenstra

    2003-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a spectacular integration of the global economy through trade. The rising integration of world markets has brought with it a disintegration of the production process, however, in which manufacturing or services activities done abroad are combined with those performed at home. The author compares several different measures of foreign outsourcing and argues that they have all increased since the 1970s. He also considers the implications of globalization for employ...

  9. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Joao; Martins, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the 'heart and soul' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

  10. Valorisation of used cooking oil sludge by codigestion with swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro, J.; Martínez, E.J.; Morán, A.; Gómez, X., E-mail: xagomb@unileon.es

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic codigestion of UCO sludge and swine manure was successful at 50 d HRT. • VFA build-up was present during the reactor start-up but were reduced after 50 d. • CH{sub 4} yield was 326 l/kg VS{sub feed}, decreasing HRT to 30 d resulted in poor performance. • Digestate at 50 d HRT was unstable although the load applied to the reactor was low. - Abstract: The addition of lipid wastes to the digestion of swine manure was studied as a means of increasing biogas production. Lipid waste was obtained from a biodiesel plant where used cooking oil is the feedstock. Digestion of this co-substrate was proposed as a way of valorising residual streams from the process of biodiesel production and to integrate the digestion process into the biorefinery concept. Batch digestion tests were performed at different co-digesting proportions obtaining as a result an increase in biogas production with the increase in the amount of co-substrate added to the mixture. Semi-continuous digestion was studied at a 7% (w/w) mass fraction of total solids. Co-digestion was successful at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d but a decrease to 30 d resulted in a decrease in specific gas production and accumulation of volatile and long chain fatty acids. The CH{sub 4} yield obtained was 326 ± 46 l/kg VS{sub feed} at an HRT of 50 d, while this value was reduced to 274 ± 43 l/kg VS{sub feed} when evaluated at an HRT of 30 d. However these values were higher than the one obtained under batch conditions (266 ± 40 l/kg VS{sub feed}), thus indicating the need of acclimation to the co-substrate. Despite of operating at low organic loading rate (OLR), measurements from respirometry assays of digestate samples (at an HRT of 50 d) suggested that the effluent could not be directly applied to the soil as fertiliser and might have a negative effect over soil or crops.

  11. Valorisation of used cooking oil sludge by codigestion with swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro, J.; Martínez, E.J.; Morán, A.; Gómez, X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic codigestion of UCO sludge and swine manure was successful at 50 d HRT. • VFA build-up was present during the reactor start-up but were reduced after 50 d. • CH 4 yield was 326 l/kg VS feed , decreasing HRT to 30 d resulted in poor performance. • Digestate at 50 d HRT was unstable although the load applied to the reactor was low. - Abstract: The addition of lipid wastes to the digestion of swine manure was studied as a means of increasing biogas production. Lipid waste was obtained from a biodiesel plant where used cooking oil is the feedstock. Digestion of this co-substrate was proposed as a way of valorising residual streams from the process of biodiesel production and to integrate the digestion process into the biorefinery concept. Batch digestion tests were performed at different co-digesting proportions obtaining as a result an increase in biogas production with the increase in the amount of co-substrate added to the mixture. Semi-continuous digestion was studied at a 7% (w/w) mass fraction of total solids. Co-digestion was successful at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d but a decrease to 30 d resulted in a decrease in specific gas production and accumulation of volatile and long chain fatty acids. The CH 4 yield obtained was 326 ± 46 l/kg VS feed at an HRT of 50 d, while this value was reduced to 274 ± 43 l/kg VS feed when evaluated at an HRT of 30 d. However these values were higher than the one obtained under batch conditions (266 ± 40 l/kg VS feed ), thus indicating the need of acclimation to the co-substrate. Despite of operating at low organic loading rate (OLR), measurements from respirometry assays of digestate samples (at an HRT of 50 d) suggested that the effluent could not be directly applied to the soil as fertiliser and might have a negative effect over soil or crops

  12. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149 kg of EtOH and 115 kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1 ton of dry hemp....... Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery....

  13. Integrating Preventive Maintenance Scheduling As Probability Machine Failure And Batch Production Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses integrated model of batch production scheduling and machine maintenance scheduling. Batch production scheduling uses minimize total actual flow time criteria and machine maintenance scheduling uses the probability of machine failure based on Weibull distribution. The model assumed no nonconforming parts in a planning horizon. The model shows an increase in the number of the batch (length of production run up to a certain limit will minimize the total actual flow time. Meanwhile, an increase in the length of production run will implicate an increase in the number of PM. An example was given to show how the model and algorithm work.

  14. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  15. Certain fractional integral formulas involving the product of generalized Bessel functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleanu, D; Agarwal, P; Purohit, S D

    2013-01-01

    We apply generalized operators of fractional integration involving Appell's function F 3(·) due to Marichev-Saigo-Maeda, to the product of the generalized Bessel function of the first kind due to Baricz. The results are expressed in terms of the multivariable generalized Lauricella functions. Corresponding assertions in terms of Saigo, Erdélyi-Kober, Riemann-Liouville, and Weyl type of fractional integrals are also presented. Some interesting special cases of our two main results are presented. We also point out that the results presented here, being of general character, are easily reducible to yield many diverse new and known integral formulas involving simpler functions.

  16. Certain Fractional Integral Formulas Involving the Product of Generalized Bessel Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleanu, D.; Agarwal, P.; Purohit, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    We apply generalized operators of fractional integration involving Appell's function F 3(·) due to Marichev-Saigo-Maeda, to the product of the generalized Bessel function of the first kind due to Baricz. The results are expressed in terms of the multivariable generalized Lauricella functions. Corresponding assertions in terms of Saigo, Erdélyi-Kober, Riemann-Liouville, and Weyl type of fractional integrals are also presented. Some interesting special cases of our two main results are presented. We also point out that the results presented here, being of general character, are easily reducible to yield many diverse new and known integral formulas involving simpler functions. PMID:24379745

  17. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN LOCAL PUBLIC ENTERPRIZE FOR PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND CLEANING OF WASTED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Appearance of large number of management systems, with different and sometimes divergent demands, needs reconsideration of their implementation strategies and their integration in one integrated management system (IMS. So defined IMS would be designed and implemented in different areas. In this paper is presented basic concept of integration of partical management systems in areas of quality (ISO 9001, environmental protection (ISO 14001, occupational health (ISO 18001, food safety (ISO 22000 and accreditation of laboratories (ISO17025/ISO17020. As a pilot organization is choosed local public enterprise for production, supply and drain of water.

  18. Dynamic optimization approach for integrated supplier selection and tracking control of single product inventory system with product discount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno; Widowati; Heru Tjahjana, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a mathematical model in the form of dynamic/multi-stage optimization to solve an integrated supplier selection problem and tracking control problem of single product inventory system with product discount. The product discount will be stated as a piece-wise linear function. We use dynamic programming to solve this proposed optimization to determine the optimal supplier and the optimal product volume that will be purchased from the optimal supplier for each time period so that the inventory level tracks a reference trajectory given by decision maker with minimal total cost. We give a numerical experiment to evaluate the proposed model. From the result, the optimal supplier was determined for each time period and the inventory level follows the given reference well.

  19. Integrated Biorefineries with Engineered Microbes and High-value Co-products for Profitable Biofuels Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn-based fuel ethanol production processes provide several advantages which could be synergistically applied to overcome limitations of biofuel processes based on lignocellulose. These include resources such as equipment, manpower, nutrients, water, and heat. The fact that several demonstration-...

  20. How to Deliver Open Sustainable Innovation: An Integrated Approach for a Sustainable Marketable Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of open innovation and peer production, powered by 3D printing technology, is transforming traditional manufacturing methods towards a “third industrial revolution”. The purpose of this research is to provide empirical evidence for an integrated approach, based on collaborative product development and peer production, combined with 3D printing, to deliver more sustainable, yet competitive, marketable products. In particular, this experimental study is conducted in the context of mobile forensics, an emerging market where limited expensive products exist and alternative solutions are needed. The technical viability and economic feasibility of the prototype developed in this research validate the proposed integrated approach, which could be a game-changer in the field of mobile forensics, as well as in other sectors. The sustainability improvements with this approach are a reduction of the total cost, thereby making it affordable for lower income users, and a decrease in energy consumption and pollutant emissions. The validated integrated approach offers start-up opportunities to develop and deliver more sustainable, marketable products, towards the paradigm of Open Sustainable Innovation. While the device developed and tested in this research has similar features to existing products, the methodology, implementation, and motivation are original.

  1. Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels...... product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality...

  2. An Integrated Modeling and Data Management Strategy for Cellulosic Biomass Production Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth Jr.; K. Mark Bryden; Joshua B. Koch

    2012-07-01

    Emerging cellulosic bioenergy markets can provide land managers with additional options for crop production decisions. Integrating dedicated bioenergy crops such as perennial grasses and short rotation woody species within the agricultural landscape can have positive impacts on several environmental processes including increased soil organic matter in degraded soils, reduced sediment loading in watersheds, lower green house gas (GHG) fluxes, and reduced nutrient loading in watersheds. Implementing this type of diverse bioenergy production system in a way that maximizes potential environmental benefits requires a dynamic integrated modeling and data management strategy. This paper presents a strategy for designing diverse bioenergy cropping systems within the existing row crop production landscape in the midwestern United States. The integrated model developed quantifies a wide range environmental processes including soil erosion from wind and water, soil organic matter changes, and soil GHG fluxes within a geospatial data management framework. This framework assembles and formats information from multiple spatial and temporal scales. The data assembled includes yield and productivity data from harvesting equipment at the 1m scale, surface topography data from LiDAR mapping at the less than 1m scale, soil data from US soil survey databases at the 10m to 100m scale, and climate data at the county scale. These models and data tools are assembled into an integrated computational environment that is used to determine sustainable removal rates for agricultural residues for bioenergy production at the sub-field scale under a wide range of land management practices. Using this integrated model, innovative management practices including cover cropping are then introduced and evaluated for their impact on bioenergy production and important environmental processes. The impacts of introducing dedicated energy crops onto high-risk landscape positions currently being manage in

  3. An integrated prediction and optimization model of biogas production system at a wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaş, Halil; Bilgen, Bilge; Turhan, Aykut Melih

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes an integrated prediction and optimization model by using multi-layer perceptron neural network and particle swarm optimization techniques. Three different objective functions are formulated. The first one is the maximization of methane percentage with single output. The second one is the maximization of biogas production with single output. The last one is the maximization of biogas quality and biogas production with two outputs. Methane percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and other contents' percentage are used as the biogas quality criteria. Based on the formulated models and data from a wastewater treatment facility, optimal values of input variables and their corresponding maximum output values are found out for each model. It is expected that the application of the integrated prediction and optimization models increases the biogas production and biogas quality, and contributes to the quantity of electricity production at the wastewater treatment facility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Operational Excellence through Schedule Optimization and Production Simulation of Application Specific Integrated Circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, John Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Padilla, Denise D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zwerneman, April Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Steven P [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Upcoming weapon programs require an aggressive increase in Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) production at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL has developed unique modeling and optimization tools that have been instrumental in improving ASIC production productivity and efficiency, identifying optimal operational and tactical execution plans under resource constraints, and providing confidence in successful mission execution. With ten products and unprecedented levels of demand, a single set of shared resources, highly variable processes, and the need for external supplier task synchronization, scheduling is an integral part of successful manufacturing. The scheduler uses an iterative multi-objective genetic algorithm and a multi-dimensional performance evaluator. Schedule feasibility is assessed using a discrete event simulation (DES) that incorporates operational uncertainty, variability, and resource availability. The tools provide rapid scenario assessments and responses to variances in the operational environment, and have been used to inform major equipment investments and workforce planning decisions in multiple SNL facilities.

  5. The Effect of Headquarter Integration Mechanisms on Subsidiaries’ New Product Success: From Control to Coordination Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmanzah Firmanzah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New product launching (NPL to the local market by subsidiary managers is a strategic activity, which requires organizational supports from MNC global network. The NPL activity is marked by high level of uncertainty, risk, and market failure. Thus, a headquarter needs to integrate the subsidiary NPL into global strategy. There are two mechanisms to integrate subsidiaries’ activities during NPL process; coordination and control process. By testing the effect of each mechanism on role clarity and functional conflict, I found that coordination mechanism increase role clarity between headquarter and subsidiaries’ managers. In contrast, exercising control mechanism reduces role clarity and functional conflict between headquarter and subsidiaries’ managers during NPL. This research shows that both role clarity and functional conflict increase new product commercial performance introduced by subsidiary in the local market. Keywords: new product launching (NPL, coordination mechanism, control mechanism, and new product performance

  6. Integrated production of sugarcane ethanol and soybean biodiesel: Environmental and economic implications of fossil diesel displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugarcane sector is responsible for around 4% of the diesel consumption in Brazil. • Soybean biodiesel can reduce the fossil diesel demand in the sugarcane sector. • The local use of biodiesel could reduce logistic problems and environmental burdens. • The sugarcane–soybean integration is likely to improve ethanol life cycle performance. • Fiscal incentives could reduce the economic uncertainties of the integration. - Abstract: The sugarcane industry in Brazil has been considered promising for the production of advanced fuels and bio-based products. However, the sugarcane crop requires high volumes of fossil fuel for cultivation and transport. The use of biodiesel as a diesel substitute could reduce the environmental burdens associated with this high consumption. This work performed a stochastic evaluation of the environmental and economic implications of the integrated production of sugarcane bioethanol and soybean biodiesel, in comparison with the traditional sugarcane-to-ethanol process. The analysis was focused on the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and São Paulo, where this integration would be particularly attractive. The environmental aspects addressed were the fossil energy use and the GHG emissions in a cradle-to-gate approach. The economic analysis comprised the evaluation of the net present value of an incremental cash flow generated by the soybean production and by the adjacent plants of oil extraction and biodiesel. Results indicate that the integrated system is likely to improve the ethanol environmental performance, especially with regard to the fossil energy use. The integration is economically feasible but highly uncertain; however, it could be significantly improved through fiscal incentives to biodiesel producers, founded on the reduction of fossil energy use and on improvements in logistics. In addition, the proposed model may also assist in the design of other integrated systems applied to the sugarcane sector in Brazil

  7. Systematic Approach to the Development, Evolution, and Effectiveness of Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margie Jeffs; R. Douglas Hamelin

    2011-06-01

    Integrated Product Development Teams (IPDT) are a key component of any systems engineering (SE) application, but since they are formed primarily from technical considerations, many IPDTs are far less productive than they otherwise could be. By recognizing specific personality types and skill sets, a random group of 'technical' individuals can be structured to become a highly effective team capable of delivering much more than the sum of its members.

  8. Agro-environmental evaluation of vineyard management using organic farming and integrated plant production systems

    OpenAIRE

    FORGET, D.; LACOMBE, J.; DURAND, A.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming is often considered to be the most environmentally-friendly crop management system, even if integrated production also aims at decreasing the impact of agriculture on the natural environment. In order to establish references for the agro-environmental evaluation of these two production systems in relation to grape growing, INRA carried out an initial study from 2001 to 2004 at the plot scale. This study focused on two grape varieties (Merlot N and Cabernet Sauvignon) in its Co...

  9. Unified Information Access in Product Creation with an Integrated Control Desk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrasse, Kevin; Diener, Holger; Hayka, Haygazun; Stark, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Customers demand for individualized products leads to a large variety of different products in small series and single-unit production. A high flexibility pressure in product creation is one result of this trend. In order to counteract the pressure, the information steadily increasing by Industry 4.0 must be made available at the workplace. Additionally, a better exchange of information between product development, production planning and production is necessary. The improvement of individual systems, like CAD, PDM, ERP and MES, can only achieve this to a limited extent. Since they mostly use systems from different manufacturers, the necessary deeper integration of information is only feasible for SMEs to a limited extend. The presented control desk helps to ensure a more flexible product creation as well as information exchange. It captures information from different IT systems in the production process and presents them integrated, task-oriented and oriented to the user’s mental model, e.g. information of the production combined with the 3D model of product parts, or information about product development on the 3D model of the production. The solution is a digital 3D model of the manufacturing environment, which is enriched by billboards for a quick information overview and web service windows to access detailed MES and PDM information. By this, the level of abstraction can be reduced and reacts to changed requirements in the short term, making informed decisions. The interaction with the control stands utilizes the touch skills of mobile and fixed systems such as smartphones, tablets and multitouch tables.

  10. Integrated systems for biopolymers and bioenergy production from organic waste and by-products: a review of microbial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Giorgia; Ventorino, Valeria; Panico, Antonio; Pepe, Olimpia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, issues concerning the sustainable and harmless disposal of organic solid waste have generated interest in microbial biotechnologies aimed at converting waste materials into bioenergy and biomaterials, thus contributing to a reduction in economic dependence on fossil fuels. To valorize biomass, waste materials derived from agriculture, food processing factories, and municipal organic waste can be used to produce biopolymers, such as biohydrogen and biogas, through different microbial processes. In fact, different bacterial strains can synthesize biopolymers to convert waste materials into valuable intracellular (e.g., polyhydroxyalkanoates) and extracellular (e.g., exopolysaccharides) bioproducts, which are useful for biochemical production. In particular, large numbers of bacteria, including Alcaligenes eutrophus , Alcaligenes latus , Azotobacter vinelandii , Azotobacter chroococcum , Azotobacter beijerincki , methylotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Rhizobium spp., Nocardia spp., and recombinant Escherichia coli , have been successfully used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates on an industrial scale from different types of organic by-products. Therefore, the development of high-performance microbial strains and the use of by-products and waste as substrates could reasonably make the production costs of biodegradable polymers comparable to those required by petrochemical-derived plastics and promote their use. Many studies have reported use of the same organic substrates as alternative energy sources to produce biogas and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion as well as dark and photofermentation processes under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, concurrently obtaining bioenergy and biopolymers at a reasonable cost through an integrated system is becoming feasible using by-products and waste as organic carbon sources. An overview of the suitable substrates and microbial strains used in low-cost polyhydroxyalkanoates for biohydrogen and biogas

  11. Inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, P.W.S.; Zhou, H. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: hzhou@uoguelph.ca; Hacker, R. [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Animal and Poultry Science, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    This paper presents a laboratory study using anaerobic digestion for swine manure under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with emphasis on the effects of inhibitory chemicals on biogas production. A series of batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of various process parameters by varying temperature, pH, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. As well, continuous anaerobic digestion tests were conducted using a completely stirred reactor system with a sludge retention time of 15 days. The results showed that at the initial stage, biogas was generated rapidly in the thermophilic reactor, but was more and more inhibited during the later stage with the presence of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. In contrast, the biogas production was initially delayed in the mesophilic reactor but afterwards had an even higher total gas production. In order to take advantages of both temperature effects in each reactor, the dual-stage system that consists of a thermophilic reactor followed by a mesophilic reactor was suggested. (author)

  12. Inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, P.W.S.; Zhou, H.; Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a laboratory study using anaerobic digestion for swine manure under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with emphasis on the effects of inhibitory chemicals on biogas production. A series of batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of various process parameters by varying temperature, pH, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. As well, continuous anaerobic digestion tests were conducted using a completely stirred reactor system with a sludge retention time of 15 days. The results showed that at the initial stage, biogas was generated rapidly in the thermophilic reactor, but was more and more inhibited during the later stage with the presence of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. In contrast, the biogas production was initially delayed in the mesophilic reactor but afterwards had an even higher total gas production. In order to take advantages of both temperature effects in each reactor, the dual-stage system that consists of a thermophilic reactor followed by a mesophilic reactor was suggested. (author)

  13. Design and operation of a continuous integrated monoclonal antibody production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Fabian; Ulmer, Nicole; Wolf, Moritz; Decker, Lara; Schneider, Veronika; Wälchli, Ruben; Karst, Daniel; Souquet, Jonathan; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    The realization of an end-to-end integrated continuous lab-scale process for monoclonal antibody manufacturing is described. For this, a continuous cultivation with filter-based cell-retention, a continuous two column capture process, a virus inactivation step, a semi-continuous polishing step (twin-column MCSGP), and a batch-wise flow-through polishing step were integrated and operated together. In each unit, the implementation of internal recycle loops allows to improve the performance: (a) in the bioreactor, to simultaneously increase the cell density and volumetric productivity, (b) in the capture process, to achieve improved capacity utilization at high productivity and yield, and (c) in the MCSGP process, to overcome the purity-yield trade-off of classical batch-wise bind-elute polishing steps. Furthermore, the design principles, which allow the direct connection of these steps, some at steady state and some at cyclic steady state, as well as straight-through processing, are discussed. The setup was operated for the continuous production of a commercial monoclonal antibody, resulting in stable operation and uniform product quality over the 17 cycles of the end-to-end integration. The steady-state operation was fully characterized by analyzing at the outlet of each unit at steady state the product titer as well as the process (HCP, DNA, leached Protein A) and product (aggregates, fragments) related impurities. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1303-1313, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Reliable estimation of antimicrobial use and its evolution between 2010 and 2013 in French swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hémonic, Anne; Chauvin, Claire; Delzescaux, Didier; Verliat, Fabien; Corrégé, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    There has been a strong implication of both the French swine industry and the national authorities on reducing the use of antimicrobials in swine production since 2010. The annual monitoring of antimicrobial sales by the French Veterinary Medicines Agency (Anses-ANMV) provides estimates but not detailed figures on actual on-farm usage of antimicrobials in swine production. In order to provide detailed information on the 2010 and 2013 antimicrobial use in the French swine industry, the methodology of cross-sectional retrospective study on a representative sample of at least 150 farms has been elected. The analysis of the collected data shows a strong and significant decrease in antimicrobial exposure of pigs between 2010 and 2013. Over three years, the average number of days of treatment significantly decreased by 29% in suckling piglets and by 19% in weaned piglets. In fattening pigs, the drop (- 29%) was not statistically significant. Only usage in sows did increase over that period (+ 17%, non-significant), which might be associated with the transition to group-housing of pregnant sows that took place at the time. Also, over that period, the use of third- and fourth generation cephalosporins in suckling piglets decreased by 89%, and by 82% in sows, which confirms that the voluntary moratorium on these classes of antimicrobials decided at the end of 2010 has been effectively implemented. The methodology of random sampling of farms appears as a precise and robust tool to monitor antimicrobial use within a production animal species, able to fulfil industry and national authorities' objectives and requirements to assess the outcome of concerted efforts on antimicrobial use reduction. It demonstrates that the use of antimicrobials decreased in the French swine industry between 2010 and 2013, including the classes considered as critical for human medicine.

  15. The progressive adaptation of a georgian isolate of African swine fever virus to vero cells leads to a gradual attenuation of virulence in swine corresponding to major modifications of the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Peter W; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Reese, Bo; Sanford, Brenton; Fernandez-Sainz, Ignacio; Gladue, Douglas P; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis; Risatti, Guillermo R; Borca, Manuel V

    2015-02-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a contagious and often lethal disease of feral and domestic swine. Experimental vaccines derived from naturally occurring, genetically modified, or cell culture-adapted ASFV have been evaluated, but no commercial vaccine is available to control African swine fever (ASF). We report here the genotypic and phenotypic analysis of viruses obtained at different passages during the process of adaptation of a virulent ASFV field isolate from the Republic of Georgia (ASFV-G) to grow in cultured cell lines. ASFV-G was successively passaged 110 times in Vero cells. Viruses obtained at passages 30, 60, 80, and 110 were evaluated in vitro for the ability to replicate in Vero cells and primary swine macrophages cultures and in vivo for assessing virulence in swine. Replication of ASFV-G in Vero cells increased with successive passages, corresponding to a decreased replication in primary swine macrophages cultures. In vivo, progressive loss of virus virulence was observed with increased passages in Vero cells, and complete attenuation of ASFV-G was observed at passage 110. Infection of swine with the fully attenuated virus did not confer protection against challenge with virulent parental ASFV-G. Full-length sequence analysis of each of these viruses revealed significant deletions that gradually accumulated in specific areas at the right and left variable ends of the genome. Mutations that result in amino acid substitutions and frameshift mutations were also observed, though in a rather limited number of genes. The potential importance of these genetic changes in virus adaptation/attenuation is discussed. The main problem in controlling ASF is the lack of vaccines. Attempts to produce vaccines by adaptation of ASFV to cultured cell lines have been made. These attempts led to the production of attenuated viruses that conferred only homologous protection. Specifics regarding adaptation of these isolates to cell cultures have been

  16. Energy use in swine unit in the finishing system with waste treatment; Uso de energia em unidade suinicola em sistema de terminacao com tratamento de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angonese, Andre Ricardo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], Email: aangonese@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM ), Diamantina, PR (Brazil)], Email: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the energy flux and energetic balance related to the swine production and the recycling of residues generated by the system for utilization as organic fertilizers. The experiment was carried out at Vale dos Ipes Farm, located in the city of Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the Western of Parana State. One finishing phase swine unity containing 600 animals was monitored from January to June 2005. The treatment system is composed by one steel digester with capacity for 50 m{sup 3}, one sedimentation tank, one algae tank and one bio fertilizer storage tank. The swine barn cleaning is performed by dry scratching on a daily basis. The generated residues flow by gravitation through ducts towards the digester. The duration of the hydraulic retention period was 12 days. In the calculation of energetic efficiency, the energetic component ration is the greatest energetic cost in production system of finishing phase swine, corresponding to 95% from the total direct energy. At the way out of the energy system, the energetic component of swine for slaughtering corresponds to 56.8%. The system fitted into the features of an industrial agroecosystem, importing the majority of the consumed energy in the productive process and exporting more than 56% of the production as swine for slaughtering, while the remaining is used in the property as fertilizer. (author)

  17. Directions of Development of International Production Specialization Theory in Terms of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Aleksandrovna Pankova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the definition of directions of development of the theory of international production specialization in terms of integration based on new trends in various areas of international business. The author proposes a new concept of international industrial specialization in terms of integration. As a result of research the author came to the conclusion that in the current economic conditions the need for a free market constraints associated with the deepening global market failures is becoming more and more obvious. Therefore, in the process of international specialization of production in the conditions of integration of the country should be guided not by comparative advantage in the production of certain goods or services, but also by other criteria. These criteria are: financial criterion determining the financial situation in the country, the trade criterion, reflecting the possibility of benefiting from international trade, technological criterion, considering the technological security of the country in the field of specialization and the cyclical criterion, reflecting the situation in the world economy and the level of integration of the country. On the basis of these criteria, the author identifies three categories of countries according to their ability to benefit from an international industrial specialization in the integration process: effective export, export-neutral and export-inefficient countries.

  18. Removal of nalidixic acid and its degradation products by an integrated MBR-ozonation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollice, A; Laera, G; Cassano, D; Diomede, S; Pinto, A; Lopez, A; Mascolo, G

    2012-02-15

    Chemical-biological degradation of a widely spread antibacterial (nalidixic acid) was successfully obtained by an integrated membrane bioreactor (MBR)-ozonation process. The composition of the treated solution simulated the wastewater from the production of the target pharmaceutical, featuring high salinity and a relevant concentration of sodium acetate. Aim of treatment integration was to exploit the synergistic effects of chemical oxidation and bioprocesses, by adopting the latter to remove most of the COD and the ozonation biodegradable products. Integration was achieved by placing ozonation in the recirculation stream of the bioreactor effluent. The recirculation flow rate was three-fold the MBR feed, and the performance of the integrated system was compared to the standard polishing configuration (single ozonation step after the MBR). Results showed that the introduction of the ozonation step did not cause relevant drawbacks to both biological and filtration processes. nalidixic acid passed undegraded through the MBR and was completely removed in the ozonation step. Complete degradation of most of the detected ozonation products was better achieved with the integrated MBR-ozonation process than using the sequential treatment configuration, i.e. ozone polishing after MBR, given the same ozone dosage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of Cleaner Production and Waste Water Treatment on Tofu Small Industry for Biogas Production using AnSBR Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Budiyono; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    A research on developing a system that integrates clean production and waste water treatment for biogas production in tofu small industry has been conducted. In this research, tofu waste water was turned into biogas using an AnSBR reactor. Mud from the sewage system serves as the inoculums. This research involved: (1) workshop; (2) supervising; (3) technical meeting; (4) network meeting, and (5) technical application. Implementation of clean production integrated with waste water treatment reduced the amount of waste water to be treated in a treatment plant. This means less cost for construction and operation of waste water treatment plants, as inherent limitations associated with such plants like lack of fund, limited area, and technological issues are inevitable. Implementation of clean production prior to waste water treatment reduces pollution figures down to certain levels that limitations in waste water treatment plants can be covered. Results show that biogas in 16 days HRT in an AnSBR reactor contains CH4(78.26 %) and CO2 (20.16 %). Meanwhile, treatments using a conventional bio-digester result in biogas with 72.16 % CH4 and 18.12 % CO2. Hence, biogas efficiency for the AnSBR system is 2.14 times greater than that of a conventional bio-digester.

  20. Supplier Relationship Management: a review focused on Logistics and Production integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele da Silva Garcia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating information regarding planning, decisions and processes within a focal company and between companies is a primary challenge for many organizations. Both internal (among business functions and external (between suppliers and customers integration aim to maximize the value added to customers and to minimize the required efforts involved in integration. However, identifying which activities demand a higher level of integration among business functions and what the possible results are is not always easy to understand, both within the organization and among their relationships. The purpose of this paper is therefore to understand the integration between Logistics and Production in supplier relationship management (SRM by performing a systematic literature review. A systematic literature review was conducted as a research method of this paper, followed by a critical analysis of the selected works in order to thoroughly identify how these functions participate in the main activities of the SRM process. As a result, it was realized that integrating Logistics and Production may contribute to supplier relationship management by sharing information on strategic supply specifications (time and sequence and also by improving the flow of information/materials to meet quality, quantity, cost and time requirements for the customer.